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Sample records for glutamate-pyruvate transaminase gpt

  1. Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT) Levels in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Fang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Lan-Ping; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The elevated serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) rate among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is unknown and have not been sufficiently studies. The present paper aims to provide the profile of GOT and GPT, and their associated relationship with other biochemical levels of children or…

  2. Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Fang, Wen-Hui; Lin, Lan-Ping; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The elevated serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) rate among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is unknown and have not been sufficiently studies. The present paper aims to provide the profile of GOT and GPT, and their associated relationship with other biochemical levels of children or adolescents with ID. A cross-sectional design was conducted in three Taiwanese public special schools to analyze annual health examination chart of students with ID. There were 1041 aged 3-21 years children and adolescents with ID participated in the study. The results show elevated rate of GOT and GPT were 3.7% and 7.2%, the study indicates the elevated GPT in children and adolescents with ID is higher than the general school aged children in Taiwan. In multiple linear regression models show that the factors of BMI, HBsAg, TC and UA can significantly explain the GOT value (R(2)=0.275). Those factors of gender, BMI, HBsAg, TC and UA can significantly explain 44.4% variation of GPT value (R(2)=0.444). To prevent the further liver disease burden in people with ID, the study highlights that the health care professionals should assess liver functions of this group of people, and to inform their caregivers the importance of implement regular liver health check-up.

  3. A comparative study of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels in the saliva of diabetic and normal patients.

    PubMed

    Verma, M; Metgud, R; Madhusudan, A S; Verma, N; Saxena, M; Soni, A

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes has been reported to affect salivary glands adversely in humans and experimental models. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are salivary enzymes that also are widely distributed in animal tissues. We determined GOT and GPT levels in saliva samples of 100 type 1 and 30 type 2 diabetic patients using reflectance spectrophotometry and compared them to 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean values of GOT and GPT in type 1 diabetics compared to type 2 and control groups. Significantly higher GOT levels were found in the 1-20 year age group of type 1 diabetics. Our findings suggest that salivary gland damage is due to the same immunological attack that affects pancreatic β cells and results in type 1 diabetes.

  4. Insulin-induced inhibition of gluconeogenesis genes, including glutamic pyruvic transaminase 2, is associated with reduced histone acetylation in a human liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Honma, Kazue; Kamikubo, Michiko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2017-06-01

    Hepatic glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT; also known as alanine aminotransferase) is a gluconeogenesis enzyme that catalyzes conversions between alanine and pyruvic acid. It is also used as a blood biomarker for hepatic damage. In this study, we investigated whether insulin regulates GPT expression, as it does for other gluconeogenesis genes, and if this involves the epigenetic modification of histone acetylation. Human liver-derived HepG2 cells were cultured with 0.5-100nM insulin for 8h, and the mRNA expression of GPT, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), PCK1, G6PC and FBP1 was measured. We also investigated the extent of histone acetylation around these genes. Insulin suppressed the mRNA expression of gluconeogenesis genes (GPT2, GOT1, GOT2, GGT1, GGT2, G6PC, and PCK1) in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA levels of GPT2, but not GPT1, were decreased by insulin. Histone acetylation was also reduced around GPT2, G6PC, and PCK1 in response to insulin. The expression of GPT2 and other gluconeogenesis genes such as G6PC and PCK1 was suppressed by insulin, in association with decreases in histone H3 and H4 acetylation surrounding these genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nucleic acids encoding plant glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-03-29

    Glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) proteins, nucleic acid molecules encoding GPT proteins, and uses thereof are disclosed. Provided herein are various GPT proteins and GPT gene coding sequences isolated from a number of plant species. As disclosed herein, GPT proteins share remarkable structural similarity within plant species, and are active in catalyzing the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (2-oxoglutaramate), a powerful signal metabolite which regulates the function of a large number of genes involved in the photosynthesis apparatus, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism.

  6. Mutations in mitochondrial enzyme GPT2 cause metabolic dysfunction and neurological disease with developmental and progressive features

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Qing; Nakayama, Tojo; Baytas, Ozan; Davidson, Shawn M.; Yang, Chendong; Schmidt, Michael; Lizarraga, Sofia B.; Mishra, Sasmita; EI-Quessny, Malak; Niaz, Saima; Gul Butt, Mirrat; Imran Murtaza, Syed; Javed, Afzal; Chaudhry, Haroon Rashid; Vaughan, Dylan J.; Hill, R. Sean; Partlow, Jennifer N.; Yoo, Seung-Yun; Lam, Anh-Thu N.; Nasir, Ramzi; Al-Saffar, Muna; Barkovich, A. James; Schwede, Matthew; Nagpal, Shailender; Rajab, Anna; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Housman, David E.; Mochida, Ganeshwaran H.; Morrow, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations that cause neurological phenotypes are highly informative with regard to mechanisms governing human brain function and disease. We report autosomal recessive mutations in the enzyme glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) in large kindreds initially ascertained for intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). GPT2 [also known as alanine transaminase 2 (ALT2)] is one of two related transaminases that catalyze the reversible addition of an amino group from glutamate to pyruvate, yielding alanine and α-ketoglutarate. In addition to IDD, all affected individuals show postnatal microcephaly and ∼80% of those followed over time show progressive motor symptoms, a spastic paraplegia. Homozygous nonsense p.Arg404* and missense p.Pro272Leu mutations are shown biochemically to be loss of function. The GPT2 gene demonstrates increasing expression in brain in the early postnatal period, and GPT2 protein localizes to mitochondria. Akin to the human phenotype, Gpt2-null mice exhibit reduced brain growth. Through metabolomics and direct isotope tracing experiments, we find a number of metabolic abnormalities associated with loss of Gpt2. These include defects in amino acid metabolism such as low alanine levels and elevated essential amino acids. Also, we find defects in anaplerosis, the metabolic process involved in replenishing TCA cycle intermediates. Finally, mutant brains demonstrate misregulated metabolites in pathways implicated in neuroprotective mechanisms previously associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Overall, our data reveal an important role for the GPT2 enzyme in mitochondrial metabolism with relevance to developmental as well as potentially to neurodegenerative mechanisms. PMID:27601654

  7. Relationship between glutamate, GOT and GPT levels in maternal and fetal blood: a potential mechanism for fetal neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Tsesis, Svetlana; Gruenbaum, Benjamin Fredrick; Ohayon, Sharon; Gruenbaum, Shaun Evan; Boyko, Matthew; Sheiner, Eyal; Brotfain, Evgeny; Shapira, Yoram; Teichberg, Vivian Itzhak

    2012-09-01

    Excess glutamate in the brain is thought to be implicated in the pathophysiology of fetal anoxic brain injury, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which glutamate is regulated in the fetal brain. This study examines whether there are differences between maternal and fetal glutamate concentrations, and whether a correlation between them exists. 10 ml of venous blood was extracted from 87 full-term (>37 weeks gestation) pregnant women in active labor. Immediately after delivery of the neonate, 10 ml of blood from the umbilical artery and vein was extracted. Samples were analyzed for levels of glutamate, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT). Fetal blood glutamate concentrations in both the umbilical artery and vein were found to be significantly higher than maternal blood (p<0.001). Similarly, fetal serum GOT levels in the umbilical artery and vein were found to be significantly higher than maternal GOT levels (p<0.001). The difference in GPT levels between maternal and fetal serum was not statistically significant. There was no difference in fetal glutamate, GOT or GPT between the umbilical artery and vein. There was an association observed between glutamate levels in maternal blood and glutamate levels in both venous (R=0.32, p<0.01) and arterial (R=0.33, p<0.05) fetal blood. This study demonstrated that higher baseline concentrations of blood glutamate are present in fetal blood compared with maternal blood, and this was associated with elevated GOT, but not GPT levels. An association was observed between maternal and fetal blood glutamate levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Marked elevation of hepatic transaminases in recipients of an orthotopic liver transplant from a brain-dead donor receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Teng-Wei, Chen; Chung-Bao, Hsieh; Chan, De-Chuan; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Kuo, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Fan, Hsiu-Lung

    2014-12-29

    Hemodynamic instability can lead to failure of donor organ procurement in brain-dead donors. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used in non-heart-beating donors to increase the donor pool, but the use of ECMO to salvage donor organs has been rarely used. We aimed to analyze postoperative liver function test results in patients receiving orthotopic liver transplants from ECMO-supported brain-dead donors. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 43 recipients of orthotopic liver transplantation from May 2009 to June 2012. Six recipients received liver grafts from ECMO-maintained donors designated as the ECMO group (n=6). The remaining patients were assigned to the non-ECMO group (n=37). Complication and mortality rates and liver function test results on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 were compared between the 2 groups. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase levels were significantly elevated on postoperative Day 1 in the ECMO group. There were no significant differences in the complication and overall survival rates between the 2 groups (P=0.411). Although serum transaminases markedly elevated on postoperative Day 1, ECMO successfully preserved potential liver grafts in hemodynamically unstable brain-dead donors.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: GABA-transaminase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chiriboga CA, Ichikawa K, Osaka H, Tsuji M, Gibson KM, Bonnen PE, Pearl PL. Phenotype of GABA- ... Meirleir L, Jaeken J, Jakobs C, Nyhan WL, Gibson KM. 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-transaminase) deficiency. J ...

  10. Biochip Which Examines Hepatic Function by Employing Colorimetric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Akio; Ogawa, Hiroki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Horiike, Yasuhiro

    2003-03-01

    A biochip that is able to quickly analyze hepatic function from the bedside or at home was investigated. The chip essentially consisted of two chips, one that mixed the substrate buffer solution with serums using a centrifugal method and a chip that measured the amounts of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in the serums employing a colorimetric method. The chip should be inexpensive and disposable. Therefore the mixing and measurement channels were fabricated by molding their reverse patterns onto a poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plate. Furthermore, a hydrophobic treatment was performed on the inner wall of the measurement channel to efficiently propagate the light efficiently in the channel. Subsequently, calibration curves were obtained for γ-GTP, GOT and GPT activity levels based on an endpoint method for the γ-GTP and a rate assay for GOT and GPT.

  11. Examination of in vivo mutagenicity of sodium arsenite and dimethylarsinic acid in gpt delta rats.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Masaki; Gi, Min; Kawachi, Satoko; Tatsumi, Kumiko; Ishii, Naomi; Doi, Kenichiro; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic is a well-known human bladder and liver carcinogen, but its exact mechanism of carcinogenicity is not fully understood. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ) is a major urinary metabolite of sodium arsenite (iAs III ) and induces urinary bladder cancers in rats. DMA V and iAs III are negative in in vitro mutagenicity tests. However, their in vivo mutagenicities have not been determined. The purpose of present study is to evaluate the in vivo mutagenicities of DMA V and iAs III in rat urinary bladder epithelium and liver using gpt delta F344 rats. Ten-week old male gpt delta F344 rats were randomized into 3 groups and administered 0, 92mg/L DMA V , or 87mg/L iAs III (each 50mg/L As) for 13weeks in the drinking water. In the mutation assay, point mutations are detected in the gpt gene by 6-thioguanine selection (gpt assay) and deletion mutations are identified in the red/gam genes by Spi - selection (Spi - assay). Results of the gpt and Spi - assays showed that DMA V and iAs III had no effects on the mutant frequencies or mutation spectrum in urinary bladder epithelium or liver. These findings indicate that DMA V and iAs III are not mutagenic in urinary bladder epithelium or liver in rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. GPT2 mutations cause developmental encephalopathy with microcephaly and features of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Hengel, H; Keimer, R; Deigendesch, W; Rieß, A; Marzouqa, H; Zaidan, J; Bauer, P; Schöls, L

    2018-06-07

    Various genetic defects can cause intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Often IDD is a symptom of a more complex neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative syndrome. Identifying syndromic patterns is substantive for diagnostics and for understanding the pathomechanism of a disease. Recessive GPT2 mutations have recently been associated with IDD in four families. Here, we report a novel recessive GPT2 stop mutation p.Gln24* causing a complex IDD phenotype in a homozygous state in five patients from two consanguineous Arab families. By compiling clinical information of these individuals and previously described GPT2 patients a recognizable neurodevelopmental and potentially neurodegenerative phenotype can be assigned consisting of intellectual disability, pyramidal tract affection with spastic paraplegia, microcephaly and frequently epilepsy. Due to the consistent presence of pyramidal tract affection in GPT2 patients, we further suggest that GPT2 mutations should be considered in cases with complex hereditary spastic paraplegia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2006-01-01

    The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

  14. Monitoring of cellular enzymes in the serum of electroplating workers at Coimbatore.

    PubMed

    Saraswathy, C P; Usharani, M V

    2007-04-01

    Chromium compounds are potent toxic and carcinogenic substances. With respect to toxicity, hepatic and renal toxicity have been reported both in workers and in animals exposed to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) compounds induces DNA damage in vivo and in cultured cells as well as the cytotoxicity evaluated by the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase. The present study reports the cytotoxicity of chrome platers who are employed from 8 to 25 years in electroplating industries at Coimbatore, Tamilnadu. Blood samples were collected and estimated for glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and total protein in the serum. The study revealed that there is a significant elevation in the level of LDH, ALP, CPK and transaminases and a decrease in total protein in serum. The results of the study suggests that chromium (VI), a hepatotoxic chemical may perhaps damage the plasma membrane resulting in leakage of enzymes in to the serum of chromeplaters.

  15. Gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Aziz, Ainul Zahaniah; Ismail, Ikram Shah; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine transaminases (ALT) and aspartate transaminases (AST) levels and prevalent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Random plasma glucose, GGT, ALT and AST and the 50-g glucose challenge test were done on antenatal women followed by diagnostic 3-point 75-g oral glucose tolerance test within two weeks. GDM was diagnosed by ADA (2011) criteria. The GDM rate was 12.2% (319/2610). Mean GGT level was higher in GDM women, 18 ± 12 vs. 16 ± 11 IU/L; P=0.03. The risk for GDM was higher for women in the highest GGT quartile band compared to the lowest: RR 1.35 95%CI 1.0-1.8; P=0.04. However, after adjustment for confounders, GGT was no longer associated with GDM. There was no correlation between ALT and AST levels and GDM. Liver transaminases do not predict GDM in contrast to type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alanine transaminase level in a healthy population in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Laouina, A; Abouyoub, A; Soulaymani, A; Alami, R

    2012-03-01

    A little is known about the prevalence of elevated alanine transaminase in a Moroccan healthy population. Our aim was to search for the upper limit of normal alanine transaminase in the blood donors and then to apply the upper limit of normal alanine found in the population so as to assess the prevalence of subjects with abnormal transaminase level. We then, investigated for factors associated with increased level of transaminase in our population. This study was carried out on 14071 blood donors, (74.1% of men and 25.9% female) aged between 18 to 60 years, randomly chosen. Serum transaminase activity was measured using on IEMS Reader, Labsystems. Hepatitis B and C were performed by ELISA. The upper limit of normal transaminase found were 64 for men and 52 for women. Consequently, 2.08% blood donors had an abnormal level of transaminase. Follow up results revealed that drug was the first cause of elevated transaminase in our cohort followed by diet and alcohol consumption. One seroconversion for hepatitis C was identified. In conclusion, this study showed that even though there is an evident lack of efficiency in using alanine aminotransferase testing qualifying blood donors in our country, preventing viral potential transmission through transfusions was possible.

  17. Surface expression of ω-transaminase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Martin; Muraleedharan, Madhu Nair; Larsson, Gen

    2014-04-01

    Chiral amines are important for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and there is rapidly growing interest to use transaminases for their synthesis. Since the cost of the enzyme is an important factor for process economy, the use of whole-cell biocatalysts is attractive, since expensive purification and immobilization steps can be avoided. Display of the protein on the cell surface provides a possible way to reduce the mass transfer limitations of such biocatalysts. However, transaminases need to dimerize in order to become active, and furthermore, they require the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate; consequently, successful transaminase surface expression has not been reported thus far. In this work, we produced an Arthrobacter citreus ω-transaminase in Escherichia coli using a surface display vector based on the autotransporter adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I), which has previously been used for display of dimeric proteins. The correct localization of the transaminase in the E. coli outer membrane and its orientation toward the cell exterior were verified. Furthermore, transaminase activity was detected exclusively in the outer membrane protein fraction, showing that successful dimerization had occurred. The transaminase was found to be present in both full-length and proteolytically degraded forms. The removal of this proteolysis is considered to be the main obstacle to achieving sufficient whole-cell transaminase activity.

  18. Surface Expression of ω-Transaminase in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gustavsson, Martin; Muraleedharan, Madhu Nair

    2014-01-01

    Chiral amines are important for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and there is rapidly growing interest to use transaminases for their synthesis. Since the cost of the enzyme is an important factor for process economy, the use of whole-cell biocatalysts is attractive, since expensive purification and immobilization steps can be avoided. Display of the protein on the cell surface provides a possible way to reduce the mass transfer limitations of such biocatalysts. However, transaminases need to dimerize in order to become active, and furthermore, they require the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate; consequently, successful transaminase surface expression has not been reported thus far. In this work, we produced an Arthrobacter citreus ω-transaminase in Escherichia coli using a surface display vector based on the autotransporter adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA-I), which has previously been used for display of dimeric proteins. The correct localization of the transaminase in the E. coli outer membrane and its orientation toward the cell exterior were verified. Furthermore, transaminase activity was detected exclusively in the outer membrane protein fraction, showing that successful dimerization had occurred. The transaminase was found to be present in both full-length and proteolytically degraded forms. The removal of this proteolysis is considered to be the main obstacle to achieving sufficient whole-cell transaminase activity. PMID:24487538

  19. Interaction of difluoro-oxaloacetate with aspartate transaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Briley, P A; Eisenthal, R; Harrison, R; Smith, G D

    1977-01-01

    Diffluoro-oxaloacetate behaves as a competitive inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate and as an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to aspartate in steady-state kinetic experiments with cytoplasmic aspartate transaminase. In the presence of high concentrations of aspartate transaminase, difluoro-oxaloacetate is slowly transaminated to difluoro-aspartate, suggesting its use as a kinetic probe to study the reactions of the aminic form of the enzyme. PMID:849267

  20. Utility of hepatic transaminases in children with concern for abuse.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Daniel M; Shapiro, Robert A; Blood, Emily A; Steiner, R Daryl; Berger, Rachel P

    2013-02-01

    Routine testing of hepatic transaminases, amylase, and lipase has been recommended for all children evaluated for physical abuse, but rates of screening are widely variable, even among abuse specialists, and data for amylase and lipase testing are lacking. A previous study of screening in centers that endorsed routine transaminase screening suggested that using a transaminase threshold of 80 IU/L could improve injury detection. Our objectives were to prospectively validate the test characteristics of the 80-IU/L threshold and to determine the utility of amylase and lipase to detect occult abdominal injury. This was a retrospective secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse research network, a multicenter study in children younger than 10 years old who underwent subspecialty evaluation for physical abuse. We determined rates of identified abdominal injuries and results of transaminase, amylase, and lipase testing. Screening studies were compared by using basic test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Abdominal injuries were identified in 82 of 2890 subjects (2.8%; 95% confidence interval: 2.3%-3.5%). Hepatic transaminases were obtained in 1538 (53%) subjects. Hepatic transaminases had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87. A threshold of 80 IU/L yielded sensitivity of 83.8% and specificity of 83.1%. The areas under the curve for amylase and lipase were 0.67 and 0.72, respectively. Children evaluated for physical abuse with transaminase levels >80 IU/L should undergo definitive testing for abdominal injury.

  1. Inhibitory effects of pretreatment with radon on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Teruaki; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight) after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m(3) radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  2. Transaminases for the synthesis of enantiopure beta-amino acids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Optically pure β-amino acids constitute interesting building blocks for peptidomimetics and a great variety of pharmaceutically important compounds. Their efficient synthesis still poses a major challenge. Transaminases (also known as aminotransferases) possess a great potential for the synthesis of optically pure β-amino acids. These pyridoxal 5'-dependent enzymes catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor substrate to an acceptor, thus enabling the synthesis of a wide variety of chiral amines and amino acids. Transaminases can be applied either for the kinetic resolution of racemic compounds or the asymmetric synthesis starting from a prochiral substrate. This review gives an overview over microbial transaminases with activity towards β-amino acids and their substrate spectra. It also outlines current strategies for the screening of new biocatalysts. Particular emphasis is placed on activity assays which are applicable to high-throughput screening. PMID:22293122

  3. VMF3/GPT3: refined discrete and empirical troposphere mapping functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landskron, Daniel; Böhm, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Incorrect modeling of troposphere delays is one of the major error sources for space geodetic techniques such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) or Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Over the years, many approaches have been devised which aim at mapping the delay of radio waves from zenith direction down to the observed elevation angle, so-called mapping functions. This paper contains a new approach intended to refine the currently most important discrete mapping function, the Vienna Mapping Functions 1 (VMF1), which is successively referred to as Vienna Mapping Functions 3 (VMF3). It is designed in such a way as to eliminate shortcomings in the empirical coefficients b and c and in the tuning for the specific elevation angle of 3°. Ray-traced delays of the ray-tracer RADIATE serve as the basis for the calculation of new mapping function coefficients. Comparisons of modeled slant delays demonstrate the ability of VMF3 to approximate the underlying ray-traced delays more accurately than VMF1 does, in particular at low elevation angles. In other words, when requiring highest precision, VMF3 is to be preferable to VMF1. Aside from revising the discrete form of mapping functions, we also present a new empirical model named Global Pressure and Temperature 3 (GPT3) on a 5°× 5° as well as a 1°× 1° global grid, which is generally based on the same data. Its main components are hydrostatic and wet empirical mapping function coefficients derived from special averaging techniques of the respective (discrete) VMF3 data. In addition, GPT3 also contains a set of meteorological quantities which are adopted as they stand from their predecessor, Global Pressure and Temperature 2 wet. Thus, GPT3 represents a very comprehensive troposphere model which can be used for a series of geodetic as well as meteorological and climatological purposes and is fully consistent with VMF3.

  4. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system.

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza Predes, Fabricia; da Silva Diamante, Maria Aparecida; Foglio, Mary Ann; Camargo, Camila de Andrade; Camargo, Camila Almeida; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Miranda, Silvio Cesar; Cruz, Bread; Gomes Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Dolder, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of Arctium lappa (Al) to protect against cadmium damage in the rat liver. Male rats received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) with or without Al extract administered daily by gavage (300 mg/kg BW) for 7 or 56 days. After 7 days, Al caused plasma transaminase activity to diminish in groups Al (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) and CdAl (GPT). After 56 days, GOT and GPT plasma activities were reduced in the Cd group. No alteration in plasma levels of creatinine, total bilirubin, and total protein were observed. GOT liver activity increased in the Cd group. No alteration was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) dosage. In the Cd group, hepatocyte proportion decreased and sinusoid capillary proportion increased. In the Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased and the cytoplasmic proportion decreased. The hepatocyte nucleus density reduced in Cd and increased in the Al group. After 56 days, there was no alteration in the Cd group. In Al and CdAl groups, the nuclear proportion increased without cytoplasmic proportion variation, but the sinusoid capillary proportion was reduced. The hepatocyte nucleus density decreased in the Cd group and increased in the Al and CdAl groups. In conclusion, the liver function indicators showed that A. lappa protected the liver against cadmium toxicity damage.

  6. Tissue-specific and time-dependent clonal expansion of ENU-induced mutant cells in gpt delta mice.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Takafumi; Sawai, Tomoko; Masuda, Ikuko; Kaneko, Shinya; Yamauchi, Kazumi; Blyth, Benjamin J; Shimada, Yoshiya; Tachibana, Akira; Kakinuma, Shizuko

    2017-10-01

    DNA mutations play a crucial role in the origins of cancer, and the clonal expansion of mutant cells is one of the fundamental steps in multistage carcinogenesis. In this study, we correlated tumor incidence in B6C3F1 mice during the period after exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) with the persistence of ENU-induced mutant clones in transgenic gpt delta B6C3F1 mice. The induced gpt mutations afforded no selective advantage in the mouse cells and could be distinguished by a mutational spectrum that is characteristic of ENU treatment. The gpt mutations were passengers of the mutant cell of origin and its daughter cells and thus could be used as neutral markers of clones that arose and persisted in the tissues. Female B6C3F1 mice exposed for 1 month to 200 ppm ENU in the drinking water developed early thymic lymphomas and late liver and lung tumors. To assay gpt mutations, we sampled the thymus, liver, lung, and small intestine of female gpt delta mice at 3 days, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after the end of ENU exposure. Our results reveal that, in all four tissues, the ENU-induced gpt mutations persisted for weeks after the end of mutagen exposure. Clonal expansion of mutant cells was observed in the thymus and small intestine, with the thymus showing larger clone sizes. These results indicate that the clearance of mutant cells and the potential for clonal expansion during normal tissue growth depends on tissue type and that these factors may affect the sensitivity of different tissues to carcinogenesis. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:592-606, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Elevated transaminases - what to do if everything was done?].

    PubMed

    Lepper, P M; Dufour, J-F

    2009-03-18

    Transaminases, gamma-GT and alcalic phosphatase are classically termed as liver enzymes, however they can be found in almost every organ. Elevated levels of the transaminases ALAT (alanin-aminotransferase) and ASAT (aspartat-aminotransferase) are signs of disturbed permeability of the cells, in which these enzymes can be found. In contrast to ALAT, which is mainly liver-specific, the ASAT is found in other organs as well, e.g. heart and skeletal muscle. At a mild elevation of these enzymes a reevaluation is recommended, however if an elevation persists and is suspicious for a liver disease, a specific work up is necessary. In this manuscript, we discuss often overlooked problems and provide a diagnostic algorithm for the workup of elevated liver enzymes.

  8. Porcine alanine transaminase after liver allo-and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ekser, Burcin; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K C

    2012-01-01

    Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are measured following liver transplantation as indicators of hepatocellular injury. During a series of orthotopic liver allo-and xenotransplants, we observed that there was an increase in AST in all cases. The anticipated concomitant rise in ALT did not occur when a wild-type (WT) pig was the source of the liver graft, but did occur when a baboon or a genetically engineered (α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout [GTKO]) pig was the source of the graft. We hypothesized that the cience of Galα1,3Gal in GTKO pig livers may render pig hepatocytes similar to human and baboon hepatocytes in their response to hepatocellular injury. Reviewing the literature, after WT pig liver allotransplantation or xenotransplantation, in the majority of reports, although changes in AST were reported, no mention was made of changes in ALT, suggesting that there was no change in ALT. However, Ramirez et al. reported two cases of liver xenotransplants from hCD55 pigs, following which there were increases in both AST and ALT, suggesting that it is not simply the cience of expression of Galα1,3Gal that is the cause. We acknowledge that our observation is based on a small number of experiments, but we believe it is worth recording. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Porcine alanine transaminase after liver allo-and xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K.C.

    2013-01-01

    Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are measured following liver transplantation as indicators of hepatocellular injury. During a series of orthotopic liver allo-and xenotransplants, we observed that there was an increase in AST in all cases. The anticipated concomitant rise in ALT did not occur when a wild-type (WT) pig was the source of the liver graft, but did occur when a baboon or a genetically engineered (α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout [GTKO]) pig was the source of the graft. We hypothesized that the cience of Galα1,3 Gal in GTKO pig livers may render pig hepatocytes similar to human and baboon hepatocytes in their response to hepatocellular injury. Reviewing the literature, after WT pig liver allotransplantation or xenotransplantation, in the majority of reports, although changes in AST were reported, no mention was made of changes in ALT, suggesting that there was no change in ALT. However, Ramirez et al. reported two cases of liver xenotransplants from hCD55 pigs, following which there were increases in both AST and ALT, suggesting that it is not simply the cience of expression of Galα1,3 Gal that is the cause. We acknowledge that our observation is based on a small number of experiments, but we believe it is worth recording. PMID:22360753

  10. Probing alanine transaminase catalysis with hyperpolarized 13CD3-pyruvate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barb, A. W.; Hekmatyar, S. K.; Glushka, J. N.; Prestegard, J. H.

    2013-03-01

    Hyperpolarized metabolites offer a tremendous sensitivity advantage (>104 fold) when measuring flux and enzyme activity in living tissues by magnetic resonance methods. These sensitivity gains can also be applied to mechanistic studies that impose time and metabolite concentration limitations. Here we explore the use of hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in mechanistic studies of alanine transaminase (ALT), a well-established biomarker of liver disease and cancer that converts pyruvate to alanine using glutamate as a nitrogen donor. A specific deuterated, 13C-enriched analog of pyruvic acid, 13C3D3-pyruvic acid, is demonstrated to have advantages in terms of detection by both direct 13C observation and indirect observation through methyl protons introduced by ALT-catalyzed H-D exchange. Exchange on injecting hyperpolarized 13C3D3-pyruvate into ALT dissolved in buffered 1H2O, combined with an experimental approach to measure proton incorporation, provided information on mechanistic details of transaminase action on a 1.5 s timescale. ALT introduced, on average, 0.8 new protons into the methyl group of the alanine produced, indicating the presence of an off-pathway enamine intermediate. The opportunities for exploiting mechanism-dependent molecular signatures as well as indirect detection of hyperpolarized 13C3-pyruvate and products in imaging applications are discussed.

  11. Photosynthetic acclimation of WS and WS-gpt2 in Arabidopsis thaliana under fluctuating natural light condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pa'ee, Furzani; Johnson, Giles

    2017-10-01

    Photoacclimation is a process by which photosynthetic capacity is regulated in response to environmental adjustments in terms of light regime. Photoacclimation is essential in determining the photosynthetic capacity to optimize light use and to avoid potentially damaging effects. Previous work in our laboratory has identified a gene, gpt2 (At1g61800) that is essential for plants to acclimate to an increase and decrease of growth irradiance, separately. To investigate the photoacclimation ability towards fluctuating natural light condition in Arabidopsis thaliana, photosynthetic capacity was measured in plants of the accession Wassileskija (WS) and in plants lacking expression of the gene At1g61800 (WS-gpt2). The experiment was carried out over a time span from early Autumn to early Spring season in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The seedlings were grown in an unheated greenhouse in Manchester, UK without supplementary lighting. Gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll content estimation were performed on WS and WS-gpt2 and it showed that both sets of plants were able to acclimate to fluctuating natural light condition. Therefore, it is suggested that the mechanisms of acclimation in a separate growth light condition is mechanistically distinct than the mechanism under fluctuating natural light condition.

  12. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver in children and adolescents with excess weight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Guijarro de Armas, M Guadalupe; Monereo Megías, Susana; Navea Aguilera, Cristina; Merino Viveros, María; Vega Piñero, M Belén

    2015-01-20

    Hepatic steatosis, also known as non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), is the most frequent liver disease in obese children. Due to an increase in infantile obesity, it is experiencing a significant increment in incidence. Our objetives are: Estimate the prevalence of NAFL in children with excess weight and obesity using the glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) value as a biochemical test and an abdominal ultrasound, and correlate the presence of hepatic steatosis with various anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Cross-sectional prevalence study which includes children with excess weight and obesity between the ages of 5 and 15 years, between the years 2004-2012. The independent variables included were: age, sex, weight, size, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist size index (WSI), insulinemia, Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-R), total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), GPT and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). One hundred and twenty-six patients, with an average age of 11.94 (3.12) years were recruited. A percentage of 19.66 of the patients presented elevated GPT pathology. Of the 126 abdominal ultrasounds performed, 38 patients presented hepatic steatosis (30.15%). The levels of insulinemia, HOMA-R and LDL were significantly higher in patients with altered GPT, compared to those with normal GPT values (P=.015, P=.008 and P=.002, respectively). The patients with an objective HGNA in ultrasound, also showed greater levels of insulinemia, WC, WSI, total cholesterol, TG, LDL, GLT, GPT and GGT than the patients with normal ultrasounds, thereby achieving statistical significance in insulinemia, HOMA-R, LDL and GPT values. NAFL is a relatively frequent disorder in obese children and adolescents. In our study, 2 of 10 children -using GPT- and 3 of every 10 -using abdominal ultrasound- present the same. The biochemical marker

  13. Biochemical Studies Of The Effect Of Two Laser Radiation Wavelengths On The Khapra Beetle Trogoderma Granarium Everts (Coleoptera : Dermestidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Kader, Mahmoud H.; El-Nozahy, Adel M.; Ahmed, Salwa M. S.; Khalifa, Ibtesam A.

    2007-02-01

    The present work was carried out to evaluate the actual effect of subleathal dosage of LD30 of two different lasers (Argon-ion and CO2 lasers) on the main metabolites, phosphatases enzymes, transaminases, acetylcholinestrase and peroxidases in the one day adult stage of Trogoderma granarium treated as 2-3 days old pupae. Our results clearly indicated that two different wavelengths of laser radiation increased significantly the total proteins content, whereas no significant changes occurred in the total lipids for the two laser radiation wavelenghts. On the other hand the total carbohydrates were significantly decreased when irradiating using CO2 laser wavelength which is not the case for the Argon-ion laser radiation. Significant changes of phosphatases occurred for both wavelengths. Inhibition of transaminases GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases) and insignificant changes of GPT (glutamic pyruvic oxaloacetic transaminases) was observed for both laser wavelengths. Significant inhibition of acetyl cholinestrase was observed using CO2 laser and insignificant changes were recorded for Argon ion laser radiation where as insignificant decrease of peroxideses was observed for both lasers.

  14. Nitrogen metabolism correlates with the acclimation of photosynthesis to short-term water stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Bai, Zhigang; Zhang, Junhua; Zhu, Lianfeng; Huang, Jianliang; Jin, Qianyu

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen metabolism is as sensitive to water stress as photosynthesis, but its role in plant under soil drying is not well understood. We hypothesized that the alterations in N metabolism could be related to the acclimation of photosynthesis to water stress. The features of photosynthesis and N metabolism in a japonica rice 'Jiayou 5' and an indica rice 'Zhongzheyou 1' were investigated under mild and moderate soil drying with a pot experiment. Soil drying increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and reduced photon quantum efficiency of PSII and CO 2 fixation in 'Zhongzheyou 1', whereas the effect was much slighter in 'Jiayou 5'. Nevertheless, the photosynthetic rate of the two cultivars showed no significant difference between control and water stress. Soil drying increased nitrate reducing in leaves of 'Zhongzheyou 1', characterized by enhanced nitrate reductase (NR) activity and lowered nitrate content; whereas glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were relative slightly affected. 'Jiayou 5' plants increased the accumulation of nitrate under soil drying, although its NR activity was increased. In addition, the activities of GDH, GOT and GPT were typically increased under soil drying. Besides, amino acids and soluble sugar were significantly increased under mild and moderate soil drying, respectively. The accumulation of nitrate, amino acid and sugar could serve as osmotica in 'Jiayou 5'. The results reveal that N metabolism plays diverse roles in the photosynthetic acclimation of rice plants to soil drying. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Exacerbates Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lee, Chung-Jen; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Lee, Ru-Ping; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic and nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis can lead to acute renal failure (ARF), and acute alcohol intoxication can lead to multiple abnormalities of the renal tubules. We examined the effect of acute alcohol intoxication in a rat model of rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Intravenous injections of 5 g/kg ethanol were given to rats over 3 h, followed by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. Biochemical parameters, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), were measured before and after induction of rhabdomyolysis. Renal tissue injury score, renal tubular cell expression of E-cadherin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined. Relative to rats in the vehicle group, rats in the glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis group had significantly increased serum levels of BUN, Cre, GOT, GPT, and CPK, elevated renal tissue injury scores, increased expression of NF-κB and iNOS, and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Ethanol exacerbated all of these pathological responses. Our results suggest that acute alcohol intoxication exacerbates rhabdomyolysis-induced ARF through its pro-oxidant and inflammatory effects.

  16. In vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Azolla microphylla phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles on acetaminophen - induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Kunjiappan, Selvaraj; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gold nanoparticles (GNaP) biosynthesized through the mediation of Azolla microphylla and A. microphylla extract on acetaminophen-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). The gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) were added to the primary hepatocytes in different conditions: treatment I (before 12 mM acetaminophen), treatment II (after 12 mM acetaminophen), and treatment III (both before and after 12 mM acetaminophen), and incubated. Among these, control group treated with 12 mM acetaminophen produced significantly elevated levels (50-80%) of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase (CAT), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly decreased the levels (60-75%) of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Treatment with methanol extract of A. microphylla phytochemically biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (100, 150, 200 μg/ml) and A. microphylla methanol extract powder (100, 200, 400 μg/ml) significantly improved the viability of cells in a culture medium. It also significantly reduced the levels of LDH, CAT, GOT, GPT, and MDA, and significantly increased the levels of SOD and GSH-Px. In conclusion, gold nanoparticles biosynthesized through A. microphylla demonstrated effective hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects than methanol extract of A. microphylla.

  17. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Exacerbates Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lee, Chung-Jen; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Lee, Ru-Ping; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic and nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis can lead to acute renal failure (ARF), and acute alcohol intoxication can lead to multiple abnormalities of the renal tubules. We examined the effect of acute alcohol intoxication in a rat model of rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Intravenous injections of 5 g/kg ethanol were given to rats over 3 h, followed by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. Biochemical parameters, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), were measured before and after induction of rhabdomyolysis. Renal tissue injury score, renal tubular cell expression of E-cadherin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined. Relative to rats in the vehicle group, rats in the glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis group had significantly increased serum levels of BUN, Cre, GOT, GPT, and CPK, elevated renal tissue injury scores, increased expression of NF-κB and iNOS, and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Ethanol exacerbated all of these pathological responses. Our results suggest that acute alcohol intoxication exacerbates rhabdomyolysis-induced ARF through its pro-oxidant and inflammatory effects. PMID:28824301

  18. Quality and biochemical properties of artificially hibernated crucian carp for waterless preservation.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hongbo; Qian, Chunlu; Mao, Linchun

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the artificial hibernation of crucian carp for waterless preservation and to characterize the quality and biochemical properties during and after the hibernation. Anesthetized crucian carp using eugenol were stored at 8 °C with 90 % oxygen and 95-100 % relative humidity for 38 h and then transferred to fresh water to recover. Liquid loss and cooking loss had no significant changes (p > 0.05). The total volatile basic nitrogen content and 2-thiobarbituric acid value in hibernated fish were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than fresh and recovered groups. Serum cortisol, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities significantly increased (p < 0.05) during hibernation, while glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) had no significant change (p > 0.05). Both ACP and AKP activities decreased upon the fish recovered, but only the ACP activity returned to normal. However, there were increased serum glucose concentration, GOT and GPT activities in recovered fish. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that the artificially hibernated life of crucian carp was 38 h by the combination of anaesthetizing and low temperature. The muscle quality would not be influenced, and most of the stress responses would disappear after hibernated fish recovered.

  19. Prophylactic effect of four prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate and carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, K J; Chen, J C; Tsauer, W; Lin, C C; Lin, J G; Tsai, C C

    2001-12-01

    To study the prophylactic effects of four Chinese traditional prescriptions against experimental liver injury. Liver toxins, alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were used to induce acute liver injury. Simo Yin(SMY), Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW), Xieqing Wan (XQW), and Sini San (SNS) were fed (500 mg/kg, in saline, po) to the rats before toxin administration. All the animals were killed 48 h after toxin insulted. Serum index of liver function and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. Histopathological observation was conducted simultaneously. The rats treated with ANIT exhibited elevations of serum total bilirubin (TBI), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate-oxalate- transaminase (GOT), glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT), as well as cholestasis and parenchyma necrosis. In rats, challenged with ANIT, receiving the pre-treatment of prescriptions of SMY, XQW, and SNS, the biochemical and morphological parameters of liver injury were significantly reduced. The increased LPO level in liver tissue, associated with the provoked serum GOT and GPT levels were the salient features observed in CCl4-insulting rats. Pre-treatment of four prescriptions showed a remarkable protective effect, and also was effective in counteracting the free radical toxicity by bringing about a significant decrease in peroxidative level. These recipes ameliorate liver damage induced by both ANIT and CCl4 despite the differences in their mechanisms of injury. Therefore they may be able to exert hepatoprotective effects through more than one mechanism of action because they contained a mixture of anti-hepatotoxic ingredients with mutual reinforcement and assistance.

  20. Alteration in certain enzymological parameters of an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala exposed to short- and long-term exposure of clofibric acid and diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Manoharan; Ramesh, Mathan; Petkam, Rakpong

    2013-12-01

    The extensive use of pharmaceuticals in human and veterinary medicine may enter the aquatic environment and pose a serious threat to non-target aquatic organisms like fish. In this study, Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala was exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 μg L⁻¹) of most commonly used pharmaceutical drugs clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) to evaluate its impacts on certain enzymological parameters during short- and long-term exposures. During short-term (96 h) exposure period, plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and gill Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity were significantly altered at all concentrations of both the CA- and DCF-treated fish. In long-term exposure (35 days), gill Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity was found to be significantly increased at all concentration of CA and DCF exposures throughout the study period (except at the end of 7th day in 10 and 100 µg L⁻¹) . However, a biphasic trend was observed in plasma GOT and GPT activity when compared to the control groups. In both short- and long-term exposure, a significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) changes were observed in all enzymological parameters of fish C. mrigala exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. The alterations of these enzymological parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of pharmaceutical toxicity in aquatic environment and organisms.

  1. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Yahya, Mohammed M; Rafatullah, Syed; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O; Khaled, Jamal M; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Baser, Husnu C

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0%) of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP) and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays.

  2. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Cordia macleodii leaves

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Naseem N.; Kuchekar, Bhanudansh S.; Logade, Nadeem A.; Haleem, Majid A.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii leaves for possible antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by four established, in vitro methods viz. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging method, iron chelation method and reducing power method. The extract demonstrated a significant dose dependent antioxidant activity comparable with ascorbic acid. The extract was also evaluated for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage model in rats. CCl4 produced a significant increase in levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. Pretreatment of the rats with ethanolic extract of C. macleodii (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg po) inhibited the increase in levels of GPT, GOT, ALP and total bilirubin and the inhibition was comparable with Silymarin (100 mg/kg po). The present study revealed that C. macleodii leaves have significant radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activities. PMID:23960714

  3. The polymorphism -863C/A in tumour necrosis factor-alpha gene contributes an independent association to gout.

    PubMed

    Chang, S-J; Tsai, P-C; Chen, C-J; Lai, H-M; Ko, Y-C

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the associations between polymorphisms in the promoter of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene and gout. The polymorphisms -308G/A and -863C/A in the TNF-alpha gene were determined in 106 gout patients and 159 healthy controls among male Taiwanese using the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The biochemical markers, including Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), uric acid, creatinine, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), body mass index (BMI) and hypertension, as well as alcohol consumption were measured. The gout patients had 9.43% (10/106) with genotype AA at polymorphism -863C/A showing a significantly higher fraction than controls (0.63%; 1/159, P < 0.001). The crude results also showed that the gout patients had significantly higher portions of abnormal GOT, GPT, creatinine, TC, TG, alcohol consumption, hypertension and hyperuricaemia than controls (P < 0.05), but the -308G/A, BMI and genotype CA at -863C/A did not show the same significant difference (P > 0.05). After adjustment by a stepwise logistic regression method, the hyperuricaemia, creatinine, GPT, TG and alcohol consumption as well as genotype AA at polymorphism -863C/A were found to be significantly associated with gout. The genotype AA at polymorphism -863C/A in a recessive model showed a significant association with developing gout independent of hyperuricaemia, abnormal creatinine, higher TG, GPT and alcohol consumption.

  4. Toxic effects of imidacloprid on adult loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus).

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaohua; Xia, Xiaopei; Huo, Weiran; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Linxia; Chang, Zhongjie

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation was aimed to assess the effects of imidacloprid on the survival, genetic materials, hepatic transaminase activity and histopathology of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). The values of LC50 (24, 48, 72 and 96h) of imidacloprid were 167.7, 158.6, 147.9 and 145.8mg/L, respectively, and the safety concentration was 42.55mg/L. The erythrocyte micronuclei assays and the comet assay results showed that imidacloprid had genetic toxic effect on the loach erythrocytes. To assess the physiological and biochemical damage caused by imidacloprid, the activities of hepatic glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) were measured and their values declined in treatment groups. Histological examination of testis revealed that imidacloprid treatment resulted in disorganized lobules and cysts structures. In the present work, we also investigated the joint toxicity of pesticides commonly used in paddy fields (imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin) on M. anguillicaudatus, and confirmed that a synergistic effect existing in the binary mixtures. The results of our study provide relevant and comparable toxicity information that are useful for safety application of pesticides. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Inhibition property of green tea extract in relation to reserpine-induced ribosomal strips of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of the rat kidney proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Majeed, Safer; Mohammad, Afzal; Shaima, Al-Bloushi; Mohammad, Rafique; Mousa, Shaker A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of green tea in inhibiting and reversing the nephrotoxicity of reserpine--a potent oxidative stress inducer--which induced cellular kidney damage. Serum biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and serum transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) values and histopathology were systematically evaluated. Reserpine exposure led to increase the oxidative stress and organ injury was significantly observed through biochemical parameters and ultrastructural evaluation. Sprague-Dawely (S.D.) rats were intraperitonealy administered reserpine to induce oxidative kidney damage. Experimental rats were given green tea extract according to the protocol given below. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups, with 10 rats in each group. Reserpine was found to cause kidney proximal tubule damage, such as stripping and clustering of ribosomes from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and demolishing of mitochondrial christae with elevated level of oxidative stress markers, such as TBARS. While the ultrastructural study showed a revival of kidney proximal tubule cells as a result of the administration of green tea extract to rats. We suggest that green tea might elevate antioxidant defense system, clean up free radicals, lessen oxidative damages and protect kidney against reserpine-induced toxicity and thus had a potential protective effect.

  6. Evolutionary Diversification of Alanine Transaminases in Yeast: Catabolic Specialization and Biosynthetic Redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Escalera-Fanjul, Ximena; Campero-Basaldua, Carlos; Colón, Maritrini; González, James; Márquez, Dariel; González, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplication is one of the major evolutionary mechanisms providing raw material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae originated after an allopolyploidization event, which involved mating between two different ancestral yeast species. ScALT1 and ScALT2 codify proteins with 65% identity, which were proposed to be paralogous alanine transaminases. Further analysis of their physiological role showed that while ScALT1 encodes an alanine transaminase which constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis and the sole pathway for alanine catabolism, ScAlt2 does not display alanine transaminase activity and is not involved in alanine metabolism. Moreover, phylogenetic studies have suggested that ScALT1 and ScALT2 come from each one of the two parental strains which gave rise to the ancestral hybrid. The present work has been aimed to the understanding of the properties of the ancestral type Lacchancea kluyveri LkALT1 and Kluyveromyces lactis KlALT1, alanine transaminases in order to better understand the ScALT1 and ScALT2 evolutionary history. These ancestral -type species were chosen since they harbor ALT1 genes, which are related to ScALT2. Presented results show that, although LkALT1 and KlALT1 constitute ScALT1 orthologous genes, encoding alanine transaminases, both yeasts display LkAlt1 and KlAlt1 independent alanine transaminase activity and additional unidentified alanine biosynthetic and catabolic pathway(s). Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of null mutants uncovered the fact that KlAlt1 and LkAlt1 have an additional role, not related to alanine metabolism but is necessary to achieve wild type growth rate. Our study shows that the ancestral alanine transaminase function has been retained by the ScALT1 encoded enzyme, which has specialized its catabolic character, while losing the alanine independent role observed in the ancestral type enzymes. The fact that ScAlt2 conserves 64% identity with LkAlt1

  7. Evolutionary Diversification of Alanine Transaminases in Yeast: Catabolic Specialization and Biosynthetic Redundancy.

    PubMed

    Escalera-Fanjul, Ximena; Campero-Basaldua, Carlos; Colón, Maritrini; González, James; Márquez, Dariel; González, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplication is one of the major evolutionary mechanisms providing raw material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae originated after an allopolyploidization event, which involved mating between two different ancestral yeast species. ScALT1 and ScALT2 codify proteins with 65% identity, which were proposed to be paralogous alanine transaminases. Further analysis of their physiological role showed that while ScALT1 encodes an alanine transaminase which constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis and the sole pathway for alanine catabolism, Sc Alt2 does not display alanine transaminase activity and is not involved in alanine metabolism. Moreover, phylogenetic studies have suggested that ScALT1 and ScALT2 come from each one of the two parental strains which gave rise to the ancestral hybrid. The present work has been aimed to the understanding of the properties of the ancestral type Lacchancea kluyveri LkALT1 and Kluyveromyces lactis KlALT1 , alanine transaminases in order to better understand the ScALT1 and ScALT2 evolutionary history. These ancestral -type species were chosen since they harbor ALT1 genes, which are related to ScALT2. Presented results show that, although LkALT1 and KlALT1 constitute ScALT1 orthologous genes, encoding alanine transaminases, both yeasts display Lk Alt1 and Kl Alt1 independent alanine transaminase activity and additional unidentified alanine biosynthetic and catabolic pathway(s). Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of null mutants uncovered the fact that Kl Alt1 and Lk Alt1 have an additional role, not related to alanine metabolism but is necessary to achieve wild type growth rate. Our study shows that the ancestral alanine transaminase function has been retained by the ScALT1 encoded enzyme, which has specialized its catabolic character, while losing the alanine independent role observed in the ancestral type enzymes. The fact that Sc Alt2 conserves 64% identity with

  8. [CSF enzyme activities in patients with head injury--especially on GOT, GPT, LDH, and CPK (AUTHOR'S TRANSL)].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Mizuno, T; Kawamura, K; Kamino, T

    1976-08-01

    In our studies on patients with head injury, it was noted that there are some correlations between their clinical courses and the urinary excretion of creatine (cr), creatinine (Crn), 17-ketosteroid and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid. We observed the high urinary excretion of Cr in patients with severe head injury while almost negative in a mild case. We reported those facts in 1974. Also noted in patients with head injury is the relationship between the enzyme-activities (GOT, GPT, LDH and CPK) in the cerebrospinal fluid and their clinical courses. In this paper, we reported 34 cases of head injured patients (simple type: 2, concussion: 9, contusion: 8, acute intracranial hematoma: 7 and chronic intra-cranial hematoma: 8). The control values of CSF enzyme-activities were determined in these 14 cases (simple head injury, whip-lash injury and osteoma of the skull) as GOT less that 15, GPT less than 7, LDH less than 12 and CPK less than 8 units. In the moderate cases, a slight increase in activities of 4 enzymes in CSF were observed, while in severe or comatose cases, the enzyme-activities (especially LDH and CPK) were greater than in the controls. In the dead cases these values were five times as high as the normal case. In the patients recovering from a serious stage, these activities decreased to normal. High CSF enzyme-levels tend to indicate a poor prognosis and low levels a favorable progrosis. In the patients with a significant elevation of CSF enzymes, a high urinary excretion of Cr [normal range: 0-150 (ca. 50)mg/day] was often observed. There was no apparent correlation between the enzyme level in CSF and that in serum and the increase or decrease of these 4 enzymes are not always proprotionate with each other. As reported by Green (1958) and Lending (1961), cerebral cell necrosis and increased permeability of BLB, BBB or cerebral cell membrane can be related to the increase of enzymeactivities. With these observations, it can be considered that severe head

  9. Radiation induced COX-2 expression and mutagenesis at non-targeted lung tissues of gpt delta transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Y; Calaf, G M; Zhou, H; Ghandhi, S A; Elliston, C D; Wen, G; Nohmi, T; Amundson, S A; Hei, T K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been confirmed using a variety of endpoints, the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are not well understood, especially for in vivo study. Methods: A 1-cm2 area (1 cm × 1 cm) in the lower abdominal region of gpt delta transgenic mice was irradiated with 5 Gy of 300 keV X-rays, and changes in out-of-field lung and liver were observed. Results: Compared with sham-treated controls, the Spi− mutation frequency increased 2.4-fold in non-targeted lung tissues at 24 h after partial body irradiation (PBIR). Consistent with dramatic Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) induction in the non-targeted bronchial epithelial cells, increasing levels of prostaglandin, together with 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, in the out-of-field lung tissues were observed after PBIR. In addition, DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis were induced in bystander lung tissues after PBIR. Conclusion: The PBIR induces DNA damage and mutagenesis in non-targeted lung tissues, especially in bronchial epithelial cells, and COX-2 has an essential role in bystander mutagenesis. PMID:23321513

  10. Effect of antioxidants on vanadate-induced toxicity towards isolated perfused rat livers.

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Kayser, E; Strubelt, O

    1991-01-01

    The effect of trolox C, a water soluble vitamin E analogue, propyl gallate and ascorbate on vanadate hepatotoxicity was investigated in vitro. In isolated perfused livers from fasted rats, sodium orthovanadate (2 mmol/l) led to toxic responses including reduction of oxygen consumption, release of cytosolic (glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) and mitochondrial (glutamate-dehydrogenase (GLDH)) enzymes, intracellular accumulation of calcium, a marked depletion of glutathione (GSH) and an enhanced formation and release of thiobarbituric acid- (TBA) reactive material. Trolox C and propyl gallate inhibited the release of GPT and LDH partially and that of GLDH totally, but had no influence on vanadate-induced calcium accumulation or on the reduction of oxygen consumption. Both agents suppressed vanadate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and partially prevented GSH depletion. Ascorbate failed to provide any protection probably due to the interference of its pro-oxidant potential with its antioxidant activity. The protection, mainly of mitochondria, afforded by those agents which also inhibited LPO substantiates our previous findings that the pro-oxidant activity of vanadate is mainly responsible for its direct hepatotoxic actions [2]. Besides, reduction of organ perfusion rate due to vasoconstriction also contributes to vanadate toxicity, but oxidative stress is not involved in this indirect toxic activity.

  11. Effectiveness of Essence of Chicken in Improving Cognitive Function in Young People Under Work-Related Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lung; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Ying-Chin; Wu, Pei-Jung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ru; Liu, Cheung-Pin; Tsai, Han-Yin; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Hu, Chaur-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Work-related stress (WS) can result in considerable and extensive changes in physiological and psychological performance. WS beyond the optimal levels induces anxiety, confusion, exhaustion, and burnout. Chronic WS affects neurocognitive performance, particularly attention and visuospatial memory. Essence of chicken (EC) has been reported to improve neurocognitive function after mental stress. To investigate the beneficial effects of EC in improving neurocognitive performance under WS, we conducted a randomized, double blind trial. Total 102 young workers in New Taipei City with high WS, evaluated using the Individual Subjective Perception Job Stress Scale scores (>36 for job leaders and 33 for nonleaders) were recruited. Fifty-one participants received 70 mL of EC and 51 received a placebo daily for 2 weeks. Blood tests and neurocognitive assessment were performed before treatment, at the end of treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment. EC improved the performance of participants with high depression scores in the form-color associative memory test, used for assessing short-term memory. Although creatinine and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels increased in week 2, but the levels returned to the baseline in week 4. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels decreased in week 4. EC significantly improved short-term memory in participants with high WS and concomitant depressive mood, although it slightly increased GPT and creatinine levels and reduced BUN levels. The long-term treatment effects of EC warrant further investigation. PMID:27175681

  12. Effectiveness of Essence of Chicken in Improving Cognitive Function in Young People Under Work-Related Stress: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lung; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Ying-Chin; Wu, Pei-Jung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ru; Liu, Cheung-Pin; Tsai, Han-Yin; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Hu, Chaur-Jong

    2016-05-01

    Work-related stress (WS) can result in considerable and extensive changes in physiological and psychological performance. WS beyond the optimal levels induces anxiety, confusion, exhaustion, and burnout. Chronic WS affects neurocognitive performance, particularly attention and visuospatial memory. Essence of chicken (EC) has been reported to improve neurocognitive function after mental stress.To investigate the beneficial effects of EC in improving neurocognitive performance under WS, we conducted a randomized, double blind trial. Total 102 young workers in New Taipei City with high WS, evaluated using the Individual Subjective Perception Job Stress Scale scores (>36 for job leaders and 33 for nonleaders) were recruited. Fifty-one participants received 70 mL of EC and 51 received a placebo daily for 2 weeks. Blood tests and neurocognitive assessment were performed before treatment, at the end of treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment.EC improved the performance of participants with high depression scores in the form-color associative memory test, used for assessing short-term memory. Although creatinine and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels increased in week 2, but the levels returned to the baseline in week 4. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels decreased in week 4.EC significantly improved short-term memory in participants with high WS and concomitant depressive mood, although it slightly increased GPT and creatinine levels and reduced BUN levels. The long-term treatment effects of EC warrant further investigation.

  13. Effects of Soil Water Deficit on Insecticidal Protein Expression in Boll Shells of Transgenic Bt Cotton and the Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Jian; Peng, Sheng; Li, Yuan; Tian, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guangcheng; Zhang, Zhongning; Dong, Zhaodi; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Dehua

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of soil water deficit on insecticidal protein expression in boll shells of cotton transgenic for a Bt gene. In 2014, Bt cotton cultivars Sikang 1 (a conventional cultivar) and Sikang 3 (a hybrid cultivar) were planted in pots and five soil water content treatments were imposed at peak boll stage: 15% (G1), 35% (G2), 40% (G3), 60% (G4), and 75% field capacity (CK), respectively. Four treatments (G2, G3, G4, and CK) were repeated in 2015 in the field. Results showed that the insecticidal protein content of boll shells decreased with increasing water deficit. Compared with CK, boll shell insecticidal protein content decreased significantly when soil water content was below 60% of maximum water holding capacity for Sikang 1 and Sikang 3. However, increased Bt gene expression was observed when boll shell insecticidal protein content was significantly reduced. Activity assays of key enzymes in nitrogen metabolism showed that boll shell protease and peptidase increased but nitrogen reductase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) decreased. Insecticidal protein content exhibited significant positive correlation with nitrogen reductase and GPT activities; and significant negative correlation with protease and peptidase activities. These findings suggest that the decrease of insecticidal protein content associated with increasing water deficit was a net result of decreased synthesis and increased decomposition.

  14. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer on Glycemia and Cholesterol after Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Marcelo Betti; França, Cristiane Miranda; Esquerdo, Kamilla F.; Lara, Marx A. N.; Wadt, Nilsa S. Y.; Bach, Erna E.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the Agaricus sylvaticus (sun mushroom) on biochemical tests of the plasma and on the morphology of the pancreas in an experimental model of type I diabetes mellitus (DM1) induced by streptozotocin. One gram of dry A. sylvaticus was homogenized and mixed with the chow. Male Wistar rats were allocated as follows: normoglycemic control that received commercial chow; normoglycemic control group that received chow with A. sylvaticus; diabetic group that received commercial chow; and diabetic group that received chow with A. sylvaticus. Weight, food, and water consumption were measured every two days. Blood glucose levels were measured twice a week. After 30 days, the animals were euthanized and blood was collected for the analysis of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea. The pancreas was processed for microscopic analysis. A. sylvaticus modulated the levels of cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, blood sugar, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, iron, transferrin, and urea to levels similar to those found in the controls and led to compensatory hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. A. sylvaticus is potentially beneficial in the control of type 1 diabetes, and it may also prevent pancreas damage. PMID:24971142

  15. Reduction of rewarming injury of the hepatic graft by a heat insulator.

    PubMed

    Wakiyama, S; Yanaga, K; Soejima, Y; Nishizaki, T; Sugimachi, K

    1997-04-01

    The deleterious effect of rewarming in orthotopic liver transplantation is recognized. This study examined the significance of rewarming the hepatic allograft, and the possibility of using a heat insulator to reduce rewarming injury. After total hepatectomy in rats with in situ perfusion by chilled (4 degrees C) lactated Ringer's solution, the livers were divided into four groups of ten each: group 1, 4-h preservation in chilled Ringer's solution and 15 min of rewarming; group 2, 6-h preservation in chilled Ringer's solution; group 3, 6-h preservation in chilled Ringer's solution and 15 min of rewarming; group 4, 6-h preservation in chilled Ringer's solution and 15 min of rewarming with a heat insulator. Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) concentrations in the final graft effluent, and the amount of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in liver tissue after preservation, were measured. GPT and NAG concentrations in the final graft effluent of group 3 were higher than those of group 2 (P < 0.01), whereas values in group 4 were lower than those of group 3 (P < 0.05). The final ATP concentration in group 3 was significantly lower than that in group 2 (P < 0.01), whereas the value in group 4 was significantly higher than that of group 3 (P < 0.01). Rewarming diminishes the viability of a liver graft with degradation of ATP, and a heat insulator reduces rewarming injury.

  16. Biochemical response of the mussel Mytilus coruscus (Mytiloida: Mytilidae) exposed to in vivo sub-lethal copper concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifeng; Gu, Zhongqi; Liu, Hong; Shen, Heding; Yang, Jinglong

    2012-09-01

    Many aquatic organisms are negatively affected by exposure to high copper concentrations. We investigated the biochemical response of the mussel Mytilus coruscus (Mytiloida: Mytilidae) to copper exposure. In vivo bioassays using M. coruscus and different copper concentrations were conducted. The activity of six biomarkers, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were measured. Survival rates decreased with increased copper concentrations and exposure times. The LC50 values at 48, 72, and 96 h exposure were 0.48, 0.37, and 0.32 mg/L, respectively. Within digestive glands, CAT activity increased with increasing Cu concentrations. The activity of AKP showed no significant change, while the remaining four enzymes showed decreasing activity with increasing Cu concentrations. Within the gills, AKP activity increased when the Cu concentration was 0.05 mg/L, but showed no significant changes at higher concentrations. Activity of CAT and ACP within gills tended to decrease with increasing Cu concentration. The activity of SOD and GPT decreased at an exposure concentration of 0.2 mg/L. GOT activity within gills decreased at 0.1 mg/L and increased at an exposure concentration of 0.2 mg/L. Within the adductor muscle, AKP activity increased at 0.05 mg/L but did not change at higher exposure concentrations. ACP activity within adductor muscle tissue showed no change, while activities of CAT, GOT and GPT decreased with increasing Cu concentrations. SOD activity within the adductor muscle tissue significantly decreased at the 0.02, 0.05 and 0.2 mg/L exposure concentrations. Our results show tissue specific differences for the six biomarkers in for M. coruscus. Our findings provide the basis for the establishment of reference activity levels against which biomarker changes can be estimated, and are essential preliminary steps in development

  17. Incidence and predictive factors of transaminase elevation in patients consulting for dengue fever in Cayenne Hospital, French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Djossou, Félix; Vesin, Guillaume; Walter, Gaelle; Epelboin, Loïc; Mosnier, Emilie; Bidaud, Bastien; Abboud, Philippe; Okandze, Antoine; Mattheus, Severine; Elenga, Narcisse; Demar, Magalie; Malvy, Denis; Nacher, Mathieu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of transaminase elevation during dengue, and its predictive factors. In 2013, a longitudinal study was performed using data from all cases of dengue seen in Cayenne Hospital. Cox proportional modeling was used. Signs of major transaminase elevation were defined as an increase in aspartate amino transferase (AST) or alanine amino transferase (ALT) concentration over 10 times the normal value (10N). There were 1574 patients and 13 249 person-days of follow-up. The incidence rate for signs of transaminase elevation (10N) was 0.55 per 100 person-days. Six patients had major transaminase elevation with AST>1000 units (0.43 per 1000 patient-days), and 73 patients (4.6%) developed transaminase elevation with AST >10N. The variables independently associated with major transaminase elevation were hyponatremia, low platelets, dehydration, hematocrit increase, food intolerance, positive nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), age over 15 years and the notion of paracetamol intake. Although very frequent, the incidence of major transaminase elevation was lower than reported elsewhere perhaps because of good access to care, or of the particular serotype causing this epidemic. The patients with transaminase elevation tended to be older, more severe and taking paracetamol. . © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Identification of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases active towards (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine among PLP fold type IV transaminases.

