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Sample records for glutamine binding protein

  1. Low-cost optical lifetime assisted ratiometric glutamine sensor based on glutamine binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hung; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind; Tolosa, Leah

    2008-12-01

    Here we report a reagentless fluorescence sensing technique for glutamine in the submicromolar range based on the glutamine binding protein (QBP). The S179C mutant is labeled with the short-lived acrylodan (lifetime<5ns) and the long-lived tris(dibenzoylmethane) mono(5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)europium(III) (lifetime > 300 micros) at the -SH and the N-terminal positions, respectively. In the presence of glutamine the fluorescence of acrylodan is quenched, while the fluorescence of europium complex remains constant. In this report we describe an innovative technique, the so called lifetime assisted ratiometric sensing to discriminate the two fluorescence signals using minimal optics and power requirements. This method exploits the large difference between the fluorescence lifetimes of the two fluorophores to isolate the individual fluorescence from each other by alternating the modulation frequency of the excitation light between 300 Hz and 10 kHz. The result is a ratiometric optical method that does not require expensive and highly attenuating band pass filters for each of the dyes, but only one long pass filter for both. Thus, the signal to noise ratio is enhanced, and at the same time, the optical setup is simplified. The end product is a simple sensing device suitable for low-cost applications such as point-of-care diagnostics or in-the-field analysis.

  2. An efficient perturbation method to predict the functionally key sites of glutamine binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dashuai; Wang, Cunxin; Li, Chunhua; Tan, Jianjun; Zhang, Xiaoyi

    2017-04-01

    Glutamine-Binding Protein (GlnBP) of Escherichia coli, an important member of the periplasmic binding protein family, is responsible for the first step in the active transport of glutamine across the cytoplasmic membrane. In this work, the functionally key regulation sites of GlnBP were identified by utilizing a perturbation method proposed by our group, in which the residues whose perturbations markedly change the binding free energy between GlnBP and glutamine are considered to be functionally key residues. The results show that besides the substrate binding sites, some other residues distant from the binding pocket, including the ones in the hinge regions between the two domains, the front- and back- door channels and the exposed region, are important for the function of glutamine binding and transport. The predicted results are well consistent with the theoretical and experimental data, which indicates that our method is an effective approach to identify the key residues important for both ligand binding and long-range allosteric signal transmission. This work can provide some insights into the function performance of GlnBP and the physical mechanism of its allosteric regulation.

  3. Dual-emitting biosensors for glucose and glutamine from genertically engineered E. coli binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, Leah; Ge, Xudong; Kostov, Yordan; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Rao, Govind

    2003-07-01

    Glucose is the major source of carbon, and glutamine is the major source of nitrogen in cell culture media. Thus, glucose and glutamine monitoring are important in maintaining optimal conditions in industrial bioprocesses. Here we report reagentless glucose and glutamine sensors using the E. coli glucose binding protein (GBP) and the glutamine binding protein (GlnBP). Both of these proteins are derived from the permease system of the gram-negative bacteria. The Q26C variant of GBP was labeled at the 26-position with anilino-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), while the S179C variant of GlnBP was labeled at the 179-position with acrylodan. The ANS and acrylodan emissions are quenched in the presence of glucose and glutamine, respectively. The acrylodan-labeled GlnBP was labeled at the N-terminal with ruthenium bis-(2,2"-bipyridyl)-1,10-phenanthroline-9-isothiocyanate. The ruthenium acts as a non-responsive long-lived reference. The apparent binding constant, Kd", of 8.0 μM glucose was obtained from the decrease in intensity of ANS in GBP. The reliability of the method in monitoring glucose during yeast fermentation was determined by comparison with the YSI Biochemistry Analyzer. The apparent binding constant, Kd", of 0.72 μM glutamine was calculated from the ratio of emission intensities of acrylodan and ruthenium (I515/I610) in GlnBP. The presence of the long-lived ruthenium allowed for modulation sensing at lower frequencies (1-10 MHz) approaching an accuracy of +/- 0.02 μM. The conversion of the GBP into a similar ratiometric sensor was described.

  4. Subtle dynamics of holo glutamine binding protein revealed with a rigid paramagnetic probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Gong, Zhou; Guo, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Tang, Chun

    2014-03-11

    Bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the translocation of small molecules in the periplasm. To unload, the two domains of a PBP open up, allowing the ligand to exit. However, it is not clear whether there are dynamics near the binding site which can facilitate the rapid dissociation of a ligand. To visualize such dynamics, we utilized paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) NMR and introduced a rigid paramagnetic probe to a PBP, glutamine-binding protein (QBP) with its cognate ligand bound. A paramagnetic Cu(II) ion is sandwiched between an engineered di-histidine motif at a helix and an NTA capping molecule. The afforded paramagnetic probe is so rigid that PRE values calculated from a single structure of holo QBP largely agree with the observed values. The remaining PRE discrepancies, however, manifest dynamics of a loop in the opposite domain from the paramagnetic probe. This loop packs against the glutamine ligand in the holo QBP and undergoes fluctuations upon ligand dissociation, as assessed by steered molecular dynamics simulations. As such, the loop dynamics, occurring for a small population in nanosecond to microsecond time scale, may be related to the ligand dissociation process. The rigid paramagnetic probe described herein can be grafted to other protein systems for structure and dynamics studies.

  5. Dissecting the Binding between Glutamine Synthetase and Its Two Natively Unfolded Protein Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Uceda, David; Neira, José L; Saelices, Lorena; Robles-Rengel, Rocío; Florencio, Francisco J; Muro-Pastor, M Isabel; Santoro, Jorge

    2016-06-21

    Ammonium is incorporated into carbon skeletons by the sequential action of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in cyanobacteria. The activity of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 GS type I is controlled by protein-protein interactions with two intrinsically disordered inactivating factors (IFs): the 65-residue (IF7) and the 149-residue one (IF17). In this work, we studied both IF7 and IF17 by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and we described their binding to GS by using NMR and biolayer interferometry. We assigned the backbone nuclei of all residues of IF7. Analyses of chemical shifts and the (15)N-{(1)H} NOEs at two field strengths suggest that IF7 region Thr3-Arg13 and a few residues around Ser27 and Phe41 populated helical conformations (although the percentage is smaller around Phe41). The two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N HSQC and CON experiments suggest that IF17 populated several conformations. We followed the binding between GS and IF7 by NMR at physiological pH, and the residues interacting first with IF7 were Gln6 and Ser27, belonging to those regions that appeared to be ordered in the isolated protein. We also determined the kon values and koff values for the binding of both IF7 and IF17 to GS, where the GS protein was bound to a biosensor. The measurements of the kinetic constants for the binding of IF7 to GS suggest that: (i) binding does not follow a kinetic two-state model ([Formula: see text]), (ii) there is a strong electrostatic component in the determined kon, and (iii) the binding is not diffusion-limited.

  6. The inactivating factor of glutamine synthetase IF17 is an intrinsically disordered protein, which folds upon binding to its target.

    PubMed

    Saelices, Lorena; Galmozzi, Carla V; Florencio, Francisco J; Muro-Pastor, M Isabel; Neira, José L

    2011-11-15

    In cyanobacteria, ammonium is incorporated into carbon skeletons by the sequential action of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). The activity of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 glutamine synthetase type I (GS) is controlled by a post-transcriptional process involving protein-protein interactions with two inactivating factors: the 65-residue-long protein (IF7) and the 149-residue-long one (IF17). The sequence of the C terminus of IF17 is similar to IF7; IF7 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). In this work, we study the structural propensities and affinity for GS of IF17 and a chimera protein, IF17N/IF7 (constructed by fusing the first 82 residues of IF17 with the whole IF7) by fluorescence, CD, and NMR. IF17 and IF17N/IF7 are IDPs with residual non-hydrogen-bonded structure, probably formed by α-helical, turn-like, and PPII conformations; several theoretical predictions support these experimental findings. IF17 seems to fold upon binding to GS, as suggested by CD thermal denaturations and steady-state far-UV spectra. The apparent affinity of IF17 for GS, as measured by fluorescence, is slightly smaller (K(D) ~1 μM) than that measured for IF7 (~0.3 μM). The K(D)s determined by CD are similar to those measured by fluorescence, but slightly larger, suggesting possible conformational rearrangements in the IFs and/or GS upon binding. Further, the results with IFN17/IF7 suggest that (i) binding of IF17 to the GS is modulated not only by its C-terminal region but also by its N-terminus and (ii) there are weakly structured (that is, "fuzzy") complexes in the ternary GS-IF system.

  7. A coarse-grained method to predict the open-to-closed behavior of glutamine binding protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Dashuai; Gong, Weikang; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Li, Chunhua

    2017-08-01

    The Glutamine-Binding Protein (GlnBP) of Escherichia coli is responsible for the first step in the active transport of glutamine across the cytoplasmic membrane. In present work, we explored the allosteric pathway of GlnBP from the open to closed states during the substrate binding process with the adaptive anisotropic network model (aANM). The results show that the allosteric transition proceeds in a coupled way and is more likely to be driven by the movement of hinge regions. The large-scale hinge-bending motion between the large and small domains occurs, accompanied by an interdomain twisting motion which proceeds mainly in the middle stage. The cooperative motion between the dominant hinge-bending motion and the twisting motion exerts a crucial role in the open-closed motion of GlnBP. These results are in close agreement with previous experimental and theoretical data, implying that the topology structure plays a crucial role in the allosteric transition process of GlnBP.

  8. Small glutamine-rich protein/viral protein U–binding protein is a novel cochaperone that affects heat shock protein 70 activity

    PubMed Central

    Angeletti, Peter C.; Walker, Doriann; Panganiban, Antonito T.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular chaperone complexes containing heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and Hsp90 are regulated by cochaperones, including a subclass of regulators, such as Hsp70 interacting protein (Hip), C-terminus of Hsp70 interacting protein (CHIP), and Hsp70-Hsp90 organizing factor (Hop), that contain tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), where Hsp70 refers to Hsp70 and its nearly identical constitutive counterpart, Hsc70, together. These proteins interact with the Hsp70 to regulate adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and folding activities or to generate the chaperone complex. Here we provide evidence that small glutamine-rich protein/viral protein U–binding protein (SGT/UBP) is a cochaperone that negatively regulates Hsp70. By “Far-Western” and pull-down assays, SGT/UBP was shown to interact directly with Hsp70 and weakly with Hsp90. The interaction of SGT/UBP with both these protein chaperones was mapped to 3 TPRs in SGT/UBP (amino acids 95–195) that are flanked by charged residues. Moreover, SGT/UBP caused an approximately 30% reduction in both the intrinsic ATPase activity of Hsc70 and the ability of Hsc70 to refold denatured luciferase in vitro. This negative effect of SGT/UBP on Hsc70 is similar in magnitude to that observed for the cochaperone CHIP. A role for SGT/UBP in protein folding is also supported by evidence that a yeast strain containing a deletion in the yeast homolog to SGT/UBP (ΔSGT/UBP) displays a 50-fold reduction in recovery from heat shock compared with the wild type parent. Together, these results are consistent with a regulatory role for SGT/UBP in the chaperone complex. PMID:12482202

  9. Design and construction of glutamine binding proteins with a self-adhering capability to unmodified hydrophobic surfaces as reagentless fluorescence sensing devices.

    PubMed

    Wada, Akira; Mie, Masayasu; Aizawa, Masuo; Lahoud, Pedro; Cass, Anthony E G; Kobatake, Eiry

    2003-12-31

    The chemically and genetically remodeling of proteins with ligand binding specificities can be utilized to synthesize various protein-based microsensors for detecting single biomolecules. Here, we describe the construction and characterization of fluorophore-labeled glutamine binding proteins (QBP) and derivatives coupled to the independently designed hydrophobic polypeptide (E12) that can adhere onto solid surfaces via hydrophobic interactions. The single cysteine mutant (N160C QBP) modified with the three environmentally sensitive fluorescent dyes (IAANS, acrylodan, and IANBD ester) showed increased changes in fluorescence intensity induced by glutamine binding. The use of these conjugates as reagentless fluorescence sensors enables us to determine the glutamine concentrations (0.1-50 microM) in homogeneous solution. The fusion of N160C QBP with E12, (Gly4-Ser)n spacers (GSn), and IANBD resulted in the novel fluorescence sensing elements having an adhering capability to hydrophobic surfaces of unmodified microplates. In ELISA and fluorescence experiments for the microplates treated with a series of the conjugates, IANBD-labeled N160C QBP-GS1-E12 displayed the best reproducibility in adhesion onto the hydrophobic surfaces and the precise correlation between fluorescence changes and glutamine concentrations. The performance of the biosensor-attached microplate for glutamine titrations demonstrated that the hydrophobic interaction of E12 with solid surfaces is useful for effective immobilization of proteins that need specific conformational movements in recognizing particular biomolecules. Therefore, the technique using E12 as a surface-linking domain for protein adhesion onto unmodified substrates could be applied effectively to prepare microplates/arrays for a wide variety of high-throughput assays on chemical and biological samples.

  10. Fe2+-Tetracycline-Mediated Cleavage of the Tn10 Tetracycline Efflux Protein TetA Reveals a Substrate Binding Site near Glutamine 225 in Transmembrane Helix 7

    PubMed Central

    McMurry, Laura M.; Aldema-Ramos, Mila L.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2002-01-01

    TetA specified by Tn10 is a class B member of a group of related bacterial transport proteins of 12 transmembrane alpha helices that mediate resistance to the antibiotic tetracycline. A tetracycline-divalent metal cation complex is expelled from the cell in exchange for a entering proton. The site(s) where tetracycline binds to this export pump is not known. We found that, when chelated to tetracycline, Fe2+ cleaved the backbone of TetA predominantly at a single position, glutamine 225 in transmembrane helix 7. The related class D TetA protein from plasmid RA1 was cut at exactly the same position. There was no cleavage with glycylcycline, an analog of tetracycline that does not bind to TetA. The Fe2+-tetracycline complex was not detectably transported by TetA. However, cleavage products of the same size as with Fe2+ occurred with Co2+, known to be cotransported with tetracycline. The known substrate Mg 2+-tetracycline interfered with cleavage by Fe2+. These findings suggest that cleavage results from binding at a substrate-specific site. Fe2+ is known to be able to cleave amide bonds in proteins at distances up to approximately 12 Å. We conclude that the α carbon of glutamine 225 is probably within 12 Å of the position of the Fe2+ ion in the Fe2+-tetracycline complex bound to the protein. PMID:12193628

  11. Systematic Underutilization of Glutamine In Thermophile Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Shoudan; Weber, Arthur; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rapid racemization above 100 C of L-amino acids to Domino acids, as well as deamidation, is probably a hazard for high temperature life. For example, the half-life of some asparaginyl peptides can be as short as 10 minutes at 100 C. High temperature organisms could protect themselves by reducing usage of amino acids that are easily racemized/deamidazed, by having a rapid rate of protein turnover which requires energy, or by adapting special cis-peptide conformations. We have searched eight completely sequenced thermophile genomes, and compare them to mesophile genomes, in order to identify underutilized amino acids. To our surprise, asparagine, the most unstable amino acid to deamidation, is used at about the same level in thermophile proteins in comparison to mesophiles whereas it is the second most unstable amino acid, glutamine, that is underutilized in all of eight thermophile species. Glutamines are present at 2% level in a typical thermophile protein, instead of 4% in mesophile. We argue that it is easier to protect asparagines from deamidation by cis-peptide conformations. We discuss statistical as well as structural evidence in support of our conclusions.

  12. Systematic Underutilization of Glutamine In Thermophile Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Shoudan; Weber, Arthur; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rapid racemization above 100 C of L-amino acids to Domino acids, as well as deamidation, is probably a hazard for high temperature life. For example, the half-life of some asparaginyl peptides can be as short as 10 minutes at 100 C. High temperature organisms could protect themselves by reducing usage of amino acids that are easily racemized/deamidazed, by having a rapid rate of protein turnover which requires energy, or by adapting special cis-peptide conformations. We have searched eight completely sequenced thermophile genomes, and compare them to mesophile genomes, in order to identify underutilized amino acids. To our surprise, asparagine, the most unstable amino acid to deamidation, is used at about the same level in thermophile proteins in comparison to mesophiles whereas it is the second most unstable amino acid, glutamine, that is underutilized in all of eight thermophile species. Glutamines are present at 2% level in a typical thermophile protein, instead of 4% in mesophile. We argue that it is easier to protect asparagines from deamidation by cis-peptide conformations. We discuss statistical as well as structural evidence in support of our conclusions.

  13. Alpha-ketoglutarate inhibits glutamine degradation and enhances protein synthesis in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kang; Yin, Yulong; Li, Xilong; Xi, Pengbin; Wang, Junjun; Lei, Jian; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2012-06-01

    α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is a key intermediate in glutamine metabolism. Emerging evidence shows beneficial effects of AKG on clinical and experimental nutrition, particularly with respect to intestinal growth and integrity. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1) were used to test the hypothesis that AKG inhibits glutamine degradation and enhances protein synthesis. IPEC-1 cells were cultured for 3 days in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's-F12 Ham medium (DMEM-F12) containing 0, 0.2, 0.5 or 2 mM of AKG. At the end of the 3-day culture, cells were used to determine L-[U-14C]glutamine utilization, protein concentration, protein synthesis, and the total and phosphorylated levels of the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1). Compared with 0 mM of AKG (control), 0.2 and 0.5 mM of AKG dose-dependently reduced (P<0.05) glutamine degradation and the production of glutamate, alanine and aspartate in IPEC-1 cells. Addition of 0.5 and 2 mM of AKG to culture medium enhanced protein synthesis (P<0.05) by 78 and 101% without affecting protein degradation, compared to the control group. Rapamycin (50 nM; a potent inhibitor of mTOR) attenuated the stimulatory effect of AKG on protein synthesis. Consistent with these metabolic data, the addition of 0.5 or 2 mM of AKG to culture medium increased (P<0.05) the phosphorylated levels of mTOR, S6k1 and 4E-BP1 proteins. Collectively, these results indicate that AKG can spare glutamine and activate the mTOR signaling pathway to stimulate protein synthesis in intestinal epithelial cells.

  14. Targeting glutamine metabolism in multiple myeloma enhances BIM binding to BCL-2 eliciting synthetic lethality to venetoclax.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, R; Matulis, S M; Wei, C; Nooka, A K; Von Hollen, H E; Lonial, S; Boise, L H; Shanmugam, M

    2016-07-28

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy that is largely incurable due to development of resistance to therapy-elicited cell death. Nutrients are intricately connected to maintenance of cellular viability in part by inhibition of apoptosis. We were interested to determine if examination of metabolic regulation of BCL-2 proteins may provide insight on alternative routes to engage apoptosis. MM cells are reliant on glucose and glutamine and withdrawal of either nutrient is associated with varying levels of apoptosis. We and others have demonstrated that glucose maintains levels of key resistance-promoting BCL-2 family member, myeloid cell leukemic factor 1 (MCL-1). Cells continuing to survive in the absence of glucose or glutamine were found to maintain expression of MCL-1 but importantly induce pro-apoptotic BIM expression. One potential mechanism for continued survival despite induction of BIM could be due to binding and sequestration of BIM to alternate pro-survival BCL-2 members. Our investigation revealed that cells surviving glutamine withdrawal in particular, enhance expression and binding of BIM to BCL-2, consequently sensitizing these cells to the BH3 mimetic venetoclax. Glutamine deprivation-driven sensitization to venetoclax can be reversed by metabolic supplementation with TCA cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate. Inhibition of glucose metabolism with the GLUT4 inhibitor ritonavir elicits variable cytotoxicity in MM that is marginally enhanced with venetoclax treatment, however, targeting glutamine metabolism with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine uniformly sensitized MM cell lines and relapse/refractory patient samples to venetoclax. Our studies reveal a potent therapeutic strategy of metabolically driven synthetic lethality involving targeting glutamine metabolism for sensitization to venetoclax in MM.

  15. Discovery of the ammonium substrate site on glutamine synthetase, a third cation binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, S. H.; Kuo, I.; Eisenberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to yield glutamine, ADP, and inorganic phosphate in the presence of divalent cations. Bacterial GS is an enzyme of 12 identical subunits, arranged in two rings of 6, with the active site between each pair of subunits in a ring. In earlier work, we have reported the locations within the funnel-shaped active site of the substrates glutamate and ATP and of the two divalent cations, but the site for ammonia (or ammonium) has remained elusive. Here we report the discovery by X-ray crystallography of a binding site on GS for monovalent cations, Tl+ and Cs+, which is probably the binding site for the substrate ammonium ion. Fourier difference maps show the following. (1) Tl+ and Cs+ bind at essentially the same site, with ligands being Glu 212, Tyr 179, Asp 50', Ser 53' of the adjacent subunit, and the substrate glutamate. From its position adjacent to the substrate glutamate and the cofactor ADP, we propose that this monovalent cation site is the substrate ammonium ion binding site. This proposal is supported by enzyme kinetics. Our kinetic measurements show that Tl+, Cs+, and NH4+ are competitive inhibitors to NH2OH in the gamma-glutamyl transfer reaction. (2) GS is a trimetallic enzyme containing two divalent cation sites (n1, n2) and one monovalent cation site per subunit. These three closely spaced ions are all at the active site: the distance between n1 and n2 is 6 A, between n1 and Tl+ is 4 A, and between n2 and Tl+ is 7 A. Glu 212 and the substrate glutamate are bridging ligands for the n1 ion and Tl+. (3) The presence of a monovalent cation in this site may enhance the structural stability of GS, because of its effect of balancing the negative charges of the substrate glutamate and its ligands and because of strengthening the "side-to-side" intersubunit interaction through the cation-protein bonding. (4) The presence of the cofactor ADP increases the Tl+ binding to GS

  16. Stimulation of nonselective amino acid export by glutamine dumper proteins.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Réjane; Voll, Lars M; Horst, Robin J; Frommer, Wolf B; Pilot, Guillaume

    2010-02-01

    Phloem and xylem transport of amino acids involves two steps: export from one cell type to the apoplasm, and subsequent import into adjacent cells. High-affinity import is mediated by proton/amino acid cotransporters, while the mechanism of export remains unclear. Enhanced expression of the plant-specific type I membrane protein Glutamine Dumper1 (GDU1) has previously been shown to induce the secretion of glutamine from hydathodes and increased amino acid content in leaf apoplasm and xylem sap. In this work, tolerance to low concentrations of amino acids and transport analyses using radiolabeled amino acids demonstrate that net amino acid uptake is reduced in the glutamine-secreting GDU1 overexpressor gdu1-1D. The net uptake rate of phenylalanine decreased over time, and amino acid net efflux was increased in gdu1-1D compared with the wild type, indicating increased amino acid export from cells. Independence of the export from proton gradients and ATP suggests that overexpression of GDU1 affects a passive export system. Each of the seven Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GDU genes led to similar phenotypes, including increased efflux of a wide spectrum of amino acids. Differences in expression profiles and functional properties suggested that the GDU genes fulfill different roles in roots, vasculature, and reproductive organs. Taken together, the GDUs appear to stimulate amino acid export by activating nonselective amino acid facilitators.