    PubMed

    Bezsudnova, Ekaterina Yu; Dibrova, Daria V; Nikolaeva, Alena Yu; Rakitina, Tatiana V; Popov, Vladimir O

    2018-04-10

    New class IV transaminases with activity towards L-Leu, which is typical of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCAT), and with activity towards (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine ((R)-PEA), which is typical of (R)-selective (R)-amine:pyruvate transaminases, were identified by bioinformatics analysis, obtained in recombinant form, and analyzed. The values of catalytic activities in the reaction with L-Leu and (R)-PEA are comparable to those measured for characteristic transaminases with the corresponding specificity. Earlier, (R)-selective class IV transaminases were found to be active, apart from (R)-PEA, only with some other (R)-primary amines and D-amino acids. Sequences encoding new transaminases with mixed type of activity were found by searching for changes in the conserved motifs of sequences of BCAT by different bioinformatics tools. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Cisplatin on Blood Ammonia Elevation by Alanyl-Glutamine Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Yoko; Kajiwara, Kenta; Nakamura, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    Although there are many clinical studies in which the beneficial effect of glutamine formulation on mucositis induced by chemo/radiotherapy was evaluated, the results are sometimes conflicting with the report of clinical deterioration. Then, we hypothesized that chemotherapy may increase the incidence of hyperammonemia without comparable change of major parameters of hepatic/renal disorder. To verify our hypothesis, we examined the increase in blood ammonia level with 1-h intravenous infusion of alanyl-glutamine on day 1-4 after cisplatin (CDDP) administration in rats and assessed the correlation with hepatic/renal parameters. Hepatic parameters (glutamate-oxaloacetic transaminase [GOT] and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase [GPT]) with CDDP did not change until day 3 and only GOT increased on day 4. Renal parameters (plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen) with CDDP continuously increased up to day 4. Alanyl-glutamine infusion significantly elevated blood ammonia level of CDDP rats with the peak on day 3, although the same dose did not change that of control rats. These results indicates that CDDP enhances the increase in blood ammonia level by glutamine supplementation without correlating with primary parameters for hepatic/renal dysfunction. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Decreased collagen types I and IV, laminin, CK-19 and α-SMA expression after bone marrow cell transplantation in rats with liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S N; Lira, D C; Oliveira, G P; Thole, A A; Stumbo, A C; Caetano, C E; Marques, R G; Carvalho, L

    2010-11-01

    Bone marrow cells have frequently been tested in animal models of liver fibrosis to assess their role in hepatic regeneration. The mononuclear fraction of bone marrow cells is of particular interest, as many studies show that these cells may be beneficial to treat hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we used the bile duct ligation model to induce hepatic fibrosis in an irreversible manner, and rats were treated with bone marrow mononuclear (BMMN) cells after fibrosis was established. Analysis of collagen types I and IV, laminin and α-SMA showed a decreased expression of these proteins in fibrotic livers after 7 days of BMMN cell injection. Moreover, cytokeratin-19 analysis showed a reduction in bile ducts in the BMMN cell-treated group. These results were accompanied by ameliorated levels of hepatic enzymes GPT (Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase), GOT (glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). Therefore, we showed that BMMN cells decrease hepatic fibrosis by significantly reducing myofibroblast numbers and through reduction of the collagen and laminin-rich extracellular matrix of fibrotic septa and hepatic sinusoids.

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Toyota, Teruaki; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight) after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. PMID:23213269

  2. Poly(Lactic Acid) Blends with Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate) as Biodegradable Medical Adhesive Material

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hongli; Yuan, Mingwei; Yuan, Minglong; Chen, Haiyun

    2017-01-01

    A novel medical adhesive was prepared by blending poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) in ethyl acetate, and the two materials were proven to be biodegradable and biocompatible. The medical adhesive was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of this material was measured to be 7.13 g·cm−2·24 h−1. Its degree of comfortability was confirmed by the extensibility (E) and the permanent set (PS), which were approximately 7.83 N·cm−2 and 18.83%, respectively. In vivo tests regarding rabbit immunoglobulin M (IgM), rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG), rabbit bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), rabbit interleukin 6 (IL-6), rabbit interleukin 10 (IL-10), rabbit tumor necrosis factor α(TNFα), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (AST/GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT/GPT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) indicated that the PLA-PTMC medical adhesive was not harmful to the liver and kidneys. Finally, pathological sections indicated that PLA-PTMC was more effective than the control group. These data suggest that in addition to having a positive effect on hemostasis and no sensibility to wounds, PLA-PTMC can efficiently prevent infections and has great potential as a medical adhesive. PMID:28956808

  3. Potential use of lactic acid bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides as a probiotic for the removal of Pb(II) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Lim, Jeong-Muk; Gu, Suna; Lee, Wan-Kyu; Oh, Eunyoung; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can sequester metal ions by binding them to their surfaces. In the present study, lead (Pb)-resistant LAB were isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented food. A total of 96 different LAB strains were isolated, and 52 strains showed lead resistance. Among them, an LAB strain-96 (L-96) identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides showed remarkable Pb resistance and removal capacity. The maximum adsorption capacity of this strain calculated using the Langmuir isotherm was 60.6 mg Pb/g. In an in vivo experiment, young male mice were provided with water (A), Pb-water (B), or Pb-water+ L-96 (C) during puberty. Lower glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels in Pb-exposed male mice that received strain L-96 as a probiotic were suggestive of reduced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, feces from mice treated with L-96 contained more Pb than feces from untreated mice. Increased Pb elimination likely reduced internal accumulation, and this hypothesis was supported by significantly lower Pb concentrations in kidneys and testes of the mice treated with strain L-96. The motility and ATP content of epididymal spermatozoa were partially restored if strain L-96 was administered. In conclusion, isolated L-96 LAB had lead-biosorption activity and efficiently detoxified lead-poisoned male mice, resulting in recovering male reproductive function. These results suggest the potential use of LAB as a probiotic to protect humans from the adverse effects of Pb exposure.

  4. Chitosan oligosaccharides in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill extract reduces hepatoma formation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    YEH, MING YANG; SHANG, HUNG SHENG; LU, HSU FENG; CHOU, JASON; YEH, CHUN; CHANG, JIN BIOU; HUNG, HSIAO FANG; KUO, WAN LIN; WU, LUNG YUAN; CHUNG, JING GUNG

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan and Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) extracts possess antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan, ABM extract or the two in combination were effective against tumors in tumor-bearing mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with SK-Hep 1 cells and were then were divided into the following six groups: Group 1, control group; group 2, chitosan 5 mg/kg/day; group 3, chitosan 20 mg/kg/day; group 4, ABM (246 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) combined; group 5, ABM (984 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (20 mg/kg/day) combined; and group 6, ABM (984 mg/kg/day). The mice were treated with the different concentrations of chitosan, ABM or combinations of the two for 6 weeks. The levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tissue histopathological features were examined in the surviving animals. Based on the results of the investigation, the treatments performed in groups 2, 3 and 4 were identified as being capable of reducing the weights of the tumors, however, group 4, which was treated with chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) in combination with ABM (246 mg/kg/day) was able to reduce the levels of GOT and VEGF. As a result, treatment with chitosan in combination with ABM may offer potential in cancer therapy and requires further investigation. PMID:25760985

  5. Chitosan oligosaccharides in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill extract reduces hepatoma formation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Yang; Shang, Hung-Sheng; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chou, Jason; Yeh, Chun; Chang, Jin-Biou; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Kuo, Wan-Lin; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan and Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) extracts possess antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan, ABM extract or the two in combination were effective against tumors in tumor‑bearing mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with SK-Hep 1 cells and were then were divided into the following six groups: Group 1, control group; group 2, chitosan 5 mg/kg/day; group 3, chitosan 20 mg/kg/day; group 4, ABM (246 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) combined; group 5, ABM (984 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (20 mg/kg/day) combined; and group 6, ABM (984 mg/kg/day). The mice were treated with the different concentrations of chitosan, ABM or combinations of the two for 6 weeks. The levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tissue histopathological features were examined in the surviving animals. Based on the results of the investigation, the treatments performed in groups 2, 3 and 4 were identified as being capable of reducing the weights of the tumors, however, group 4, which was treated with chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) in combination with ABM (246 mg/kg/day) was able to reduce the levels of GOT and VEGF. As a result, treatment with chitosan in combination with ABM may offer potential in cancer therapy and requires further investigation.

  6. Effects of waterborne nitrite on hematological parameters and stress indicators in olive flounders, Paralichthys olivaceus, raised in bio-floc and seawater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Young; Lim, Lok-Ji; Kim, Su Kyoung; Choi, Hye Sung; Hur, Young Baek

    2018-06-11

    Juvenile olive flounders, Paralichthys olivaceus (mean weight 2.69 ± 0.31 g), were raised in bio-floc and seawater for six months, these P. olivaceus (mean weight 280.1 ± 10.5 g, mean length 28.37 ± 2.3 cm) were exposed to different concentrations of waterborne nitrite (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg NO 2 - /L) for 7 days. None of the P. olivaceus individuals exposed to bio-floc and seawater containing waterborne nitrite concentrations of 200 mg/L for 7 days survived. Hematological parameters (hemoglobin and hematocrit) were significantly reduced by nitrite exposure. Regarding plasma components, the concentrations of glucose, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) increased significantly in response to nitrite exposure, whereas cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased. Stress indicators, including concentrations of plasma glucose, cortisol, and liver and gill concentrations of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were significantly increased by nitrite exposure. The results of the study indicate that nitrite exposure affected the hematological parameters and stress indicators of P. olivaceus raised in bio-floc and seawater, and these changes were more prominent in the P. olivaceus raised in seawater than those raised in bio-floc. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt (uranyl acetate) on biochemical and hematological parameters of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Kahem Al-Balawi, Hmoud F.; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of Clarias gariepinus were treated with lethal (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 mg/L) and sub-lethal concentrations (8, 12 and 16 mg/L) of uranyl acetate, a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt. The LC 50 value was registered as 81.45 mg/L. The protein and glycogen concentrations in liver and muscles were decreased in the fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) values were decreased. Different blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were negatively affected. Level of plasma glucose was elevated whereas protein was decreased. The level of calcium concentration (Ca) was declined in the blood of exposed fish whereas magnesium (Mg) remains unchanged. The activity level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was elevated in exposed fish. These effects were more pronounced in the last period of exposure and in higher concentrations. Results of the present study indicate that uranyl acetate has adverse effects on Clarias gariepinus and causes changes in the biochemical and hematological parameters of the fish.

  8. Screening of Enzyme Biomarker for Nanotoxicity of Zinc Oxide in OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Periasamy; Bupesh, Giridharan

    2011-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) on fish models. Oreochromis mossambicus was orally administered with ZnO NPs (50-100 nm) once and its effects at five different concentrations (60 ppm-100 ppm) were observed for 12 days. Enzymatic assays were performed at every three days interval in the vital tissues of liver, gill, muscle and kidney. The defense enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S transferase (GST) exerted a dose dependent elevation up to 6 days. This hike then declines in higher concentrations and extended duration. Whereas the tissue damaging enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) exhibited a dose and duration dependent increase until the end of the experiment. Among these enzymes, the antioxidant enzymes response to ZnO NP toxicity on fish showed notable continuous induction. This study demonstrates that antioxidant enzymes responses in O. mossambicus could be used as a biomarker for the early detection of nanotoxicity.

  9. Ecotoxicological impacts of clofibric acid and diclofenac in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings: hematological, biochemical, ionoregulatory and enzymological responses.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Manoharan; Karthika, Subramanian; Malarvizhi, Annamalai; Ramesh, Mathan

    2011-11-15

    Investigation on the toxic effects of pharmaceutical drugs namely clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) were studied in a common carp Cyprinus carpio at different concentrations such as 1, 10 and 100 μg L(-1) for a short-term period of 96 h under static bioassay method. At all concentrations, red blood cell (RBC), plasma sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) levels were decreased in fish treated with CA and DCF. Contrastingly, white blood cell (WBC), plasma glucose, protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase level were increased. However, a mixed trend was observed in hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), plasma chloride (Cl(-)), mean cellular volume (MCV), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH), mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels. There was a significant (P<0.01 and P<0.05) change in all parameters measured in fish exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. In summary, the alterations in hematological, biochemical, ionoregulatory and enzymological parameters can be used as biomarkers in monitoring the toxicity of CA and DCF in aquatic environment. However, more detailed studies on using of specific biomarkers to monitor the human pharmaceuticals are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the Vibrio alginolyticus infection of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Tseng, Tzu-Yu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), phenoloxidase (PO), phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic rate (PR) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were enhanced via in-vitro experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, the observed data presented that the haemolymph lysate supernatant (HLS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were not significant enhanced, but the total haemocyte count (THC), O2(-), PO, phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic ratio (PR) and other parameters of immune were significantly promoted after treated with beta-1,3-1,6-glucan. In the challenge experiment, the survival rates of abalone in the 40 and 80 μl/ml groups of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan were observed from 6.67% up to 33.33% and 36.67% after injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term evaluation of a nonpulsatile mechanical circulatory support system.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Y; Taenaka, Y; Chikanari, K; Nakatani, T; Tatsumi, E; Masuzawa, T; Nishimura, T; Takewa, Y; Ohno, T; Takano, H

    1997-07-01

    Antithrombogenicity of a centrifugal pump (CP) developed in our institute is provided by a central balancing hole (BH) in the impeller. A current CP, the National Cardiovascular Center (NCVC)-2, was ameliorated to improve antithrombogenicity, whereby the BH diameter was widened to improve self washout flow velocity, and an edge of the thrust bearing was rounded off to minimize flow separation. Effects of these modifications were assessed in a long-term in vivo experiment. The antithrombogenicity, hemolytic property, and mechanical durability of the NCVC-2 were investigated in 3 goats. The NCVC-2 was installed paracorporeally between the left atrium and the aorta and driven as long as possible at rotating speeds of about 2,800 rpm. The NCVC-2 ran for 50, 200, and 367+ days. The mean bypass flow rates were 6.8, 5.0, and 5.3 L/min, respectively. Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) did not increase until one week before termination. Plasma free hemoglobin was kept to a level less than 15 mg/dl, except for the last week of the second case. These results indicate that the NCVC-2 has excellent antithrombogenicity, an acceptable hemolytic property and the necessary durability for prolonged use.

  12. Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

    2013-05-01

    The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Metabolism of rat liver in the electrostatic field and in the faraday cage before and after hepatectomy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, H G; Möse, J R; Fischer, G; Porta, J; Sadjak, A

    1975-10-01

    Investigations were performed with the aim of establishing the influence of various environmental conditions (such as steady field conditions, climatized laboratories, Faraday's cage) on a number of enzymic activities in the rat (including glutamic oxaloacetic tic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, acid phosphatase), as well as the serum concentrations of triglycerides, the oxygen consumption of hepatic parenchyma cells, and the influence on the incorporation of 3H-thymidine (following partial hepatectomy). In the steady field, the activities of the cytoplasmic enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH) were higher then under Faraday conditions. The same applies both to the hepatic oxygen consumption and to the neutral fat serum levels. The control values always remained within the range of the results obtained under steady field or Faraday conditions. In the structure-linked enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, acid phosphatase) the results were not uniform. Following partial hepatectomy, and under steady field conditions, the serum triglyceride concentrations showed a less pronounced drop than they did in the controls. Under selected environmental conditions, the results obtained lie within the physiological range. The present findings, therefore, do not permit definite conclusions to be drawn on favourable or unfavourable effects exerted by the different types of electroclimates.

  14. Walnut polyphenols prevent liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride and d-galactosamine: hepatoprotective hydrolyzable tannins in the kernel pellicles of walnut.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Junji; Kikuchi, Mitsunori; Fukuda, Toshiyuji; Ito, Hideyuki; Hatano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Takashi

    2008-06-25

    The polyphenol-rich fraction (WP, 45% polyphenol) prepared from the kernel pellicles of walnuts was assessed for its hepatoprotective effect in mice. A single oral administration of WP (200 mg/kg) significantly suppressed serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) elevation in liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4), while it did not suppress d-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury. In order to identify the active principles in WP, we examined individual constituents for the protective effect on cell damage induced by CCl 4 and d-GalN in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. WP was effective against both CCl 4- and d-GalN-induced hepatocyte damages. Among the constituents, only ellagitannins with a galloylated glucopyranose core, such as tellimagrandins I, II, and rugosin C, suppressed CCl 4-induced hepatocyte damage significantly. Most of the ellagitannins including tellimagrandin I and 2,3- O-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose exhibited remarkable inhibitory effect against d-GalN-induced damage. Telliamgrandin I especially completely suppressed both CCl 4- and d-GalN-induced cell damage, and thus is likely the principal constituent for the hepatoprotective effect of WP.

  15. The chromium accumulation and its physiological effects in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, exposed to different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile rockfish (mean length 13.7±1.7 cm, and mean weight 55.6±4.8 g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg. The profile of chromium in the tissues of rockfish is dependent on the exposure periods and chromium concentration. After 4 weeks, the order of chromium accumulation in tissues was liver>kidney>spleen>intestine>gill>muscle. The dietary chromium exposure decreased the growth rate and hepatosomatic index of rockfish. The major hematological findings were significant decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit (Ht) value, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration exposed to ≥120 mg/kg chromium concentrations. The dietary chromium exposure (≥120 mg/kg) led to notable increase in glucose, cholesterol, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in plasma, whereas there was no considerable change in calcium, magnesium, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results indicated that the dietary chromium exposure to rockfish can induce significant chromium accumulation in the specific tissues, inhibition of growth, and hematological alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Cuscuta chinensis against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yen, Feng-Lin; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2007-04-20

    Tu-Si-Zi, the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae), is a traditional Chinese medicine that is commonly used to nourish and improve the liver and kidney conditions in China and other Asian countries. As oxidative stress promotes the development of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C chinensis on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The C chinensis ethanolic extract at an oral dose of both 125 and 250mg/kg showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P<0.05) by reducing levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, the same ethanolic extract prevented the hepatotoxicity induced by APAP-intoxicated treatment as observed when assessing the liver histopathology. Regarding the antioxidant activity, C chinensis ethanolic extract exhibited a significant effect (P<0.05) by increasing levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In contrast, the same doses of the aqueous extract of C chinensis did not present any hepatoprotective effect as seen in the ethanolic extract, and resulted in further liver deterioration. In conclusion, these data suggest that the ethanolic extract of Cuscuta chinensis can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant activities.

  17. Toxic effects on bioaccumulation and hematological parameters of juvenile rockfish Sebastes schlegelii exposed to dietary lead (Pb) and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2017-06-01

    Juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 11.3 ± 1.2 cm, and mean weight 32.5 ± 4.1 g) were exposed for four weeks to dietary lead (Pb 2+ ) at 0, 120, and 240 mg/L and ascorbic acid (AsA) at 100, 200, and 400 mg/L. The exposure concentrations and duration of significant Pb-induced accumulations in specific tissues of S. schlegelii were assessed. High levels of ascorbic acid significantly attenuated accumulations following exposure to dietary Pb. Dietary Pb exposure caused a significant increase in blood Pb concentrations, whereas red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were significantly decreased. Notable changes were also observed in plasma calcium, magnesium, glucose, cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT). The growth performance of S. schlegelii was significantly decreased. High doses AsA supplemention were effective in attenuating the changes brought about by dietary Pb exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Daesiho-Tang Is an Effective Herbal Formulation in Attenuation of Obesity in Mice through Alteration of Gene Expression and Modulation of Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Ahtesham; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Bose, Shambhunath; Wang, Jing-Hua; Lim, Dongwoo; Song, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Hojun

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become a major global health challenge due to its increasing prevalence, and the associated health risk. It is the main cause of various metabolic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke and certain forms of cancer. In the present study we evaluated the anti-obesity property of Daesiho-tang (DSHT), an herbal medicine, using high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model. Our results showed that DSHT ameliorated body weight gain, decreased total body fat, regulated expression of leptin and adiponectin genes of adipose tissue and exerted an anti-diabetic effect by attenuating fasting glucose level and serum insulin level in HFD-fed animals. In addition, DSHT-treatment significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) levels in serum and reduced deposition of fat droplets in liver. DSHT treatment resulted in significantly increased relative abundance of bacteria including Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Akkermansia Bifidobacterium., Lactobacillus, and decreased the level of Firmicutes. Using RT2 profiler PCR array, 39 (46%) genes were found to be differentially expressed in HFD-fed mice compared to normal control. However, normal gene expressions were restored in 36 (92%) genes of HFD-fed mice, when co-exposed to DSHT. The results of this study demonstrated that DSHT is an effective herbal formulation in attenuation of obesity in HFD-fed mice through alteration of gene expressions and modulation of intestinal microbiota.

  19. Synteny between the Pro/sup +/ marker and human glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.

    1975-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells with a specific auxotrophy for proline were fused with human cells from a variety of sources and the resulting hybrids analyzed for human genetic markers. Of 63 hybrid clones examined, 27 possessed both proline and cytoplasmic glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase markers; 36 had neither; and no clones were found possessing one and not the other. These results constitute evidence that the proline and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase markers are syntenic. Evidence for absence of synteny between these and a variety of other human genes is presented. Biochemical tracer experiments established that the proline biosynthetic pathway through glutamate hasmore » been restored in the Pro/sup +/ hybrids.« less

  20. Glutamine-utilizing transaminases are a metabolic vulnerability of TAZ/YAP-activated cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Sheng; Stampouloglou, Eleni; Kingston, Nathan M; Zhang, Liye; Monti, Stefano; Varelas, Xaralabos

    2018-06-01

    The transcriptional regulators TAZ and YAP (TAZ/YAP) have emerged as pro-tumorigenic factors that drive many oncogenic traits, including induction of cell growth, resistance to cell death, and activation of processes that promote migration and invasion. Here, we report that TAZ/YAP reprogram cellular energetics to promote the dependence of breast cancer cell growth on exogenous glutamine. Rescue experiments with glutamine-derived metabolites suggest an essential role for glutamate and α-ketoglutarate (AKG) in TAZ/YAP-driven cell growth in the absence of glutamine. Analysis of enzymes that mediate the conversion of glutamate to AKG shows that TAZ/YAP induce glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT1) and phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT1) expression and that TAZ/YAP activity positively correlates with transaminase expression in breast cancer patients. Notably, we find that the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA) represses cell growth in a TAZ/YAP-dependent manner, identifying transamination as a potential vulnerable metabolic requirement for TAZ/YAP-driven breast cancer. © 2018 The Authors.

  1. The 2-Aminoethylphosphonate-Specific Transaminase of the 2-Aminoethylphosphonate Degradation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alexander D.; Baker, Angela S.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Metcalf, W. W.; Wanner, B. L.; Martin, Brian M.

    2002-01-01

    The 2-aminoethylphosphonate transaminase (AEPT; the phnW gene product) of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) degradation pathway catalyzes the reversible reaction of AEP and pyruvate to form phosphonoacetaldehyde (P-Ald) and l-alanine (l-Ala). Here, we describe the purification and characterization of recombinant AEPT. pH rate profiles (log Vm and log Vm/Km versus pH) revealed a pH optimum of 8.5. At pH 8.5, Keq is equal to 0.5 and the kcat values of the forward and reverse reactions are 7 and 9 s−1, respectively. The Km for AEP is 1.11 ± 0.03 mM; for pyruvate it is 0.15 ± 0.02 mM, for P-Ald it is 0.09 ± 0.01 mM, and for l-Ala it is 1.4 ± 0.03 mM. Substrate specificity tests revealed a high degree of discrimination, indicating a singular physiological role for the transaminase in AEP degradation. The 40-kDa subunit of the homodimeric enzyme is homologous to other members of the pyridoxalphosphate-dependent amino acid transaminase superfamily. Catalytic residues conserved within well-characterized members are also conserved within the seven known AEPT sequences. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of three selected residues (Asp168, Lys194, and Arg340) in AEPT catalysis. PMID:12107130

  2. Prognostic impact of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio in patients treated with first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minyong; Yu, Jiwoong; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Park, Se Hoon; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong; Seo, Seong Il

    2018-05-13

    To examine the prognostic role of the pretreatment aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase or De Ritis ratio in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving first-line systemic tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. We retrospectively searched the medical records of 579 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who visited Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from January 2001 through August 2016. After excluding 210 patients, we analyzed 360 patients who received first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival were defined as the primary and secondary end-points, respectively. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent prognosticators of survival outcomes. The overall population was divided into two groups according to the pretreatment De Ritis ratio as an optimal cut-off value of 1.2, which was determined by a time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Patients with a higher pretreatment De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) had worse cancer-specific survival and overall survival outcomes, compared with those with a lower De Ritis ratio (<1.2). Notably, a higher De Ritis ratio (≥1.2) was found to be an independent predictor of both cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.30) and overall survival outcomes (hazard ratio 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.39), along with male sex, multiple metastasis (≥2), non-clear cell histology, advanced pT stage (≥3), previous metastasectomy and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk classification. Our findings show that the pretreatment De Ritis ratio can provide valuable information about the survival outcomes of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients receiving first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. © 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters †

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S.; Lara, Marcus V. S.; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

    2014-01-01

    Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

  4. Clinical manifestations and quantitative analysis of virus load in Taiwanese children with Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia Chi; Chang, Luan Yin; Shao, Pei Lan; Lee, Ping Ing; Chen, Jong Min; Lu, Chun Yi; Lee, Chin Yun; Huang, Li Min

    2007-06-01

    To delineate the clinical manifestations in different age groups and to define the viral load in patients with Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis (EBV-associated IM). We reviewed data on 69 children with EBV-associated IM from November 2001 to October 2005. Clinical features were evaluated among four age groups: <3 years, 3 to 5 years, 6 to 9 years and 10 to 18 years. EBV viral load was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 13 patients with 15 specimens. Majority of the children were younger than 7 years of age (76.8%) and the male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. The symptoms and signs included fever (91.3%), tonsillopharyngitis (88.4%), lymphadenopathy (78.3%) and hepatitis (75.4%). The younger age group had higher monocyte count, lower occurrence of hepatitis, and lower glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels than the older age group. The median (range) EBV viral load of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma in IM patients was 738 (0-7455) copies/mug DNA and 51 (0-957) copies/mL plasma, respectively. The PBMC detection rate was high in the early (within 10 days after onset) and late phase (>10 days after onset) [90-100%]. The plasma detection rate in the early phase (66.7%) was higher than that in the late phase (40%). The younger age group of EBV-associated IM patients had higher monocyte count, lower occurrence of hepatitis, and lower GOT and GPT levels than the older age group. The PBMC detection rate was almost equally high in both the early and late phases, while the plasma detection rate was higher in the early phase. Quantitative real-time PCR of EBV DNA is useful for diagnosing and monitoring EBV-associated IM, especially in younger children.

  5. Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2005-01-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is a darkish-green leafy vegetable popularly used in soup and in herbal preparations for the management of many diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. occidentalis leaf (earlier confirmed to have a high level of antioxidant activity) against garlic induced-oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes was investigated. Oxidative stress was induced in Wistar strain albino rats by overdosing them with raw garlic (4%) for 14 days, and this caused a significant increase (P < .05) in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), while there was no significant change (P > .05) in serum bilirubin, albumin, globulin, and total proteins. However, intubation of some of the rats fed raw garlic with 5 mg or 10 mg/0.5 mL of T. occidentalis leaf extract (ethanolic or aqueous) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in serum ALP, GOT, and GPT when compared with rats fed raw garlic without intubation with the T. occidentalis leaf extract. Moreover, 10 mg/0.5 mL of extract was more effective than 5 mg/0.5 mL of extract, while the aqueous extracts appeared to be more effective than the ethanolic extracts in protecting hepatocytes. It could be inferred that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaf have hepatoprotective properties, although the aqueous extract is more effective than the ethanolic extract, which could be attributed to the higher antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract than the ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaves.

  6. Impact of UV-B radiation on the digestive enzymes and immune system of larvae of Indian major carp Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jaigopal; Rao, Y Vasudeva; Kumar, S; Chakrabarti, Rina

    2010-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a potent threat to the aquatic animals. Exposure to such stressor affects metabolic and immunological processes. The present investigation aims to study the effect of UV-B radiation on digestive enzymes and immunity of larvae of Catla catla. Larvae were exposed to ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation (145 microW/cm(2)) for three different exposure times of 5, 10 and 15 min on every other day. After 55 days, important digestive enzymes were assayed. For immunological study, lysozyme, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels were measured. Then the fish were kept for one month without radiation and lysozyme level was measured. Protein concentration varied directly with the duration of exposure and was highest among fish that had received the 15 min UV-B irradiation. Significantly higher amylase, protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were found in 5 min exposed fish compared to others. Lysozyme level was significantly higher in control group compared to the UV-B treated fish. The lysozyme level decreased with the increasing duration of UV-B radiation. When fish were kept without UV-B radiation for one month, lysozyme level was brought to the normal level in all treatments, except 15 min exposed fish. The GOT and GPT levels were significantly higher in the 15 min exposed group than others. The effects of UV-B radiation on the digestive physiology and immune system of catla have been clearly observed in the present study. The decreased enzyme activities in UV-B radiated fish results into improper digestion and poor growth.

  7. The Chinese medicine Kuan-Sin-Yin improves liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis C: A randomised and placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Yu; Ko, Pin-Hao; Yen, Hung-Rong; Cheng, Chen-Hung; Li, Yu-Hsien; Liao, Zih-Han; Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine decoction, Kuan-Sin-Yin (KSY), on patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in a randomised and placebo-controlled clinical trial. This trial enrolled 70 subjects with CHC who were randomised into 2 groups each with 35 participants. In total, 29 participants in the therapeutic group took 100mL of the herbal decoction daily, whereas 28 in the control group took an herbal placebo with the same dose and frequency for the 6-week study. The primary outcomes were liver function and viral load. Secondary measurements included haematopoietic and biochemical profiles, safety parameters, and a quality of life survey. All measurements were collected at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. In within-group analysis, significant decreases of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) 31.7±75.2IU/L and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) 20.3±45.7IU/L were found in the KSY group (p=0.031 and 0.024, respectively). In the between-group analysis, KSY reduced serum GOT and GPT levels by more than 20IU/L (p=0.027 and 0.047, respectively). KSY also significantly decreased viral load by 0.3 log units (p=0.047). In addition, KSY significantly decreased serum triglyceride 16.9±27.5mg/dL (p=0.024). This study demonstrates that taking the KSY herbal decoction for 6 weeks improves liver function and serum triglyceride levels and is safe for patients with CHC. The potential long-term effects of KSY on lipid metabolism related hepatoprotection and viral clearance warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Threonine Affects Intestinal Function, Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression of TOR in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Peng, Yan; Wu, Pei; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4–25.2 g/kg diet) were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0–275 mg/l) in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), γ- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na+/K+-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05). However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05). In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na+/K+-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05). In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein) based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG. PMID:23922879

  9. Four cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus showing sharp serum transaminase increases and hepatomegaly due to glycogenic hepatopathy.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yuichi; Kogiso, Tomomi; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Yamamoto, Kuniko; Kodama, Kazuhisa; Taniai, Makiko; Torii, Nobuyuki; Takaike, Hiroko; Uchigata, Yasuko; Tokushige, Katsutoshi

    2017-03-01

    Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM) patients sometimes show serum transaminase elevations due to steatohepatitis. However, we experienced four cases with type 1 DM with sharp elevations in serum transaminases that could not be explained by steatohepatitis alone and showed bright liver. They were diagnosed with glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) clinicopathologically. The four patients had a median age of 22.5 years (range, 19-29 years) and 12.5 (4-15)-year histories of type 1 DM and showed marked increases in serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase, 698 U/L [469-2763 U/L]; alanine transaminase, 255 U/L [216-956 U/L]). Diabetes mellitus control was poor and hemoglobin A1c was 12.7% (11-16.5%). Three cases had a past history of diabetic ketoacidosis. Hepatomegaly and hyperdense liver were seen on computed tomography scans. Magnetic resonance imaging showed low intensity in T2-weighted images. The pathological findings revealed pale and swollen hepatocytes and glycogenated nuclei. The architecture of the liver was preserved, and steatosis and fibrosis were mild. The cytoplasm of hepatocytes stained densely positive with periodic acid-Schiff, and the positive staining disappeared after diastase digestion, suggesting glycogen deposition. No other cause of hepatitis was evident, and the diagnosis was GH. Elevated transaminases improved within 1 month with good glycemic control. Transaminase elevations were observed several times in three cases with poor glycemic control. Glycogenic hepatopathy is rare, but extremely high serum elevations of transaminases are important to identify clinically. Despite showing a good clinical course in general, GH sometimes recurs and requires strict glycemic control. Clinicians should be aware of and recognize GH when dealing with uncontrolled DM patients. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  10. Correlation between hematologic profile and transaminase enzymes with hospitalization duration dengue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinambunan, E.; Suryani; Katu, S.; Halim, R.; Mubin, A. H.; Sahyuddin

    2018-03-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease that can be found from mild to severe andaffected the clinical spectrum of the disease. Various hematologic profiles and transaminase enzymes are thought to reflect the severity of the disease thus affecting the hospitalization duration. For determining the correlation between hematological profile and transaminase enzyme to the hospitalization duration in dengue patients, an observational design study with the cross-sectional approach on dengue subjects was from 2 hospitals in Makassar. Hemoglobin, leukocyte, thrombocyte, AST, ALT, PT, and APTT were examined for hospitalization duration. There were 65 samples (34 men, 31 women) with the length of stay <5 days 34 people and ≥ 5 days 31 people. The result of the analysis showed that there was a low correlation of leukocyte value (p = 0.036) and APTT prolongation (p = 0.023) with hospitalization duration of dengue patients. There was no correlation between the elevated of hematocrit value (p = 0.429), thrombocytopenia (p = 1.000), elevated of AST (p = 0.456) and ALT (p = 0.285) on hospitalization duration. In conclusion, low leukocyte values and APTT prolongation correlate with hospitalization duration but did not correlate significantly with hospitalization duration for elevated hematocrit, thrombocytopenia, elevated AST, and ALT.

  11. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enables anaplerotic refilling of TCA cycle intermediates in stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Rink, Cameron; Gnyawali, Surya; Stewart, Richard; Teplitsky, Seth; Harris, Hallie; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K.; Khanna, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic stroke results in excessive release of glutamate, which contributes to neuronal cell death. Here, we test the hypothesis that otherwise neurotoxic glutamate can be productively metabolized by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to maintain cellular energetics and protect the brain from ischemic stroke injury. The GOT-dependent metabolism of glutamate was studied in primary neural cells and in stroke-affected C57-BL6 mice using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC-MS. Extracellular Glu sustained cell viability under hypoglycemic conditions and increased GOT-mediated metabolism in vitro. Correction of stroke-induced hypoxia using supplemental oxygen in vivo lowered Glu levels as measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GOT knockdown abrogated this effect and caused ATP loss in the stroke-affected brain. GOT overexpression increased anaplerotic refilling of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in mouse brain during ischemic stroke. Furthermore, GOT overexpression not only reduced ischemic stroke lesion volume but also attenuated neurodegeneration and improved poststroke sensorimotor function. Taken together, our results show that GOT enables metabolism of otherwise neurotoxic extracellular Glu through a truncated tricarboxylic acid cycle under hypoglycemic conditions.—Rink, C., Gnyawali, S., Stewart, R., Teplitsky, S., Harris, H., Roy, S., Sen, C. K., Khanna, S. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase enables anaplerotic refilling of TCA cycle intermediates in stroke-affected brain. PMID:28096234

  12. Discovery and structural characterisation of new fold type IV-transaminases exemplify the diversity of this enzyme fold

    PubMed Central

    Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Strohmeier, Gernot A.; Diepold, Matthias; Peeters, Wilco; Smeets, Natascha; Schürmann, Martin; Gruber, Karl; Schwab, Helmut; Steiner, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Transaminases are useful biocatalysts for the production of amino acids and chiral amines as intermediates for a broad range of drugs and fine chemicals. Here, we describe the discovery and characterisation of new transaminases from microorganisms which were enriched in selective media containing (R)-amines as sole nitrogen source. While most of the candidate proteins were clearly assigned to known subgroups of the fold IV family of PLP-dependent enzymes by sequence analysis and characterisation of their substrate specificity, some of them did not fit to any of these groups. The structure of one of these enzymes from Curtobacterium pusillum, which can convert d-amino acids and various (R)-amines with high enantioselectivity, was solved at a resolution of 2.4 Å. It shows significant differences especially in the active site compared to other transaminases of the fold IV family and thus indicates the existence of a new subgroup within this family. Although the discovered transaminases were not able to convert ketones in a reasonable time frame, overall, the enrichment-based approach was successful, as we identified two amine transaminases, which convert (R)-amines with high enantioselectivity, and can be used for a kinetic resolution of 1-phenylethylamine and analogues to obtain the (S)-amines with e.e.s >99%. PMID:27905516

  13. [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy using epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil: neutropenia and elevation of transaminase, and their management].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinguang; Fan, Tie; Fan, Zhaoqing; Wang, Tianfeng; Xie, Yuntao; Li, Jinfeng; Ouyang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    To retrospectively investigate the incidence of severe neutropenia and elevation of transaminase during neoadjuvant chemotherapy using epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil in breast cancer patients. From January 2011 to December 2012, 303 consecutive breast cancer patients with complete treatment data treated in our department were included in this analysis. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with equal dose of EPI (100 mg/m(2)) administered every 3 weeks for 4 cycles before surgery. 200 patients (66.0%) experienced at least one episode of grade 3/4 neutropenia/leukopenia, among them 176 patients experienced their first episode after the first cycle. Febrile neutropenia (FN) occurred in 13 patients for 14 episodes. Elevation of transaminase occurred in a total of 46 patients (15.2%), among them, grade 2 or higher elevation occurred in 15 patients (5.0%). Three blood test plans were adopted to monitor the patients during chemotherapy: (1) Routine blood count repeated every week; (2) Routine blood count before and on day 10 of each chemotherapy episode; (3) Routine blood count before and on day 7, 10 and 14 of each chemotherapy episode. The number of patients whose chemotherapy was delayed due to 3/4 neutropenia/leucopenia in each blood test plan was 3 (5.0%), 7 (3.9%) and 2 (3.2%), respectively. The number of patients with febrile neutropenia (FN) in each blood test plan was 2 (3.3%), 8 (4.4%) and 3 (4.8%), respectively. No statistically significant difference in treatment delay or the incidence of FN was observed among different blood test plans. No statistically significant difference in the incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia/leukopenia or grade 2 or higher transaminase elevation was observed among different 5-Fu regimens. During neoadjuvant chemotherapy using FE100 C, Fci E100 C or E100 C for breast cancer patients without routine prophylactic G-CSF, the incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia/leukopenia is 66.0%. With the patient management plan

  14. Biotransformation of β-keto nitriles to chiral (S)-β-amino acids using nitrilase and ω-transaminase.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sam; Nadarajan, Saravanan Prabhu; Sundaramoorthy, Uthayasuriya; Jeon, Hyunwoo; Chung, Taeowan; Yun, Hyungdon

    2017-04-01

    To enzymatically synthesize enantiomerically pure β-amino acids from β-keto nitriles using nitrilase and ω-transaminase. An enzyme cascade system was designed where in β-keto nitriles are initially hydrolyzed to β-keto acids using nitrilase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum and subsequently β-keto acids were converted to β-amino acids using ω-transaminases. Five different ω-transaminases were tested for this cascade reaction, To enhance the yields of β-amino acids, the concentrations of nitrilase and amino donor were optimized. Using this enzymatic reaction, enantiomerically pure (S)-β-amino acids (ee > 99%) were generated. As nitrilase is the bottleneck in this reaction, molecular docking analysis was carried out to depict the poor affinity of nitrilase towards β-keto acids. A novel enzymatic route to generate enantiomerically pure aromatic (S)-β-amino acids from β-keto nitriles is demonstrated for the first time.

  15. Six different plasma enzymes in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and their usefulness in pathological diagnosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1978-01-01

    1. Activities of creatine phosphokinase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, fructose diphosphate aldolase and cholinesterase were measured in plasma of bald eagles.2. There were no sex differences in the plasma enzyme activities.3. An acute dieldrin dosage (10 mg/kg) of a female bald eagle resulted in 400% increases in activities of plasma creatine phosphokinase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and 250% increases in activities of lactate dehydrogenase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase.4. At 11 days post-dosage all but one of the plasma enzyme activities had returned to normal; glutamic oxalacetic transaminase activity remained 100% above pre-dosage values.5. Plasma enzyme assays constitute a non-destrcutive procedure that can be used in valuable wildlife species to screen for the presence and prevalence of environmental contaminants.

  16. High blood glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase levels are associated with good functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Francisco; Sobrino, Tomás; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Castellanos, Mar; Blanco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Serena, Joaquín; Leira, Rogelio; Castillo, José

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of the blood enzyme glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to remove glutamate from the brain by means of blood glutamate degradation has been shown in experimental models to be an efficient and novel neuroprotective tool against ischemic stroke; however, the beneficial effects of this enzyme should be tested in patients with stroke to validate these results. This study aims to investigate the association of GOT levels in blood with clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In two clinical independent studies, we found that patients with poor outcome show higher glutamate and lower GOT levels in blood at the time of admission. Lower GOT levels and higher glutamate levels were independently associated with poorer functional outcome at 3 months and higher infarct volume. These findings show a clear association between high blood glutamate levels and worse outcome and vice versa for GOT, presumably explained by the capacity of this enzyme to metabolize blood glutamate. PMID:21266984

  17. Glycogenic hepatopathy is an under-recognised cause of hepatomegaly and elevated liver transaminases in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Irani, N R; Venugopal, K; Kontorinis, N; Lee, M; Sinniah, R; Bates, T R

    2015-07-01

    Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is an under-recognised complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) not controlled to target resulting in hepatomegaly and elevated liver transaminases. We report the case of a 19-year-old man with T1DM not controlled to target who presented with abdominal pain, hepatomegaly and deranged liver transaminases. He was subsequently diagnosed with GH on liver biopsy, with the mainstay of treatment being reduction in caloric intake and insulin. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Pediatric FAST and elevated liver transaminases: An effective screening tool in blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Sola, Juan E; Cheung, Michael C; Yang, Relin; Koslow, Starr; Lanuti, Emma; Seaver, Chris; Neville, Holly L; Schulman, Carl I

    2009-11-01

    The current standard for the evaluation of children with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) consists of physical examination, screening lab values, and computed tomography (CT) scan. We sought to determine if the focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) combined with elevated liver transaminases (AST/ALT) could be used as a screening tool for intra-abdominal injury (IAI) in pediatric patients with BAT. Registry data at a level 1 trauma center was retrospectively reviewed from 1991-2007. Data collected on BAT patients under the age of 16 y included demographics, injury mechanism, ISS, GCS, imaging studies, serum ALT and AST levels, and disposition. AST and ALT were considered positive if either one was >100 IU/L. Overall, 3171 cases were identified. A total of 1008 (31.8%) patients received CT scan, 1148 (36.2%) had FAST, and 497 (15.7%) patients received both. Of the 497 patients, 400 (87.1%) also had AST and ALT measured. FAST was 50% sensitive, 91% specific, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 68%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 83%, and accuracy of 80%. Combining FAST with elevated AST or ALT resulted in a statistically significant increase in all measures (sensitivity 88%, specificity 98%, PPV 94%, NPV 96%, accuracy 96%). FAST combined with AST or ALT > 100 IU/L is an effective screening tool for IAI in children following BAT. Pediatric patients with a negative FAST and liver transaminases < 100 IU/L should be observed rather than subjected to the radiation risk of CT.

  19. p-Aminophenol-induced hepatotoxicity in hamsters: role of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin; Chen, Theresa S; Ray, Mukunda B; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Williams, Walter M

    2004-01-01

    p-Aminophenol (PAP) is a widely used industrial chemical and a known nephrotoxin. Recently, it was found to also cause hepatotoxicity and glutathione (GSH) depletion in mice. The exact mechanism of liver toxicity is not known. The aims of this study were to determine whether PAP can cause acute hepatotoxicity in hamsters and to further investigate the role of GSH in PAP-induced toxicity. PAP was administered ip to hamsters in doses of 200-800 mg/kg. Liver damage at 24 h after PAP administration was assessed by elevations in plasma enzyme activities and histopathologic examination. GSH and cysteine (Cys) levels in liver at 4 h were determined by HPLC. PAP decreased hepatic GSH concentration to 8% and Cys to 30% of vehicle control values. It increased plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity by 47-fold and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity by 113-fold. PAP also caused severe centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis. 2(RS)-n-Propylthiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (PTCA), a Cys precursor, attenuated the PAP-induced decreases in hepatic sulfhydryl levels; GSH and Cys were 39% and 78% of vehicle controls, respectively. PTCA also attenuated the PAP-induced elevations in plasma enzyme activities and hepatic necrosis. It was concluded that PAP hepatotoxicity is associated with depletion of hepatic GSH and can be prevented by PTCA. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. p-Aminophenol-induced liver toxicity: tentative evidence of a role for acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Song, H; Chen, T S

    2001-01-01

    p-Aminophenol (PAP) is a widely used industrial chemical and a metabolite of analgesics, such as acetaminophen (APAP). It was found recently that PAP, a known nephrotoxicant, could cause acute hepatotoxicity in mice but not in rats. The mechanism of hepatotoxicity is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of N-acetylation of PAP to APAP in PAP-induced toxicity. Male C57BL/6 mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with various doses of PAP were sacrificed at 12 hours for measurement of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) levels and determination of the extent of hepatic nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Plasma levels of APAP and its metabolites were measured by HPLC after PAP administration. p-Aminophenol depleted NPSH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Depletion of NPSH in mouse liver occurred at PAP doses above 400 mg/kg. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, potentiated the PAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Ascorbate, a reducing agent, did not affect PAP-induced hepatotoxicity and NPSH depletion. After PAP treatment, APAP and its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates as well as GSH conjugates (APAP-cysteine and APAP-mercapturate) were detected in the plasma. The results suggest the roles of GSH and N-acetylation of PAP to APAP in PAP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  1. gene2drug: a computational tool for pathway-based rational drug repositioning.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Francesco; Carrella, Diego; Mandriani, Barbara; Pisonero-Vaquero, Sandra; Sirci, Francesco; Medina, Diego L; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; di Bernardo, Diego

    2018-05-01

    Drug repositioning has been proposed as an effective shortcut to drug discovery. The availability of large collections of transcriptional responses to drugs enables computational approaches to drug repositioning directly based on measured molecular effects. We introduce a novel computational methodology for rational drug repositioning, which exploits the transcriptional responses following treatment with small molecule. Specifically, given a therapeutic target gene, a prioritization of potential effective drugs is obtained by assessing their impact on the transcription of genes in the pathway(s) including the target. We performed in silico validation and comparison with a state-of-art technique based on similar principles. We next performed experimental validation in two different real-case drug repositioning scenarios: (i) upregulation of the glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), which has been shown to induce reduction of oxalate levels in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria, and (ii) activation of the transcription factor TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, whose modulation may be beneficial in neurodegenerative disorders. A web tool for Gene2drug is freely available at http://gene2drug.tigem.it. An R package is under development and can be obtained from https://github.com/franapoli/gep2pep. dibernardo@tigem.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  2. Impact of a High-Fat or High-Fiber Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Markers in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Heinritz, Sonja N.; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Heyer, Charlotte M.E.; Messner, Sabine; Rings, Andreas; Louis, Sandrine; Bischoff, Stephan C.; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and colonic microbial gene copies and metabolic activity, organ development and biochemical parameters in blood serum was investigated using a pig model. Four pigs were either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for seven weeks, with both diets being isocaloric. A hypotrophic effect of the HF diet on digestive organs could be observed compared to the LF diet (p < 0.05). Higher gene copy numbers of Bacteroides (p < 0.05) and Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001) were present in intestinal contents of HF pigs, bifidobacteria were more abundant in LF pigs (p < 0.05). Concentrations of acetate and butyrate were higher in LF pigs (p < 0.05). Glucose was higher in HF pigs, while glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) showed higher concentrations upon feeding the LF diet (p < 0.001). However, C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased with time in LF pigs (p < 0.05). In part, these findings correspond to those in humans, and are in support of the concept of using the pig as human model. PMID:27223303

  3. Heat shock protein 60 expression in heart, liver and kidney of broilers exposed to high temperature.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianyan; Bao, Endong; Yu, Jimian

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and localization of HSP60 in the heart, liver, and kidney of acutely heat-stressed broilers at various stressing times. The plasma creatine kinase (CK) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) concentrations statistic increased following heat stress. After 2h of heat stress, the tissues showed histopathological changes. Hsp60 expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of parenchyma cells heat stress. The intensity of the cytoplasmic staining varied and exhibited an organ-specific distribution pattern. Hsp60 levels in the hearts of heat-stressed chickens gradually increased at 1h (p<0.05) and peaked (p<0.05) at 5h; Hsp60 levels in the liver gradually decreased at 3h (p<0.05); Hsp60 levels in the kidney had no fluctuation. It is suggested that Hsp60 expression is tissue-specific and this may be linked to tissue damage in response to heat stress. The Hsp60 level is distinct in diverse tissues, indicating that Hsp60 may exert its protective effect by a tissue- and time-specific mechanism.

  4. Impact of a High-Fat or High-Fiber Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Markers in a Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Heinritz, Sonja N; Weiss, Eva; Eklund, Meike; Aumiller, Tobias; Heyer, Charlotte M E; Messner, Sabine; Rings, Andreas; Louis, Sandrine; Bischoff, Stephan C; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-05-23

    To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and colonic microbial gene copies and metabolic activity, organ development and biochemical parameters in blood serum was investigated using a pig model. Four pigs were either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for seven weeks, with both diets being isocaloric. A hypotrophic effect of the HF diet on digestive organs could be observed compared to the LF diet (p < 0.05). Higher gene copy numbers of Bacteroides (p < 0.05) and Enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001) were present in intestinal contents of HF pigs, bifidobacteria were more abundant in LF pigs (p < 0.05). Concentrations of acetate and butyrate were higher in LF pigs (p < 0.05). Glucose was higher in HF pigs, while glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) showed higher concentrations upon feeding the LF diet (p < 0.001). However, C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased with time in LF pigs (p < 0.05). In part, these findings correspond to those in humans, and are in support of the concept of using the pig as human model.

  5. Effects of dietary cadmium on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, B.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Moore, J.

    1983-01-01

    Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings were fed cadmium in the diet at 0, 5, 10, or 20 ppm from 1 day of age until 12 weeks of age. At 4-week intervals six males and six females from each dietary group were randomly selected, bled by jugular venipuncture, and necropsied. Significant decreases in packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and a significant increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were found at 8 weeks of age in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium. Mild to severe kidney lesions were evident in ducklings fed 20 ppm cadmium for 12 weeks. No other blood chemistry measurement, hematological parameter, or tissue histopathological measurement indicated a reaction to cadmium ingestion. Body weight, liver weight, and the ratio of the femur weight to length were not affected by dietary cadmium. Femur cadmium concentration In all ducklings 12 weeks of age declined from the values detected at 4 and 8 weeks of age. Liver cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in relation to the increased dietary levels and in relation to the length of time the ducklings were fed the cadmium diets. At 12 weeks of age the cadmium concentration in liver tissue was twice that in the diet.

  6. A Non-Dimensional Analysis of Cardiovascular Response to Cold Stress. Part 2. Development of the Non-Dimensional Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    glutamic pyruvic transaminase SGPT* *S=serum) acid phosphatase aldolase alkaline phosphatase amino peptidase amyl ase arachidonic acid (test for presence...release inhibiting hormone ( somatostatin ) GHRIH growth hormone releasing factor GHRF histamine 109 TABLE 9 (continued) insulin kinins: bradyki ni n

  7. Effect of tropical browse leaves supplementation on rumen enzymes of sheep and goats fed Dichanthium annulatum grass-based diets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Kundu, S S

    2010-08-01

    In a switch-over experiment, eight male animals, four each of sheep and goats of local breeds with mean body weight of 26. 8 +/- 2.0 and 30.0 +/- 2.1 kg, were fed Dichanthium annulatum (DA) grass and four browse species viz. Helictris isora, Securengia virosa, Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Hardwickia binnata (HB) in four feeding trials to assess their supplementary effect on activity of rumen enzymes. The sheep and goats were offered DA grass with individual browse in 75:25 and 50:50 proportions, respectively, for more than 3 months during each feeding trial, and rumen liquor samples were collected twice at 0 and 4 h post feeding after 60 and 90 days of feeding. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes were determined in the bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor, while cellulase enzyme activity was measured in mixed rumen liquor. LL and HB had the highest and lowest contents of CP, while fibre contents were lower in early than later browse leaves. Supplementation of browse leaves significantly (P < 0.05) affect the specific activity of GDH enzyme in bacteria fraction of rumen liquor of animal species, while GDH activity was similar in protozoa fraction of rumen liquor of sheep and goats on all DA grass-browse-supplemented diets except DA-HB (42.8 units/mg protein), where activity was significantly (P < 0.05) low. Specific activities of GOT and GPT enzymes in both bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor differ significantly (P < 0.05) due to supplementation of browse leaves to DA grass. Browse leaves significantly (P < 0.05) affect the cellulase enzyme activity in animal rumen liquor, being highest on DA-LL (193.4) and lowest on DA-HB diet (144.8 microg sugar/mg protein). Goat exhibited higher activities of GOT and GPT than sheep in both bacteria and protozoa fraction of rumen liquor, while cellulase activity was similar between the animal species on the grass

  8. Identification, expression and characterization of an R-ω-transaminase from Capronia semiimmersa.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, César; Panizza, Paola; Rodriguez Giordano, Sonia

    2017-07-01

    Chiral amines are essential precursors in the production of biologically active compounds, including several important drugs. Among the biocatalytic strategies that have been developed for their synthesis, the use of ω-transaminases (ω-TA) appears as an attractive alternative allowing the stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones. However, the problems associated with narrow substrate specificity, unfavourable reaction equilibrium and expensive amine donors still hamper its industrial application. The search for novel enzymes from nature can contribute to expand the catalytic repertoire of ω-TA and help to circumvent some of these problems. A genome mining approach, based on the work described by Höhne et al., was applied for selection of potential R-ω-TA. Additional criteria were used to select an enzyme that differs from previously described ones. A candidate R-ω-TA from Capronia semiimmersa was selected, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Interestingly, alignment of this enzyme with previously reported TA sequences revealed the presence of two additional amino acid residues in a loop close to the active site. The impact of this change was analysed with a structural model based on crystallized R-ω-TAs. Analysis of the substrate specificity of R-ω-TA from C. semiimmersa indicates that it accepts a diversity of ketones as substrates yielding the corresponding amine with good yields and excellent enantioselectivity. The expressed enzyme accepts isopropylamine as amine donor what makes it suitable for industrial processes.

  9. Synchronization by Food Access Modifies the Daily Variations in Expression and Activity of Liver GABA Transaminase

    PubMed Central

    De Ita-Pérez, Dalia; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Villalobos-Leal, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Daytime restricted feeding (DRF) is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO). Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study was aimed at characterizing the expression and activity of the mostly mitochondrial enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) during DRF/FEO expression. We found that DRF promotes a sustained increase of GABA-T in the liver homogenate and mitochondrial fraction throughout the entire day-night cycle. The higher amount of GABA-T promoted by DRF was not associated to changes in GABA-T mRNA or GABA-T activity. The GABA-T activity in the mitochondrial fraction even tended to decrease during the light period. We concluded that DRF influences the daily variations of GABA-T mRNA levels, stability, and catalytic activity of GABA-T. These data suggest that the liver GABAergic system responds to a metabolic challenge such as DRF and the concomitant appearance of the FEO. PMID:24809054

  10. Synchronization by food access modifies the daily variations in expression and activity of liver GABA transaminase.

    PubMed

    De Ita-Pérez, Dalia; Méndez, Isabel; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Villalobos-Leal, Mónica; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Daytime restricted feeding (DRF) is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO). Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study was aimed at characterizing the expression and activity of the mostly mitochondrial enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) during DRF/FEO expression. We found that DRF promotes a sustained increase of GABA-T in the liver homogenate and mitochondrial fraction throughout the entire day-night cycle. The higher amount of GABA-T promoted by DRF was not associated to changes in GABA-T mRNA or GABA-T activity. The GABA-T activity in the mitochondrial fraction even tended to decrease during the light period. We concluded that DRF influences the daily variations of GABA-T mRNA levels, stability, and catalytic activity of GABA-T. These data suggest that the liver GABAergic system responds to a metabolic challenge such as DRF and the concomitant appearance of the FEO.

  11. A dose-up of ursodeoxycholic acid decreases transaminases in hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shuichi; Miyake, Tatsuya; Tobita, Hiroshi; Oshima, Naoki; Ishine, Junichi; Hanaoka, Takuya; Amano, Yuji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether a dose-up to 900 mg of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) decreases transaminases in hepatitis C patients. METHODS: From January to December 2007, patients with chronic hepatitis C or compensated liver cirrhosis with hepatitis C virus (HCV) (43-80 years old) showing positive serum HCV-RNA who had already taken 600 mg/d of UDCA were recruited into this study. Blood parameters were examined at 4, 8 and 24 wk after increasing the dose of oral UDCA from 600 to 900 mg/d. RESULTS: Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels were significantly decreased following the administration of 900 mg/d as compared to 600 mg/d. The decrease in ALT from immediately before the dose-up of UDCA to 8 wk after the dose-up was 14.3 IU/L, while that for AST was 10.5 IU/L and for GGT was 9.8 IU/L. Platelet count tended to increase after the dose-up of UDCA, although it did not show a statistically significant level (P = 0.05). Minor adverse events were observed in 3 cases, although no drop-outs from the study occurred. CONCLUSION: Oral administration of 900 mg/d of UDCA was more effective than 600 mg/d for reducing ALT, AST, and GGT levels in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease. PMID:19522030

  12. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Among the Patients With Abnormal Alanine Transaminase

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi, Manoochehr; Neisi, Niloofar; Khalafkhany, Davod; Makvandi, Kamyar; Hajiani, Eskandar; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masjedi Zadeh, Abdolrahim; Sina, Amir Hosein; Hamidifard, Mojtaba; Rasti, Mojtaba; Aryan, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the sera or in the liver biopsy and the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by serological test. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the occult HBV infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and determine HBV genotyping among the patients with abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT) in Ahvaz city, Iran. Patients and Methods: The sera of 120 patients, 54 (45%) females and 66 (55%) males, with abnormal ALT 40-152 IU were collected. All the patients were negative for HBsAg for more than one year. The patients` sera were tested by PCR using primers specified for the S region of HBV. Then the positive PCR products were sequenced to determine HBV genotyping and phylogenic tree. Results: Of these 120 subjects, 12 (10%) patients including 6 (5%) males and 6 (5%) females were found positive for HBV DNA by PCR, which indicated the presence of occult HBV infection among these patients. The sequencing results revealed that genotype D was predominant with sub-genotyping D1 among OBI patients. Conclusions: Occult hepatitis B infection is remarkably prevalent in Ahvaz, Iran, and should be considered as a potential risk factor for the transmission of Hepatitis B Virus throughout the community by the carriers. PMID:25485052

  13. A neuron-glia interaction involving GABA Transaminase contributes to sleep loss in sleepless mutants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Feng; Maguire, Sarah; Sowcik, Mallory; Luo, Wenyu; Koh, Kyunghee; Sehgal, Amita

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is an essential process and yet mechanisms underlying it are not well understood. Loss of the Drosophila quiver/sleepless (qvr/sss) gene increases neuronal excitability and diminishes daily sleep, providing an excellent model for exploring the underpinnings of sleep regulation. Here, we used a proteomic approach to identify proteins altered in sss brains. We report that loss of sleepless post-transcriptionally elevates the CG7433 protein, a mitochondrial γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABAT), and reduces GABA in fly brains. Loss of GABAT increases daily sleep and improves sleep consolidation, indicating that GABAT promotes wakefulness. Importantly, disruption of the GABAT gene completely suppresses the sleep phenotype of sss mutants, demonstrating that GABAT is required for loss of sleep in sss mutants. While SSS acts in distinct populations of neurons, GABAT acts in glia to reduce sleep in sss flies. Our results identify a novel mechanism of interaction between neurons and glia that is important for the regulation of sleep. PMID:24637426

  14. Neuroprotection by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase in ischemic stroke: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco; Sobrino, Tomás; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Argibay, Bárbara; Agulla, Jesús; Pérez-Mato, María; Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Brea, David; Castillo, José

    2011-06-01

    As ischemic stroke is associated with an excessive release of glutamate into the neuronal extracellular space, a decrease in blood glutamate levels could provide a mechanism to remove it from the brain tissue, by increasing the brain-blood gradient. In this regard, the ability of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to metabolize glutamate in blood could represent a potential neuroprotective tool for ischemic stroke. This study aimed to determine the neuroprotective effects of GOT in an animal model of cerebral ischemia by means of a middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO) following the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) group guidelines. In this animal model, oxaloacetate-mediated GOT activation inhibited the increase of blood and cerebral glutamate after MCAO. This effect is reflected in a reduction of infarct size, smaller edema volume, and lower sensorimotor deficits with respect to controls. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed that the increase of glutamate levels in the brain parenchyma after MCAO is inhibited after oxaloacetate-mediated GOT activation. These findings show the capacity of the GOT to remove glutamate from the brain by means of blood glutamate degradation, and suggest the applicability of this enzyme as an efficient and novel neuroprotective tool against ischemic stroke.

  15. Neuroprotection by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase in ischemic stroke: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Francisco; Sobrino, Tomás; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Argibay, Bárbara; Agulla, Jesús; Pérez-Mato, María; Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Brea, David; Castillo, José

    2011-01-01

    As ischemic stroke is associated with an excessive release of glutamate into the neuronal extracellular space, a decrease in blood glutamate levels could provide a mechanism to remove it from the brain tissue, by increasing the brain–blood gradient. In this regard, the ability of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to metabolize glutamate in blood could represent a potential neuroprotective tool for ischemic stroke. This study aimed to determine the neuroprotective effects of GOT in an animal model of cerebral ischemia by means of a middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO) following the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) group guidelines. In this animal model, oxaloacetate-mediated GOT activation inhibited the increase of blood and cerebral glutamate after MCAO. This effect is reflected in a reduction of infarct size, smaller edema volume, and lower sensorimotor deficits with respect to controls. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed that the increase of glutamate levels in the brain parenchyma after MCAO is inhibited after oxaloacetate-mediated GOT activation. These findings show the capacity of the GOT to remove glutamate from the brain by means of blood glutamate degradation, and suggest the applicability of this enzyme as an efficient and novel neuroprotective tool against ischemic stroke. PMID:21266983

  16. The progression from a lower to a higher invasive stage of bladder cancer is associated with severe alterations in glucose and pyruvate metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, Vanessa R.; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Department of Microscopy, Laboratory of Cell Biology and Unit for Multidisciplinary Research in Biomedicine, Abel Salazar Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto – UMIB/ICBAS/UP

    Cancer cells present a particular metabolic behavior. We hypothesized that the progression of bladder cancer could be accompanied by changes in cells glycolytic profile. We studied two human bladder cancer cells, RT4 and TCCSUP, in which the latter represents a more invasive stage. The levels of glucose, pyruvate, alanine and lactate in the extracellular media were measured by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The protein expression levels of glucose transporters 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3), monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. Our data showed that glucose consumption and GLUT3 levels were similarmore » in both cell lines, but TCCSUP cells displayed lower levels of GLUT1 and PFK expression. An increase in pyruvate consumption, concordant with the higher levels of lactate and alanine production, was also detected in TCCSUP cells. Moreover, TCCSUP cells presented lower protein expression levels of GPT and LDH. These results illustrate that bladder cancer progression is associated with alterations in cells glycolytic profile, namely the switch from glucose to pyruvate consumption in the more aggressive stage. This may be useful to develop new therapies and to identify biomarkers for cancer progression. - Highlights: • Metabolic phenotype of less and high invasive bladder cancer cells was studied. • Bladder cancer progression involves alterations in cells glycolytic profile. • More invasive bladder cancer cells switch from glucose to pyruvate consumption. • Our results may help to identify metabolic biomarkers of bladder cancer progression.« less

  17. Clinical risk factors of prediabetes in Taiwanese women without substance uses (tobacco, alcohol, or areca nut).

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Chun; Lin, Pei-Chen; Hung, Chun-Chi; Lin, Hung-Hsun; Cheng, Ching-Mei; Lee, Chung-Yin; Chiu, Kuei-Fen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with prediabetes (100-125 mg/dL) and diabetes mellitus (DM) increase the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Since personal substance use such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and areca nut chewing may confound the true effect of clinical biochemistries on the risk of prediabetes, this study aims to examine the relationship between clinical biochemical parameters and the risk of prediabetes among Taiwanese without the habits of consuming tobacco, alcohol drinking, or areca nut. Women aged between 40 years and 64 years who came to one community teaching hospital between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2008 for general health screening for the first time were studied. The general health screening is provided every 3 years gratis. The package of this health screening includes personal history, physical examination, and biochemical tests in serum and urine. In total, 8580 nonsmoking, nondrinking, and nonareca nut chewing women who did not have a history of DM were eligible for this study. Of these, 1861 (21.7%) out of 8580 women were prediabetic. Compared to women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), we found a dose-response relationship of the risk of prediabetes with age and body mass index (BMI) and total cholesterol, triglyceride, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and uric acid in serum. Women with hypertension or proteinuria (≥30 mg/dL) had also an increased risk to have prediabetes. Besides age, the factors of BMI, hypertension, dyslipidemia, GPT, hyperuricemia, and proteinuria are the main risk factors for prediabetes in Taiwanese women without substance uses. A follow-up study is necessary to clarify the causality of these important biochemical parameters and prediabetes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N.; Littlechild, Jennifer A., E-mail: j.a.littlechild@exeter.ac.uk

    2007-02-01

    An ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase from C. violaceum has been purified and crystallized in two crystal forms. The structure has been solved using molecular replacement. The enzyme ω-transaminase catalyses the conversion of chiral ω-amines to ketones. The recombinant enzyme from Chromobacterium violaceum has been purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was crystallized from PEG 4000 using the microbatch method. Data were collected to 1.7 Å resolution from a crystal belonging to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 61.9, c = 63.9 Å, α = 71.9, β = 87.0, γ = 74.6°. Data were also collectedmore » to 1.95 Å from a second triclinic crystal form. The structure has been solved using the molecular-replacement method.« less

  19. Radiation-induced enzyme efflux from rat heart: sedentary animals. [Gamma radiation, lactate dehydrogenase, creative kinase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase

    SciTech Connect

    MacWilliam, L.D.; Bhakthan, N.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase show initial elevations within 12 hr of exposure to 2,000 rads of ..gamma..-radiation to the thoracic region of rats. Significant decreases in heart muscle homogenate levels of these enzymes parallel initial elevations in the serum and may suggest that enhanced leakage of enzymes is a consequence of radiation injury to heart muscle. Insignificant alterations in mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase levels after exposure indicate that in vivo injury to the mitochondria from therapeutic levels of ..gamma..-radiation is questionable. The results support the contention that ionizing radiation instigates alterations in themore » dynamic permeability of membranes, allowing leakage of biologically active material out of the injured cell.« less

  20. The Installation Restoration Program Toxicology Guide. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    organ because of injury or disease. log Kow Log of the octanol-water partition coefficient. Lower The lowest concentration of the material in air which...involved in clotting. SGOT Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, an enzyme released into the serum as the result of tissue injury , especially injury ...to the heart and/or liver. SGPT Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, an enzyme % released into the serum as a result of tissue injury , 1: especially

  1. Inducible Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase as a Therapeutic Target Against Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Savita; Briggs, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Glutamate serves multi-faceted (patho)physiological functions in the central nervous system as the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter and under pathological conditions as a potent neurotoxin. Regarding the latter, elevated extracellular glutamate is known to play a central role in ischemic stroke brain injury. Recent Advances: Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) has emerged as a new therapeutic target in protecting against ischemic stroke injury. Oxygen-sensitive induction of GOT expression and activity during ischemic stroke lowers glutamate levels at the stroke site while sustaining adenosine triphosphate levels in brain. The energy demands of the brain are among the highest of all organs underscoring the need to quickly mobilize alternative carbon skeletons for metabolism in the absence of glucose during ischemic stroke. Recent work builds on the important observation of Hans Krebs that GOT-mediated metabolism of glutamate generates tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates in brain tissue. Taken together, outcomes suggest GOT may enable the transformative switch of otherwise excitotoxic glutamate into life-sustaining TCA cycle intermediates during ischemic stroke. Critical Issues: Neuroprotective strategies that focus solely on blocking mechanisms of glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity have historically failed in clinical trials. That GOT can enable glutamate to assume the role of a survival factor represents a paradigm shift necessary to develop the overall significance of glutamate in stroke biology. Future Directions: Ongoing efforts are focused to develop the therapeutic significance of GOT in stroke-affected brain. Small molecules that target induction of GOT expression and activity in the ischemic penumbra are the focus of ongoing studies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 175–186. PMID:25343301

  2. GABA transaminases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana complement function in cytosol and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cao, Juxiang; Barbosa, Jose M; Singh, Narendra; Locy, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    GABA transaminase (GABA-T) catalyses the conversion of GABA to succinate semialdehyde (SSA) in the GABA shunt pathway. The GABA-T from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScGABA-TKG) is an α-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme encoded by the UGA1 gene, while higher plant GABA-T is a pyruvate/glyoxylate-dependent enzyme encoded by POP2 in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGABA-T). The GABA-T from A. thaliana is localized in mitochondria and mediated by an 18-amino acid N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide predicated by both web-based utilities TargetP 1.1 and PSORT. Yeast UGA1 appears to lack a mitochondrial targeting peptide and is localized in the cytosol. To verify this bioinformatic analysis and examine the significance of ScGABA-TKG and AtGABA-T compartmentation and substrate specificity on physiological function, expression vectors were constructed to modify both ScGABA-TKG and AtGABA-T, so that they express in yeast mitochondria and cytosol. Physiological function was evaluated by complementing yeast ScGABA-TKG deletion mutant Δuga1 with AtGABA-T or ScGABA-TKG targeted to the cytosol or mitochondria for the phenotypes of GABA growth defect, thermosensitivity and heat-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study demonstrates that AtGABA-T is functionally interchangeable with ScGABA-TKG for GABA growth, thermotolerance and limiting production of ROS, regardless of location in mitochondria or cytosol of yeast cells, but AtGABA-T is about half as efficient in doing so as ScGABA-TKG. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that pyruvate/glyoxylate-limited production of NADPH mediates the effect of the GABA shunt in moderating heat stress in Saccharomyces. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. PEDIATRIC VISCERAL ADIPOSITY INDEX ADAPTATION CORRELATES WITH HOMA-IR, MATSUDA, AND TRANSAMINASES.

    PubMed

    Hernández, María José Garcés; Klünder, Miguel; Nieto, Nayely Garibay; Alvarenga, Juan Carlos López; Gil, Jenny Vilchis; Huerta, Samuel Flores; Siccha, Rosa Quispe; Hernandez, Joselin

    2018-03-01

    Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical model associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults, but studies on children failed to support this association. Our group has proposed a pediatric VAI model using pediatric ranges, but it has not yet been evaluated and needs further adjustments. The objective of this study was to further adjust the proposed pediatric VAI by age, creating a new pediatric metabolic index (PMI), and assess the correlation of the PMI with insulin resistance indexes and hepatic enzymes. A cross-sectional design with data from 396 children (age 5 to 17 years) was analyzed with a generalized linear model to find the coefficients for triglycerides, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and waist circumference-body mass index quotient. The model was constructed according to sex and age and designated PMI. A cross-validation analysis was performed and a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine cut-off points. Significant moderate correlation was found between PMI and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( r = 0.452; P = .003), Matsuda ( r = -0.366; P = .019), alanine aminotransferase ( r = 0.315, P = .045), and γ-glutamyltransferase ( r = 0.397; P = .010). A PMI score >1.7 was considered as risk. PMI correlates with HOMA-IR, Matsuda, and hepatic enzymes. It could be helpful for identifying children at risk for cardiometabolic diseases. ALT = alanine transaminase BMI = body mass index GGT = γ-glutamyltransferase HDL-C = high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol HOMA-IR = homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance hs-CRP = high sensitivity C-reactive protein ISI = insulin sensitivity index NAFLD = nonalcoholic fatty liver disease PMI = pediatric metabolic index QUICKI = quantitative insulin sensitivity check index ROC = receiver operating characteristic TG = triglyceride TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor-alpha VAI = visceral adiposity index VAT = visceral adipose tissue WC = waist circumference.

  4. Does acute alcohol intoxication cause transaminase elevations in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Binder, Christoph; Knibbe, Karoline; Kreissl, Alexandra; Repa, Andreas; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Berger, Angelika; Jilma, Bernd; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-03-01

    Several long-term effects of alcohol abuse in children and adolescents are well described. Alcohol abuse has severe effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, such as learning disabilities, memory deficits, and decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, chronic alcohol intake is associated with chronic liver disease. However, the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on liver function in children and adolescents are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if a single event of acute alcohol intoxication has short-term effects on liver function and metabolism. All children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine between 2004 and 2011 with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical records were evaluated for age, gender, alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, symptoms, and therapy. Blood values of the liver parameters, CK, creatinine, LDH, AP, and the values of the blood gas analysis were analyzed. During the 8-year study period, 249 children and adolescents with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were admitted, 132 (53%) girls and 117 (47%) boys. The mean age was 15.3 ± 1.2 years and the mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.201 ± 0.049%. Girls consumed significantly less alcohol than boys (64 g vs. 90 g), but reached the same blood alcohol concentration (girls: 0.199 ± 0.049%; boys: 0.204 ± 0.049%). The mean values of liver parameters were in normal ranges, but AST was increased in 9.1%, ALT in 3.9%, and γGT in 1.4%. In contrast, the mean value of AST/ALT ratio was increased and the ratio was elevated in 92.6% of all patients. Data of the present study showed significant differences in the AST/ALT ratio (p < 0.01) in comparison to a control group. Data of the present study indicate that there might be an effect of acute alcohol intoxication on transaminase levels. The AST/ALT ratio seems to reflect the damage in hepatocytes

  5. Field evaluation of a prototype paper-based point-of-care fingerstick transaminase test.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Nira R; McGray, Sarah; Colby, Donn J; Noubary, Farzad; Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, The Anh; Khormaee, Sariah; Jain, Sidhartha; Hawkins, Kenneth; Kumar, Shailendra; Rolland, Jason P; Beattie, Patrick D; Chau, Nguyen V; Quang, Vo M; Barfield, Cori; Tietje, Kathy; Steele, Matt; Weigl, Bernhard H

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) via serial transaminase measurements in patients on potentially hepatotoxic medications (e.g., for HIV and tuberculosis) is routine in resource-rich nations, but often unavailable in resource-limited settings. Towards enabling universal access to affordable point-of-care (POC) screening for DILI, we have performed the first field evaluation of a paper-based, microfluidic fingerstick test for rapid, semi-quantitative, visual measurement of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Our objectives were to assess operational feasibility, inter-operator variability, lot variability, device failure rate, and accuracy, to inform device modification for further field testing. The paper-based ALT test was performed at POC on fingerstick samples from 600 outpatients receiving HIV treatment in Vietnam. Results, read independently by two clinic nurses, were compared with gold-standard automated (Roche Cobas) results from venipuncture samples obtained in parallel. Two device lots were used sequentially. We demonstrated high inter-operator agreement, with 96.3% (95% C.I., 94.3-97.7%) agreement in placing visual results into clinically-defined "bins" (<3x, 3-5x, and >5x upper limit of normal), >90% agreement in validity determination, and intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89 (95% C.I., 0.87-0.91). Lot variability was observed in % invalids due to hemolysis (21.1% for Lot 1, 1.6% for Lot 2) and correlated with lots of incorporated plasma separation membranes. Invalid rates <1% were observed for all other device controls. Overall bin placement accuracy for the two readers was 84% (84.3%/83.6%). Our findings of extremely high inter-operator agreement for visual reading-obtained in a target clinical environment, as performed by local practitioners-indicate that the device operation and reading process is feasible and reproducible. Bin placement accuracy and lot-to-lot variability data identified specific targets for device

  6. Glutamate metabolism in cerebral mitochondria after ischemia and post-ischemic recovery during aging: relationships with brain energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Federica; Gorini, Antonella; Hoyer, Siegfried; Villa, Roberto Federico

    2018-05-20

    Glutamate is involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but its role has not been completely clarified and studies are required to understand how minimize its detrimental effects, contemporarily boosting the positive ones. In fact, glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter, but primarily a key metabolite for brain bioenergetics. Thus, we investigated the relationships between glutamate and brain energy metabolism in an in vivo model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15 min and during post-ischemic recovery after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs in 1 year- adult and 2 year-old aged rats. The maximum rates (V max ) of glutamate dehydrogenase (GlDH), glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were assayed in somatic mitochondria (FM) and in intra-synaptic "light" (LM) and "heavy" (HM) ones purified from cerebral cortex, distinguishing post- and pre-synaptic compartments. During ischemia, none of the enzymes were modified in adult animals. In aged ones, GOT was increased in FM and GlDH in HM, stimulating glutamate catabolism. During post-ischemic recovery, FM did not show modifications at both ages while, in intra-synaptic mitochondria of adult animals, glutamate catabolism was increased after 1 hour of recirculation and decreased after 48 and 72 hours, whereas it remained decreased up to 96 hours in aged rats. These results, with those previously published about Krebs' cycle and Electron Transport Chain (Villa et al., 2013. Neurochem. Int. 63, 765-781), demonstrate that: (i) V max of energy-linked enzymes are different in the various cerebral mitochondria, which (ii) respond differently to ischemia and post-ischemic recovery, also (iii) respect to aging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Antrodia Cinnamomea Reduces Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatotoxicity In Male Wister Rats.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yung-Luen; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Chou, Jason; Liu, Jia-You; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liao, Nien-Chieh; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea is found with polysaccharides, lipids, vitamins, fibers and ash (minerals) and is well known in Taiwan as a traditional Chinese medicine. Its biological activities have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue, anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects, but its protective effects on liver function are still unclear. We determined if Antrodia cinnamomea was hepatoprotective against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) toxicity in Wistar rats. Six groups were used in the study: 1) control (no induction by CCl 4 ); 2) negative control (CCl 4 -induction and no treatment); 3) positive control (silymarin treatment); 4) groups 4-6 were treated with CC1 4 and different concentrations (350 mg/kg, 1,400 mg/kg, 3,150 mg/kg) of Antrodia cinnamomea. Blood and liver samples of rats were harvested and then detected by biochemical and tissue histochemical analysis. Activity of the antioxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver were also monitored. Only the high-dose treatment was able to decrease serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels and improve liver function. High and medium doses increased total liver protein and reduced hydroxyproline. It was also observed that the high dose treatment reduced lipid peroxidation. Liver sections of CC1 4 treated animals receiving Antrodia cinnamomea showed less fibrosis compared to the CCl 4 control group. This finding suggested that Antrodia cinnamomea can either enhance liver recovering from CCl 4 damage or attenuate CCl 4 toxicity in rats. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Improved Hepatoprotective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Astaxanthin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Hung; Chang, Chun-Chao; Lin, Shiang-Ting; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y.

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute hepatotoxicity is significantly associated with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST), a xanthophyll carotenoid, is well known for its potent antioxidant capacity. However, its drawbacks of poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability have limited its utility. Liposome encapsulation is considered as an effective alternative use for the improvement of bioavailability of the hydrophobic compound. We hypothesized that AST encapsulated within liposomes (LA) apparently shows improved stability and transportability compared to that of free AST. To investigate whether LA administration can efficiently prevent the LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = six per group) were orally administered liposome-encapsulated AST at 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg-day (LA-2, LA-5, and LA-10) for seven days and then were LPS-challenged (i.p., 5 mg/kg). The LA-10 administered group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant amelioration of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), IL-6, and hepatic nuclear NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), suggesting that LA at a 10 mg/kg-day dosage renders hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, the protective effects were even superior to that of positive control N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg-day). Histopathologically, NAC, free AST, LA-2 and LA-5 partially, but LA-10 completely, alleviated the acute inflammatory status. These results indicate that hydrophobic AST after being properly encapsulated by liposomes improves bioavailability and can also function as potential drug delivery system in treating hepatotoxicity. PMID:27428953

  9. Improvement of Diet-induced Obesity by Ingestion of Mushroom Chitosan Prepared from Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Shoichi; Hamaya, Tadao; Eguchi, Fumio

    2018-02-01

    The anti-obesity effects of mushroom chitosan prepared from Flammulina velutipes were investigated using an animal model with diet-induced obesity. In this study, 5-week-old imprinting control region (ICR) mice were divided into six groups of 10 mice each and fed different diets based on the MF powdered diet (standard diet) for 6 weeks: standard diet control group, high-fat diet control group (induced dietary obesity) consisting of the standard diet and 20% lard, and mushroom chitosan groups consisting of the high-fat diet with mushroom chitosan added at 100, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg body weight. On the final day of the experiment, mean body weight was 39.1 g in the high-fat control group and 36.3 g in the 2,000 mg/kg mushroom chitosan group, compared to 35.8 g in the standard diet control group. In the mushroom chitosan groups, a dose-dependent suppression of weight gain and marked improvements in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were found. The mushroom chitosan groups showed fewer and smaller fat deposits in liver cells than the high-fat diet control group, and liver weight was significantly reduced. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvic transaminase (GPT), which are indices of the hepatic function, all showed dose-dependent improvement with mushroom chitosan administration. These results suggested that mushroom chitosan acts to suppress enlargement of the liver from fat deposition resulting from a high-fat diet and to restore hepatic function. The lipid content of feces showed a marked increase correlated with the mushroom chitosan dose. These findings suggest the potential use of mushroom chitosan as a functional food ingredient that contributes to the prevention or improvement of dietary obesity by inhibiting digestion and absorption of fats in the digestive tract and simultaneously promotes lipolysis in adipocytes.

  10. 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) entrapped stealth liposomes for improvement of leukemic treatment without hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Umrethia, Manish; Ghosh, Pradip Kumar; Majithya, Rita; Murthy, R S R

    2007-03-01

    6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a purine analogue used in childhood leukemia. Because of the oral bioavailability of 6-MP is low and highly variable, the aim of this study was to develop a new parenteral formulation that can prolong the biological half-life of the drug, improve its therapeutic efficacy, and its associated reduce side effects. Conventional and stealth 6-MP liposomes were prepared by a thin film hydration technique followed by a high-pressure homogenization process and characterized for percent entrapment efficiency (%EE), particle size, and stability in human plasma. Pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution, and biochemical analysis were performed after intravenous (IV) administration of all formulations of 6-MP on rats. The conventional liposomes were found less stable than stealth liposomes in human plasma at 37 degrees C. Stealth liposomes exhibited high peak plasma concentration (C(max)), and long circulating capacity in blood and biological half-life. The uptake of stealth liposomes by the liver and spleen and accumulation in the kidney were significantly less than that of conventional liposomes and the free drug. Serum urea, creatinine, GOT (Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase), and GPT (Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase) increased significantly in rats given an IV injection of conventional liposomes and the free drug, but not in those administered with the same dose of stealth liposomes. Stealth liposomes may help to increase therapeutic efficacy of 6-MP and to reduce total amount of dose as well as frequency of the dose. It also may reduce the possibility of the risk of toxicity to the liver and kidney generally associated with free 6-MP.

  11. Kefir improves fatty liver syndrome by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway in leptin-deficient ob/ob knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-L; Tung, Y-T; Tsai, C-L; Lai, C-W; Lai, Z-L; Tsai, H-C; Lin, Y-L; Wang, C-H; Chen, C-M

    2014-09-01

    Fatty liver disease is commonly associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Severe fatty liver is sometimes accompanied by steatohepatitis and may lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, there is no effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); thus, recent investigations have focused on developing effective therapeutics to treat this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of kefir on the hepatic lipid metabolism of ob/ob mice, which are commonly used to model fatty liver disease. In this study, we used leptin receptor-deficient ob/ob mice as an animal disease model of NAFLD. Six-week-old ob/ob mice were orally administered the dairy product kefir (140 mg kg(-1) of body weight (BW) per day) for 4 weeks. The data demonstrated that kefir improved fatty liver syndrome on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities (P<0.05) and by decreasing the triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) contents of the liver (P<0.05). Oral kefir administration also significantly reduced the macrovesicular fat quantity in liver tissue. In addition, kefir markedly decreased the expression of the genes sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (P<0.05) but not the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) or hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (CPT1α) in the livers of ob/ob mice. On the basis of these results, we conclude that kefir improves NAFLD on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway and that kefir may have the potential for clinical application to the prevention or treatment of NAFLD.

  12. Effects of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Erythrocyte Membrane Rigidity, Oxidative Stress, and Hepatotoxicity Induced by CCl4 in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tolooei, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Ali

    2015-03-26

    Previous findings have suggested that antioxidants may reduce the levels of free radicals, which induce oxidative damage and play a key role in various diseases. Thus, we evaluated the protective activity of a Pistacia atlantica extract on erythrocyte membrane rigidity, oxidative stress, and hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Fresh leaves of P.atlantica were collected from the mountains in Yasuj, Iran. Acute oral toxicity (LD50) was evaluated in Wistar rats (200-230 g). Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups, out of which the negative and plant control groups received distilled water and P. atlantica extracts (500 mg/kg), respectively. The toxic rat group received CCl4, while the treatment group received CCl4+P. atlantica extract. Blood plasma was utilized for the estimation of enzyme markers and lipid peroxidation, whereas hemolysate was applied for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities. The levels of cholesterol and phospholipids in erythrocyte membranes were also determined. Rats were killed under anesthesia by cervical dislocation; liver was isolated from each rat and tissues homogenization was prepared for biochemical parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. LD50 values were determined for doses>3000 mg/kg (p.o.). The activities of glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and GSH in the protected group were significantly (p<0.001) reduced compared with those of toxic rats. In addition, we observed a decrease in the cholesterol level and an increase in red blood cell membrane phospholipids, SOD, and catalase activities (p<0.001) in the protected group, as compared with toxic rats. Administration of Pistacia atlantica extract normalized liver tissue MDA level (p<0.01) when compared to CCl4 treated group. The P. atlantica extract was able to normalize the levels of biochemical markers, including

  13. Effects of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Erythrocyte Membrane Rigidity, Oxidative Stress, and Hepatotoxicity Induced by CCl4 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tolooei, Mohsen; Mirzaei, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous findings have suggested that antioxidants may reduce the levels of free radicals, which induce oxidative damage and play a key role in various diseases. Thus, we evaluated the protective activity of a Pistacia atlantica extract on erythrocyte membrane rigidity, oxidative stress, and hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of P. atlantica were collected from the mountains in Yasuj, Iran. Acute oral toxicity (LD50) was evaluated in Wistar rats (200–230 g). Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups, out of which the negative and plant control groups received distilled water and P. atlantica extracts (500 mg/kg), respectively. The toxic rat group received CCl4, while the treatment group received CCl4 + P. atlantica extract. Blood plasma was utilized for the estimation of enzyme markers and lipid peroxidation, whereas hemolysate was applied for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities. The levels of cholesterol and phospholipids in erythrocyte membranes were also determined. Rats were killed under anesthesia by cervical dislocation; liver was isolated from each rat and tissues homogenization was prepared for biochemical parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Results: LD50 values were determined for doses >3000 mg/kg (p.o.). The activities of glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and GSH in the protected group were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced compared with those of toxic rats. In addition, we observed a decrease in the cholesterol level and an increase in red blood cell membrane phospholipids, SOD, and catalase activities (p < 0.001) in the protected group, as compared with toxic rats. Administration of Pistacia atlantica extract normalized liver tissue MDA level (p < 0. 01) when compared to CCl4 treated group. Conclusion: The P. atlantica

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on mistletoe (Viscum album) lectin-mediated toxicity and immunomodulatory activity☆

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Du-Sup; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Jung, Pil-Mun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the reduction of the toxicity of mistletoe lectin using both in vitro and in vivo models. To extract the lectin from mistletoe, an (NH4)2SO4 precipitation method was employed and the precipitant purified using a Sepharose 4B column to obtain the pure lectin fraction. Purified lectin was then gamma-irradiated at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy, or heated at 100 °C for 30 min. Toxic effects of non-irradiated, irradiated, and heat-treated lectins were tested using hemagglutination assays, cytotoxicity assays, hepatotoxicity, and a mouse survival test and immunological response was tested using cytokine production activity. Hemagglutination of lectin was remarkably decreased (P < 0.05) by irradiation at doses exceeding 10 kGy and with heat treatment. However, lectin irradiated with 5 kGy maintained its hemagglutination activity. The cytotoxicity of lectin was decreased by irradiation at doses over 5 kGy and with heat treatment. In experiments using mouse model, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were decreased in the group treated with the 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins as compared to the intact lectin, and it was also shown that 5 kGy irradiated and heat-treated lectins did not cause damage in liver tissue or mortality. In the result of immunological response, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6) levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the 5 kGy gamma-irradiated lectin treated group. These results indicate that 5 kGy irradiated lectin still maintained the immunological response with reduction of toxicity. Therefore, gamma-irradiation may be an effective method for reducing the toxicity of lectin maintaining the immune response. PMID:23847758

  15. Effect of Spirulina platensis ingestion on the abnormal biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the pancreas and liver of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Ourida; Amiali, Malek; Bouzid, Nora; Belkacemi, Khaled; Bitam, Arezki

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that Spirulina platensis Gomont (Phormidiaceae) (SP) extract has beneficial effects on many disease conditions. The putative protective effects of SP were investigated in diabetic rats. The current study investigates the antioxidant effects of SP in diabetic Wistar rats. Alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administrated to induce diabetes. An aqueous suspension of SP powder in distillate water (10% w/v) was administrated orally by gavage (1 mL/day) for 50 days. Histopathological, biochemical and antioxidant analyses were performed. Glycemia, liver function and HOMA-IR were assessed using Spinreact and ELISA kits. SP exhibited high-antioxidant activity. The IC 50 values of the SP aqueous extract were 70.40 and 45.69 mg/L compared to those of the standard antioxidant BHT, which were 27.97 and 19.77 mg/L, for the DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. The diabetic animals showed a significant increase in glycaemia (from 4.05 to 4.28 g/L) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (50.17 mmol/g protein) levels. Treatment with SP significantly reduced glycaemia by 79% and liver function markers [glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and alkaline phosphatase (Alk-p)]) by 25, 36 and 20%, respectively, compared to that of the controls. There was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (48%), total antioxidant status (43%), glutathione peroxidase (37%) and glutathione reductase (16%) in the diabetic rats treated with SP. These results showed that SP has high antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective effects in diabetes.

  16. Relationship between potassium fertilization and nitrogen metabolism in the leaf subtending the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll during the boll development stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Yang, Jiashuo; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Loka, Dimitra A; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    The nitrogen (N) metabolism of the leaf subtending the cotton boll (LSCB) was studied with two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars (Simian 3, low-K tolerant; Siza 3, low-K sensitive) under three levels of potassium (K) fertilization (K0: 0 g K2O plant(-1), K1: 4.5 K2O plant(-1) and K2: 9.0 g K2O plant(-1)). The results showed that total dry matter increased by 13.1-27.4% and 11.2-18.5% under K supply for Simian 3 and Siza 3. Boll biomass and boll weight also increased significantly in K1 and K2 treatments. Leaf K content, leaf N content and nitrate (NO3(-)) content increased with increasing K rates, and leaf N content or NO3(-) content had a significant positive correlation with leaf K content. Free amino acid content increased in the K0 treatment for both cultivars, due to increased protein degradation caused by higher protease and peptidase activities, resulting in lower protein content in the K0 treatment. The critical leaf K content for free amino acid and soluble protein content were 14 mg g(-1) and 15 mg g(-1) in Simian 3, and 17 mg g(-1) and 18 mg g(-1) in Siza 3, respectively. Nitrate reductase (NR), glutamic-oxaloace transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased in the K1 and K2 treatments for both cultivars, while glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities increased under K supply treatments only for Siza 3, and were not affected in Simian 3, indicating that this was the primary difference in nitrogen-metabolizing enzymes activities for the two cultivars with different sensitivity to low-K. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Interaction effects of dietary supplementation of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and β-glucan on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2015-07-01

    Both heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) and β-glucan (BG) play important roles in growth performance, feed utilization and health status of fish. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary HK-LP and BG on growth performance, digestibility, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between HK-LP and BG on final body weight, total plasma protein, glucose, serum bactericidal activity (BA), total serum protein, serum alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity, protein and dry matter digestibility coefficients (P < 0.05). In addition, body weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio as well as serum lysozyme activity, ACP activity and mucus secretion were significantly affected by either HK-LP or BG (P < 0.05). Further, feeding 0.025% HK-LP combined with 0.1% BG significantly increased serum peroxidase activity compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). However, protein body content, somatic parameters, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, glutamyl oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), triglycerides and mucus BA were not significantly altered by supplementations (P > 0.05). Interestingly, fish fed with both HK-LP at (0.025 and 0.1%) in combination with BG at (0 and 0.1%) showed higher oxidative stress resistance. Under the experimental conditions, dietary HK-LP and BG had a significant interaction on enhancing the growth, digestibility and immune responses of red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects and distribution in tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Todorov, Todor I.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; van der Voet, Gijsbert; Centeno, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well documented human carcinogen. However, its mechanisms of toxic action and carcinogenic potential in animals have not been conclusive. In this research, we investigated the biochemical and genotoxic effects of As and studied its distribution in selected tissues of Sprague–Dawley rats. Four groups of six male rats, each weighing approximately 60 ± 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once a day for 5 days with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg BW of arsenic trioxide. A control group was also made of 6 animals injected with distilled water. Following anaesthetization, blood was collected and enzyme analysis was performed by spectrophotometry following standard protocols. At the end of experimentation, the animals were sacrificed, and the lung, liver, brain and kidney were collected 24 h after the fifth day treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells. Arsenic exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05) the activities of plasma alanine aminotransferase–glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT/GPT), and aspartate aminotransferase–glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST/GOT), as well as the number of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and frequency of micronuclei (MN) in the bone marrow cells. In contrast, the mitotic index in these cells was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that aminotransferases are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results also demonstrate that As has a strong genotoxic potential, as measured by the bone marrow SCA and MN tests in Sprague–Dawley rats. Total arsenic concentrations in tissues were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with hydrogen gas was used to eliminate the ArCl interference at mass 75, in the measurement of total As. Total As doses in tissues tended to correlate with specific exposure levels.

  19. Fluorescent nanoparticles present in Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola: physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, biodistribution and digestion studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Shen; Jiang, Chengkun; Wang, Haitao; Cong, Shuang; Tan, Mingqian

    2018-02-01

    Foodborne nanoparticles (NPs) have drawn great attention due to human health concerns. This study reports the detection of the presence of fluorescent NPs, about 5 nm, in two of the most popular beverages, Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi-Cola (Pepsi). The NPs contain H, C and O, three elements with a tunable emission and with a quantum yield of 3.3 and 4.3% for Coke and Pepsi, respectively. The presence of sp 3 -hybridized carbon atoms of alcohols and ethers bonds was confirmed by NMR analysis. The NPs can be taken up by living cells and accumulate within cell membrane and cytoplasm. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of the NPs revealed that the BALB/c mice appeared healthy after administration of a single dose of 2 g kg -1 body weight. Analysis of glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), urea and creatinine showed that there were statistically, but not biologically, significant differences in some of these biochemical parameters between the test and control groups. No obvious organ damage or apparent histopathological abnormality was observed in the tested mice. The biodistribution study in major organs indicated that the NPs were easily accumulated in the digestive tract, and they were able to cross the blood-brain barrier and dispersed in the brain. In vitro digestion of the NPs showed a significant fluorescence quenching of the NPs. This work represents the first report of foodborne fluorescent NPs present in Coke and Pepsi, and provides valuable insights into physicochemical properties of these NPs and their toxicity characteristics both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and ameliorative effects of gallic acid on fluoxetine-induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Khouzani, Omid; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Amini, Sayed Asadollah

    2017-08-01

    Fluoxetine-induced liver damage is a cause of chronic liver disease. In the present study the hepatoprotective effects of gallic acid against fluoxetine-induced liver damage were examined. Forty-eight male rats were divided into six groups as follow: group 1, the control group; group 2, rats receiving fluoxetine (24mg/kg bw daily, po) without treatment; group 3, rats receiving 24mg/kg bw fluoxetine, treated with 50mg/kg bw silymarin and groups 4, 5, and 6 in which gallic acid (50, 100, and 200mg/kg bw, po, respectively) was prescribed after the consumption of fluoxetine. The histopathological changes of hepatic tissues were checked out. Fluoxetine caused a significant increase in the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), lipid profiles, urea, fasting blood sugar (FBS), creatinine (Cr), protein carbonyl (PC) content, malondialdehyde (MDA), and liver TNF-α as an inflammatory element. Also, the obtained results of group 2 revealed a significant decline in ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), liver catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and vitamin C levels. The treatment with gallic acid showed significant ameliorations in abnormalities of fluoxetine-induced liver injury as represented by the improvement of hepatic CAT, SOD activities, vitamin C levels, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathological changes, in addition to the recovery of antioxidant defense system status. Gallic acid has inhibitory effects on fluoxetine-induced liver damage. The effect of gallic acid is derived from free radical scavenging properties and the anti-inflammatory effect related to TNF-α. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  1. Chronic unpredictable stress deteriorates the chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shirin; Suhail, Nida; Bilal, Nayeem; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; AlNohair, Sultan; Banu, Naheed

    2016-05-01

    Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) can influence the risk and progression of cancer through increased oxidative stress. Pomegranate is known to protect carcinogenesis through its anti-oxidative properties. This study is carried out to examine whether CUS affects the chemopreventive potential of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway. Role of CUS on early stages of 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced carcinogenesis, and its pre-exposure effect on chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate juice (PJ) was examined in terms of in vivo antioxidant and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino rats. Rats were divided in various groups and were subjected to CUS paradigm, DMBA administration (65 mg/kg body weight, single dose), and PJ treatment. Exposure to stress (alone) and DMBA (alone) led to increased oxidative stress by significantly decreasing the antioxidant enzymes activities and altering the glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels. A significant increase in DNA damage demonstrated by comet assay was seen in the liver cells. Stress exposure to DMBA-treated rats further increased the oxidative stress and disturbed the biochemical parameters as compared to DMBA (alone)-treated rats. Chemoprevention with PJ in DMBA (alone)-treated rats restored the altered parameters. However, in the pre-stress DMBA-treated rats, the overall antioxidant potential of PJ was significantly diminished. Our results indicate that chronic stress not only increases the severity of carcinogenesis but also diminishes the anti-oxidative efficacy of PJ. In a broader perspective, special emphasis should be given to stress management and healthy diet during cancer chemoprevention.

  2. A pharmacologic increase in activity of plasma transaminase derived from small intestine in animals receiving an acyl CoA: diacylglycerol transferase (DGAT) 1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akio; Kondo, Kazuma; Oshida, Shin-Ichi; Takahashi, Tadakazu; Masuyama, Taku; Shoda, Toshiyuki; Sugai, Shoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the re-synthesis of triglycerides (TG) from free fatty acids and diacylglycerol. JTT-553 is a DGAT1 inhibitor and exhibits its pharmacological action (inhibition of re-synthesis of TG) in the enterocytes of the small intestine leading to suppression of a postprandial elevation of plasma lipids. After repeated oral dosing JTT-553 in rats and monkeys, plasma transaminase levels were increased but there were neither changes in other hepatic function parameters nor histopathological findings suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Based on the results of exploratory studies for investigation of the mechanism of the increase in transaminase levels, plasma transaminase levels were increased after dosing JTT-553 only when animals were fed after dosing and a main factor in the diet contributing to the increase in plasma transaminase levels was lipids. After dosing JTT-553, transaminase levels were increased in the small intestine but not in the liver, indicating that the origin of transaminase increased in the plasma was not the liver but the small intestine where JTT-553 exhibits its pharmacological action. The increase in small intestinal transaminase levels was due to increased enzyme protein synthesis and was suppressed by inhibiting fatty acid-transport to the enterocytes. In conclusion, the JTT-553-related increase in plasma transaminase levels is considered not to be due to release of the enzymes from injured cells into the circulation but to be phenomena resulting from enhancement of enzyme protein synthesis in the small intestine due to the pharmacological action of JTT-553 in this organ.

  3. Immobilization of R-ω-transaminase on MnO2 nanorods for catalyzing the conversion of (R)-1-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Cui, Wen-Hui; Du, Kun; Gao, Qian; Du, Mengmeng; Ji, Peijun; Feng, Wei

    2017-03-10

    R-ɷ-transaminases transfer an amino group from an amino donor (e.g. (R)-1-phenylethylamine) onto an amino acceptor (e.g. pyruvate), resulting a co-product (e.g. d-alanine). This work intends to immobilize R-ɷ-Transaminase on MnO 2 nanorods to achieve multienzyme catalysis. R-ɷ-Transaminase (RTA) and d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) have been fused to an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) separately through genetic engineering of the enzymes. ELP-RTA and ELP-DAAO have been separately immobilized on polydopamine-coated MnO 2 nanorods. When the two immobilized enzymes were used together in one pot, the transformation of (R)-1-phenylethylamine was catalyzed by the immobilized ELP-RTA, and the co-product d-alanine was converted back to pyruvate under the catalysis of the immobilized ELP-DAAO, achieving the recycling of pyruvate in situ. Thus pyruvate was maintained at a low concentration in order to reduce its negative effect. On the other hand, the generated H 2 O 2 of ELP-DAAO was decomposed by the MnO 2 nanorods, and the evolved oxygen oxidized the reduced cofactors of ELP-DAAO. Forming the circles of hydrogen peroxide→oxygen→hydrogen peroxide accelerated the deamination reaction. The highly efficient conversion of the co-product d-alanine back to pyruvate accelerated the forming of the pyruvate→d-alanine→pyruvate cycle between the two immobilized enzymes. The coordination of the pyruvate→d-alanine→pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide→oxygen→hydrogen peroxide cycles accelerated the transformation of (R)-1-phenylethylamine. As a result, As a result, the immobilized enzymes achieved a conversion of 98±1.8% in comparison to 69.6±1.2% by free enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In Vitro antioxidative activity of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate and its In Vivo effect on alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in acetaminophen-induced liver injury in low protein fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2006-09-01

    The antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed protein isolate (Cucurbita pepo) were investigated in vitro. The isolate exhibited about 80% radical scavenging activity, chelating activity of approximately 64% on Fe2+ ions and an inhibition of approximately 10% of xanthine oxidase. Subsequently the effects of the isolate on the plasma activity levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase against acetaminophen induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed male Sprague-Dawley rats were ascertained. The rats were maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days and divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with acetaminophen and the other with an equivalent amount of polyethylene glycol 400. Two hours after intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with the protein isolate. Rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of the enzymes were significantly higher than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. The administration of protein isolate after acetaminophen intoxication resulted in significantly reduced activity levels. It is concluded that the protein isolate has promising antioxidative properties. Furthermore, the isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein malnutrition and acetaminophen intoxication. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cloning and Characterization of a Novel β-Transaminase from Mesorhizobium sp. Strain LUK: a New Biocatalyst for the Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure β-Amino Acids▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juhan; Kyung, Dohyun; Yun, Hyungdon; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Cha, Minho; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2007-01-01

    A novel β-transaminase gene was cloned from Mesorhizobium sp. strain LUK. By using N-terminal sequence and an internal protein sequence, a digoxigenin-labeled probe was made for nonradioactive hybridization, and a 2.5-kb gene fragment was obtained by colony hybridization of a cosmid library. Through Southern blotting and sequence analysis of the selected cosmid clone, the structural gene of the enzyme (1,335 bp) was identified, which encodes a protein of 47,244 Da with a theoretical pI of 6.2. The deduced amino acid sequence of the β-transaminase showed the highest sequence similarity with glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase of transaminase subgroup II. The β-transaminase showed higher activities toward d-β-aminocarboxylic acids such as 3-aminobutyric acid, 3-amino-5-methylhexanoic acid, and 3-amino-3-phenylpropionic acid. The β-transaminase has an unusually broad specificity for amino acceptors such as pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate/oxaloacetate. The enantioselectivity of the enzyme suggested that the recognition mode of β-aminocarboxylic acids in the active site is reversed relative to that of α-amino acids. After comparison of its primary structure with transaminase subgroup II enzymes, it was proposed that R43 interacts with the carboxylate group of the β-aminocarboxylic acids and the carboxylate group on the side chain of dicarboxylic α-keto acids such as α-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate. R404 is another conserved residue, which interacts with the α-carboxylate group of the α-amino acids and α-keto acids. The β-transaminase was used for the asymmetric synthesis of enantiomerically pure β-aminocarboxylic acids. (3S)-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid was produced from the ketocarboxylic acid ester substrate by coupled reaction with a lipase using 3-aminobutyric acid as amino donor. PMID:17259358

  6. Chiral Amine Synthesis Using ω-Transaminases: An Amine Donor that Displaces Equilibria and Enables High-Throughput Screening**

    PubMed Central

    Green, Anthony P; Turner, Nicholas J; O'Reilly, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of ω-transaminases as biocatalysts for chiral amine synthesis has been hampered by fundamental challenges, including unfavorable equilibrium positions and product inhibition. Herein, an efficient process that allows reactions to proceed in high conversion in the absence of by-product removal using only one equivalent of a diamine donor (ortho-xylylenediamine) is reported. This operationally simple method is compatible with the most widely used (R)- and (S)-selective ω-TAs and is particularly suitable for the conversion of substrates with unfavorable equilibrium positions (e.g., 1-indanone). Significantly, spontaneous polymerization of the isoindole by-product generates colored derivatives, providing a high-throughput screening platform to identify desired ω-TA activity. PMID:25138082

  7. Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARO8 gene, encoding an aromatic amino acid transaminase, enhances phenylethanol production from glucose.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Gabriele; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Liti, Gianni; Louis, Edward J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Phenylethanol has a characteristic rose-like aroma that makes it a popular ingredient in foods, beverages and cosmetics. Microbial production of phenylethanol currently relies on whole-cell bioconversion of phenylalanine with yeasts that harbour an Ehrlich pathway for phenylalanine catabolism. Complete biosynthesis of phenylethanol from a cheap carbon source, such as glucose, provides an economically attractive alternative for phenylalanine bioconversion. In this study, synthetic genetic array (SGA) screening was applied to identify genes involved in regulation of phenylethanol synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen focused on transcriptional regulation of ARO10, which encodes the major decarboxylase involved in conversion of phenylpyruvate to phenylethanol. A deletion in ARO8, which encodes an aromatic amino acid transaminase, was found to underlie the transcriptional upregulation of ARO10 during growth, with ammonium sulphate as the sole nitrogen source. Physiological characterization revealed that the aro8Δ mutation led to substantial changes in the absolute and relative intracellular concentrations of amino acids. Moreover, deletion of ARO8 led to de novo production of phenylethanol during growth on a glucose synthetic medium with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. The aro8Δ mutation also stimulated phenylethanol production when combined with other, previously documented, mutations that deregulate aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strain produced >3 mm phenylethanol from glucose during growth on a simple synthetic medium. The strong impact of a transaminase deletion on intracellular amino acid concentrations opens new possibilities for yeast-based production of amino acid-derived products. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Absence of in vivo genotoxicity of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and associated fatty acid esters in a 4-week comprehensive toxicity study using F344 gpt delta rats.

    PubMed

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-07-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is regarded as a rat renal and testicular carcinogen and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by International Agency for Research on Cancer. This is potentially of great importance given that esters of this compound have recently found to be generated in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. There have been a few reports about their toxicity, although we have recently found that the toxicity profile of 3-MCPD esters was similar to that of 3-MCPD in a rat 13-week repeated dose study, except for the acute renal toxicity seen in 3-MCPD-treated females. In the present study, to examine in vivo genotoxicity we administered equimolar doses of 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD fatty acid esters (palmitate diester, palmitate monoester and oleate diester) to 6-week-old male F344 gpt delta rats carrying a reporter transgene for 4 weeks by intragastric administration. In vivo micronucleus, Pig-a mutation and gpt assays were performed, as well as investigations of major toxicological parameters including histopathological features. As one result, the relative kidney weights of the 3-MCPD and all three ester groups were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. However, the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant red blood cells did not differ among groups. Moreover, no changes were observed in mutant frequencies of gpt and red/gam (Spi(-)) genes in the kidney and the testis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-fatty-acid-esters-treated rats. In histopathological analyses, no treatment related changes were observed, except for decrease of eosinophilic bodies in the kidneys of all treated groups. These results suggest that 3-MCPD and its fatty acid esters are not in vivo genotoxins, although they may exert renal toxicity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  9. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  10. Effects of subchronic exposure to zinc nanoparticles on tissue accumulation, serum biochemistry, and histopathological changes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Hasan; Duysak, Müge; Akbulut, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Sevdan; Gürkan, Mert; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Ateş, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) are among the least investigated NPs and thus their toxicological effects are not known. In this study, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg/L suspensions of small size (SS, 40-60 nm) and large size (LS, 80-100 nm) ZnNPs for 14 days under semi-static conditions. Total Zn levels in the intestine, liver, kidney, gill, muscle tissue, and brain were measured. Blood serum glucose (GLU), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were examined to elucidate the physiological disturbances induced by ZnNPs. Organ pathologies were examined for the gills, liver, and kidney to identify injuries associated with exposure. Significant accumulation was observed in the order of intestine, liver, kidney, and gills. Zn levels exhibited time- and concentration-dependent increase in the organs. Accumulation in kidney was also dependent on particle size; NPs SS-ZnNPs were trapped more effectively than LS-ZnNPs. No significant accumulation occurred in the brain (p > 0.05) while Zn levels in muscle tissue increased only marginally (p ≥ 0.05). Significant disturbances were noted in serum GOT and LDH (p < 0.05). The GPT levels fluctuated and were not statistically different from those of controls (p > 0.05). Histopathological tubular deformations and mononuclear cell infiltrations were observed in kidney sections. In addition, an increase in melano-macrophage aggregation intensity was identified on the 7th day in treatments exposed to LS-ZnNPs. Mononuclear cell infiltrations were identified in liver sections for all treatments. Both ZnNPs caused basal hyperplasia in gill sections. Fusions appeared in the gills after the 7th day in fish treated with 10 mg/L suspensions of SS-ZnNPs. In addition, separations in the secondary lamella epithelia were observed. The results indicated that exposure to ZnNPs could lead to disturbances in blood biochemistry and cause

  11. Dietary supplementation with glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid improves growth performance and serum parameters in 22- to 35-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Bai, X; Shah, A A; Wen, A Y; Hua, J L; Che, C Y; He, S J; Jiang, J P; Cai, Z H; Dai, S F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed using 360 21-day-old chicks to determine the influences of diet supplementation with glutamine (5 g/kg), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 100 mg/kg) or their combinations on performance and serum parameters exposed to cycling high temperatures. From 22 to 35 days, the experimental groups (2 × 2) were subjected to circular heat stress by exposing them to 30-34 °C cycling, while the positive control group was exposed to 23 °C constant. The blood of broilers was collected to detect serum parameters on days 28 and 35. Compared with the positive control group, the cycling high temperature decreased (p < 0.05) the feed consumption, weight gain and serum total protein (TP), glucose, thyroxine (T4), insulin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamine, GABA and glutamate levels, while increased (p < 0.05) the serum triglyceride (TG), corticosterone (CS), glucagon (GN), creatine kinase (CK), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels during 22-35 days. However, dietary glutamine (5 g/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the feed consumption, weight gain and serum levels of glutamine, TP, insulin and ALP, but decreased (p < 0.05) the serum TG, CK, GOT, NOS and GPT levels. Diet supplemented with GABA also increased (p < 0.05) weight gain and the serum levels of TP, T4, ALP, GABA and glutamine. In addition, the significant interactions (p < 0.05) between glutamine and GABA were found in the feed consumption, weight gain and the serum ALP, CK, LDH, GABA, T3 and T4 levels of heat-stressed chickens. This research indicated that dietary glutamine and GABA improved the antistress ability in performance and serum parameters of broilers under hot environment. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Benefits of Alcohol on Arsenic Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Purnima; Dutta, Shubha Ranjan; Passi, Deepak; Bharti, Jaya

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated earlier that exposure to ethanol and/or arsenic compounds (such as sodium arsenite) produces toxic effects as shown by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chronic exposure of humans to arsenic through drinking water, pesticides or consumption of alcoholic beverages has produced major health problem and concern in recent years. Water being one of the main ingredients for alcohol formation (beer fermentation process) can lead to contamination with arsenic. Thus, people consuming such alcohol are getting continuously exposed to arsenic compounds as well along with alcohol. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of alcohol co-administration on arsenic induced changes in carbohydrate metabolic status in adult male albino rats. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain (weighing~100g) were divided into three groups (n=8 rats/group) including Control or vehicle treated (C), Arsenic treated (As) and Arsenic treated alcohol co-exposed (As+Alc). Treatment with Sodium-arsenite included intra-peritoneal injection consecutively for 14 days at a dose of 5.55 mg/kg (equivalent to 35% of LD50) per day. Absolute alcohol (15% v/v) was fed at a dose of 0.5 ml/100 g body weight per day for five consecutive days from start of the treatment schedule. Distilled water (D/W) was used as vehicle. Blood Glucose (BG) level, levels of glycogen, Pyruvic Acid (PA), Free Amino Acid Nitrogen (FAAN), total protein, Glutamate Oxalate transaminase (GOT) and Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT) activity, and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity were measured in tissues including liver, kidney and muscle. Treatment with arsenic decreased the levels of BG, liver glycogen and PA, tissue protein and G6Pase activity, GOT activity in liver and muscle, and increased free amino acid content in kidney and muscle, GPT activity in liver and kidney. Alcohol administration to rats co-exposed to arsenic treatment reversed these changes. Thus, it is suggested that

  13. Effects of sub-chronic exposure to zinc nanoparticles on tissue accumulation, serum biochemistry and histopathological changes in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hasan; Duysak, Müge; Akbulut, Mehmet; Yılmaz, Sevdan; Gürkan, Mert; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Ateş, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) are among the least investigated NPs and thus their toxicological effects are not known. In this study, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to 1 and 10 mg/L suspensions of small size (SS, 40–60 nm) and large size (LS, 80–100 nm) ZnNPs for 14 days under semi-static conditions. Total Zn levels in the intestine, liver, kidney, gill, muscle tissue and brain were measured. Blood serum glucose (GLU), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were examined to elucidate the physiological disturbances induced by ZnNPs. Organ pathologies were examined for the gills, liver and kidney to identify injuries associated with exposure. Significant accumulation was observed in the order of intestine, liver, kidney and gills. Zn levels exhibited time- and concentration-dependent increase in the organs. Accumulation in kidney was also dependent on particle size; NPs SS-ZnNPs were trapped more effectively than LS-ZnNPs. No significant accumulation occurred in the brain (p>0.05) while Zn levels in muscle tissue increased only marginally (p≥0.05). Significant disturbances were noted in serum GOT and LDH (p<0.05). The GPT levels fluctuated and were not statistically different from those of controls (p>0.05). Histopathological tubular deformations and mononuclear cell infiltrations were observed in kidney sections. In addition, an increase in melano-macrophage aggregation intensity was identified on the 7th day in treatments exposed to LS-ZnNPs. Mononuclear cell infiltrations were identified in liver sections for all treatments. Both ZnNPs caused basal hyperplasia in gill sections. Fusions appeared in the gills after the 7th day in fish treated with 10 mg/L suspensions of SS-ZnNPs. In addition, separations in the secondary lamella epithelia were observed. The results indicated that exposure to ZnNPs could lead to disturbances in blood biochemistry and cause histopathological

  14. Benefits of Alcohol on Arsenic Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Shubha Ranjan; Passi, Deepak; Bharti, Jaya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction It has been demonstrated earlier that exposure to ethanol and/or arsenic compounds (such as sodium arsenite) produces toxic effects as shown by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chronic exposure of humans to arsenic through drinking water, pesticides or consumption of alcoholic beverages has produced major health problem and concern in recent years. Water being one of the main ingredients for alcohol formation (beer fermentation process) can lead to contamination with arsenic. Thus, people consuming such alcohol are getting continuously exposed to arsenic compounds as well along with alcohol. Aim The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of alcohol co-administration on arsenic induced changes in carbohydrate metabolic status in adult male albino rats. Materials and Methods Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain (weighing~100g) were divided into three groups (n=8 rats/group) including Control or vehicle treated (C), Arsenic treated (As) and Arsenic treated alcohol co-exposed (As+Alc). Treatment with Sodium-arsenite included intra-peritoneal injection consecutively for 14 days at a dose of 5.55 mg/kg (equivalent to 35% of LD50) per day. Absolute alcohol (15% v/v) was fed at a dose of 0.5 ml/100 g body weight per day for five consecutive days from start of the treatment schedule. Distilled water (D/W) was used as vehicle. Blood Glucose (BG) level, levels of glycogen, Pyruvic Acid (PA), Free Amino Acid Nitrogen (FAAN), total protein, Glutamate Oxalate transaminase (GOT) and Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT) activity, and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity were measured in tissues including liver, kidney and muscle. Results Treatment with arsenic decreased the levels of BG, liver glycogen and PA, tissue protein and G6Pase activity, GOT activity in liver and muscle, and increased free amino acid content in kidney and muscle, GPT activity in liver and kidney. Alcohol administration to rats co-exposed to arsenic treatment

  15. Effect of low level of dietary aflatoxins on baladi rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, A M; el-Shawaf, I; el-Ayoty, S A; Ali, M M; Gamil, T

    1990-01-01

    Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2 were administered in a low concentration (100 ppb of each aflatoxin (AN] in a mash offered to Baladi rabbits. An other group of rabbits were fed on the same contaminated mash in addition to 0.25% charcoal (CC). The two groups were compared to control animals fed on AN-free mash. Inclusion of AN in the diet decreased feed and water consumption, body weight and survival rate. Charcoal improved somewhat feed and water consumption and growth rate than AN-group. However, CC-group affected digestibility of organic matter more than AN-group. Relative weights of liver, kidneys, heart and adrenal glands were significantly higher in AN and CC groups than the control group. Blood haemoglobin content, packed cell volume percentage and sedimentation rate were lower in AN group. Although there were an increase in each of serum, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, cholesterol, phospholipids and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase in AN group, yet the serum nitrogen and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase were reduced. Charcoal had alleviated AN-effects concerning N, GPT and phospholipids. Chemical analysis revealed elevation of water, ash and silica contents of liver and water content of muscles from AN-animals. On the other hand, fat content, GOT and vitamin A in the liver as well as muscles ash were reduced. Addition of CC to the diet reduced AN-effects on liver fat, ash and silica but resulted in a rise of the water content of liver and muscles and liver GPT activity. Charcoal also resulted in a sharp decrease in vitamin A content of the liver. Aflatoxin treatments (in AN and CC groups) reduced bone ash, silica and magnesium as well as bone volume. Charcoal administration increased Ca-content of bones. Aflatoxin feeding (in AN group) resulted in a high residual percentage of AN in muscles, serum, liver, heart and kidneys with relationships of 51 :24 : 3 :2 : 1, respectively. Only 1.42% of the fed AN was excreted in the faeces. Charcoal usage had a good effect as

  16. Toxico-pathological effects in rats induced by lambda-cyhalothrin.

    PubMed

    Dahamna, S; Harzallah, D; Guemache, A; Sekfali, N

    2009-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used chemicals making human exposure to pesticides a realistic possibility. Biomonitoring is a common and useful tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides. Pyrethroids are effective insecticides that are often used in household sprays, aerosol bombs, insect repellents, pet shampoos, and lice treatments. Using products containing these compounds will expose people to these chemicals. Since these compounds frequently are used on crOPs, they are often detected in fruits and vegetables. Biomonitoring of exposure is a useful tool for assessing exposure to pesticides. Biomonitoring involves the measurement of the parent pesticide, its metabolite or reaction product in biological media, typically blood or urine, to determine if an exposure has occurred and the extent of that exposure. Although not without its limitations, biomonitoring has great utility in integrating all routes of exposure allowing for one exposure measurement. Pesticides have much shorter environmental half-lives and tend not to bioaccumulate. In fact, from humans within 24 hr as the parent pesticide, a mercapturic acid detoxification product, oxidative or dealkylation metabolites, and/or glucuronide or sulphate-bound metabolites. However, because of the heavy agricultural and residential use of these chemicals, humans are continually exposed to many of these chemicals. The objective of the present study was to explore modification in toxico-pathological responses of rats treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (commercially called karate). Rats (250 g weight), were gavaged by 1/100 LD50 for 4 weeks (one dose every week). Blood was collected before dosing and after 48 hours from the treatment. Enzyme activities were assayed in the plasma samples obtained. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALPH) and Glucose. The results showed a decrease in RBC; WBC and Hb. This probably explained by the effect of lambda cyhalothrin

  17. The impact of Aeromonas salmonicida infection on innate immune parameters of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L).

    PubMed

    Du, Yishuai; Yi, Mengmeng; Xiao, Peng; Meng, Lingjie; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Liu, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Enzyme activities and gene expression of a number of innate immune parameters in the serum, mucus and skin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were investigated after challenge with a pathogenic strain of Aeromonas salmonicida (A. salmonicida). Fish were injected in the dorsal muscle with either 100 μl bacterium solution, about 3.05 × 10(7) CFU/ml A. salmonicida, or 100 μl 0.9% NaCl (as control group) and tissue samples were collected at days 0, 2, 4 and 6 post-injection. Lysozyme (LSZ) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activities in serum, mucus and skin, and LSZ and AKP mRNA expression in skin of the challenged fish were higher than those of the control at most of the experimental time, with significant differences at several time points (P < 0.05), indicating the involvement of LSZ and AKP in the innate immunity of Atlantic salmon to A. salmonicida. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in mucus and skin, along with the SOD, POD and CAT mRNA expression in skin significantly decreased at day 4 and 6, indicating the decreased antioxidant capacity of the challenged fish. Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities in serum, mucus and skin of the challenged group were all higher than those of the control after the injection, and at several time points significant differences were found between the two groups, suggesting organs of fish were impaired after the pathogen infection. The changes of the GPT and GOT activities could be used as potential biomarkers for the impairment of physiological functions caused by the pathogen infection. Identified biomarkers of the immune responses will contribute to the early-warning system of the disease. So this study will not only provide a theoretical basis for vaccine development, but also provide basic data for the establishment of early warning systems for diseases caused by A. salmonicida in Atlantic salmon rearing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  18. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

    PubMed

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P < 0.05) and a significant increase in amylase values in the CD group ( P < 0.01). At the end of this period, groups were crossed over and fed for another 18 wk. A significant decrease in amylase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) values was observed in the CD and SD group, respectively ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, a controlled, balanced antioxidant diet may be a valid approach to restoring good cell metabolism and neutralizing excess free radicals in therapy dogs.

  19. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in amylase values in the CD group (P < 0.01). At the end of this period, groups were crossed over and fed for another 18 wk. A significant decrease in amylase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) values was observed in the CD and SD group, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a controlled, balanced antioxidant diet may be a valid approach to restoring good cell metabolism and neutralizing excess free radicals in therapy dogs. PMID:28725111

  20. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  1. Recurrent elevated liver transaminases and acute liver failure in two siblings with novel bi-allelic mutations of NBAS.

    PubMed

    Regateiro, Frederico S; Belkaya, Serkan; Neves, Nélson; Ferreira, Sandra; Silvestre, Paula; Lemos, Sónia; Venâncio, Margarida; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gonçalves, Isabel; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Diogo, Luísa

    2017-08-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) in children can be life-threatening. Although many causes are known, ALF remains unexplained in about half of the cases. Recently, bi-allelic mutations in NBAS were reported to underlie recurrent episodes of elevated liver transaminases (ELT) and ALF in the context of diverse extrahepatic phenotypes. We here describe two sisters, born to non-consanguineous Portuguese parents, who had short stature and presented with recurrent episodes of severe ELT triggered by febrile respiratory viral infections since early childhood. Patient 1 had mild facial dysmorphism and died during the second ELT crisis at 3-11/12 years of age. Patient 2, currently 9 years old, had multiple episodes of ELT (>30), twice with ALF, often accompanied by extensive urticaria and facial angioedema. Whole-exome and Sanger sequencing revealed that both patients carried previously undescribed compound heterozygous mutations of NBAS (NM_015909.3): c.680A > C (p.His227Pro), affecting an evolutionarily conserved residue, and c.1749G > A (p.Trp583*), causing a premature stop codon. Both mutations are predicted to be highly damaging. The parents and two younger siblings are healthy and heterozygous for one or another mutant allele. The multiplex kindred reported herein expands the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of this recently described clinical syndrome due to autosomal recessive NBAS deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Generic HPLC platform for automated enzyme reaction monitoring: Advancing the assay toolbox for transaminases and other PLP-dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Börner, Tim; Grey, Carl; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Methods for rapid and direct quantification of enzyme kinetics independent of the substrate stand in high demand for both fundamental research and bioprocess development. This study addresses the need for a generic method by developing an automated, standardizable HPLC platform monitoring reaction progress in near real-time. The method was applied to amine transaminase (ATA) catalyzed reactions intensifying process development for chiral amine synthesis. Autosampler-assisted pipetting facilitates integrated mixing and sampling under controlled temperature. Crude enzyme formulations in high and low substrate concentrations can be employed. Sequential, small (1 µL) sample injections and immediate detection after separation permits fast reaction monitoring with excellent sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. Due to its modular design, different chromatographic techniques, e.g. reverse phase and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) can be employed. A novel assay for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes is presented using SEC for direct monitoring of enzyme-bound and free reaction intermediates. Time-resolved changes of the different cofactor states, e.g. pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate and the internal aldimine were traced in both half reactions. The combination of the automated HPLC platform with SEC offers a method for substrate-independent screening, which renders a missing piece in the assay and screening toolbox for ATAs and other PLP-dependent enzymes. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Chiral amine synthesis using ω-transaminases: an amine donor that displaces equilibria and enables high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Green, Anthony P; Turner, Nicholas J; O'Reilly, Elaine

    2014-09-26

    The widespread application of ω-transaminases as biocatalysts for chiral amine synthesis has been hampered by fundamental challenges, including unfavorable equilibrium positions and product inhibition. Herein, an efficient process that allows reactions to proceed in high conversion in the absence of by-product removal using only one equivalent of a diamine donor (ortho-xylylenediamine) is reported. This operationally simple method is compatible with the most widely used (R)- and (S)-selective ω-TAs and is particularly suitable for the conversion of substrates with unfavorable equilibrium positions (e.g., 1-indanone). Significantly, spontaneous polymerization of the isoindole by-product generates colored derivatives, providing a high-throughput screening platform to identify desired ω-TA activity. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  4. [19F]fluorine nuclear-magnetic-resonance study of the interaction of difluoro-oxaloacetate with aspartate transaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Briley, P A; Eisenthal, R; Harrison, R; Smith, G D

    1977-01-01

    Difluoro-oxaloacetate interacts with the aldimine form of aspartate transaminase to give a complex, the dissociation constant of which has been determined spectrophotometrically and by 19F n.m.r. (nuclear magnetic resonance). The 19F n.m.r. line-width-pH and chemical-shift-pH profiles of difluoro-oxaloacetate in the presence of the aldimine form of the enzyme both show inflexion points in the pH5 and pH8 regions, which may arise from variations in the binding of difluoro-oxaloacetate as specific groups on the enzyme are successively protonated. Difluoro-oxaloacetate also interacts with apoenzyme to form a complex, the dissociation constant of which was determined by 19F n.m.r. The 19F n.m.r. line-width-pH and chemical-shift-pH profiles of difluoro-oxaloacetate in the presence of apoenzyme show a single inflexion point in the region of pH8. The absence, in this case, of an inflexion in the pH5 region indicates that the latter, present in the corresponding profiles for the aldimine form of the enzyme, results from ionization of an enzyme group associated with the pyridoxal phosphate cofactor. PMID:17399

  5. Chromobacterium violaceum ω-transaminase variant Trp60Cys shows increased specificity for (S)-1-phenylethylamine and 4'-substituted acetophenones, and follows Swain-Lupton parameterisation.

    PubMed

    Cassimjee, Karim Engelmark; Humble, Maria Svedendahl; Land, Henrik; Abedi, Vahak; Berglund, Per

    2012-07-28

    For biocatalytic production of pharmaceutically important chiral amines the ω-transaminase enzymes have proven useful. Engineering of these enzymes has to some extent been accomplished by rational design, but mostly by directed evolution. By use of a homology model a key point mutation in Chromobacterium violaceum ω-transaminase was found upon comparison with engineered variants from homologous enzymes. The variant Trp60Cys gave increased specificity for (S)-1-phenylethylamine (29-fold) and 4'-substituted acetophenones (∼5-fold). To further study the effect of the mutation the reaction rates were Swain-Lupton parameterised. On comparison with the wild type, reactions of the variant showed increased resonance dependence; this observation together with changed pH optimum and cofactor dependence suggests an altered reaction mechanism.