  17. The inactivating factor of glutamine synthetase, IF7, is a "natively unfolded" protein

    PubMed Central

    Muro-Pastor, M. Isabel; Barrera, Francisco N.; Reyes, José C.; Florencio, Francisco J.; Neira, José L.

    2003-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the key enzyme responsible for the primary assimilation of ammonium in all living organisms, and it catalyses the synthesis of glutamine from glutamic acid, ATP, and ammonium. One of the recently discovered mechanisms of GS regulation involves protein-protein interactions with a small 65-residue-long protein named IF7. Here, we study the structure and stability of IF7 and its binding properties to GS, by using several biophysical techniques (fluorescence, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, and gel filtration chromatography) which provide complementary structural information. The findings show that IF7 has a small amount of residual secondary structure, but lacks a well defined tertiary structure, and is not compact. Thus, all of the studies indicate that IF7 is a "natively unfolded" protein. The binding of IF7 to GS, its natural binding partner, occurs with an apparent dissociation constant of KD = 0.3 ± 0.1 μM, as measured by fluorescence. We discuss the implications for the GS regulation mechanisms of IF7 being unfolded. PMID:12824490

  18. Structural and Functional Insights into Small, Glutamine-Rich, Tetratricopeptide Repeat Protein Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Joanna D.; Thapaliya, Arjun; Martínez-Lumbreras, Santiago; Krysztofinska, Ewelina M.; Isaacson, Rivka L.

    2015-01-01

    The small glutamine-rich, tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) is an emerging player in the quality control of secretory and membrane proteins mislocalized to the cytosol, with established roles in tail-anchored (TA) membrane protein biogenesis. SGTA consists of three structural domains with individual functions, an N-terminal dimerization domain that assists protein sorting pathways, a central tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that mediates interactions with heat-shock proteins, proteasomal, and hormonal receptors, and viral proteins, and a C-terminal glutamine rich region that binds hydrophobic substrates. SGTA has been linked to viral lifecycles and hormone receptor signaling, with implications in the pathogenesis of various disease states. Thus far, a range of biophysical techniques have been employed to characterize SGTA structure in some detail, and to investigate its interactions with binding partners in different biological contexts. A complete description of SGTA structure, together with further investigation into its function as a co-chaperone involved quality control, could provide us with useful insights into its role in maintaining cellular proteostasis, and broaden our understanding of mechanisms underlying associated pathologies. This review describes how some structural features of SGTA have been elucidated, and what this has uncovered about its cellular functions. A brief background on the structure and function of SGTA is given, highlighting its importance to biomedicine and related fields. The current level of knowledge and what remains to be understood about the structure and function of SGTA is summarized, discussing the potential direction of future research. PMID:26734616

  19. Expression of glutamine metabolism-related proteins in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Yu Kyung; Koo, Ja Seung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the expression of glutamine metabolism-related protein in tumor and stromal compartments among the histologic subtypes of thyroid cancer. Results GLS1 and GDH expression in tumor and stromal compartments were the highest in AC than in other subtypes. Tumoral ASCT2 expression was higher in MC but lower in FC (p < 0.001). In PTC, tumoral GLS1 and tumoral GDH expression was higher in the conventional type than in the follicular variant (p = 0.043 and 0.001, respectively), and in PTC with BRAF V600E mutation than in PTC without BRAF V600E mutation (p<0.001). Stromal GDH positivity was the independent factor associated with short overall survival (hazard ratio: 21.48, 95% confidence interval: 2.178-211.8, p = 0.009). Methods We performed tissue microarrays with 557 thyroid cancer cases (papillary thyroid carcinoma [PTC]: 344, follicular carcinoma [FC]: 112, medullary carcinoma [MC]: 70, poorly differentiated carcinoma [PDC]: 23, and anaplastic carcinoma [AC]: 8) and 152 follicular adenoma (FA) cases. We performed immunohistochemical staining of glutaminolysis-related proteins (glutaminase 1 [GLS1], glutamate dehydrogenase [GDH], and amino acid transporter-2 [ASCT-2]). Conclusion Glutamine metabolism-related protein expression differed among the histologic subtypes of thyroid cancer. PMID:27447554

  20. Regulation of glutamine synthetase, aspartokinase, and total protein turnover in Klebsiella aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Fulks, R M; Stadtman, E R

    1985-12-13

    When suspensions of Klebsiella aerogenes are incubated in a nitrogen-free medium there is a gradual decrease in the levels of acid-precipitable protein and of aspartokinase III (lysine-sensitive) and aspartokinase I (threonine-sensitive) activities. In contrast, the level of glutamine synthetase increases slightly and then remains constant. Under these conditions, the glutamine synthetase and other proteins continue to be synthesized as judged by the incorporation of [14C]leucine into the acid-precipitable protein fraction and into protein precipitated by anti-glutamine synthetase antibodies, by the fact that growth-inhibiting concentrations of chloramphenicol also inhibit the incorporation of [14C]leucine into protein and into protein precipitated by anti-glutamine synthetase antibody, and by the fact that chloramphenicol leads to acceleration in the loss of aspartokinases I and III and promotes a net decrease in the level of glutamine synthetase and its cross-reactive protein. The loss of aspartokinases I and III in cell suspensions is stimulated by glucose and is inhibited by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Glucose also stimulates the loss of aspartokinases and glutamine synthetase in the presence of chloramphenicol. Cell-free extracts of K. aerogenes catalyze rapid inactivation of endogenous glutamine synthetase as well as exogenously added pure glutamine synthetase. This loss of glutamine synthetase is not associated with a loss of protein that cross-reacts with anti-glutamine synthetase antibodies. The inactivation of glutamine synthetase in extracts is not due to adenylylation. It is partially prevented by sulfhydryl reagents, Mn2+, antimycin A, 2,4-dinitrophenol, EDTA, anaerobiosis and by dialysis. Following 18 h dialysis, the capacity of extracts to catalyze inactivation of glutamine synthetase is lost but can be restored by the addition of Fe2+ (or Ni2+) together with ATP (or other nucleoside di- and triphosphates. After 40-60 h dialysis Fe3+ together with NADH (but

  1. Glutamine synthetase stabilizes the binding of GlnR to nitrogen fixation gene operators.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gabriela de C; Hauf, Ksenia; Sant'Anna, Fernando H; Forchhammer, Karl; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2017-03-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a high energy demanding process carried out by diazotrophic microorganisms that supply combined nitrogen to the biosphere. The genes related to BNF are strictly regulated, but these mechanisms are poorly understood in gram-positive bacteria. The transcription factor GlnR was proposed to regulate nitrogen fixation-related genes based on Paenibacillus comparative genomics. In order to validate this proposal, we investigated BNF regulatory sequences in Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5(T) genome. We identified GlnR-binding sites flanking σ(A) -binding sites upstream from BNF-related genes. GlnR binding to these sites was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. GlnR-DNA affinity is greatly enhanced when GlnR is in complex with feedback-inhibited (glutamine-occupied) glutamine synthetase (GS). GlnR-GS complex formation is also modulated by ATP and AMP. Thereby, gene repression exerted by the GlnR-GS complex is coupled with nitrogen (glutamine levels) and energetic status (ATP and AMP). Finally, we propose a DNA-looping model based on multiple operator sites that represents a strong and strict regulation for these genes. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Controlling the prion propensity of glutamine/asparagine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Paul, Kacy R; Ross, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can harbor a number of distinct prions. Most of the yeast prion proteins contain a glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich region that drives prion formation. Prion-like domains, defined as regions with high compositional similarity to yeast prion domains, are common in eukaryotic proteomes, and mutations in various human proteins containing prion-like domains have been linked to degenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we discuss a recent study in which we utilized two strategies to generate prion activity in non-prion Q/N-rich domains. First, we made targeted mutations in four non-prion Q/N-rich domains, replacing predicted prion-inhibiting amino acids with prion-promoting amino acids. All four mutants formed foci when expressed in yeast, and two acquired bona fide prion activity. Prion activity could be generated with as few as two mutations, suggesting that many non-prion Q/N-rich proteins may be just a small number of mutations from acquiring aggregation or prion activity. Second, we created tandem repeats of short prion-prone segments, and observed length-dependent prion activity. These studies demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made in understanding the sequence basis for aggregation of prion and prion-like domains, and suggest possible mechanisms by which new prion domains could evolve.

  3. Fibrillogenesis of Huntingtin and Other Glutamine Containing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V.; Luca, Sorin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the aggregation of glutamine containing peptides and proteins with an emphasis on huntingtin protein, whose aggregation leads to the development of Huntington’s disease. The kinetics that leads to the formation of amyloids, the structure of aggregates of various types and the morphological mechanical properties of amyloid fibrils are described. The kinetics of amyloid fibril formation has been proposed to follow a nucleation dependent polymerization model, dependent upon the size of the nucleus. This model and the effect of the polyglutamine length on the nucleus size are reviewed. Aggregate structure is characterized at two different levels. The atomic-scale resolution structure of fibrillar and crystalline aggregates of polyglutamine containing proteins and peptides was determined by X-ray crystallography and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The chapter outlines the results obtained by both these techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was instrumental in elucidating the morphology of fibrils, their organization and assembly. The chapter also discusses the high stability of amyloid fibrils, including their mechanical properties as revealed by AFM. PMID:23225006

  4. Functional interactions between a glutamine synthetase promoter and MYB proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Maldonado, Josefa; Avila, Concepción; Torre, Fernando; Cañas, Rafael; Cánovas, Francisco M; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2004-08-01

    In Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), ammonium assimilation is catalysed by glutamine synthetase (GS) [EC 6.3.1.2], which is encoded by two genes, PsGS1a and PsGS1b. PsGS1b is expressed in the vascular tissue throughout the plant body, where it is believed to play a role in recycling ammonium released by various facets of metabolism. The mechanisms that may underpin the transcriptional regulation of PsGS1b were explored. The PsGS1b promoter contains a region that is enriched in previously characterized cis-acting elements, known as AC elements. Pine nuclear proteins bound these AC element-rich regions in a tissue-specific manner. As previous experiments had shown that R2R3-MYB transcription factors could interact with AC elements, the capacity of the AC elements in the PsGS1b promoter to interact with MYB proteins was examined. Two MYB proteins from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), PtMYB1 and PtMYB4, bound to the PsGS1b promoter were able to activate transcription from this promoter in yeast, arabidopsis and pine cells. Immunolocalization experiments revealed that the two MYB proteins were most abundant in cells previously shown to accumulate PsGS1b transcripts. Immunoprecipitation analysis and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays implicated these same two proteins in the formation of complexes between pine nuclear extracts and the PsGS1b promoter. Given that these MYB proteins were previously shown to have the capacity to activate gene expression related to lignin biosynthesis, we hypothesize that they may function to co-regulate lignification, a process that places significant demands on nitrogen recycling, and GS, the major enzyme involved in the nitrogen recycling pathway.

  5. Enteral glutamine stimulates protein synthesis and decreases ubiquitin mRNA level in human gut mucosa.

    PubMed

    Coëffier, Moïse; Claeyssens, Sophie; Hecketsweiler, Bernadette; Lavoinne, Alain; Ducrotté, Philippe; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2003-08-01

    Effects of glutamine on whole body and intestinal protein synthesis and on intestinal proteolysis were assessed in humans. Two groups of healthy volunteers received in a random order enteral glutamine (0.8 mmol.kg body wt(-1)x h(-1)) compared either to saline or isonitrogenous amino acids. Intravenous [2H5]phenylalanine and [13C]leucine were simultaneously infused. After gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, whole body protein turnover was estimated from traced plasma amino acid fluxes and the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of gut mucosal protein was calculated from protein and intracellular phenylalanine and leucine enrichments in duodenal biopsies. mRNA levels for ubiquitin, cathepsin D, and m-calpain were analyzed in biopsies by RT-PCR. Glutamine significantly increased mucosal protein FSR compared with saline. Glutamine and amino acids had similar effects on FSR. The mRNA level for ubiquitin was significantly decreased after glutamine infusion compared with saline and amino acids, whereas cathepsin D and m-calpain mRNA levels were not affected. Enteral glutamine stimulates mucosal protein synthesis and may attenuate ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and thus improve protein balance in human gut.

  6. Effect of a short-term infusion of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, A; Essén, P; McNurlan, M A; Calder, G A; Andersson, K; Wernerman, J; Garlick, P J

    1996-10-01

    The acute effect of a short-term postoperative infusion of glucose supplemented with glutamine (0.285 g/kg body weight), on muscle protein metabolism, was studied by analyses of free amino acid concentrations and determinations of protein synthesis. A glutamine-glucose infusion was given for 5.5 h to 6 patients 2-3 days after elective surgery for colon cancer. The free glutamine concentration was 5.72 +/- 0.96 mmol/kg wet weight (ww) before and 6.14 +/- 1.10 mmol/kg ww 4 h after the glutamine infusion. The rate of protein synthesis was 1.26 +/- 0.15%/24 h before the infusion and 1.12 +/- 0.16%/24 h during its latter part. The percentage of polyribosomes was 42.2 +/- 3.4% before and 40.9 +/- 1.3% after the infusion. The results showed no difference in these biochemical parameters, indicating that a short-term infusion of glutamine given postoperatively is insufficient to affect protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of glutamine synthetase, a tegumental protein from Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunhui; Hong, Yang; Cao, Yan; Wang, Fei; Fu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaojun; Wei, Meimei; Liu, Shengfa; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2012-12-01

    Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine, providing nitrogen for the production of purines, pyrimidines, amino acids, and other compounds required in many pivotal cellular events. Herein, a full-length cDNA encoding Schistosoma japonicum glutamine synthetase (SjGS) was isolated from 21-day schistosomes. The entire open reading frame of SjGS contains a 1,095-bp coding region corresponding to 364 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 40.7 kDa. NCBIP blast shows that the putative amino acid of SjGS contains a classic β-grasp domain and a catalytic domain of glutamine synthetase. The relative mRNA expression of SjGS was evaluated in 7-, 13-, 21-, 28-, 35-, and 42-day worms of S. japonicum in the final host and higher expression at day 21, and 42 worms were observed. This protein was also detected in worm extracts using Western blot. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that the SjGS protein was mainly distributed on tegument and parenchyma in 28-day adult worms. The recombinant glutamine synthetase with a molecular weight of 45 kDa was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified in its active form. The enzyme activity of the recombinant protein was 3.30 ± 0.67 U.μg-1. The enzyme activity was highly stable over a wide range of pH (6-9) and temperature (25-40 °C) under physiological conditions. The transcription of SjGS was upregulated in praziquantel-treated worms at 2-, 4-, and 24-h posttreatment compared with the untreated control. As a first step towards the clarification of the role of glutamine synthetase in schistosome species, we have cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding SjGS in S. japonicum, and the data presented suggest that SjGS is an important molecule in the development of the schistosome.

  8. Characterisation of secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1: a novel basal lamina component expressed at cell-tooth interfaces.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Pierre; Wazen, Rima M; Dos Santos Neves, Juliana; Nanci, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Functional genomic screening of the rat enamel organ (EO) has led to the identification of a number of secreted proteins expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis, including amelotin (AMTN) and odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM). In this study, we characterise the gene, protein and pattern of expression of a related protein called secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1 (SCPPPQ1). The Scpppq1 gene resides within the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (Scpp) cluster. SCPPPQ1 is a highly conserved, 75-residue, secreted protein rich in proline, leucine, glutamine and phenylalanine. In silico data mining has revealed no correlation to any known sequences. Northern blotting of various rat tissues suggests that the expression of Scpppq1 is restricted to tooth and associated tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the protein is expressed during the late maturation stage of amelogenesis and in the junctional epithelium where it localises to an atypical basal lamina at the cell-tooth interface. This discrete localisation suggests that SCPPPQ1, together with AMTN and ODAM, participates in structuring the basal lamina and in mediating attachment of epithelia cells to mineralised tooth surfaces.

  9. The isolated, twenty-three-residue-long, N-terminal region of the glutamine synthetase inactivating factor binds to its target.

    PubMed

    Neira, José L; Florencio, Francisco J; Muro-Pastor, M Isabel

    2017-09-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. The activity of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 GS type I is regulated by protein-protein interactions with a 65-residue-long protein (IF7). IF7 binds initially to GS through residues at its N terminus. In this work, we studied the conformational preferences of the N-terminal region of IF7 (IF7pep, residues Ala7-Ala29), its binding to GS and its functional properties. Isolated IF7pep populated a nascent helix in aqueous solution. IF7pep was bound to GS with an affinity constant of 0.4μM, and a 1:1 stoichiometry. IF7pep did not inactivate GS, suggesting that there were other IF7 regions important to carry out the inactivating function. Binding of IF7pep to GS was electrostatically-driven and it did not follow a kinetic two-state model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  11. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  12. Glutamine enema regulates colonic ubiquitinated proteins but not proteasome activities during TNBS-induced colitis leading to increased mitochondrial activity.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Julien; Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Azhar, Saïda; Chan, Philippe; Legrand, Romain; Goichon, Alexis; Ghouzali, Ibtissem; Aziz, Moutaz; Vaudry, David; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2015-07-01

    Ubiquitin proteasome system contributes to the regulation of intestinal inflammatory response as its inhibition is associated with tissue damage improvement. We aimed to evaluate whether glutamine is able to limit inflammation by targeting ubiquitin proteasome system in experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in male rats by intrarectal instillation of 2-4-6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS) at day 1. From day 2 to day 6, rats daily received either an intrarectal instillation of PBS (TNBS/PBS group) or glutamine (TNBS/Gln). Rats were euthanized at day 7 and colonic samples were taken to evaluate ubiqutinated proteins by proteomic approach combining 2D electrophoresis and immunoblots directed against ubiquitin. Results were then confirmed by evaluating total expression of proteins and mRNA levels. Survival rate, TNFα, and IL-1β mRNA were improved in TNBS/Gln compared with TNBS/PBS (p < 0.05). Proteasome activities were affected by TNBS but not by glutamine. We identified eight proteins that were less ubiquitinated in TNBS/PBS compared with controls with no effect of glutamine. Four proteins were more ubiquitinated in TNBS/PBS group and restored in TNBS/Gln group. Finally, 12 ubiquitinated proteins were only affected by glutamine. Among proteins affected by glutamine, eight proteins (GFPT1, Gapdh, Pkm2, LDH, Bcat2, ATP5a1, Vdac1, and Vdac2) were involved in metabolic pathways. In conclusion, glutamine may regulate ubiquitination process during intestinal inflammation.

  13. Proximal Tubule Glutamine Synthetase Expression is Necessary for the Normal Response to Dietary Protein Restriction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2017-03-22

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and ¬decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of NH4+ and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation. Because renal proximal tubule GS expression increases during dietary protein restriction, this could contribute to the decreased ammonia excretion. The current study's purpose was to determine proximal tubule GS's role in the renal response to protein restriction. We generated mice with proximal tubule-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Cre-negative (Control) and PT-GS-KO mice in metabolic cages were provided 20% protein diet for 2 days and were then changed to low protein (6%) diet for the next 7 days. Additional PT-GS-KO mice were maintained on 20% protein diet. Dietary protein restriction caused a rapid decrease in urinary ammonia excretion in both genotypes, but PT-GS-KO blunted this adaptive response significantly. This occurred despite no significant genotype-dependent differences in urinary pH or in serum electrolytes. There were no significant differences between Control and PT-GS-KO mice in expression of multiple other proteins involved in renal ammonia handling. We conclude that proximal tubule glutamine synthetase expression is necessary for the appropriate decrease in ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction.

  14. Glutamine effects on heat shock protein 70 and interleukines 6 and 10: Randomized trial of glutamine supplementation versus standard parenteral nutrition in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Iolanda; Balaguer, Mònica; Esteban, M Esther; Cambra, Francisco José; Felipe, Aida; Hernández, Lluïsa; Alsina, Laia; Molero, Marta; Villaronga, Miquel; Esteban, Elisabeth

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether glutamine (Gln) supplementation would have a role modifying both the oxidative stress and the inflammatory response of critically ill children. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, interventional clinical trial. Selection criteria were children requiring parenteral nutrition for at least 5 days diagnosed with severe sepsis or post major surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to standard parenteral nutrition (SPN, 49 subjects) or standard parenteral nutrition with glutamine supplementation (SPN + Gln, 49 subjects). Glutamine levels failed to show statistical differences between groups. At day 5, patients in the SPN + Gln group had significantly higher levels of HSP-70 (heat shock protein 70) as compared with the SPN group (68.6 vs 5.4, p = 0.014). In both groups, IL-6 (interleukine 6) levels showed a remarkable descent from baseline and day 2 (SPN: 42.24 vs 9.39, p < 0.001; SPN + Gln: 35.20 vs 13.80, p < 0.001) but only the treatment group showed a statistically significant decrease between day 2 and day 5 (13.80 vs 10.55, p = 0.013). Levels of IL-10 (interleukine 10) did not vary among visits except in the SPN between baseline and day 2 (9.55 vs 5.356, p < 0.001). At the end of the study, no significant differences between groups for PICU and hospital stay were observed. No adverse events were detected in any group. Glutamine supplementation in critically-ill children contributed to maintain high HSP-70 levels for longer. Glutamine supplementation had no influence on IL-10 and failed to show a significant reduction of IL-6 levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction entropy for protein-protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaoxi; Yan, Yu N.; Yang, Maoyou; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are at the heart of signal transduction and are central to the function of protein machine in biology. The highly specific protein-protein binding is quantitatively characterized by the binding free energy whose accurate calculation from the first principle is a grand challenge in computational biology. In this paper, we show how the interaction entropy approach, which was recently proposed for protein-ligand binding free energy calculation, can be applied to computing the entropic contribution to the protein-protein binding free energy. Explicit theoretical derivation of the interaction entropy approach for protein-protein interaction system is given in detail from the basic definition. Extensive computational studies for a dozen realistic protein-protein interaction systems are carried out using the present approach and comparisons of the results for these protein-protein systems with those from the standard normal mode method are presented. Analysis of the present method for application in protein-protein binding as well as the limitation of the method in numerical computation is discussed. Our study and analysis of the results provided useful information for extracting correct entropic contribution in protein-protein binding from molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. Histaminylation of glutamine residues is a novel posttranslational modification implicated in G-protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Stahlberg, Silke; Paulmann, Nils; Bluemlein, Katharina; Grohmann, Maik; Ralser, Markus; Walther, Diego J

    2012-11-02

    Posttranslational modifications (PTM) have been shown to be essential for protein function and signaling. Here we report the identification of a novel modification, protein transfer of histamine, and provide evidence for its function in G protein signaling. Histamine, known as neurotransmitter and mediator of the inflammatory response, was found incorporated into mastocytoma proteins. Histaminylation was dependent on transglutaminase II. Mass spectrometry confirmed histamine modification of the small and heterotrimeric G proteins Cdc42, Gαo1 and Gαq. The modification was specific for glutamine residues in the catalytic core, and triggered their constitutive activation. TGM2-mediated histaminylation is thus a novel PTM that functions in G protein signaling. Protein αmonoaminylations, thus including histaminylation, serotonylation, dopaminylation and norepinephrinylation, hence emerge as a novel class of regulatory PTMs.

  17. Function of a glutamine synthetase-like protein in bacterial aniline oxidation via γ-glutamylanilide.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Masahiro; Ohara, Akira; Sakae, Shinji; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kato, Dai-ichiro; Negoro, Seiji

    2013-10-01

    Acinetobacter sp. strain YAA has five genes (atdA1 to atdA5) involved in aniline oxidation as a part of the aniline degradation gene cluster. From sequence analysis, the five genes were expected to encode a glutamine synthetase (GS)-like protein (AtdA1), a glutamine amidotransferase-like protein (AtdA2), and an aromatic compound dioxygenase (AtdA3, AtdA4, and AtdA5) (M. Takeo, T. Fujii, and Y. Maeda, J. Ferment. Bioeng. 85:17-24, 1998). A recombinant Pseudomonas strain harboring these five genes quantitatively converted aniline into catechol, demonstrating that catechol is the major oxidation product from aniline. To elucidate the function of the GS-like protein AtdA1 in aniline oxidation, we purified it from recombinant Escherichia coli harboring atdA1. The purified AtdA1 protein produced gamma-glutamylanilide (γ-GA) quantitatively from aniline and l-glutamate in the presence of ATP and MgCl2. This reaction was identical to glutamine synthesis by GS, except for the use of aniline instead of ammonia as the substrate. Recombinant Pseudomonas strains harboring the dioxygenase genes (atdA3 to atdA5) were unable to degrade aniline but converted γ-GA into catechol, indicating that γ-GA is an intermediate to catechol and a direct substrate for the dioxygenase. Unexpectedly, a recombinant Pseudomonas strain harboring only atdA2 hydrolyzed γ-GA into aniline, reversing the γ-GA formation by AtdA1. Deletion of atdA2 from atdA1 to atdA5 caused γ-GA accumulation from aniline in recombinant Pseudomonas cells and inhibited the growth of a recombinant Acinetobacter strain on aniline, suggesting that AtdA2 prevents γ-GA accumulation that is harmful to the host cell.

  18. Function of a Glutamine Synthetase-Like Protein in Bacterial Aniline Oxidation via γ-Glutamylanilide

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Akira; Sakae, Shinji; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kato, Dai-ichiro; Negoro, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. strain YAA has five genes (atdA1 to atdA5) involved in aniline oxidation as a part of the aniline degradation gene cluster. From sequence analysis, the five genes were expected to encode a glutamine synthetase (GS)-like protein (AtdA1), a glutamine amidotransferase-like protein (AtdA2), and an aromatic compound dioxygenase (AtdA3, AtdA4, and AtdA5) (M. Takeo, T. Fujii, and Y. Maeda, J. Ferment. Bioeng. 85:17-24, 1998). A recombinant Pseudomonas strain harboring these five genes quantitatively converted aniline into catechol, demonstrating that catechol is the major oxidation product from aniline. To elucidate the function of the GS-like protein AtdA1 in aniline oxidation, we purified it from recombinant Escherichia coli harboring atdA1. The purified AtdA1 protein produced gamma-glutamylanilide (γ-GA) quantitatively from aniline and l-glutamate in the presence of ATP and MgCl2. This reaction was identical to glutamine synthesis by GS, except for the use of aniline instead of ammonia as the substrate. Recombinant Pseudomonas strains harboring the dioxygenase genes (atdA3 to atdA5) were unable to degrade aniline but converted γ-GA into catechol, indicating that γ-GA is an intermediate to catechol and a direct substrate for the dioxygenase. Unexpectedly, a recombinant Pseudomonas strain harboring only atdA2 hydrolyzed γ-GA into aniline, reversing the γ-GA formation by AtdA1. Deletion of atdA2 from atdA1 to atdA5 caused γ-GA accumulation from aniline in recombinant Pseudomonas cells and inhibited the growth of a recombinant Acinetobacter strain on aniline, suggesting that AtdA2 prevents γ-GA accumulation that is harmful to the host cell. PMID:23893114

  19. DNA binding, BSA interaction and SOD activity of two new nickel(II) complexes with glutamine Schiff base ligands.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Dong, Jianfang; Zhao, Peiran; Li, Manman; Cheng, Fengling; Kong, Jinming; Li, Lianzhi

    2016-08-01

    Two hexacoordinated octahedral nickel(II) complexes, [Ni(o-van-gln)(phen)(H2O)](1) and [Ni(sal-gln)(phen)(H2O)](2) [o-van-gln=a Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and glutamine, sal-gln=a Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and glutamine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline], have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray studies showed that nickel atoms of both 1 and 2 exhibit distorted NiN3O3 octahedral geometry. In each crystal, intermolecular hydrogen bonds form a two-dimensional network structure. DNA-binding properties of these two nickel(II) complexes were investigated by using UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that the two complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) via an intercalative mode, and complex 1 exhibits higher interaction with CT-DNA than complex 2. Furthermore, the interactions between the nickel(II) complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been studied by spectroscopies. The results indicated that both complexes could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA in a static quenching process. The binding constants (Kb) and the numbers of binding sites (n) obtained are 1.10×10(5)M(-1) and 1.05 for complex 1 and 5.05×10(4)M(-1) and 0.997 for complex 2, respectively. Site-selective competitive binding investigation indicated that the binding sites of both the complexes are located in site I of sub-domains IIA of BSA. Assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the nickel(II) complexes revealed that they exhibit significant superoxide scavenging activity with IC50=3.4×10(-5)M for complex 1 and 4.3×10(-5)M for complex 2, respectively.

  20. Effects of exercise on leukocyte death: prevention by hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Levada-Pires, Adriana C; Folador, Alessandra; Gorjão, Renata; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana C; Hirabara, Sandro M; Peres, Fabiano P; Silva, Paulo R S; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tania C

    2008-06-01

    Lymphocyte and neutrophil death induced by exercise and the role of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide (Gln) supplementation was investigated. Nine triathletes performed two exhaustive exercise trials with a 1-week interval in a randomized, double blind, crossover protocol. Thirty minutes before treadmill exhaustive exercise at variable speeds in an inclination of 1% the subjects ingested 50 g of maltodextrin (placebo) or 50 g of maltodextrin plus 4 tablets of 700 mg of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with 175 mg of glutamine dipeptide dissolved in 250 mL water. Cell viability, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined in lymphocytes and neutrophils. Exhaustive exercise decreased viable lymphocytes but had no effect on neutrophils. A 2.2-fold increase in the proportion of lymphocytes and neutrophils with depolarized mitochondria was observed after exhaustive exercise. Supplementation of maltodextrin plus Gln (MGln) prevented the loss of lymphocyte membrane integrity and the mitochondrial membrane depolarization induced by exercise. Exercise caused an increase in ROS production by neutrophils, whereas supplementation of MGln had no additional effect. MGln supplementation partially prevented lymphocyte apoptosis induced by exhaustive exercise possibly by a protective effect on mitochondrial function.

  1. Protein splicing of inteins with atypical glutamine and aspartate C-terminal residues.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gil; Dassa, Bareket; Pietrokovski, Shmuel

    2004-01-30

    Inteins are protein-splicing domains present in many proteins. They self-catalyze their excision from the host protein, ligating their former flanks by a peptide bond. The C-terminal residue of inteins is typically an asparagine (Asn). Cyclization of this residue to succinimide causes the final detachment of inteins from their hosts. We studied protein-splicing activity of two inteins with atypical C-terminal residues. One having a C-terminal glutamine (Gln), isolated from Chilo iridescent virus (CIV), and another unique intein, first reported here, with a C-terminal aspartate, isolated from Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans (Chy). Protein-splicing activity was examined in the wild-type inteins and in several mutants with N- and C-terminal amino acid substitutions. We demonstrate that both wild-type inteins can protein splice, probably by new variations of the typical protein-splicing mechanism. Substituting the atypical C-terminal residue to the typical Asn retained protein-splicing only in the CIV intein. All diverse C-terminal substitutions in the Chy intein (Asp(345) to Asn, Gln, Glu, and Ala) abolished protein-splicing and generated N- and C-terminal cleavage. The observed C-terminal cleavage in the Chy intein ending with Ala cannot be explained by cyclization of this residue. We present and discuss several new models for reactions in the protein-splicing pathway.

  2. Glutamine Triggers Acetylation-Dependent Degradation of Glutamine Synthetase via the Thalidomide Receptor Cereblon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T Van; Lee, J Eugene; Sweredoski, Michael J; Yang, Seung-Joo; Jeon, Seung-Je; Harrison, Joseph S; Yim, Jung-Hyuk; Lee, Sang Ghil; Handa, Hiroshi; Kuhlman, Brian; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Reitsma, Justin M; Park, Chul-Seung; Hess, Sonja; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2016-03-17

    Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor for the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase 4 (CRL4) complex, is a direct protein target for thalidomide teratogenicity and antitumor activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). Here we report that glutamine synthetase (GS) is an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Upon exposing cells to high glutamine concentration, GS is acetylated at lysines 11 and 14, yielding a degron that is necessary and sufficient for binding and ubiquitylation by CRL4(CRBN) and degradation by the proteasome. Binding of acetylated degron peptides to CRBN depends on an intact thalidomide-binding pocket but is not competitive with IMiDs. These findings reveal a feedback loop involving CRL4(CRBN) that adjusts GS protein levels in response to glutamine and uncover a new function for lysine acetylation.

  3. Stereospecific assignment of the asparagine and glutamine sidechain amide protons in proteins from chemical shift analysis.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Tobias; Schneider, Philipp; Kieninger, Bärbel; Donaubauer, Harald; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2017-02-01

    Side chain amide protons of asparagine and glutamine residues in random-coil peptides are characterized by large chemical shift differences and can be stereospecifically assigned on the basis of their chemical shift values only. The bimodal chemical shift distributions stored in the biological magnetic resonance data bank (BMRB) do not allow such an assignment. However, an analysis of the BMRB shows, that a substantial part of all stored stereospecific assignments is not correct. We show here that in most cases stereospecific assignment can also be done for folded proteins using an unbiased artificial chemical shift data base (UACSB). For a separation of the chemical shifts of the two amide resonance lines with differences ≥0.40 ppm for asparagine and differences ≥0.42 ppm for glutamine, the downfield shifted resonance lines can be assigned to H(δ21) and H(ε21), respectively, at a confidence level >95%. A classifier derived from UASCB can also be used to correct the BMRB data. The program tool AssignmentChecker implemented in AUREMOL calculates the Bayesian probability for a given stereospecific assignment and automatically corrects the assignments for a given list of chemical shifts.

  4. The prion protein binds thiamine.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Berjanskii, Mark V; Hau, David; Li, Li; Huang, Alan; Lee, Rose; Gibbs, Ebrima; Ladner, Carol; Dong, Ying Wei; Abera, Ashenafi; Cashman, Neil R; Wishart, David S

    2011-11-01

    Although highly conserved throughout evolution, the exact biological function of the prion protein is still unclear. In an effort to identify the potential biological functions of the prion protein we conducted a small-molecule screening assay using the Syrian hamster prion protein [shPrP(90-232)]. The screen was performed using a library of 149 water-soluble metabolites that are known to pass through the blood-brain barrier. Using a combination of 1D NMR, fluorescence quenching and surface plasmon resonance we identified thiamine (vitamin B1) as a specific prion ligand with a binding constant of ~60 μM. Subsequent studies showed that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved, with similar binding constants being seen for mouse, hamster and human prions. Various protein construct lengths, both with and without the unstructured N-terminal region in the presence and absence of copper, were examined. This indicates that the N-terminus has no influence on the protein's ability to interact with thiamine. In addition to thiamine, the more biologically abundant forms of vitamin B1 (thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate) were also found to bind the prion protein with similar affinity. Heteronuclear NMR experiments were used to determine thiamine's interaction site, which is located between helix 1 and the preceding loop. These data, in conjunction with computer-aided docking and molecular dynamics, were used to model the thiamine-binding pharmacophore and a comparison with other thiamine binding proteins was performed to reveal the common features of interaction.

  5. Distribution of immunoreactive glutamine synthetase in the adult human and mouse brain. Qualitative and quantitative observations with special emphasis on extra-astroglial protein localization.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bannier, Jana; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Steiner, Johann; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Walter, Martin; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a pivotal role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. Despite a plethora of studies on this enzyme, knowledge about the regional and cellular distribution of this enzyme in human brain is still fragmentary. Therefore, we mapped fourteen post-mortem brains of psychically healthy individuals for the distribution of the glutamine synthetase immunoreactive protein. It was found that glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity is expressed in multiple gray and white matter astrocytes, but also in oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and certain neurons. Since a possible extra-astrocytic expression of glutamine synthetase is highly controversial, we paid special attention to its appearance in oligodendrocytes and neurons. By double immunolabeling of mouse brain slices and cultured mouse brain cells for glutamine synthetase and cell-type-specific markers we provide evidence that besides astrocytes subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and neurons express glutamine synthetase. Moreover, we show that glutamine synthetase-immunopositive neurons are not randomly distributed throughout human and mouse brain, but represent a subpopulation of nitrergic (i.e. neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing) neurons. Possible functional implications of an extra-astrocytic localization of glutamine synthetase are discussed.

  6. Glutamine deprivation induces interleukin-8 expression in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Aryung; Yu, Ji Hoon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether glutamine deprivation induces expression of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by determining NF-κB activity and levels of oxidative indices (ROS, reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; GSH, glutathione) in fibroblasts isolated from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). We used A-T fibroblasts stably transfected with empty vector (Mock) or with human full-length ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cDNA (YZ5) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) transiently transfected with ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) or with non-specific control siRNA. The cells were cultured with or without glutamine or GSH. ROS levels were determined using a fluorescence reader and confocal microscopy. IL-8 or murine IL-8 homolog, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and hydrogen peroxide levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assay. GSH level was assessed by enzymatic assay, while IL-8 (KC) mRNA level was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or quantitative real-time PCR. NF-κB DNA-binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Catalase activity and ATM protein levels were determined by O2 generation and Western blotting. While glutamine deprivation induced IL-8 expression and increased NF-κB DNA-binding activity in Mock cells, both processes were decreased by treatment of cells with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. Glutamine deprivation had no effect on IL-8 expression or NF-κB DNA-binding activity in YZ5 cells. Glutamine-deprived Mock cells had higher oxidative stress indices (increases in ROS and hydrogen peroxide, reduction in GSH) than glutamine-deprived YZ5 cells. In Mock cells, glutamine deprivation-induced oxidative stress indices were suppressed by treatment with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. GSH levels and catalase activity were lower in Mock cells than YZ5 cells. MEFs transfected with ATM siRNA and

  7. Intrinsically disordered inhibitor of glutamine synthetase is a functional protein with random-coil-like pKa values.

    PubMed

    Cozza, Concetta; Neira, José L; Florencio, Francisco J; Muro-Pastor, M Isabel; Rizzuti, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    The sequential action of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in cyanobacteria allows the incorporation of ammonium into carbon skeletons. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the activity of GS is modulated by the interaction with proteins, which include a 65-residue-long intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), the inactivating factor IF7. This interaction is regulated by the presence of charged residues in both IF7 and GS. To understand how charged amino acids can affect the binding of an IDP with its target and to provide clues on electrostatic interactions in disordered states of proteins, we measured the pKa values of all IF7 acidic groups (Glu32, Glu36, Glu38, Asp40, Asp58, and Ser65, the backbone C-terminus) at 100 mM NaCl concentration, by using NMR spectroscopy. We also obtained solution structures of IF7 through molecular dynamics simulation, validated them on the basis of previous experiments, and used them to obtain theoretical estimates of the pKa values. Titration values for the two Asp and three Glu residues of IF7 were similar to those reported for random-coil models, suggesting the lack of electrostatic interactions around these residues. Furthermore, our results suggest the presence of helical structure at the N-terminus of the protein and of conformational changes at acidic pH values. The overall experimental and in silico findings suggest that local interactions and conformational equilibria do not play a role in determining the electrostatic features of the acidic residues of IF7. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  8. Glucose and glutamine fuel protein O-GlcNAcylation to control T cell self-renewal and malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Mahima; Pathak, Shalini; Grzes, Katarzyna M.; Damerow, Sebastian; Sinclair, Linda V.; van Aalten, Daan M. F.; Cantrell, Doreen A.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained glucose and glutamine transport are essential for activated T lymphocytes to support ATP and macromolecule biosynthesis. We now show that glutamine and glucose also fuel an indispensible dynamic regulation of intracellular protein O-GlcNAcylation at key stages of T cell development, transformation and differentiation. Glucose and glutamine are precursors of UDP-GlcNAc, a substrate for cellular glycosyltransferases. Immune activated T cells contained higher concentrations of UDP-GlcNAc and increased intracellular protein O-GlcNAcylation controlled by the enzyme O-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase as compared to naïve cells. We identified Notch, the T cell antigen receptor and c-Myc as key controllers of T cell protein O-GlcNAcylation, via regulation of glucose and glutamine transport. Loss of O-GlcNAc transferase blocked T cell progenitor renewal, malignant transformation, and peripheral T cell clonal expansion. Nutrient-dependent signaling pathways regulated by O-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase are thus fundamental for T cell biology. PMID:27111141

  9. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  10. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  11. Effects of Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on the Body Composition and Protein Status of Early-Weaned Mice Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

    PubMed Central

    Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borges, Maria Carolina; de Castro, Inar Alves; Pires, Ivanir S. O.; Borelli, Primavera; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk, favors protein anabolism. Early-weaned babies are deprived of this source of glutamine, in a period during which endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress, mainly during infections. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on the body composition and visceral protein status of early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Mice were weaned early on their 14th day of life and seperated into two groups, one of which was fed a glutamine-free diet (n = 16) and the other a glutamine-supplemented diet (40 g/kg diet) (n = 16). At 21 days of age, some mice were intraperitoneally injected with BCG. Euthanasia was performed at the 28th day of age. BCG inoculation significantly reduced body weight (P < 0.001), lean mass (P = 0.002), water (P = 0.006), protein (P = 0.007) and lipid content (P = 0.001) in the carcass. Dietary glutamine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 (P = 0.019) and albumin (P = 0.025) concentration, muscle protein concentration (P = 0.035) and lipid content (P = 0.002) in the carcass. In conclusion, dietary glutamine supplementation had a positive influence on visceral protein status but did not affect body composition in early-weaned mice inoculated with BCG. PMID:22254124

  12. Bacterial oligopeptide-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Monnet, V

    2003-10-01

    This review focuses on bacterial oligopeptide-binding proteins, which form part of the oligopeptide transport system belonging to the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters. Depending on the bacterial species, these binding proteins (OppA) capture peptides ranging in size from 2 to 18 amino acids from the environment and pass them on to the other components of the oligopeptide transport system for internalisation. Bacteria have developed several strategies to produce these binding proteins, which are periplasmic in Gram- bacteria and membrane-anchored in Gram+, with a higher stoichiometry (probably necessary for efficient transport) than the other components in the transport system. The expression of OppA-encoding genes is clearly modulated by external factors, especially nitrogen compounds, but the mechanisms of regulation are not always clear. The best-understood roles played by OppAs are internalisation of peptides for nutrition and recycling of muropeptides. It has, however, recently become clear that OppAs are also involved in sensing the external medium via specific or non-specific peptides.

  13. A novel mechanism of glutamine synthetase inactivation by ammonium in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Involvement of an inactivating protein.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J C; Florencio, F J

    1995-06-19

    The glutamine synthetase of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can be inactivated in vivo by ammonium addition by a new mechanism that involves the binding to the enzyme of an inactivating factor. This binding provokes a different mobility of the inactive enzyme with respect to the active form in non-denaturing PAGE, but not in SDS-PAGE. This modification of glutamine synthetase is for the first time visualized by Western blot analysis of the active and inactive forms. Cross-linking experiments using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) demonstrate the existence of two main complexes of 56 kDa and 67 kDa between the inactivating factor and the glutamine synthetase subunit (53 kDa) in the inactive but not in the active form of glutamine synthetase.

  14. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes.

  15. Glutamine synthetase in Durum Wheat: Genotypic Variation and Relationship with Grain Protein Content

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Domenica; Fortunato, Stefania; Giove, Stefania L.; Paradiso, Annalisa; Gu, Yong Q.; Blanco, Antonio; de Pinto, Maria C.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC), is one of the most important trait in wheat and its characterized by a very complex genetic control. The identification of wheat varieties with high GPC (HGPC), as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in these processes, are important for more sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we focused on Glutamine synthetase (GS) as a candidate to study GPC in wheat. We analyzed GS expression and its enzymatic activity in different tissues and phenological stages in 10 durum wheat genotypes with different GPC. Although each genotype performed quite differently from the others, both because their genetic variability and their adaptability to specific environmental conditions, the highest GS activity and expression were found in genotypes with HGPC and vice versa the lowest ones in genotypes with low GPC (LGPC). Moreover, in genotypes contrasting in GPC bred at different nitrogen regimes (0, 60, 140 N Unit/ha) GS behaved differently in diverse organs. Nitrogen supplement increased GS expression and activity in roots of all genotypes, highlighting the key role of this enzyme in nitrogen assimilation and ammonium detoxification in roots. Otherwise, nitrogen treatments decreased GS expression and activity in the leaves of HGPC genotypes and did not affect GS in the leaves of LGPC genotypes. Finally, no changes in GS and soluble protein content occurred at the filling stage in the caryopses of all analyzed genotypes. PMID:27468287

  16. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  17. Enzymatic-fluorometric analyses for glutamine, glutamate and free amino groups in protein-free plasma and milk.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Fernández, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    This Technical Research Communication describes new analytical methods for free, unbound glutamic acid and glutamine in protein-free blood plasma and milk and introduces the use of quantitation of free amino groups in the same matrices for descriptive and analytical purposes. The present enzymatic-fluorometric methods are easily performed within one working day, allowing for 'high throughput' assays of animal trials. These assays could support and enable further studies in lactation physiology with the objective of improved metabolic health.

  18. Data of protein-RNA binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wook; Park, Byungkyu; Choi, Daesik; Han, Kyungsook

    2017-02-01

    Despite the increasing number of protein-RNA complexes in structure databases, few data resources have been made available which can be readily used in developing or testing a method for predicting either protein-binding sites in RNA sequences or RNA-binding sites in protein sequences. The problem of predicting protein-binding sites in RNA has received much less attention than the problem of predicting RNA-binding sites in protein. The data presented in this paper are related to the article entitled "PRIdictor: Protein-RNA Interaction predictor" (Tuvshinjargal et al. 2016) [1]. PRIdictor can predict protein-binding sites in RNA as well as RNA-binding sites in protein at the nucleotide- and residue-levels. This paper presents four datasets that were used to test four prediction models of PRIdictor: (1) model RP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from protein and RNA sequences, (2) model RaP for predicting protein-binding sites in RNA from RNA sequence alone, (3) model PR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein and RNA sequences, and (4) model PaR for predicting RNA-binding sites in protein from protein sequence alone. The datasets supplied in this article can be used as a valuable resource to evaluate and compare different methods for predicting protein-RNA binding sites.