  6. Oxygen-Inducible Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase as Protective Switch Transforming Neurotoxic Glutamate to Metabolic Fuel During Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rink, Cameron; Gnyawali, Surya; Peterson, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This work rests on our previous report (J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30: 1275–1287, 2010) recognizing that glutamate (Glu) oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) is induced when brain tissue hypoxia is corrected during acute ischemic stroke (AIS). GOT can metabolize Glu into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and may therefore be useful to harness excess neurotoxic extracellular Glu during AIS as a metabolic substrate. We report that in cultured neural cells challenged with hypoglycemia, extracellular Glu can support cell survival as long as there is sufficient oxygenation. This effect is abrogated by GOT knockdown. In a rodent model of AIS, supplemental oxygen (100% O2 inhaled) during ischemia significantly increased GOT expression and activity in the stroke-affected brain tissue and prevented loss of ATP. Biochemical analyses and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy during stroke demonstrated that such elevated GOT decreased Glu levels at the stroke-affected site. In vivo lentiviral gene delivery of GOT minimized lesion volume, whereas GOT knockdown worsened stroke outcomes. Thus, brain tissue GOT emerges as a novel target in managing stroke outcomes. This work demonstrates that correction of hypoxia during AIS can help clear extracellular neurotoxic Glu by enabling utilization of this amino acid as a metabolic fuel to support survival of the hypoglycemic brain tissue. Strategies to mitigate extracellular Glu-mediated neurodegeneration via blocking receptor-mediated excitotoxicity have failed in clinical trials. We introduce the concept that under hypoglycemic conditions extracellular Glu can be transformed from a neurotoxin to a survival factor by GOT, provided there is sufficient oxygen to sustain cellular respiration. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1777–1785. PMID:21361730

  7. Characterization and multi-step transketolase-ω-transaminase bioconversions in an immobilized enzyme microreactor (IEMR) with packed tube.

    PubMed

    Halim, Amanatuzzakiah Abdul; Szita, Nicolas; Baganz, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The concept of de novo metabolic engineering through novel synthetic pathways offers new directions for multi-step enzymatic synthesis of complex molecules. This has been complemented by recent progress in performing enzymatic reactions using immobilized enzyme microreactors (IEMR). This work is concerned with the construction of de novo designed enzyme pathways in a microreactor synthesizing chiral molecules. An interesting compound, commonly used as the building block in several pharmaceutical syntheses, is a single diastereoisomer of 2-amino-1,3,4-butanetriol (ABT). This chiral amino alcohol can be synthesized from simple achiral substrates using two enzymes, transketolase (TK) and transaminase (TAm). Here we describe the development of an IEMR using His6-tagged TK and TAm immobilized onto Ni-NTA agarose beads and packed into tubes to enable multi-step enzyme reactions. The kinetic parameters of both enzymes were first determined using single IEMRs evaluated by a kinetic model developed for packed bed reactors. The Km(app) for both enzymes appeared to be flow rate dependent, while the turnover number kcat was reduced 3 fold compared to solution-phase TK and TAm reactions. For the multi-step enzyme reaction, single IEMRs were cascaded in series, whereby the first enzyme, TK, catalyzed a model reaction of lithium-hydroxypyruvate (HPA) and glycolaldehyde (GA) to L-erythrulose (ERY), and the second unit of the IEMR with immobilized TAm converted ERY into ABT using (S)-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA) as amine donor. With initial 60mM (HPA and GA each) and 6mM (MBA) substrate concentration mixture, the coupled reaction reached approximately 83% conversion in 20 min at the lowest flow rate. The ability to synthesize a chiral pharmaceutical intermediate, ABT in relatively short time proves this IEMR system as a powerful tool for construction and evaluation of de novo pathways as well as for determination of enzyme kinetics. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by

  8. Human recombinant glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) supplemented with oxaloacetate induces a protective effect after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mato, M; Ramos-Cabrer, P; Sobrino, T; Blanco, M; Ruban, A; Mirelman, D; Menendez, P; Castillo, J; Campos, F

    2014-01-09

    Blood glutamate scavenging is a novel and attractive protecting strategy to reduce the excitotoxic effect of extracellular glutamate released during ischemic brain injury. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) activation by means of oxaloacetate administration has been used to reduce the glutamate concentration in the blood. However, the protective effect of the administration of the recombinant GOT1 (rGOT1) enzyme has not been yet addressed in cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to analyze the protective effect of an effective dose of oxaloacetate and the human rGOT1 alone and in combination with a non-effective dose of oxaloacetate in an animal model of ischemic stroke. Sixty rats were subjected to a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Infarct volumes were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before treatment administration, and 24 h and 7 days after MCAO. Brain glutamate levels were determined by in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) during artery occlusion (80 min) and reperfusion (180 min). GOT activity and serum glutamate concentration were analyzed during the occlusion and reperfusion period. Somatosensory test was performed at baseline and 7 days after MCAO. The three treatments tested induced a reduction in serum and brain glutamate levels, resulting in a reduction in infarct volume and sensorimotor deficit. Protective effect of rGOT1 supplemented with oxaloacetate at 7 days persists even when treatment was delayed until at least 2 h after onset of ischemia. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the combination of human rGOT1 with low doses of oxaloacetate seems to be a successful approach for stroke treatment.

  9. Human recombinant glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) supplemented with oxaloacetate induces a protective effect after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mato, M; Ramos-Cabrer, P; Sobrino, T; Blanco, M; Ruban, A; Mirelman, D; Menendez, P; Castillo, J; Campos, F

    2014-01-01

    Blood glutamate scavenging is a novel and attractive protecting strategy to reduce the excitotoxic effect of extracellular glutamate released during ischemic brain injury. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1 (GOT1) activation by means of oxaloacetate administration has been used to reduce the glutamate concentration in the blood. However, the protective effect of the administration of the recombinant GOT1 (rGOT1) enzyme has not been yet addressed in cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to analyze the protective effect of an effective dose of oxaloacetate and the human rGOT1 alone and in combination with a non-effective dose of oxaloacetate in an animal model of ischemic stroke. Sixty rats were subjected to a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Infarct volumes were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before treatment administration, and 24 h and 7 days after MCAO. Brain glutamate levels were determined by in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) during artery occlusion (80 min) and reperfusion (180 min). GOT activity and serum glutamate concentration were analyzed during the occlusion and reperfusion period. Somatosensory test was performed at baseline and 7 days after MCAO. The three treatments tested induced a reduction in serum and brain glutamate levels, resulting in a reduction in infarct volume and sensorimotor deficit. Protective effect of rGOT1 supplemented with oxaloacetate at 7 days persists even when treatment was delayed until at least 2 h after onset of ischemia. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the combination of human rGOT1 with low doses of oxaloacetate seems to be a successful approach for stroke treatment PMID:24407245

  10. [Influence of cobalt-chromium alloy ceramics crown on aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase of gingival crevicular fluid].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yu; Liu, Ling-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Li, Li

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the influence of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy as the material of inner crown on periodontal tissue through detecting the weight of diseased teeth and the concentration of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after Co-Cr alloy ceramics repairing. In this study, thirty cases of clinical diseased teeth were chosen from thirty patients based on patients' consent. Each tooth conformed to the inclusion criteria. All of the thirty teeth were repaired with Co-Cr alloy ceramics according to the indications. Then GCF of each diseased tooth was collected and weighed at the time of the day before prosthesis, the first and third month after repairing respectively in order to detect the concentration of AST and ALP. Furthermore, comparative analysis for different periods was performed after the data statistics. To the weight of GCF and the concentration of AST after the respective comparison of three indexes which was of different periods, numerous of each index increased in accordance with the rule of preoperation, postoperative first month, and postoperative third month (P < 0.05). To the concentration of ALP at three time points, the compared results showed that the preoperative numerous was less than that of third month after operation and there was significant difference between them (P < 0.05). To the weight of GCF and the concentration of AST and ALP, after the respective comparison of three indexes which was the diseased teeth and the contralateral teeth with the same name in the periods of pre-operation, all the differences had no statistical significance (P > 0.05), but all the differences had statistical significance in the periods of postoperative third month (P < 0.05). During the next three months after operation, GCF weight, concentration of AST and ALP of diseased teeth was gradually increased after their Co-Cr alloy ceramics crown repairing. This increase

  11. [Deletion of a dynamic surface loop improves thermostability of (R)-selective amine transaminase from Aspergillus terreus].

    PubMed

    Xie, Dongfang; Lv, Changjiang; Fang, Hui; Yang, Weikang; Hu, Sheng; Zhao, Weirui; Huang, Jun; Mei, Lehe

    2017-12-25

    Chiral amines are important building blocks for the synthesis of pharmaceutical products and fine chemicals. Highly stereoselective synthesis of chiral amines compounds through asymmetric amination has attracted more and more attention. ω-transaminases (ω-TAs) are a promising class of natural biocatalysts which provide an efficient and environment-friendly access to production of chiral amines with stringent enantioselectivity and excellent catalytic efficiency. Compared with (S)-ω-TA, the research focused on (R)-ω-TA was relatively less. However, increasing demand for chiral (R)-amines as pharmaceutical intermediates has rendered industrial applications of (R)-ω-TA more attractive. Improving the thermostability of (R)-ω-TA with potential biotechnological application will facilitate the preparation of chiral amines. In this study, the dynamic surface loop with higher B-factor from Aspergillus terreus (R)-ω-TA was predicted by two computer softwares (PyMOL and YASARA). Then mutant enzymes were obtained by deleting amino acid residues of a dynamic surface loop using site-directed mutagenesis. The results showed that the best two mutants R131del and P132-E133del improved thermostability by 2.6 ℃ and 0.9 ℃ in T₅₀¹⁰ (41.1 ℃ and 39.4 ℃, respectively), and 2.2-fold and 1.5-fold in half-life (t1/2) at 40 ℃ (15.0 min and 10.0 min, respectively), compared to that of wild type. Furtherly, the thermostability mechanism of the mutant enzymes was investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and intermolecular interaction analysis. R131del in the loop region has lower root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) than the wild type at 400 K for 10 ns, and mutant enzyme P132-E133del increases four hydrogen bonds in the loop region. In this study, we obtain two stability-increased mutants of (R)-ω-TA from A. terreus by deleting its dynamic surface loop and also provide methodological guidance for the use of rational design to enhance the thermal stability of

  12. The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Wook; Ha, Ki-Chan; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Jung, Su-Young; Kim, Min-Gul; Kwon, Dae-Young; Yang, Hye-Jung; Kim, Min-Jung; Kang, Hee-Joo; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young; Park, Soo-Hyun; Baek, Hum-Young; Kim, Yong-Jae; Lee, Joon-Yeol; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2013-03-08

    Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p = 0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p = 0.02). The GGT levels showed a tendency to decrease, while the

  13. The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p = 0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p = 0.02). The GGT levels

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Differential Functionalization of Presumed ScALT1 and ScALT2 Alanine Transaminases Has Been Driven by Diversification of Pyridoxal Phosphate Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Ortega, Erendira; Aguirre-López, Beatriz; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; González-Andrade, Martín; Campero-Basaldúa, Jose C.; Pardo, Juan P.; González, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae arose from an interspecies hybridization (allopolyploidiza-tion), followed by Whole Genome Duplication. Diversification analysis of ScAlt1/ScAlt2 indicated that while ScAlt1 is an alanine transaminase, ScAlt2 lost this activity, constituting an example in which one of the members of the gene pair lacks the apparent ancestral physiological role. This paper analyzes structural organization and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) binding properties of ScAlt1 and ScAlt2 indicating functional diversification could have determined loss of ScAlt2 alanine transaminase activity and thus its role in alanine metabolism. It was found that ScAlt1 and ScAlt2 are dimeric enzymes harboring 67% identity and intact conservation of the catalytic residues, with very similar structures. However, tertiary structure analysis indicated that ScAlt2 has a more open conformation than that of ScAlt1 so that under physiological conditions, while PLP interaction with ScAlt1 allows the formation of two tautomeric PLP isomers (enolimine and ketoenamine) ScAlt2 preferentially forms the ketoenamine PLP tautomer, indicating a modified polarity of the active sites which affect the interaction of PLP with these proteins, that could result in lack of alanine transaminase activity in ScAlt2. The fact that ScAlt2 forms a catalytically active Schiff base with PLP and its position in an independent clade in “sensu strictu” yeasts suggests this protein has a yet undiscovered physiological function. PMID:29867852

  15. The enzyme 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase as potential target for 1,2,4-oxadiazoles with larvicide activity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Vanessa S; Pimenteira, Cecília; da Silva-Alves, Diana C B; Leal, Laylla L L; Neves-Filho, Ricardo A W; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; dos Anjos, Janaína V; Soares, Thereza A

    2013-11-15

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the vector agent responsible for the transmission of yellow fever and dengue fever viruses to over 80 million people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Exhaustive efforts have lead to a vaccine candidate with only 30% effectiveness against the dengue virus and failure to protect patients against the serotype 2. Hence, vector control remains the most viable route to dengue fever control programs. We have synthesized a class of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives whose most biologically active compounds exhibit potent activity against Aedes aegypti larvae (ca. of 15 ppm) and low toxicity in mammals. Exposure to these larvicides results in larvae pigmentation in a manner correlated with the LC50 measurements. Structural comparisons of the 1,2,4-oxadiazole nucleus against known inhibitors of insect enzymes allowed the identification of 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase as a potential target for these synthetic larvicides. Molecular docking calculations indicate that 1,2,4-oxadiazole compounds can bind to 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase with similar conformation and binding energies as its crystallographic inhibitor 4-(2-aminophenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ion Imbalance Is Involved in the Mechanisms of Liver Oxidative Damage in Rats Exposed to Glyphosate

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Juan; Hu, Ping; Li, Yansen; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Li, Chunmei

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine, GLP) is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of glyphosate on rats' liver function and induction of pathological changes in ion levels and oxidative stress in hepatic tissue. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with 0, 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg body weight of the GLP. After 5 weeks of treatment, blood and liver samples were analyzed for biochemical and histomorphological parameters. The various mineral elements content in the organs of the rats were also measured. Significant decreases were shown in the weights of body, liver, kidney and spleen between the control and treatment groups. Changes also happened in the histomorphology of the liver and kidney tissue of GLP-treated rats. The GLP resulted in an elevated level of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and IL-1β in the serum. Besides, decreased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the serum, liver, and kidney indicated the presence of oxidative stress. Moreover, increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level and catalase (CAT) activity in the serum and liver and decrease of glutathione (GSH) and lutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in the kidney tissue further confirmed the occurrence of oxidative stress. The results of RT-PCR showed that the mRNA expressions of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, MAPK3, NF-κB, SIRT1, TNF-α, Keap1, GPX2, and Caspase-3 were significantly increased in the GLP-treated groups compared to the control group. Furthermore, PPARα, DGAT, SREBP1c, and SCD1 mRNA expressions were also remarkably increased in the GLP-treated groups compared to the control group. In addition, aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and magnesium (Mg) levels were showed a significant difference reduction or increase in rat liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, muscle, brain, and fat tissues. These results suggested that glyphosate

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, Shen-Mai San, in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the major health issues worldwide. An increasing number of cancer patients are offered treatment with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most common complementary therapies offered to cancer patients in Taiwan. We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of TCM in patients with cancer. Methods/design In this study, inclusion criteria are postoperative patients with histologically confirmed cancer within 3 years who are undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy, more than 18 years old, have given signed informed consent, have the ability to read Chinese, and the ability for oral intake. Exclusion criteria include being pregnant, breast feeding, having completed chemotherapy or radiotherapy, brain metastasis with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of two to four, delusion or hallucinations, acute infection, and have received medications under other clinical trials. The patients were separated into an intervention group (Shen-Mai-San, SMS) and a placebo group for four weeks using a randomized, double-blind procedure. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life questionnaire (QOL-C30) was used to evaluate the quality of life. General data, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), TCM diagnosis data and heart rate variability (HRV) were also recorded. These data were collected at baseline, two weeks and four weeks after receiving medication. The patients were prescribed granules which contained therapeutic medicines or placebo. Paired-T test was used for statistical analysis. Discussion Shen-Mai-San is composed of processed Ginseng radis, Liriope spicata, and Schizandrae fructus. It was found to be effective for treating cancer

  18. In vivo activity of albendazole in combination with thymol against Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Albani, Clara María; Pensel, Patricia Eugenia; Elissondo, Natalia; Gambino, Guillermo; Elissondo, María Celina

    2015-09-15

    predominantly showed presence of cell debris. On the other hand, no differences were found in alkaline phosphatase (AP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities between control and treated mice, indicating the lack of toxicity of the different drug treatments during the experiment. Because combined ABZ+thymol treatment exhibited higher treatment efficiency compared with the drugs applied separately against murine experimental alveolar echinococcosis, we propose it would be a useful option for the treatment of human AE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of dietary administration of guanosine monophosphate on the growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-10-01

    supplemented diets had better improvement (P < 0.05) in body protein contents, hepatosomatic index, hematocrit content and glutamyl oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) level than the control group. Supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) freshwater stress resistances. Quadratic regression analysis of WG and LA revealed that, the optimal levels of dietary GMP were 0.45 and 0.48%, respectively, for juvenile red sea bream, which is also in line with the most of the growth performance and health parameters of the fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  1. Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. J.; Lee, S. R.; Oh, J-W.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis) by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS) by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF) by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS) by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF) by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG) and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05). In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05). However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05). Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05). In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01). IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05) and in

  2. Female patients in fertile age with chronic hepatitis C, easy genotype, and persistently normal transaminases have a 100% chance to reach a sustained virological response.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Annarosa; Cazzagon, Nora; Boemo, Deris Gianni; Baldovin, Tatjana; Baldo, Vincenzo; Egoue, Joel; Antoniazzi, Sara; Minola, Eliseo

    2011-11-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C and persistently normal alanine transaminase levels have recently been included in the guidelines for antiviral treatment. To evaluate the efficacy of PEG-interferon α-2a and weight-based ribavirin doses in patients with these characteristics in a single Italian centre. Patients with chronic hepatitis C and at least three normal alanine transaminase values over a 12-month period were offered a treatment with PEG-interferon α-2a 180 mg/week and ribavirin (800 mg/day for weight <60 kg; 1000 mg/day for weight >60 and <75 kg; 1200 mg/day for weight >75 kg) for 24 weeks (according to genotype 2 or 3) or for 48 weeks (according to genotype 1 or 4). Each patient at baseline underwent liver stiffness (LS) examination using Fibroscan. Data were analysed according to the intention-to-treat criteria. A total of 227 patients (55 men, 172 women) were enrolled into the study: 65 (28.6%) had genotype 1, 144 (63.4%) genotype 2, nine (4.0%) genotype 3 and nine (4.0%) genotype 4. Patients with genotype 2 or 3 (N=153 with easy genotypes) were allocated in group 1 and those with genotype 1 or 4 (N=74 with difficult genotypes) in group 2. According to the LS measurement, patients were classified as follows: 159 (70.0%) presented absent or mild fibrosis (LS=2.5-7.0 kPa), 61 (26.9%) patients had significant fibrosis (LS=7.1-9.5) and seven (3.1%) patients had severe fibrosis (LS >9.6). Twelve patients (5.3%) dropped out within 4 months because of side-effects, whereas 215 patients completed the study. Overall, 13 patients were considered nonresponders (5.7%) and six patients (2.6%) were relapsers to the therapy. The sustained virological response (SVR) rate was 85.4% and it was higher in 'easy' genotypes (2 or 3) compared with 'difficult' genotypes (1 or 4) (92.2 vs. 74.3%, P<0.001). No statistical difference was found in the SVR rate between patients presenting absent or mild fibrosis as against those with significant fibrosis. Multivariate analysis

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of chiral amino-alcohols by coupling transketolase and transaminase-catalyzed reactions in a cascading continuous-flow microreactor system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Pia; Carvalho, Filipe; Marques, Marco P C; O'Sullivan, Brian; Subrizi, Fabiana; Dobrijevic, Dragana; Ward, John; Hailes, Helen C; Fernandes, Pedro; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Baganz, Frank; Szita, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    Rapid biocatalytic process development and intensification continues to be challenging with currently available methods. Chiral amino-alcohols are of particular interest as they represent key industrial synthons for the production of complex molecules and optically pure pharmaceuticals. (2S,3R)-2-amino-1,3,4-butanetriol (ABT), a building block for the synthesis of protease inhibitors and detoxifying agents, can be synthesized from simple, non-chiral starting materials, by coupling a transketolase- and a transaminase-catalyzed reaction. However, until today, full conversion has not been shown and, typically, long reaction times are reported, making process modifications and improvement challenging. In this contribution, we present a novel microreactor-based approach based on free enzymes, and we report for the first time full conversion of ABT in a coupled enzyme cascade for both batch and continuous-flow systems. Using the compartmentalization of the reactions afforded by the microreactor cascade, we overcame inhibitory effects, increased the activity per unit volume, and optimized individual reaction conditions. The transketolase-catalyzed reaction was completed in under 10 min with a volumetric activity of 3.25 U ml -1 . Following optimization of the transaminase-catalyzed reaction, a volumetric activity of 10.8 U ml -1 was attained which led to full conversion of the coupled reaction in 2 hr. The presented approach illustrates how continuous-flow microreactors can be applied for the design and optimization of biocatalytic processes. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Immobilised enzyme microreactor for screening of multi-step bioconversions: characterisation of a de novo transketolase-ω-transaminase pathway to synthesise chiral amino alcohols.

    PubMed

    Matosevic, S; Lye, G J; Baganz, F

    2011-09-20

    Complex molecules are synthesised via a number of multi-step reactions in living cells. In this work, we describe the development of a continuous flow immobilized enzyme microreactor platform for use in evaluation of multi-step bioconversion pathways demonstrating a de novo transketolase/ω-transaminase-linked asymmetric amino alcohol synthesis. The prototype dual microreactor is based on the reversible attachment of His₆-tagged enzymes via Ni-NTA linkage to two surface derivatised capillaries connected in series. Kinetic parameters established for the model transketolase (TK)-catalysed conversion of lithium-hydroxypyruvate (Li-HPA) and glycolaldehyde (GA) to L-erythrulose using a continuous flow system with online monitoring of reaction output was in good agreement with kinetic parameters determined for TK in stop-flow mode. By coupling the transketolase catalysed chiral ketone forming reaction with the biocatalytic addition of an amine to the TK product using a transaminase (ω-TAm) it is possible to generate chiral amino alcohols from achiral starting compounds. We demonstrated this in a two-step configuration, where the TK reaction was followed by the ω-TAm-catalysed amination of L-erythrulose to synthesise 2-amino-1,3,4-butanetriol (ABT). Synthesis of the ABT product via the dual reaction and the on-line monitoring of each component provided a full profile of the de novo two-step bioconversion and demonstrated the utility of this microreactor system to provide in vitro multi-step pathway evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. γ-Aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency impairs central carbon metabolism and leads to cell wall defects during salt stress in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Renault, Hugues; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Berger, Adeline; Mouille, Grégory; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Bouchereau, Alain; Deleu, Carole

    2013-05-01

    Environmental constraints challenge cell homeostasis and thus require a tight regulation of metabolic activity. We have previously reported that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism is crucial for Arabidopsis salt tolerance as revealed by the NaCl hypersensitivity of the GABA transaminase (GABA-T, At3g22200) gaba-t/pop2-1 mutant. In this study, we demonstrate that GABA-T deficiency during salt stress causes root and hypocotyl developmental defects and alterations of cell wall composition. A comparative genome-wide transcriptional analysis revealed that expression levels of genes involved in carbon metabolism, particularly sucrose and starch catabolism, were found to increase upon the loss of GABA-T function under salt stress conditions. Consistent with the altered mutant cell wall composition, a number of cell wall-related genes were also found differentially expressed. A targeted quantitative analysis of primary metabolites revealed that glutamate (GABA precursor) accumulated while succinate (the final product of GABA metabolism) significantly decreased in mutant roots after 1 d of NaCl treatment. Furthermore, sugar concentration was twofold reduced in gaba-t/pop2-1 mutant roots compared with wild type. Together, our results provide strong evidence that GABA metabolism is a major route for succinate production in roots and identify GABA as a major player of central carbon adjustment during salt stress. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. omega-Amino acid:pyruvate transaminase from Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2: a new catalyst for kinetic resolution of beta-amino acids and amines.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyungdon; Lim, Seongyop; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2004-04-01

    Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2 was obtained by selective enrichment followed by screening from soil samples, which showed omega-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase activity, to kinetically resolve aliphatic beta-amino acid, and the corresponding structural gene (aptA) was cloned. The gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 by using an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible pET expression system (9.6 U/mg), and the recombinant AptA was purified to show a specific activity of 77.2 U/mg for L-beta-amino-n-butyric acid (L-beta-ABA). The enzyme converts various beta-amino acids and amines to the corresponding beta-keto acids and ketones by using pyruvate as an amine acceptor. The apparent K(m) and V(max) for L-beta-ABA were 56 mM and 500 U/mg, respectively, in the presence of 10 mM pyruvate. In the presence of 10 mM L-beta-ABA, the apparent K(m) and V(max) for pyruvate were 11 mM and 370 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme exhibits high stereoselectivity (E > 80) in the kinetic resolution of 50 mM D,L-beta-ABA, producing optically pure D-beta-ABA (99% enantiomeric excess) with 53% conversion.

  7. ω-Amino Acid:Pyruvate Transaminase from Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2: a New Catalyst for Kinetic Resolution of β-Amino Acids and Amines

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyungdon; Lim, Seongyop; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2004-01-01

    Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2 was obtained by selective enrichment followed by screening from soil samples, which showed ω-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase activity, to kinetically resolve aliphatic β-amino acid, and the corresponding structural gene (aptA) was cloned. The gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 by using an isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible pET expression system (9.6 U/mg), and the recombinant AptA was purified to show a specific activity of 77.2 U/mg for l-β-amino-n-butyric acid (l-β-ABA). The enzyme converts various β-amino acids and amines to the corresponding β-keto acids and ketones by using pyruvate as an amine acceptor. The apparent Km and Vmax for l-β-ABA were 56 mM and 500 U/mg, respectively, in the presence of 10 mM pyruvate. In the presence of 10 mM l-β-ABA, the apparent Km and Vmax for pyruvate were 11 mM and 370 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme exhibits high stereoselectivity (E > 80) in the kinetic resolution of 50 mM d,l-β-ABA, producing optically pure d-β-ABA (99% enantiomeric excess) with 53% conversion. PMID:15066855

  8. The PNPLA3 I148M variant is associated with transaminase elevations in type 2 diabetes patients treated with basal insulin peglispro.

    PubMed

    Pillai, S; Duvvuru, S; Bhatnagar, P; Foster, W; Farmen, M; Shankar, S; Harris, C; Bastyr, E; Hoogwerf, B; Haupt, A

    2018-05-22

    Basal insulin peglispro (BIL) is a novel insulin with hepato-preferential action. In phase 3 trials, BIL showed significantly improved glycemic control but higher levels of transaminases (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), triglycerides (TGs) and liver fat content (LFC) compared with insulin glargine (GL). As variants in PNPLA3 (I148M) and TM6SF2 (E167K) are associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, we assessed these variants in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients randomized to receive BIL (n=1822) or GL (n=1270) in three phase 3 trials. Magnetic resonance imaging assessments of LFC were conducted in a subset of patients (n=296). Analyses showed α-corrected significant increases in change from baseline in AST (P=0.0004) and nominal increases in ALT (P=0.019), and LFC (P=0.035) for PNPLA3 (148M/M) genotypes in the BIL arm at 26 weeks but no significant associations in GL. PNPLA3 (148M/M) was also associated with increases in total cholesterol (P=0.014) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.005) but not with hemoglobin A1c or TG. T2D patients with the PNPLA3 (148M/M) genotype treated with BIL may be more susceptible to increased liver fat deposition. The current data provide further insights into the biological role of PNPLA3 in lipid metabolism.

  9. Fenofibrate--a lipid-lowering drug--reduces voluntary alcohol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Karahanian, Eduardo; Quintanilla, Maria Elena; Fernandez, Katia; Israel, Yedy

    2014-11-01

    The administration of disulfiram raises blood acetaldehyde levels when ethanol is ingested, leading to an aversion to alcohol. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of fenofibrate on voluntary ethanol ingestion in rats. Fenofibrate reduces blood triglyceride levels by increasing fatty acid oxidation by liver peroxisomes, along with an increase in the activity of catalase, which can oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde. UChB drinker rats were allowed to consume alcohol 10% v/v freely for 60 days, until consumption stabilized at around 7 g ethanol/kg/24 h. About 1-1.2 g ethanol/kg of this intake is consumed in the first 2 h of darkness of the circadian cycle. Fenofibrate subsequently administered (50 mg/kg/day by mouth [p.o.]) for 14 days led to a 60-70% (p < 0.001) reduction of 24-h ethanol consumption. When ethanol intake was determined within the first 2 h of darkness, the reduction was 85-90% (p < 0.001). We determined whether animals chronically allowed access to ethanol and subsequently treated with fenofibrate, would a) increase liver catalase activity, and b) increase blood acetaldehyde levels after a 24-h ethanol deprivation and the subsequent administration of 1 g ethanol/kg. The oral administration of 1 g ethanol/kg produced a rapid increase in blood (arterial) acetaldehyde in fenofibrate-treated animals versus controls also administered 1 g/kg ethanol (70 μM vs. 7 μM; p < 0.001). Liver catalase activity following fenofibrate treatment was increased 3-fold (p < 0.01). Other hepatic enzymes responsible for the metabolism of ethanol (alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase) remained unchanged. No liver damage was induced, as measured by serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity. The effect of fenofibrate in reducing alcohol intake was fully reversible. Overall, in rats allowed chronic ethanol intake, by mouth (p.o.), fenofibrate administration increased liver catalase activity and reduced voluntary ethanol intake. The administration of

  10. Diabetes mellitus increases severity of thrombocytopenia in dengue-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Lin, Kun-Der; Hsu, Wei-Hao; Lee, Yaun-Jinn; Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2015-02-10

    Diabetes mellitus is known to exacerbate bacterial infection, but its effect on the severity of viral infection has not been well studied. The severity of thrombocytopenia is an indicator of the severity of dengue virus infection. We investigated whether diabetes is associated with thrombocytopenia in dengue-infected patients. We studied clinical characteristics of 644 patients with dengue infection at a university hospital during the epidemic on 1 June 2002 to 31 December 2002 in Taiwan. Platelet counts and biochemical data were compared between patients with and without diabetes. Potential risk factors associated with thrombocytopenia were explored using regression analyses. Dengue-infected patients with diabetes had lower platelet counts than patients without diabetes during the first three days (54.54±51.69 vs. 86.58±63.4 (p≤0.001), 43.98±44.09 vs. 64.52±45.06 (p=0.002), 43.86±35.75 vs. 62.72±51.2 (p=0.012)). Diabetes mellitus, death, dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and increased glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels were significantly associated with lower platelet counts during the first day of hospitalization for dengue fever with regression β of -13.981 (95% confidence interval (CI) -27.587, -0.374), -26.847 (95% CI -37.562, -16.132), and 0.054 (95% CI 0.015, 0.094) respectively. Older age, hypoalbuminemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were independently correlated with thrombocytopenia in dengue patients with or without diabetes with regression β of -2.947 (p=0.004), 2.801 (p=0.005), and -3.568 (p≤0.001), respectively. Diabetic patients with dengue had a higher rate of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) than non-diabetic patients. They also had lower blood albumin, were older, and higher triglyceride levels. Older age, hypoalbuminemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were independently correlated with thrombocytopenia in dengue patients. Dengue patients with diabetes tended to have more severe

  11. Glutamine synthetase and alanine transaminase expression are decreased in livers of aged vs. young beef cows and GS can be upregulated by 17β-estradiol implants.

    PubMed

    Miles, E D; McBride, B W; Jia, Y; Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Bridges, P J; Matthews, J C

    2015-09-01

    Aged beef cows (≥ 8 yr of age) produce calves with lower birth and weaning weights. In mammals, aging is associated with reduced hepatic expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) and alanine transaminase (ALT), thus impaired hepatic Gln-Glu cycle function. To determine if the relative protein content of GS, ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST), glutamate transporters (EAAC1, GLT-1), and their regulating protein (GTRAP3-18) differed in biopsied liver tissue of (a) aged vs. young (3 to 4 yr old) nonlactating, nongestating Angus cows (Exp. 1 and 2) and (b) aged mixed-breed cows with and without COMPUDOSE (17β-estradiol) ear implants (Exp. 3), Western blot analyses were performed. In Exp. 1, 12 young (3.62 ± 0.01 yr) and 13 aged (10.08 ± 0.42 yr) cows grazed the same mixed forage for 42 d (August-October). In Exp. 2, 12 young (3.36 ± 0.01 yr) and 12 aged (10.38 ± 0.47 yr) cows were individually fed (1.03% of BW) a corn-silage-based diet to maintain BW for 20 d. For both Exp. 1 and 2, the effect of cow age was assessed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Cow BW did not change ( ≥ 0.17). Hepatic ALT (78% and 61%) and GS (52% and 71%) protein content (Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) was decreased ( ≤ 0.01), whereas GTRAP3-18 (an inhibitor of EAAC1 activity) increased ( ≤ 0.01; 170% and 136%) and AST, GLT-1, and EAAC1 contents did not differ ( ≥ 0.17) in aged vs. young cows. In Exp. 2, free concentrations (nmol/g) of Glu, Ala, Gln, Arg, and Orn in liver homogenates were determined. Aged cows tended to have less ( = 0.10) free Gln (15.0%) than young cows, whereas other AA concentrations did not differ ( 0.26). In Exp. 3, 14 aged (> 10 yr) cows were randomly allotted ( = 7) to sham or COMPUDOSE (25.7 mg of 17β-estradiol) implant treatment (TRT), and had ad libitum access to alfalfa hay for 28 d. Blood and liver biopsies were collected 14 and 28 d after implant treatment. Treatment, time after implant (DAY), and TRT × DAY effects were assessed by ANOVA using

  12. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the levels of substances checked by other liver blood tests have also increased. An increased ALT level may be due to any of the following: Scarring of the liver ( cirrhosis ) Death of liver tissue Swollen and inflamed liver ( ...

  13. [Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a population with elevated transaminases and level of accuracy of the diagnosis in Primary Care].

    PubMed

    Samperio-González, María Amelia; Selvi-Blasco, Marta; Manzano-Montero, Mónica; Méndez-Gómez, Judit; Gil-Prades, Montserrat; Azagra, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated transaminases in adults. Determine the prevalence of NASH in patients with sustained hypertransaminasemia, and Know the adequacy of the registered in Primary Care (AP) diagnosis. 1) Cross-sectional study with a random sample of patients with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) held (ALT> 32 for ≥6 months), ruling out other causes of liver disease, according to clinical, laboratory and ultrasound scan criteria in AP and 2) cross-sectional description of all cases diagnosed with NASH recorded (K76 - ICD10) with diagnostic adequacy analysis according to standard criteria. 290 patients were analyzed: 76 were diagnosed as NASH (26.1%), 44 women (57.9%). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex showed no association between NASH and male gender (OR: 0.5; CI95%: 0.3-0.9), diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR: 2.42; CI95%: 1.2-4.9) and hypertension blood pressure (HBP) (OR: 3.07; CI 95% 1.6-5.6). Of the 209 diagnosed with NASH record: 51 (24.4%) met the criteria for NASH. The rest had insufficient records. 53.1% lacked sustained hypertransaminasemia; 48% of viral serology; 11% supported and 53.1% abdominal ultrasound registration of alcohol. Severe NASH is frequent among patients with sustained hypertransaminasemia. The DM and hypertension significantly increase the risk of NASH. The diagnosis of NASH is recorded without considering all criteria and mainly NASH made by ultrasonography. They should unify diagnostic criteria in the register of NASH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. The periplasmic transaminase PtaA of Pseudomonas fluorescens converts the glutamic acid residue at the pyoverdine fluorophore to α-ketoglutaric acid.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Michael T; Dräger, Gerald; Brüser, Thomas

    2017-11-10

    The periplasmic conversion of ferribactin to pyoverdine is essential for siderophore biogenesis in fluorescent pseudomonads, such as pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa or plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens The non-ribosomal peptide ferribactin undergoes cyclizations and oxidations that result in the fluorophore, and a strictly conserved fluorophore-bound glutamic acid residue is converted to a range of variants, including succinamide, succinic acid, and α-ketoglutaric acid residues. We recently discovered that the pyridoxal phosphate-containing enzyme PvdN is responsible for the generation of the succinamide, which can be hydrolyzed to succinic acid. Based on this, a distinct unknown enzyme was postulated to be responsible for the conversion of the glutamic acid to α-ketoglutaric acid. Here we report the identification and characterization of this enzyme in P. fluorescens strain A506. In silico analyses indicated a periplasmic transaminase in fluorescent pseudomonads and other proteobacteria that we termed PtaA for " p eriplasmic t ransaminase A " An in-frame-deleted ptaA mutant selectively lacked the α-ketoglutaric acid form of pyoverdine, and recombinant PtaA complemented this phenotype. The ptaA / pvdN double mutant produced exclusively the glutamic acid form of pyoverdine. PtaA is homodimeric and contains a pyridoxal phosphate cofactor. Mutation of the active-site lysine abolished PtaA activity and affected folding as well as Tat-dependent transport of the enzyme. In pseudomonads, the occurrence of ptaA correlates with the occurrence of α-ketoglutaric acid forms of pyoverdines. As this enzyme is not restricted to pyoverdine-producing bacteria, its catalysis of periplasmic transaminations is most likely a general tool for specific biosynthetic pathways. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Sebelipase alfa over 52 weeks reduces serum transaminases, liver volume and improves serum lipids in patients with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Malinova, Vera; Honzík, Tomas; Balwani, Manisha; Breen, Catherine; Deegan, Patrick B.; Enns, Gregory M.; Jones, Simon A.; Kane, John P.; Stock, Eveline O.; Tripuraneni, Radhika; Eckert, Stephen; Schneider, Eugene; Hamilton, Gavin; Middleton, Michael S.; Sirlin, Claude; Kessler, Bruce; Bourdon, Christopher; Boyadjiev, Simeon A.; Sharma, Reena; Twelves, Chris; Whitley, Chester B.; Quinn, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency is an autosomal recessive enzyme deficiency resulting in lysosomal accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. LAL-CL04, an ongoing extension study, investigates the long-term effects of sebelipase alfa, a recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase. Methods Sebelipase alfa (1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg) was infused every-other-week to eligible subjects. Safety and tolerability assessments, including liver function, lipid profiles and liver volume assessment, were carried out at regular intervals. Results 216 infusions were administered to eight adult subjects through Week 52 during LAL-CL04. At Week 52, mean alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were normal with mean change from baseline of −58% and −40%. Mean change for low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein were −60%, −39%, −36%, and +29%, respectively. Mean liver volume by magnetic resonance imaging and hepatic proton density fat fraction decreased (12% and 55%, respectively). Adverse events were mainly mild and unrelated to sebelipase alfa. Infusion-related reactions were uncommon: three events of moderate severity were reported in two subjects; one patient's event was suggestive of hypersensitivity-like reaction, but additional testing did not confirm this, and the subject has successfully re-started sebelipase alfa. Of samples tested to date, no anti-drug antibodies have been detected. Conclusions Long-term dosing with sebelipase alfa in Lysosomal Acid Lipase-Deficient patients is well tolerated and produces sustained reductions in transaminases, improvements in serum lipid profile and reduction in hepatic fat fraction. A randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in children and adults is underway (ARISE: NCT01757184). PMID:24993530

  16. Changes of ammonia, urea contents and transaminase activity in the body during aerial exposure and ammonia loading in Chinese loach Paramisgurnus dabryanus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Long; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Ling-Yu; Gu, Bei-Yi; Fan, Qi-Xue

    2017-04-01

    The Paramisgurnus dabryanus was exposed to 30 mmol L -1 NH 4 Cl solution and air to assessing the change of body ammonia and urea contents and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). After 48 h of ammonia exposure, ammonia concentration in the plasma, brain, liver and muscle were 3.3-fold, 5.6-fold, 3.5-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively, those of the control values. Plasma, brain, liver and muscle ammonia concentrations increased to 2.2-fold, 3.3-fold, 2.5-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively, those of control values in response to 48 h of aerial exposure. Within the given treatment (ammonia or aerial exposure), there was no change in plasma, brain and liver urea concentrations between exposure durations. The plasma ALT activity was significantly affected by exposure time during aerial exposure, while the liver ALT activity was not affected by ammonia or aerial exposure. Exposure to NH 4 Cl or air had no effect on either plasma or liver AST activity. Our results suggested that P. dabryanus could accumulate quite high level of internal ammonia because of the high ammonia tolerance in its cells and tissues, and NH 3 volatilization would be a possible ammonia detoxification strategy in P. dabryanus. Urea synthesis was not an effective mechanism to deal with environmental or internal ammonia problem. The significant increase of ALT activity in plasma during aerial exposure, indicating that alanine synthesis through certain amino acid catabolism may be subsistent in P. dabryanus.

  17. Effect of chronic treatment with the GABA transaminase inhibitors gamma-vinyl GABA and ethanolamine O-sulphate on the in vitro GABA release from rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Qume, M; Fowler, L J

    1997-10-01

    1. The effects of 2, 8 and 21 day oral treatment with the specific gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) inhibitors gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG) and ethanolamine O-sulphate (EOS) on brain GABA levels, GABA-T activity, and basal and stimulated GABA release from rat cross-chopped brain hippocampal slices was investigated. 2. Treatment with GABA-T inhibitors lead to a reduction in brain GABA-T activity by 65-80% compared with control values, with a concomitant increase in brain GABA content of 40-100%. 3. Basal hippocampal GABA release was increased to 250-450% of control levels following inhibition of GABA-T activity. No Ca2+ dependence was observed in either control or treated tissues. 4. GVG and EOS administration led to a significant elevation in the potassium stimulated release of GABA from cross-chopped hippocampal slices compared with that of controls. Although stimulated GABA release from control tissues was decreased in the presence of a low Ca2+ medium, GVG and EOS treatment abolished this Ca2+ dependency. 5. GABA compartmentalization, Na+ and Cl- coupled GABA uptake carriers and glial release may provide explanations for the loss of the Ca2+ dependency of stimulated GABA release observed following GVG and EOS treatment. 6. Administration of GABA-T inhibitors led to increases in both basal and stimulated hippocampal GABA release. However, it is not clear which is the most important factor in the anticonvulsant activity of these drugs, the increased GABA content 'leaking' out of neurones and glia leading to widespread inhibition, or the increase in stimulated GABA release which may occur following depolarization caused by an epileptic discharge.

  18. Effect of chronic treatment with the GABA transaminase inhibitors γ-vinyl GABA and ethanolamine O-sulphate on the in vitro GABA release from rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Qume, M; Fowler, L J

    1997-01-01

    The effects of 2, 8 and 21 day oral treatment with the specific γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) inhibitors γ-vinyl GABA (GVG) and ethanolamine O-sulphate (EOS) on brain GABA levels, GABA-T activity, and basal and stimulated GABA release from rat cross-chopped brain hippocampal slices was investigated. Treatment with GABA-T inhibitors lead to a reduction in brain GABA-T activity by 65–80% compared with control values, with a concomitant increase in brain GABA content of 40–100%. Basal hippocampal GABA release was increased to 250–450% of control levels following inhibition of GABA-T activity. No Ca2+ dependence was observed in either control or treated tissues. GVG and EOS administration led to a significant elevation in the potassium stimulated release of GABA from cross-chopped hippocampal slices compared with that of controls. Although stimulated GABA release from control tissues was decreased in the presence of a low Ca2+ medium, GVG and EOS treatment abolished this Ca2+ dependency. GABA compartmentalization, Na+ and Cl− coupled GABA uptake carriers and glial release may provide explanations for the loss of the Ca2+ dependency of stimulated GABA release observed following GVG and EOS treatment. Administration of GABA-T inhibitors led to increases in both basal and stimulated hippocampal GABA release. However, it is not clear which is the most important factor in the anticonvulsant activity of these drugs, the increased GABA content ‘leaking' out of neurones and glia leading to widespread inhibition, or the increase in stimulated GABA release which may occur following depolarization caused by an epileptic discharge. PMID:9351512

  19. Anagliptin, A Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Ameliorates Arterial Stiffness in Association with Reduction of Remnant-Like Particle Cholesterol and Alanine Transaminase Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Nobuhiro; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Bekki, Munehisa; Kodama, Norihiro; Nakamura, Tomohisa; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Oshige, Tamami; Kumashiro, Yuki; Honda, Akihiro; Tahara, Atsuko; Igata, Sachiyo; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) has been proposed as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Arterial stiffness, a predictor of future cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, is augmented in these patients. However, effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on arterial stiffness remain unknown. In this study, we compared effects of anagliptin, an inhibitor of DPP-4 on arterial stiffness evaluated by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) with those of an equipotent glucose-lowering agent, glimepiride in patients with T2DM. The study involved 50 consecutive outpatients (33 males and 17 females; mean age of 72.5±9.5 years) who visited our hospitals for a risk-screening test or treatment for T2DM. They underwent complete history and physical examination, and determination of blood chemistry and anthropometric variables, and then were randomized to receive either anagliptin (n=26) or glimepiride (n=24) for 6 months. After 6-months treatment, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c values were comparably reduced in both groups. Anagliptin, but not glimepiride treatment significantly decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde-modified LDL, remnant-like particle (RLP) cholesterol, CAVI, alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transferase and visceral fat volume. In multiple regression analysis, absolute changes from baseline of RLP cholesterol and ALT after anagliptin treatment for 6 months (ΔRLP cholesterol and ΔALT) were independently correlated with ΔCAVI (R2=0.445). The present study suggests that anagliptin may exert a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in patients with T2DM, which is independent of its blood glucose-lowering property. Anagliptin may ameliorate arterial stiffness partly via reduction of RLP cholesterol and improvement of liver function.

  20. Sebelipase alfa over 52 weeks reduces serum transaminases, liver volume and improves serum lipids in patients with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Malinova, Vera; Honzík, Tomas; Balwani, Manisha; Breen, Catherine; Deegan, Patrick B; Enns, Gregory M; Jones, Simon A; Kane, John P; Stock, Eveline O; Tripuraneni, Radhika; Eckert, Stephen; Schneider, Eugene; Hamilton, Gavin; Middleton, Michael S; Sirlin, Claude; Kessler, Bruce; Bourdon, Christopher; Boyadjiev, Simeon A; Sharma, Reena; Twelves, Chris; Whitley, Chester B; Quinn, Anthony G

    2014-11-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is an autosomal recessive enzyme deficiency resulting in lysosomal accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. LAL-CL04, an ongoing extension study, investigates the long-term effects of sebelipase alfa, a recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase. Sebelipase alfa (1mg/kg or 3mg/kg) was infused every-other-week to eligible subjects. Safety and tolerability assessments, including liver function, lipid profiles and liver volume assessment, were carried out at regular intervals. 216 infusions were administered to eight adult subjects through week 52 during LAL-CL04. At week 52, mean alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were normal with mean change from baseline of -58% and -40%. Mean changes for low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein were -60%, -39%, -36%, and +29%, respectively. Mean liver volume by magnetic resonance imaging and hepatic proton density fat fraction decreased (12% and 55%, respectively). Adverse events were mainly mild and unrelated to sebelipase alfa. Infusion-related reactions were uncommon: three events of moderate severity were reported in two subjects; one patient's event was suggestive of a hypersensitivity-like reaction, but additional testing did not confirm this, and the subject has successfully re-started sebelipase alfa. Of samples tested to date, no anti-drug antibodies have been detected. Long-term dosing with sebelipase alfa in lysosomal acid lipase-deficient patients is well tolerated and produces sustained reductions in transaminases, improvements in serum lipid profile and reduction in the hepatic fat fraction. A randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in children and adults is underway (ARISE: NCT01757184). Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic variants in COL13A1, ADIPOQ and SAMM50, in addition to the PNPLA3 gene, confer susceptibility to elevated transaminase levels in an admixed Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Flores, Yvonne N; Macías-Kauffer, Luis R; Ramírez-Palacios, Paula; Quiterio, Manuel; Ramírez-Salazar, Eric G; León-Mimila, Paola; Rivera-Paredez, Berenice; Cabrera-Álvarez, Guillermo; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; López-Pérez, Tania V; Salmerón, Jorge; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael

    2018-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the accumulation of extra fat in liver cells not caused by alcohol. Elevated transaminase levels are common indicators of liver disease, including NAFLD. Previously, we demonstrated that PNPLA3 (rs738409), LYPLAL1 (rs12137855), PPP1R3B (rs4240624), and GCKR (rs780094) are associated with elevated transaminase levels in overweight/obese Mexican adults. We investigated the association between 288 SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies and risk of elevated transaminase levels in an admixed Mexican-Mestizo sample of 178 cases of NAFLD and 454 healthy controls. The rs2896019, rs12483959, and rs3810622 SNPs in PNPLA3 and rs1227756 in COL13A1 were associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT, ≥40IU/L). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on six SNPs in the ADIPOQ, COL13A1, PNPLA3, and SAMM50 genes was also associated with elevated ALT. Individuals carrying 9-12 risk alleles had 65.8% and 48.5% higher ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, respectively, than those with 1-4 risk alleles. The PRS showed the greatest risk of elevated ALT levels, with a higher level of significance than the individual variants. Our findings suggest a significant association between variants in COL13A1, ADIPOQ, SAMM50, and PNPLA3, and risk of NAFLD/elevated transaminase levels in Mexican adults with an admixed ancestry. This is the first study to examine high-density single nucleotide screening for genetic variations in a Mexican-Mestizo population. The extent of the effect of these variations on the development and progression of NAFLD in Latino populations requires further analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alterations in nitrogen metabolites after putrescine treatment in alfalfa under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zeid, I M; Shedeed, Z A

    2007-05-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Siwa 1) seeds were subjected to drought stress during germination by using polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000) for studying the changes in some enzyme activities involved in nitrogen metabolism and the content of nitrogenous compounds during the first four days of growth after putrescine (Put) treatment. Decreasing the external water potential reduced activities of glutamate-pyruvate transferase (GPT), glutamate-oxaloacetate transferase (GOT) and RNase. Some free amino acids such as proline and glycine increased, while alanine and aspartic acid decreased. Nucleic acids content also decreased. Polyamines e.g., spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) increased at the water potential -0.4 MPa. Put treatment increased activities of GOT, GPT and RNase. Furthermore, Put treatment increased nucleic acids content and the endogenous polyamines under drought stress. Drought stress was imposed during seedling stage by decreasing soil moisture content. GOT, GPT and RNase activities increased in leaves of alfalfa seedlings under drought stress. Soluble nitrogenous compounds accumulated under drought stress, while nucleic acids content decreased. Except glutamic acid, all free amino acids detected increased under drought stress. Put treatment decreased activities of GOT, GPT and RNase, as well as reduced the accumulation of the total soluble nitrogenous compounds, but increased DNA, RNA and protein contents.

  3. Successive changes of hematologic characteristics and plasma chemistry values of juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Yuka; Sakaoka, Ken; Kakizoe, Futoshi; Yoshii, Makoto; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Kanou, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Itaru

    2007-03-01

    Hematologic characteristics and plasma chemistry values of juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from the ages of 1 mo to 3 yr were obtained to establish baseline values. Five clinically normal loggerhead turtles were selected from the same clutch and raised in an indoor artificial nesting beach. Blood samples were successively collected and examined for various blood characteristics for a maximum total of 15 times. Hematologic characteristics, including packed cell volume, white blood cell counts, and white blood cell differentials; and plasma chemistry values, including total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, gamma-glutamic transpeptidase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, ionized sodium, ionized potassium and ionized chlorine, were measured. These results were used to establish a hematology and blood chemistry baseline for captive juvenile loggerhead turtles and will aid in their medical management.

  4. Hepatic effects of orally administered styrene in rats.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S P; Das, M; Mushtaq, M; Chandra, S V; Seth, P K

    1982-08-01

    Adult male rats receiving styrene by gavage (200 or 400 mg kg-1, 6 days a week) for 100 days exhibited a significant dose-dependent increase in hepatic benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase and aminopyrine-N-demethylase, a decrease in glutathione-S-transferase and no change in glucose-6-phosphatase. A decrease in the activity of mitochondrial succinic dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase was also observed. Activity of acid phosphatase was decreased only at the higher dose level. Levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were elevated only at the higher dose level. The absolute and relative weights of the liver of control and treated animals showed no significant difference. Histopathological studies of the liver tissue revealed tiny areas of focal necrosis, consisting of few degenerated hepatocytes and inflammatory cells at the higher dose level only.

  5. Effects of dietary chromium exposure to rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii are ameliorated by ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2017-05-01

    Juvenile rockfish Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 10.8±1.4cm, and mean weight 31.7±3.6g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr 6+ ) at 0, 120 and 240mg/L and ascorbic acids (AsA) at 100, 200 and 400mg/L. Significant accumulation occurred in specific tissues and hematological parameters were altered: red blood cell count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin increased; plasma components were altered including calcium, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, glutamic oxalate transaminase, and glutamic pyruvate transaminase. However, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were unchanged. Ascorbic acids reduced both chromium uptake into tissues and altered hematological parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill roots against antitubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ch V; Rawat, A K S; Singh, Anil P; Singh, Arpita; Verma, Neeraj

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic (50%) extract of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill (Z. oenoplia) root against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) induced liver damage in animal models. Five groups of six rats each were selected for the study. Ethanolic extract at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg as well as silymarin (100 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for 21 d in INH + RIF treated groups. The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and hepatic melondialdehyde formation. Histopathological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver. The considerably elevated serum enzymatic activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin due to INH + RIF treatment were restored towards normal in a dose dependent manner after the treatment with ethanolic extract of Z. oenoplia roots. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were also restored towards normal dose dependently. In addition, ethanolic extract also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation in the liver of INH + RIF intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. oenoplia has a potent hepatoprotective action against INH + RIF induced hepatic damage in rats. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Case-control study on prednisolone combined with ursodeoxycholic acid and azathioprine in pure primary biliary cirrhosis with high levels of immunoglobulin G and transaminases: efficacy and safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-Qing; Lv, Dong-Xia; Jia, Wei; Li, Jun; Deng, Yong-Qiong; Wang, Yan; Yu, Min; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2014-10-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to address the use of glucocorticoids in the comparatively special population of pure primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients who have high levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and transaminases but do not have PBC-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is now assumed to be the standard therapy for PBC patients. However, patients treated with UDCA still have a risk of progression to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. The most recent European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines of 2009 declared that further studies on glucocorticoid therapy in this disease should be a priority. Therefore, we designed this 3-year longitudinal retrospective study, which might provide deep insight into the treatment for PBC.The aim of this study was to assess whether the combination of prednisolone, UDCA, and azathioprine was superior to UDCA alone in these PBC patients.Sixty patients were enrolled in this study. Thirty-one patients underwent UDCA monotherapy, and 29 patients were treated with prednisolone, UDCA, and azathioprine. We analyzed their biochemistries, immune parameters, liver synthetic function, and noninvasive assessments of liver fibrosis, as well as treatment efficacy and adverse effects at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months.Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and S-index improved dramatically in both groups, whereas IgG levels only decreased in the combination group (all P < 0.05). Albumin (ALB) levels decreased in the UDCA group but increased with the combination treatment at 36 months. Significant differences between the 2 groups were observed at 36 months in ALP (P = 0.005), IgG (P = 0.002), ALB (P = 0.002), APRI (P = 0.015), and S-index (P = 0.020). Prednisolone combined with UDCA and

  8. Effects of feeding and fasting on wolf blood and urine characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Feeding and fasting trials were conducted with 2 groups (A and B) of 4 gray wolves (Canis lupus) each during January 1980. The groups were fed for 9 days and fasted for 10 days in a cross-over design. Blood and urine samples and weight data were collected every 2-3 days during each trial. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) counts, and hematocrits (HCT) were elevated in both groups during fasting. White blood cell (WBC) counts, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), triiodothyronine (T3), and insulin concentrations decreased during fasting in Groups A and B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and iron (Fe) concentrations were diminished in fasted Group A wolves compared to fed Group B. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations were elevated in fed Group A wolves. Serum creatinine (C) concentrations were reduced in both groups during feeding. Urinary urea: creatinine (U:C), potassium:creatine (K:C), and sodium:creatinine (Na:C, pooled Group A and B data) ratios decreased in fasted wolves. Differences were not found between fed and fasted wolves for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum cortisol, glucose, calcium (Ca), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and urinary calcium: creatine (Ca:C) ratios. Analysis of multiple blood or urine samples collected from free-ranging wolves would be useful in enabling researches and managers to identify the nutritional status and general health of wolves over time.

  9. The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio predicts liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection patients with high HBV DNA and normal or mildly elevated alanine transaminase levels in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Li, W; Huang, Y; Chen, L

    2016-11-01

    The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio (GPR) is a new serum diagnostic model, which is reported to be more accurate than aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the four factors (Fib-4) for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic HBV infection (CHBVI) patients in West Africa. To evaluate the performance of the GPR model for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in HBeAg-positive CHBVI patients with high HBV DNA (≥5 log 10 copies/mL) and normal or mildly elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤2 times upper limit of normal (ULN)) in China. A total of 1521 consecutive CHBVI patients who underwent liver biopsies and routine laboratory tests were retrospectively screened. Of these patients, 401 treatment naïve HBeAg-positive patients with HBV DNA≥5 log 10 copies/mL and ALT≤2 ULN were included. The METAVIR scoring system was adopted as the pathological diagnosis standard of liver fibrosis. Using liver histology as a gold standard, the performances of GPR, APRI, and Fib-4 for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were evaluated and compared by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Of 401 patients, 121 (30.2%), 49 (12.2%) and 17 (4.2%) were classified as having significant fibrosis (≥F2), severe fibrosis (≥F3) and cirrhosis (=F4), respectively. After estimating the AUROC to predict significant fibrosis, the performance of GPR (AUROC=0.66, 95% CI 0.60-0.72) was higher than APRI (AUROC=0.58, 95% CI 0.52-0.64, P=.002) and Fib-4 scores (AUROC=0.54, 95% CI 0.47-0.60, P<.001). After estimating the AUROC to predict severe fibrosis, the performance of GPR (AUROC=0.71, 95% CI 0.63-0.80) was also higher than APRI (AUROC=0.65, 95% CI 0.56-0.73, P=.003) and Fib-4 scores (AUROC=0.67, 95% CI 0.58-0.75, P=.001). After estimating the AUROC to predict cirrhosis, the performance of GPR (AUROC=0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.88) was higher than

  10. Assessment of Liver Fibrosis Using Real-time Shear-wave Elastography for Patients with Hepatitis B e Antigen-negative Chronic Hepatitis B and Alanine Transaminase <2 Times the Upper Limit of Normal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Hua; Zou, Yu; Chang, Wei; Wu, Jun; Zou, Yu; Xie, Yu-Chen; Lu, Yong-Ping; Wei, Jia

    2017-01-01

    We assessed liver fibrosis using real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) combined with liver biopsy (LB) for patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and alanine transaminase < 2 times the upper limit of normal and hepatitis B virus DNA < 2000 IU/ml. A total of 107 patients met the inclusion criteria. Real- ime SWE and ultrasoundassisted liver biopsies were consecutively performed. Fibrosis was staged according to the METAVIR scoring system. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic curve were performed to calculate the optimal area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for F0-F1 versus F2-F4, F0-F2 versus F3-F4, and F0-F3 versus F4 for real-time SWE. The most concurrent liver fibrosis degrees were between F1 and F2 for these HBeAg-negative CHB patients. Liver stiffness increased in parallel with the degree of liver fibrosis using SWE measurements. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.881 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.704-1.000) for SWE (p = 0.004); 0.912 (95% CI: 0.836-0.987) for SWE (p = 0.000); 0.981 (95% CI: 0.956-1.000) for SWE (p = 0.000); 0.974 (95% CI: 0.936-1.000) for SWE (p = 0.000) when comparing F0 versus F1-F4, F0-F1 versus F2-F4, F0-F2 versus F3-F4, and F0-F3 versus F4, respectively. SWE has the advantage of providing an image of liver stiffness in real-time. As an alternative to LB, the development of all these noninvasive methods for dynamic evaluation of liver fibrosis will decrease the need for LB, making clinical care safer and more convenient for patients with liver diseases.

  11. Hematological, biochemical effects, and self-reported symptoms in pesticide retailers.

    PubMed

    Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha; Robledo-Marenco, María de Lourdes; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Girón-Pérez, Manuel Iván; Velázquez-Fernández, Jesús Bernardino; González-Arias, Cyndia Azucena; Albores-Medina, Arnulfo; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Rojas-García, María Consuelo; Pérez-Herrera, Norma Elena; López-Flores, Juan Fernando

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of exposure to pesticides on the health of pesticide retailers. The study population comprised 83-male pesticide retailers and 98 controls. Serum butyrylcholinesterase levels and complete blood analysis were performed in a certified laboratory and each subject completed a structured questionnaire. Butyrylcholinesterase activity and hematological parameters such as hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly lower in pesticide retailers than in control subjects. In contrast, platelet count as well as hepatic parameters such as glutamic-pyruvate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities was higher in pesticide retailers. Furthermore, pesticide retailers experienced burning sensations in the skin more frequently than controls. These preliminary results suggest the importance of evaluating further toxicological biomarkers in these populations.

  12. Stability of human sera collected for clinical chemistry determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, F. M.

    1969-01-01

    Problems in collecting and shipping human sera for clinical chemical analyses affect their stability and require proper preservation methods. It is shown that glutamic pyruvate transaminase is very unstable and serum cannot be shipped unless the shipping time is carefully controlled and is less than two days under refrigeration. A limit of four days handling time and avoidance of light exposure are required in bilirubin testing of specimens. Addition of 11 mg of a 10 to 1 mixture of finely powdered sodium fluoride and thymol per ml of blood to preserve specimen stability en route to a central laboratory prevents glycolysis. A citrate buffer at pH 6.2 in serum to be tested for alkaline phosphatase lessens decline at room temperature.

  13. Effect of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) on bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P P; Patil, S D; Silawat, N; Deshmukh, P T

    2011-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to clarify whether methanolic extract of Tridax procumbens prevents liver fibrosis in rat. The hepatic fibrosis was induced by 28 days of bile duct ligation in rats. The 4-week treatment with Tridex procumbens reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (U L⁻¹), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (U L⁻¹), alkaline phosphatase (IU L⁻¹), lactate dehydrogenase (IU L⁻¹), total bilirubin (mg dL⁻¹), direct bilirubin (mg dL⁻¹) and hydroxyproline (mg gm⁻¹) content in liver and improved the histological appearance of liver section. The results of this study led us to conclude that T. procumbens can reduce the degree of hepatocellular damage and may become antifibrotic agent for liver fibrosis.

  14. Urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiana; Huang, Min; Cao, Fangbo; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Zou, Yingbin

    2017-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of urea on nitrogen metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla pinnata. Compared to controls, the application of urea to A. pinnata resulted in a 44% decrease in nitrogenase activity, no significant change in glutamine synthetase activity, 660% higher glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, 39% increase in free amino acid levels, 22% increase in malondialdehyde levels, 21% increase in Na+/K+- levels, 16% increase in Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase levels, and 11% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. In terms of H2O2 detoxifying enzymes, peroxidase activity did not change and catalase activity increased by 64% in urea-treated A. pinnata. These findings suggest that urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in A. pinnata.