  19. Polymeric ADAM protein mimics interrogate mammalian sperm-egg binding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younjoo; Sampson, Nicole S

    2009-03-23

    The sperm proteins ADAM2 and ADAM3, members of the ADAM family of proteins, have been implicated in mammalian sperm-egg binding. However, elucidating their roles is complex because of the interdependence of ADAM protein expression in the testis. Hence, multivalent probes containing the three-amino acid binding sequence of ADAM2, glutamate-cysteine-aspartate (ECD), and ADAM3, glutamine-cysteine-aspartate (QCD), were designed, synthesized, and tested to investigate gamete interactions. In this work, ECD polymer mimics were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization with a faster initiating ruthenium catalyst than previously used. Polymers containing 100 copies of the ECD peptide mimic were found to be the best inhibitors of fertilization. The multivalent QCD polymers were also tested as inhibitors of fertilization. The structure-activity profile was the same as ECD polymers, but the overall potency was lower. Both ECD and QCD polymers require the presence of beta(1) integrin to inhibit fertilization. Next, triblock ABA and ABC copolymers containing both ECD and QCD ligands were synthesized with 96 monomer spacers as their B blocks. Although these polymers had lower densities of ECD and QCD peptides, their potencies correlated with the potencies of their corresponding homopolymers. In addition, no synergy between ECD and QCD mimics was observed. All the data suggest that QCD and ECD bind to the same complex of proteins that includes beta(1) integrin.

  20. The plant-specific VIMAG domain of Glutamine Dumper1 is necessary for the function of the protein in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

    2006-12-22

    The over-expression of the arabidopsis GLUTAMINE DUMPER1 gene (GDU1) leads to increased amino acid content and transport. In a screening for mutations suppressing this phenotype, a mutant was isolated. The mutation leads to a glycine to arginine substitution in one of the two conserved domains of the protein, the VIMAG domain. More detailed structure function relationship analyses showed that the presence of this domain and the membrane localisation are both necessary for the function of the GDU1 protein. These results shed light on the function of the GDU1 protein whose family is specific to plants.

  1. l-Glutamine and Whole Protein Restore First-Phase Insulin Response and Increase Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Chisholm, Don J.; Holst, Jens J.; Greenfield, Jerry R.

    2015-01-01

    l-glutamine triggers glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release from L cells in vitro and when ingested pre-meal, decreases postprandial glycaemia and increases circulating insulin and GLP-1 in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We aimed to evaluate the effect of oral l-glutamine, compared with whole protein low in glutamine, on insulin response in well-controlled T2D patients. In a randomized study with a crossover design, T2D patients (n = 10, 6 men) aged 65.1 ± 5.8, with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.6% ± 0.7% (48 ± 8 mmol/mol), received oral l-glutamine (25 g), protein (25 g) or water, followed by an intravenous glucose bolus (0.3 g/kg) and hyperglycemic glucose clamp for 2 h. Blood was frequently collected for analyses of glucose, serum insulin and plasma total and active GLP-1 and area under the curve of glucose, insulin, total and active GLP-1 excursions calculated. Treatments were tested 1–2 weeks apart. Both l-glutamine and protein increased first-phase insulin response (p ≤ 0.02). Protein (p = 0.05), but not l-glutamine (p = 0.2), increased second-phase insulin response. Total GLP-1 was increased by both l-glutamine and protein (p ≤ 0.02). We conclude that oral l-glutamine and whole protein are similarly effective in restoring first-phase insulin response in T2D patients. Larger studies are required to further investigate the utility of similar approaches in improving insulin response in diabetes. PMID:25811109

  2. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  3. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, Gisela K.

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  4. Actin binding proteins and spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Dolores D

    2011-01-01

    Drebrin E, an actin-binding protein lacking intrinsic activity in the regulation of actin dynamics (e.g., polymerization, capping, nucleation, branching, cross-linking, bundling and severing), is known to recruit actin regulatory proteins to a specific cellular site. Herein, we critically evaluate recent findings in the field which illustrate that drebrin E works together with two other actin-binding proteins, namely Arp3 (actin-related protein 3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex that simultaneously controls actin nucleation for polymerization and branching of actin filaments) and Eps8 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 that controls capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments, as well as actin filament bundling) to regulate the homeostasis of F-actin filament bundles at the ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific atypical adherens junction (AJ) in the seminiferous epithelium. This is mediated by the strict temporal and spatial expression of these three actin-binding proteins at the apical and basal ES at the Sertoli cell-spermatid (step 8–19) and Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface, respectively, during the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. In this Commentary, we put forth a possible model by which drebrin E may be acting as a platform upon which proteins (e.g., Arp3) that are needed to alter the conformation of actin filament bundles at the ES can be recruited to the site, thus facilitating changes in cell shape and cell position in the epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. In short, drebrin E may be acting as a “logistic” distribution center to manage different regulatory proteins at the apical ES, thereby regulating the dynamics of actin filament bundles and modulating the plasticity of the apical ES. This would allow adhesion to be altered continuously throughout the epithelial cycle to accommodate spermatid movement in the seminiferous epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. We also

  5. Transcription factor TnrA inhibits the biosynthetic activity of glutamine synthetase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Ksenia; Kayumov, Airat; Woyda, Kathrin; Ilinskaja, Olga; Forchhammer, Karl

    2013-05-02

    The Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase (GS) plays a dual role in cell metabolism by functioning as catalyst and regulator. GS catalyses the ATP-dependent synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonium. Under nitrogen-rich conditions, GS becomes feedback-inhibited by high intracellular glutamine levels and then binds transcription factors GlnR and TnrA, which control the genes of nitrogen assimilation. While GS-bound TnrA is no longer able to interact with DNA, GlnR-DNA binding is shown to be stimulated by GS complex formation. In this paper we show a new physiological feature of the interaction between glutamine synthetase and TnrA. The transcription factor TnrA inhibits the biosynthetic activity of glutamine synthetase in vivo and in vitro, while the GlnR protein does not affect the activity of the enzyme.

  6. Glutamine-induced protection of isolated rat heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and increased protein O-GlcNAc levels

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Marchase, Richard B.; Chatham, John C.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that glutamine protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury; however, the mechanisms underlying this protection have not been identfied. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) regulates the entry of glucose into the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and activation of this pathway has been shown to be cardioprotective. Glutamine is required for metabolism of glucose via GFAT; therefore, the goal of this study was to determine whether glutamine cardioprotection could be attributed to increased flux through the HBP and elevated levels of O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on proteins. Hearts from male rats were isolated and perfused with Krebs-Henseliet buffer containing 5mM glucose, and global, no-flow ischemia was induced for 20 minutes followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. 30 minute pre-treatment with 2.5 mM glutamine significantly improved functional recovery (RPP: 15.6±5.7% Vs. 59.4±6.1%; p<0.05) and decreased cardiac Troponin I release (25.4±3.0 Vs. 4.7±1.9; p<0.05) during reperfusion. This protection was associated with a significant increase in the levels of protein O-GlcNAc and ATP. Pre-treatment with 80 μM azaserine, an inhibitor of GFAT, completely reversed the protection seen with glutamine and prevented the increase in protein O-GlcNAc. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the formation of O-GlcNAc, and inhibition of OGT with 5mM alloxan also reversed the protection associated with glutamine. These data support the hypothesis that in the ex vivo perfused heart glutamine cardioprotection is due, at least in part, to enhanced flux through the HBP and increased protein O-GlcNAc levels. PMID:17069847

  7. Oxygen-binding haem proteins.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael T; Reeder, Brandon J

    2008-01-01

    Myoglobin and haemoglobin, the respiratory pigments of mammals and some molluscs, annelids and arthropods, belong to an ancient superfamily of haem-associated globin proteins. Members of this family share common structural and spectral features. They also share some general functional characteristics, such as the ability to bind ligands, e.g. O2, CO and NO, at the iron atom and to undergo redox changes. These properties are used in vivo to perform a wide range of biochemical and physiological roles. While it is acknowledged that the major role of haemoglobin is to bind oxygen reversibly and deliver it to the tissues, this is not its only function, while the often-stated role of myoglobin as an oxygen storage protein is possibly a misconception. Furthermore, haemoglobin and myoglobin express enzymic activities that are important to their function, e.g. NO dioxygenase activity or peroxidatic activity that may be partly responsible for pathophysiology following haemorrhage. Evidence for these functions is described, and the discussion extended to include proteins that have recently been discovered and that are expressed at low levels within the cell. These proteins are hexaco-ordinate, unlike haemoglobin and myoglobin, and are widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom (e.g. neuroglobins and cytoglobins). They may have specialist roles in oxygen delivery to particular sites within the cell but may also perform roles associated with O2 sensing and signalling and in responses to stress, e.g. protection from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Haemoglobins are also widespread in plants and bacteria and may serve similar protective functions.

  8. Oral glutamine enhances heat shock protein expression and improves survival following hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Kristen D; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2006-03-01

    No pharmacologic agent has shown benefit in treating heatstroke. Previous data indicate that enhanced heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) expression can improve survival postexperimental heatstroke. Glutamine (GLN) can enhance HSP-70 expression in other injury models. This study assessed if orally administered GLN could enhance tissue HSP expression and could improve survival following whole body hyperthermia. Intestinal permeability and plasma endotoxin were assayed to determine if enhanced HSP expression correlated with improved organ function. GLN (0.65 g/kg) or an iso-nitrogenous control (Travasol; T) was given to rats via gavage twice daily for 5 days pre-heatstroke. Hyperthermia was performed in anesthetized rats by heating animals to 42 degrees C (rectal temperature) for 30 min. HSP-70 analyzed via Western blot. Gut permeability was measured 6 and 24 h post-hyperthermia. Plasma endotoxin was measured 24 h post-hyperthermia. Survival was analyzed for 5 days post-hyperthermia. GLN administration enhanced gut and lung HSP-70 post-hyperthermia. GLN administration led to significantly enhanced gut heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) activation before heatstroke and at 1 h postheat stress. GLN decreased gut permeability at 6 and 24 h post-hyperthermia versus T. Plasma endotoxin also decreased in GLN-treated rats 24 h post-hyperthermia. Oral GLN therapy significantly improved survival (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that oral GLN can enhance tissue HSP-70 and HSF-1 activation post-hyperthermia. These results also indicate that enhanced HSP-70 may have functional significance as GLN-treated animals had decreased gut permeability, plasma endotoxin, and improve survival following lethal hyperthermia. Enhanced expression of HSP-70 may be an important mechanism leading to enhanced survival via GLN. These data indicate that oral GLN may useful in prevention of mortality from heatstroke in at risk populations.

  9. Engineering RNA-binding proteins for biology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Varani, Gabriele

    2013-08-01

    RNA-binding proteins play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. Many have modular structures and combine relatively few common domains in various arrangements to recognize RNA sequences and/or structures. Recent progress in engineering the specificity of the PUF class RNA-binding proteins has shown that RNA-binding domains may be combined with various effector or functional domains to regulate the metabolism of targeted RNAs. Designer RNA-binding proteins with tailored sequence specificity will provide valuable tools for biochemical research as well as potential therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss the suitability of various RNA-binding domains for engineering RNA-binding specificity, based on the structural basis for their recognition. We also compare various protein engineering and design methods applied to RNA-binding proteins, and discuss future applications of these proteins.

  10. The Cochaperone SGTA (Small Glutamine-rich Tetratricopeptide Repeat-containing Protein Alpha) Demonstrates Regulatory Specificity for the Androgen, Glucocorticoid, and Progesterone Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Atanu; Garcia, Yenni A.; Zierer, Bettina; Patwardhan, Chaitanya; Gutierrez, Omar; Hildenbrand, Zacariah; Harris, Diondra C.; Balsiger, Heather A.; Sivils, Jeffrey C.; Johnson, Jill L.; Buchner, Johannes; Chadli, Ahmed; Cox, Marc B.

    2014-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors that require the ordered assembly of multichaperone complexes for transcriptional activity. Although heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 are key players in this process, multiple Hsp70- and Hsp90-associated cochaperones associate with receptor-chaperone complexes to regulate receptor folding and activation. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) was recently characterized as an Hsp70 and Hsp90-associated cochaperone that specifically regulates androgen receptor activity. However, the specificity of SGTA for additional members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily and the mechanism by which SGTA regulates receptor activity remain unclear. Here we report that SGTA associates with and specifically regulates the androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors and has no effect on the mineralocorticoid and estrogen receptors in both yeast and mammalian cell-based reporter assays. In both systems, SGTA knockdown/deletion enhances receptor activity, whereas SGTA overexpression suppresses receptor activity. We demonstrate that SGTA binds directly to Hsp70 and Hsp90 in vitro with similar affinities yet predominately precipitates with Hsp70 from cell lysates, suggesting a role for SGTA in early, Hsp70-mediated folding. Furthermore, SGTA expression completely abrogates the regulation of receptor function by FKBP52 (52-kDa FK506-binding protein), which acts at a later stage of the chaperone cycle. Taken together, our data suggest a role for SGTA at distinct steps in the chaperone-dependent modulation of androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptor activity. PMID:24753260

  11. The cochaperone SGTA (small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha) demonstrates regulatory specificity for the androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Paul, Atanu; Garcia, Yenni A; Zierer, Bettina; Patwardhan, Chaitanya; Gutierrez, Omar; Hildenbrand, Zacariah; Harris, Diondra C; Balsiger, Heather A; Sivils, Jeffrey C; Johnson, Jill L; Buchner, Johannes; Chadli, Ahmed; Cox, Marc B

    2014-05-30

    Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors that require the ordered assembly of multichaperone complexes for transcriptional activity. Although heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 are key players in this process, multiple Hsp70- and Hsp90-associated cochaperones associate with receptor-chaperone complexes to regulate receptor folding and activation. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) was recently characterized as an Hsp70 and Hsp90-associated cochaperone that specifically regulates androgen receptor activity. However, the specificity of SGTA for additional members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily and the mechanism by which SGTA regulates receptor activity remain unclear. Here we report that SGTA associates with and specifically regulates the androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptors and has no effect on the mineralocorticoid and estrogen receptors in both yeast and mammalian cell-based reporter assays. In both systems, SGTA knockdown/deletion enhances receptor activity, whereas SGTA overexpression suppresses receptor activity. We demonstrate that SGTA binds directly to Hsp70 and Hsp90 in vitro with similar affinities yet predominately precipitates with Hsp70 from cell lysates, suggesting a role for SGTA in early, Hsp70-mediated folding. Furthermore, SGTA expression completely abrogates the regulation of receptor function by FKBP52 (52-kDa FK506-binding protein), which acts at a later stage of the chaperone cycle. Taken together, our data suggest a role for SGTA at distinct steps in the chaperone-dependent modulation of androgen, glucocorticoid, and progesterone receptor activity.

  12. Why are proteins with glutamine- and asparagine-rich regions associated with protein misfolding diseases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzeiro, Leonor

    2005-12-01

    The possibility that vibrational excited states (VESs) are the drivers of protein folding and function (the VES hypothesis) is explored to explain the reason why Gln- and Asn-rich proteins are associated with degenerative diseases. The Davydov/Scott model is extended to describe energy transfer from the water solution to the protein and vice versa. Computer simulations show that, on average, Gln and Asn residues lead to an initial larger absorption of energy from the environment to the protein, something that can explain the greater structural instability of prions. The sporadic, inherited and infectious character of prion diseases is discussed in the light of the VES hypothesis. An alternative treatment for prion diseases is suggested.

  13. Interacting protein partners of Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein AtRBP45b.

    PubMed

    Muthuramalingam, M; Wang, Y; Li, Y; Mahalingam, R

    2017-05-01

    RNA binding proteins, important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation, usually exist in ribonuclear complexes. However, even in model systems like Arabidopsis characterisation of RBP associated proteins is limited. In this study, we investigated the interacting proteins of the Arabidopsis AtRBP45b, which is involved in stress signalling. In vivo localisation of AtRBP45b was conducted using 35S-GFP. FLAG-tagged AtRBP45b under control of the 35S promoter in the Atrbp45b-1 mutant background was used to pull down AtRBP45b interacting proteins. Yeast two-hybrid analysis, fluorescence energy resonance transfer assays were used to confirm the veracity of the AtRBP45b interacting proteins. In planta GFP-tagging indicated AtRBP45b is localised to the nucleus and the cytosol. AtRBP45b protein has a N-terminal proline-rich region and a C-terminal glutamine-rich domain that are usually involved in protein-protein interactions. Co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing led to identification of 30 proteins that interacted with AtRBP45b. Using information from interactome databases (BIOGRID, INTACT and STRING), pull-down assays and localisation data, 12 putative interacting proteins were selected for yeast two-hybrid analysis. Cap-binding protein (CBP20, At5g44200) and polyA-binding protein (PAB8, At1g49760) were shown to interact with AtRBP45b. Based on its interacting partners we speculate that AtRBP45b may play an important role in RNA metabolism, especially in aspects related to mRNA stability and translation initiation during stress conditions in plants.

  14. Calcium-binding proteins and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckingham, K.; Lu, A. Q.; Andruss, B. F.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.

  15. Calcium-binding proteins and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckingham, K.; Lu, A. Q.; Andruss, B. F.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.

  16. Expression and clinical role of small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing protein alpha (SGTA) as a novel cell cycle protein in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qun; Lv, Liting; Wan, Chunhua; Chen, Buyou; Li, Mei; Ni, Tingting; Liu, Yifei; Liu, Yanhua; Cong, Xia; Zhou, Yiqun; Ni, Runzhou; Mao, Guoxin

    2013-09-01

    A small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) is a 35 kDa protein involved in a number of biological processes. However, the role of SGTA in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumorigenesis has never been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SGTA could serve as a biomarker for stratification and prediction of prognosis in NSCLC. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha expression was evaluated by Western blot in 8 paired fresh lung cancer tissues and immunohistochemistry on 83 paraffin-embedded sections. The effect of SGTA was assessed by RNA interference in A549 cells. Serum starvation and refeeding, flow cytometry, CCK-8, and tunnel assays were performed. Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha was highly expressed in NSCLC and significantly correlated with NSCLC histological differentiation, clinical stage, and Ki-67. Multivariate analysis indicated that SGTA was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patients' survival. The present investigation demonstrated that suppression of SGTA expression resulted in a significant decline of proliferation in A549 cells. Besides, SGTA could abolish the toxicity of cisplatin in A549 cells. These findings suggested that SGTA might play an important role in promoting the tumorigenesis of NSCLC, and thus be a promising therapeutic target to prevent NSCLC progression.

  17. Sp2 is the only glutamine-rich specificity protein with minor impact on development and differentiation in myelinating glia.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Amélie; Küspert, Melanie; Sock, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Sjaak; Suske, Guntram; Wegner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are the myelinating glia of the vertebrate nervous system and by generation of myelin sheaths allow rapid saltatory conduction. Previous in vitro work had pointed to a role of the zinc finger containing specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3 as major regulators of glial differentiation and myelination. Here, we asked whether such a role is also evident in vivo using mice with specific deletions of Sp1 or Sp3 in myelinating glia. We also studied glia-specific conditional Sp2- and constitutive Sp4-deficient mice to include all related glutamine-rich Sp factors into our analysis. Surprisingly, we did not detect developmental Schwann cell abnormalities in any of the mutant mice. Oligodendrocyte development and differentiation was also not fundamentally affected as oligodendrocytes were present in all mouse mutants and retained their ability to differentiate and initiate myelin gene expression. The most severe defect we observed was a 50% reduction in Mbp- and proteolipid protein 1 (Plp1)-positive differentiating oligodendrocytes in Sp2 mutants at birth. Unexpectedly, glial development appeared undisturbed even in the joint absence of Sp1 and Sp3. We conclude that Sp2 has a minor effect on the differentiation of myelinating glia, and that glutamine-rich Sp proteins are not essential regulators of the process.

  18. The SNF5 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a glutamine- and proline-rich transcriptional activator that affects expression of a broad spectrum of genes.

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, B C; Treitel, M A; Carlson, M

    1990-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF5 gene affects expression of both glucose- and phosphate-regulated genes and appears to function in transcription. We report the nucleotide sequence, which predicts that SNF5 encodes a 102,536-dalton protein. The N-terminal third of the protein is extremely rich in glutamine and proline. Mutants carrying a deletion of the coding sequence were viable but grew slowly, indicating that the SNF5 gene is important but not essential. Evidence that SNF5 affects expression of the cell type-specific genes MF alpha 1 and BAR1 at the RNA level extends the known range of SNF5 function. SNF5 is apparently required for expression of a wide variety of differently regulated genes. A bifunctional SNF5-beta-galactosidase fusion protein was localized in the nucleus by immunofluorescence. No DNA-binding activity was detected for SNF5. A LexA-SNF5 fusion protein, when bound to a lexA operator, functioned as a transcriptional activator. Images PMID:2233708

  19. Cloning and analysis of a constitutive heat shock (cognate) protein 70 gene inducible by L-glutamine.

    PubMed

    LéJohn, H B; Cameron, L E; Yang, B; MacBeath, G; Barker, D S; Williams, S A

    1994-02-11

    An intronless gene encoding a protein of 652 amino acid residues with an M(r) of 71,266, showing between 79% and 59% identity in nucleotide sequence with heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) genes of Bremia lactucae (a parasitic Oomycete of lettuce) and a wide range of organisms that include humans, was isolated from the nonparasitic Oomycete Achlya klebsiana. While the gene appears to be constitutively expressed, L-glutamine augmented its expression particularly under conditions of nutritional stress. L-Glutamine enhanced the transcription of a 2.4-kilobase poly(A)+ RNA simultaneously in the same way as it elevated the cellular level of the HSP 70-like protein. A polyclonal antibody (affinity-purified) raised in rabbit against the purified monomeric (M(r) 120,000) form of an NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (Yang, B., and LéJohn, H.B. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 4506-4512) immunoprecipitated the HSP 70-like protein, and it was used to study the kinetics of induction of this stress-related protein and the effect of proteinase inhibitors on its metabolism. By using as probes four partial length cDNA clones, nine overlapping DNA fragments of the organism's genome carrying the HSP 70-like protein gene were isolated from a genomic library. The nucleotide sequence of the gene, including its boundaries, was determined by using these genomic clones. The 5'-untranslated boundary of the gene displayed the classical nucleotide arrangement of heat shock elements as well as CCAAT and TATA box motifs. Within the coding region are the typical conserved amino acid heat shock protein signatures 1 and 2 at the predicted locations. By primer extension and S1 nuclease protection mapping system, we estimated that the gene is probably transcribed into a message of 2.2 kilobases.

  20. Quantitative proteomics reveals dynamic interaction of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) with RNA transport granule proteins splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (Sfpq) and non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (Nono) during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sury, Matthias D; McShane, Erik; Hernandez-Miranda, Luis Rodrigo; Birchmeier, Carmen; Selbach, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important mediator of physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system. Importantly, JNK not only is involved in neuronal cell death, but also plays a significant role in neuronal differentiation and regeneration. For example, nerve growth factor induces JNK-dependent neuronal differentiation in several model systems. The mechanism by which JNK mediates neuronal differentiation is not well understood. Here, we employed a proteomic strategy to better characterize the function of JNK during neuronal differentiation. We used SILAC-based quantitative proteomics to identify proteins that interact with JNK in PC12 cells in a nerve growth factor-dependent manner. Intriguingly, we found that JNK interacted with neuronal transport granule proteins such as Sfpq and Nono upon NGF treatment. We validated the specificity of these interactions by showing that they were disrupted by a specific peptide inhibitor that blocks the interaction of JNK with its substrates. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting experiments confirmed the interaction of JNK1 with Sfpq/Nono and demonstrated that it was RNA dependent. Confocal microscopy indicated that JNK1 associated with neuronal granule proteins in the cytosol of PC12 cells, primary cortical neurons, and P19 neuronal cells. Finally, siRNA experiments confirmed that Sfpq was necessary for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and that it most likely acted in the same pathway as JNK. In summary, our data indicate that the interaction of JNK1 with transport granule proteins in the cytosol of differentiating neurons plays an important role during neuronal development.