  15. Urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Pardha-Saradhi, P.; Zou, Yingbin

    2017-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of urea on nitrogen metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in Azolla pinnata. Compared to controls, the application of urea to A. pinnata resulted in a 44% decrease in nitrogenase activity, no significant change in glutamine synthetase activity, 660% higher glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, 39% increase in free amino acid levels, 22% increase in malondialdehyde levels, 21% increase in Na+/K+- levels, 16% increase in Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase levels, and 11% decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. In terms of H2O2 detoxifying enzymes, peroxidase activity did not change and catalase activity increased by 64% in urea-treated A. pinnata. These findings suggest that urea application promotes amino acid metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in A. pinnata. PMID:28945775

  16. Hypoglycemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre extracts on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Min Sun; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Min, Kwan-Sik; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-03-14

    Diabetes mellitus, which is associated with oxidative damage, has a significant impact on health, quality of life, and life expectancy. An ethanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf was examined in vitro and in vivo to investigate the role of antioxidants in diabetic rats. The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity in the assays, including TBA (56%), SOD-like (92%), and ABTS (54%). Blood glucose levels in the diabetic rats fed G. sylvestre extract decreased to normal levels. The presence of the antihyperglycemic compounds gymnemagenin and gymnemic acids in G. sylvestre extract was detected by LC/MS analysis. Lipid peroxidation levels were decreased by 31.7% in serum, 9.9% in liver, and 9.1% in kidney in the diabetic rats fed the extract. Feeding G. sylvestre extract to the diabetic rats decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase in cytosolic liver and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum to normal levels.

  17. Biochemical Changes after Short-term Oral Exposure of Jatropha curcas Seeds in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Awasthy, Vijeyta; Vadlamudi, V. P.; Koley, K. M.; Awasthy, B. K.; Singh, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) is a multipurpose shrub with varied medicinal uses and is of significant economic importance. In addition to being the source of biodiesel, its seeds are also considered highly nutritious and could be exploited as a rich and economical protein supplement in animal feeds. However, the inherent phytotoxins present in the seed is the hindrance. The toxicity nature of the seeds of the local variety of J. curcas is not known. Therefore, investigations were undertaken to evaluate the short-term oral toxicity of the seeds of locally grown J. curcas. Short-term toxicity was conducted in rats by daily feeding the basal diet (Group I), and the diet in which the crude protein requirement was supplemented at 25% (Group II) and 50% (Group III) levels through Jatropha seed powder. The adverse effects of Jatropha seed protein supplementation (JSPS) were evaluated by observing alterations in biochemical profiles. The biochemical profile of rats fed on diet with JSPS at both the levels revealed significant reduction in plasma glucose and total protein and increase in plasma creatinine, transaminases (Plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase and Plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), and alkaline phosphatase. PMID:21170248

  18. Unusually severe varicella zoster (VZV) virus viral (aseptic) meningitis in an unimmunized, immunocompetent host with chickenpox.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Warren-Favorito, Heather; Mickail, Nardeen

    2011-01-01

    Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and may be more severe in adults than in children. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of chickenpox and VZV are uncommon, for example, encephalitis and cerebellar ataxis. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is a rare CNS complication of VZV. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile in VZV viral (aseptic) meningitis is indistinguishable from other causes of viral meningitis. The clue to most of the diagnoses of VZV aseptic meningitis is based on the temporal relationship between antecedent or concomitant chickenpox. Chickenpox is a clinical diagnosis based on the appearance and distribution of the rash. The rash of chickenpox is vesicular/pruritic and typically appears in crops over 3 successive days. VZV vesicles are fragile, superficial, and surrounded by a erythematous halo. Common nonspecific laboratory findings in chickenpox include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase/serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is not highly elevated in chickenpox. In VZV aseptic meningitis, the CSF shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis with normal protein, glucose, and lactic acid levels. CSF red blood cells are not a feature of VZV meningitis. We present the case of a healthy unimmunized adult who was hospitalized with chickenpox complicated by VZV aseptic meningitis with an unusually severe headache and nuchal rigidity that occurred during hospitalization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ameliorative effect of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (Poir.) Hook. f. & Thoms. roots (ACP) on APAP/CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats and in vitro free radical scavenging property.

    PubMed

    Shine, Varghese Jancy; Latha, Panikamparambil Gopalakrishnan; Suja, Somasekharan Nair Rajam; Anuja, Gangadharan Indira; Raj, Gopan; Rajasekharan, Sreedharan Nair

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (C. peltata) against paracetamol/carbon tetra chloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats. In vivo paracetamol/carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats, in vitro free radical scavenging studies, HPTLC estimation of tetrandrine and direct analysis in real time- mass spectrometry of alkaloid extract of C. peltata were used for the validation. The results showed that pretreatment with alkaloid extract of C. peltata caused significant reduction of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum cholesterol, liver malondialdehyde levels. The reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase levels in liver were increased with alkaloid extract of C. peltata treatment. These results were almost comparable to silymarin and normal control. Histopathological studies also substantiated the biochemical findings. The in vitro hydroxyl, superoxide and DPPH scavenging study of alkaloid extract of C. peltata showed significant free radical scavenging property. The hepatoprotective property of alkaloid extract of C. peltata against paracetamol/carbon tetrachloride may be due the synergistic action of alkaloids especially tetrandrine, fangchinoline through free radical scavenging and thus preventing oxidative stress.

  20. Quercetin attenuates the development of 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and croton oil-induced skin cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Huma; Dixit, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the chemopreventive potential of quercetin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mouse model. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl Benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and Croton oil in Swiss albino mouse. Quercetin was orally administered at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 16 weeks in mouse to evaluate chemopreventive potential. Skin cancer was assessed by histopathological analysis. We found that quercetin reduced the tumor size and the cumulative number of papillomas. The mean latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen treated controls. Quercetin significantly decreased the serum levels of glutamate oxalate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. It significantly increased the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxides in the control group was significantly inhibited by quercetin. Futhermore, DNA damage was significantly decreased in quercetin treated mice as compared to DMBA and croton oil treated mice. The results suggest that quercetin exerts chemopreventive effect on DMBA and croton oil induced skin cancer in mice by increasing antioxidant activities. PMID:25859269

  1. The role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongxiang; Wang, Shaoxin; Xu, Fangfang; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Thioredoxin h can regulate the redox environment in the cell and play an important role in the germination of cereals. In the present study, the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat with down-regulation of thioredoxin h was used to study the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during germination of wheat seeds, and to explore the mechanism of the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of protein disulfide isomerase in the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat was up-regulated, which induced easily forming glutenin macropolymers and the resistance of storage proteins to degradation. The expression of serine protease inhibitor was also up-regulated in transgenic wheat, which might be responsible for the decreased activity of thiocalsin during the germination. The expression of WRKY6 in transgenic wheat was down-regulated, which was consistent with the decreased activity of glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase. In transgenic wheat, the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were down-regulated, indicating that the metabolism of amino acid was lower than that in wild-type wheat during seed germination. A putative model for the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat seed germination was proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of Withania somnifera roots extract on hematoserological profiles against lead nitrate-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Sharma, Sadhana; Pracheta

    2012-12-01

    The in vivo protective role of hydro-methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera (WS) was evaluated in alleviating lead nitrate (LN)-induced toxicity in male Swiss albino mice by measuring hematoserological profiles. The lead-treated (20 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) albino mice (25-30 g) concurrently received the root extract (200 and 500 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) once daily for the duration of six weeks. Animals exposed to LN showed significant (P < 0.001) decline in haemoglobin content, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, packed cell volume and insignificant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin content, while mean corpuscular volume and platelet count were increased. A significant elevation (P < 0.001) in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and total cholesterol were also observed, when compared with control mice. Thus, the study demonstrated that the concurrent daily administration of root extract of WS protected the adverse effects of LN intoxication in mice.

  3. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, M; Girija, K; Lakshman, K; Divya, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Results Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M. paradisiaca. Conclusions The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models. PMID:23569826

  4. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, M; Girija, K; Lakshman, K; Divya, T

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M. paradisiaca. The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  5. A Chinese herbal medicine, jia-wei-xiao-yao-san, prevents dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Pu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Pin; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Chang, Jung-Chen; Wu, Ya-Chieh; Pei, Jin-Kuo; Lin, Chia-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Trichilia roka on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Germanò, M P; D'Angelo, V; Sanogo, R; Morabito, A; Pergolizzi, S; De Pasquale, R

    2001-11-01

    Trichilia roka Chiov. (Meliaceae) is a tree widely distributed in tropical Africa. It has been used in Mali folk medicine for the treatment of various illnesses. A decoction of the roots is taken as a remedy for colds and pneumonia, and it is used as a diuretic and in hepatic disorders. We have evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of a decoction of Trichilia roka root on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in rats. Treatment with the decoction showed a significant protective action made evident by its effect on the levels of glutamate oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in the serum, on the protein content and lipid peroxidation levels in the liver homogenate. Histopathological changes produced by CCl4, such as necrosis, fatty change, ballooning degeneration and inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes around the central veins, were clearly recovered by the treatment with Trichilia root decoction. On fractionating this extract into diethyl ether-soluble and water-soluble fractions, the activity was retained in the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. Moreover, the administration of decoction prevented a preferential deposition of collagen around the sinusoidal cell layer, which is responsible for the perisinusoidal fibrosis in the early stage of CCl4 damage. This study showed that treatment with Trichilia roka extracts or silymarin (as reference) appeared to enhance the recovery from CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective properties of Trichilia roka may be correlated to polyphenol content of the decoction and its diethyl ether-soluble fraction.

  7. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma. Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M.; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil. PMID:24860825

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of Tribulus terrestris extract against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in a freshwater fish (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Kavitha, P; Ramesh, R; Bupesh, G; Stalin, A; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The potential protective role of Tribulus terrestris in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated. The effect of oral exposure of acetaminophen (500 mg/kg) in O. mossambicus at 24-h duration was evaluated. The plant extract (250 mg/kg) showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. It was judged from the tissue-damaging level and antioxidant levels in liver, gill, muscle and kidney tissues. Further acetaminophen impact induced a significant rise in the tissue-damaging level, and the antioxidant level was discernible from the enzyme activity modulations such as glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidase and reduced glutathione. The levels of all these enzymes have significantly (p < 0.05) increased in acetaminophen-treated fish tissues. The elevated levels of these enzymes were significantly controlled by the treatment of T. terrestris extract (250 kg/mg). Histopathological changes of liver, gill and muscle samples were compared with respective controls. The results of the present study specify the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of T. terrestris against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in freshwater fish, O. mossambicus.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Sisodia, S.S.; Bhatnagar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the hepatoprotective effects of the methanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), in Wistar albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Materials and Methods: Liver damage in rats treated with CCl4 (1ml/kg/Bw, administered subcutaneously, on alternate days for one week) was studied by assessing parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and bilirubin (total and direct). The effect of co-administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) on the above parameters was investigated. These biochemical observations were supplemented by weight and histological examination of liver sections. Liv.52® was used as positive control. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA, followed by Scheff's/Dunnett's test. Results: Administration of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p. o.) significantly prevented carbon tetrachloride induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, ACP and bilirubin (total and direct) level. Histological examination of the liver section revealed hepatic regeneration, after administration of various doses of Eugenia jambolana Lam. The results were comparable to that of Liv.52®. Conclusion: The study suggests preventive action of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity. Hepatic cell regeneration process was dose dependent. PMID:20177577

  10. Therapeutic effect of Linum usitatissimum (flaxseed/linseed) fixed oil on acute and chronic arthritic models in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2010-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the activity/anti-inflammatory potential of Linum usitatissimum fixed oil against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, turpentine oil-induced joint oedema, formaldehyde and Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in Wistar albino rats. The oil intraperitoneally, significantly inhibited the castor oil-induced diarrhoea and turpentine oil-induced exudative joint oedema in a dose-dependent manner. Significant inhibitory effect of L. usitatissimum fixed oil was observed in formaldehyde-induced proliferative global oedematous arthritis when given intraperitoneally, with significant checking of the serum glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase. Further, L. usitatissimum fixed oil showed a significant dose-dependent protective effect against CFA-induced arthritis as well. Secondary lesions produced by CFA due to a delayed hypersensitivity reaction were also reduced in a significant manner. Anti-inflammatory activity of L. usitatissimum fixed oil can be attributed to the presence of alpha linolenic acid (57.38%, an omega-3 fatty acid, 18:3, n-3) having dual inhibitory effect on arachidonate metabolism resulting in suppressed production of proinflammatory n-6 eicosanoids (PGE(2), LTB(4)) and diminished vascular permeability. These observations suggest possible therapeutic potential of L. usitatissimum fixed oil in inflammatory disorders like rheumatoid arthritis.

  11. Effect of subchronic zinc toxicity on rat salivary glands and serum composition.

    PubMed

    Mizari, Nazer; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Shahinpour, Shervin; Ghalichi-Tabriz, Mostafa; Beigy, Maani; Yamini, Ali; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-01

    Zinc plays an important role in a wide variety of metabolic processes in animal systems. The role of zinc in preservative treatment, fungicidal action and medicine, and addition of supplementary zinc have increased the probability of zinc toxicity, specially the chronic type. It is known that the composition and quantity of saliva influence the oral health. Regarding people's exposure to zinc in routine life and the importance of saliva, our purpose was to investigate the effects of oral zinc intoxication on secretory function in rat salivary glands and also on serum composition. In this study, there were five groups of female rats. Four groups received zinc acetate dehydrate through their drinking water. After 3 months of experiment, the chemical characteristics and flow rate of saliva and weight of salivary glands were determined. The effects of zinc on hematological and chemical factors of plasma were assessed too. Flow rate of submandibular glands was significantly lower in experimental groups and there were significant changes in Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration both in saliva and in plasma. The serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glucose levels in the plasma and urine creatinine levels were also altered in experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Our results show that zinc toxicity will affect the quantity and quality of saliva probably through changes in the various neurologic pathways to the salivary glands or effects on acinar cells of the salivary glands. Furthermore, our results showed that zinc toxicity will affect the liver and renal function.

  12. Effect of dietary intake of avocado oil and olive oil on biochemical markers of liver function in sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α -amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α -amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  13. To Analyze the Amelioration of Phenobarbital Induced Oxidative Stress by Erucin, as Indicated by Biochemical and Histological Alterations.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rohit; Bhushan, Sakshi; Kumar, Rakesh; Mannan, Rahul; Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, Bikram; Sharma, Ritika; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Singh, Balbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital is a commonly employed antidepressant and anti-epileptic drug. The cancer promoting activity of this genotoxic xenobiotic is often ignored. It is responsible for oxidative stress leading to modulation in xenobiotic and antioxidative enzymes. Glucosinolates and more specifically their hydrolytic products are known for their antioxidative and anticancer activities. The present study involves the analysis of hepatoprotective effect of erucin (isolated from Eruca sativa (Mill.) Thell.) against phenobarbital mediated hepatic damage in male wistar rats. The liver homogenate was analyzed for oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lactate dehydrogenase), other oxidative parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, conjugated dienes and lipid hydroperoxide), phase I enzymes (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5), phase II enzymes (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, DT-diaphorase and glutathione-S-transferase), serum parameters (alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin) and certain histological parameters. Erucin accorded protection from phenobarbital induced hepatic damage by normalizing antioxidative enzymes, other oxidative parameters, phase I, II, and serum parameters. Erucin, an analogue of sulforaphane has the potential to act as an anticancer agent by regulating various biochemical parameters.

  14. Acute and Subacute Toxicity In Vivo of Thermal-Sprayed Silver Containing Hydroxyapatite Coating in Rat Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshiki; Eto, Shuichi; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yonekura, Yutaka; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag). This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2–4 days after treatment) and subacute phase (4–12 weeks after treatment). Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation. PMID:24779019

  15. Hepatoprotective studies on Sida acuta Burm. f.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, C D; Latha, P G; Ancy, P; Suja, S R; Shyamal, S; Shine, V J; Sini, S; Anuja, G I; Rajasekharan, S

    2009-07-15

    Sida acuta Burm. f. (Malvaceae) is used in Indian traditional medicine to treat liver disorders and is useful in treating nervous and urinary diseases and also disorders of the blood and bile. Evaluation of the hepatoprotective properties of the methanolic extract of the root of Sida acuta (SA) and the phytochemical analysis of SA. The model of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats, liver histopathological observations, hexobarbitone-induced narcosis and in vitro anti-lipid peroxidation studies were employed to assess the hepatoprotective efficacy of SA. Phytochemical assay of SA was conducted following standard protocols. Significant hepatoprotective effects were obtained against liver damage induced by paracetamol overdose as evident from decreased serum levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in the SA treated groups (50, 100, 200mg/kg) compared to the intoxicated controls. The hepatoprotective effect was further verified by histopathology of the liver. Pretreatment with Sida acuta extract significantly shortened the duration of hexobarbitone-induced narcosis in mice indicating its hepatoprotective potential. Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of the phenolic compound, ferulic acid in the root of Sida acuta, which accounts for the significant hepatoprotective effects observed in the present study. The present study thus provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of this plant in the management of liver disorders.

  16. Protective effect of Sida cordata leaf extract against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Sunil; Dutt, K R; Jena, J

    2013-04-13

    To investigate the hepatoprotective potential of Sida cordata (Malvaceae) (S. cordata) in experimental rats to validate its traditional claim. Wister albino rats were divided into 6 groups: Group I served as control; Group II served as hepatotoxic (CCl(4) treated) group; Group III, IV and V served as (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) S. cordata leaf extract (SCLE) treated groups; Group VI served as positive control (Silymarin) treated group. Liver marker enzymes serum glutamate oxyloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured and compared along with histopathological studies. Obtained results show that the treatment with SCLE significantly (P<0.05-<0.001) and dose-dependently reduced CCl4 induced elevated serum level of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, SCLE significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels, which was confirmed by the histopathological studies. The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SCLE against CCl(4) induced acute liver toxicity in rats and thereby scientifically support its traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Rhus coriaria seed on glucose and insulin related biomarkers, lipid profile, and hepatic enzymes in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced type II diabetic male mice.

    PubMed

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Junghani, Majid Salehizade; Absari, Reza; Khoogar, Mehdi; Ghaedi, Ehsan

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes often leads to dislipidemia and abnormal activity of hepatic enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of Rhus coriaria ( R. coriaria ) seed extrac on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice (30-35 g) were randomly separated into seven groups: control, diabetic group, diabetic mice treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, as standard antidiabetic drug) or R. coriaria seed extract in doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control groups received these two doses of extract orally for 28 days. Induction of diabetes was done by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Ultimately, body weight of mice, blood levels of glucose, insulin, hepatic enzymes, leptin, and lipid profile were assayed. After induction of type 2 diabetes, level of glucose, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase increased and level of insulin and high density lipoprotein decreased remarkably. Administration of both doses of extract decreased level of glucose and cholesterol significantly in diabetic mice. LDL level decreased in treated group with dose of 300 mg/kg of the extract. Although usage of the extract improved level of other lipid profiles, insulin and hepatic enzymes, changes weren't significant. This study showed R. coriaria seeds administration has a favorable effect in controlling some blood parameters in type 2 diabetes. Therefore it may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.

  18. The Influence of Selenium Yeast on Hematological, Biochemical and Reproductive Hormone Level Changes in Kunming Mice Following Acute Exposure to Zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Long, Miao; Yang, Shuhua; Zhang, Wenkui; Zhang, Yi; Li, Peng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Xinliang; He, Jianbin

    2016-12-01

    Healthy male Kunming mice received selenium yeast for 14 days prior to a single oral administration of zearalenone (ZEN). After 48 h, blood samples were collected for analysis and showed that mice in the ZEN-treated group has significantly decreased lymphocytes (P < 0.05) and platelets (P < 0.05) along with an increased white blood cell (WBC) count and other constituents (P < 0.05). The serum biochemistry analysis of the ZEN group indicated that glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST), urea, and uric acid were significantly increased (P < 0.05), whilst total bilirubin (TB) and albumin (ALB) were decreased along with serum testosterone and estrogen (P < 0. 05). The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum of the ZEN group was significantly increased whilst glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) had significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Treatment with selenium yeast had a significant effect on response with most of the experimental parameters returning to levels similar to those observed in the untreated control mice. From these data, it can be concluded that ZEN is highly poisonous in Kunming mice with high levels of toxicity on the blood, liver, and kidneys. High levels of oxidative stress were observed in mice and pre-treatment with selenium yeast by oral gavage is effective in the ameliorated effects of ZEN-induced damage.

  19. Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities of a oleanolic acid derivative from Malva parviflora on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rosa Martha Pérez

    2017-05-01

    One new oleanolic acid derivative, 2α,3β,23α,29α tetrahydroxyolean-12(13)-en-28-oic acid (1) was isolated from the aerial parts of Malva parviflora. Their structure was characterized by spectroscopic methods. The hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities of 1 was analyzed in in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes in mice (MD) and type 1 diabetes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice (SD). Triterpene was administered orally at doses of 20 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Organ weight, body weight, glucose, fasting insulin, cholesterol-related lipid profile parameters, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), glucokinase, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase activities and glycogen in liver were measured after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated that 1 regulate glucose metabolism, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, increased body weight, glucokinase and hexokinase activities inhibited triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins level, SGOT, SGPT, SALP, glycogen in liver and glucose-6-phosphatase. In addition, improvement of insulin resistance and protective effect for pancreatic β-cells, also 1 may changes the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α levels) and enzymes (PAL2, COX-2, and LOX). The results suggest that 1 has hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, activities, improve insulin resistance and hepatic enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

  20. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neeraj; Singh, Anil P; Amresh, G; Sahu, P K; Rao, Ch V

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Fraction at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days in CCl(4)-treated groups (II, III, IV, V and VI). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ -GT), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl(4) treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl(4)-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

  1. Antioxidant activity of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on CCl(4)-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, T; Ramesh, E; Geraldine, P

    2006-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the putative antioxidant activity of the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on CCl(4)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. Intraperitoneal administration of CCl(4) (2ml/kg) to rats for 4 days resulted in significantly elevated (p<0.05) serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase (SALP) compared to controls. In the liver, significantly elevated levels (p<0.05) of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lowered levels (p<0.05) of reduced glutathione (GSH) were observed following CCl(4) administration. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) revealed lower activities of these antioxidant enzymes in the liver of CCl(4)-administered rats. An analysis of the isozyme pattern of these enzymes revealed variations in relative concentration presumably due to hepatotoxicity. When rats with CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity were treated with the extract of P. ostreatus, the serum SGOT, SGPT and SALP levels reverted to near normal, while the hepatic concentration of GSH, CAT, SOD and Gpx were significantly increased (p<0.05) and that of MDA significantly (p<0.05) lowered, when compared to CCl(4)-exposed untreated rats. Histopathological studies confirmed the hepatoprotective effect conferred by the extract of P. ostreatus. These results suggest that an extract of P. ostreatus is able to significantly alleviate the hepatotoxicity induced by CCl(4) in the rat.

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of Amaranthus spinosus in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Zeashan, Hussain; Amresh, G; Singh, Satyawan; Rao, Chandana Venkateswara

    2008-11-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of 50% ethanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus (ASE) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The ASE at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered orally once daily for fourteen days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and total bilirubin were restored towards normalization significantly by the ASE in a dose dependent manner. Higher dose exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also screened which were also found significantly positive in a dose dependent manner. The results of this study strongly indicate that whole plants of A. spinosus have potent hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in experimental animals. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolics compound in the ASE which may be responsible to hepatoprotective activity.

  3. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Neeraj; Singh, Anil P.; Amresh, G.; Sahu, P. K.; Rao, Ch. V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (Family: Ericaceae) in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Materials and Methods: Fraction at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg was administered orally once daily for 14 days in CCl4-treated groups (II, III, IV, V and VI). The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ -GT), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, hepatic malondialdehyde formation, and glutathione content. Result and Discussion: The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl4 treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl4-intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. PMID:21713093

  4. Is there any role of prolidase enzyme activity in the etiology of preeclampsia?

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Mustafa; Ozün Ozbay, Pelin; Temur, Muzaffer; Yılmaz, Ozgur; Verit, Fatma Ferda; Aksoy, Nurten; Korkmazer, Engin; Üstünyurt, Emin

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate a relationship between preeclampsia and prolidase enzyme activity. A prospective cohort study of 41 pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia and 31 healthy pregnant women as control group was selected at Harran University Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The prolidase enzyme activity was analyzed in maternal and umbilical cord plasma, amniotic fluid and placental and umbilical cord tissues by Chinard method in addition to maternal serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT). A significant relationship was found between plasma prolidase activity (635 ± 83 U/L) (p  = 0.007), umbilical cord plasma prolidase activity (610 ± 90 U/L) (p = 0.013), amniotic fluid prolidase activity (558 ± 100 U/L) (p  = 0.001), umbilical cord tissue prolidase activity (4248 ± 1675 U/gr protein) (p  = 0.013) and placental tissue prolidase activity (2116 ± 601 U/gr protein) (p  = 0.001) in preeclamptic group when compared to healthy pregnant women. There is a strong correlation between prolidase enzyme activity and preeclampsia. Prolidase enzyme activity may play a role in preeclampsia.

  5. Oral MSG administration alters hepatic expression of genes for lipid and nitrogen metabolism in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yuzhe; Liao, Peng; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Lixiang; Yin, Yulong; Wang, Jinquan; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on expression of genes for hepatic lipid and nitrogen metabolism in piglets. A total of 24 newborn pigs were assigned randomly into one of four treatments (n = 6/group). The doses of oral MSG administration, given at 8:00 and 18:00 to sow-reared piglets between 0 and 21 days of age, were 0 (control), 0.06 (low dose), 0.5 (intermediate dose), and 1 (high dose) g/kg body weight/day. At the end of the 3-week treatment, serum concentrations of total protein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intermediate dose group were elevated than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Hepatic mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase, acetyl-coA carboxylase, insulin-like growth factor-1, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase were higher in the middle-dose group (P < 0.05), compared with the control group. MSG administration did not affect hepatic mRNA levels for hormone-sensitive lipase or carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1. We conclude that oral MSG administration alters hepatic expression of certain genes for lipid and nitrogen metabolism in suckling piglets.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Leptadenia reticulata stems against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Amit Kumar; Agarwal, Abhinav; Kashaw, Varsha

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of stems of Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight. and Arn. in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The toxicant CCl4 was used to induce hepatotoxicity at a dose of 1.25 ml/kg as 1 : 1 mixture with olive oil. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of L. reticulata stems were administered in the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. The hepatoprotective effect of these extracts was evaluated by the assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, serum protein, and histopathological studies of the liver. Results: Treatment of animals with ethanolic and aqueous extracts significantly reduced the liver damage and the symptoms of liver injury by restoration of architecture of liver as indicated by lower levels of serum bilirubin and protein as compared with the normal and silymarin-treated groups. Histology of the liver sections confirmed that the extracts prevented hepatic damage induced by CCl4 showing the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis, and fatty infiltration. Conclusion: The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stems of L. reticulata showed significant hepatoprotective activity. The ethanolic extract is more potent in hepatoprotection in CCl4-indiced liver injury model as compared with aqueous extract. PMID:21713086

  7. Effect of chronic unpredictable stress on short term dietary restriction and its modulation by multivitamin-mineral supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shirin; Fatima, Naureen; Bilal, Nayeem; Suhail, Nida; Fatima, Sabiha; Morgan, Enas N; Aldebasy, Yousef; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Banu, Naheed

    2013-06-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) lowers steady-state levels of oxidative stress and alters behavioral, physiological and biochemical responses in mammals. However, various factors effect its application in humans like socio-cultural, appetite and the daily life stress. Physiological and psychological stress owing to fast-paced lifestyles, translates into oxidative stress. In this work, the role of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) on the effects of short term DR in mice in terms of biochemical and oxidative stress parameters was investigated. Further, the modulatory role of multivitamin-mineral supplement (MVM) on CUS and DR induced biochemical changes was studied to delineate the role of micronutrient supplementation. DR treatment increased the antioxidant status in the circulation and liver of mice but in the presence of chronic stressors there was a significant shift towards the pro-oxidant state. A decrease was found in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase in the rats exposed to CUS with DR (CUS+DR), with an increased malondialdehyde and a decreased glutathione (GSH) levels as compared to the controls. Liver function enzymes-glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were increased and a significant DNA damage was observed. Oral MVM supplement significantly improved this oxidative deterioration. Hence, MVM supplementation appears to potentially offer an effective intervention in the DR regimen to combat daily life physical and mental stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving effect of dietary soybean phospholipids supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Ruan, Jiming; Wang, Tiancheng; Luo, Junrong; Cao, Huabin; Song, Yalu; Huang, Jianzhen; Hu, Guoliang

    2017-11-01

    In order to investigate the effect of dietary soybean phospholipid supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in layers, 135 300-day-old Hyline Brown layers were randomly divided into three groups (control, pathology and prevention), and each group had 45 layers with three replicates. Birds in the three groups were respectively fed the control diet, high-energy low-protein diet and high-energy high-protein diet affixed with 3% soybean phospholipid instead of maize. Results showed in the 30th day, birds' livers in the pathology group became yellowish, enlarged in size and had hemorrhagic spots, while the prevention and control groups' layers did not have such pathological changes. Contents of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein - cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde in serum or liver homogenate in prevention and control groups were remarkably lower than those in the pathology group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), as with the activities of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (P < 0.01); high-density lipoprotein - cholesterol value was strikingly higher than that of the pathology group (P < 0.01). It is suggested dietary soybean phospholipids supplement may effectively improve hepatic and blood indexes relevant to FLHS, which provides a new point for preventing FLHS occurrence rate in laying flocks and treating human non-alcohol fatty liver disease. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma induced carcinogenesis in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Ali, Shaikh Mohummad Mohsin; Khanam, Jahan Ara

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the hepatoprotective effect of acetone semicarbazone (ASC) in vivo in normal and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing male Swiss albino mice. Methods Drug-induced changes in biochemical and behavioral parameters at dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight for 14 d and nullifying the toxicity induced by EAC cells were studied. The histopathology studies of the protective effects of ASC on vital organs were also assessed. Results The administration of ASC made insignificant changes in body weight and behavioral (salivation, diarrhea, muscular numbness) changes during treatment period due to minor toxicity were minimized after the treatment in normal mice. The biochemical parameters, including serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloactate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, serum glucose, cholesterol, urea, triglyceride and billirubin changed modestly in normal mice receiving ASC. Though the treatment continued, these values gradually decreased to normal level after the treatment. In EAC bearing mice, the toxic effects due to EAC cells in all cases were nullified by treatment with the ASC. Significant abnormalities were not detected in histology of the various organs of the normal mice treated with ASC. Conclusions ASC can, therefore, be considered safe in formulating novel anticancer drug, as it exhibits strong protective effect against EAC cell bearing mice. PMID:23593588

  10. Pyrroloquinoline quinone ameliorates l-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism and associated problems in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narendra; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda

    2014-08-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is believed to be a strong antioxidant. In this study, we have evaluated its hitherto unknown role in l-thyroxin (L-T4 )-induced hyperthyroidism considering laboratory rat as a model. Alterations in the serum concentration of thyroxin (T4 ) and triiodothyronine (T3 ); lipid peroxidation (LPO) of liver, kidney, heart, muscles and brain; in the endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione and in serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien, triglycerides, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and urea were evaluated. Administration of l-T4 (500-µg kg(-1) body weight) enhanced not only the serum T3 and T4 levels but also the tissue LPO, serum SGOT, SGPT and urea with a parallel decrease in the levels of antioxidants and serum lipids. However, on simultaneous administration of PQQ (5 mg kg(-1) for 6 days), all these adverse effects were ameliorated, indicating the potential of PQQ in the amelioration of hyperthyroidism and associated problems. Possibly, the curative effects were mediated through inhibition of oxidative stress. We suggest that PQQ may be considered for therapeutic use for hyperthyroidism after dose standardization. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Renal and biochemical changes produced in broilers by high-protein, high-calcium, urea-containing, and vitamin-A-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Chandra, M; Singh, B; Soni, G L; Ahuja, S P

    1984-01-01

    Three hundred 18-day-old male chicks (Arbor Acre) were divided into five groups of 60 each and given high-protein (42.28%), high-calcium (3.37%), urea-containing (5%), vitamin-A-deficient, or control diets to study the effect of nutritional imbalances on the development of nephritis and related biochemical changes over 15 weeks. The first four diets increased the levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, uric acid, and nonprotein nitrogen in serum. Blood urea was increased by only the urea diet. Hypoglycemia and a decrease in hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase were also observed in chicks fed the first four diets. The vitamin-A-deficient diet resulted in a depletion of vitamin A in the liver and kidneys. These changes were directly correlated with the prolonged feeding of experimental diets and also with the severity of nephritis and degenerative changes in various organs. It was concluded that increasing the intake of nitrogen or calcium in order to increase production may in fact have the opposite effect, leading to degenerative changes in various tissues and to nephritis.

  12. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the activities of serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the activities of lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase and total superoxide dismutase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  13. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Wang, Wubao

    2003-05-06

    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. A low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively.

  14. Chemical composition and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic root extract of Taraxacum Syriacum Boiss against acetaminophen intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Nazari, A; Fanaei, H; Dehpour, A R; Hassanzadeh, G; Jafari, M; Salehi, M; Mohammadi, M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the role of ethanol extract of root of Taraxacum Syriacum Boiss (TSBE) against hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen (APAP) was studied. The chemical composition of roots of Taraxacum Syriacum Boiss was analyzed by SPME-GC/MS method. Hepatocellular injuries induced by acetaminophen (APAP) were assessed by liver histology, serum aminotransferase activities, antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. TSBE was observed to exhibit hepatoprotective effect as demonstrated by significant decrease in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration, and by preventing liver histopathologic changes in rats with APAP hepatotoxicity. Administration of APAP, significantly increased, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase (CAT) activity in liver tissue and pretreatment with TSBE returned these parameters to control group, moreover TSBE reduces APAP-induced hepatic Glutathione (GSH) depletion. Carvacrol (6.7 %) was the main polyphenolic compound of plant sample. Our results demonstrated hepatoprotective activity of TSBE in rat in vivo. We believe that the mechanism by which the extract was able to protect the liver from the oxidative stress generated by APAP is due to its antioxidant activity. These phenolic compounds of the extract act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers and reduce or inhibit the oxidative stress induced by APAP administration (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 39).

  15. Photosynthetic carbon fixation characteristics of fruiting structures of Brassica campestris L

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, H.R.; Sheoran, I.S.; Singh, R.

    1987-04-01

    Activities of key enzymes of the Calvin cycle and C/sub 4/ metabolism, rates of CO/sub 2/ fixation, and the initial products of photosynthetic /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation were determined in the podwall, seed coat (fruiting structures), and the subtending leaf (leaf below a receme) of Brassica campestris L. cv Toria. Compared to activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and other Calvin cycle enzymes, e.g. NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, the activities of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase and other enzymes of C/sub 4/ metabolism, viz. NADP-malate dehydrogenase, NADP-malic enzyme, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, were generally much higher in seed than in podwallmore » and leaf. Podwall and leaf were comparable to each other. Pulse-chase experiments showed that in seed the major product of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation was malate (in short time), whereas in podwall and leaf, the label initially appeared in 3-PGA. With time, the label moved to sucrose. In contrast to legumes, Brassica pods were able to fix net CO/sub 2/ during light. However, respiratory losses were very high during the dark period.« less

  16. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Ammonia assimilation and synthesis of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate in Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Kenealy, W R; Thompson, T E; Schubert, K R; Zeikus, J G

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of ammonia assimilation in Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was documented by analysis of enzyme activities, 13NH3 incorporation studies, and comparison of growth and enzyme activity levels in continuous culture. Glutamate accounted for 65 and 52% of the total amino acids in the soluble pools of M. barkeri and M. thermoautotrophicum. Both organisms contained significant activities of glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase. Hydrogen-reduced deazaflavin-factor 420 or flavin mononucleotide but not NAD, NADP, or ferredoxin was used as the electron donor for glutamate synthase in M. barkeri. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity was not detected in either organism, but alanine dehydrogenase activity was present in M. thermoautotrophicum. The in vivo activity of the glutamine synthetase was verified in M. thermoautotrophicum by analysis of 13NH3 incorporation into glutamine, glutamate, and alanine. Alanine dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase activity varied in response to [NH4+] when M. thermoautotrophicum was cultured in a chemostat with cysteine as the sulfur source. Alanine dehydrogenase activity and growth yield (grams of cells/mole of methane) were highest when the organism was cultured with excess ammonia, whereas growth yield was lower and glutamine synthetase was maximal when ammonia was limiting. PMID:6122678

  18. Phytochemical analysis, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Alchornea cordifolia methanol leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C; Uzor, Philip F; Nnamani, Nneka R; Adiele, Ijeoma E; Obiano, Nkemakonam C

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Alchornea cordifolia (A. cordifolia) leaf extract. Various solvent fractions of the methanol extract of the leaf of the plant A. cordifolia Mull. Arg (Fam: Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT/AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT/ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. The ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, at a dose of 300 mg/kg, produced significant (P<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. The effects were comparable to those of the standard drugs used for the respective experiments, silymarin and ascorbic acid. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were detected in the phytochemical screening. From this study, it was concluded that the plant of A. cordifolia possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities and these activities reside mainly in the ethyl acetate and acetone fractions of methanol leaf extract. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The multilevel antibiotic-induced perturbations to biological systems: Early-life exposure induces long-lasting damages to muscle structure and mitochondrial metabolism in flies.

    PubMed

    Renault, David; Yousef, Hesham; Mohamed, Amr A

    2018-06-07

    Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects. We evaluated the effects of five antibiotics with different mode of action, i.e. ampicillin, cefradine, chloramphenicol, cycloheximide, and tetracycline, on the survival and ultrastructural organization of the flight muscles of newly emerged blow flies Chrysomya albiceps. Then, we examined the effects of different concentrations of antibiotics on mitochondrial protein content, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and activity of transaminases (Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase) and described the cellular metabolic perturbations of flies treated with antibiotics. All antibiotics affected the survival of the insects and decreased the total mitochondrial protein content in a dose-dependent manner. Ultrastructural organization of flight muscles in treated flies differs dramatically compared to the control groups and severe pathological damages/structures disorganization of mitochondria appeared. The activities of mitochondrial transaminases significantly increased with increased antibiotic concentrations. The oxidation rate of pyruvate + proline from isolated mitochondria of the flight muscles of 1-day-old flies was significantly reduced at high doses of antibiotics. In parallel, the level of several metabolites, including TCA cycle intermediates, was reduced in antibiotics-treated flies. Overall, antibiotics provoked a

  20. Zingiber officinale Roscoe prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity by enhancing hepatic antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Hema, U; Aswathy, M S

    2007-11-01

    A large number of xenobiotics are reported to be potentially hepatotoxic. Free radicals generated from the xenobiotic metabolism can induce lesions of the liver and react with the basic cellular constituents - proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (3g/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in rat. Aqueous extract of Z. officinale significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum transaminase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and ALP activities were significantly (p<0.01) elevated in the acetaminophen alone treated animals. Antioxidant status in liver such as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), a phase II enzyme, and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were declined significantly (p<0.01) in the acetaminophen alone treated animals (control group). Hepatic lipid peroxidation was enhanced significantly (p<0.01) in the control group. Administration of single dose of aqueous extract of Z. officinale (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) prior to acetaminophen significantly declines the activities of serum transaminases and ALP. Further the hepatic antioxidant status was enhanced in the Z. officinale plus acetaminophen treated group than the control group. The results of the present study concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous ethanol extract of Z. officinale against acetaminophen-induced acute toxicity is mediated either by preventing the decline of hepatic antioxidant status or due to its direct radical scavenging capacity.

  1. [Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, GPT): a reevaluation of exclusion limits for blood donors].

    PubMed

    Grunenberg, R; Banik, N; Krüger, J

    1995-06-01

    The screening policy of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) testing in blood donors was reassessed. The cutoff value for ALT levels according to German guidelines has always been controversial. In this study the activity and distribution of ALT in a blood donor population were reevaluated and new exclusion levels were defined. 5,706 blood donors were tested for ALT activities with the Reflotron system at 37 degrees C. Donors with ALT levels > 51 IU/l were deferred, a detailed physical examination and additional serologic and biochemical testing were done. ALT values of blood donors were transformed in logarithmic values in order to get a Gaussian distribution. The mean transformed value +/- SD was calculated with 1.24 +/- 0.14 for females and with 1.35 +/- 0.16 for males, corresponding to mean values of ALT activity of 17.6 and 22.5 IU/l, respectively. Exclusion levels of > 33.4 IU/l for female and > 46.7 IU/l for male blood donors (geometric mean +2.0 SD) predict a loss of donations of 2.8 and 2.7%, respectively, cutoff values of > 39.1 or > 56.1 IU/l (geometric mean +2.5 SD) a loss of 1.8 and 1.4%, respectively. The most likely causes of elevated ALT levels in 166 of our donors included daily alcohol use (82), infections with/without antibiotic medication (29), therapy with hepatotoxic drugs (8), strenuous exercises (5), bodybuilding complemented by anabolic steroids (2), acute infections with HCV (1), HBV (1) and CMV (1), alcohol/drug abuse and detection of HCV antibodies (1). ALT screening is still considered a useful indicator of risk donors despite its nonspecificity and limited predictive value. The selection of the appropriate cutoff value has always been disputed. The present exclusion level of > 45 IU/l (25 degrees C), analogous to > 81.8 IU/l (37 degrees C), does not even take into account such a variable as sex. The cutoff value above 4.5 SD of the geometric mean for females and above 3.5 SD for males seems to be of limited medical and practical value.

  2. Genetic manipulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt in rice: overexpression of truncated glutamate decarboxylase (GAD2) and knockdown of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) lead to sustained and high levels of GABA accumulation in rice kernels.

    PubMed

    Shimajiri, Yasuka; Oonishi, Takayuki; Ozaki, Kae; Kainou, Kumiko; Akama, Kazuhito

    2013-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid commonly present in all organisms. Because cellular levels of GABA in plants are mainly regulated by synthesis (glutamate decarboxylase, GAD) and catabolism (GABA-transaminase, GABA-T), we attempted seed-specific manipulation of the GABA shunt to achieve stable GABA accumulation in rice. A truncated GAD2 sequence, one of five GAD genes, controlled by the glutelin (GluB-1) or rice embryo globulin promoters (REG) and GABA-T-based trigger sequences in RNA interference (RNAi) cassettes controlled by one of these promoters as well, was introduced into rice (cv. Koshihikari) to establish stable transgenic lines under herbicide selection using pyriminobac. T₁ and T₂ generations of rice lines displayed high GABA concentrations (2-100 mg/100 g grain). In analyses of two selected lines from the T₃ generation, there was a strong correlation between GABA level and the expression of truncated GAD2, whereas the inhibitory effect of GABA-T expression was relatively weak. In these two lines both with two T-DNA copies, their starch, amylose, and protein levels were slightly lower than non-transformed cv. Koshihikari. Free amino acid analysis of mature kernels of these lines demonstrated elevated levels of GABA (75-350 mg/100 g polished rice) and also high levels of several amino acids, such as Ala, Ser, and Val. Because these lines of seeds could sustain their GABA content after harvest (up to 6 months), the strategy in this study could lead to the accumulation GABA and for these to be sustained in the edible parts. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Influence of bear bile on rat hepatocarcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Yin; Yin, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Sheng-Yu; Yan, Jiang-Hua; Zhao, Yi-Lin; Wu, Duan; Liu, Zheng-Jin; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the influence of bear bile on rat hepatocarcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a total of 40 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, model group, and two bear bile treatment groups. The rat liver cancer model was induced by breeding with water containing 100 mg x L(-1) DEN for 14 weeks. The rats of the bear bile groups received bear bile powder (200 or 400 mg x kg(-1)) orally 5 times per week for 18 weeks. The general condition and the body weight of rats were examined every day. After 18 weeks the activities of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were detected. Meanwhile, the pathological changes of liver tissues were observed after H&E staining. The expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and a-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) in liver tissue were detected by immunohistochemical method. After 4 weeks the body weights of rats in normal group were significantly more than that in other groups (P < 0.05); and that in the two bile groups was significantly more than that in the model group. Compared with normal group, the level of serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin increased significantly in other groups; compared with model group, these two indexes decreased significantly in two bile groups. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurred in all rats except for normal group; there were classic cirrhosis and cancer in model group while there were mild cirrhosis and high differentiation in two bile groups. There were almost no expressions of PCNA and alpha-SMA in normal group while there were high expressions in model group; the two bile groups had some expressions but were inferior to the model group, and alpha-SMA reduced markedly. It indicated that bear bile restrained the development of liver cancer during DEN inducing rat hepatocarcinoma, which may be related to its depressing hepatic stellate cell activation and relieving hepatic lesion and

  4. Glucosamine-anchored doxorubicin-loaded targeted nano-niosomes: pharmacokinetic, toxicity and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Smita; Shevalkar, Ganesh; Vavia, Pradeep

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy of anticancer drug is limited due to non-selectivity and toxicities allied with the drug; therefore the heart of the present work is to formulate drug delivery systems targeted selectively towards cancer cells with minimal toxicity to normal cells. Targeted drug delivery system of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded niosomes using synthesized N-lauryl glucosamine (NLG) as a targeting ligand. NLG-anchored DOX niosomes were developed using ethanol injection method. Developed niosomes had particle size <150 nm and high entrapment efficiency ∼90%. In vivo pharmacokinetics exhibited long circulating nature of targeted niosomes with improved bioavailability, which significantly reduced CL and Vd than DOX solution and non-targeted niosomes (35 fold and 2.5 fold, respectively). Tissue-distribution study and enzymatic assays revealed higher concentration of DOX solution in heart while no toxicity to major organs with developed targeted niosomes was observed. Solid skin melanoma tumor model in mice manifested the commendable targeting potential of targeted niosomes with significant reduction in tumor volume and high % survival rate without drop in body weight in comparison with DOX solution and non-targeted niosomes of DOX. The glucosamine-anchored DOX-loaded targeted niosomes showed its potential in cancer targeted drug therapy with reduced toxicity. Abbreviations ALT alanine transaminase CL clearance CPK creatinine phosphokinase DOX doxorubicin EDC.HCL ethyl carbidimide hydrochloride GLUT glucose transporter GSH glutathione S-transferase LDH lactate dehydrogenase LHRH luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone MDA malonaldehyde NHS N-hydroxy succinimide NLG N-lauryl glucosamine NTAR DoxNio non-targeted doxorubicin niosomes PBS phosphate buffer saline RGD argynyl glycyl aspartic acid SGOT serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase SGPT serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase SOD superoxide dismutase TAR DoxNio targeted doxorubicin niosomes Vd volume of distribution.

  5. Hepatoprotective properties in the rat of Mitracarpus scaber (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Germanò, M P; Sanogo, R; Costa, C; Fulco, R; D'Angelo, V; Torre, E A; Viscomi, M G; De Pasquale, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of Mitracarpus scaber on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage in the rat has been evaluated. Results showed that treatment with Mitracarpus scaber decoction resulted in significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced liver injury both in-vivo and in-vitro. In-vivo, Mitracarpus scaber pretreatment reduced levels of serum glutamate-oxalate-transaminase (P < 0.01 for 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1)) and serum glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (P < 0.05 for 250 mg kg(-1) and P < 0.01 for 1000 mg kg(-1)) previously increased by administration of CCl4. In-vitro results indicated that addition to the culture medium of Mitracarpus scaber extracts significantly reduced glutamate-oxalate-transaminase (P < 0.05 for 100 microg mL(-1) and P < 0.01 for 10 and 1000 microg mL(-1)) and lactate dehydrogenase activity (P < 0.05 for 10 microg mL(-1)). Mitracarpus treatment also resulted in a good ( > 93%) survival rate for the CCl4-intoxicated hepatocytes as demonstrated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Moreover, as in the in-vitro assay, Mitracarpus scaber had radical-scavenging properties, shown by its reaction with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (EC50, the extract concentration resulting in a 50% reduction in the absorbance of DPPH blank solution, = 41.64+/-1.5 microg mL(-1)). The results of this study showed that Mitracarpus scaber had antihepatotoxic potential, a finding which supports the validity of traditional usage of this drug in Mali for the treatment of liver diseases.

  6. Effect of CDP-choline on age-dependent modifications of energy- and glutamate-linked enzyme activities in synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria from rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Villa, Roberto Federico; Ferrari, Federica; Gorini, Antonella

    2012-12-01

    The effect of aging and CDP-choline treatment (20 mg kg⁻¹ body weight i.p. for 28 days) on the maximal rates (V(max)) of representative mitochondrial enzyme activities related to Krebs' cycle (citrate synthase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase), glutamate and related amino acid metabolism (glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate- and glutamate-pyruvate transaminases) were evaluated in non-synaptic and intra-synaptic "light" and "heavy" mitochondria from frontal cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats aged 4, 12, 18 and 24 months. During aging, enzyme activities vary in a complex way respect to the type of mitochondria, i.e. non-synaptic and intra-synaptic. This micro-heterogeneity is an important factor, because energy-related mitochondrial enzyme catalytic properties cause metabolic modifications of physiopathological significance in cerebral tissue in vivo, also discriminating pre- and post-synaptic sites of action for drugs and affecting tissue responsiveness to noxious stimuli. Results show that CDP-choline in vivo treatment enhances cerebral energy metabolism selectively at 18 months, specifically modifying enzyme catalytic activities in non-synaptic and intra-synaptic "light" mitochondrial sub-populations. This confirms that the observed changes in enzyme catalytic activities during aging reflect the bioenergetic state at each single age and the corresponding energy requirements, further proving that in vivo drug treatment is able to interfere with the neuronal energy metabolism. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Cholestatic icterus due to oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Pestel, M; Lambert, C; Jeanmougin, M

    1973-03-01

    A case report of cholestatic jaundice in a 25 year old woman, who had had jaundice at age 4 years, and had taken Stediril (a combined oral contraceptive) for 1 month, implicates either the pill or a possibly hereditary hyperlipidemia. The jaundice developed in 2 weeks with vomiting, epigastric pain, anorexia, then discolored urine and feces, and intense pruritus. On hospitalization the patient had moderate bilirubinemia (56 mg/1), low alkaline phosphatase (13 U.K.) and slightly high serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (270 U.W.). There were elevated serum cholesterol (3 gm/1), triglycerides (2.05 gm/1), total lipids (10.6 gm/1), and a definitely increased pre-beta lipoprotein, suggesting hyperlipidemia type IV (Frederickson classification). Liver biopsy showed fibrosis of the portal spaces lymphocytic infiltration, canalicular and intrahepatocytic thrombi. On laparoscopy the liver had a regular lower border, normal volume color and surface. Albumin, prothrombin and flocculation tests were normal. The patient's jaundice lasted about 1 month, then liver function slowly improved, although pruritus remained intense. Probably this jaundice was due to oral contraceptives, in a patient predisposed either by jaundice in childhood or endogenous hyperlipidemia.

  8. In vivo evaluation of Mg-6Zn and titanium alloys on collagen metabolism in the healing of intestinal anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Hu; Ni, Jian-Shu; Cao, Nai-Long; Yu, Song; Chen, Yi-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Gu, Bao-Jun; Yan, Jun

    2017-03-01

    There is a great clinical need for biodegradable materials, which were used as pins of circular staplers, for gastrointestinal reconstruction in medicine. In this work we compared the effects of the Mg-6Zn and the titanium alloys on collagen metabolism in the healing of the intestinal tract in vivo. The study included Sprague-Dawley rats and their effect was compared on rat’s intestinal tract, using serum magnesium, radiology, and immunohistochemistry in vivo. Radiographic and scanning electron microscope evaluation confirmed the degradation by Mg-6Zn alloy during the implantation period. Biochemical measurements including serum magnesium, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and glutamic-pyruvic-transaminase proved that degradation of Mg-6Zn alloy showed no impact on serum magnesium and the function of other important organs. Superior to titanium alloy, Mg-6Zn alloy enhanced the expression of collagen I/III and relatively suppressed the expression of MMP-1/-13 in the healing tissues, leading to more mature collagen formation at the site of anastomosis. In conclusion, Mg-6Zn alloy performed better than titanium alloy on collagen metabolism and promoted the healing of intestinal anastomosis. Hence, Mg-6Zn may be a promising candidate for use of stapler pins for intestinal reconstruction in the clinically.

  9. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters for ammonia-exposed broilers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min; Bai, Jie; Wei, Fengxian; Xu, Bin; Sun, Quanyou; Li, Jie; Wang, Gaili; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhang, Hongfu; Yin, Qingqiang; Li, Shaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on relieving ammonia stress of broilers, 180 22-day-old male broilers were assigned to three groups, six replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate. The three groups were: (1) a control group without ammonia stress; (2) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia (AM); (3) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia and administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM + LA). The experimental period was 3 weeks. Results showed that average daily weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was decreased in the AM + LA group, compared with the AM group (P < 0.05). Total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in serum, and glutathione content in liver were higher in the AM + LA group than that in the AM group (P < 0.05); however, serum malondialdehyde content was decreased by LA addition (P < 0.05). Additionally, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were reduced and albumin level was increased by LA addition (P < 0.05). In conclusion, LA addition could relieve ammonia stress to restore broiler production performance to normal levels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Rat maintenance in the Research Animal Holding Facility during the flight of Space Lab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, T.; Grindeland, R.; Kraft, L.; Ruder, M.; Vasques, M.

    1985-01-01

    To test the husbandry capabilities of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) during space flight, 24 male rats were flown on Spacelab 3 for 7 days. Twelve large rats (400 g, LF), 5 of which had telemetry devices implanted (IF), and 12 small rats (200 g, SF) were housed in the RAHF. Examination 3 hr after landing (R + 3) revealed the rats to be free of injury, well nourished, and stained with urine. At R + 10 the rats were lethargic and atonic with hyperemia of the extremities and well groomed except for a middorsal area stained with urine and food. Both LF and SF rats showed weight gains comparable to their IG controls; IF rats grew less than controls. Food and water consumption were similar for flight and control groups. Plasma concentrations of total protein, sodium, albumin and creatinine did not differ between flight and control groups. LF and SF rats had elevated plasma glucose, and SF rats had increased blood urea nitrogen, potassium and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. These observations indicate that rats maintained in the RAHF were healthy, well nourished and experienced minimal stress; physiological changes in the rats can thus be attributed to the effects of space flight.

  11. Synergistic Effects of Micro-electrolysis-Photocatalysis on Water Treatment and Fish Performance in Saline Recirculating Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhangying; Wang, Shuo; Gao, Weishan; Li, Haijun; Pei, Luowei; Shen, Mingwei; Zhu, Songming

    2017-01-01

    A new physico-chemical process for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen) removal and disinfection is introduced in saline recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), in which the biofilter is replaced with an integrated electrolysis cell and an activated carbon filter. The electrolysis cell which is based on micro current electrolysis combined with UV-light was self-designed. After the fundamental research, a small pilot scale RAS was operated for 30 days to verify the technical feasibility. The system was stocked by 42 GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish with the rearing density of 13 kg/m3. During the experiments, the TAN concentration remained below 1.0 mg/L. The nitrite concentration was lower than 0.2 mg/L and the nitrate concentration had increased continuously to 12.79 mg/L at the end. Furthermore, the concentration of residual chlorine in culture ponds remained below 0.3 mg/L, ORP maintained slight fluctuations in the range of 190~240 mV, and pH of the water showed the downtrend. Tilapia weight increased constantly to 339.3 ± 10 g. For disinfection, the active chlorine generated by electrochemical treatment caused Escherichia coli inactivation. Enzyme activity assay indicated that the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase increased within the normal range. The preliminary feasibility was verified by using this physico-chemical technology in the RAS. PMID:28345583

  12. Synergistic Effects of Micro-electrolysis-Photocatalysis on Water Treatment and Fish Performance in Saline Recirculating Aquaculture System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhangying; Wang, Shuo; Gao, Weishan; Li, Haijun; Pei, Luowei; Shen, Mingwei; Zhu, Songming

    2017-03-01

    A new physico-chemical process for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen) removal and disinfection is introduced in saline recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), in which the biofilter is replaced with an integrated electrolysis cell and an activated carbon filter. The electrolysis cell which is based on micro current electrolysis combined with UV-light was self-designed. After the fundamental research, a small pilot scale RAS was operated for 30 days to verify the technical feasibility. The system was stocked by 42 GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish with the rearing density of 13 kg/m3. During the experiments, the TAN concentration remained below 1.0 mg/L. The nitrite concentration was lower than 0.2 mg/L and the nitrate concentration had increased continuously to 12.79 mg/L at the end. Furthermore, the concentration of residual chlorine in culture ponds remained below 0.3 mg/L, ORP maintained slight fluctuations in the range of 190~240 mV, and pH of the water showed the downtrend. Tilapia weight increased constantly to 339.3 ± 10 g. For disinfection, the active chlorine generated by electrochemical treatment caused Escherichia coli inactivation. Enzyme activity assay indicated that the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, carbonic anhydrase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase increased within the normal range. The preliminary feasibility was verified by using this physico-chemical technology in the RAS.

  13. Therapeutic role of calcium and vitamin K3 in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis - new tools for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Firoz; Khan, Ruqaiyah; Sachan, Richa; Kazmi, Imran; Rawat, Alisha; Sabih, Abdullah; Singh, Rajbala; Afzal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Aftab; Al-Orab, Abdulaziz S; Al-Abbasi, F A; Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Kumar, Vikas

    2018-04-17

    HCC has been reported to be immensely occurring carcinoma worldwide. Recent days the mortality occurred due to liver cancer has also been found to be increased at an alarming speed affecting mostly the young patients. The aim of the current study was to decipher the role of calcium and vitamin K3 in the treatment of chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the male Wistar rats. Liver cancer was induced via a subnecrogenic dose of 160 mg/kg body weight, diethylnitrosamine (DENA) when associated with fasting/refeeding in male Wistar rats. It elevated the serum glutamate oxaloacetate (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, total cholesterol (CH), triglycerides (TG), alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Histopathological examination of liver tissue showed marked carcinogenicity of the chemical carcinogen. Food, water intake and animal weights were also assessed, respectively. The animals exposed to DENA showed a significant decrease in the body weight. The elevated levels of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, AFP, TC and TG were restored by administration of calcium and Vit K (ad libitum) combination at higher dose than the normal dietary requirement (3 mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks p.o. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed the beneficial effects of calcium and vitamin K3 combination in the animals exposed to DENA. The results deciphered the beneficial effects of calcium and vitamin K3 in combination.

  14. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases.

  15. Carbonated soft drinks alter hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform expression in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic consumption of soft drinks (SDs) on hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) expression in the livers of Wistar rats. For 3 consecutive months, the rats had free access to three different soft drinks, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola and 7-UP. The rats were subsequently compared with control group rats that had consumed water. Blood and hepatic tissue samples were assayed for the changes in antioxidants, liver function biomarkers and hepatic gene expression for different isoforms of hepatic CYP. The results indicated that SD consumption (SDC) decreased serum antioxidant levels and increased malondialdehyde secretion, and increased liver biomarkers (glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamate oxaloacetate). SD induced alterations in mRNA expression of hepatic antioxidants and cytochrome isoforms. The expression of peroxidase, catalase, CYP1A2, CYP3A2 and CYP2C11 in the liver were upregulated following SDC. By contrast, CYP2B1 was downregulated after 3 months of SDC in liver tissue samples. Thus, the present findings indicate that SDs induced oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats and for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, indicate that SDC disrupts hepatic CYP enzymes that may affect drug metabolism. Therefore, drug-dosing programs should be carefully designed to take these novel findings into consideration for the treatment of diseases. PMID:27882225

  16. Naja naja atra Venom Protects against Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in MRL/lpr Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiali; Cui, Kui; Kou, Jianqun; Wang, Shuzhi; Xu, Yinli; Ding, Zhihui; Han, Rong; Qin, Zhenghong

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease and effective therapy for this pathology is currently unavailable. We previously reported that oral administration of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) had anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions. We speculated that NNAV may have therapeutic effects in MRL/lpr SLE mice. Twelve-week-old MRL/lpr mice received oral administration of NNAV (20, 40, and 80 μg/kg) or Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (10 mg/kg) daily for 16 weeks. The effects of NNAV on SLE manifestations, including skin erythema, proteinuria, and anxiety-like behaviors, were assessed with visual inspection and Multistix 8 SG strips and open field test, respectively. The pathology of spleen and kidney was examined with H&E staining. The changes in autoimmune antibodies and cytokines were determined with ELISA kits. The results showed that NNAV protected against the manifestation of SLE, including skin erythema and proteinuria. In addition, although no apparent histological change was found in liver and heart in MRL/lpr SLE mice, NNAV reduced the levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, NNAV increased serum C3 and reduced concentrations of circulating globulin, anti-dsDNA antibody, and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. NNAV also reduced lymphadenopathy and renal injury. These results suggest that NNAV may have therapeutic values in the treatment of SLE by inhibiting autoimmune responses.

  17. Generation of C3- and C2-deuterated L-lactic acid by human erythrocytes exposed to D-[1-13C]glucose, D-[2-13C]glucose and D-[6-13C]glucose in the presence of D2O.

    PubMed

    Malaisse, W J; Biesemans, M; Willem, R

    1994-05-01

    1. The generation of C2- and C3-deuterated L-lactate was monitored by 13C NMR in human erythrocytes exposed to D-[1-13C]glucose, D-[2-13C]glucose or D-[6-13C]glucose and incubated in a medium prepared in D2O. 2. The results suggested that the deuteration of the C1 of D-fructose 6-phosphate in the phosphoglucoisomerase reaction, the deuteration of the C1 of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the sequence of reactions catalyzed by triose phosphate isomerase and aldolase and the deuteration of the C3 of pyruvate in the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase were all lower than expected from equilibration with D2O. 3. Moreover, about 40% of the molecules of pyruvate generated by glycolysis apparently underwent deuteration on their C3 during interconversion of the 2-keto acid and L-alanine in the reaction catalyzed by glutamate-pyruvate transaminase. 4. The occurrence of the latter process was also documented in cells exposed to exogenous [3-13C]pyruvate. 5. This methodological approach is proposed to provide a new tool to assess in intact cells the extent of back-and-forth interconversion of selected metabolic intermediates.

  18. [Effects of soy bean isoflavone on inhibition of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the expressions of NO and NOS of rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Aiqing; Ren, Guofeng; Tang, Ling; Jiang, Weiwei

    2009-03-01

    To explore the inhibitive effect of soybean isoflavone on the prostatic hyperplasia on the expressions of nitric oxid and nitric oxide synthase in the prostatic hyperplasia rats. Subcutaneously injected testosterone propionate were to induce prostate hyperplasia in rats. The changes of prostate wet weight, prostatic index, liver index, the changes of some biochemical indexes in rat prostate tissue in the control and the treatment, the low, moderate, high dose groups of soybean isoflavone groups were observed. The prostate wet weight and prostatic index in all dose groups were merely lower than those in the treatment and the moderate groups were lowest in all dose group. There were no significant differences in liver index, urea nitrogen, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase of each group. Acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in all dose groups were merely lower than those in the treatment group. Nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase in all dose groups were merely higher than those in the treatment group. Soybean isoflavone could inhibit prostate hyperplasia and increase the expressions of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase in rats.

  19. High Serum Adiponectin Level Is a Risk Factor for Anemia in Japanese Men: A Prospective Observational Study of 1,029 Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Kei; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Shiono, Yosuke; Suzuki, Ikuko; Kato, Yuichi; Sho, Ri; Otani, Katsumi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kubota, Isao; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Fukao, Akira; Kayama, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    Erythroid abnormalities including anemia and polycythemia are often observed in the general clinical setting. Because recent studies reported that adiponectin negatively affects hematopoiesis, we performed a prospective observational study to assess the relationship between anemia and adiponectin, as well as other parameters, in 1029 Japanese subjects (477 men and 552 women) 40 years of age and older. Body measurements, blood tests, and nutrition intake studies were performed at baseline, and 5 to 7 years later (follow-up). Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) levels in men with high serum adiponectin levels were lower at follow-up than at baseline. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, body mass index, adiponectin, and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were significantly associated with erythroid-related variables (red blood cells, Hb, and Hct) in both men and women (P <0.05). In a logistic regression analysis, adiponectin, fasting blood glucose, and β-natriuretic peptide were significant risk factors for anemia in men, and blood urea nitrogen and amylase were significant risk factors in women. Physical features and nutrient intake were not risk factors for anemia. Our study demonstrates, both clinically and epidemiologically, that a high serum adiponectin level decreases the amounts of erythroid-related variables and is a risk factor for anemia in Japanese men. PMID:27918575

  20. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of silymarin phytosomes compared to milk thistle extract in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Gazayerly, O N; Makhlouf, A I A; Soelm, A M A; Mohmoud, M A

    2014-01-01

    Milk thistle extract is a well-known hepatoprotectant with low bioavailability (20-50%). The objective of the present study is to prepare and characterize silymarin phytosomes and to test the hepatoprotective effect of the phytosomes in CCl4 induced liver injury in rats compared to milk thistle extract. Phytosomes were prepared using lecithin from soybeans and from egg yolk. The prepared phytosomes were examined using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H(1)NMR). The loading efficiency was >85% in all phytosomal formulations. Formula P2 (with the molar ratio of soybean lecithin to silybin 1:1) and P4 (with the molar ratio of egg-yolk lecithin to silybin 0.25:1) exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) faster release than milk thistle extract. The in vivo study revealed that phytosomes significantly (p < 0.05) decreased glutamic pyruvic transaminase and super oxide dismutase activities compared to milk thistle extract.

  1. Effects of deuteration on the metabolism of halogenated anesthetics in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, L.P.; Malek, R.S.; Larsen, E.R.

    1979-08-01

    The authors studied the effects of substituting deuterium for hydrogen in several volatile anesthetics on their metabolism in the Fischer rat. Substitution of deuterium in the ethyl portion of methoxyflurane increased the metabolic production of fluoride ion by 19 percent when administered at a concentration of 0.05%. Total replacement of hydrogen by deuterium resulted in a 29% decrease in the amount of fluoride produced, while deuteration of only the methoxyl group produced a 33% decrease in fluoride produced. Deuteration of halothane resulted in a 15 or 26% decrease in serum bromide at 0.75% or 1.0%, respectively. Deuteration in the ethylmore » portions of enflurane and two experimental agents, CF2HOCF2CFBrH and CF2HOCF2CCl2H resulted in 65, 76, and 29% decreases in urinary fluoride, respectively. Anesthesia with deuterated chloroform at a concentration of 0.36% produced a 35% decrease in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). It is concluded that deuteration of volatile anesthetics changes their metabolism, in most cases producing decreases in metabolism. This effect may lessen the organ toxicity believed to occur with some of these anesthetics.« less

  2. Diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in white leghorn birds (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Jain, Teenu; Koley, K M; Vadlamudi, V P; Ghosh, R C; Roy, S; Tiwari, Sandhya; Sahu, Upasana

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate diclofenac-induced biochemical and histopathological changes in White Leghorn birds. Six-week-old birds were equally divided into three groups of six birds each. Group I served as control and received vehicle orally. The birds of Group II and III were orally administered with a single low (2 mg/kg) and high dose (20 mg/kg) of diclofenac sodium, respectively, and were observed for 7 days. The acute toxicity was assessed by observing the clinical signs and symptoms, mortality, alterations in blood biochemistry, and necropsy findings. The birds of Group II showed only mild symptoms of diarrhea. In Group III, 50% of birds died in between 24 and 36 h post-treatment showing the symptoms of segregatory behavior, lethargy, terminal anorexia, and severe bloody diarrhea. The birds of Group II and the surviving birds of Group III showed a significantly (P<0.05) increased plasma uric acid, creatinine and plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase (PGPT), and decreased total protein and albumin at 12 and 24 h post-treatment which returned to the normal levels at 36 h post-treatment. The dead birds of the high-dose group also showed similar pattern of biochemical changes at 12 and 24 h post-treatment and revealed extensive visceral gout with characteristic histopathological lesions in liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and intestine on post-mortem. The results indicate that diclofenac sodium has hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and visceral gout inducing potentials in White Leghorn birds, especially at higher dose.

  3. Protective Effects of Extracellular and Intracellular Polysaccharides on Hepatotoxicity by Hericium erinaceus SG-02.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fangyuan; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Nuo; Zhao, Huajie; Lin, Lin; Zhou, Meng; Jia, Le

    2016-09-01

    The protective effects of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus SG-02 on the CCl4-induced hepatic injury of mice were investigated in this work. By the analysis of GC, the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were composed of arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 1:7:14:52, and the composition of intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) was rhamnose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 3:4:7:14:137. The model of hepatic injury of mice was induced by CCl4 and three tested levels (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of EPS and IPS were set as the experimental group. Results showed that the aspartate aminotransferase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activities in serum were reduced by the supplement of EPS and IPS, while the blood lipid levels including cholesterol, triglyceride, and albumin were improved. In liver tissue, the lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde were largely decreased, and the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly increased. The evidence demonstrated that the EPS and IPS of H. erinaceus SG-02 were protective for liver injury. The histopathological observations of mice liver slices indicated that EPS and IPS had obvious effects on liver protection.

  4. Effect of desipramine and fluoxetine on energy metabolism of cerebral mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Villa, Roberto Federico; Ferrari, Federica; Gorini, Antonella; Brunello, Nicoletta; Tascedda, Fabio

    2016-08-25

    Brain bioenergetic abnormalities in mood disorders were detected by neuroimaging in vivo studies in humans. Because of the increasing importance of mitochondrial pathogenetic hypothesis of Depression, in this study the effects of sub-chronic treatment (21days) with desipramine (15mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10mg/kg) were evaluated on brain energy metabolism. On mitochondria in vivo located in neuronal soma (somatic) and on mitochondria of synapses (synaptic), the catalytic activities of regulatory enzymes of mitochondrial energy-yielding metabolic pathways were assayed. Antidepressants in vivo treatment modified the activities of selected enzymes of different mitochondria, leading to metabolic modifications in the energy metabolism of brain cortex: (a) the enhancement of cytochrome oxidase activity on somatic mitochondria; (b) the decrease of malate, succinate dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities of synaptic mitochondria; (c) the selective effect of fluoxetine on enzymes related to glutamate metabolism. These results overcome the conflicting data so far obtained with antidepressants on brain energy metabolism, because the enzymatic analyses were made on mitochondria with diversified neuronal in vivo localization, i.e. on somatic and synaptic. This research is the first investigation on the pharmacodynamics of antidepressants studied at subcellular level, in the perspective of (i) assessing the role of energy metabolism of cerebral mitochondria in animal models of mood disorders, and (ii) highlighting new therapeutical strategies for antidepressants targeting brain bioenergetics. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Potency of Red Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) Extracts as Hepatoprotector on Lead Acetate-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wardani, Giftania; Farida, Nuraini; Andayani, Rina; Kuntoro, Mahmiah; Sudjarwo, Sri Agus

    2017-01-01

    Lead is one of the most toxic metals, producing severe organ damage in animals and humans. Oxidative stress is reported to play an important role in lead acetate-induced liver injury. This study was carried out to investigate the role of ethanol extract of Eucheuma cottonii in protecting against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity in male mice. The sample used fifty male mice which were divided into five groups: negative control (mice were given daily with Aquadest); positive control (mice were given daily with lead acetate 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) orally once in a day for 21 days); and the treatment group (mice were given E. cottonii extracts 200 mg, 400 mg, and 800 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 25 days, and on the 4 th day, were given lead acetate 20 mg/kg BW 1 h after E. cottonii extract administration for 21 days). On day 25, the levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured. The data of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, MDA, SOD, and GPx were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by least significant difference test. The results showed that oral administration of lead acetate 20 mg/kg BW for 21 days resulted in a significant increase in SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and MDA levels. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in SOD and GPx levels. Treatment with E. cottonii extracts of 800 mg/kg BW but not with 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW significantly ( P < 0.05) decreased the elevated SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and MDA levels as compared to positive control group. Treatment with E. cottonii extracts of 800 mg/kg BW also showed a significant increase in SOD and GPx levels as compared to positive control group. Treating mice with lead acetate showed different histopathological changes such as loss of the normal structure of hepatic cells, blood congestion, and fatty degeneration whereas animals treated with lead

  6. The Potency of Red Seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) Extracts as Hepatoprotector on Lead Acetate-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wardani, Giftania; Farida, Nuraini; Andayani, Rina; Kuntoro, Mahmiah; Sudjarwo, Sri Agus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most toxic metals, producing severe organ damage in animals and humans. Oxidative stress is reported to play an important role in lead acetate-induced liver injury. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the role of ethanol extract of Eucheuma cottonii in protecting against lead acetate-induced hepatotoxicity in male mice. Materials and Methods: The sample used fifty male mice which were divided into five groups: negative control (mice were given daily with Aquadest); positive control (mice were given daily with lead acetate 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) orally once in a day for 21 days); and the treatment group (mice were given E. cottonii extracts 200 mg, 400 mg, and 800 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 25 days, and on the 4th day, were given lead acetate 20 mg/kg BW 1 h after E. cottonii extract administration for 21 days). On day 25, the levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured. The data of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, MDA, SOD, and GPx were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by least significant difference test. Results: The results showed that oral administration of lead acetate 20 mg/kg BW for 21 days resulted in a significant increase in SGOT, SGPT, ALP, and MDA levels. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in SOD and GPx levels. Treatment with E. cottonii extracts of 800 mg/kg BW but not with 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the elevated SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and MDA levels as compared to positive control group. Treatment with E. cottonii extracts of 800 mg/kg BW also showed a significant increase in SOD and GPx levels as compared to positive control group. Treating mice with lead acetate showed different histopathological changes such as loss of the normal structure of hepatic cells, blood congestion, and fatty

  7. Investigation of hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu; Manisenthilkumar, KT

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (AETPB) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity was studied in rats after the oral administration of AETPB to determine the dose to assess hypoglycemic activity. In rats, diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and diabetes was confirmed 72 h after induction, and then allowed for 14 days to stabilize blood glucose level. In diabetic rats, AETPB was orally given for 28 days and its effect on blood glucose and body weight was determined on a weekly basis. At the end of the experimental day, fasting blood sample was collected to estimate the haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, urea, serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and insulin levels. The liver and kidney were collected to determine antioxidants levels in diabetic rats. Results Oral administration of AETPB did not exhibit toxicity and death at a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. AETPB treated diabetic rats significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) reduced elevated blood glucose, HbA1c, creatinine, urea, SGPT and SGOT levels when compared with diabetic control rats. The body weight, Hb, insulin and total protein levels were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.05) increased in diabetic rats treated with AETPB compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, AETPB treatment significantly reversed abnormal status of antioxidants and lipid profile levels towards near normal levels compared to diabetic control rats. Conclusions Present study results confirm that AETPB possesses significant hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in diabetic condition. PMID:23569911

  8. Combination treatment with Gua Sha and Blood-letting causes attenuation of systemic inflammation, activated coagulation, tissue ischemia and injury during heatstroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wen-zhan; Cheng, Rui-dong; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jie-zhi; Lin, Hai-yan; Zou, En-miao; Wang, Wan-sheng; Lou, Xin-fa; Jiang, Song-he

    2015-08-01

    Gua Sha and Blood-letting at the acupoints were Chinese traditional therapies for heatstroke. The purpose of present study was to assess the therapeutic effect of Gua Sha on the DU Meridian and Bladder Meridian combined with Blood-letting acupoints at Shixuan (EX-UE 11) and Weizhong (BL 40) on heatstroke. Anesthetized rats, immediately after the onset of heatstroke, were divided into four major groups: Gua Sha group, Blood-letting group, Gua Sha combined with Blood-letting group and model group. They were exposed to ambient temperature of 43 °C to induce heatstroke. Another group of rats were exposed to room temperature (26 °C) and used as normal control group. Their survival times were measured. In addition, their physiological and biochemical parameters were continuously monitored. When rats underwent heatstroke, their survival time values were found to be 21-25 min. Treatment of Gua Sha combined with Bloodletting greatly improved the survival time (230±22 min) during heatstroke. All heatstoke animals displayed and activated coagulation evidenced by increased prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimer, and decreased platelet count, protein C. Furthermore, the animals displayed systemic inflammation evidenced by increased the serum levels of cytokines interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical markers evidenced by cellular ischemia and injury/dysfunction included increased plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were all elevated during heatstroke. Core temperatures (Tco) were also increased during heatstroke. In contrast, the values of mean arterial pressure were signifificantly lower during heatstroke. These heatstroke reactions were all signifificantly suppressed by treatment of Gua Sha and Blood-letting, especially the combination

  9. Clinical evaluation of natural history of Peyronie's disease: our experience, old myths and new certainties.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Gianni; Cavallini, Giorgio

    2013-10-01

    Several studies describing the "natural history" of Peyronie's disease (PD) (Chronic Inflammation of the Tunica Albuginea-CITA) showed that untreated patients with PD seem to have spontaneous improvement. Because of these articles many physicians found to have a non-therapeutic behavior in case of PD. This paper tries to define the natural history of PD using penile dynamic duplex ultrasound evaluation in function of factors able to elicit fibrosis of the penis. Eighty-two patients have been studied, the mean time being between PD onset and diagnosis was 9.6 ± 3.8 months, mean age was 52.6 ± 10.69. Each patient underwent to two clinical assessments for PD, with a time-lag of 18.08 ± 9.2 months. Each assessment comprises: measurement of: plaque volume in cm(3) (with dynamic echocolor Doppler ultrasonography), penile curvature in degrees (with Kelami method), pain (with Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale/PINRS) and sexual function (with IIEF15 scale). The following clinical and laboratory assessments were carried out on each patient: body-mass index (BMI), blood pressure measurement, blood count, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, blood sugar, glycated haemoglobin and total testosterone. We assessed whether PD plaque volume, penile deformity, pain and modify by time, in function of risk factors of fibrosis (aging, smoking habit, erectile failure, number of comorbidities, BMI, radical prostatectomy) and/or of the severity of symptoms (plaque area, penile deformity and calcifications). Qualitative-quantitative non parametric multivariate analysis has been used as statistical test. The analysis indicated that PD symptoms increase by time in the majority of the patients, and that the increase is not linked to the severity of symptoms, but to the risk factors for developing fibrosis, with the exception of age that is inversely related. PD is a progressive disease, whose progression is linked to young age and to risk factors

  10. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Pandey, P K; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Kundan

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T(0) (without azadirachtin), T(1) (0.1%), T(2) (0.2%), T(3) (0.4%), T(4) (0.8%) and T(5) (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced TEC, TLC, Total Ig, total protein, NBT activity, serum lysozyme activity and myeloperoxidase level in different treatment groups in comparison with control group. Similarly, SGOT, SGPT and blood glucose level were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) high but PCV and Hb did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg(-1) showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher relative percentage survival (42.60%) when compared with the control against A. hydrophila infection. This study indicated that azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg(-1)) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be

  11. Mechanisms of bee venom-induced acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Grisotto, Luciana S D; Mendes, Glória E; Castro, Isac; Baptista, Maria A S F; Alves, Venancio A; Yu, Luis; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2006-07-01

    The spread of Africanized bees in the American continent has increased the number of severe envenomation after swarm attacks. Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the major hazards in surviving patients. To assess the mechanisms of bee venom-induced ARF, rats were evaluated before, up to 70 min and 24h after 0.5mg/kg of venom injection. Control rats received saline. Bee venom caused an early and significant reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, 0.84+/-0.05 to 0.40+/-0.08 ml/min/100g, p<0.0001) and renal blood flow (RBF, laser Doppler flowmetry), which was more severe in the cortical (-72%) than in the medullary area (-48%), without systemic blood pressure decrease. Creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase increased significantly, pointing to rhabdomyolysis, whereas serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and hematocrit remained stable. Twenty-four hours after venom, RBF recovered but GFR remained significantly impaired. Renal histology showed acute tubular injury and a massive tubular deposition of myoglobin. Venom was added to isolated rat proximal tubules (PT) suspension subjected to normoxia and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) for direct nephrotoxicity evaluation. After 60 min of incubation, 0.1, 2 and 10 microg of venom induced significant increases in LDH release: 47%, 64% and 86%, respectively, vs. 21% in control PT while 2 microg of venom enhanced H/R injury (85% vs. 55%, p<0.01). These results indicate that vasoconstriction, direct nephrotoxicity and rhabdomyolysis are important mechanisms in the installation of bee venom-induced ARF that may occur even without hemolysis or hypotension.

  12. Longterm storage of post-packaged bread by controlling spoilage pathogens using Lactobacillus fermentum C14 isolated from homemade curd.

    PubMed

    Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Sengupta, Shreya; Mandal, Narayan C

    2017-01-01

    One potent lactic acid bacterial strain C14 with strong antifungal activity was isolated from homemade curd. Based on morphological as well as biochemical characters and 16S rDNA sequence homology the strain was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum. It displayed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, and also against number of food spoilage, plant and human pathogenic fungi. The cell free supernatant (CFS) of the strain C14 was also effective against the fungi tested. Inhibition of radial growth of Penicillium digitatum, Trichophyton rubrum and Mucor sp. was noticed in the presence of CFS of C14 even at low concentration (1%). More than 94.3 ± 1.6% and 91.5 ± 2.2% inhibition of conidial germination of P. digitatum and Mucor sp. were noticed in the presence of 10-fold-concentrated CFS of C14. Massive deformation of the fungal mycelia was observed by SEM studies, and losses of cellular proteins and DNA are also evident upon its treatment with C14. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenyl lactic acid, lactic acid along with some unidentified compounds in the antifungal extract. Challenge experiment showed immense potential of the strain C14 in preventing the spoilage of bread samples caused by Mucor sp. and Bacillus subtilis. The bread samples remained fresh upto 25 days even after inoculation with Mucor sp. (3.7 × 104 spores /ml) and B. subtilis (4.6 × 104 CFU /ml). Along with the antifungal properties, the isolated lactic acid bacterial strain also showed very good antioxidant activities. Unchanged level of liver enzymes serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in albino mice upon feeding with C14 also suggested non-toxic nature of the bacterial isolate.

  13. Pharmacokinetic interactions among imatinib, bosentan and sildenafil, and their clinical implications in severe pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Didier; Bouillon, Thomas; Zhou, Ping; Flesch, Gerard; Quinn, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study characterized the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of imatinib in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), investigated drug–drug interactions (DDI) among imatinib, sildenafil and bosentan, and evaluated their clinical implications. Methods Plasma concentrations of imatinib, bosentan and sildenafil were collected in a phase III study and were used to characterize the PK of imatinib in this population. DDIs among the three drugs were quantified using a linear mixed model and log-transformed drug concentrations. Results The population mean estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F) and volume (V/F) were 10.8 l h–1 (95% CI 9.2, 12.4 l h–1) and 267 l (95% CI 208, 326 l), respectively. It was estimated that sildenafil concentrations increased, on average, by 64% (95% CI 32%, 103%) and bosentan concentrations by 51% (95% CI 12%, 104%), in the presence of imatinib. Despite increased concentrations of co-medications, treatment differences between imatinib and placebo for change in 6 min walk distance and pulmonary vascular resistance were relatively constant across the entire concentration range for sildenafil and bosentan. Overall, higher concentrations of imatinib and bosentan were not associated with increasing liver enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases [SGOT]/serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase [SGPT]). Conclusions Population PKs of imatinib in patients with severe PAH were found comparable with those of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Imatinib was found effective regardless of the co-medications and showed intrinsic efficacy beyond merely elevating the concentrations of the co-medications due to DDIs. There was no evidence of increased risk of liver toxicity upon co-administration with bosentan. PMID:25581063

  14. Longterm storage of post-packaged bread by controlling spoilage pathogens using Lactobacillus fermentum C14 isolated from homemade curd

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Soma; Ghosh, Ranjan; Sengupta, Shreya

    2017-01-01

    One potent lactic acid bacterial strain C14 with strong antifungal activity was isolated from homemade curd. Based on morphological as well as biochemical characters and 16S rDNA sequence homology the strain was identified as Lactobacillus fermentum. It displayed a wide antimicrobial spectrum against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, and also against number of food spoilage, plant and human pathogenic fungi. The cell free supernatant (CFS) of the strain C14 was also effective against the fungi tested. Inhibition of radial growth of Penicillium digitatum, Trichophyton rubrum and Mucor sp. was noticed in the presence of CFS of C14 even at low concentration (1%). More than 94.3 ± 1.6% and 91.5 ± 2.2% inhibition of conidial germination of P. digitatum and Mucor sp. were noticed in the presence of 10-fold-concentrated CFS of C14. Massive deformation of the fungal mycelia was observed by SEM studies, and losses of cellular proteins and DNA are also evident upon its treatment with C14. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenyl lactic acid, lactic acid along with some unidentified compounds in the antifungal extract. Challenge experiment showed immense potential of the strain C14 in preventing the spoilage of bread samples caused by Mucor sp. and Bacillus subtilis. The bread samples remained fresh upto 25 days even after inoculation with Mucor sp. (3.7 × 104 spores /ml) and B. subtilis (4.6 × 104 CFU /ml). Along with the antifungal properties, the isolated lactic acid bacterial strain also showed very good antioxidant activities. Unchanged level of liver enzymes serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in albino mice upon feeding with C14 also suggested non-toxic nature of the bacterial isolate. PMID:28859156

  15. Cynanchum wilfordii Radix attenuates liver fat accumulation and damage by suppressing hepatic cyclooxygenase-2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seon-A; Lee, SungRyul; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Yang, Jaehyuk; Park, Dae Won; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Inhye; Kwon, Jung Eun; Song, Hae Seong; Cho, Young Mi; Meng, Xue; Koo, Hyun Jung; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-09-01

    Excessive consumption of fat and fructose augments the pathological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and hepatic de novo lipogenesis. We hypothesized that supplementation with Cynanchum wilfordii extract (CWE) decreases fat accumulation in the liver by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The beneficial effect of CWE was evaluated in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Mice were fed either a normal diet or an atherogenic diet with fructose (ATHFR) in the presence or absence of CWE (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg; n=6/group). Treatment with ATHFR induced a hepatosplenomegaly-like condition (increased liver and spleen weight); this pathological change was attenuated in the presence of CWE. The ATHFR group exhibited impaired liver function, as evidenced by increased blood levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, fat accumulation in the liver, and lipid profiles. Supplementation of CWE (100 and 200 mg/kg, P<.05) ameliorated these impaired liver functions. Atherogenic diet with fructose increased the protein levels of COX-2 and p38 MAPK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. These signaling pathways, which are associated with the inflammatory response, were markedly suppressed after CWE treatment (100 and 200 mg/kg). In summary, CWE supplementation reduced high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced fat accumulation and damage in the liver by suppressing COX-2, NF-κB, and p38 MAPK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Semipurified fractions from the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei Murill reduce blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae W; Kim, Yun A; Jang, Wook J; Byeon, Jae I; Ryu, Chung H; Kim, Jeong O; Ha, Yeong L

    2010-04-14

    Hypoglycemic action of semipurified fractions from hot-water extracts of the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei Murill was examined in streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal)-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats, relative to the diabetes drug metformin. The hot-water extract, treated with ethanol to remove beta-glucans and glycoproteins, was freeze-dried, and fractionated into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EA), and butanol fractions. The EA fraction (EAF; 200 mg/kg body weight) reduced (p < 0.05) the blood glucose level in the oral glucose tolerance test, relative to the other fractions and control. In a 14 day-treatment study, diabetic rats treated with the EAF displayed a suppressed blood glucose level and elevated plasma insulin and glucose transport-4 proteins; the reactions occurred in a dose-dependent manner (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) compared to those in control animals. The EAF reduced the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in plasma, the activity of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase in blood, and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the liver and kidney. The hypoglycemic efficacy of the EAF (400 mg/kg body weight) was similar to that of metformin (500 mg/kg body weight). The EAF contained substantial amounts of isoflavonoids including genistein, genistin, daidzein, and daidzin, which could have contributed to the fraction's hypoglycemic action. These results indicate that the hot-water extract of the submerged-culture broth of Agaricus blazei contains an EAF having potent hypoglycemic action, which could be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Comparative study of effect of Withania somnifera as an adjuvant to DOTS in patients of newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Rai, Jaswant; Kajal, N C; Devi, Pushpa

    2018-07-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Linn.) a rejuvenative herb has long been used as an immunomodulator in Indian subcontinent. As immunity plays an important role in pathogenesis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB), so role of W. somnifera as an adjuvant has been studied on selected parameter. A randomized, double-blind placebo-control study was conducted in two groups of 60 newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients on Directly Observed Treatment - short course (DOTS) regime. W. somnifera root extract or placebo capsules were given as add-on therapy for duration of 12 weeks. Effects on sputum conversion, Hemoglobin (Hb), body weight, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), RBC counts, WBC counts, CD4 and CD8 counts, Serum Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), serum uric acid and HRQL (Health Related Quality of Life) Index scores were studied. At the end of 8 weeks, sputum conversion was seen in 86.6% patients in study group and 76.6% in placebo group. At the end of 12 weeks a highly significant increase was seen in both CD4 and CD8 counts in study group. A raised SGOT and SGPT levels (>35IU/L) were observed in 16.6% and 33.3% patients in study group; 43.33% and 53.33% in the placebo group of patients. Elevated serum uric acid levels (>6mg/dl) were observed in 20% and 33.33% in study and placebo group respectively. Average gain in HRQL score was better in patients of study group. Use of W. somnifera as an adjuvant in conjunction with anti-TB drugs used as DOTS showed a favorable effect on symptoms and immunological parameters in patients with pulmonary TB. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Clinical presentation of different severities of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: how to recognise it].

    PubMed

    Lausević, Mirjana; Lausević, Zeljko; Stojimirović, Biljana

    2012-07-01

    Besides viral serotype, HLA haplotype and cytokine genes polymorphism are associated with clinical presentation of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Since these analyses are unavailable in routine clinical practice, the aim of this study was to assess clinical, laboratory and radiographic findings associated with clinical presentation of disease severity. A total of 30 patients (27 men and 3 women), average age 40 +/- 14.9 years, treated for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2009 in Clinical Center of Serbia, were included in the study. Nine patients (30%) had mild, 14 (46.7%) moderate and 7 (23.3%) severe form of the disease; 24 (800%) recovered, 6 (20%) died in the acute phase of the illness, and 19 patients (63.3%) required hemodialysis. The average titer of antiviral antibodies in patients infected with Belgrade serotype virus were significantly higher in those with severe clinical presentation. Hypotension, anuria, macrohaematuria, pulmonary infiltration, pleural effusion, hepatomegalia and positive meningeal signs were more frequent in the patients with severe form of the disease. Statistically significant differences between groups with mild, moderate and severe clinical picture were found in serum total protein, albumin, calcium, glutamate pyruvate and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase on admittance; serum creatinine and phosphorus concentration on day 14 and day 21; serum sodium and calciums on day 14; hemoglobine concentration on day 21. A statistically significant correlation was found between clinical presentation of the disease severity and platelet count, white blood cell count, hemoglobine concentration, serum calcium and serum transaminases on admittance. Multivariate analysis identified variables' combinations associated with clinical presentation of the disease. Our study confirmed that we can distinguish patients who will manifest different severities of the disease on the basis of careful

  19. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare.

    PubMed

    ELSaidy, N; Mohamed, R A; Abouelenien, F

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens' health and welfare. Draw attention to the importance of maintaining the hygienic quality

  20. Decreased white blood cell counts in semiconductor manufacturing workers in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Hsieh, L; Chang, M; Hsu, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the systematic health effects on the liver, kidney, and haematological function tests of workers in semiconductors in Taiwan. Methods: 926 workers of a semiconductor plant in Taiwan in July 1995 were investigated. Complete blood tests including liver, kidney, and haematological functions were available from 227 workers. Results: There was a significantly lower mean (SD) white blood cell (WBC) count in male workers of photolithography (5870 (1190)/mm3, p=0.003) and implantation (6190 (1150)/mm3, p=0.018) than that of male control workers (7350 (1660)/mm3). There was a significantly higher prevalence of leukopenia in male photolithography workers (6 of 20; 30%) than in male control workers (1 of 18; 5.6%), the crude odds ratio (OR) was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1 to 55.6), and the multivariate adjusted OR was 8.1 (95% CI 0.83 to 78.3). The tests for serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), γ glutamyl transferase (RGT), and creatinine were not significant among male workers. Female workers in photolithography had abnormal SGPT and RGT of borderline significance, the multivariate adjusted ORs were 9.6 (95% CI 0.86 to 107) and 6.35 (95% CI 0.53 to 75.8), respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that leukopenia is a potential health effect in male fabrication workers of the semiconductor industry. The tasks of the process, maintenance, and equipment engineers which consisted mostly of men put them at risk for intermittent short term peak exposure to glycol ethers, ionising radiation, arsenic, or other toxins. The findings of this medical surveillance are significant; however, a further investigation of the aetiological factors and the subsequent health effects is necessary. PMID:11836468

  1. Effect of dietary arginine on growth, intestinal enzyme activities and gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Chen, Gangfu; Feng, Lin; Kuang, Shengyao; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Weidan; Li, Shuhong; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2012-07-01

    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary arginine promotes digestion and absorption capacity, and, thus, enhances fish growth. This improvement might be related to the target of rapamycin (TOR) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian, with an average initial weight of 6.33 (SE 0.03) g, were fed with diets containing graded concentrations of arginine, namely, 9.8 (control), 12.7, 16.1, 18.5, 21.9 and 24.5 g arginine/kg diet for 9 weeks. An real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed to determine the relative expression of TOR and 4E-BP in fish muscle, hepatopancreas and intestine. Dietary arginine increased (P < 0.05): (1) glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities in muscle and hepatopancreas; (2) intestine and hepatopancreas protein content, folds height, and trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and creatine kinase activities in intestine; (3) Lactobacillus counts; (4) relative expression of TOR in the muscle, hepatopancreas and distal intestine (DI); (5) relative expression of 4E-BP in proximal intestine (PI) and mid-intestine (MI), as compared with the control group. In contrast, dietary arginine reduced (P < 0.05): (1) plasma ammonia content; (2) Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli counts; (3) relative expression of TOR in PI and MI; (4) relative expression of 4E-BP in the muscle, hepatopancreas and DI. The arginine requirement estimated by specific growth rate using quadratic regression analysis was found to be 18.0 g/kg diet. These results indicate that arginine improved fish growth, digestive and absorptive ability and regulated the expression of TOR and 4E-BP genes.

  2. Cocktail treatment with EGFR-specific and CD133-specific chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in a patient with advanced cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kai-Chao; Guo, Ye-Lei; Liu, Yang; Dai, Han-Ren; Wang, Yao; Lv, Hai-Yan; Huang, Jian-Hua; Yang, Qing-Ming; Han, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-05

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most fatal malignant tumors with increasing incidence, mortality, and insensitivity to traditional chemo-radiotherapy and targeted therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell (CART) immunotherapy represents a novel strategy for the management of many malignancies. However, the potential of CART therapy in treating advanced unresectable/metastatic CCA is uncharted so far. In this case, a 52-year-old female who was diagnosed as advanced unresectable/metastatic CCA and resistant to the following chemotherapy and radiotherapy was treated with CART cocktail immunotherapy, which was composed of successive infusions of CART cells targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and CD133, respectively. The patient finally achieved an 8.5-month partial response (PR) from the CART-EGFR therapy and a 4.5-month-lasting PR from the CART133 treatment. The CART-EGFR cells induced acute infusion-related toxicities such as mild chills, fever, fatigue, vomiting and muscle soreness, and a 9-day duration of delayed lower fever, accompanied by escalation of IL-6 and C reactive protein (CRP), acute increase of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, and grade 2 lichen striatus-like skin pathological changes. The CART133 cells induced an intermittent upper abdominal dull pain, chills, fever, and rapidly deteriorative grade 3 systemic subcutaneous hemorrhages and congestive rashes together with serum cytokine release, which needed emergent medical intervention including intravenous methylprednisolone. This case suggests that CART cocktail immunotherapy may be feasible for the treatment of CCA as well as other solid malignancies; however, the toxicities, especially the epidermal/endothelial damages, require a further investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01869166 and NCT02541370 .

  3. Growth performance and protective effect of vitamin E on oxidative stress pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) following by ammonia stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chang-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Xun; Wang, An-Li

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin E on growth performance, biochemical parameters, and antioxidant capacity of pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) exposed to ammonia stress. The experimental basal diets supplemented with vitamin E at the rates of 2.31 (control), 21.84, 40.23, 83.64, 158.93, and 311.64 mg kg -1 dry weight were fed to fish for 60 days. After the feeding trial, the fish were exposed to 100 mg L -1 ammonia-nitrogen for 48 h. The results shown that the vitamin E group significantly improved weight gain, specific growth rate, and the expression levels of growth hormone receptors and insulin-like growth factor. Fish fed with the vitamin E-supplemented diets could increase plasma alkaline phosphatase activities and decrease plasma glutamicoxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities. The relative expression levels of heat shock proteins (40.23-311.64 mg kg -1 vitamin E diet group), manganese superoxide dismutase (83.64-158.93 mg kg -1 vitamin E diet group), catalase (40.23-311.64 mg kg -1 vitamin E diet group), and glutathione reductase (40.23-311.64 mg kg -1 vitamin E diet group) were upregulated. On the other hand, the decreased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in the 83.64-311.64 mg kg -1 vitamin E additive group. These results showed that vitamin E might have a potentially useful role as an effective antioxidant to improve resistance in pufferfish.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of morning glory seed: subchronic 90-day feeding study.

    PubMed

    Dugan, G M; Gumbmann, M R

    1990-08-01

    Diets containing 0.8, 2.53 and 8.0% field variety morning glory seed were fed to male and female rats (20 per group) in a 90-day subchronic feeding study. Gross clinical observations, body weight, and feed and water intake were recorded weekly. At 90 days, all surviving rats were autopsied, organs were weighed, and blood chemistry analyses, haematology, and bone-marrow evaluation for evidence of clastogenic effects were performed. Tissues from control (0% seed) and high-dose (8.0% seed) rats were examined histologically. Effects of morning glory seed were noted mainly in the high-dose group of both sexes. These included increases in mortality, feed consumption (on a body-weight basis), water consumption, serum alkaline phosphatase and potassium, white blood cell count, and brain and liver weights (as a percentage of body weight); body-weight gain and serum glucose were decreased. Significant changes seen in high-dose females alone were: increased haemoglobin, serum constituents (urea nitrogen, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, and ornithine carbamyl transferase), and organ weights (heart, kidney, spleen and pancreas as a percentage of body weight), and decreases in serum albumin, total protein, albumin:globulin ratio, and calcium. Significant changes occurring in high-dose males alone were: increased testicular weight (as a percentage of body weight), increased serum phosphorus, and decreased serum cholesterol. Liver degeneration in the high-dose females was greater than that in the controls. Mortality at 8.0% seed in the diet was 40% in males and 10% in females. At 0.8% seed, the only parameter that differed significantly from that of the controls was a final body-weight reduction in females without a corresponding reduction in feed consumption.

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis) procyanidin A2 on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Tsay, Jwu-Guh; Weng, Brian Bor-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Drug tolerance, lacking liver regenerative activity and inconclusive inhibition of steatosis and cirrhosis by silymarin treatment during chronic liver injury have increased the demand for novel alternative or synergistic treatments for liver damage. Litchi fruit is abundant in polyphenolic compounds and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatments that include the strengthening of hepatic and pancreatic functions. Unique polyphenolic compounds obtained from litchi pericarp extract (LPE) were studied in vitro and in vivo for hepatoprotection. Epicatechin (EC) and procyanidin A2 (PA2) of LPE were obtained by fractionated-extraction from pulverized litchi pericarps. All fractions, including LPE, were screened against silymarin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated murine embryonic liver cell line (BNL). The effects of daily gavage-feeding of LPE, silymarin (200 mg/kg body weight) or H2O in CCl4-intoxicated male ICR mice were evaluated by studying serum chemicals, liver pathology and glutathione antioxidative enzymes. The effects of EC and PA2 on liver cell regenerative activity were investigated using a scratch wound healing assay and flow cytometric cell cycle analysis; the results of which demonstrated that LPE protected BNL from CCl4-intoxication. Gavage-feeding of LPE decreased serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels, and exhibited superior retention of the hexagonal structure of hepatocytes and reduced necrotic cells following liver histopathological examinations in CCl4-intoxicated ICR mice. Glutathione peroxidise and glutathione reductase activities were preserved as the normal control level in LPE groups. EC and PA2 were principle components of LPE. PA2 demonstrated liver cell regenerative activity in scratch wound healing assays and alcohol-induced liver cell injury in vitro. The present findings suggest that litchi pericarp polyphenolic extracts, including EC and PA2, may be a synergistic alternative to

  6. Hepatoprotective effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis) procyanidin A2 on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Tsay, Jwu-Guh; Weng, Brian Bor-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Drug tolerance, lacking liver regenerative activity and inconclusive inhibition of steatosis and cirrhosis by silymarin treatment during chronic liver injury have increased the demand for novel alternative or synergistic treatments for liver damage. Litchi fruit is abundant in polyphenolic compounds and is used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatments that include the strengthening of hepatic and pancreatic functions. Unique polyphenolic compounds obtained from litchi pericarp extract (LPE) were studied in vitro and in vivo for hepatoprotection. Epicatechin (EC) and procyanidin A2 (PA2) of LPE were obtained by fractionated-extraction from pulverized litchi pericarps. All fractions, including LPE, were screened against silymarin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-treated murine embryonic liver cell line (BNL). The effects of daily gavage-feeding of LPE, silymarin (200 mg/kg body weight) or H 2 O in CCl 4 -intoxicated male ICR mice were evaluated by studying serum chemicals, liver pathology and glutathione antioxidative enzymes. The effects of EC and PA2 on liver cell regenerative activity were investigated using a scratch wound healing assay and flow cytometric cell cycle analysis; the results of which demonstrated that LPE protected BNL from CCl 4 -intoxication. Gavage-feeding of LPE decreased serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels, and exhibited superior retention of the hexagonal structure of hepatocytes and reduced necrotic cells following liver histopathological examinations in CCl 4- intoxicated ICR mice. Glutathione peroxidise and glutathione reductase activities were preserved as the normal control level in LPE groups. EC and PA2 were principle components of LPE. PA2 demonstrated liver cell regenerative activity in scratch wound healing assays and alcohol-induced liver cell injury in vitro . The present findings suggest that litchi pericarp polyphenolic extracts, including EC and PA2, may be a synergistic

  7. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for enhanced bioavailability and improved hepatoprotective activity of biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    El-Laithy, Hanan M

    2008-07-01

    Biphenyl Dimethyl Dicarboxylate (BDD) is insoluble in aqueous solution and the bioavailability after oral administration is low. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) containing BDD has been successfully prepared using carefully selected ingredients which are less affected by pH and ionic strength changes to improve its bioavailability. SNEDDS is an isotropic mixture of lipid, surfactant, and cosurfactant which are spontaneously emulsified in aqueous medium under gentle digestive motility in the gastrointestinal tract. Pseudo ternary phase diagrams composed of various excipients were plotted to identify self -nano -emulsifying area. Droplet size changes upon dilution with aqueous media and in vitro release of BDD from SNEDDS in 0.1N HCl and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) were studied and compared with commercial chinese pilules and Pennel capsules. The hepatoprotective activity upon oral administration of SNEDDS against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in albino rats was assessed by measuring biochemical parameters like serum glutamic oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Results showed that using a proper ratio of Tween 80 to Transcutol as surfactant and co-surfactant respectively and Miglyol 812 as oil to surfactants mixture resulted in production of infinitely diluted formulations in nano droplet size range. BDD self nano emulsified formula composed of 20% Miglyol 812, 60% Tween 80 and 20% Transcutol released 99% of the drug very rapidly within 10-15 minutes regardless of the pH condition. The oral absorption and bioavailability of BDD self nano emulsified formula in albino rats were significantly enhanced (P<0.01) with an average improvement of 1.7 and 6-folds that of commercial chinese pilules and Pennel capsules respectively. This improvement was also confirmed histopathologically in chemically injured rats and by the significant decrease in elevated liver enzymes

  8. The protective effect of silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guojun

    2013-03-01

    Silymarin, a mixture of bioactive flavonolignans from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is traditionally used in herbal medicine to defend against various hepatotoxic agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silymarin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in fish. Common carp, with an average initial weight of 17.0 ± 1.1 g, were fed diet containing four doses of silymarin (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg diet) for 60 d. Fish were then given an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (30% in arachis oil) at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight. At 72 h after CCl4 injection, blood and liver samples were collected for the analyses of serum biochemical parameters, liver index, peroxidation product, glutathione, and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results showed that administration of silymarin at 0.5 and 1 g/kg diet for 60 d prior to CCl4 intoxication significantly reduced the elevated activities of glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxalate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and increased the reduced levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. The reduced levels of liver index, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, and total antioxidant capacity were markedly increased, and malondialdehyde formation was significantly restrained in the liver. However, these parameters, except LDH, were not significantly changed in fish fed with silymarin at 0.1 g/kg diet. Based on the results, it can be concluded that silymarin has protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in fish. It is suggested that silymarin may be used as a hepatoprotective agent to prevent liver diseases in fish.

  9. Enhancement of absorption and hepatoprotective potential through soya-phosphatidylcholine-andrographolide vesicular system.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Khurana, Navneet; Pounikar, Yogesh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Kharya, Murli Dhar

    2013-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb used extensively for various ailments and contains therapeutically active phytoconstituent, andrographolide (AN). Although hepatoprotective activity of AN is established, but their bioavailability is restricted due to its rapid clearance. The aim of this study, therefore, was to formulate AN herbosomes (ANH) through complexation with naturally occurring soya-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), in order to enhance absorption. Prepared andrographolide-soy phosphatidylcholine (AN-SPC) complex prepared was subjected for characterisation of complex and formation of vesicular system known as ANH using rotary evaporation techniques. This complex was subjected to in vitro study using everted small intestine sac technique which showed significantly increased absorption of AN from the ANH as compared to the plain AN. The hepatoprotective potential of ANH and plain AN was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride inducing hepatotoxicity rat model and compared, in which ANH equivalent to 50 mg/kg of plain AN significantly restore serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (112.4 ± 9.67 for AN whereas 90.2 ± 4.23 for ANH) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (109.3 ± 7.89 for AN whereas 90.6 ± 4.34 for ANH) level as compared to control group. The ANH showed significantly better absorption than plain AN and this effect of ANH was also comparable to the standard drug (Silymarin). The findings of present study reveal that ANH has better bioavailability as shown by in vitro absorption study and hence improved hepatoprotection as compared to plain AN at equivalent dose.

  10. Influence of mercury from fly ash on cattle reared nearby thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Vikas Eknath; Yadav, Raju Ravindra; Dakshinkar, Narayan Purushottam; Dhoot, Vinod Madanlal; Bhojane, Gautam Ramkrishna; Naik, Madhura Kiran; Shrivastava, Preeti; Naoghare, Pravin Krishnarao; Krishnamurthi, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Cattle grazing nearby coal-fired power stations are exposed to fly ash. The present investigation aims to assess the environmental and health impacts of fly ash containing mercury emitted from thermal power plant. The health effect of fly ash were studied using 20 lactating cattle reared within a 5-km radius of s thermal power plant for the possible effect of fly ash such as the alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters of blood, milk, and urine. Results indicated that the hemoglobin levels (6.65 ± 0.40 g/dl) were significantly reduced in all the exposed animals. Biochemical parameters viz., blood urea nitrogen (27.35 ± 1.19 mg/dl), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (43.39 ± 3.08 IU/l), albumin, and creatinine were found to be increased, whereas serum glutamate pyruvic transaminase (29.26 ± 2.02) and Ca(2+) were observed to be statistically insignificant in exposed animals. Mercury concentrations estimated in the blood, milk, and urine of exposed (n = 20) and control (n = 20) animals were 7.41 ± 0.86, 4.75 ± 0.57, 2.08 ± 0.18, and 1.05 ± 0.07, 0.54 ± 0.03, 0.20 ± 0.02 μg/kg, respectively. The significant increase (P < 0.01) in the levels of mercury in blood, milk, and urine of exposed animals in comparison to control indicated that the alterations of biochemical parameters in exposed cattle could be due to their long term exposure to fly ash mercury which may have direct or indirect impact on human populations via food chain.

  11. Gastroprotective Properties of Karanjin from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) Seeds; Role as Antioxidant and H, K-ATPase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vismaya; Belagihally, Srikanta M; Rajashekhar, Sindhu; Jayaram, Vinay B; Dharmesh, Shylaja M; Thirumakudalu, Sindhu Kanya C

    2011-01-01

    Plant extracts are the most attractive sources of newer drugs and have been shown to produce promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Karanjin, a furano-flavonoid has been evaluated for anti-ulcerogenic property by employing adult male albino rats. Karanjin (>95% pure) was administered to these rats in two different concentrations, that is, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) b.w. Ulcers were induced in the experimental animals by swim and ethanol stress. Serum, stomach and liver-tissue homogenates were assessed for biochemical parameters. Karanjin inhibited 50 and 74% of ulcers induced by swim stress at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) b.w., respectively. Gastric mucin was protected up to 85% in case of swim stress, whereas only 47% mucin recovery was seen in ethanol stress induced ulcers. H(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, which was increased 2-fold in ulcer conditions, was normalized by Karanjin in both swim/ethanol stress-induced ulcer models. Karanjin could inhibit oxidative stress as evidenced by the normalization of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme (i.e., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) levels. Karanjin at concentrations of 20 mg kg(-1) b.w., when administered orally for 14 days, did not indicate any lethal effects. There were no significant differences in total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase between normal and Karanjin-treated rats indicating no adverse effect on major organs. During treatment schedule, animals remained as healthy as control animals with normal food and water intake and body weight gain.

  12. Gastroprotective Properties of Karanjin from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) Seeds; Role as Antioxidant and H+, K+-ATPase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Vismaya; Belagihally, Srikanta M.; Rajashekhar, Sindhu; Jayaram, Vinay B.; Dharmesh, Shylaja M.; Thirumakudalu, Sindhu Kanya C.

    2011-01-01

    Plant extracts are the most attractive sources of newer drugs and have been shown to produce promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Karanjin, a furano-flavonoid has been evaluated for anti-ulcerogenic property by employing adult male albino rats. Karanjin (>95% pure) was administered to these rats in two different concentrations, that is, 10 and 20 mg kg−1 b.w. Ulcers were induced in the experimental animals by swim and ethanol stress. Serum, stomach and liver-tissue homogenates were assessed for biochemical parameters. Karanjin inhibited 50 and 74% of ulcers induced by swim stress at 10 and 20 mg kg−1 b.w., respectively. Gastric mucin was protected up to 85% in case of swim stress, whereas only 47% mucin recovery was seen in ethanol stress induced ulcers. H+, K+-ATPase activity, which was increased 2-fold in ulcer conditions, was normalized by Karanjin in both swim/ethanol stress-induced ulcer models. Karanjin could inhibit oxidative stress as evidenced by the normalization of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme (i.e., catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) levels. Karanjin at concentrations of 20 mg kg−1 b.w., when administered orally for 14 days, did not indicate any lethal effects. There were no significant differences in total protein, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase between normal and Karanjin-treated rats indicating no adverse effect on major organs. During treatment schedule, animals remained as healthy as control animals with normal food and water intake and body weight gain. PMID:21799691

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Macrothelypteris torresiana (Gaudich.) aerial parts against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents and analysis of polyphenolic compounds by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sumanta; Ghosh, Debjit; Ganapaty, Seru; Chekuboyina, Surya Vamsi Gokul; Samal, Manisha

    2017-06-01

    Macrothelypteris torresiana is a fern species belonging to family Thelypteridaceae. The present study was conducted to evaluate hepatoprotective potential of ethanol extract from M. torresiana aerial parts (EEMTAP) and detect the polyphenolic compounds present in the extract using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Hepatoprotective potential of EEMTAP were tested at doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg, per os (p.o.), on Wistar albino rats. The extract and silymarin treated animal groups showed significant decrease in activities of different biochemical parameters like serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which were elevated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) intoxication. The levels of total bilirubin and total protein alongwith the liver weight were also restored to normalcy by EEMTAP and silymarin treatment. After CCl 4 administration the level of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as Glutathione (GSH) and Catalase (CAT) were decreased whereas the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) was elevated. The level of these hepatic antioxidant enzymes were also brought to normalcy by EEMTAP and silymarin treatment. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and treatment with EEMTAP at doses 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. was found to be effective in restoring CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. A simple HPTLC analysis was conducted for the detection of polyphenolic compounds in EEMTAP, and the result revealed the presence of caffeic acid as phenolic acid and quercetin as flavonoid. The proposed HPTLC method is simple, concise and provides a good resolution of caffeic acid and quercetin from other constituents present in EEMTAP.

  14. Effect of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose on dry eye in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Ye, Lin-Hong; Ye, Lei; Yu, Jing; Yang, Qi-Chen; Yuan, Qing; Zhu, Pei-Wen; Shao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the protective effect of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops on dry eye in postmenopausal women. METHODS Sixty postmenopause female patients diagnosed of dry eye were assigned randomly to mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops treatment group (n=30) and control group treated with normal saline eye drops (n=30). The subjective symptoms of ocular surface, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), tear film function tests, tear protein and corneal morphology by confocal scanning microscopy were analyzed before treatment and at 1, 2, 4 and 8wk after treatment respectively. To ensure the safety of the trial, all patients were examined with systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, urine creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen at 8wk after treatment. RESULTS There were no obvious differences between two groups before the treatment (P>0.05). In two months after the treatment, the symptoms of ocular surface, OSDI, tear protein, and tear film function were only slightly changed in normal saline eye drops group. However, all indices were improved after the treatment of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops group (P<0.05). In addition, the average amount of corneal epithelium basal cells and inflammatory cells of mistletoe treated group were 3174±379 and 38±25 cells/mm2, significantly decreased as compared to the control group with 4309±612 and 158± 61 cells/mm2, respectively. In the control group, although nerves still maintained straight under corneal epithelium, the number of nerves were significantly decreased, as compared with normal female. In the mistletoe treated group, the number of nerves was only slightly reduced, compared with normal female. CONCLUSION Mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops can alleviate the symptoms and signs of dry eye symptoms. PMID:29181309

  15. Effects of hyperthermia on enzymes and electrolytes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deswal, K.; Chohan, I. S.

    1981-09-01

    The effects of exposure to various degrees of heat stress on serum glutamate—oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P-ase), calcium and chlorides have been studied on 75 dogs. Rectal temperature (Tre) was recorded before and after exposure to heat stress. These dogs were divided into 5 groups, according to the Tre level attained after exposure to heat stress. Rectal temperature was raised from normal to 39.45±0.47‡C in the first group, to 40.93±0.17‡C in the second group, to 41.87±0.22‡C in the third group, to 42.90 ± 0.21‡C in the fourth group and to 43.93±0.19‡C in the fifth group. The concentration of enzymes SGOT, SGPT and ALK-P-ase in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increased significantly with hyperthermia. Calcium and chlorides concentrations in blood and in CSF tended to increase in hyperthermia. The integrity of the blood brain barrier for these enzymes and calcium is maintained under mild hyperthermia but it breaks down partially under influence of more severe hyperthermia. Core temperature above 41‡C results in damage to tissues and consequential rise of plasma enzymes. This degree of hyperthermia also seems to mark the beginning of injury to blood brain barrier. Critical core temperature tolerated by 50% of animals was 44‡C.

  16. Tropical green leafy vegetables prevent garlic-induced hepatotoxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2006-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is popularly consumed because of its role in the treatment and management of several diseases. However, unregulated and chronic intake of garlic can cause damage to cells through the production of free radicals. This study was carried out in order to assess the ability of some tropical green leafy vegetables (Telfairia occidentalis, Solanum macrocapon, Corchorus olitorius, Baselia alba, Cnidoscolus acontifolus, Amarantus cruentus, and Ocimum gratissimum) to prevent garlic-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Wistar strain albino rats were fed diet containing 4% garlic along with or without 40% green leafy vegetable supplement for 14 days. Thereafter, the feeding trial was terminated, the serum of the blood was prepared, and the liver, spleen, intestine, and organ were isolated for gross pathological investigation. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant increase (P < .05) in serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) of the albino rats fed diet containing 4% garlic supplement when compared with the rats fed the basal diet without garlic and vegetable (40%) supplement. However, there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in the serum total protein and albumin levels in those rats. Conversely, there was a consistent significant decrease (P < .05) in the SGOT and SGPT of the rats fed diet containing garlic (4%) and T. occidentalis (40%) and C. acontifolus (40%) supplement compared with those rats fed diet containing garlic (4%) supplement, while there were no consistent significant decrease in those rats fed diet with garlic (4%) alongside with 40% of other leafy vegetables (S. macrocanum, C. olitorius, B. alba, A. cruentus, and O. gratissimum). An increase in serum level of total protein and albumin was also observed in the rats fed T. occidentalis and C. acontifolus. Thus, T. occidentalis and C. acontifolus proved to be better vegetables in preventing garlic

  17. Comparative phytochemical, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of various samples of Swertia Chirayita collected from various cities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Sidra; Hussain, Shahzad; Tabassum, Sobia; Malik, Farnaz; Riaz, Humayun

    2014-11-01

    Medicinal plants are crucial for about 80% of the world population in developing and developed countries for their primary and basic health care needs owing to better tolerability, superior compatibility with human body and having lesser side effects. The present study was conducted on various solvent extracts of three plant samples of Indian and Nepali origin Swertia Chirayita (Roxb.) Buch-ham (Chiratia) collected from various places to establish their comparative phytochemical analysis, chromatographic profile, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. Nepali Swertia Chirayita was found to have finest Chromatographic profile (TLC). Phytochemical analysis revealed Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, ascorbic acid, glycosides, steroids and triterpenoids in all samples. Different solvent fractions of the methanolic plant extracts of Swertia chirayita were assessed for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. The grade of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT/ALT) and total bilirubin. The in-vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts was also evaluated by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The methanolic and aqueous extracts, at a dose of 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg, produced significant (p<0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing the activities of the serum enzymes and bilirubin while there were marked scavenging of the DPPH free radicals by the fractions. Decreased observed in the biochemical parameters suggests that the plant extracts possesses hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activities without any significant variation amongst them. These activities reside mainly in the methanolic extract of whole plant.

  18. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    PubMed Central

    ELSaidy, N.; Mohamed, R. A.; Abouelenien, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw attention to

  19. Protective role of Vernonia cinerea L. against gamma radiation--induced immunosupression and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Pratheeshkumar, P; Kuttan, Girija

    2011-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of Vernonia cinerea extract was studied in balb/c mice. Whole-body irradiation of γ-rays (6 Gy) given to animals reduced the white blood cell count, bone marrow cellularity and α-esterase positive cells in control animals, which were elevated by the administration of V. cinerea extract (20 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.], intraperitoneally [i.p.]). The elevated levels of serum enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate pyruvate transferases (GPT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) after irradiation were also reduced with V. cineria extract administration. V. cinerea treatment also significantly enhanced the animal's antioxidant status by enhancing the activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in irradiated animals. Histopathological analysis of liver and small intestine also suggests that V. cinerea could reduce the tissue damages induced by radiation. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) elevated after irradiation, which were significantly reduced by V. cinerea extract administration. On the other hand, the extract stimulated the production of other cytokines such as granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in animals exposed to radiation. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA isolated from bone marrow of control animals showed heavy DNA damage, but a reduced DNA damage was seen in animals treated with V. cinerea extract. Administration of V. cinerea did not compromise the anti-neoplastic efficiency of radiation. In fact, there was a synergistic action of radiation and V. cinerea in reducing the solid tumours in mice. Methanolic extract of V. cinerea given i.p. showed a significant radioprotective activity without compromising the radiotherapeutic efficacy of radiation, indicating its possible use as an adjuvant during

  20. A Feasibility Study of Group Parent Training for the Prevention of Obesity (GPT-O) in African Americans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-07

    milk o Low fat 1 % milk o Chocolate milk o Lactaid milk - (~ONLY ONE) . . o Reduced fat 2% o Nonfat milk o Soy milk . o Don’t know - m~ - Please tell...did you drink? : (~Ol\\ILYONE) · · • OWholemilk o Reduced fat 2% milk • Please tell us about yourself o Low fat 1 % milk o Chocolate milk o...intakes for energy, fiber, fat , fatty acids, cholesterol, protein , and amino acids Washington, DC: The

  1. Comparative evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of carotenoids of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Murthy, K N Chidambara; Rajesha, J; Swamy, M Mahadeva; Ravishankar, G A

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with evaluation of the hepatotoprotective activity of carotenoids from two well-known microalgae, Spirulina platensis and Dunaliella salina. Carotenoids were extracted in hexane:isopropyl alcohol (1:1 vol/vol) and fed orally in olive oil to Wistar albino rats at a dose of 100 microg/kg of body weight/day (in terms of carotenoids). The degree of hepatoprotection was measured by estimation of biochemical parameters like serum transaminases [serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT)], serum alkaline phosphatase, total albumin, and total protein. The results were compared with those for a control group, a CCl4-induced hepatic damage group, and a group treated with synthetic beta-carotene (all-trans) at the same dose. The protein content of the CCl4-treated group, which received normal diet and a dose of toxin, showed a significant decrease, i.e., 3.92 mg/mL, whereas the protein levels were higher, i.e., 6.96 and 6.32 mg/mL, in the case of the Dunaliella and Spirulina, respectively, carotenoid-treated groups. The CCl4-treated group shown higher activity of transaminases (128.68 units/mL SGPT and 171.52 units/mL SGOT). However, the activity of SGPT was 62.83 units/mL for Dunaliella and 76.83 units/mL for Spirulina, i.e., carotenoids of Dunaliella showed a higher degree of protection. For serum alkaline phosphatase, the standard beta-carotene value was 81.52 units/mL, compared with 84.46 units/mL for the CCl4-treated group; however, natural algal carotenoids yielded 38.45 units/mL (D. salina) and 44.73 units/mL (Spirulina). The total albumin value diminished with CCl4 treatment (2.46 mg/mL); the effect was highest for Dunaliella, followed by the Spirulina carotenoid-treated group. The results clearly indicate that carotenoids from Dunaliella possess better hepatoprotection compared with those from Spirulina. High-performance liquid chromatography of the carotenoids indicated that Spirulina

  2. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  3. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of themore » double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.« less

  4. Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Kawasaki's disease is a disease of unknown cause. The characteristic clinical features of Kawasaki's disease are fever> or =102 degrees F for> or =5 days accompanied by a bilateral bulbar conjunctivitis/conjunctival suffusion, erythematous rash, cervical adenopathy, pharyngeal erythema, and swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet. Kawasaki's disease primarily affects children and is rare in adults. In children, Kawasaki's disease is more likely to be associated with aseptic meningitis, coronary artery aneurysms, and thrombocytosis. In adult Kawasaki's disease, unilateral cervical adenopathy, arthritis, conjunctival suffusion/conjunctivitis, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]/serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) are more likely. Kawasaki's disease in adults may be mimicked by other acute infections with fever and rash, that is, group A streptococcal scarlet fever, toxic shock syndrome (TSS), and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF). Because there are no specific tests for Kawasaki's disease, diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and the syndromic approach. In addition to rash and fever, scarlet fever is characterized by circumoral pallor, oropharyngeal edema, Pastia's lines, and peripheral eosinophilia, but not conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis, or an elevated SGOT/SGPT. In TSS, in addition to rash and fever, there is conjunctival suffusion, oropharyngeal erythema, and edema of the dorsum of the hands/feet, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, and thrombocytopenia. Patients with TSS do not have cervical adenopathy or splenomegaly. RMSF presents with fever and a maculopapular rash that becomes petechial, first appearing on the wrists/ankles after 3 to 5 days. RMSF is accompanied by a prominent headache, periorbital edema, conjunctival suffusion, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, an elevated SGOT/SGPT, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, but not oropharyngeal

  5. Protein malnutrition during fetal programming induces fatty liver in adult male offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Sabrina Edith; Echarte, Stella Maris; Podaza, Enrique; Chisari, Andrea Nancy

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of protein malnutrition on liver morphology and physiology in rats subjected to different malnutrition schemes. Pregnant rats were fed with a control diet or a low protein diet (LPD). Male offspring rats received a LPD during gestation, lactation, and until they were 60 days old (MM group), a late LPD that began after weaning (CM), or a LPD administrated only during the gestation-lactation period followed by a control diet (MC). On day 60, blood was collected and the liver was dissected out. We found a decrease in MM rats' total body (p < 0.001) and liver (p < 0.05) weight. These and CM rats showed obvious liver dysfunction reflected by the increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGOT) (MM p < 0.001) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (MM and CM p < 0.001) enzymes, and liver content of cholesterol (MM and CM p < 0.001) and triglycerides (MM p < 0.01; CM p < 0.001), in addition to what we saw by histology. Liver dysfunction was also shown by the increase in gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) (MM, MC, and CM p < 0.001) and GST-pi1 (MM and CM p < 0.001, MC p < 0.05) expression levels. MC rats showed the lowest increment in GST-pi1 expression (MC vs. MM; p < 0.001, MC vs. CM; p < 0.01). ROS production (MM, CM, and MC: p < 0.001), lipid peroxidation (MM, CM, and MC p < 0.001), content of carbonyl groups in liver proteins (MM and CM p < 0.001, MC p < 0.01), and total antioxidant capacity (MM, CM, and MC p < 0.001) were increased in the liver of all groups of malnourished animals. However, MM rats showed the highest increment. We found higher TNF-α (MM and CM p < 0.001), and IL-6 (MM and CM p < 0.001) serum levels and TGF-β liver content (MM p < 0.01; CM p < 0.05), in MM and CM groups, while MC rats reverted the values to normal levels. Pro-survival signaling pathways mediated by tyrosine or serine/threonine kinases (pAKT) (MM and CM p < 0.001; MC p < 0.01) and extrasellular

  6. Simultaneous stimulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by feeding in the anterior intestine of the omnivorous GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Ti-Yin; Chen, Hai-Yan; Lin, Shi-Mei; Luo, Li; Wang, De-Shou

    2017-06-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the roles of anterior intestine in the postprandial glucose homeostasis of the omnivorous Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). Sub-adult fish (about 173 g) were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 8 and 24 h post feeding (HPF) after 36 h of food deprivation, and the time course of changes in intestinal glucose transport, glycolysis, glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis at the transcription and enzyme activity level, as well as plasma glucose contents, were analyzed. Compared with 0 HPF (fasting for 36 h), the mRNA levels of both ATP-dependent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 and facilitated glucose transporter 2 increased during 1-3 HPF, decreased at 8 HPF and then leveled off. These results indicated that intestinal uptake of glucose and its transport across the intestine to blood mainly occurred during 1-3 HPF, which subsequently resulted in the increase of plasma glucose level at the same time. Intestinal glycolysis was stimulated during 1-3 HPF, while glucose storage as glycogen was induced during 3-8 HPF. Unexpectedly, intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGNG) was also strongly induced during 1-3 HPF at the state of nutrient assimilation. The mRNA abundance and enzyme activities of glutamic-pyruvic and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminases increased during 1-3 HPF, suggesting that the precursors of IGNG might originate from some amino acids. Taken together, it was concluded that the anterior intestine played an important role in the regulation of postprandial glucose homeostasis in omnivorous tilapia, as it represented significant glycolytic potential and glucose storage. It was interesting that postprandial IGNG was stimulated by feeding temporarily, and its biological significance remains to be elucidated in fish. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Effects of commonly used antidiabetic drugs on antioxidant enzymes and liver function test markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects - pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ghadge, A; Harke, S; Khadke, S; Diwan, A; Pankaj, M; Kulkarni, O; Ranjekar, P; Harsulkar, A; Kuvalekar, A A

    2015-09-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of antidiabetic drugs on antioxidant enzymes and liver function test (LFT) markers and their association with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in type 2 diabetic subjects. We assessed healthy and diabetic subjects (100 each). Diabetic subjects were divided based on treatment with only metformin, metformin in combination with other antidiabetic drugs and insulin in combination with other antidiabetic drugs. LFT markers, antioxidant status and HOMA-IR were assessed in the subjects. Superoxide dismutase activity was higher (p<0.01) while catalase activity was lower (p<0.01) in the diabetic subjects as compared to controls. Serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) (p<0.01) and bilirubin (p<0.05) levels were higher in diabetic male subjects while urea (p<0.05) levels were lower and SGPT (p<0.01) levels were higher in diabetic female subjects. In male subjects consuming only metformin, a positive association between HOMA-IR and insulin (p<0.05) was seen. A positive association between HOMA-IR and glucose (p<0.01), insulin (p<0.01), SOD (p<0.01) and SGPT (p<0.05) was seen in males receiving metformin with other drugs. Interestingly, the female subjects on metformin displayed a positive association between HOMA-IR and insulin (p<0.05) only. A positive association of HOMA-IR with glucose (p<0.01) and insulin (p<0.05) was seen in females on metformin in combination with other anti-diabetic drugs. The alterations in the antioxidant enzyme activities and liver function tests are dependent upon the gender and glycemic status of subjects while the variations in correlations of HOMA-IR with antioxidant enzymes, liver function tests and inflammatory markers are dependent on type of treatments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Ameliorative action of Vernonia cinerea L. on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Pratheeshkumar, P; Kuttan, Girija

    2010-08-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a widely used antineoplastic drug, which could cause toxicity to normal cells due to its toxic metabolites. The use of CTX in treating cancer patients is limited due to its severe toxicity induced mainly by oxidative stress. The present study reports the protective role of Vernonia cinerea L. against the CTX-induced toxicity in Balb/c mice. Intraperitoneal administration of the extract significantly increased the total WBC Count, bone marrow cellularity, alpha-esterase positive cells, and weights of lymphoid organs in CTX-treated animals, when compared with CTX control mice. Administration of V. cinerea was found to reduce the enhanced level of alkaline phosphatase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lipid peroxidation, and also significantly increased the reduced glutathione level in CTX-treated animals. Histopathological analysis of small intestine also suggests that extract could reduce the CTX-induced intestinal damage. The level of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, which was elevated during CTX administration, was significantly reduced by the V. cinerea extract administration. The lowered levels of other cytokines like IFN-gamma, IL-2, GM-CSF, after CTX treatment were also found to be increased by extract administration. Administration of V. cinerea did not compromise the anti-neoplastic activity of CTX. Infact, there was a synergistic action of CTX and V. cinerea in reducing the solid tumors in mice. Methanolic extract of V. cinerea given intraperitoneally (i.p.) showed a significant chemoprotective activity without compromising the chemotherapeutic efficacy of CTX, indicating its possible use as an adjuvant during chemotherapy.