  1. Haptenation: Chemical Reactivity and Protein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Chipinda, Itai; Hettick, Justin M.; Siegel, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Low molecular weight chemical (LMW) allergens are commonly referred to as haptens. Haptens must complex with proteins to be recognized by the immune system. The majority of occupationally related haptens are reactive, electrophilic chemicals, or are metabolized to reactive metabolites that form covalent bonds with nucleophilic centers on proteins. Nonelectrophilic protein binding may occur through disulfide exchange, coordinate covalent binding onto metal ions on metalloproteins or of metal allergens, themselves, to the major histocompatibility complex. Recent chemical reactivity kinetic studies suggest that the rate of protein binding is a major determinant of allergenic potency; however, electrophilic strength does not seem to predict the ability of a hapten to skew the response between Th1 and Th2. Modern proteomic mass spectrometry methods that allow detailed delineation of potential differences in protein binding sites may be valuable in predicting if a chemical will stimulate an immediate or delayed hypersensitivity. Chemical aspects related to both reactivity and protein-specific binding are discussed. PMID:21785613

  2. An Inhibitor of Exported Mycobacterium tuberculosis Glutamine Synthetase Selectively Blocks the Growth of Pathogenic Mycobacteria in Axenic Culture and in Human Monocytes: Extracellular Proteins as Potential Novel Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Harth, Günter; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    1999-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogenic mycobacteria export abundant quantities of proteins into their extracellular milieu when growing either axenically or within phagosomes of host cells. One major extracellular protein, the enzyme glutamine synthetase, is of particular interest because of its link to pathogenicity. Pathogenic mycobacteria, but not nonpathogenic mycobacteria, export large amounts of this protein. Interestingly, export of the enzyme is associated with the presence of a poly-l-glutamate/glutamine structure in the mycobacterial cell wall. In this study, we investigated the influence of glutamine synthetase inhibitors on the growth of pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria and on the poly-l-glutamate/glutamine cell wall structure. The inhibitor l-methionine-S-sulfoximine rapidly inactivated purified M. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase, which was 100-fold more sensitive to this inhibitor than a representative mammalian glutamine synthetase. Added to cultures of pathogenic mycobacteria, l-methionine- S-sulfoximine rapidly inhibited extracellular glutamine synthetase in a concentration-dependent manner but had only a minimal effect on cellular glutamine synthetase, a finding consistent with failure of the drug to cross the mycobacterial cell wall. Remarkably, the inhibitor selectively blocked the growth of pathogenic mycobacteria, all of which release glutamine synthetase extracellularly, but had no effect on nonpathogenic mycobacteria or nonmycobacterial microorganisms, none of which release glutamine synthetase extracellularly. The inhibitor was also bacteriostatic for M. tuberculosis in human mononuclear phagocytes (THP-1 cells), the pathogen's primary host cells. Paralleling and perhaps underlying its bacteriostatic effect, the inhibitor markedly reduced the amount of poly-l-glutamate/glutamine cell wall structure in M. tuberculosis. Although it is possible that glutamine synthetase inhibitors interact with additional extracellular

  3. Bacillus subtilis GlnR contains an autoinhibitory C-terminal domain required for the interaction with glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wray, Lewis V; Fisher, Susan H

    2008-04-01

    The Bacillus subtilis GlnR transcription factor regulates gene expression in response to changes in nitrogen availability. Glutamine synthetase transmits the nitrogen regulatory signal to GlnR. The DNA-binding activity of GlnR is activated by a transient protein-protein interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase that stabilizes GlnR-DNA complexes. This signal transduction mechanism was analysed by creating mutant GlnR proteins with partial or complete truncations of their C-terminal domains. The truncated GlnR proteins were found to constitutively repress gene expression in vivo. This constitutive repression did not require glutamine synthetase. Purified mutant GlnR proteins bound DNA in vitro more tightly than wild-type GlnR protein and this binding was not activated by feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. While full-length GlnR is monomeric, the truncated GlnR proteins contained significant levels of dimers. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of GlnR acts as an autoinhibitory domain that prevents GlnR dimerization and thus impedes DNA binding. The GlnR C-terminal domain is also required for the interaction between GlnR and feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. Compared with the full-length GlnR protein, the truncated GlnR proteins were defective in their interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase in cross-linking experiments.

  4. Monobodies and other synthetic binding proteins for expanding protein science.

    PubMed

    Sha, Fern; Salzman, Gabriel; Gupta, Ankit; Koide, Shohei

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic binding proteins are constructed using nonantibody molecular scaffolds. Over the last two decades, in-depth structural and functional analyses of synthetic binding proteins have improved combinatorial library designs and selection strategies, which have resulted in potent platforms that consistently generate binding proteins to diverse targets with affinity and specificity that rival those of antibodies. Favorable attributes of synthetic binding proteins, such as small size, freedom from disulfide bond formation and ease of making fusion proteins, have enabled their unique applications in protein science, cell biology and beyond. Here, we review recent studies that illustrate how synthetic binding proteins are powerful probes that can directly link structure and function, often leading to new mechanistic insights. We propose that synthetic proteins will become powerful standard tools in diverse areas of protein science, biotechnology and medicine.

  5. Conformational Dynamics of the Receptor Protein Galactose/Glucose Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Troy; Talaga, David

    2006-03-01

    We have performed time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) anisotropy and Stokes Shift measurements on bulk solutions of galactose/glucose binding protein. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to provide a single cysteine amino acid near the sugar-binding center of the protein (glutamine 26 to cysteine -- Q26C). The cysteine was covalently labeled with the environmentally-sensitive fluorophore acrylodan, and a long-lived ruthenium complex was covalently attached to the N-terminus to provide a fluorescent reference. The TCSPC data were analyzed using global convolute-and-compare fitting routines over the entire glucose titration and temperature range to provide minimal reduced chi-squared values and the highest time resolution possible. Using a standard ligand-binding model, the resulting distributions show that the closed (ligand-bound) conformation exists even at zero glucose concentration. At 20^oC, the relative abundance of this conformation is as high as 40%. The temperature dependence of this conformational study will be discussed and related to the ligand-binding free energy surface.

  6. Diagnostic utility and limitations of glutamine synthetase and serum amyloid-associated protein immunohistochemistry in the distinction of focal nodular hyperplasia and inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Nancy M; Ferrell, Linda D; Jain, Dhanpat; Torbenson, Michael S; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Yeh, Matthew M; Kakar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma can show overlapping histological features with focal nodular hyperplasia, including inflammation, fibrous stroma, and ductular reaction. Expression of serum amyloid-associated protein in inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma and map-like pattern of glutamine synthetase in focal nodular hyperplasia can be helpful in this distinction, but the pitfalls and limitations of these markers have not been established. Morphology and immunohistochemistry were analyzed in 54 inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas, 40 focal nodular hyperplasia, and 3 indeterminate lesions. Morphological analysis demonstrated that nodularity, fibrous stroma, dystrophic blood vessels, and ductular reaction were more common in focal nodular hyperplasia, while telangiectasia, hemorrhage, and steatosis were more common in inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma, but there was frequent overlap of morphological features. The majority of inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas demonstrated perivascular and/or patchy glutamine synthetase staining (73.6%), while the remaining cases had diffuse (7.5%), negative (3.8%), or patchy pattern of staining (15%) that showed subtle differences from the classic map-like staining pattern and was designated as pseudo map-like staining. Positive staining for serum amyloid-associated protein was seen in the majority of inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas (92.6%) and in the minority of focal nodular hyperplasia (17.5%). The glutamine synthetase staining pattern was map-like in 90% of focal nodular hyperplasia cases, with the remaining 10% of cases showing pseudo map-like staining. Three cases were labeled as indeterminate and showed focal nodular hyperplasia-like morphology but lacked map-like glutamine synthetase staining pattern; these cases demonstrated a patchy pseudo map-like glutamine synthetase pattern along with the expression of serum amyloid-associated protein. Our results highlight the diagnostic errors that can be caused by variant

  7. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%–8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein–RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein–RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions. PMID:26540053

  8. Regionally specific distribution of the binding of anti-glutamine synthetase and anti-S100 antibodies and of Datura stramonium lectin in glial domains of the optic lobe of the giant prawn.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Silvana; Bressan, Cristine M; Carvalho, Sergio L; Cavalcante, Leny A

    2006-04-15

    We previously characterized some crustacean glial cells by markers such as 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Here we use antibodies against glutamine synthetase full-length molecule (anti-GS/FL), a GS C-terminal peptide (anti-GS/20aa-C), and brain S100 (anti-S100), as well as the binding of the insect glia and rat astrocytic marker Datura stramonium lectin (DSL), in the optic lobe of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. All markers label the lamina ganglionaris cartridge region (lighter: anti-GS/FL; heavier: DSL). In addition, anti-GS/FL labels superficial somata of external and internal medullas and internal chiasm cells. Both anti-GS/20aa-C and anti-S100 label heavily the glial sheaths of the lamina ganglionaris. In addition, anti-S100 binds to the perineurial glia of medullary parenchymal vessels. Western blot analyses show that both anti-GS/FL and anti-GS/20aa-C bind mostly to a band of 50-55 kDa, compatible with a long isoform of vertebrate GS, and accessorily to a possible dimer and, in the case of anti-GS/20aa-C, to an ill-defined band of intermediate mass. Binding of anti-S100 is selective for a single band of about 68 kDa but shows no protein in the weight range of the canonical S100 protein superfamily. DSL reveals two bands of about 75 and about 120 kDa, thus within the range of maximal recognition for rat astrocytes. Our results suggest that phenotype protein markers of the optic lobe glia share antigenic determinants with S100 and (a long form of) GS and that, similarly to vertebrate and insect glia, crustacean glia protein and N-glycan residue markers display regional heterogeneity.

  9. Mercury-binding proteins of Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Roesijadi, G.; Morris, J. E.; Calabrese, A.

    1981-11-01

    Mytilus edulis possesses low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins. The predominant protein isolated from gill tissue is enriched in cysteinyl residues (8%) and possesses an amino acid composition similar to cadmium-binding proteins of mussels and oysters. Continuous exposure of mussels to 5 ..mu..g/l mercury results in spillover of mercury from these proteins to high molecular weight proteins. Antibodies to these proteins have been isolated, and development of immunoassays is presently underway. Preliminary studies to determine whether exposure of adult mussels to mercury will result in induction of mercury-binding proteins in offspring suggest that such proteins occur in larvae although additional studies are indicated for a conclusive demonstration.

  10. Functions of Intracellular Retinoid Binding-Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Multiple binding and transport proteins facilitate many aspects of retinoid biology through effects on retinoid transport, cellular uptake, metabolism, and nuclear delivery. These include the serum retinol binding protein sRBP (aka Rbp4), the plasma membrane sRBP receptor Stra6, and the intracellular retinoid binding-proteins such as cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBP) and cellular retinoic acid binding-proteins (CRABP). sRBP transports the highly lipophilic retinol through an aqueous medium. The major intracellular retinol-binding protein, CRBP1, likely enhances efficient retinoid use by providing a sink to facilitate retinol uptake from sRBP through the plasma membrane or via Stra6, delivering retinol or retinal to select enzymes that generate retinyl esters or retinoic acid, and protecting retinol/retinal from excess catabolism or opportunistic metabolism. Intracellular retinoic acid binding-proteins (CRABP1 and 2, and FABP5) seem to have more diverse functions distinctive to each, such as directing retinoic acid to catabolism, delivering retinoic acid to specific nuclear receptors, and generating non-canonical actions. Gene ablation of intracellular retinoid binding-proteins does not cause embryonic lethality or gross morphological defects. Metabolic and functional defects manifested in knockouts of CRBP1, CRBP2 and CRBP3, however, illustrate their essentiality to health, and in the case of CRBP2, to survival during limited dietary vitamin A. Future studies should continue to address the specific molecular interactions that occur between retinoid binding-proteins and their targets and their precise physiologic contributions to retinoid homeostasis and function. PMID:27830500

  11. Protein-protein interactions: scoring schemes and binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M Michael; Yugandhar, K; Jemimah, Sherlyn

    2017-06-01

    Protein-protein interactions mediate several cellular functions, which can be understood from the information obtained using the three-dimensional structures of protein-protein complexes and binding affinity data. This review focuses on computational aspects of predicting the best native-like complex structure and binding affinities. The first part covers the prediction of protein-protein complex structures and the advantages of conformational searching and scoring functions in protein-protein docking. The second part is devoted to various aspects of protein-protein interaction thermodynamics, such as databases for binding affinities and other thermodynamic parameters, computational methods to predict the binding affinity using either the three-dimensional structures of complexes or amino acid sequences, and change in binding affinities of the complexes upon mutations. We provide the latest developments on protein-protein docking and binding affinity studies along with a list of available computational resources for understanding protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure and Function of Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Ralf R.; Leong, Steven R.; Flaggs, Gail W.; Gray, Patrick W.; Wright, Samuel D.; Mathison, John C.; Tobias, Peter S.; Ulevitch, Richard J.

    1990-09-01

    The primary structure of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), a trace plasma protein that binds to the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), was deduced by sequencing cloned complementary DNA. LBP shares sequence identity with another LPS binding protein found in granulocytes, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and with cholesterol ester transport protein of the plasma. LBP may control the response to LPS under physiologic conditions by forming high-affinity complexes with LPS that bind to monocytes and macrophages, which then secrete tumor necrosis factor. The identification of this pathway for LPS-induced monocyte stimulation may aid in the development of treatments for diseases in which Gram-negative sepsis or endotoxemia are involved.

  13. Immunochemical characterization of the brain glutamate binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.

    1986-01-01

    A glutamate binding protein (GBP) was purified from bovine and rat brain to near homogeneity. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against this protein. An enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was used to quantify and determine the specificity of the antibody response. The antibodies were shown to strongly react with bovine brain GBP and the analogous protein from rat brain. The antibodies did not show any crossreactivity with the glutamate metabolizing enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamyl transpeptidase, however it crossreacted moderately with glutamate decarboxylase. The antibodies were also used to define the possible physiologic activity of GBP in synaptic membranes. The antibodies were shown: (i) to inhibit the excitatory amino-acid stimulation of thiocyanate (SCN)flux, (ii) had no effect on transport of L-Glutamic acid across the synaptic membrane, and (iii) had no effect on the depolarization-induced release of L-glutamate. When the anti-GBP antibodies were used to localize and quantify the GBP distribution in various subcellular fractions and in brain tissue samples, it was found that the hippocampus had the highest immunoreactivity followed by the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and caudate-putamen. The distribution of immunoreactivity in the subcellular fraction were as follows: synaptic membranes > crude mitochondrial fraction > homogenate > myelin. In conclusion these studies suggest that: (a) the rat brain GBP and the bovine brain GBP are immunologically homologous protein, (b) there are no structural similarities between the GBP and the glutamate metabolizing enzymes with the exception of glutamate decarboxylase and (c) the subcellular and regional distribution of the GBP immunoreactivity followed a similar pattern as observed for L-(/sup 3/H)-binding.

  14. SVOP Is a Nucleotide Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia; Bajjalieh, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) and SV2-related protein (SVOP) are transporter-like proteins that localize to neurotransmitter-containing vesicles. Both proteins share structural similarity with the major facilitator (MF) family of small molecule transporters. We recently reported that SV2 binds nucleotides, a feature that has also been reported for another MF family member, the human glucose transporter 1 (Glut1). In the case of Glut1, nucleotide binding affects transport activity. In this study, we determined if SVOP also binds nucleotides and assessed its nucleotide binding properties. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed in vitro photoaffinity labeling experiments with the photoreactive ATP analogue, 8-azido-ATP[γ] biotin and purified recombinant SVOP-FLAG fusion protein. We found that SVOP is a nucleotide-binding protein, although both its substrate specificity and binding site differ from that of SV2. Within the nucleotides tested, ATP, GTP and NAD show same level of inhibition on SVOP-FLAG labeling. Dose dependent studies indicated that SVOP demonstrates the highest affinity for NAD, in contrast to SV2, which binds both NAD and ATP with equal affinity. Mapping of the binding site revealed a single region spanning transmembrane domains 9–12, which contrasts to the two binding sites in the large cytoplasmic domains in SV2A. Conclusions/Significance SVOP is the third MF family member to be found to bind nucleotides. Given that the binding sites are unique in SVOP, SV2 and Glut1, this feature appears to have arisen separately. PMID:19390693

  15. THE BINDING OF MYOGLOBIN BY PLASMA PROTEIN

    PubMed Central

    Lathem, Willoughby

    1960-01-01

    When added to dog plasma in vitro and in vivo, myoglobin was bound to plasma protein in a concentration which, maximally, averaged 21 ± 6 mg. per cent. Electrophoretically, bound myoglobin was separated from free myoglobin and migrated between alpha-2 and beta globulin. The electrophoretic characteristics of protein-bound myoglobin were similar to, although not identical with, those of protein-bound hemoglobin. The maximal binding capacity of plasma for myoglobin was less than for hemoglobin, which averaged 123 mg. per cent. At concentrations below the maximal binding capacity, from 15 to 50 per cent of the myoglobin was in the free, unbound state, differing from hemoglobin which was completely bound at all concentrations below the binding capacity. When myoglobin and hemoglobin were added together to plasma, hemoglobin appeared to interfere with the binding of myoglobin or to replace it at the binding sites. Myoglobin, however, did not appear to interfere with the binding of hemoglobin. These observations suggested that myoglobin and hemoglobin were bound at least in part by the same protein. When myoglobin was given intravenously, free myoglobin was excreted in the urine, whereas protein-bound myoglobin was not excreted. This suggests that protein-binding contributes to or determines the apparent renal threshold to myoglobin. PMID:14414439

  16. Clinical role of protein binding of quinolones.

    PubMed

    Bergogne-Bérézin, Eugénie

    2002-01-01

    Protein binding of antibacterials in plasma and tissues has long been considered a component of their pharmacokinetic parameters, playing a potential role in distribution, excretion and therapeutic effectiveness. Since the beginning of the 'antibacterial era', this factor has been extensively analysed for all antibacterial classes, showing that wide variations of the degree of protein binding occur even in the same antibacterial class, as with beta-lactams. As the understanding of protein binding grew, the complexity of the binding system was increasingly perceived and its dynamic character described. Studies of protein binding of the fluoroquinolones have shown that the great majority of these drugs exhibit low protein binding, ranging from approximately 20 to 40% in plasma, and that they are bound predominantly to albumin. The potential role in pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of binding of fluoroquinolones to plasma, tissue and intracellular proteins has been analysed, but it has not been established that protein binding has any significant direct or indirect impact on therapeutic effectiveness. Regarding the factors influencing the tissue distribution of antibacterials, physicochemical characteristics and the small molecular size of fluoroquinolones permit a rapid penetration into extravascular sites and intracellularly, with a rapid equilibrium being established between intravascular and extravascular compartments. The high concentrations of these drugs achieved in tissues, body fluids and intracellularly, in addition to their wide antibacterial spectrum, mean that fluoroquinolones have therapeutic effectiveness in a large variety of infections. The tolerability of quinolones has generally been reported as good, based upon long experience in using pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in clinical practice. Among more recently developed molecules, good tolerability has been reported for levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, but certain other new

  17. A DNA-binding protein from Candida albicans that binds to the RPG box of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the telomeric repeat sequence of C. albicans.

    PubMed

    Ishii, N; Yamamoto, M; Lahm, H W; Iizumi, S; Yoshihara, F; Nakayama, H; Arisawa, M; Aoki, Y

    1997-02-01

    Electromobility shift assays with a DNA probe containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ENO1 RPG box identified a specific DNA-binding protein in total protein extracts of Candida albicans. The protein, named Rbf1p (RPG-box-binding protein 1), bound to other S. cerevisiae RPG boxes, although the nucleotide recognition profile was not completely the same as that of S. cerevisiae Rap 1p (repressor-activator protein 1), an RPG-box-binding protein. The repetitive sequence of the C. albicans chromosomal telomere also competed with RPG-box binding to Rbf1p. For further analysis, we purified Rbf1p 57,600-fold from C. albicans total protein extracts, raised mAbs against the purified protein and immunologically cloned the gene, whose ORF specified a protein of 527 aa. The bacterially expressed protein showed RPG-box-binding activity with the same profile as that of the purified one. The Rbf1p, containing two glutamine-rich regions that are found in many transcription factors, showed transcriptional activation capability in S. cerevisiae and was predominantly observed in nuclei. These results suggest that Rbf1p is a transcription factor with telomere-binding activity in C. albicans.

  18. Glutamine induces heat-shock protein-70 and glutathione expression and attenuates ischemic damage in rat islets.

    PubMed

    Jang, H J; Kwak, J H; Cho, E Y; We, Y M; Lee, Y H; Kim, S C; Han, D J

    2008-10-01

    The transplantation of isolated islets is believed to be an attractive approach for cure of diabetes mellitus. Heat-shock protein (HSP70), which plays a vital role in cellular protection, has been detected in various tissues subjected to stress. Glutamine (GLN) is an important cellular fuel and an essential precursor for the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). It is believed to enhance cellular survival against a variety of stressful stimuli through HSP70. Thus, we performed this study to examine the hypothesis that preoperative GLN administration induces HSP70 and GSH expression before islet transplantation attenuating ischemic damage to rat islets. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups according to the administration of GLN after islet isolation. Group A served as the controls, receiving no GLN. Group B islet cells were cultured with L-GLN (10 mmol/L) supplementation for 24 hours. The GSH levels were measured in islet cells. Both HSP70 and proteins related to apoptosis were analyzed in islet cells by Western blots. Isolated rat islets were cultured with interleukin (IL)-1beta. Nitrite production was measured using the Griess reagent. The GSH levels were significantly elevated in the glutamine-treated group. HSP70 expression in islets treated with GLN was markedly stronger compared with the control group. The basal Bcl-2 expression was markedly increased by GLN treatment. The GLN-treated group showed attenuated IL-1beta-induced injury in association with NO production. These results suggested that preoperative GLN administration induced HSP70 and GSH expressions before islet transplantation, thus attenuating IL-1beta-induced injury in association with NO production and apoptosis, which might be potential tool to mitigate the ischemic damage to islet cells and the early inflammation at the site of implantation through a self-protective mechanism.