  9. Growth performance, blood health, antioxidant status and immune response in red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed Aspergillus oryzae fermented rapeseed meal (RM-Koji).

    PubMed

    Dossou, Serge; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Dawood, Mahmoud A O; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Olivier, Adissin; Zaineldin, Amr I

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary substitution of fishmeal by graded levels of a blend composed of Aspergillus oryzae fermented rapeseed meal [0% (RM0), 25% (RM25), 50% (RM50), 75% (RM75) and 100% (RM100)] on growth performance, haemato-immunological responses and antioxidative status of Pagrus major (average weight 5.5 ± 0.02 g). After 56 days, growth performances were significantly improved in fish fed RM25 diet compared to control (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, up to 50% replacement of fishmeal did not affect growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, protein apparent digestibility, protease activity, fish somatic indices and survival compared to control. While blood hematocrit and plasma protein were significantly enhanced in groups fed RM0 and RM25 diets, most of the hematological parameters did not change through the trial except glutamic pyruvate transaminase which was significantly increased in RM75 and RM100 groups and blood cholesterol which was gradually decreased with the increasing level of the blend. Interestingly, feeding fish with RM25 and RM50 diets significantly showed enhanced lysozyme, bactericidal and peroxidase activities and fish fed the same diets showed high resistance against oxidative stress (biological antioxidant potential and reactive oxygen metabolites). Additionally, catalase activity and tolerance against low salinity seawater were higher in fish fed RM25 diet. These findings suggested that, at a moderate level (25% and 50%), substitution of fishmeal by the fermented rapeseed meal promoted growth, nutrient utilization, and exerted immune responses and anti-oxidative effects in red sea bream. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction of Sodium Arsenite-Mediated Adverse Effects in Mice using Dietary Supplementation of Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) Root Powder.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Rim Sabrina Jahan; Ahsan, Nazmul; Hossain, Khaled; Ghosh, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of water Hyacinth Root Powder (HRP) on arsenic-mediated toxic effects in mice. Swiss albino mice, used in this study, were divided into four different groups (for each group n=5). The control group was supplied with normal feed and water, Arsenic group (As-group) was supplied with normal feed plus arsenic (sodium arsenite)-containing water, and arsenic+hyacinth group (As+Hy group) was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus arsenic water. The remaining Hy-group was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus normal water. Oral administration of arsenic reduced the normal growth of the mice as evidenced by weight loss. Interestingly, tip of the tails of these mice developed wound that caused gradual reduction of the tail length. Supplementation of HRP in feed significantly prevented mice growth retardation and tail wounding in As+Hy group mice. However, the growth pattern in Hy-group mice was observed to be almost similar to that of the control group indicating that HRP itself has no toxic or negative effect in mice. Ingested arsenic also distorted the shape of the blood cells and elevated the serum enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Importantly, elevation of these enzymes and distortion of blood cell shape were partially reduced in mice belong to As+Hy group, indicating HRP-mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity. Therefore, the preventive effect of hyacinth root on arsenic-poisoned mice suggested the future application of hyacinth to reduce arsenic toxicity in animal and human.

  11. Reduction of Sodium Arsenite-Mediated Adverse Effects in Mice using Dietary Supplementation of Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) Root Powder

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Rim Sabrina Jahan; Ahsan, Nazmul; Hossain, Khaled; Ghosh, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of water Hyacinth Root Powder (HRP) on arsenic-mediated toxic effects in mice. Methods Swiss albino mice, used in this study, were divided into four different groups (for each group n=5). The control group was supplied with normal feed and water, Arsenic group (As-group) was supplied with normal feed plus arsenic (sodium arsenite)-containing water, and arsenic+hyacinth group (As+Hy group) was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus arsenic water. The remaining Hy-group was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus normal water. Results Oral administration of arsenic reduced the normal growth of the mice as evidenced by weight loss. Interestingly, tip of the tails of these mice developed wound that caused gradual reduction of the tail length. Supplementation of HRP in feed significantly prevented mice growth retardation and tail wounding in As+Hy group mice. However, the growth pattern in Hy-group mice was observed to be almost similar to that of the control group indicating that HRP itself has no toxic or negative effect in mice. Ingested arsenic also distorted the shape of the blood cells and elevated the serum enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). Importantly, elevation of these enzymes and distortion of blood cell shape were partially reduced in mice belong to As+Hy group, indicating HRP-mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity. Conclusion Therefore, the preventive effect of hyacinth root on arsenic-poisoned mice suggested the future application of hyacinth to reduce arsenic toxicity in animal and human. PMID:23407303

  12. Cross-comparison of diet quality indices for predicting chronic disease risk: findings from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Vernier, Cédric; Crichton, Georgina E; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2015-01-28

    The scientific community has become increasingly interested in the overall quality of diets rather than in single food-based or single nutrient-based approaches to examine diet-disease relationships. Despite the plethora of indices used to measure diet quality, there still exist questions as to which of these can best predict health outcomes. The present study aimed to compare the ability of five diet quality indices, namely the Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI), Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), to detect changes in chronic disease risk biomarkers. Nutritional data from 1352 participants, aged 18-69 years, of the Luxembourg nationwide cross-sectional ORISCAV-LUX (Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg) study, 2007-8, were used to calculate adherence to the diet quality index. General linear modelling was performed to assess trends in biomarkers according to adherence to different dietary patterns, after adjustment for age, sex, education level, smoking status, physical activity and energy intake. Among the five selected diet quality indices, the MDS exhibited the best ability to detect changes in numerous risk markers and was significantly associated with lower levels of LDL-cholesterol, apo B, diastolic blood pressure, renal function indicators (creatinine and uric acid) and liver enzymes (serum γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase). Compared with other dietary patterns, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a favourable cardiometabolic, hepatic and renal risk profile. Diets congruent with current universally accepted guidelines may be insufficient to prevent chronic diseases. Clinicians and public health decision makers should be aware of needs to improve the current dietary guidelines.

  13. Quantal mEPSCs and residual glutamate: how horizontal cell responses are shaped at the photoreceptor ribbon synapse

    PubMed Central

    Cadetti, Lucia; Bartoletti, Theodore M.; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2012-01-01

    At the photoreceptor ribbon synapse, glutamate released from vesicles at different positions along the ribbon reaches the same postsynaptic receptors. Thus, vesicles may not exert entirely independent effects. We examined whether responses of salamander retinal horizontal cells evoked by light or direct depolarization during paired recordings could be predicted by summation of individual miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). For EPSCs evoked by depolarization of rods or cones, linear convolution of mEPSCs with photoreceptor release functions predicted EPSC waveforms and changes caused by inhibiting glutamate receptor desensitization. A low-affinity glutamate antagonist, kynurenic acid (KynA), preferentially reduced later components of rod-driven EPSCs, suggesting lower levels of glutamate are present during the later sustained component of the EPSC. A glutamate-scavenging enzyme, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, did not inhibit mEPSCs or the initial component of rod-driven EPSCs, but reduced later components of the EPSC. Inhibiting glutamate uptake with a low concentration of dl-threo-β-benzoyloxyaspartate (TBOA) also did not alter mEPSCs or the initial component of rod-driven EPSCs, but enhanced later components of the EPSC. Low concentrations of TBOA and KynA did not affect the kinetics of fast cone-driven EPSCs. Under both rod- and cone-dominated conditions, light-evoked currents (LECs) were enhanced considerably by TBOA. LECs were more strongly inhibited than EPSCs by KynA, suggesting the presence of lower glutamate levels. Collectively, these results indicate that the initial EPSC component can be largely predicted from a linear sum of individual mEPSCs, but with sustained release, residual amounts of glutamate from multiple vesicles pool together, influencing LECs and later components of EPSCs. PMID:18547244

  14. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on relieving ammonia stress and hepatic proteomic analyses of broilers.

    PubMed

    Lu, M; Bai, J; Xu, B; Sun, Q Y; Wei, F X; Tang, X F; Zhang, H F; Li, J; Wang, G L; Yin, Q Q; Li, S Y

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia in poultry houses not only affects worker health but also induces a variety of poultry diseases. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is an effective antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative injury during various toxic and pathological processes. This study was designed to evaluate the mitigating effects of LA supplementation on ammonia stress and hepatic proteome changes in broilers. Male broilers (22 d old) were allocated to 3 groups: (1) a control group without ammonia stress (CTRL); (2) exposure to 70 ppm ammonia (AM); and (3) exposure to 70 ppm ammonia and dietary administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM+LA). Ammonia exposure significantly decreased broiler growth performance and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05), and increased plasma malondialdehyde content and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity (P < 0.05). These negative effects were eliminated by LA supplementation. Comparative proteomic analyses revealed 291 differentially expressed proteins in the AM group compared to the CTRL and AM+LA groups. A total of 30 proteins were differentially expressed between the AM/CTRL and (AM+LA)/AM groups. The addition of LA restored 24 of these proteins to control levels; these proteins were mainly related to transcription regulation, detoxification, protein translation and degradation, and immune and stress responses. The differentially expressed proteins included the high mobility group box (HMGB) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), which is closely related to immune response and oxidative stress, and collagens, which are implicated in liver injury. The addition of LA to broiler diet may reduce ammonia toxicity by maintaining the antioxidant system, xenobiotic metabolism, and metabolic pathways. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Effects of polysaccharide peptides from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor on glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

    2007-06-01

    The effects of polysaccharide peptide (PSP), an immunomodulator isolated from Coriolus versicolor COV-1, on glutathione (GSH) and GSH-related enzymes was investigated in C57 mouse. Administration of PSP (1-4 micromole/kg, i.p.) produced a transient, dose-dependent depletion (10-37%) of hepatic GSH, with no effect on serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity. Blood GSH was depleted (6-25%) at 3 h, followed by a rebound increase above the control GSH level (20%) at 18 h. The GSSG/GSH ratio, a measure of oxidative stress, was increased 3 h after PSP treatment but returned to normal levels at 24 h. Sub-chronic treatment of PSP (1-4 micromole/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days did not produce any significant changes in hepatic GSH levels and the GSSG/GSH ratio when measured 24 h after the final dose of PSP. PSP had little effect on glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSSG reductase) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in the liver. However, a dose-dependent increase in blood GPX activity (30-48%) was observed at 3h, which coincided with the increase in the GSSG/GSH ratio. The increase in blood GPX activity may be a responsive measure to deal with the transient oxidative stress induced by PSP treatment. The results showed that PSP only caused a transient perturbation on hepatic glutathione without affecting the GSH-related enzymes such as GST, GSSG reductase and GPX. The observed changes in blood GSH simply reflected the intra-organ translocation of glutathione, as the glutathione-related enzymes were not significantly affected by PSP treatment.

  16. Modified lingguizhugan decoction incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise ameliorates hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yao, Limei; Wei, Jingjing; Shi, Si; Guo, Kunbin; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Chen, Dingsheng; Li, Weirong

    2017-02-28

    Modified Lingguizhugan Decoction (MLD) came from famous Chinese medicine Linggui Zhugan Decoction. The MLD is used for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in the clinical setting. Our study focuses on the comprehensive treatment of MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Rats were divided into five groups: control group (Cont), high-fat diet group (HFD), high-fat diet incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR), exercise incorporated with dietary restriction group (HFD-DR-Ex) and MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise group (HFD-DR-Ex-MLD). Treatments were conducted for 1 week after feeding high-fat diet for 12 weeks. The effects of treatments on high fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance in rats of MS were examined. In addition, the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), leptin and protein kinase B (PKB) in rats serum and liver were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After a week's intervention by dietary restriction, dietary restriction incorporated with exercise or MLD, compared with HFD rats, the relative weight of liver and fat, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, free fatty acid, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase, insulin, were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or 0.01). This treatment also inhibited abnormal increases of TNF-α, leptin and PKB in serum and liver. MLD incorporated with dietary restriction and exercise treatment exhibit effects in alleviating high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatic injury and insulin resistance, which are possibly due to the down-regulation of TNF-α, leptin and PKB.

  17. Psychological and physiological correlates of childhood obesity in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of associations between psychopathology and obesity in childhood remains inconsistent, and most studies have been conducted in Western countries. This study investigated psychological and physiological correlates of obesity in a community sample of children in Taiwan. In total, 302 children (157 overweight/obese and 145 healthy-weight children) were selected from first- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in eight elementary schools in 2009. These children participated in a comprehensive health examination, including a physical examination, blood sample analysis, and questionnaire administration. We found that regarding physiological characteristics, compared with the healthy-weight children, the overweight/obese children had significantly higher values for body fat estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001); lower values for high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001); and worse values for glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), and fasting blood glucose (p = 0.049). In logistic models adjusted for parental and child traits and physiological characteristics, children’s overweight/obesity was significantly associated with lower self-concept (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93–0.99) and less disruptive behavior (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92–0.99). Less disruptive behavior and the lack of a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression in childhood obesity appear to be a unique pattern in Taiwan that warrants further investigation. PMID:26612264

  18. Metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids in chlorotic leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huicong; Ma, Fangfang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2010-07-01

    Metabolite profiles and activities of key enzymes in the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids were compared between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple to understand how accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates affects the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids. Excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and much lower CO(2) assimilation were found in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves, confirming feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in chlorotic leaves. Dark respiration and activities of several key enzymes in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, concentrations of most organic acids including phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), pyruvate, oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and fumarate, and activities of key enzymes involved in the anapleurotic pathway including PEP carboxylase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Concentrations of soluble proteins and most free amino acids were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Activities of key enzymes in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis, including nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, ferredoxin and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. It was concluded that, in response to excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated to "consume" the excess carbon available, whereas the anapleurotic pathway, nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis were down-regulated to reduce the overall rate of amino acid and protein synthesis.

  19. Psychological and physiological correlates of childhood obesity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2015-11-27

    Evidence of associations between psychopathology and obesity in childhood remains inconsistent, and most studies have been conducted in Western countries. This study investigated psychological and physiological correlates of obesity in a community sample of children in Taiwan. In total, 302 children (157 overweight/obese and 145 healthy-weight children) were selected from first- and fourth-grade schoolchildren in eight elementary schools in 2009. These children participated in a comprehensive health examination, including a physical examination, blood sample analysis, and questionnaire administration. We found that regarding physiological characteristics, compared with the healthy-weight children, the overweight/obese children had significantly higher values for body fat estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001); lower values for high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001); and worse values for glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), and fasting blood glucose (p = 0.049). In logistic models adjusted for parental and child traits and physiological characteristics, children's overweight/obesity was significantly associated with lower self-concept (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-0.99) and less disruptive behavior (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99). Less disruptive behavior and the lack of a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression in childhood obesity appear to be a unique pattern in Taiwan that warrants further investigation.

  20. Trillin Reduces Liver Chronic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huabing; He, Qin; Li, Rugui; Lei, Feifei; Lei, Xu

    2016-07-01

    Trillin is an active ingredient isolated from Dioscorea nipponica Makino. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis effects of trillin on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Chronic inflammation and fibrosis were induced by intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 0.5 μL/g of body weight twice a week for 6 weeks. Trillin (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) was administered by gavage for 12 days before finishing the CCl4 induction. Aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) in serum were determined by AST and ALT kits. Superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum were assayed by SOD and MDA kits. Meanwhile, the levels of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The proteins of the NF-κB pathway and the TGF-β/Smad pathway were measured by western blot. The trillin-treated group exhibited reduced AST, ALT, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and increased SOD. Histological analyses of the trillin-treated group exhibited reduced inflammatory process and prevented liver fibrosis. Western blot analyses of the trillin-treated group showed reduced NF-κB pathway and TGF-β/Smad pathway. Based on the results of the present study, trillin can be used as a potential anti-inflammatory drug for chronic hepatic inflammation.

  1. Relationship of dental diseases with coronary artery diseases and diabetes in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Arup Ratan; Choudhury, Kamrun Nahar

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that dental diseases might have a role in the development and progression of coronary artery diseases (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of dental diseases with CAD and DM in Bangladesh. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 216 consecutive patients admitted in a tertiary hospital between March and July 2011. Data were collected on socio-demographic status, smoking, blood pressure (BP), diet, physical activities, and biochemical measurements of lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, creatinine kinase MB (CK-MB), troponin, serum creatinine and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT). CAD was detected using echocardiographic and coronary angiogram (CAG) reports. All patients underwent oral examination for dental disease. Relationship between dental disease with CAD and DM were explored statistically. Results The mean age of the participants was 57.8±12.5 years and almost two-thirds (67.1%) were male. A great majority of the patients had CAD (90.3%) and type 2 DM (83.8%), and only 44% suffered from dental diseases. Less than one-third patients presented with acute myocardial infarction (MI), 23% with old MI, 11% unstable angina (UA) and 26.4% with non-ST elevation MI. Logistic regression results indicated that patients with DM and CAD had approximately 2.6 and 4.6 times more odds of association with dental diseases than those without DM and CAD (both P value <0.001). Conclusions This study suggests a relationship of dental diseases with CAD and DM among Bangladeshi patients. Further studies are required to confirm these relationships in large clinical studies. Screening for CAD and DM should be considered among those with dental diseases and vice-versa. PMID:27054102

  2. Metabolism of D-[1-3H]glucose, D-[2-3H]glucose, D-[5-3H]glucose, D-[6-3H]glucose and D-[U-14C]glucose by rat and human erythrocytes incubated in the presence of H2O or D2O.

    PubMed

    Conget, I; Malaisse, W J

    1995-02-01

    The present study investigates whether heavy water affects the efficiency of 3HOH production from D-[1-3H]glucose, D-[2-3H]glucose, D-[5-3H]glucose and D-[6-3H]glucose relative to the total generation of tritiated metabolites produced by either rat or human erythrocytes. The relative 3HOH yield was close to 95% with D-[5-3H]glucose, 72% with D-[2-3H]glucose, 22-32% with D-[1-3H]glucose, and only 12% with D-[6-3H]glucose. In the latter case, the comparison of the specific radioactivity of intracellular and extracellular acidic metabolites, expressed relative to that of 14C-labelled metabolites produced from D-[U-14C]glucose, indicated that the generation of 3HOH from D-[6-3H]glucose occurs at distal metabolic steps, such as the partial reversion of the pyruvate kinase reaction or the interconversion of pyruvate and L-alanine in the reaction catalysed by glutamate-pyruvate transaminase. As a rule, the substitution of H2O by D2O only caused minor to negligible changes in the relative 3HOH yield. This implies that the unexpectedly high deuteration of 13C-labelled D-glucose metabolites recently documented in erythrocytes exposed to D2O cannot be attributed to any major interference of heavy water with factors regulating both the deuteration and detritiation efficiency, such as the enzyme-to-enzyme tunnelling of specific glycolytic intermediates.

  3. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Development, Zinc Metabolism and Biodistribution of Minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Lu, Jianjun; Zhou, Le; Li, Jun; Xu, Jiaman; Li, Weijian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg. Results indicated that added 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnOs showed minimal toxicity. However, 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly decreased body weight (from week 4 to 16) and increased the relative weights of the pancreas, brain and lung. Added 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly increased the serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity and zinc content, and significantly enhanced mRNA expression of zinc metabolism-related genes, including metallothionein 1(32.66 folds), metallothionein 2 (31.42 folds), ZIP8 (2.21folds), ZIP14 (2.45 folds), ZnT1 (4.76 folds), ZnT2 (6.19 folds) and ZnT4 (1.82 folds). The biodistribution determination showed that there was a significant accumulation of zinc in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and bones (tibia and fibula) after receiving 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnO diet, while no significant effects on Cu, Fe, and Mn levels, except for liver Fe content and pancreas Mn level. Our results demonstrated that long term exposure to 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnO diets showed minimal toxicity. However, high dose of nano-ZnOs (5000 mg/kg) caused toxicity on development, and altered the zinc metabolism and biodistribution in mice. PMID:27732669

  4. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Development, Zinc Metabolism and Biodistribution of Minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Lu, Jianjun; Zhou, Le; Li, Jun; Xu, Jiaman; Li, Weijian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg. Results indicated that added 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnOs showed minimal toxicity. However, 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly decreased body weight (from week 4 to 16) and increased the relative weights of the pancreas, brain and lung. Added 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnOs significantly increased the serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity and zinc content, and significantly enhanced mRNA expression of zinc metabolism-related genes, including metallothionein 1(32.66 folds), metallothionein 2 (31.42 folds), ZIP8 (2.21folds), ZIP14 (2.45 folds), ZnT1 (4.76 folds), ZnT2 (6.19 folds) and ZnT4 (1.82 folds). The biodistribution determination showed that there was a significant accumulation of zinc in the liver, pancreas, kidney, and bones (tibia and fibula) after receiving 5000 mg/kg nano-ZnO diet, while no significant effects on Cu, Fe, and Mn levels, except for liver Fe content and pancreas Mn level. Our results demonstrated that long term exposure to 50 and 500 mg/kg nano-ZnO diets showed minimal toxicity. However, high dose of nano-ZnOs (5000 mg/kg) caused toxicity on development, and altered the zinc metabolism and biodistribution in mice.

  5. Rice Distillers Dried Grain Is a Promising Ingredient as a Partial Replacement of Plant Origin Sources in the Diet for Juvenile Red Seabream (Pagrus major)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Lee, Sang-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to test the effects of dietary distillers dried grain (DDG) level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and antioxidant activity of juvenile red seabream (Pagrus major). Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% DDG from rice (designated as DDG0, DDG5, DDG10, DDG15, DDG20, and DDG25), respectively. Juvenile red seabream averaging 10.1±0.05 g were randomly distributed into 400-L tanks in a flow through systems. Three replicate groups of fish were fed one of the experimental diets to visual satiation two times a day for 10 weeks. Survival, weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and hepatosomatic index of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Proximate and amino acid composition of whole body in juvenile red seabream were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Plasma content of total protein, glucose, cholesterol, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, phospholipid and triglyceride were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and alkyl radical scavenging activities in plasma and liver of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). The results of this experiment suggest that DDG has the potential to replace plant origin ingredients such as wheat flour and corn gluten meal and could be used up to 25% in diet without incurring negative effects on the growth performance of juvenile red seabream. PMID:25358367

  6. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Wang, Wubao

    2000-11-21

    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. In accordance with the teachings of the invention, a low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic tansaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively. For example, it may also be used to diagnose diseases associated with the concentration of Raman-active constituents in urine, lymph and saliva It may be used to identify cancer in the breast, cervix, uterus, ovaries and the like by measuring the fingerprint excitation Raman spectra of these tissues. It may also be used to reveal the growing of tumors or cancers by measuring the levels of nitric oxide in tissue.

  7. Houttuynia cordata alleviates high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun; Koppula, Sushruta

    2015-03-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) is used traditionally in Asian countries to treat various disease symptoms. To study the effect of H. cordata ethyl acetate (HC-EA) extract on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. HFD fed rats were orally dosed with HC-EA (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg) once daily for 8 weeks and the lipid profiles and protein expressions in hepatocytes were evaluated. HFD rats showed an increase (p < 0.05) in the plasma lipid levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), free fatty acids (FFAs), and reduced the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Treatment with HC-EA extract (300 mg/kg) restored the changes in plasma lipid levels of TC, TG, LDL, FFA, and HDL in HFD-fed rats by 34.8, 31.1, 51.4, 32.4, and 56.3%, respectively, compared with control rats (p < 0.01). HC-EA treatment also decreased the hepatic lipid accumulation (p < 0.001 at 300 mg/kg) and improved hepatic histological lesions. HC-EA extract enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), up-regulated the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1), and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, fatty acid synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase protein levels in the livers of HFD-fed rats. Further, the increased expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) composition such as CYP2E1 and CYP4A was also suppressed. Data suggest that HC-EA extract might act by regulating the AMPK-dependent pathway and related mediators and might be used in treating obesity-related liver diseases.

  8. [Studies on subacute toxicity of Wansheng Huafeng Dan in rats].

    PubMed

    Peng, Fang; Yang, Hong; Wu, Qin; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jingzhen

    2012-04-01

    To compare sub-acute toxic effects of cinnabar and Wansheng Huafeng Dan with mercury chloride and methyl-mercury. Healthy SD rats were orally administered with Wansheng Huafeng Dan (0.42 g x kg(-1)), cinnabar (0.15 g x kg(-1)), HgS (0.15 g x kg(-1)), HgCl2 (0.02 g x kg(-1)), MeHg (0.001 g x kg(-1)) and saline for 21 days under observed and their weights were monitored. After the final administration, they were decapitated and their blood, liver, kidney and brain tissues were collected for calculating hepatic and renal indexes and detecting the contents of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, urea nitrogen and creatinine and the mercury accumulation in liver, kidney and brain tissues. Besides, relative expressions of liver metallothionein-1 (MT-1) and cytochrome P450 gene subtypes (Cyp1a1, Cyp2b1, Cyp2e1, Cyp3a2, Cyp4a10) mRNA. HgCl2 caused obvious weight lose in rats. Mercury contents in liver and kidney were markedly increased by HgCl2 and MeHg, and MeHg markedly increased mercury contents of brain either, but these advent effects were not notable in Wansheng Huafeng Dan and cinnabar groups. However, blood biochemistry and histopathology did not show significant changes in all groups. The expression of rat hepatic MT-1 mRNA was remarkably induced by both HgCl2 and MeHg. The expression of hepatic Cyp3a2 was increased by Wansheng Huafeng Dan and cinnabar, while the expression of Cyp2e1 was inhibited by HgCl2 and MeHg. The administration of Wansheng Huafeng Dan with equivalent dose for three weeks shows a much low sub-acute toxicity than HgCl2 and MeHg in rats.

  9. Lipid peroxidation in mice fed a choline-deficient diet as evaluated by total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yasukazu; Itoh, Nanako; Hayakawa, Mieko; Habuchi, Yoko; Inoue, Ruriko; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Cao, Jiaofei; Cynshi, Osamu; Niki, Etsuo

    2006-03-01

    The relevance of oxidative stress in mice fed a choline-deficient diet (CDD) was investigated in relation to the oxidative stress marker, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) in comparison with F2-isoprostanes. Further, the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage were assessed by using HODE. We recently proposed total HODE as a biomarker for oxidative stress in vivo. Biological samples such as plasma, urine, and tissues were first reduced and then saponified to convert various oxidation products of linoleates to HODE. In the present study, this method was applied to measure oxidative damage in mice induced by CDD for 1 mo. CDD, when compared with choline-controlled diet (CCD), increased liver weight and fatty acid accumulation but the increase in body weight was less significant. Remarkable increases in HODE and 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) in liver and plasma were observed when mice were fed with the CDD for 1 mo compared with the CCD. The HODE level was about two to three orders higher than the F2-isoprostane level. This increase was decreased to the level of the CCD when alpha-tocopherol or 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dipentylbenzofuran, a potent synthetic antioxidant, was mixed with the CDD. The stereoisomer ratio of HODE (9-and-13 (Z,E)-HODE/9-and-13 (E,E)-HODE) was decreased by CDD compared with CCD, which was spared by the addition of alpha-tocopherol and 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-4,6-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dipentylbenzofuran. However, the increase in plasma glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and fatty acids in liver induced by the CDD was not recovered by any antioxidant. This study clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress was involved in fatty liver formation induced by the CDD and that HODE was a good biomarker for an oxidative stress in vivo.

  10. A study on the involvement of GABA-transaminase in MCT induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lingeshwar, Poorella; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Seema; Mishra, Akanksha; Shukla, Shubha; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Laxman, Tulsankar Sachin; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar; Siddiqui, Hefazat H; Hanif, Kashif

    2016-02-01

    Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is associated with cardiovascular diseases but its role has not been completely explored in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Increased SNS activity is distinguished by elevated level of norepinephrine (NE) and activity of γ-Amino butyric acid Transminase (GABA-T) which degrades GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central and peripheral nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that GABA-T may contribute in pathophysiology of PH by modulating level of GABA and NE. The effect of daily oral administration of GABA-T inhibitor, Vigabatrin (GVG, 50 and 75 mg/kg/day, 35 days) was studied following a single subcutaneous administration of monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg) in male SD rats. The pressure and hypertrophy of right ventricle (RV), oxidative stress, inflammation, pulmonary vascular remodelling were assessed after 35 days in MCT treated rats. The expression of GABA-T and HIF-1α was studied in lung tissue. The levels of plasma NE (by High performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector; HPLC-ECD) and lung GABA (by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) were also estimated. GVG at both doses significantly attenuated increased in pressure (35.82 ± 4.80 mm Hg, p < 0.001; 28.37 ± 3.32 mm Hg, p < 0.001 respectively) and hypertrophy of RV, pulmonary vascular remodelling, oxidative stress and inflammation in lungs of MCT exposed rats. GVG also reduced the expression of GABA-T and HIF-1α in MCT treated rats. Increased NE level and decreased GABA level was also reversed by GVG in MCT exposed rats. GABA-T plays an important role in PH by modulating SNS activity and may be considered as a therapeutic target in PH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (Got) Genetics in the Mouse: Polymorphism of Got-1

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Verne M.; Ruddle, Frank H.

    1972-01-01

    We have examined a polymorphism for the soluble glutamate oxaloacetate (GOT-1) isozyme system which was found in the Asian mouse Mus castaneus. Variants of GOT-1 segregate as though they are controlled by codominant alleles for a single autosomal locus which we have designated Got-1. No close linkage of genes for soluble and mitochondrial forms of the enzyme, GOT-1 and GOT-2 respectively, was observed. Furthermore, no close linkage of Got-1 and the loci c, Gpi-1, Mod-2, Mod-1, Ld-1, Gpd-1, Pgm-1 or Gpo-1 was observed. Our results demonstrate the utility of sampling Mus from diverse populations to extend the repertoire of polymorphic loci and the genetic linkage map. PMID:17248564

  12. [Establishing biological reference intervals of alanine transaminase for clinical laboratory stored database].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Song, Binbin; Shen, Junfei; Wu, Jiong; Zhang, Chunyan; Wang, Beili; Pan, Baishen

    2015-08-25

    To establish an indirect reference interval based on the test results of alanine aminotransferase stored in a laboratory information system. All alanine aminotransferase results were included for outpatients and physical examinations that were stored in the laboratory information system of Zhongshan Hospital during 2014. The original data were transformed using a Box-Cox transformation to obtain an approximate normal distribution. Outliers were identified and omitted using the Chauvenet and Tukey methods. The indirect reference intervals were obtained by simultaneously applying nonparametric and Hoffmann methods. The reference change value was selected to determine the statistical significance of the observed differences between the calculated and published reference intervals. The indirect reference intervals for alanine aminotransferase of all groups were 12 to 41 U/L (male, outpatient), 12 to 48 U/L (male, physical examination), 9 to 32 U/L (female, outpatient), and 8 to 35 U/L (female, physical examination), respectively. The absolute differences when compared with the direct results were all smaller than the reference change value of alanine aminotransferase. The Box-Cox transformation combined with the Hoffmann and Tukey methods is a simple and reliable technique that should be promoted and used by clinical laboratories.

  13. Relation between Liver Transaminases and Dyslipidaemia among 2-10 y.o. Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Nuñez, Georgina M.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of liver damage and dyslipidaemia. This study aimed to explore the associations of liver biomarkers with overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia in Mexican children. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a 414 subjects aged between 2 and 10 years old (47.8% girls) who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT/AST ratio, and major components of serum lipid profile were assessed. Results Children with high ALT (defined as ≥P75) showed higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia than their counterparts, with high prevalence of high TChol (P = 0.053), non-HDL-chol, TG, and low HDL-chol. Children with an AST/ALT ≥T3 ratio were 0.43-times (95% CI: 0.25–0.74) and 0.27-times (95% CI: 0.17–0.44) low likely to be overweight/obese and to have dyslipidaemia than those with an AST/ALT

  14. Relation between Liver Transaminases and Dyslipidaemia among 2-10 y.o. Northern Mexican Children.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Nuñez, Georgina M; Villarreal, Jesús Z; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of liver damage and dyslipidaemia. This study aimed to explore the associations of liver biomarkers with overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia in Mexican children. The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a 414 subjects aged between 2 and 10 years old (47.8% girls) who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health-Nuevo León 2011/2012. Associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT/AST ratio, and major components of serum lipid profile were assessed. Children with high ALT (defined as ≥P75) showed higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia than their counterparts, with high prevalence of high TChol (P = 0.053), non-HDL-chol, TG, and low HDL-chol. Children with an AST/ALT ≥T3 ratio were 0.43-times (95% CI: 0.25-0.74) and 0.27-times (95% CI: 0.17-0.44) low likely to be overweight/obese and to have dyslipidaemia than those with an AST/ALT

  15. Vigabatrin, a GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, Reversibly Eliminates Tinnitus in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Spires, T. JosephD.; Bauer, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Animal models have facilitated basic neuroscience research investigating the pathophysiology of tinnitus. It has been hypothesized that partial deafferentation produces a loss of tonic inhibition in the auditory system that may lead to inappropriate neuroplastic changes eventually expressed as tinnitus. The pathological down-regulation of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) provides a potential mechanism for this loss of inhibition. Using an animal model previously demonstrated to be sensitive to treatments that either induce or attenuate tinnitus, the present study examined the effect of the specific GABA agonist vigabatrin on chronic tinnitus. It was hypothesized that vigabatrin would decrease the evidence of tinnitus by restoring central inhibitory function through increased GABA availability. Vigabatrin has been demonstrated to elevate central GABA levels (Mattson et al. 1995). Tinnitus was induced in rats using a single 1-h unilateral exposure to band-limited noise, which preserved normal hearing in one ear. Psychophysical evidence of tinnitus was obtained using a free-operant conditioned-suppression method: Rats lever-pressed for food pellets and were trained to discriminate between the presence and absence of sound by punishing lever pressing with a mild foot shock (0.5 mA; 1 s) at the conclusion of randomly introduced silent periods (60 s) inserted into background low-level noise. Additional random insertion of pure tone and noise periods of variable intensity enabled the derivation of psychophysical functions that reflected the presence of tinnitus with features similar to 20-kHz tones. Vigabatrin was chronically administered via drinking water at 30 and 81 mg kg−1 day−1, with each dose level tested over 2 weeks, followed by a 0-mg washout test. Vigabatrin completely and reversibly eliminated the psychophysical evidence of tinnitus at both doses. Although vigabatrin has serious negative side effects that have prevented its clinical use in the USA, it is nevertheless a potentially useful tool in unraveling tinnitus pathophysiology. PMID:17221143

  16. Raised serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase levels in two rheumatoid patients treated with sulphasalazine.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, M; Symmons, D P; Bacon, P A

    1985-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is a rare complication of sulphasalazine therapy in ulcerative colitis. This report describes two rheumatoid patients in whom raised serum levels of liver enzymes occurred soon after starting sulphasalazine treatment for their arthritis. In both cases the serum enzyme levels returned to normal after stopping the drug. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity should be considered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who develop raised serum levels of liver enzymes while taking sulphasalazine. PMID:2865931

  17. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a substitute for zinc oxide or colistin sulfate: Effects on growth, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ligen; Su, Weipeng; Ying, Zhixiong; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) as a substitute for colistin sulfate (CS) and/or zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets. A total of 216 crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) piglets weaned at 23 days were randomly assigned into 3 groups, which were fed with basal diets supplemented with 20 mg/kg CS (CS group), 20mg/kg CS+3000 mg/kg ZnO (CS+ZnO group), and 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (nano-ZnO group) for 14 days. Results indicated that compared to CS group, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (about 30 nm) significantly increased final body weight and average daily gain, and 3000 mg/kg ZnO plus colistin sulfate significantly increased average daily gain and decreased diarrhea rate in weaned piglets. There was no significant difference in growth performance and diarrhea rate between nano-ZnO and CS+ZnO groups. Supplementation of nano-ZnOs did not affect serum enzymes (glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase), but significantly increased plasma and tissue zinc concentrations (liver, tibia), improved intestinal morphology (increased duodenal and ileal villus length, crypt depth, and villus surface), enhanced mRNA expression of ZO-1 in ileal mucosa, and significantly decreased diamine oxidase activity in plasma, total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS group. Effects of nano-ZnOs on serum enzymes, intestinal morphology, and mRNA expressions of tight junction were similar to those of high dietary ZnO plus colistin sulfate, while nano-ZnOs significantly reduced zinc concentrations of liver, tibia, and feces, and decreased total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS+ZnO group. These results suggested that nano-ZnOs (1200 mg/kg) might be used as a substitute for colistin sulfate and high dietary ZnO in weaned piglets. PMID:28704517

  18. Laboratory Profiles of Treatment-Seeking Subjects With Concurrent Dependence on Cannabis and Other Substances: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Quraishi, Rizwana; Jain, Raka; Chatterjee, Biswadip; Verma, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in India and worldwide. It is considered to have a minimal effect on physical health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the laboratory profiles of treatment-seeking patients who were cannabis dependent, and drug users who concurrently use other substances, with non-users. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients, whose urine was tested for the detection of cannabis within the last year, were considered for the study. The inclusion criteria for the study group were; co-morbid diagnosis of cannabis dependence according to DSM-IV TR criteria, positive urine drug screen for cannabis, and at least one biochemical or hematological examination report during the treatment period. The subjects who underwent all of the above mentioned tests, but who were negative for any psychoactive substance with no past or current history of substance use, were placed in the control group. Results: A total of 51 subjects fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study group and 30 subjects were considered as controls. There was no significant difference found between the demographic profiles of the subject and control groups. The mean duration of cannabis use in the patients was 9.53 ± 8.06 years. Serum levels of; bilirubin, SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), total protein, alkaline phosphatase, ESR, and eosinophil counts, were raised in; 13.7%, 15.6%, 33.3%, 17.6%, 37.2%, 75% and 5.8% of subjects, respectively. The relative monocyte count was lower than normal in 92% of cases. Physical complaints were reported in 98% of subjects. The two groups showed significant differences in serum alkaline phosphatase [t (79) = 6.5, P ≤ 0.01], TLC [t (79) = 2.36, P = 0.03] and hemoglobin levels [t (79) = 5.50, P ≤ 0.01]. Conclusions: Abnormal laboratory parameters were observed in patients with cannabis dependence. The study emphasizes the need for

  19. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p < 0.05) high in negative control group when compared with positive control group. It could be concluded that Argulus infestation altered marked haematological and serum biochemical parameters. However, in treated groups complete elimination of Argulus was found in T4 and T5 groups. Also significant (p < 0.05) reduction in haematological and serum biochemical parameters of all the treatment groups were recorded in comparison with negative control group. In addition, T4 and T5 groups showed significantly (p < 0.05) high superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and haemoglobin (Hb). However, higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin

  20. A novel monolithic controlled delivery system of resveratrol for enhanced hepatoprotection: nanoformulation development, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjali; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmad, Sayeed; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2016-09-01

    The current investigation aims to present a novel solid lipid-based nanoparticulate system of resveratrol (RV) for the effective treatment of liver cirrhosis. A simplified solvent injection method was employed and the Box-Behnken experimental design was applied for optimization to get a window particle size of 150-200 nm having maximum entrapment efficiency as well as % release. Optimized resveratrol solid lipid nanoparticles (RV-SLNs) (SR-1) of appropriate characteristics (particle size = 191.1 ± 10.44 nm; zeta potential= -13.56 ± 4.14 mV; entrapment efficiency = 75.23 ± 3.85%; maximum % release = 80.53 ± 3.99%) were produced. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies were carried out which collectively proved the reduced crystallinity and stability enhancing the effect of the SLNs. Improved drug stability was further established by the appreciable shelf-life of the formulation from International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH)-recommended accelerated stability studies. In vivo studies revealed nearly five-fold increase in the bioavailability of SR-1 (AUC0→∞=3411 ± 170.34 µg/ml/h) as compared to RV suspension (AUC0→∞=653.5 ± 30.10 µg/ml/h). Pharmacodynamic data exhibited a significant decrease in the serum biomarker enzymes (serum glutamic oxalo-acetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase) after oral administration of RV-SLNs as compared to control and marketed (SILYBON(®)) formulations against paracetamol-induced liver cirrhosis. The effect of the treatment was confirmed by the histopathology of the liver microtome sections. Finally, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies were conducted on isolated liver mRNA from SR-1 treated animals and significant down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and nuclear factor-kB was witnessed.

  1. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×10⁵/µL (P=0.00004) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×10⁶/µL (P=0.00003) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×10⁵/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×10⁵/µL), while it was 3.8×10⁵/µL and 5.5×10⁵/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×10⁶/µL to 9×10⁶/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×10⁶/µL). Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify

  2. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000 04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000 03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very

  3. Vaccine potential of recombinant cathepsinL1G against Fasciola gigantica in mice.

    PubMed

    Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoinok, Natthacha; Yencham, Chonthicha; Sobhon, Prasert; Kueakhai, Pornanan

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we characterized and investigated the vaccine potential of FgCatL1G against Fasciola gigantica infection in mice. Recombinant mature FgCatL1G (rmFgCatL1G) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The vaccination was performed in Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice (n=10) by subcutaneous injection with 50μg of rmFgCatL1G combined with Freund's adjuvant. Two weeks after the second boost, mice were infected with 15 metacercariae by the oral route. The percents of protection of rmFgCatL1G vaccine were estimated to be 56.5% and 58.3% when compared with non vaccinated-infected and adjuvant-infected controls, respectively. Antibodies in the immune sera of vaccinated mice were shown by immunoblot to react with the native FgCatL1s in the extract of all stages of parasites and rmFgCatL1H, recombinant pro - FgCatL1 (rpFgCatL1). By immunohistochemistry, the immune sera also reacted with FgCatL1s in the caecal epithelial cells of the parasites. The levels of IgG1 and IgG2a in the immune sera, which are indicative of Th2 and Th1 immune responses, were also increased with IgG1 predominating. The levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) in rmFgCatL1G-immunized group showed no significant difference from the control groups, but pathological lesions of livers in rmFgCatL1G-immunized group showed significant decrease when compared to the control groups. This study indicates that rmFgCatL1G has a vaccine potential against F. gigantica in mice, and this potential will be tested in larger livestock animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating higher doses of Shunthi - Guduchi formulations for safety in treatment of osteoarthritis knees: A Government of India NMITLI arthritis project

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were “platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris” (formulation B) and “platform combination+Emblica officinale” (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5–2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation). Materials and Methods: Ninety-two patients with symptomatic OA knees were enrolled in a 6 weeks investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial. The 4 arms were (I) formulation B, 2 t.i.d.; (II) formulation B, 2 q.i.d.; (III) platform combination+Sallaki Guggul; (IV) Bhallataka Parpati+formulation C. A detailed enquiry was carried out for adverse events (AE) and drug toxicity as per a priori check list and volunteered information. Laboratory evaluation included detailed hematology and metabolic parameters. Patients were examined at baseline, first and fourth weeks, and on completion. Standard statistical program (SPSS version 12.5) was used for analysis. Results: None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut–related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5–2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22–2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II

  5. Protective effects of a traditional Chinese herbal formula Jiang-Xian HuGan on Concanavalin A-induced mouse hepatitis via NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huan-Huan; Li, Hai-Long; Li, Yue-Xuan; You, Yan; Guan, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Su-Lin; Liu, Li-Xin; Bao, Wei-Lian; Zhou, Yong; Shen, Xiao-Yan

    2018-05-10

    Jiang-Xian HuGan (JXHG) formulated by five natural products including Freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea), Curcuma longa L., Ligustrum lucidum, Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. and Paeonia lactiflora Pall., has exhibited a great hepatoprotective effect. We investigated the effect of JXHG on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute live injury in mice, and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Jiangkanling Capsule (900 mg/kg), low-dose JXHG (LJXHG, 700 mg/kg), high-dose JXHG (HJXHG, 1400 mg/kg) were administered to mice by oral gavage daily for 20 days prior to a single intravenous injection of ConA (20 mg/kg). Liver injury was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of enzymes and cytokines as well as liver histological analysis. We also measured the hepatic expression of cytokines at mRNA levels and the proteins related to NF-κB and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways. Our results showed that JXHG pretreatment significantly alleviated ConA-induced live injury as evidenced by decreased serum levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST), and reduced hepatocyte apoptosis and mortality. Furthermore, JXHG was able to significantly reduce the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, down-regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and up-regulate IL-10 as well as superoxide-dimutase-1 (SOD1), glutathione reductase (GSR) and Glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2) mRNA in the liver tissues after Con A injection. In addition, JXHG pretreatment dramatically suppressed the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 (p65), increased Nrf2 expression, and decreased the expression ratio of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 in liver tissues. These results suggest that JXHG protects against ConA-induced acute live injury through inhibiting NF-κB mediated inflammatory pathway and promoting Nrf2 mediated anti-oxidative stress signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Differential diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis from tuberculous meningitis using clinical and laboratory features.

    PubMed

    Valappil, Ashraf V; Thiruvoth, Sohanlal; Peedikayil, Jabir M; Raghunath, Praveenkumar; Thekkedath, Manojan

    2017-12-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus and is an important differential diagnosis of other lymphocytic meningitis like tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be helpful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from TBM. We compared of the clinical and laboratory features of 57 patients admitted with scrub typhus meningitis or TBM during a 3-year period. Patients who had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positive scrub typhus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology (n=28) were included in the scrub typhus meningitis group, while the TBM group included those who satisfied the consensus diagnostic criteria of TBM (n=29). Compared with the TBM group, the mean duration of symptoms was less in patients with scrub typhus meningitis, who also had a lower magnitude of neurological deficits, such as altered mental status and cranial nerve and motor deficits. Patients with scrub typhus meningitis had a lower CSF white blood-cell count (WBC) than the TBM group (130.8±213 195±175 cells/mm 3 , P=0.002), lower CSF protein elevation (125±120 vs. 195.2±108.2mg/dl, P=0.002), and higher CSF sugar (70.1±32.4 vs. 48.7±23.4mg/dl, P=0.006). Features predictive of the diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis included the absence of neurological impairment at presentation, blood serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase>40 international units (IU)/L, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase>60 IU/L, total blood leukocyte count>10,000/mm 3 , CSF protein<100mg/dl, CSF sugar>50mg/dl, CSF WBC<100 cells/mm 3 . All patients with scrub typhus meningitis recovered completely following doxycycline therapy CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, clinical features, including duration of fever, neurological deficits at presentation and laboratory parameters such as CSF pleocytosis,CSF protein elevation, CSF sugar levels and liver enzyme

  7. Combined Supplementation with Grape Pomace and Omija Fruit Ethanol Extracts Dose-Dependently Improves Body Composition, Plasma Lipid Profiles, Inflammatory Status, and Antioxidant Capacity in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jin; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Su-Jung; Kim, Ae Hyang; Han, Youngji; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of combined grape pomace and omija fruit ethanol extracts (GO) on metabolic disorders in overweight or obese subjects. Seventy-six subjects (30-70 years, body mass index ≥23.0 kg/m2) were divided into control (starch, 4 g/day, n = 24), low-GO (low dose GO, grape pomace extract [342.5 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [57.5 mg/day], n = 26), and high-GO (high dose GO, grape pomace extract [685 mg/day] + omija fruit extract [115 mg/day], n = 26) groups. Body composition, nutrient intake, plasma lipid profiles, inflammation, antioxidant capacity, and hepatotoxicity markers were assessed in all subjects at the baseline and 10 weeks after taking the supplements. The body weight and body fat of overweight or obese subjects was not significantly altered in the low-GO and high-GO groups. However, the high-GO supplement significantly decreased the baseline-adjusted final plasma total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels and increased the baseline-adjusted final plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 level compared with that of the control group. In addition, the high-GO supplement significantly lowered apo B, apo B/apo A-1, lipoprotein a (Lp[a]), atherogenic index, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and elevated erythrocyte antioxidant capacity compared with the control group or the baseline levels. The low-GO supplement decreased the plasma IL-1β level and elevated erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity compared with that at baseline. However, in general, high-GO exerted a greater effect than low-GO. There were no significant differences in activities of plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase between the groups. This study is a preliminary clinical study to verify that GO could be beneficial for amelioration of obesity-related dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress

  8. Evaluating higher doses of Shunthi - Guduchi formulations for safety in treatment of osteoarthritis knees: A Government of India NMITLI arthritis project.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2012-01-01

    Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were "platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris" (formulation B) and "platform combination+Emblica officinale" (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5-2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation). Ninety-two patients with symptomatic OA knees were enrolled in a 6 weeks investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial. The 4 arms were (I) formulation B, 2 t.i.d.; (II) formulation B, 2 q.i.d.; (III) platform combination+Sallaki Guggul; (IV) Bhallataka Parpati+formulation C. A detailed enquiry was carried out for adverse events (AE) and drug toxicity as per a priori check list and volunteered information. Laboratory evaluation included detailed hematology and metabolic parameters. Patients were examined at baseline, first and fourth weeks, and on completion. Standard statistical program (SPSS version 12.5) was used for analysis. None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut-related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5-2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22-2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II. The results suggested that despite higher doses, standardized

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of engineered silver nanoparticles coated bioactive compounds against diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis in experimental mice.

    PubMed

    Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticle based drug delivery can rapidly improves the therapeutic potential of anti-cancer agents. The present study focused to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaves (ApAgNPs) and Semecarpus anacardium nuts (SaAgNPs) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in mice model. The physico-chemical properties of synthesized AgNPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum, Zeta potential and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectrum revealed a strong peak at 420nm for both SaAgNPs and ApAgNPs. FTIR results exhibited the presence of possible functional groups in the synthesized AgNPs. TEM analysis determined the hexagonal, and spherical shape of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The XRD and SAED pattern confirmed the crystalline nature and crystalline size of the AgNPs. EDX result clearly showed strong silver signals in the range between 2 and 4keV. Zeta potential measurements indicated a sharp peak at -3.93 and -13.8mV for ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs, respectively. DLS measurement expressed the particle size distribution was 70 and 60nm for ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs, respectively. DEN (20mg/kg b.wt.) was subjected to induce liver cancer in mice for 8weeks and treated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Interestingly, ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs treated DEN induced animal groups show a decreased level of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activity and elevated level of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over untreated DEN control

  10. Ultrasonic diagnosis of patients with clonorchiasis and preliminary study of pathogenic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mei; Lu, Lin; Su, Chun; Xue, Mei; Dou, Ji-Mei; Li, Pei; Feng, Han-Qi; Fan, Yan-Bing

    2016-07-01

    To discuss the liver function damage mechanism of patients with clonorchiasis by analyzing the ultrasound characteristics, liver function, change of the serum inflammatory factors and cell apoptosis factors. Color Doppler ultrasound technique was adopted to detect the portal vein and blood flow change of patients with clonorchiasis; ELISA was used to determine the level of different serum inflammatory factors. The levels of serum total bilirubin, serum albumin and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. Western blot was used to determine the expression of proteins relevant to apoptosis. Compared with the health control group, the trunk diameter of portal vein and the thickness of spleen, as well as the hepatic artery pulsation index of clonorchiasis patients increased obviously, the mean blood flow velocity of portal vein (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) decreased. The content of total bilirubin and transaminase in plasma increased significantly, but albumin decreased (P < 0.05). Levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ increased remarkably, and the level of every factor was significantly different among patients with Child-Pugh , Child-Pugh II and Child-Pugh III classification of liver function (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). With the exacerbation of liver dysfunction, levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ gradually increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the healthy control group, the expression quantity of apoptosis protein Fas, FasL, Bax and Caspase-3 increased significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), but Bcl-2 decreased (P < 0.05). Changes of ultrasonic characteristics and liver dysfunction, caused by liver fluke infection, may be related to that both inflammatory response and apoptosis response have participated in the pathogenic process and liver damage course of clonorchiasis. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as a substitute for zinc oxide or colistin sulfate: Effects on growth, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Ligen; Su, Weipeng; Ying, Zhixiong; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Zhong, Xiang; Wang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) as a substitute for colistin sulfate (CS) and/or zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, serum enzymes, zinc deposition, intestinal morphology and epithelial barrier in weaned piglets. A total of 216 crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) piglets weaned at 23 days were randomly assigned into 3 groups, which were fed with basal diets supplemented with 20 mg/kg CS (CS group), 20mg/kg CS+3000 mg/kg ZnO (CS+ZnO group), and 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (nano-ZnO group) for 14 days. Results indicated that compared to CS group, supplementation of 1200 mg/kg nano-ZnOs (about 30 nm) significantly increased final body weight and average daily gain, and 3000 mg/kg ZnO plus colistin sulfate significantly increased average daily gain and decreased diarrhea rate in weaned piglets. There was no significant difference in growth performance and diarrhea rate between nano-ZnO and CS+ZnO groups. Supplementation of nano-ZnOs did not affect serum enzymes (glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase), but significantly increased plasma and tissue zinc concentrations (liver, tibia), improved intestinal morphology (increased duodenal and ileal villus length, crypt depth, and villus surface), enhanced mRNA expression of ZO-1 in ileal mucosa, and significantly decreased diamine oxidase activity in plasma, total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS group. Effects of nano-ZnOs on serum enzymes, intestinal morphology, and mRNA expressions of tight junction were similar to those of high dietary ZnO plus colistin sulfate, while nano-ZnOs significantly reduced zinc concentrations of liver, tibia, and feces, and decreased total aerobic bacterial population in MLN as compared to CS+ZnO group. These results suggested that nano-ZnOs (1200 mg/kg) might be used as a substitute for colistin sulfate and high dietary ZnO in weaned piglets.

  12. Effects of lactic acid bacteria and smectite after aflatoxin B1 challenge on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Ding, K; Wang, J; Deng, Q; Gu, K; Wang, J

    2018-04-11

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and smectite on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of broilers that were fed diets contaminated with aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ). A total of 480 newly hatched male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated into four groups with six replicates of 20 chicks each. The broilers were fed diets with the AFB 1 (40 μg/kg) challenge or without (control) it and supplemented with smectite (3.0 g/kg) or LAB (4.0 × 10 10  CFU/kg) based on the AFB 1 diet. The trial lasted for 42 days. The results showed that during days 1-42 of AFB 1 challenge, the feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were depressed (p < .05). The inclusion of LAB and smectite increased (p < .05) the BWG by 71.58 and 41.89 g/bird, respectively, which reached the level of the control diet (p ≥ .05), but there were no differences (p ≥ .05) in performance between LAB and smectite. LAB and smectite also increased (p < .05) the apparent total tract digestibility of the crude protein. Regarding the blood parameters, AFB 1 decreased (p < .05) the levels of red blood cell count, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin, albumin and total protein. In the meantime, the AFB 1 increased (p < .05) leucocyte counts, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, total bilirubin, creatinine, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. By contrast, LAB and smectite affected (p < .05) these parameters in the opposite direction. It can be concluded that after the AFB 1 challenge, LAB and smectite have similar effects on the growth and health of the broilers, suggesting that LAB could be an alternative against AFB 1 in commercial animal feeds. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Amino acid profile and metabolic syndrome in a male Mediterranean population: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ntzouvani, A; Nomikos, T; Panagiotakos, D; Fragopoulou, E; Pitsavos, C; McCann, A; Ueland, P M; Antonopoulou, S

    2017-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of clinically relevant factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. Circulating levels of several amino acids and metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism have been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and MetS. We aimed to identify the amino acid profile that is significantly associated with MetS among an all male Mediterranean population. One hundred middle-aged men (54.6 ± 8.9 years) participated in a cross-sectional study carried out during 2011-2012. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used to define MetS. Fasting plasma levels of 20 common amino acids and 15 metabolites related to amino acid and one-carbon metabolism were measured using gas chromatography (GC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Principal components analysis was applied. Fifty-six participants fulfilled the IDF criteria for defining MetS. Five factors were extracted from the 35 measured metabolites. The branched-chain amino acids/aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAA) related pattern and the glutamine/glycine/serine/asparagine (Gln/Gly/Ser/Asn) related pattern were significantly associated with MetS (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval; 6.41, 2.43-16.91, and 0.47, 0.23-0.96, respectively) after adjustment for age, current smoking status, physical activity level and medical treatment for hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further adjustment for liver function markers (i.e. glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and γ-glutamyltransferase), and plasma adiponectin levels did not significantly affect the associations. The BCAA/AAA pattern was positively associated, while the Gln/Gly/Ser/Asn pattern was inversely associated with established cardiometabolic risk factors and MetS. Plasma adiponectin levels or markers of liver function did not significantly affect these associations. Copyright © 2017 The

  14. In vivo Studies on the Protective Effect of Propolis on Doxorubicin-Induced Toxicity in Liver of Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Singla, Shivani; Kumar, Neelima R; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2014-05-01

    Since anticancer drugs are to be administered for long durations of time and are associated with systemic toxicities, the present studies were conducted to evaluate the protective potential of honey bee propolis against a widely used anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DXR) induced toxicity and oxidative damage in liver tissues of rats. Sixteen male Sprague Dawley rats, weighing between 200-220 g, were used and were divided into four equal groups. Propolis was given orally to rats [250 mg/kg body weight (bw) for 14 consecutive days] and DXR [25 mg/kg bw; intraperitoneally (i.p) was administered on 12(th), 13(th) and 14(th) day of the experiment. All the animals were sacrificed on day 15(th) day by decapitation. Blood and tissue samples were collected for measurement of toxicity and oxidative damage parameters (enzymatic assays and biochemical estimations). Administration of DXR for 3 days at a cumulative dose of 25 mg/kg bw, induced toxicity and oxidative stress in rats as significantly decreased activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) were observed in rat liver supernatants when compared to control group. Increased activity of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) was obtained in DXR administered rats. Also there are significantly increased levels of lipid peroxides (measured as malondialdehyde formation) and significantly decreased level of glutathione (GSH) in doxorubicin treated rat liver supernatants as compared to healthy controls. On the other hand, administration of animals with propolis prior to DXR treatment led to significant modulation of the oxidative damage related parameters in liver and hepatotoxicity parameters in blood, when compared to doxorubicin treated group. However results were still not comparable to control group or only propolis group indicating partial protection by propolis at

  15. Effects of curcumin on antioxidative activities and cytokine production in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) with CCl4-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Ding, Weidong; Du, Jingliang; Jia, Rui; Liu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Caiyuan; Shen, Yujin; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of curcumin on liver-damaged Cyprinus carpio var. Jian (Jian carp). The carp were fed 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1.0% curcumin for 60 days, then injected intraperitoneally with 30% carbon tetrachloride solution. Liver and blood samples were collected to measure the liver index, serum- and liver-associated enzymes, liver histology, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/c-Rel, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-12 mRNA expression, and the level of NF-κB/c-Rel protein in the liver, and for a comet assay. We found that 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin significantly reduced the CCl(4)-induced increase in the liver index. The comet assay showed that the tail moment, olive tail moment, tail length, and tail DNA% improved in fish pretreated with 0.5 or 1.0% curcumin. CCl(4)-induced histological changes, including extensive hepatocyte degeneration, indistinct cell borders, nuclear condensation, and karyolysis were clearly reduced after treatment with 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin. Moreover, 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin significantly inhibited the CCl(4)-induced increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and promoted the restoration of superoxide dismutase in the liver; 1.0% curcumin significantly reduced serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic malondialdehyde, but significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels in the liver. The CCl(4)-induced upregulation of NF-κB/c-Rel, IL-1β, and TNF-α mRNAs and NF-κB/c-Rel protein levels was inhibited by 0.5% and 1.0% curcumin, and IL-12 mRNA was reduced by all three doses of curcumin. The effects of curcumin on the liver index, enzymes, histological changes, and cytokines were dose-dependent. Our results indicate that curcumin reduces CCl(4)-induced liver damage in Jian carp by upregulating antioxidative activities and inhibiting NF-κB, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p < 0.05). The FCR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly lower than the control (p < 0.05). Carps on B2, B3, and B4 diets showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of triglyceride than the control. B4-fed carps showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol than the control. However there was no remarkable difference (p > 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and B4-fed carps. The serum alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than B4-fed carps. The serum acid phosphatase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other antimicrobial peptide-fed groups. The serum lysozyme activity of carps on B1, B2, and B3 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control- and B4-fed carps. Regarding immune factors in serum, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin (IL)-1β in B1-fed carps were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other groups, while IL-1α levels in B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control-, B2-, and B3-fed carps. Furthermore, there were no significant

  17. Toxic effects of two sources of dietborne cadmium on the juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. and tissue-specific accumulation of related minerals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Tan, Beiping

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. were fed diets contaminated by two different sources of cadmium: squid viscera meal (SVM-Cd, organic form) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2-Cd, inorganic form). The Cd concentrations in fish diet were approximate 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg Cd kg(-1) for both inorganic and organic forms. In the control diet (0.312mg Cd kg(-1) diet, Cd mainly come from fish meal), no cadmium was added. The experiment lasted for 16 weeks and a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed between specific growth rate (SGR) and the concentration of dietary Cd. The SGR of cobia fed a diet with SVM-Cd increased at the lowest doses and decreased with the increasing level of dietary SVM. Fish fed diet contaminated SVM-Cd had significantly higher SGR than those fed diets contaminated CdCl2-Cd among the high Cd level diets treatments. The dietary Cd levels also significantly affected the survival rate of the fish. Among the hematological characteristics and plasma constituents, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities and alkaline phosphatase activities in serum and liver increased and hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased with the increasing dietary Cd levels. The cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of CdCl2-Cd had significantly higher ALP activity than cobia fed diet contaminated by high level of SVM-Cd. The results from these studies indicate no differences in toxicity response to dietborne SVM-Cd and CdCl2-Cd at a low level of Cd. However, at a higher level, cobia was more sensitive to dietborne CdCl2-Cd than SVM-Cd. Based on quadratic regression of SGR, The Cd concentrations was 3.617mg kg(-1) in the optimal diet, Cd source was SVM (126mg Cd kg(-1) in SVM) which stimulate the growth of cobia and the added level was determined to be 26.7g kg(-1) diet in the present study. Cd accumulations in the kidney of cobia fed both types of Cd were higher than other tissues, and the order of Cd accumulation in tissues

  18. Effect of ageing and ischemia on enzymatic activities linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacids metabolism of free and intrasynaptic mitochondria of cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Villa, Roberto Federico; Gorini, Antonella; Hoyer, Siegfried

    2009-12-01

    The effect of ageing and the relationships between the catalytic properties of enzymes linked to Krebs' cycle, electron transfer chain, glutamate and aminoacid metabolism of cerebral cortex, a functional area very sensitive to both age and ischemia, were studied on mitochondria of adult and aged rats, after complete ischemia of 15 minutes duration. The maximum rate (Vmax) of the following enzyme activities: citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase for Krebs' cycle; NADH-cytochrome c reductase as total (integrated activity of Complex I-III), rotenone sensitive (Complex I) and cytochrome oxidase (Complex IV) for electron transfer chain; glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate-and glutamate-pyruvate transaminases for glutamate metabolism were assayed in non-synaptic, perikaryal mitochondria and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria, i.e., the light and heavy mitochondrial fraction. The results indicate that in normal, steady-state cerebral cortex, the value of the same enzyme activity markedly differs according (a) to the different populations of mitochondria, i.e., non-synaptic or intra-synaptic light and heavy, (b) and respect to ageing. After 15 min of complete ischemia, the enzyme activities of mitochondria located near the nucleus (perikaryal mitochondria) and in synaptic structures (intra-synaptic mitochondria) of the cerebral tissue were substantially modified by ischemia. Non-synaptic mitochondria seem to be more affected by ischemia in adult and particularly in aged animals than the intra-synaptic light and heavy mitochondria. The observed modifications in enzyme activities reflect the metabolic state of the tissue at each specific experimental condition, as shown by comparative evaluation with respect to the content of energy-linked metabolites and substrates. The derangements in enzyme activities due to ischemia is greater in aged than in adult animals and especially the non-synaptic and the intra-synaptic light

  19. [Long-term Follow-up of Patients with Hepatitis-Associated Aplastic Anemia].

    PubMed

    You, Ya-Hong; Meng, Xian-Bin; Li, Xing-Xin; Ge, Mei-Li; Nie, Neng; Huang, Jin-Bo; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Shao, Ying-Qi; Shi, Jun; Zheng, Yi-Zhou

    2017-08-01

    To explore the clinical characteristic, therapeutic efficacy and prognosis of patients with hepatitis-associated aplasitc anemia (HAAA). the clinical data and labrotatory examination results of 30 cases of HAAA were analyzed retrospectively, the 6-month response ratio and overall survival (OS) were assessed. HAAA most commonly occured in males, with the occurence rate of males and females was 4:1, the median onset age was 16 (4-43) years old, HAAA oriented focus on sever aplastic anemia (SAA)(4 cases,13%) and very sever aplastic anemia (VSAA)(22 cases,73%). Aplastic anemia (AA) could be seen on occurence of hepatitis (accompanied aplastic anemia) (7 cases,23%), or after the onset of hepatits (delayed aplastic anemia) (23 cases,77%), but more often occured in the latter. Statistical analysis showed that when compared with the patients of delayed aplastic anemia, patients accompanied aplastic anemia possesses lower levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase(ALT), aspertate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL)(P=0.042,0.012,0.001), and possessed a more obvious lymphoid cell disorder when AA occured, with more lower peripheral blood CD19 + B cells proportion (P=0.046) and more obvious imbalance of CD4 + /CD8 + ratio, but the difference was no statistical significant (P=0538). Factors affecting the 6-month respose were the severity of AA (P=0.044), the peak level of bilirubin of hepatitis (P=0.006) and the propotion of mature monocyte in bone marrow (P=0.034). The long-term follow-up showed that the 2-year OS of HAAA was 64.3±9.2%, the 6-month curative efficacy significantly affect the prognosis (P<0.001). HAAA more often occur in young male, HAAA is mainly SAA and VSAA and mostly non-A-C hepatitis associated aplastic anemia, patients usually have a high incidence of early infection. Patients acompanied with aplastic anemia possess more obvious immunological derangement; the treatment efficacy for HAAA is poor, patients who haven't obtained 6-month response

  20. Triheptanoin Protects Motor Neurons and Delays the Onset of Motor Symptoms in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Barkl-Luke, Mallory E.; Ngo, Shyuan T.; Thomas, Nicola K.; McDonald, Tanya S.; Borges, Karin

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that energy metabolism is disturbed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients and animal models. Treatment with triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is a promising approach to provide alternative fuel to improve oxidative phosphorylation and aid ATP generation. Heptanoate can be metabolized to propionyl-CoA, which after carboxylation can produce succinyl-CoA and thereby re-fill the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (anaplerosis). Here we tested the hypothesis that treatment with triheptanoin prevents motor neuron loss and delays the onset of disease symptoms in female mice overexpressing the mutant human SOD1G93A (hSOD1G93A) gene. When oral triheptanoin (35% of caloric content) was initiated at P35, motor neuron loss at 70 days of age was attenuated by 33%. In untreated hSOD1G93A mice, the loss of hind limb grip strength began at 16.7 weeks. Triheptanoin maintained hind limb grip strength for 2.8 weeks longer (p<0.01). Loss of balance on the rotarod and reduction of body weight were delayed by 13 and 11 days respectively (both p<0.01). Improved motor function occurred in parallel with alterations in the expression of genes associated with muscle metabolism. In gastrocnemius muscles, the mRNA levels of pyruvate, 2-oxoglutarate and succinate dehydrogenases and methyl-malonyl mutase were reduced by 24–33% in 10 week old hSOD1G93A mice when compared to wild-type mice, suggesting that TCA cycling in skeletal muscle may be slowed in this ALS mouse model at a stage when muscle strength is still normal. At 25 weeks of age, mRNA levels of succinate dehydrogenases, glutamic pyruvic transaminase 2 and the propionyl carboxylase β subunit were reduced by 69–84% in control, but not in triheptanoin treated hSOD1G93A animals. Taken together, our results suggest that triheptanoin slows motor neuron loss and the onset of motor symptoms in ALS mice by improving TCA cycling. PMID:27564703

  1. [Clinical effect of stem cell transplantation via hepatic artery in the treatment of type II hyperammonemia: a report on 6 cases].

    PubMed

    DU, Kan; Luan, Zuo; Qu, Su-Qing; Yang, Hui; Yang, Yin-Xiang; Wang, Zhao-Yan; Jin, Hui-Yu; Liu, Wei-Peng

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical effect of transplantation of CD133⁺ peripheral blood stem cells or umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells via the hepatic artery in children with type II hyperammonemia and its possible action mechanism. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were obtained by collecting cord blood (100-150 mL) from healthy fetuses and separating stem cell suspension (5 mL) from the cord blood by hydroxyethyl starch sedimentation. CD133⁺ peripheral blood stem cells were obtained by mobilizing peripheral blood from the fathers of sick children using recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for 5 days, collecting mononuclear cells (120 mL), and separating out CD133⁺ cells by sorting. With catheterization and percutaneous puncture, the obtained stem cells were slowly injected into the liver of sick children via the hepatic artery. The changes in clinical symptoms and laboratory indices such as blood ammonia, liver function, and arginine and citrulline concentrations were observed. After stem cell transplantation via the hepatic artery, the 6 children showed significantly decreased blood ammonia levels, and their blood ammonia levels slowly increased 1 to 2 weeks later, but remained below 100 μmol/L, and changes in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels were similar to blood ammonia. Plasma citrulline and arginine concentrations increased significantly after transplantation and the increase in citrulline level exceeded the increase in arginine level. An 8 months follow-up visit for one typical patient showed that the weight and height increased after transplantation and sleep was improved without night crying. The child could actively gaze at interesting objects instead of responding indifferently and started to say simple words. With regard to fine motor skills, the child could pinch things with the thumb and middle finger instead of displaying a lack of hand-eye coordination and progress was also made in gross motor skills

  2. Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma Longa) and Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum Sativum) and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elkhair, R.; Ahmed, H. A.; Selim, S.

    2014-01-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  3. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  4. Physiology of Growth and Sporulation in Bacillus cereus I. Effect of Glutamic and Other Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Buono, F.; Testa, R.; Lundgren, D. G.

    1966-01-01

    Buono, F. (Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y.), R. Testa, and D. G. Lundgren. Physiology of growth and sporulation in Bacillus cereus. I. Effect of glutamic and other amino acids. J. Bacteriol. 91:2291–2299. 1966.—Growth and sporulation were studied in Bacillus cereus by use of an active culture technique and a synthetic medium. A high level of glutamic acid (70 mm) was required for optimal growth and glucose oxidation followed by sporulation even though relatively little glutamic acid was consumed (14 mm). Optimal growth occurred with a combination of 14 mm glutamic acid and 56 mm (NH4)2SO4, aspartic acid, or alanine. Ornithine or arginine at 70 mm could replace glutamic acid in the synthetic medium without affecting the normal growth cycle. Glutamic acid was not replaced by any other amino acid, by (NH4)2SO4, or by a combination of either α-ketoglutarate or pyruvate plus (NH4)2SO4. Enzyme assays of cell-free extracts prepared from cells harvested at different times were used to study the metabolism of glutamic acid. Glutamic-oxaloacetic and glutamic-pyruvate transaminases were completely activated (or derepressed) during early stages of sporulation (period of 6 to 8 hr). Alanine dehydrogenase responded in a similar manner, but the levels of this enzyme were much higher throughout the culture cycle. Neither glutamic dehydrogenase nor α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase was detected. Sporulation in a replacement salts medium was studied with cells harvested at different times from the synthetic medium. Cultures 2 to 6 hr old were unable to sporulate in the replacement salts medium unless glutamic acid (7.0 mm) was present. By the 6th hr, cells were in the early stages of sporulation, showing spore septa development. Cultures 8 hr old sporulated in the replacement salts medium. Other metabolic intermediates able to replace glutamic acid in the replacement salts medium were alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamine at equimolar concentrations. Also, ammonium ions in

  5. In vitro and in vivo antioxidative and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Cortex Dictamni

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Zhou, Yun-Feng; Li, Yan-Lin; Wang, Li-Li; Arai, Hiderori; Xu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Cortex Dictamni aqueous extract (CDAE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. METHODS The in vitro antioxidant effect of CDAE was investigated using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), β-carotene bleaching, reducing power, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assays. A linoleic acid system, including ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assays, was used to evaluate the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of CDAE against CCl4-induced liver damage were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Silymarin was used as a positive control. Liver damage was assessed by determining hepatic histopathology and liver marker enzymes in serum. Enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant levels and lipid peroxide content were measured in the liver. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein expression was measured via immunohistochemical staining. Nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase catalytic subunit (γ-GCSc) protein expression was measured by Western blot. RESULTS Our results showed that CDAE exhibited a strong antioxidant activity in vitro. CDAE scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals in a dose-dependent manner. CDAE inhibited lipid peroxidation with a lipid peroxide inhibition rate of 40.6% ± 5.2%. In the FTC and TBA assays, CDAE significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation (P < 0.01). In vivo histopathological studies indicated that CCl4-induced liver injury was alleviated following CDAE treatment in rats of both sexes. CDAE (160 and 320 mg/kg) significantly prevented CCl4-induced elevations of alkaline phosphatase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin levels in rats of both sexes (P < 0.05, 0.01, or 0.001). Moreover, CDAE

  6. Bioavailability and biological activity of liquisolid compact formula of repaglinide and its effect on glucose tolerance in rabbits.

    PubMed

    El-Houssieny, Boushra M; Wahman, Lobna F; Arafa, Nadia M S

    2010-02-01

    This study is an extension of the previous enhancement of dissolution properties of repaglinide using liquisolid compacts. The development and validation of a highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for the determination of repaglinide concentration in rabbit plasma for pharmacokinetic studies is described. Repaglinide optimizing formula was orally administered to rabbits and blood samples were used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of repaglinide, which were compared to pharmacokinetic parameters of marketed tablets (Novonorm 2 mg). Also, to investigate the biological activity of this new formula, in comparison with the commercial product, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), area under the curve and insulin levels were studied. Moreover, we studied the efficacy and safety of this new formula in several potencies (0.5, 1, and 2 mg) and blood glucose, insulin, kidney and liver functions. The relative bioavailability of repaglinide from its liquisolid compact formula was found to be increased significantly in comparison to that of the marketed tablet. In regard to urea and creatinine, no significant change was recorded after the administration of the commercial and the three potencies of the new formulation compared with the control group. Similarly, in liver function tests (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, SGPT), there were no changes observed in its level. Regarding insulin levels, the commercial formula increased insulin levels insignificantly (3.52% change) while the new formula increased the insulin level significantly with a percent change of 37.6%. The results of the glucose tolerance test showed that the blood glucose level was decreased significantly after the commercial drug (percent change, 18.1%) while in groups treated with the new formulation the decrease was highly significant (p < 0.01) with a percent change of 29.98%. The change in area under the curve for blood glucose was significantly higher in the commercial drug plus

  7. Effects of dietary protein/energy ratio on growth performance, carcass trait, meat quality, and plasma metabolites in pigs of different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Jiang, Guoli; Tan, Bi'e; Deng, Jinping; Yang, Xiaojian; Li, Fengna; Xiong, Xia; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    The protein/energy ratio is important for the production performance and utilization of available feed resources by animals. Increased protein consumption by mammals leads to elevated feed costs and increased nitrogen release into the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary protein/energy ratio on the growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and plasma metabolites of pigs of different genotypes. Bama mini-pigs and Landrace pigs were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups (Chinese conventional diet with low protein/energy ratio or National Research Council diet with high protein/energy ratio; n = 24 per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Blood and muscle samples were collected at the end of the nursery, growing, and finishing phases. We observed significant interactions (P < 0.05) between breed and diet for total fat percentage, intramuscular fat (IMF) content, protein content in biceps femoris (BF) muscle, and plasma urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in the nursery phase; for average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), dry matter, IMF content in psoas major (PM) muscle, and plasma total protein and albumin concentrations in the growing phase; and for drip loss and plasma UN concentration in the finishing phase. Breed influenced (P < 0.05) growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality, but not plasma metabolites. Throughout the trial, Landrace pigs showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, dressing percentage, lean mass rate, and loin-eye area than did Bama mini-pigs, but significantly lower (P < 0.05) feed/gain ratio, fat percentage, backfat thickness, and IMF content. Dietary protein/energy ratio influenced the pH value, chemical composition of BF and PM muscles, and plasma activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and plasma concentration of UN. Compared with Landrace pigs, Bama mini-pigs showed slower growth and lower

  8. Effect of two different hypocaloric diets in transaminases and insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obese patients.

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Gonzalez Sagrado, M; Conde, R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the changes in hypertransaminasemia after weight reduction in obese patients with and without NAFLD and the relation with insulin resistance. A population of 162 obese patients was randomly allocated to two groups: a) diet I (low fat) and b) diet II (low carbohydrate), dieting along 3 months. Patients were classified as group I (n=112) when serum ALT activity was normal or group II (NAFLD, n=30) when serum ALT activity was (>or=43 UI/L). In control group with diet I, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist to hip ratio, waist circumference, systolic pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HOMA and insulin levels decreased. In NAFLD group with diet I improved the same parameters and glucose, triglycerides, ALT, AST, gamaglutamine transferase levels, too. In control group with diet II, BMI, weight, fat mass, waist to hip ratio, waist circumference, systolic pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HOMA and insulin levels decreased. In NAFLD group with diet II improved the same parameters and glucose, triglycerides, ALT and gamaglutamine transferase levels, without statistical changes in AST. We showed that weight reduction secondary to two hypocaloric diets was associated with improvement in hipertransaminasemia and insulin resistance in NAFLD patients.

  9. A Multidisciplinary Clinical Program is Effective in Stabilizing BMI and Reducing Transaminase Levels in Pediatric Patients with NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Stephanie; Kohli, Rohit; Lake, Kathleen; Nicholas, Lynda; Dietrich, Kim; Balistreri, William F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss is an effective treatment for children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) but it is very difficult to achieve outside of an intensive weight management program. We hypothesized that one can achieve success in improving NAFLD and weight-related outcomes in a structured and focused multidisciplinary clinical program feasible to implement in a gastroenterology clinic. Methods We prospectively tracked the clinical status of our patients enrolled in a multidisciplinary program of dietary and exercise advice through an Institutional Review Board-approved NAFLD registry. Each patient met with a gastroenterologist and dietician every 3 months for 30 minutes to set individualized goals and monitor progress. Results 108 children have been enrolled in the registry and of the 83 that were eligible for 1 year follow-up and included in the analysis, 39 patients returned, resulting in a 47% follow-up rate. These 39 patients showed statistically significant improvements in mean BMI z-score (−0.1 units, p<0.05), total (−11 mg/dL, p<0.05) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (−9 mg/dL, p<0.05), and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (−36 U/L) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) levels (−22 U/L) levels. Conclusion A clinically feasible multidisciplinary program of every 3 month 30 minute visits to set and monitor nutrition and exercise goals, stabilized mean BMI z-score and significantly improved aminotransferase levels at 1 year follow-up in obese pediatric patients with NAFLD. PMID:23518484

  10. Insulin resistance and alanine amino transaminase (ALT) levels in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kuzhandai velu, V; Jyothirmayi, B; Kumar, J S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin resistance is established as an independent predictor of a range of disorders such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. There is an association of hyperinsulinemia with hypertriglycerdemia, low level of HDL and high level of LDL. In nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, there is an elevation of ALT, raising the possibility that the prospective relationship between ALT and type 2 diabetes may reflect cross-sectional associations with insulin resistance or obesity. To find the significance of insulin resistance and alanine aminotransferase level in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study included 50 first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes (25 men and 25 women) aged 20-60 years and 30 control of similar age. All cases were taken from SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai. All the cases were analyzed for HOMA(IR), QUICKI, IR ratio, fasting glucose, insulin (ELISA), lipid profile and alanine aminotransferase. Student's 't' test was applied for statistical analysis. The data show the significance of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) (2.76±1.46, 1.35±0.8, p<0.001) in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus when compared with controls respectively and increased level fasting plasma insulin (12.28±6.16, 6.12±3.04, p<0.001). In the lipid profile the total cholesterol and TAG are significant. No statistical significance was found in ALT (24.8±9.84, 20.08±11.02). Results of the study conclude that there is a high prevalence of insulin resistance in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. ALT levels in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus had increased levels of insulin resistance, the pathogenesis suggesting increase in ALT levels as seen in insulin resistance condition. In our study, ALT was not statistically significant. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutations in y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid '-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome h...

  12. Effects of air pollution on hematological parameters in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Llacuna, S; Gorriz, A; Riera, M; Nadal, J

    1996-07-01

    The effects of atmospheric air pollution on some hematological, and bioquimic parameters, of passerine birds were analyzed. The studies were undertaken in the area of Cercs (polluted area in Spain), where there is a coal-fired power plant that emanates SO2, NOx, and particles, and the area of St. Jaume de Frontanya (nonpolluted area) located 40 km from the area of Cercs with similar climatology, relief, and altitude, but without air pollution. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in the erythrocyte count, and an increase in erythrocyte size in specimens from the polluted area. An increase in pre-albumines and a decrease in beta-globulines in Emberiza cia was observed, while an increase in transaminases (GOT and GPT), and a decrease in weight in Turdus merula from the polluted zone was observed.

  13. Effect of different levels of copper and molybdenum supplements on serum lipid profiles and antioxidant status in cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Shi W; Song, Xian Z; Jia, Zhi H; Wang, Run L

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate on the effects of different levels of copper (Cu: 0, 19, and 38 mg/kg) and molybdenum (Mo: 0 and 5 mg/kg) supplements and the interaction of these two factors on serum lipid profiles and antioxidant status in cashmere goats during the cashmere fiber growing period. Thirty-six Liaoning cashmere goats (approximately 1.5 years of age; 27.53±1.38 kg of body weight) were assigned to one of six treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Goats were housed in individual pens and fed with Chinese wild rye- and alfalfa hay-based diet containing 4.72 mg Cu/kg, 0.16 mg Mo/kg, and 0.21 % S for 84 days. Blood samples were collected on day 84. The triglyceride concentration did not differ among treatments (P>0.05). Supplemental Cu, regardless of Mo level, decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased (P<0.05) the concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, but there were no differences (P>0.05) in these values between Cu-supplemented groups. Supplemental Cu increased (P<0.05) the activities of serum ceruloplasmin (Cp), Cu-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and decreased (P<0.05) the malondialdehyde content. The serum GSH-Px activity was also increased (P<0.05) by Mo supplementation. There was a tendency of the interaction effects of Cu and Mo on the activities of Cp (P=0.094), SOD (P=0.057), and GSH-Px (P=0.062), and goats fed with 19 mg Cu/kg in the absence of Mo tended to show the highest serum SOD activity, while goats fed with 38 mg Cu/kg with 5 mg Mo/kg tended to show the highest values of serum Cp and GSH-Px. Addition of Cu, Mo, or their interaction had no influence (P>0.05) on the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase, and the concentrations of serum glucose and total protein. In

  14. Effect of long term feeding of ammoniated wheat straw treated with or without HCl on blood biochemical parameters in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Usha Rani; Sahu, Dev Sharan; Naik, Prafulla Kumar; Dass, Ram Sharan; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    differ significantly, but serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) values (units x mL(-1) were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in groups II and III than in group I. The cumulative period mean values of T3 (ng x mL(-1)) did not differ significantly among the groups, but T4 values were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in group III (22.74) than in groups 1 (21.41) and II (20.89), respectively. Since the mean values of all the blood parameters were within the normal range, it may be concluded that feeding of ammoniated wheat straw treated with and without HCl to growing male buffalo calves for fourteen months has no adverse effect on the blood biochemical parameters.

  15. Comparison of Circulating Endothelial Cell/Platelet Count Ratio to Aspartate Transaminase/Platelet Ratio Index for Identifying Patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Saurabh; Simonetto, Douglas A; Abdelmoneim, Soha S; Campion, Michael B; Kaloiani, Irakli; Clayton, Amy C; Kremers, Walter K; Halling, Kevin C; Kamath, Patrick S; Talwalkar, Jayant; Shah, Vijay H

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are indicative of vascular injury and correlate with severity of vascular diseases. A pilot study showed that the ratio of CEC to platelet count (CEC/PC) was effective in predicting cirrhosis. Therefore, we evaluated CEC/PC in a larger cohort of patients, correlated it with cirrhosis, and compared its operating characteristics with previously described biomarker for cirrhosis, the AST/platelet ratio index (APRI). Methods Fifty-three patients with cirrhosis, 20 matched healthy controls, and 9 patients with noncirrhotic liver disease were recruited. Peripheral blood sample was collected and analyzed to enumerate nucleated CEC CD146+, CD105+, CD45– using a commercial assay. Results Median CEC counts were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis (62 cells/4 mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 43.5–121) as compared with controls (31 cells/4 mL, IQR: 22.2–40). The CEC/PC was also significantly elevated in cirrhotics (0.69, IQR: 0.39–1.48) compared with controls (0.12, IQR: 0.09–0.20) and noncirrhotics (0.21, IQR: 0.08–0.43). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that CEC cutoff value of ≥37 cells/4 mL showed sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 75% for differentiating cirrhosis from controls (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67–0.91). The CEC/PC ratio cutoff value of ≥0.23 showed sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 82% (AUC: 0.92; 95% CI 0.83–0.99). The APRI cutoff value of ≥0.4 showed sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 85% for differentiating cirrhosis from control patients (AUC: 0.96; 95% CI 0.90–1.0). A product of CEC and APRI, termed CAPRI (CEC-APRI), effectively distinguished patients with cirrhosis from controls; with cutoff value of ≥12.7, showing higher sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 85% (AUC: 0.98; 95% CI 0.96–1.0). Conclusion The CEC/PC ratio is significantly elevated in patients with cirrhosis and demonstrates comparable operating characteristics to previously described APRI. Furthermore, CAPRI, compiled as product of CEC to APRI showed outstanding ability to distinguish patients with cirrhosis from controls, although larger studies are necessary for validation. PMID:25755402

  16. Temporary Intraoperative Porto-Caval Shunts in Piggy-Back Liver Transplantation Reduce Intraoperative Blood Loss and Improve Postoperative Transaminases and Renal Function: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pratschke, Sebastian; Rauch, Alexandra; Albertsmeier, Markus; Rentsch, Markus; Kirschneck, Michaela; Andrassy, Joachim; Thomas, Michael; Hartwig, Werner; Figueras, Joan; Del Rio Martin, Juan; De Ruvo, Nicola; Werner, Jens; Guba, Markus; Weniger, Maximilian; Angele, Martin K

    2016-12-01

    The value of temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts (TPCS) in cava-sparing liver transplantation is discussed controversially. Aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the impact of temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts on liver injury, primary non-function, time of surgery, transfusion of blood products and length of hospital stay in cava-sparing liver transplantation. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO retrieved a total of 909 articles, of which six articles were included. The combined effect size and 95 % confidence interval were calculated for each outcome by applying the inverse variance weighting method. Tests for heterogeneity (I 2 ) were also utilized. Usage of a TPCS was associated with significantly decreased AST values, significantly fewer transfusions of packed red blood cells and improved postoperative renal function. There were no statistically significant differences in primary graft non-function, length of hospital stay or duration of surgery. This meta-analysis found that temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts in cava-sparing liver transplantation reduce blood loss as well as hepatic injury and enhance postoperative renal function without prolonging operative time. Randomized controlled trials investigating the use of temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. Variation of Transaminases, HCV-RNA Levels and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Production during the Post-Partum Period in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Extremera, Ángeles; Muñoz-Gámez, José Antonio; Abril-Molina, Ana; Salmerón-Ruiz, María Angustias; Muñoz-de-Rueda, Paloma; Pavón-Castillero, Esther José; Quiles-Pérez, Rosa; Carazo, Ángel; Gila, Ana; Jimenez-Ruiz, Sergio Manuel; Casado, Jorge; Martín, Ana Belén; Sanjuán-Núñez, Laura; Ocete-Hita, Esther; Viota, Julián López; León, Josefa; Salmerón, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%), with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001) or as Type-B (34%), with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001) and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INFγ, P = 0.04; IL12, P = 0.01 and IL2, P = 0.01). On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INFγ and IL2, P<0.05) than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation. PMID:24130726

  18. Predictive factors for anti-HBs status after 1 booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Cheng; Jean, Mei-Chu Yen; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chen, Wei-Hung; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Lin, Chih-Wen; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2016-09-01

    In Taiwan, infants need to receive 3 doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine under the public health policy from the government. However, there are many young adults who even though received complete HBV vaccination in their childhood would lose the positive response of anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs) and need the booster dose of HBV vaccine. The aim of our study is to determine the powerful predictive factor for screening the candidates who need only 1 booster dose of HB vaccine then they can regain positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL) or protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL).We recruited 103 university freshmen who were born after July 1986 with complete HBV vaccination in childhood, but displayed negative results for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBs levels at their health examinations upon university entry. They received 1 booster dose of HB vaccine, and their anti-HBs titers were rechecked 4 weeks after the booster administration. Multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL, model 1) and protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL, model 2) was done with predictive factors of prebooster anti-HBs level, body mass index, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase level, and sex.Twenty-four students got positive postbooster anti-HBs status (10-100 mIU/mL) and 50 students got protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL). In the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was the strongest predictive factor. The odds ratio was 218.645 and the P value was 0.001. Even in the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was still the strongest predictive factor, but the odds ratio of a protective booster effect was 2.143, with 95% confidence interval between 1

  19. The effect of trimetazidine treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI.

    PubMed

    Li, Runjun; Tang, Xiuying; Jing, Quanmin; Wang, Qingsheng; Yang, Meihong; Han, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Jiayu; Yu, Xiangyou

    2017-11-01

    Trimetazidine (TMZ) improves clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure and stable coronary artery disease. No study has yet evaluated the efficacy of TMZ in type 2 diabetes patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). We performed this study to evaluate the efficacy TMZ in DM patients with AMI undergoing PCI, such as the effect on reductions in myocardial enzyme, improvements in liver function, modulation of glucose levels, and improvement in cardiac function. For this randomized study, we enrolled 173 AMI patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing PCI between January 1, 2014, and January 1, 2016. All patients received aspirin and ticagrelor upon admission and throughout their hospitalization. Patients in the experimental group were treated with a loading dose of 60mg TMZ at admission, and 20 mg TMZ three times a day thereafter. 89 patients were included in experimental group, and 84 patients were included in control group. All patients received PCI treatments. The endpoints evaluated were serum creatine kinase and its isoenzyme (CK and CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTNI), serum creatinine (Cr), serum urea, blood glucose, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT), serum glutamic oxaloacetictransaminase (AST), left atrial dimension (LA), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD), and cardiac output (CO). Compared with the control group, TMZ treatment significantly reduced CK and CK-MB on the second day in hospital ([797±582] vs. [1092±1114]; [80±60] vs. [105±100]; p=0.029, p=0.041, respectively), and cTNI after one and six days in hospital ([13.5±12.7] vs. [19.8±19.2]; [3.3±3.2] vs. [4.8±4.7]; two-tailed p=0.012). In addition, TMZ significantly lowered liver enzymes (ALT, AST) at 6days ([29.0±11.6] vs. [42.4±24.5]; [39.8±17.3] vs. [69.2±70.0]; two-tailed p=0.000), lowered glucose after 6days ([6.80±2.12] vs. [7.59±2.24]; p=0.019), and

  20. Ameliorative effects of oleanolic acid on fluoride induced metabolic and oxidative dysfunctions in rat brain: Experimental and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chaitali; Pal, Sudipta; Das, Niranjan; Dinda, Biswanath

    2014-04-01

    Beneficial effects of oleanolic acid on fluoride-induced oxidative stress and certain metabolic dysfunctions were studied in four regions of rat brain. Male Wistar rats were treated with sodium fluoride at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w./day (orally) for 30 days. Results indicate marked reduction in acidic, basic and neutral protein contents due to fluoride toxicity in cerebrum, cerebellum, pons and medulla. DNA, RNA contents significantly decreased in those regions after fluoride exposure. Activities of proteolytic enzymes (such as cathepsin, trypsin and pronase) were inhibited by fluoride, whereas transaminase enzyme (GOT and GPT) activities increased significantly in brain tissue. Fluoride appreciably elevated brain malondialdehyde level, free amino acid nitrogen, NO content and free OH radical generation. Additionally, fluoride perturbed GSH content and markedly reduced SOD, GPx, GR and CAT activities in brain tissues. Oral supplementation of oleanolic acid (a plant triterpenoid), at a dose of 5mg/kgb.w./day for last 14 days of fluoride treatment appreciably ameliorated fluoride-induced alteration of brain metabolic functions. Appreciable counteractive effects of oleanolic acid against fluoride-induced changes in protein and nucleic acid contents, proteolytic enzyme activities and other oxidative stress parameters indicate that oleanolic acid has potential antioxidative effects against fluoride-induced oxidative brain damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Requirement for the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier in Mammalian Development Revealed by a Hypomorphic Allelic Series

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Caitlyn E.; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Glucose and oxygen are two of the most important molecules transferred from mother to fetus during eutherian pregnancy, and the metabolic fates of these nutrients converge at the transport and metabolism of pyruvate in mitochondria. Pyruvate enters the mitochondrial matrix through the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), a complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane that consists of two essential components, MPC1 and MPC2. Here, we define the requirement for mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism during development with a progressive allelic series of Mpc1 deficiency in mouse. Mpc1 deletion was homozygous lethal in midgestation, but Mpc1 hypomorphs and tissue-specific deletion of Mpc1 presented as early perinatal lethality. The allelic series demonstrated that graded suppression of MPC resulted in dose-dependent metabolic and transcriptional changes. Steady-state metabolomics analysis of brain and liver from Mpc1 hypomorphic embryos identified compensatory changes in amino acid and lipid metabolism. Flux assays in Mpc1-deficient embryonic fibroblasts also reflected these changes, including a dramatic increase in mitochondrial alanine utilization. The mitochondrial alanine transaminase GPT2 was found to be necessary and sufficient for increased alanine flux upon MPC inhibition. These data show that impaired mitochondrial pyruvate transport results in biosynthetic deficiencies that can be mitigated in part by alternative anaplerotic substrates in utero. PMID:27215380

  2. RETRACTED: Glyphosate herbicide induces genotoxic effect and physiological disturbances in Bulinus truncatus snails.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Fayez A; Ismail, Somaya M; Abd El-Atti, Mahmoud S

    2015-09-01

    Herbicides are being used in agriculture for controlling noxious weed. Glyphosate is a herbicide that is widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt and is used in controlling a very broad spectrum of weeds. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snail Bulinus truncatus as a bioindicator for physiological and molecular aspects of B. truncatus snails after exposure to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate for two weeks. In treating snails, glucose concentration (GL) in the haemolymph as well as lactate (LT) in soft tissues of treated snails increased, while glycogen (GN), pyruvate (PV), total protein (TP), nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) levels in snail's tissues decreased. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes in homogenate of snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment with the herbicide, while lipid peroxide (LP), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and transaminases (GOT and GPT) activity increased (P < 0.001). The changes in the number, position and intensity of DNA bands induced by glyphosate herbicide may be attributed to the fact that the herbicide can induce genotoxicity through DNA damage. Thus, the present result indicated that the genotoxicity products at low concentration and for long time treatment showed the hazard of herbicide addiction on man's life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    PubMed

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was <0.05. The analysis of the results shows that 35.4% of workers in the cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p <0.05) and total bilirubin (p <0.05) in the workers of the cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  4. A hybrid QM/MM simulation study of intramolecular proton transfer in the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the active site of transaminase: influence of active site interaction on proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Dutta Banik, Sindrila; Chandra, Amalendu

    2014-09-25

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) Schiff base, a versatile cofactor, exhibits a tautomeric equilibrium that involves an intramolecular proton transfer between the N-protonated zwitterionic ketoenamine tautomer and the O-protonated covalent enolimine tautomer. It has been postulated that for the catalytic activity, the PLP has to be in the zwitterionic ketoenamine tautomeric form. However, the exact position of the tautomeric equilibrium of Schiff base in the active site of PLP-dependent enzyme is not known yet. In the present work, we investigated the tautomeric equilibrium for the external aldimine state of PLP aspartate (PLP-Asp) Schiff base in the active site of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) using combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical simulations. The main focus of the present study is to analyze the factors that control the tautomeric equilibrium in the active sites of various PLP-dependent enzymes. The results show that the ketoenamine tautomer is more preferred than the enolimine tautomer both in the gas and aqueous phases as well as in the active site of AspAT. Current simulations show that the active site of AspAT is more suitable for the ketoenamine tautomer compared to the enolimine tautomer. Interestingly, the Tyr225 acts as a proton donor to the phenolic oxygen in the ketoenamine tautomer, while in the covalent enolimine tautomer, it acts as a proton acceptor to the phenolic oxygen. Finally, the metadynamics study confirms this result. The calculated free energy barrier is about 7.5 kcal/mol. A comparative analysis of the microenvironment created by the active site residues of three different PLP-dependent enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, Dopa decarboxylase, and Ala-racemase) has been carried out to understand the controlling factor(s) of the tautomeric equilibrium. The analysis shows that the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between active site residues and the phenolic oxygen of PLP shifts the tautomeric equilibrium toward the N-protonated ketoenamine tautomeric form.

  5. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE: a transaminase involved in the biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole (MAP) from Serratia sp. FS14.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiangdi; Ran, Tingting; Han, Ning; Gao, Yanyan; He, Jianhua; Tang, Lin; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Weiwu

    2014-04-25

    Prodigiosin, a tripyrrole red pigment synthesized by Serratia and some other microbes through a bifurcated biosynthesis pathway, MBC (4-methoxy-2,2'-bipyrrole-5-carbaldehyde) and MAP (2-methyl-3-n-amyl-pyrrole) are synthesized separately and then condensed by PigC to form prodigiosin. MAP is synthesized sequentially by PigD, PigE and PigB. PigE catalyzes the transamination of an amino group to the aldehyde group of 3-acetyloctanal, resulting in an aminoketone, which spontaneously cyclizes to form H2MAP. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PigE which involved in the biosynthesis of prodigiosin precursor MAP for the first time to a resolution of 2.3Å with a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. The monomer of PigE catalytic domain is composed of three domains with PLP as cofactor: a small N-terminal domain connecting the catalytic domain with the front part of PigE, a large PLP-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. The residues from both monomers build the PLP binding site at the interface of the dimer which resembles the other PLP-dependent enzymes. Structural comparison of PigE with Thermus thermophilus AcOAT showed a higher hydrophobic and smaller active site of PigE, these differences may be the reason for substrate specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of ozone determinations by ultraviolet photometry and gas-phase titration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.; Patapoff, M.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of ozone determinations based on ultraviolet absorption photometry and gas-phase titration (GPT) shows good agreement between the two methods. Together with other results, these findings indicate that three candidate reference methods for ozone, UV photometry, IR photometry, and GPT are in substantial agreement. However, the GPT method is not recommended for routine use by air pollution agencies for calibration of ozone monitors because of susceptibility to experimental error.

  7. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against a Salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-20

    Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent disease that results mainly from bacterial infection. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from the edible Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial mushroom culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine endotoxemia induced by the Salmonella lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN). BPP was obtained after dialysis against water using a cellulose tube with a molecular weight cutoff of 10000. BPP eluted as a single peak on an HPLC chromatogram. Acid hydrolysis of BPP showed the presence of the following sugars: fucose, galactose, galactosamine, glucose, glucosamine, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose. Treatment of BPP with β-glucanase reduced its immunostimulating activity, suggesting that the polysaccharide has a β-glucan structure. Pretreatment of mice with BPP via oral or intraperitoneal (ip) administration for 2 weeks resulted in the suppression of LPS/GalN-induced catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and transaminase (GOT/GPT) liver enzymes, amelioration of necrotic liver lesions, and reduction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nitrite serum levels as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an index of necrotic injury. Immunostimulating macrophage activity was up to 5.4-fold greater than that observed with the culture without the rice bran. BPP also extended the lifespan of the toxemic mice. These positive results with inflammation biomarkers and lifespan studies suggest that the BPP can protect mice against LPS/GalN-induced liver, lung, and kidney injuries and inflammation by blocking oxidative stress and TNF-α production, thus increasing the survival of the toxic shock-induced mice. The polysaccharide has the potential to serve as a new functional food.

  8. Generalized Processing Tree Models: Jointly Modeling Discrete and Continuous Variables.

    PubMed

    Heck, Daniel W; Erdfelder, Edgar; Kieslich, Pascal J

    2018-05-24

    Multinomial processing tree models assume that discrete cognitive states determine observed response frequencies. Generalized processing tree (GPT) models extend this conceptual framework to continuous variables such as response times, process-tracing measures, or neurophysiological variables. GPT models assume finite-mixture distributions, with weights determined by a processing tree structure, and continuous components modeled by parameterized distributions such as Gaussians with separate or shared parameters across states. We discuss identifiability, parameter estimation, model testing, a modeling syntax, and the improved precision of GPT estimates. Finally, a GPT version of the feature comparison model of semantic categorization is applied to computer-mouse trajectories.

  9. Baseline Serum Clinical Chemistry Values in African Green Monkeys Before and After Sulfur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    aspartate transaminase (189 %), blood urea nitrogen (75 %), creatine kinase (721 %), and lactate dehydrogenase (114 %) one day after HD exposure...ALT, 93 %), aspartate transaminase (AST, 189 %), blood urea nitrogen (BUN, 75 %), creatine kinase (CK, 721 %), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 114...alkaline phosphate (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), calcium (Ca2+), creatine kinase (CK

  10. Estimates of in-place oil shale of various grades in federal lands, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The entire oil shale interval in the Piceance Basin is subdivided into seventeen “rich” and “lean” zones that were assessed separately. These zones are roughly time-stratigraphic units consisting of distinctive, laterally continuous sequences of oil shale beds that can be traced throughout much of the Piceance Basin. Several subtotals of the 1.5 trillion barrels total were calculated: (1) about 920 billion barrels (60 percent) exceed 15 gallons per ton (GPT); (2) about 352 billion barrels (23 percent) exceed 25 GPT; (3) more than one trillion barrels (70 percent) underlie Federally-managed lands; and (4) about 689 billion barrels (75 percent) of the 15 GPT total and about 284 billion barrels (19 percent) of the 25 GPT total are under Federal mineral (subsurface) ownership. These 15 and 25 GPT estimates include only those areas where the weighted average of an entire zone exceeds those minimum cutoffs. In areas where the entire zone does not meet the minimum criteria, some oil shale intervals of significant thicknesses could exist within the zone that exceed these minimum cutoffs. For example, a 30-ft interval within an oil shale zone might exceed 25 GPT but if the entire zone averages less than 25 GPT, these resources are not included in the 15 and 25 GPT subtotals, although they might be exploited in the future.

  11. Differential change in integrative psychotherapy: a re-analysis of a change-factor based RCT in a naturalistic setting.

    PubMed

    Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Wilm, Katharina; Beyermann, Stefanie; Rhode, Annemarie; Trost, Stephanie; Steyer, Rolf

    2011-11-01

    General Psychotherapy (GPT; Grawe, 1997) is a research-informed psychotherapy that combines cognitive-behavioral and process-experiential techniques and that assumes motivational clarification and problem mastery as central mechanisms of change. To isolate the effect of motivational clarification, GPT was compared to a treatment that proscribed motivational clarification (General Psychotherapy Minus Clarification, GPT-C) in a randomized-controlled trial with 67 diagnostically heterogeneous outpatients. Previous analyses demonstrated equal outcomes and some superiority for highly avoidant patients in GPT. Re-analyses using causal-analytic methods confirmed equal changes, but also showed superior effects for GPT in highly symptomatic patients. Results are discussed regarding theory, methodological limitations, and implications for research and practice.

  12. Increased Interstitial Concentrations of Glutamate and Pyruvate in Vastus Lateralis of Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Are Normalized after an Exercise Intervention – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Larsson, Britt; Kosek, Eva; Christidis, Nikolaos; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with central alterations, but controversies exist regarding the presence and role of peripheral factors. Microdialysis (MD) can be used in vivo to study muscle alterations in FMS. Furthermore for chronic pain conditions such as FMS, the mechanisms for the positive effects of exercise are unclear. This study investigates the interstitial concentrations of algesics and metabolites in the vastus lateralis muscle of 29 women with FMS and 28 healthy women before and after an exercise intervention. Methods All the participants went through a clinical examination and completed a questionnaire. In addition, their pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in their upper and lower extremities were determined. For both groups, MD was conducted in the vastus lateralis muscle before and after a 15-week exercise intervention of mainly resistance training of the lower limbs. Muscle blood flow and interstitial muscle concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, glucose, and glycerol were determined. Results FMS was associated with significantly increased interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate. After the exercise intervention, the FMS group exhibited significant decreases in pain intensity and in mean interstitial concentrations of glutamate, pyruvate, and glucose. The decrease in pain intensity in FMS correlated significantly with the decreases in pyruvate and glucose. In addition, the FMS group increased their strength and endurance. Conclusion This study supports the suggestion that peripheral metabolic and algesic muscle alterations are present in FMS patients and that these alterations contribute to pain. After an exercise intervention, alterations normalized, pain intensity decreased (but not abolished), and strength and endurance improved, all findings that suggest the effects of exercise are partially peripheral. PMID:27695113

  13. Efavirenz or nevirapine in three-drug combination therapy with two nucleoside or nucleotide-reverse transcriptase inhibitors for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Mursleen, Sara; Irlam, James H; Spaulding, Alicen B; Rutherford, George W; Siegfried, Nandi

    2016-01-01

    participants; moderate quality evidence). No studies were found that looked at sexual transmission of HIV. When we examined the adverse events individually, EFV probably is associated with more people with impaired mental function (7 per 1000) compared to NVP (2 per 1000; RR 4.46, 95% CI 1.65 to 12.03; 6 trials, 2049 participants; moderate quality evidence) but fewer people with elevated transaminases (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.78; 3 trials, 1299 participants; high quality evidence), fewer people with neutropenia (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.82; 3 trials, 1799 participants; high quality evidence), and probably fewer people withrash (229 per 100 with NVP versus 133 per 1000 with EFV; RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.00; 7 trials, 2277 participants; moderate quality evidence). We found that there may be little or no difference in gastrointestinal adverse events (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.21; 6 trials, 2049 participants; low quality evidence), pyrexia (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.73; 3 trials, 1799 participants; low quality evidence), raised alkaline phosphatase (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.17 to 2.50; 1 trial, 1007 participants; low quality evidence), raised amylase (RR 1.40, 95% CI 0.72 to 2.73; 2 trials, 1071 participants; low quality evidence) and raised triglycerides (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.39 to 3.13; 2 trials, 1071 participants; low quality evidence). There was probably little or no difference in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT; MD 3.3, 95% CI -2.06 to 8.66; 1 trial, 135 participants; moderate quality evidence), serum glutamic- pyruvic transaminase (SGPT; MD 5.7, 95% CI -4.23 to 15.63; 1 trial, 135 participants; moderate quality evidence) and raised cholesterol (RR 6.03, 95% CI 0.75 to 48.78; 1 trial, 64 participants; moderate quality evidence). Our subgroup analyses revealed that NVP slightly increases mortality when given once daily (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.90; 3 trials, 678 participants; high quality evidence). There were little or no differences in the primary outcomes for

  14. Design of a Retrovirus-Derived Vector for Expression and Transduction of Exogenous Genes in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Archibald S.; Kirschmeier, Paul T.; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; Weinstein, I. Bernard

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a transfection vector for animal cells that contains long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences to promote expression. Plasmid p101/101, a derivative of plasmid pBR322 containing the complete Moloney murine sarcoma virus genome, was cut with restriction enzymes and religated so that both the 5′ and 3′ LTRs were retained and all but about 700 base pairs of the intervening viral sequences were removed. To test this vector, the Escherichia coli gene gpt was cloned into a unique PstI site, between the two LTRs, with guanine and cytosine tailing, a method that can be generalized for insertion of any DNA segment into this vector. When DNA from recombinant plasmids in which the gpt gene was inserted in the same transcriptional polarity as the LTR sequences was transfected onto murine or rat fibroblast cultures, we obtained a high yield of Gpt+ colonies. However, plasmid constructs with the gpt gene in the opposite polarity were virtually devoid of activity. With gpt in the proper orientation, restriction enzyme cuts within the LTRs or between the 5′ LTR and the gpt gene reduced transfection by more than 98%, whereas a cut between the gpt gene and the 3′ LTR gave an 80% reduction in activity. Thus, both 5′ and 3′ LTR sequences are essential for optimal gpt expression, although the 5′ LTR appears to play a more important role. When the LTR-gpt plasmid was transfected onto murine leukemia virus-infected mouse fibroblasts, we obtained evidence that RNA copies became pseudotyped into viral particles which could transfer the Gpt+ phenotype into rodent cells with extremely high efficiency. This vector should prove useful for high-efficiency transduction of a variety of genes in mammalian cells. Images PMID:6308426

  15. Gender-related impacts of improved agricultural technologies: identification of indicators from a case study.

    PubMed

    Kolli, R D; Bantilan, C

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the gender-related consequences of adoption of a groundnut production technology (GPT) package introduced in Umra village for increasing the production of legumes in India. GPT affected household labor activity patterns, decision making, and distribution of benefits. The package offered improved varieties and improved practices. Data were obtained from surveys conducted among 26 farm households in each Umra and Karanji village during 1992-94 and among 15 agricultural wage laborer households from Umra and 21 from Karanji. Men and women both cooperated in certain groundnut production activities and specialized in other activities. Men used agricultural equipment and tools and performed hard labor. Women used hand skills or small tools. Villages differed in gender task specificity. Umra women after GPT reported more work in field cleaning, fertilizer application, and sowing by hand dibbling. A new GPT activity of gypsum application was handled in almost 60% of farm households by women. Large yield gains changed harvesting activities in Umra. The number of exclusive activities performed only by women rose after GPT. GPT was not designed to eliminate drudgery performed by women. Umra women spent more time than Karanji women in production. More labor was needed with GPT. Wage rates for women workers were similar in both villages. Wages were less in Umra for men compared to Karanji. Men and women jointly decided on resource allocations in 53% of households in Karanji and only 36% in Umra. The adoption of GPT reduced the control of women over resource use. More joint and sole decisions by women were made in Umra on the use of the main product. Women gained control over products for home use in Umra. Men retained control over the value of 80% of the crop. Both men and women were satisfied with GPT, but specific perceptions differed by gender.

  16. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native arteriovenous fistula in chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Y C; Selcuk, N Y; Altıntepe, L; Güney, I; Yavuz, S

    2018-01-01

    In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However, surveillance was done in graft AV fistulas in most studies. Doppler ultrasonography (US) was suggested for surveillance of AV fistulas by the last vascular access guideline of National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI). The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of the infusion by glucometer. Doppler US was done by an expert radiologist. Used statistical tests were Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Median values of blood flow rates measured by GPT (707 mL/min) and by Doppler US (700 mL/min) were not different (Z = 0.414, P = 0.678). Results of GPT and Doppler US measurements were positive correlate by regression analysis. The mean GPT value of diabetic patients (n = 39; 908 mL/min) was similar to that of nondiabetic patients (n = 54; 751 mL/min; Z = 1.31, P = 0.188). GPT values measured at three different dialysis session did not differ from each other that by Friedman test (F = 0.92, P = 0.39). This showed that GPT was stable and reliable. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native AV fistula. GPT is an accurate and reliable test.

  17. Accumulation of polystyrene microplastics in juvenile Eriocheir sinensis and oxidative stress effects in the liver.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Liu, Zhiquan; Wu, Donglei; Chen, Minghai; Lv, Weiwei; Zhao, Yunlong

    2018-07-01

    As a widespread and ubiquitous pollutant of marine ecosystems, microplastic has the potential to become an emerging global threat for aquatic organisms. The present study aims to elucidate the effects of microplastics on the growth, accumulation and oxidative stress response in the liver of Eriocheir sinensis. Fluorescent microplastic particles (diameter = 0.5 μm) accumulated in the gill, liver and gut tissues of E. sinensis were investigated when crabs were exposed to a concentration of 40000 μg/L for 7 days. A 21 day toxicity test suggested that the rate of weight gain, specific growth rate, and hepatosomatic index of E. sinensis decreased with increasing microplastic concentration (0 μg/L, 40 μg/L, 400 μg/L, 4000 μg/L and 40000 μg/L). The activities of AChE and GPT in crabs exposed to microplastics were lower than those in control group. GOT activity increased significantly after exposure to a low concentration of microplastics and then decreased continuously with increasing microplastic concentrations. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate transaminase (GOT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased in specimens exposed to low concentrations of microplastics (40 and 400 μg/L) compared to the control and decreased in organisms exposed to high concentrations (4000 and 40000 μg/L). In contrast, the activities of acetylcholinesterase, catalase (CAT), and alanine aminotransferase were significantly lower in the organisms exposed to microplastics compared to control animals. Upon exposure to increasing microplastic concentrations, the expression of genes encoding the antioxidants SOD, CAT, GPx and glutathione S-transferase in the liver decreased after first increasing. Exposure to microplastics increased the expression of the gene encoding p38 in the MAPK signaling pathway and significantly decreased the expressions of genes encoding ERK, AKT, and MEK. The results of this study demonstrate that

  18. Effect of tropospheric models on derived precipitable water vapor over Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Zhoobin; Mohd Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi; Othman, Faridah; Norman, Masayu

    2017-05-01

    An interesting subject in the field of GPS technology is estimating variation of precipitable water vapor (PWV). This estimation can be used as a data source to assess and monitor rapid changes in meteorological conditions. So far, numerous GPS stations are distributed across the world and the number of GPS networks is increasing. Despite these developments, a challenging aspect of estimating PWV through GPS networks is the need of tropospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, and relative humidity (Liu et al., 2015). To estimate the tropospheric parameters, global pressure temperature (GPT) model developed by Boehm et al. (2007) is widely used in geodetic analysis for GPS observations. To improve the accuracy, Lagler et al. (2013) introduced GPT2 model by adding annual and semi-annual variation effects to GPT model. Furthermore, Boehm et al. (2015) proposed the GPT2 wet (GPT2w) model which uses water vapor pressure to improve the calculations. The global accuracy of GPT2 and GPT2w models has been evaluated by previous researches (Fund et al., 2011; Munekane and Boehm, 2010); however, investigations to assess the accuracy of global tropospheric models in tropical regions such as Southeast Asia is not sufficient. This study tests and examines the accuracy of GPT2w as one of the most recent versions of tropospheric models (Boehm et al., 2015). We developed a new regional model called Malaysian Pressure Temperature (MPT) model, and compared this model with GPT2w model. The compared results at one international GNSS service (IGS) station located in the south of Peninsula Malaysia shows that MPT model has a better performance than GPT2w model to produce PWV during monsoon season. According to the results, MPT has improved the accuracy of estimated pressure and temperature by 30% and 10%, respectively, in comparison with GPT2w model. These results indicate that MPT model can be a good alternative tool in the absence of meteorological sensors at GPS stations in

  19. Porous WO3/graphene/polyester textile electrode materials with enhanced electrochemical performance for flexible solid-state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Na; Liu, Ping; Jin, Chun; Zhang, Jia-Nan; Bian, Shao-Wei

    2018-01-15

    In this work, a flexible and porous WO 3 /grapheme/polyester (WO 3 /G/PT) textile electrode was successfully prepared by in situ growing WO 3 on the fiber surface inside G/PT composite fabrics. The unique electrode structure facilitates to enhance the energy storage performance because the 3D conductive network constructed by the G/PT increase the electron transportation rate, nanotructured WO 3 exposed enhanced electrochemically active surface area and the hierarchically porous structure improved the electrolyte ion diffusion rate. The optimized WO 3 /G/PT textile electrode exhibited good electrochemical performance with a high areal capacitance of 308.2mFcm -2 at a scan rate of 2mVs -1 and excellent cycling stability. A flexible asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device was further fabricated by using the WO 3 /G/PT electrode and G/PT electrode, which exhibited a good specific capacitance of 167.6mFcm -3 and high energy density of 60μWhcm -3 at the power density of 2320 μWcm -3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cervical myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Morio, Yasuo; Meshitsuka, Shunsuke; Yamane, Koji; Nanjo, Yoshiro; Teshima, Ryota

    2010-01-01

    There have been few reports describing substances related to oxidative and intermediary metabolism in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with spinal degenerative disorders. This study investigated whether the concentrations of metabolites in the CSF differed between patients with spinal degenerative disorders and controls, and whether the concentrations of these metabolites correlated with the severity of symptoms. CSF samples were obtained from 30 patients with cervical myelopathy (Group M), 30 patients with lumbar radiculopathy (Group R), and 10 volunteers (control). Metabolites in these CSF samples were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There were no differences in the concentrations of lactate, alanine, acetate, glutamate, pyruvate, or citrate between Groups M and R, between Group M and the control, or between Group R and the control. In Group M, neither symptom duration nor the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score correlated with the concentration of any metabolite. In Group R, the symptom duration positively correlated with the concentration of lactate, glutamate, and citrate in CSF. The duration of nerve root block showed a negative correlation with the concentrations of acetate in CSF of the patients in Group R. In patients with lumbar radiculopathy, there is a possibility of increased aerobic metabolic activity or decreased gluconeogenic activity in patients with shorter symptom duration, and increased aerobic metabolic activity in patients with severe inflammation around a nerve root. PMID:20490871

  1. Lactate is oxidized outside of the mitochondrial matrix in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Eric A F; George, Mitchell A J; Brebner, Karen; Holloway, Graham P; Kane, Daniel A

    2018-05-01

    The nature and existence of mitochondrial lactate oxidation is debated in the literature. Obscuring the issue are disparate findings in isolated mitochondria, as well as relatively low rates of lactate oxidation observed in permeabilized muscle fibres. However, respiration with lactate has yet to be directly assessed in brain tissue with the mitochondrial reticulum intact. To determine if lactate is oxidized in the matrix of brain mitochondria, oxygen consumption was measured in saponin-permeabilized mouse brain cortex samples, and rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal) subregions. While respiration in the presence of ADP and malate increased with the addition of lactate, respiration was maximized following the addition of exogenous NAD + , suggesting maximal lactate metabolism involves extra-matrix lactate dehydrogenase. This was further supported when NAD + -dependent lactate oxidation was significantly decreased with the addition of either low-concentration α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate or UK-5099, inhibitors of mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Mitochondrial respiration was comparable between glutamate, pyruvate, and NAD + -dependent lactate oxidation. Results from the current study demonstrate that permeabilized brain is a feasible model for assessing lactate oxidation, and support the interpretation that lactate oxidation occurs outside the mitochondrial matrix in rodent brain.

  2. Pharmacological evaluation of mangiferin herbosomes for antioxidant and hepatoprotection potential against ethanol induced hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Kharya, Murlidhar; Gajbhiye, Asmita

    2013-11-01

    Fatty liver is the first stage of alcoholic damage which is reversible with abstinence from alcohol. Mangiferin (MF) showed potent scavenging activity on diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals which stimulate liver regeneration in various liver injuries. Although, MF shows hepatoprotection against various liver disorders but due to rapid clearance and limited solubility in lipoid environment, there is problem of its poor absorption from intestine hence poor bioavailability. Owing to which there is a need to develop MF herbosomes to resolve the problem of poor bioavailability to enhance the therapeutic potential. Successfully prepared MF herbosomes through complexation with phospholipids were characterized by physicochemical, chromatography, spectroscopy (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), ex vivo absorption using everted small intestine sac technique and in vivo studies using ethanol inducing hepatotoxicity in albino rats and comparing the results against plain MF. Ex vivo study showed significant increased absorption of MF from prepared MF herbosomes as compared to plain MF. The hepatoprotective potential of MF herbosomes evaluated by in vivo study revealed significantly decreased levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transminase (SGPT), total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MF herbosomes as compared to plain MF. MF herbosomes also showed significantly decreased level of malonyl dehydrogenase along with increased levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase as compared to plain MF which was also comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (SL). The above mentioned results showed that hepatoprotective and antioxidant potency of MF enhanced due to the preparation of its herbosomes.

  3. Biodiversity in targeted metabolomics analysis of filamentous fungal pathogens by 1H NMR-based studies.

    PubMed

    Ząbek, Adam; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Jawień, Ewa; Młynarz, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    The taxonomical classification among fungi kingdom in the last decades was evolved. In this work the targeted metabolomics study based on 1 H NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics tools was reported to be useful for differentiation of three model of fungal strains, which represent various genus of Ascomycota (Aspergillus pallidofulvus, Fusarium oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum) were selected in order to perform metabolomics studies. Each tested species, revealed specific metabolic profile of primary endo-metabolites. The species of A. pallidofulvus is represented by the highest concentration of glycerol, glucitol and Unk5. While, F. oxysporum species is characterised by increased level of propylene glycol, ethanol, 4-aminobutyrate, succinate, xylose, Unk1 and Unk4. In G. candidum, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, glutamate, pyruvate, glutamine and citrate were elevated. Additionally, a detailed analysis of metabolic changes among A. pallidofulvus, F. oxysporum and G. candidum showed that A. pallidofulvus seems to be the most pathogenic fungi. The obtained results demonstrated that targeted metabolomics analysis could be utilized in the future as a supporting taxonomical tool for currently methods.

  4. A case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy associated with a muscle coenzyme Q10 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Boitier, E; Degoul, F; Desguerre, I; Charpentier, C; François, D; Ponsot, G; Diry, M; Rustin, P; Marsac, C

    1998-01-01

    We report severe coenzyme Q10 deficiency of muscle in a 4-year-old boy presenting with progressive muscle weakness, seizures, cerebellar syndrome, and a raised cerebro-spinal fluid lactate concentration. State-3 respiratory rates of muscle mitochondria with glutamate, pyruvate, palmitoylcarnitine, and succinate as respiratory substrates were markedly reduced, whereas ascorbate/N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine were oxidized normally. The activities of complexes I, II, III and IV of the electron transport chain were normal, but the activities of complexes I+III and II+III, both systems requiring coenzyme Q10 as an electron carrier, were dramatically decreased. These results suggested a defect in the mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 content. This was confirmed by the direct assessment of coenzyme Q10 level by high-performance liquid chromatography in patient's muscle homogenate and isolated mitochondria, revealing levels of 16% and 6% of the control values, respectively. We did not find any impairment of the respiratory chain either in a lymphoblastoid cell line or in skin cultured fibroblasts from the patient, suggesting that the coenzyme Q10 depletion was tissue-specific. This is a new case of a muscle deficiency of mitochondrial coenzyme Q in a patient suffering from an encephalomyopathy.

  5. Common and separate origins of the left and right inferior phrenic artery with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Terayama, H; Yi, S-Q; Tanaka, O; Kanazawa, T; Suyama, K; Kosemura, N; Tetsu, S; Yamazaki, H; Sakamoto, R; Kawakami, S; Suzuki, T; Sakabe, K

    2017-01-01

    In a 94-year-old male cadaver, upon which routine dissection was being conducted, a rare variation was found in the gastrophrenic trunk (GPT), the common trunk of the left gastric artery (LGA), right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA), and left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA); the GPT arises from the abdominal aorta. A hepatosplenic trunk accompanied the variation. In this variation, the RIPA first branched from the GPT and then to the LIPA and LGA. Variations in the common trunk of the LIPA and RIPA in the GPT are common, but to our knowledge, a variation (separate inferior phrenic artery in the GPT) similar to our findings has not been previously reported. We discuss the incidence and developmental and clinical significance of this variation with a detailed review of the literature. Knowledge of such a case has important clinical significance for invasive and non-invasive arterial procedures. Therefore, different variations concerning the LGA and inferior phrenic artery should be considered during surgical and non-surgical evaluations.

  6. Fine Motor Skill Mediates Visual Memory Ability with Microstructural Neuro-correlates in Cerebellar Peduncles in Prematurely Born Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alyssa R; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R; Scheinost, Dustin

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents born preterm (PT) with no evidence of neonatal brain injury are at risk of deficits in visual memory and fine motor skills that diminish academic performance. The association between these deficits and white matter microstructure is relatively unexplored. We studied 190 PTs with no brain injury and 92 term controls at age 16 years. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), the Beery visual-motor integration (VMI), and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) were collected for all participants, while a subset (40 PTs and 40 terms) underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. PTs performed more poorly than terms on ROCF, VMI, and GPT (all P < 0.01). Mediation analysis showed fine motor skill (GPT score) significantly mediates group difference in ROCF and VMI (all P < 0.001). PTs showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05, corrected) between fractional anisotropy (FA) in the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles and GPT score, with higher FA correlating to lower (faster task completion) GPT scores, and between FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle and ROCF scores. PTs also had a positive correlation (P < 0.05, corrected) between VMI and left middle cerebellar peduncle FA. Novel strategies to target fine motor skills and the cerebellum may help PTs reach their full academic potential. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Neuropsychological Investigation of Motor Impairments in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Tyler; Trontel, Haley; Bigler, Erin D.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.; Travers, Brittany; Green, Ryan R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason; Nielsen, Jared; Alexander, Andrew; Anderson, Jeffrey; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Lange, Nicholas; Zielinski, Brandon; Lainhart, Janet

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear how standardized neuropsychological measures of motor function relate to brain volumes of motor regions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An all male sample composed of 59 ASD and 30 controls (ages 5–33 years) completed three measures of motor function: strength of grip (SOG), finger tapping test (FTT), and grooved peg-board test (GPT). Likewise, all participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging with region of interest (ROI) volumes obtained to include the following regions: motor cortex (pre-central gyrus), somatosensory cortex (post-central gyrus), thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and caudal middle frontal gyrus. These traditional neuropsychological measures of motor function are assumed to differ in motor complexity with GPT requiring the most followed by FTT and SOG. Performance by ASD participants on the GPT and FTT differed significantly from controls, with the largest effect size differences observed on the more complex GPT task. Differences on the SOG task between the two groups were non-significant. Since more complex motor tasks tap more complex networks, poorer GPT performance by those with ASD may reflect less efficient motor networks. There was no gross pathology observed in classic motor areas of the brain in ASD, as region of interest (ROI) volumes did not differ, but FTT was negatively related to motor cortex volume in ASD. The results suggest a hierarchical motor disruption in ASD, with difficulties evident only in more complex tasks as well as a potential anomalous size-function relation in motor cortex in ASD. PMID:23985036

  8. Enzymic synthesis of γ-coniceine in Conium maculatum chloroplasts and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M F

    1981-08-01

    Further studies of the transaminase responsible for the first committed step in alkaloid formation in Conium maculatum have shown the L-alanine: 5-ketooctanal transaminase to occur in both the mitochondria and chloroplast. Experiments suggest that these enzymes are the isoenzymes Transaminase A and B respectively previously isolated by the author. It is suggested that the chloroplast enzyme is normally responsible for alkaloid production.

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Cytopathogenicity of Primate Lymphotropic Retroviruses: Relevance to Treatment and Vaccine for AIDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-10

    fragment of the HIV-1 genome was isolated from XBH10 and inserted into an M13 phage vector. Mutations were introduced by use of 25-mer oligonucleotides which... M13 by