  19. Surface-Based Protein Binding Pocket Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E.; Jain, Ajay N.

    2011-01-01

    Protein similarity comparisons may be made on a local or global basis and may consider sequence information or differing levels of structural information. We present a local 3D method that compares protein binding site surfaces in full atomic detail. The approach is based on the morphological similarity method which has been widely applied for global comparison of small molecules. We apply the method to all-by-all comparisons two sets of human protein kinases, a very diverse set of ATP-bound proteins from multiple species, and three heterogeneous benchmark protein binding site data sets. Cases of disagreement between sequence-based similarity and binding site similarity yield informative examples. Where sequence similarity is very low, high pocket similarity can reliably identify important binding motifs. Where sequence similarity is very high, significant differences in pocket similarity are related to ligand binding specificity and similarity. Local protein binding pocket similarity provides qualitatively complementary information to other approaches, and it can yield quantitative information in support of functional annotation. PMID:21769944

  20. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia.

  1. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Shah, Viral S.; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Welsh, Michael J.; Randak, Christoph O.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5′-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl− channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  2. Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes.

    PubMed

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    TWO MAIN FAMILIES OF LIPID BINDING PROTEINS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED IN PARASITIC PLATYHELMINTHES: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment.

  3. Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes

    PubMed Central

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Two main families of lipid binding proteins have been identified in parasitic Platyhelminthes: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment. PMID:22988444

  4. The binding domain structure of retinoblastoma-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Figge, J.; Breese, K.; Vajda, S.; Zhu, Q. L.; Eisele, L.; Andersen, T. T.; MacColl, R.; Friedrich, T.; Smith, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (Rb), a cellular growth suppressor, complexes with viral and cellular proteins that contain a specific binding domain incorporating three invariant residues: Leu-X-Cys-X-Glu, where X denotes a nonconserved residue. Hydrophobic and electrostatic properties are strongly conserved in this segment even though the nonconserved amino acids vary considerably from one Rb-binding protein to another. In this report, we present a diagnostic computer pattern for a high-affinity Rb-binding domain featuring the three conserved residues as well as the conserved physico-chemical properties. Although the pattern encompasses only 10 residues (with only 4 of these explicitly defined), it exhibits 100% sensitivity and 99.95% specificity in database searches. This implies that a certain pattern of structural and physico-chemical properties encoded by this short sequence is sufficient to govern specific Rb binding. We also present evidence that the secondary structural conformation through this region is important for effective Rb binding. PMID:8382993

  5. Folding funnels, binding funnels, and protein function.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C. J.; Kumar, S.; Ma, B.; Nussinov, R.

    1999-01-01

    Folding funnels have been the focus of considerable attention during the last few years. These have mostly been discussed in the general context of the theory of protein folding. Here we extend the utility of the concept of folding funnels, relating them to biological mechanisms and function. In particular, here we describe the shape of the funnels in light of protein synthesis and folding; flexibility, conformational diversity, and binding mechanisms; and the associated binding funnels, illustrating the multiple routes and the range of complexed conformers. Specifically, the walls of the folding funnels, their crevices, and bumps are related to the complexity of protein folding, and hence to sequential vs. nonsequential folding. Whereas the former is more frequently observed in eukaryotic proteins, where the rate of protein synthesis is slower, the latter is more frequent in prokaryotes, with faster translation rates. The bottoms of the funnels reflect the extent of the flexibility of the proteins. Rugged floors imply a range of conformational isomers, which may be close on the energy landscape. Rather than undergoing an induced fit binding mechanism, the conformational ensembles around the rugged bottoms argue that the conformers, which are most complementary to the ligand, will bind to it with the equilibrium shifting in their favor. Furthermore, depending on the extent of the ruggedness, or of the smoothness with only a few minima, we may infer nonspecific, broad range vs. specific binding. In particular, folding and binding are similar processes, with similar underlying principles. Hence, the shape of the folding funnel of the monomer enables making reasonable guesses regarding the shape of the corresponding binding funnel. Proteins having a broad range of binding, such as proteolytic enzymes or relatively nonspecific endonucleases, may be expected to have not only rugged floors in their folding funnels, but their binding funnels will also behave similarly

  6. Facilitated diffusion of DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Klenin, Konstantin V; Merlitz, Holger; Langowski, Jörg; Wu, Chen-Xu

    2006-01-13

    The diffusion-controlled limit of reaction times for site-specific DNA-binding proteins is derived from first principles. We follow the generally accepted concept that a protein propagates via two competitive modes, a three-dimensional diffusion in space and a one-dimensional sliding along the DNA. However, our theoretical treatment of the problem is new. The accuracy of our analytical model is verified by numerical simulations. The results confirm that the unspecific binding of protein to DNA, combined with sliding, is capable to reduce the reaction times significantly.

  7. Drug protein binding and the nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gugler, R; Azarnoff, D L

    1976-01-01

    A reduction in plasma albumin concentration, as seen in patients with the nephrotic syndrome, is usually associated with a decrease in plasma protein binding of highly bound drugs. Therefore, the fraction of the unbound drug increases, but the absolute free concentration remains essentially unchanged due to a compensatory reduction in the steady state total plasma concentration. With phenytoin, protein binding and plasma albumin concentration are closely related, so that the degree of binding can be estimated without specific binding techniques. To be able to correctly interprete plasma levels the degree of protein binding should be known, since a reduced total concentration may be fully effective, if the free drug fraction is increased in hypoalbuminaemic patients. Although the mean steady state plasma concentration of highly bound drugs is not affected in the nephrotic syndrome, a greater fluctuation of the unbound level is observed between doses, offering a possible explanation for the increased incidence of toxicity in hypoalbuminaemic patients. As a consequence, shorter dosing intervals of these drugs seems to be advisable, rather than a reduction in the total daily dose. Reduced protein binding is accompanied by an increase in the total plasma clearance which is a function of the elimination rate constant and the volume of distribution.

  8. Computational search for aflatoxin binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Aflatoxin is one of the mycotoxins that contaminate various food products. Among various aflatoxin types (B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1), aflatoxin B1 is the most important and the most toxic one. In this study, through computational screening, we found that several proteins may bind specifically with different type of aflatoxins. Combination of theoretical methods including target fishing, molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, MM/PBSA calculation were utilized to search for new aflatoxin B1 binding proteins. A recently developed method for calculating entropic contribution to binding free energy called interaction entropy (IE) was employed to compute the binding free energy between the protein and aflatoxin B1. Through comprehensive comparison, three proteins, namely, trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, GSK-3b, and Pim-1 were eventually selected as potent aflatoxin B1 binding proteins. GSK-3b and Pim-1 are drug targets of cancers or neurological diseases. GSK-3b is the strongest binder for aflatoxin B1.

  9. Phosphate binding sites identification in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Parca, Luca; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ausiello, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Nearly half of known protein structures interact with phosphate-containing ligands, such as nucleotides and other cofactors. Many methods have been developed for the identification of metal ions-binding sites and some for bigger ligands such as carbohydrates, but none is yet available for the prediction of phosphate-binding sites. Here we describe Pfinder, a method that predicts binding sites for phosphate groups, both in the form of ions or as parts of other non-peptide ligands, in proteins of known structure. Pfinder uses the Query3D local structural comparison algorithm to scan a protein structure for the presence of a number of structural motifs identified for their ability to bind the phosphate chemical group. Pfinder has been tested on a data set of 52 proteins for which both the apo and holo forms were available. We obtained at least one correct prediction in 63% of the holo structures and in 62% of the apo. The ability of Pfinder to recognize a phosphate-binding site in unbound protein structures makes it an ideal tool for functional annotation and for complementing docking and drug design methods. The Pfinder program is available at http://pdbfun.uniroma2.it/pfinder. PMID:20974634

  10. Comparative genomics and evolution of the amylase-binding proteins of oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Haase, Elaine M; Kou, Yurong; Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lan, Tianying; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2017-04-20

    Successful commensal bacteria have evolved to maintain colonization in challenging environments. The oral viridans streptococci are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque biofilm. Some of these bacteria have adapted to life in the oral cavity by binding salivary α-amylase, which hydrolyzes dietary starch, thus providing a source of nutrition. Oral streptococcal species bind α-amylase by expressing a variety of amylase-binding proteins (ABPs). Here we determine the genotypic basis of amylase binding where proteins of diverse size and function share a common phenotype. ABPs were detected in culture supernatants of 27 of 59 strains representing 13 oral Streptococcus species screened using the amylase-ligand binding assay. N-terminal sequences from ABPs of diverse size were obtained from 18 strains representing six oral streptococcal species. Genome sequencing and BLAST searches using N-terminal sequences, protein size, and key words identified the gene associated with each ABP. Among the sequenced ABPs, 14 matched amylase-binding protein A (AbpA), 6 matched amylase-binding protein B (AbpB), and 11 unique ABPs were identified as peptidoglycan-binding, glutamine ABC-type transporter, hypothetical, or choline-binding proteins. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses performed to ascertain evolutionary relationships revealed that ABPs cluster into at least six distinct, unrelated families (AbpA, AbpB, and four novel ABPs) with no phylogenetic evidence that one group evolved from another, and no single ancestral gene found within each group. AbpA-like sequences can be divided into five subgroups based on the N-terminal sequences. Comparative genomics focusing on the abpA gene locus provides evidence of horizontal gene transfer. The acquisition of an ABP by oral streptococci provides an interesting example of adaptive evolution.

  11. Predicting Ca(2+)-binding sites in proteins.

    PubMed

    Nayal, M; Di Cera, E

    1994-01-18

    The coordination shell of Ca2+ ions in proteins contains almost exclusively oxygen atoms supported by an outer shell of carbon atoms. The bond-strength contribution of each ligating oxygen in the inner shell can be evaluated by using an empirical expression successfully applied in the analysis of crystals of metal oxides. The sum of such contributions closely approximates the valence of the bound cation. When a protein is embedded in a very fine grid of points and an algorithm is used to calculate the valence of each point representing a potential Ca(2+)-binding site, a typical distribution of valence values peaked around 0.4 is obtained. In 32 documented Ca(2+)-binding proteins, containing a total of 62 Ca(2+)-binding sites, a very small fraction of points in the distribution has a valence close to that of Ca2+. Only 0.06% of the points have a valence > or = 1.4. These points share the remarkable tendency to cluster around documented Ca2+ ions. A high enough value of the valence is both necessary (58 out of 62 Ca(2+)-binding sites have a valence > or = 1.4) and sufficient (87% of the grid points with a valence > or = 1.4 are within 1.0 A from a documented Ca2+ ion) to predict the location of bound Ca2+ ions. The algorithm can also be used for the analysis of other cations and predicts the location of Mg(2+)- and Na(+)-binding sites in a number of proteins. The valence is, therefore, a tool of pinpoint accuracy for locating cation-binding sites, which can also be exploited in engineering high-affinity binding sites and characterizing the linkage between structural components and functional energetics for molecular recognition of metal ions by proteins.

  12. Aspects of Protein, Chemistry, Part II: Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Compares differences in function and behavior of two oxygen-binding proteins, myoglobin found in muscle and hemoglobin found in blood. Describes the mechanism of oxygen-binding and allosteric effect in hemoglobin; also describes the effect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (CS)

  13. Aspects of Protein, Chemistry, Part II: Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Compares differences in function and behavior of two oxygen-binding proteins, myoglobin found in muscle and hemoglobin found in blood. Describes the mechanism of oxygen-binding and allosteric effect in hemoglobin; also describes the effect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (CS)

  14. Small Glutamine-Rich Tetratricopeptide Repeat-Containing Protein Alpha (SGTA) Ablation Limits Offspring Viability and Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Philp, Lisa K.; Day, Tanya K.; Butler, Miriam S.; Laven-Law, Geraldine; Jindal, Shalini; Hickey, Theresa E.; Scher, Howard I.; Butler, Lisa M.; Tilley, Wayne D.

    2016-01-01

    Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA) has been implicated as a co-chaperone and regulator of androgen and growth hormone receptor (AR, GHR) signalling. We investigated the functional consequences of partial and full Sgta ablation in vivo using Cre-lox Sgta-null mice. Sgta+/− breeders generated viable Sgta−/− offspring, but at less than Mendelian expectancy. Sgta−/− breeders were subfertile with small litters and higher neonatal death (P < 0.02). Body size was significantly and proportionately smaller in male and female Sgta−/− (vs WT, Sgta+/− P < 0.001) from d19. Serum IGF-1 levels were genotype- and sex-dependent. Food intake, muscle and bone mass and adiposity were unchanged in Sgta−/−. Vital and sex organs had normal relative weight, morphology and histology, although certain androgen-sensitive measures such as penis and preputial size, and testis descent, were greater in Sgta−/−. Expression of AR and its targets remained largely unchanged, although AR localisation was genotype- and tissue-dependent. Generally expression of other TPR-containing proteins was unchanged. In conclusion, this thorough investigation of SGTA-null mutation reports a mild phenotype of reduced body size. The model’s full potential likely will be realised by genetic crosses with other models to interrogate the role of SGTA in the many diseases in which it has been implicated. PMID:27358191

  15. A microscopic insight from conformational thermodynamics to functional ligand binding in proteins.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Samapan; Chakrabarti, J; Ghosh, Mahua

    2014-12-01

    We show that the thermodynamics of metal ion-induced conformational changes aid to understand the functions of protein complexes. This is illustrated in the case of a metalloprotein, alpha-lactalbumin (aLA), a divalent metal ion binding protein. We use the histograms of dihedral angles of the protein, generated from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, to calculate conformational thermodynamics. The thermodynamically destabilized and disordered residues in different conformational states of a protein are proposed to serve as binding sites for ligands. This is tested for β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (β4GalT) binding to the Ca(2+)-aLA complex, in which the binding residues are known. Among the binding residues, the C-terminal residues like aspartate (D) 116, glutamine (Q) 117, tryptophan (W) 118 and leucine (L) 119 are destabilized and disordered and can dock β4GalT onto Ca(2+)-aLA. No such thermodynamically favourable binding residues can be identified in the case of the Mg(2+)-aLA complex. We apply similar analysis to oleic acid binding and predict that the Ca(2+)-aLA complex can bind to oleic acid through the basic histidine (H) 32 of the A2 helix and the hydrophobic residues, namely, isoleucine (I) 59, W60 and I95, of the interfacial cleft. However, the number of destabilized and disordered residues in Mg(2+)-aLA are few, and hence, the oleic acid binding to Mg(2+)-bound aLA is less stable than that to the Ca(2+)-aLA complex. Our analysis can be generalized to understand the functionality of other ligand bound proteins.

  16. Ice-Binding Proteins and Their Function.

    PubMed

    Bar Dolev, Maya; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2016-06-02

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are a diverse class of proteins that assist organism survival in the presence of ice in cold climates. They have different origins in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, diatoms, plants, insects, and fish. This review covers the gamut of IBP structures and functions and the common features they use to bind ice. We discuss mechanisms by which IBPs adsorb to ice and interfere with its growth, evidence for their irreversible association with ice, and methods for enhancing the activity of IBPs. The applications of IBPs in the food industry, in cryopreservation, and in other technologies are vast, and we chart out some possibilities.

  17. Genetically engineered binding proteins as biosensors for fermentation and cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xudong; Tolosa, Leah; Simpson, Jen; Rao, Govind

    2003-12-20

    The signal-transduction properties and the potential applications of two engineered binding proteins from E. coli were extensively studied. Both proteins have a single cysteine mutation in their polypeptide chains, which allow the introduction of an environmentally sensitive fluorophore: ANS for glucose-binding protein (GBP) and acrylodan for glutamine-binding protein (QBP). Both proteins respond to their ligands in the micromolar range. The proteins can be stored at 4 degrees C for at least 5 months. Apparent binding constant, protein concentration, and fluorophore are three major factors that affect the biosensor's responsive ranges. The binding of the ligand is quick and reversible in solution, but the unfavorable dissociation equilibrium and mass-transfer resistance for encapsulated proteins can delay the response to several minutes and the recovery to hours. Simulated results show that using dialysis tubing with a diameter of 1 mm or less is possible to reduce the recovery time to less than 30 minutes. The potential applications of GBP were studied in yeast fermentation and E. coli fermentations in three different scales: 150 mL, 5 mL, and 100 microL. The results were compared with an YSI 2700 Chemistry Analyzer. Although the latter could not give reliable results for the E. coli fermentations as the glucose concentration in LB medium is close to its lower detection limit, the glucose biosensor presented here was successfully applied to each situation. Glutamine-binding protein was tested in cell cultures of two different scales (100 mL and 100 microL) and the results were also compared with those obtained with YSI. Both QBP and YSI gave good results for the 100-mL cell culture, but the relatively large sample volume requirement of YSI (at least 5 microL) prevented it from being used in the 100-microL cell culture. Because of their small sample volume requirements (less than 1 microL) and high sensitivity, the assays described here might find wide applications

  18. Computational analysis of maltose binding protein translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinappi, Mauro; Cecconi, Fabio; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    We propose a computational model for the study of maltose binding protein translocation across α-hemolysin nanopores. The phenomenological approach simplifies both the pore and the polypeptide chain; however it retains the basic structural protein-like properties of the maltose binding protein by promoting the correct formation of its native key interactions. By considering different observables characterising the channel blockade and molecule transport, we verified that MD simulations reproduce qualitatively the behaviour observed in a recent experiment. Simulations reveal that blockade events consist of a capture stage, to some extent related to the unfolding kinetics, and a single file translocation process in the channel. A threshold mechanics underlies the process activation with a critical force depending on the protein denaturation state. Finally, our results support the simple interpretation of translocation via first-passage statistics of a driven diffusion process of a single reaction coordinate.

  19. Exploring the binding dynamics of BAR proteins.

    PubMed

    Kabaso, Doron; Gongadze, Ekaterina; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Kreft, Marko; Van Rienen, Ursula; Zorec, Robert; Iglič, Aleš

    2011-09-01

    We used a continuum model based on the Helfrich free energy to investigate the binding dynamics of a lipid bilayer to a BAR domain surface of a crescent-like shape of positive (e.g. I-BAR shape) or negative (e.g. F-BAR shape) intrinsic curvature. According to structural data, it has been suggested that negatively charged membrane lipids are bound to positively charged amino acids at the binding interface of BAR proteins, contributing a negative binding energy to the system free energy. In addition, the cone-like shape of negatively charged lipids on the inner side of a cell membrane might contribute a positive intrinsic curvature, facilitating the initial bending towards the crescent-like shape of the BAR domain. In the present study, we hypothesize that in the limit of a rigid BAR domain shape, the negative binding energy and the coupling between the intrinsic curvature of negatively charged lipids and the membrane curvature drive the bending of the membrane. To estimate the binding energy, the electric potential at the charged surface of a BAR domain was calculated using the Langevin-Bikerman equation. Results of numerical simulations reveal that the binding energy is important for the initial instability (i.e. bending of a membrane), while the coupling between the intrinsic shapes of lipids and membrane curvature could be crucial for the curvature-dependent aggregation of negatively charged lipids near the surface of the BAR domain. In the discussion, we suggest novel experiments using patch clamp techniques to analyze the binding dynamics of BAR proteins, as well as the possible role of BAR proteins in the fusion pore stability of exovesicles.

  20. The SARS Coronavirus 3a protein binds calcium in its cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Minakshi, Rinki; Padhan, Kartika; Rehman, Safikur; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2014-10-13

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a positive stranded RNA virus with ∼30kb genome. Among all open reading frames (orfs) of this virus, the orf3a is the largest, and encodes a protein of 274 amino acids, named as 3a protein. Sequence analysis suggests that the orf3a aligned to one calcium pump present in Plasmodium falciparum and the enzyme glutamine synthetase found in Leptospira interrogans. This sequence similarity was found to be limited only to amino acid residues 209-264 which form the cytoplasmic domain of the orf3a. Furthermore, this region was predicted to be involved in the calcium binding. Owing to this hypothesis, we were driven to establish its calcium binding property in vitro. Here, we expressed and purified the cytoplasmic domain of the 3a protein, called Cyto3a, as a recombinant His-tagged protein in the E. coli. The calcium binding nature was established by performing various staining methods such as ruthenium red and stains-all. (45)Ca overlay method was also done to further support the data. Since the 3a protein forms ion channels, we were interested to see any conformational changes occurring in the Cyot3a upon calcium binding, using fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. These studies clearly indicate a significant change in the conformation of the Cyto3a protein after binding with calcium. Our results strongly suggest that the cytoplasmic domain of the 3a protein of SARS-CoV binds calcium in vitro, causing a change in protein conformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A glutamine-amidotransferase-like protein modulates FixT anti-kinase activity in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Bergès, Hélène; Checroun, Claire; Guiral, Sébastien; Garnerone, Anne-Marie; Boistard, Pierre; Batut, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    Background Nitrogen fixation gene expression in Sinorhizobium meliloti, the alfalfa symbiont, depends on a cascade of regulation that involves both positive and negative control. On top of the cascade, the two-component regulatory system FixLJ is activated under the microoxic conditions of the nodule. In addition, activity of the FixLJ system is inhibited by a specific anti-kinase protein, FixT. The physiological significance of this negative regulation by FixT was so far unknown. Results We have isolated by random Tn5 mutagenesis a S. meliloti mutant strain that escapes repression by FixT. Complementation test and DNA analysis revealed that inactivation of an asparagine synthetase-like gene was responsible for the phenotype of the mutant. This gene, that was named asnO, encodes a protein homologous to glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetases. The asnO gene did not appear to affect asparagine biosynthesis and may instead serve a regulatory function in S. meliloti. We provide evidence that asnO is active during symbiosis . Conclusions Isolation of the asnO mutant argues for the existence of a physiological regulation associated with fixT and makes it unlikely that fixT serves a mere homeostatic function in S. meliloti. Our data suggest that asnO might control activity of the FixT protein, in a way that remains to be elucidated. A proposed role for asnO might be to couple nitrogen fixation gene expression in S. meliloti to the nitrogen needs of the cells. PMID:11389771

  2. Calling cards for DNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoyi; Johnston, Mark; Mitra, Robi David

    2007-01-01

    Identifying genomic targets of transcription factors is fundamental for understanding transcriptional regulatory networks. Current technology enables identification of all targets of a single transcription factor, but there is no realistic way to achieve the converse: identification of all proteins that bind to a promoter of interest. We have developed a method that promises to fill this void. It employs the yeast retrotransposon Ty5, whose integrase interacts with the Sir4 protein. A DNA-binding protein fused to Sir4 directs insertion of Ty5 into the genome near where it binds; the Ty5 becomes a “calling card” the DNA-binding protein leaves behind in the genome. We constructed customized calling cards for seven transcription factors of yeast by including in each Ty5 a unique DNA sequence that serves as a “molecular bar code.” Ty5 transposition was induced in a population of yeast cells, each expressing a different transcription factor–Sir4 fusion and its matched, bar-coded Ty5, and the calling cards deposited into selected regions of the genome were identified, revealing the transcription factors that visited that region of the genome. In each region we analyzed, we found calling cards for only the proteins known to bind there: In the GAL1–10 promoter we found only calling cards for Gal4; in the HIS4 promoter we found only Gcn4 calling cards; in the PHO5 promoter we found only Pho4 and Pho2 calling cards. We discuss how Ty5 calling cards might be implemented for mapping all targets of all transcription factors in a single experiment. PMID:17623806

  3. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-02-17

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS.

  4. An in vitro model to consider the effect of 2 mM glutamine and KNK437 on endotoxin-stimulated release of heat shock protein 70 and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Marino, Luise V; Pathan, Nazima; Meyer, Rosan W; Wright, Victoria J; Habibi, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    Glutamine has been shown to promote the release of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) both within experimental in vitro models of sepsis and in adults with septic shock. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 2 mM glutamine and an inhibitor of HSP70 (KNK437) on the release of HSP70 and inflammatory mediators in healthy adult volunteers. An in vitro whole blood endotoxin stimulation assay was used. The addition of 2 mM glutamine significantly increased HSP70 levels over time (P < 0.05). HSP70 release had a positive correlation at 4 h with IL-1 β (r = 0.51, P = 0.03) and an inverse correlation with TNF-α (r = -0.56, P = 0.02) and IL-8 levels (r = -0.52, P = 0.03), and there were no significant correlations between HSP70 and IL6 or IL-10 or glutamine. Glutamine supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the release of IL-10 at 4 h and IL-8 at 24 h, compared with conditions without glutamine. In endotoxin-stimulated blood there were no significant differences in the release of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1 β with glutamine supplementation at 4 and 24 h. However, glutamine supplementation (2 mM) appeared to attenuate the release of inflammatory mediators (IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF-α), although this effect was not statistically significant. The addition of KNK437, a HSP70 inhibitor, significantly diminished HSP70 release, which resulted in lower levels of inflammatory mediators (P < 0.05). Glutamine supplementation promotes HSP70 release in an experimental model of sepsis. After the addition of KNK437, the effects of glutamine on HSP70 and inflammatory mediator release appear to be lost, suggesting that HSP70 in part orchestrates the inflammatory mediator response to sepsis. The clinical implications require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glutamine activates STAT3 to control cancer cell proliferation independently of glutamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Andrea; Sboarina, Martina; Vazeille, Thibaut; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cells can use a variety of metabolic substrates to fulfill the bioenergetic and biosynthetic needs of their oncogenic program. Besides bioenergetics, cancer cell metabolism also directly influences genetic, epigenetic and signaling events associated with tumor progression. Many cancer cells are addicted to glutamine, and this addiction is observed in oxidative as well as in glycolytic cells. Although both oxidative and bioreductive glutamine metabolism can contribute to cancer progression and glutamine can further serve to generate peptides (including glutathione) and proteins, we report that glutamine promotes the proliferation of cancer cells independently of its use as a metabolic fuel or as a precursor of glutathione. Extracellular glutamine activates transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is necessary and sufficient to mediate the proliferative effects of glutamine on glycolytic and oxidative cancer cells. Glutamine also activates transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1, mammalian target of rapamycin and c-Myc, but these factors do not mediate the effects of glutamine on cancer cell proliferation. Our findings shed a new light on the anticancer effects of l-asparaginase that possesses glutaminase activity and converts glutamine into glutamate extracellularly. Conversely, cancer resistance to treatments that block glutamine metabolism could arise from glutamine-independent STAT3 reactivation.

  6. A novel AT-rich DNA binding protein that combines an HMG I-like DNA binding domain with a putative transcription domain.

    PubMed Central

    Tjaden, G; Coruzzi, G M

    1994-01-01

    There is growing evidence that AT-rich promoter elements play a role in transcription of plant genes. For the promoter of the nuclear gene for chloroplast glutamine synthetase from pea (GS2), the deletion of a 33-bp AT-rich sequence (box 1 native) from the 5' end of a GS2 promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion resulted in a 10-fold reduction in GUS activity. The box 1 native element was used in gel shift analysis and two distinct complexes were detected. One complex is related to the low-mobility complex reported previously for AT-rich elements from several other plant promoters. A multimer of the box 1 sequence was used to isolate a cDNA encoding an AT-rich DNA binding protein (ATBP-1). ATBP-1 is not a high-mobility group protein, but it is a novel protein that combines a high-mobility group I/Y-like DNA binding domain with a glutamine-rich putative transcriptional domain. PMID:7907505

  7. Phylointeractomics reconstructs functional evolution of protein binding

    PubMed Central

    Kappei, Dennis; Scheibe, Marion; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Bluhm, Alina; Gossmann, Toni Ingolf; Dietz, Sabrina; Dejung, Mario; Herlyn, Holger; Buchholz, Frank; Mann, Matthias; Butter, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Molecular phylogenomics investigates evolutionary relationships based on genomic data. However, despite genomic sequence conservation, changes in protein interactions can occur relatively rapidly and may cause strong functional diversification. To investigate such functional evolution, we here combine phylogenomics with interaction proteomics. We develop this concept by investigating the molecular evolution of the shelterin complex, which protects telomeres, across 16 vertebrate species from zebrafish to humans covering 450 million years of evolution. Our phylointeractomics screen discovers previously unknown telomere-associated proteins and reveals how homologous proteins undergo functional evolution. For instance, we show that TERF1 evolved as a telomere-binding protein in the common stem lineage of marsupial and placental mammals. Phylointeractomics is a versatile and scalable approach to investigate evolutionary changes in protein function and thus can provide experimental evidence for phylogenomic relationships. PMID:28176777

  8. Modulatory effects of arginine, glutamine and branched-chain amino acids on heat shock proteins, immunity and antioxidant response in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Risso, Eder Muller; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2017-09-20

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are endogenous proteins whose function is to maintain the cell's tolerance to insult, and glutamine supplementation is known to increase HSP expression during intense exercise. Since few studies have addressed the possibility that supplementation with other amino acids could have similar effects to that of glutamine, our objective was to evaluate the effects of leucine, valine, isoleucine and arginine as potential stimulators of HSPs 25, 60, 70 and 90 in rats subjected to acute exercise as a stressing factor. The immune markers, antioxidant system, blood parameters, glycogen and amino acid profile responses were also assessed. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, l-arginine and l-glutamine. Except for the control, all animals were exercised and received every amino acid by oral gavage. Arginine supplementation up-regulated muscle HSP70 and HSP90 and serum HSP70, however, none of the amino acids affected the HSP25. All amino acids increased exercise-induced HSP60 expression, except for valine. Antioxidant enzymes were reduced by exercise, but both glutamine and arginine restored glutathione peroxidase, while isoleucine and valine restored superoxide dismutase. Exercise reduced monocyte, platelet, lymphocyte and erythrocyte levels, while leucine stimulated immune response, preserved the levels of the lymphocytes and increased leukocytes and maintained platelets at control levels. Plasma and muscle amino acid profiles showed specific metabolic features. The data suggest that the tissue-protecting effects of arginine could proceed by enhancing specific HSPs in the body.

  9. Mass Spectrometric Identification of the Arginine and Lysine deficient Proline Rich Glutamine Rich Wheat Storage Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of enzymatic digest has made possible identification of a wide variety of proteins and complex samples prepared by such techniques as RP-HPLC or 2-D gel electrophoresis. Success requires peptide fragmentation to be indicative of the peptide amino acid sequence. The f...

  10. Glutamine synthetase in durum wheat: Genotypic variation and relationship with grain protein content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen Use Efficiency (NUE), one of the most valuable indicators for nitrogen use in crops, both in terms of yield and final grain protein content (GPC), is a very complex trait. The identification of wheat varieties with high NUE, as well as the characterization of central enzymes involved in th...

  11. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.D.; Scott-Craig, J.S.

    1999-10-26

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is presented. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with vectors and seeds from the plants.

  12. Polynucleotides encoding TRF1 binding proteins

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Kim, Sahn-Ho

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel telomere associated protein (Trf1-interacting nuclear protein 2 "Tin2") that hinders the binding of Trf1 to its specific telomere repeat sequence and mediates the formation of a Tin2-Trf1-telomeric DNA complex that limits telomerase access to the telomere. Also included are the corresponding nucleic acids that encode the Tin2 of the present invention, as well as mutants of Tin2. Methods of making, purifying and using Tin2 of the present invention are described. In addition, drug screening assays to identify drugs that mimic and/or complement the effect of Tin2 are presented.

  13. Selective protein covalent binding and target organ toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S D; Pumford, N R; Khairallah, E A; Boekelheide, K; Pohl, L R; Amouzadeh, H R; Hinson, J A

    1997-03-01

    Protein covalent binding by xenobiotic metabolites has long been associated with target organ toxicity but mechanistic involvement of such binding has not been widely demonstrated. Modern biochemical, molecular, and immunochemical approaches have facilitated identification of specific protein targets of xenobiotic covalent binding. Such studies have revealed that protein covalent binding is not random, but rather selective with respect to the proteins targeted. Selective binding to specific cellular target proteins may better correlate with toxicity than total protein covalent binding. Current research is directed at characterizing and identifying the targeted proteins and clarifying the effect of such binding on their structure, function, and potential roles in target organ toxicity. The approaches employed to detect and identify the tartgeted proteins are described. Metabolites of acetaminophen, halothane, and 2,5-hexanedione form covalently bound adducts to recently identified protein targets. The selective binding may influence homeostatic or other cellular responses which in turn contribute to drug toxicity, hypersensitivity, or autoimmunity.

  14. Sterol Carrier Protein-2: Binding Protein for Endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Liedhegner, Elizabeth Sabens; Vogt, Caleb D.; Sem, Daniel S.; Cunningham, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, consisting of eCB ligands and the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R), subserves retrograde, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the brain. eCB signaling occurs “on-demand,” thus the processes regulating synthesis, mobilization and degradation of eCBs are also primary mechanisms for the regulation of CB1R activity. The eCBs, N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are poorly soluble in water. We hypothesize that their aqueous solubility, and, therefore, their intracellular and transcellular distribution, are facilitated by protein binding. Using in silico docking studies, we have identified the nonspecific lipid binding protein, sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2), as a potential AEA binding protein. The docking studies predict that AEA and AM404 associate with SCP-2 at a putative cholesterol binding pocket with ΔG values of −3.6 and −4.6 kcal/mol, respectively. These values are considerably higher than cholesterol (−6.62 kcal/mol) but consistent with a favorable binding interaction. In support of the docking studies, SCP-2-mediated transfer of cholesterol in vitro is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of AEA; and heterologous expression of SCP-2 in HEK 293 cells increases time-related accumulation of AEA in a temperature-dependent fashion. These results suggest that SCP-2 facilitates cellular uptake of AEA. However, there is no effect of SCP-2 transfection on the cellular accumulation of AEA determined at equilibrium or the IC50 values for AEA, AM404 or 2-AG to inhibit steady state accumulation of radiolabelled AEA. We conclude that SCP-2 is a low affinity binding protein for AEA that can facilitate its cellular uptake but does not contribute significantly to intracellular sequestration of AEA. PMID:24510313

  15. Novel retinoid-binding proteins from filarial parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Sani, B P; Vaid, A; Comley, J C; Montgomery, J A

    1985-01-01

    The present study deals with the discovery and partial characterization of specific binding proteins for retinol and retinoic acid from filarial parasites (worms of the superfamily Filarioidea), including those from two species of Onchocerca. These binding proteins, which are distinct in their physicochemical properties and in the mode of ligand interactions from the host-tissue retinoid-binding proteins, may be involved in the mediation of the putative biological roles of retinoids in the control of parasitic growth, differentiation and reproduction. Parasite retinol-binding protein and retinoic acid-binding protein exhibited specificity for binding retinol and retinoic acid respectively. Both the binding proteins showed an s20,w value of 2.0 S. On gel filtration, both proteins were retarded to a position corresponding to the same molecular size (19.0 kDa). On preparative columns, the parasite binding proteins exhibited isoelectric points at pH 5.7 and 5.75. Unlike the retinoid-binding proteins of mammalian and avian origin, the parasite retinoid-binding proteins showed a lack of mercurial sensitivity in ligand binding. The comparative amounts of retinoic acid-binding protein in five parasites, Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca gibsoni, Dipetalonema viteae, Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis, were between 2.7 and 3.1 pmol of retinoic acid bound/mg of extractable protein. However, the levels of parasite retinol-binding protein were between 4.8 and 5.8 pmol/mg, which is considerably higher than the corresponding levels of cellular retinol-binding protein of mammalian and avian origin. Both retinol- and retinoic acid-binding-protein levels in O. volvulus-infected human nodules and O. gibsoni-infected bovine nodules were similar to their levels in mammalian tissues. Also, these nodular binding proteins, like the host-binding proteins, exhibited mercurial sensitivity to ligand interactions. PMID:3004410

  16. Glutamine Amide Flip Elicits Long Distance Allosteric Responses in the LOV Protein Vivid.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Abir; Thiel, Walter; Crane, Brian R

    2017-03-01

    Light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains sense blue light through the photochemical formation of a cysteinyl-flavin covalent adduct. Concurrent protonation at the flavin N5 position alters the hydrogen bonding interactions of an invariant Gln residue that has been proposed to flip its amide side chain as a critical step in the propagation of conformational change. Traditional molecular dynamics (MD) and replica-exchange MD (REMD) simulations of the well-characterized LOV protein Vivid (VVD) demonstrate that the Gln182 amide indeed reorients by ∼180° in response to either adduct formation or reduction of the isoalloxazine ring to the neutral semiquinone, both of which involve N5 protonation. Free energy simulations reveal that the relative free energies of the flipped Gln conformation and the flipping barrier are significantly lower in the light-adapted state. The Gln182 flip stabilizes an important hinge-bβ region between the PAS β-sheet and the N-terminal cap helix that in turn destabilizes an N-terminal latch region against the PAS core. Release of the latch, observed both experimentally and in the simulations, is known to mediate light-induced VVD dimerization. This computational study of a LOV protein, unprecedented in its agreement with experiment, provides an atomistic view of long-range allosteric coupling in a photoreceptor.

  17. Binding of transition metals to S100 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gilston, Benjamin A.; Skaar, Eric P.; Chazin, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The S100 proteins are a unique class of EF-hand Ca2+ binding proteins distributed in a cell-specific, tissue-specific, and cell cycle-specific manner in humans and other vertebrates. These proteins are distinguished by their distinctive homodimeric structure, both intracellular and extracellular functions, and the ability to bind transition metals at the dimer interface. Here we summarize current knowledge of S100 protein binding of Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ ions, focusing on binding affinities, conformational changes that arise from metal binding, and the roles of transition metal binding in S100 protein function. PMID:27430886

  18. The dataset for protein-RNA binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiufeng; Li, Haotian; Huang, Yangyu; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a non-redundant protein-RNA binding benchmark dataset derived from the available protein-RNA structures in the Protein Database Bank. It consists of 73 complexes with measured binding affinity. The experimental conditions (pH and temperature) for binding affinity measurements are also listed in our dataset. This binding affinity dataset can be used to compare and develop protein-RNA scoring functions. The predicted binding free energy of the 73 complexes from three available scoring functions for protein-RNA docking has a low correlation with the binding Gibbs free energy calculated from Kd.

  19. Specific protein-protein binding in many-component mixtures of proteins.

    PubMed

    Sear, Richard P

    2004-06-01

    Proteins must bind to specific other proteins in vivo in order to function. The proteins are required to bind to only one or a few other proteins of the few thousand proteins typically present in vivo. To quantify this requirement we introduce a property of proteins called the capability. The capability is the maximum number of specific-binding interactions possible in a mixture, or in other words the size of largest sustainable interactome. This calculation of the maximum number possible is closely analogous to the work of Shannon and others on the maximum rate of communication through noisy channels. Using a simple model of proteins, we find specific binding to be a demanding function in the sense that it demands that the binding sites of the proteins be encoded by long sequences of elements, and the requirement for specific binding then strongly constrains these sequences.

  20. Phosphorylation of native porcine olfactory binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Nagnan-Le Meillour, Patricia; Le Danvic, Chrystelle; Brimau, Fanny; Chemineau, Philippe; Michalski, Jean-Claude

    2009-07-01

    The identification of various isoforms of olfactory binding proteins is of major importance to elucidate their involvement in detection of pheromones and other odors. Here, we report the characterization of the phosphorylation of OBP (odorant binding protein) and Von Ebner's gland protein (VEG) from the pig, Sus scrofa. After labeling with specific antibodies raised against the three types of phosphorylation (Ser, Thr, Tyr), the phosphate-modified residues were mapped by using the beta-elimination followed by Michael addition of dithiothreitol (BEMAD) method. Eleven phosphorylation sites were localized in the pOBP sequence and nine sites in the VEG sequence. OBPs are secreted by Bowman's gland cells in the extracellular mucus lining the nasal cavity. After tracking the secretion pathway in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of these cells, we hypothesize that these proteins may be phosphorylated by ectokinases that remain to be characterized. The existence of such a regulatory mechanism theoretically increases the number of OBP variants, and it suggests a more specific role for OBPs in odorant coding than the one of odorant solubilizer and transporter.

  1. Control of mammalian gene expression by amino acids, especially glutamine.

    PubMed

    Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Lavoinne, Alain; Husson, Annie

    2009-04-01

    Molecular data rapidly accumulating on the regulation of gene expression by amino acids in mammalian cells highlight the large variety of mechanisms that are involved. Transcription factors, such as the basic-leucine zipper factors, activating transcription factors and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, as well as specific regulatory sequences, such as amino acid response element and nutrient-sensing response element, have been shown to mediate the inhibitory effect of some amino acids. Moreover, amino acids exert a wide range of effects via the activation of different signalling pathways and various transcription factors, and a number of cis elements distinct from amino acid response element/nutrient-sensing response element sequences were shown to respond to changes in amino acid concentration. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of glutamine, the most abundant amino acid, which at appropriate concentrations enhances a great number of cell functions via the activation of various transcription factors. The glutamine-responsive genes and the transcription factors involved correspond tightly to the specific effects of the amino acid in the inflammatory response, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, and metabolic functions. Indeed, in addition to the major role played by nuclear factor-kappaB in the anti-inflammatory action of glutamine, the stimulatory role of activating protein-1 and the inhibitory role of C/EBP homology binding protein in growth-promotion, and the role of c-myc in cell survival, many other transcription factors are also involved in the action of glutamine to regulate apoptosis and intermediary metabolism in different cell types and tissues. The signalling pathways leading to the activation of transcription factors suggest that several kinases are involved, particularly mitogen-activated protein kinases. In most cases, however, the precise pathways from the entrance of the amino acid into the cell to the activation of gene

  2. Copper-binding protein in Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.J.; Thurman, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    A Cu-binding protein has been purified from the roots of Mimulus guttatus using gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and anion exchange chromatography on DEAE Biogel A. The protein has similar properties to putative metallothioneins (MTS) purified from other angiosperms. Putative MT was estimated by measuring the relative percentage incorporation of (/sup 35/S) into fractions containing the protein after HPLC on SW 3000-gel. In the roots of both Cu-tolerant and non tolerant plants synthesis of putative MT is induced by increased Cu concentration in the nutrient solution. The relative percentage incorporation of (/sup 35/S) into putative MT is significantly higher in extracts from the roots of Cu-tolerant than non tolerant M. guttatus after growth in 1 ..mu..M Cu suggesting involvement in the mechanism of tolerance. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cation specific binding with protein surface charges

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Berk; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Biological organization depends on a sensitive balance of noncovalent interactions, in particular also those involving interactions between ions. Ion-pairing is qualitatively described by the law of “matching water affinities.” This law predicts that cations and anions (with equal valence) form stable contact ion pairs if their sizes match. We show that this simple physical model fails to describe the interaction of cations with (molecular) anions of weak carboxylic acids, which are present on the surfaces of many intra- and extracellular proteins. We performed molecular simulations with quantitatively accurate models and observed that the order K+ < Na+ < Li+ of increasing binding affinity with carboxylate ions is caused by a stronger preference for forming weak solvent-shared ion pairs. The relative insignificance of contact pair interactions with protein surfaces indicates that thermodynamic stability and interactions between proteins in alkali salt solutions is governed by interactions mediated through hydration water molecules. PMID:19666545

  4. A Crayfish Insulin-like-binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Ohad; Weil, Simy; Manor, Rivka; Roth, Ziv; Khalaila, Isam; Sagi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Across the animal kingdom, the involvement of insulin-like peptide (ILP) signaling in sex-related differentiation processes is attracting increasing attention. Recently, a gender-specific ILP was identified as the androgenic sex hormone in Crustacea. However, moieties modulating the actions of this androgenic insulin-like growth factor were yet to be revealed. Through molecular screening of an androgenic gland (AG) cDNA library prepared from the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, we have identified a novel insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) termed Cq-IGFBP. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the deduced Cq-IGFBP was shown to share high sequence homology with IGFBP family members from both invertebrates and vertebrates. The protein also includes a sequence determinant proven crucial for ligand binding, which according to three-dimensional modeling is assigned to the exposed outer surface of the protein. Recombinant Cq-IGFBP (rCq-IGFBP) protein was produced and, using a “pulldown” methodology, was shown to specifically interact with the insulin-like AG hormone of the crayfish (Cq-IAG). Particularly, using both mass spectral analysis and an immunological tool, rCq-IGFBP was shown to bind the Cq-IAG prohormone. Furthermore, a peptide corresponding to residues 23–38 of the Cq-IAG A-chain was found sufficient for in vitro recognition by rCq-IGFBP. Cq-IGFBP is the first IGFBP family member shown to specifically interact with a gender-specific ILP. Unlike their ILP ligands, IGFBPs are highly conserved across evolution, from ancient arthropods, like crustaceans, to humans. Such conservation places ILP signaling at the center of sex-related phenomena in early animal development. PMID:23775079

  5. Nitrogen Source Activates TOR (Target of Rapamycin) Complex 1 via Glutamine and Independently of Gtr/Rag Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Stracka, Daniele; Jozefczuk, Szymon; Rudroff, Florian; Sauer, Uwe; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary conserved TOR complex 1 (TORC1) activates cell growth in response to nutrients. In yeast, TORC1 responds to the nitrogen source via a poorly understood mechanism. Leucine, and perhaps other amino acids, activates TORC1 via the small GTPases Gtr1 and Gtr2, orthologs of the mammalian Rag GTPases. Here we investigate the activation of TORC1 by the nitrogen source and how this might be related to TORC1 activation by Gtr/Rag. The quality of the nitrogen source, as defined by its ability to promote growth and glutamine accumulation, directly correlates with its ability to activate TORC1 as measured by Sch9 phosphorylation. Preferred nitrogen sources stimulate rapid, sustained Sch9 phosphorylation and glutamine accumulation. Inhibition of glutamine synthesis reduces TORC1 activity and growth. Poor nitrogen sources stimulate rapid but transient Sch9 phosphorylation. A Gtr1 deficiency prevents the transient stimulation of TORC1 but does not affect the sustained TORC1 activity in response to good nitrogen sources. These findings suggest that the nitrogen source must be converted to glutamine, the preferred nitrogen source in yeast, to sustain TORC1 activity. Furthermore, sustained TORC1 activity is independent of Gtr/Rag. Thus, the nitrogen source and Gtr/Rag activate TORC1 via different mechanisms. PMID:25063813

  6. Calcineurin homologous protein: a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein family

    PubMed Central

    Vadnagara, Komal; Moe, Orson W.; Babich, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) belongs to an evolutionarily conserved Ca2+-binding protein subfamily. The CHP subfamily is composed of CHP1, CHP2, and CHP3, which in vertebrates share significant homology at the protein level with each other and between other Ca2+-binding proteins. The CHP structure consists of two globular domains containing from one to four EF-hand structural motifs (calcium-binding regions composed of two helixes, E and F, joined by a loop), the myristoylation, and nuclear export signals. These structural features are essential for the function of the three members of the CHP subfamily. Indeed, CHP1–CHP3 have multiple and diverse essential functions, ranging from the regulation of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger protein function, to carrier vesicle trafficking and gene transcription. The diverse functions attributed to the CHP subfamily rendered an understanding of its action highly complex and often controversial. This review provides a comprehensive and organized examination of the properties and physiological roles of the CHP subfamily with a view to revealing a link between CHP diverse functions. PMID:22189947

  7. L-glutamine

    MedlinePlus

    L-glutamine is used to is used to reduce the frequency of painful episodes (crises) in adults and children ... oxygen to all parts of the body). L-glutamine is in a class of medications called amino ...

  8. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli Cytidine Triphosphate Synthetase, a Nucleotide-Regulated Glutamine Amidotransferase/ATP-Dependent Amidoligase Fusion Protein and Homologue of Anticancer and Antiparasitic Drug Targets†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Endrizzi, James A.; Kim, Hanseong; Anderson, Paul M.; Baldwin, Enoch P.

    2010-01-01

    Cytidine triphosphate synthetases (CTPSs) produce CTP from UTP and glutamine, and regulate intracellular CTP levels through interactions with the four ribonucleotide triphosphates. We solved the 2.3-Å resolution crystal structure of Escherichia coli CTPS using Hg-MAD phasing. The structure reveals a nearly symmetric 222 tetramer, in which each bifunctional monomer contains a dethiobiotin synthetase-like amidoligase N-terminal domain and a Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase C-terminal domain. For each amidoligase active site, essential ATP- and UTP-binding surfaces are contributed by three monomers, suggesting that activity requires tetramer formation, and that a nucleotide-dependent dimer–tetramer equilibrium contributes to the observed positive cooperativity. A gated channel that spans 25 Å between the glutamine hydrolysis and amidoligase active sites provides a path for ammonia diffusion. The channel is accessible to solvent at the base of a cleft adjoining the glutamine hydrolysis active site, providing an entry point for exogenous ammonia. Guanine nucleotide binding sites of structurally related GTPases superimpose on this cleft, providing insights into allosteric regulation by GTP. Mutations that confer nucleoside drug resistance and release CTP inhibition map to a pocket that neighbors the UTP-binding site and can accommodate a pyrimidine ring. Its location suggests that competitive feedback inhibition is affected via a distinct product/drug binding site that overlaps the substrate triphosphate binding site. Overall, the E. coli structure provides a framework for homology modeling of other CTPSs and structure-based design of anti-CTPS therapeutics. PMID:15157079

  9. Visualization of glutamine transporter activities in living cells using genetically encoded glutamine sensors.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Katrin; Holland, John Todd; Stromberg, Verlyn; Ahmad, Altaf; Watcharakichkorn, Daisy; Okumoto, Sakiko

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine plays a central role in the metabolism of critical biological molecules such as amino acids, proteins, neurotransmitters, and glutathione. Since glutamine metabolism is regulated through multiple enzymes and transporters, the cellular glutamine concentration is expected to be temporally dynamic. Moreover, differentiation in glutamine metabolism between cell types in the same tissue (e.g. neuronal and glial cells) is often crucial for the proper function of the tissue as a whole, yet assessing cell-type specific activities of transporters and enzymes in such heterogenic tissue by physical fractionation is extremely challenging. Therefore, a method of reporting glutamine dynamics at the cellular level is highly desirable. Genetically encoded sensors can be targeted to a specific cell type, hence addressing this knowledge gap. Here we report the development of Föster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) glutamine sensors based on improved cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins, monomeric Teal Fluorescent Protein (mTFP)1 and venus. These sensors were found to be specific to glutamine, and stable to pH-changes within a physiological range. Using cos7 cells expressing the human glutamine transporter ASCT2 as a model, we demonstrate that the properties of the glutamine transporter can easily be analyzed with these sensors. The range of glutamine concentration change in a given cell can also be estimated using sensors with different affinities. Moreover, the mTFP1-venus FRET pair can be duplexed with another FRET pair, mAmetrine and tdTomato, opening up the possibility for real-time imaging of another molecule. These novel glutamine sensors will be useful tools to analyze specificities of glutamine metabolism at the single-cell level.

  10. Visualization of Glutamine Transporter Activities in Living Cells Using Genetically Encoded Glutamine Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gruenwald, Katrin; Holland, John Todd; Stromberg, Verlyn; Ahmad, Altaf; Watcharakichkorn, Daisy; Okumoto, Sakiko

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine plays a central role in the metabolism of critical biological molecules such as amino acids, proteins, neurotransmitters, and glutathione. Since glutamine metabolism is regulated through multiple enzymes and transporters, the cellular glutamine concentration is expected to be temporally dynamic. Moreover, differentiation in glutamine metabolism between cell types in the same tissue (e.g. neuronal and glial cells) is often crucial for the proper function of the tissue as a whole, yet assessing cell-type specific activities of transporters and enzymes in such heterogenic tissue by physical fractionation is extremely challenging. Therefore, a method of reporting glutamine dynamics at the cellular level is highly desirable. Genetically encoded sensors can be targeted to a specific cell type, hence addressing this knowledge gap. Here we report the development of Föster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) glutamine sensors based on improved cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins, monomeric Teal Fluorescent Protein (mTFP)1 and venus. These sensors were found to be specific to glutamine, and stable to pH-changes within a physiological range. Using cos7 cells expressing the human glutamine transporter ASCT2 as a model, we demonstrate that the properties of the glutamine transporter can easily be analyzed with these sensors. The range of glutamine concentration change in a given cell can also be estimated using sensors with different affinities. Moreover, the mTFP1-venus FRET pair can be duplexed with another FRET pair, mAmetrine and tdTomato, opening up the possibility for real-time imaging of another molecule. These novel glutamine sensors will be useful tools to analyze specificities of glutamine metabolism at the single-cell level. PMID:22723868

  11. Competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, J.L. Jr.; Ringstad, J.L.; Sigel, C.W. )

    1989-09-01

    A competitive protein binding assay for piritrexim (PTX, 1) that makes use of a commercially available radioassay kit for methotrexate has been developed. After it is selectively extracted from plasma, PTX competes with ({sup 125}I)methotrexate for binding to dihydrofolate reductase isolated from Lactobacillus casei. Free drug is separated from bound drug by adsorption to dextran-coated charcoal. Piritrexim is measurable over a range of 0.01 to 10.0 micrograms/mL in plasma with a coefficient of variation less than 15%. The limit of sensitivity of the assay is approximately 2 ng/mL. An excellent correlation between this assay and a previously published HPLC method was found.

  12. Increased glutamine in leaves of poplar transgenic with pine GS1a caused greater anthranilate synthetase α-subunit (ASA1) transcript and protein abundances: an auxin-related mechanism for enhanced growth in GS transgenics?

    PubMed

    Man, Huimin; Pollmann, Stephan; Weiler, Elmar W; Kirby, Edward G

    2011-08-01

    The initial reaction in the pathway leading to the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in plants is the reaction between chorismate and glutamine to produce anthranilate, catalysed by the enzyme anthranilate synthase (ASA; EC 4.1.3.27). Compared with non-transgenic controls, leaves of transgenic poplar with ectopic expression of the pine cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1a; EC 6.3.1.2) produced significantly greater glutamine and significantly enhanced ASA α-subunit (ASA1) transcript and protein (approximately 130% and 120% higher than in the untransformed controls, respectively). Similarly, tobacco leaves fed with 30 mM glutamine and 2 mM chorismate showed enhanced ASA1 transcript and protein (175% and 90% higher than controls, respectively). Furthermore, free IAA was significantly elevated both in leaves of GS1a transgenic poplar and in tobacco leaves fed with 30 mM glutamine and 2 mM chorismate. These results indicated that enhanced cellular glutamine may account for the enhanced growth in GS transgenic poplars through the regulation of auxin biosynthesis. © 2011 The Author(s).

  13. A diet containing whey protein, free glutamine, and transforming growth factor-beta ameliorates nutritional outcome and intestinal mucositis during repeated chemotherapeutic challenges in rats.

    PubMed

    Boukhettala, Nabile; Ibrahim, Ayman; Aziz, Moutaz; Vuichoud, Jacques; Saudan, Kim-Yen; Blum, Stéphanie; Déchelotte, Pierre; Breuillé, Denis; Coëffier, Moïse

    2010-04-01

    Anticancer chemotherapy often induces side effects such as mucositis. Recent data suggest that a diet, Clinutren Protect (CP), containing whey proteins, glutamine, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta)-rich casein limits intestinal mucositis and improves recovery after a single methotrexate (MTX) challenge in rats. Chemotherapy consists of alternating periods of treatment and rest. Thus, our study evaluated the effects of CP on nutritional outcome and intestinal mucositis in rats receiving repeated chemotherapeutic challenges. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats received 3 cycles of MTX at 8-d intervals. Rats had free access to CP or control diet (Co) from 7 d before the first MTX injection until the end of the experiment at d 27. In Co, whey proteins and TGFbeta-rich casein were replaced by TGFbeta-free casein. L-Glutamine was replaced by L-alanine. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Before MTX challenges, food intake and body weight were similar in both groups but became higher during MTX challenges in CP (P < 0.05). Fat mass decreased similarly in both groups. In contrast, the decrease of fat free mass between d -1 and d 27 was less pronounced in the CP group (-9.5 g) than in the Co group (-57.2 g) (P < 0.05). The intestinal damage score was lower in the CP group (0.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.6; P < 0.05). Fecal IgA increased over time in the CP group (P < 0.05) but not in the Co group. A diet containing whey proteins, glutamine, and TGFbeta improves nutritional outcome by limiting the reduction of fat free mass and reduces intestinal mucositis during repeated chemotherapeutic challenges in rats.

  14. Suppressor mutations in the Glutamine Dumper1 protein dissociate disturbance in amino acid transport from other characteristics of the Gdu1D phenotype.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi; Pratelli, Réjane; Denbow, Cynthia; Pilot, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular amino acid transport across plant membranes is critical for metabolic pathways which are often split between different organelles. In addition, transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane enables the distribution of organic nitrogen through the saps between leaves and developing organs. Amino acid importers have been studied for more than two decades, and their role in this process is well-documented. While equally important, amino acid exporters are not well-characterized. The over-expression of GDU1, encoding a small membrane protein with one transmembrane domain, leads to enhancement of amino acid export by Arabidopsis cells, glutamine secretion at the leaf margin, early senescence and size reduction of the plant, possibly caused by the stimulation of amino acid exporter(s). Previous work reported the identification of suppressor mutations of the GDU1 over-expression phenotype, which affected the GDU1 and LOG2 genes, the latter encoding a membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase interacting with GDU1. The present study focuses on the characterization of three additional suppressor mutations affecting GDU1. Size, phenotype, glutamine transport and amino acid tolerance were recorded for recapitulation plants and over-expressors of mutagenized GDU1 proteins. Unexpectedly, the over-expression of most mutated GDU1 led to plants with enhanced amino acid export, but failing to display secretion of glutamine and size reduction. The results show that the various effects triggered by GDU1 over-expression can be dissociated from one another by mutagenizing specific residues. The fact that these residues are not necessarily conserved suggests that the diverse biochemical properties of the GDU1 protein are not only born by the characterized transmembrane and VIMAG domains. These data provide a better understanding of the structure/function relationships of GDU1 and may enable modifying amino acid export in plants without detrimental effects on plant fitness.

  15. An inhibitor domain in Sp3 regulates its glutamine-rich activation domains.

    PubMed Central

    Dennig, J; Beato, M; Suske, G

    1996-01-01

    Sp3 is a ubiquitously expressed human transcription factor closely related to Sp1 and Sp4. All three proteins contain a highly conserved DNA binding domain and two glutamine-rich regions, suggesting that they possess similar activation functions. In our previous experiments, however, Sp3 failed to activate transcription. Instead, it repressed Sp1-mediated transcriptional activation, suggesting that it is an inhibitory member of this family of regulatory factors. Here we show that Sp3 can also act as a positive regulator of transcription. The glutamine-rich domains on their own have a strong activation function and interact with the TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor dTAFII110. However, in full-length Sp3 as well as in Gal4-Sp3 fusion proteins, both activation domains are silenced by an inhibitory domain located between the second glutamine-rich region and the DNA binding domain. The inhibitory domain completely suppressed transcriptional activation when fused to a heterologous glutamine-rich domain but only moderately suppressed transcription when linked to an acidic activation domain. Site-directed mutagenesis identified a stretch of highly charged amino acid residues essential for inhibitor function. Substitution of the amino acid triplet KEE by alanine residues within this region changed the almost transcriptionally inactive Sp3 into a strong activator. Our results suggest that the transcriptional activity of Sp3 might be regulated in vivo by relief of inhibition. Images PMID:8896459

  16. Rethinking glutamine addiction.

    PubMed

    Krall, Abigail S; Christofk, Heather R

    2015-12-01

    Tumours reprogram their metabolism to maximize macromolecule biosynthesis for growth. However, which of the common tumour-associated metabolic activities are critical for proliferation remains unclear. Glutamate-derived glutamine is now shown to satisfy the glutamine needs of glioblastoma, indicating that glutamine anaplerosis is dispensable for growth.

  17. Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein

    DOEpatents

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Scott-Craig, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is set forth in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 1. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 2. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors and seeds from said plants.

  18. Computational Design of DNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer; Song, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of engineered and naturally occurring sequence perturbations to protein-DNA interfaces requires accurate computational modeling technologies. It has been well established that computational design to accommodate small numbers of DNA target site substitutions is possible. This chapter details the basic method of design used in the Rosetta macromolecular modeling program that has been successfully used to modulate the specificity of DNA-binding proteins. More recently, combining computational design and directed evolution has become a common approach for increasing the success rate of protein engineering projects. The power of such high-throughput screening depends on computational methods producing multiple potential solutions. Therefore, this chapter describes several protocols for increasing the diversity of designed output. Lastly, we describe an approach for building comparative models of protein-DNA complexes in order to utilize information from homologous sequences. These models can be used to explore how nature modulates specificity of protein-DNA interfaces and potentially can even be used as starting templates for further engineering.

  19. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  20. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  1. Neurodegeneration and RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    De Conti, Laura; Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    In the eukaryotic nucleus, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a very important role in the life cycle of both coding and noncoding RNAs. As soon as they are transcribed, in fact, all RNA molecules within a cell are bound by distinct sets of RBPs that have the task of regulating its correct processing, transport, stability, and function/translation up to its final degradation. These tasks are particularly important in cells that have a complex RNA metabolism, such as neurons. Not surprisingly, therefore, recent findings have shown that the misregulation of genes involved in RNA metabolism or the autophagy/proteasome pathway plays an important role in the onset and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we aim to review the recent advances that link neurodegenerative processes and RBP proteins. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1394. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1394 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  2. Side-chain dynamics of a detergent-solubilized membrane protein: Measurement of tryptophan and glutamine hydrogen-exchange rates in M13 coat protein by sup 1 H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, J.D.J.; Sykes, B.D. )

    1989-08-08

    M13 coat protein is a small (50 amino acids) lipid-soluble protein that becomes an integral membrane protein during the infection stage of the life cycle of the M13 phage and is therefore used as a model membrane protein. To study side-chain dynamics in the protein, the authors have measured individual hydrogen-exchange rates for a primary amide in the side chain of glutamine-15 and for the indole amine of tryptophan-26. The protein was solubilized with the use of perdeuteriated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and hydrogen-exchange rates were measured by using {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The glutamine-15 syn proton exchanged at a rate identical with that in glutamine model peptides except that the pH corresponding to minimum exchange was elevated by about 1.5 pH units. The tryptophan-26 indole amine proton exchange was biphasic, suggesting that two populations of tryptophan-26 exist. It is suggested that the two populations may reflect protein dimerization or aggregation in the SDS micelles. The pH values of minimum exchange for tryptophan-26 in both environments were also elevated by 1.3-1.9 pH units. This phenomenon is reproduced when small tryptophan- and glutamine-containing hydrophobic peptides are dissolved in the presence of SDS micelles. The electrostatic nature of this phenomenon is proven by showing that the minimum pH for exchange can be reduced by dissolving the hydrophobic peptides in the positively charged detergent micelle dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide.

  3. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    EPA Science Inventory

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  4. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    EPA Science Inventory

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  5. BindML/BindML+: Detecting Protein-Protein Interaction Interface Propensity from Amino Acid Substitution Patterns.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing; La, David; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of protein-protein interaction sites in a protein structure provides important information for elucidating the mechanism of protein function and can also be useful in guiding a modeling or design procedures of protein complex structures. Since prediction methods essentially assess the propensity of amino acids that are likely to be part of a protein docking interface, they can help in designing protein-protein interactions. Here, we introduce BindML and BindML+ protein-protein interaction sites prediction methods. BindML predicts protein-protein interaction sites by identifying mutation patterns found in known protein-protein complexes using phylogenetic substitution models. BindML+ is an extension of BindML for distinguishing permanent and transient types of protein-protein interaction sites. We developed an interactive web-server that provides a convenient interface to assist in structural visualization of protein-protein interactions site predictions. The input data for the web-server are a tertiary structure of interest. BindML and BindML+ are available at http://kiharalab.org/bindml/ and http://kiharalab.org/bindml/plus/ .

  6. Neuronal calcium-binding proteins and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Eyles, D W; McGrath, J J; Reynolds, G P

    2002-09-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CBPs) such as calbindin, parvalbumin and calretinin are used as immunohistochemical markers for discrete neuronal subpopulations. They are particularly useful in identifying the various subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons that control output from prefrontal and cingulate cortices as well as from the hippocampus. The strategic role these interneurons play in regulating output from these three crucial brain regions has made them a focus for neuropathological investigation in schizophrenia. The number of pathological reports detailing subtle changes in these CBP-containing interneurons in patients with schizophrenia is rapidly growing. These proteins however are more than convenient neuronal markers. They confer survival advantages to neurons and can increase the neuron's ability to sustain firing. These properties may be important in the subtle pathophysiology of nondegenerative phenomena such as schizophrenia. The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to the functional properties of CBPs and to examine the emerging literature reporting alterations in these proteins in schizophrenia as well as draw some conclusions about the significance of these findings.

  7. The 3′ untranslated region of a soybean cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) affects transcript stability and protein accumulation in transgenic alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Jose L.; Moguel-Esponda, Salvador; Potenza, Carol; Conklin, Cristina F.; Quintana, Anita; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2013-01-01

    Summary Higher plants assimilate nitrogen in the form of ammonia through the concerted activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). The GS enzyme is either located in the cytoplasm (GS1) or in the chloroplast (GS2). Glutamine synthetase 1 is regulated in different plants at the transcriptional level and there are some reports of regulation at the level of protein stability. Here we present data that clearly establish that GS1 in plants is also regulated at the level of transcript turnover and at the translational level. Using a Glycine max (soybean) GS1 transgene, with and without its 3′ untranslated region (UTR), driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), we show that the 3′ UTR plays a major role in both transcript turnover and translation repression in both the leaves and the nodules. Our data suggest that the 3′ UTR mediated turnover of the transcript is regulated by a nitrogen metabolite or carbon/nitrogen ratios. We also show that the 3′ UTR of the gene for the soybean GS1 confers post-transcriptional regulation on a reporter gene. Our dissection of post-transcriptional and translational levels of regulation of GS in plants shows that the situation in plants strongly resembles that in other organisms where GS is regulated at almost all levels. Multistep regulation of GS shows the high priority given by organisms to regulating and ensuring optimal control of nitrogen substrates and preventing overproduction of glutamine and drainage of the glutamate pool. PMID:16460515

  8. Glycan Masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for Probing Protein Binding Function and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Joel; Gurumoorthy, Sairam; Gibson, Claire; Melcher, Martin; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Wang, Ruobing; Schief, William R.; Smith, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Glycan masking is an emerging vaccine design strategy to focus antibody responses to specific epitopes, but it has mostly been evaluated on the already heavily glycosylated HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Here this approach was used to investigate the binding interaction of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and to evaluate if glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens would focus the antibody response on key interaction surfaces. Four variants of PVDBPII were generated and probed for function and immunogenicity. Whereas two PvDBPII glycosylation variants with increased glycan surface coverage distant from predicted interaction sites had equivalent binding activity to wild-type protein, one of them elicited slightly better DARC-binding-inhibitory activity than wild-type immunogen. Conversely, the addition of an N-glycosylation site adjacent to a predicted PvDBP interaction site both abolished its interaction with DARC and resulted in weaker inhibitory antibody responses. PvDBP is composed of three subdomains and is thought to function as a dimer; a meta-analysis of published PvDBP mutants and the new DBPII glycosylation variants indicates that critical DARC binding residues are concentrated at the dimer interface and along a relatively flat surface spanning portions of two subdomains. Our findings suggest that DARC-binding-inhibitory antibody epitope(s) lie close to the predicted DARC interaction site, and that addition of N-glycan sites distant from this site may augment inhibitory antibodies. Thus, glycan resurfacing is an attractive and feasible tool to investigate protein structure-function, and glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens might contribute to P. vivax vaccine development. PMID:23853575

  9. Prediction of zinc finger DNA binding protein.

    PubMed

    Nakata, K

    1995-04-01

    Using the neural network algorithm with back-propagation training procedure, we analysed the zinc finger DNA binding protein sequences. We incorporated the characteristic patterns around the zinc finger motifs TFIIIA type (Cys-X2-5-Cys-X12-13-His-X2-5-His) and the steroid hormone receptor type (Cys-X2-5-Cys-X12-15-Cys-X2-5-Cys-X15-16-Cys-X4-5-Cys-X8-10- Cys-X2-3-Cys) in the neural network algorithm. The patterns used in the neural network were the amino acid pattern, the electric charge and polarity pattern, the side-chain chemical property and subproperty patterns, the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity patterns and the secondary structure propensity pattern. Two consecutive patterns were also considered. Each pattern was incorporated in the single layer perceptron algorithm and the combinations of patterns were considered in the two-layer perceptron algorithm. As for the TFIIIA type zinc finger DNA binding motifs, the prediction results of the two-layer perceptron algorithm reached up to 96.9% discrimination, and the prediction results of the discriminant analysis using the combination of several characters reached up to 97.0%. As for the steroid hormone receptor type zinc finger, the prediction results of neural network algorithm and the discriminant analyses reached up to 96.0%.

  10. Characterizing the morphology of protein binding patches.

    PubMed

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Bansal, Achin; Cazals, Frédéric

    2012-12-01

    Let the patch of a partner in a protein complex be the collection of atoms accounting for the interaction. To improve our understanding of the structure-function relationship, we present a patch model decoupling the topological and geometric properties. While the geometry is classically encoded by the atomic positions, the topology is recorded in a graph encoding the relative position of concentric shells partitioning the interface atoms. The topological-geometric duality provides the basis of a generic dynamic programming-based algorithm comparing patches at the shell level, which may favor topological or geometric features. On the biological side, we address four questions, using 249 cocrystallized heterodimers organized in biological families. First, we dissect the morphology of binding patches and show that Nature enjoyed the topological and geometric degrees of freedom independently while retaining a finite set of qualitatively distinct topological signatures. Second, we argue that our shell-based comparison is effective to perform atomic-level comparisons and show that topological similarity is a less stringent than geometric similarity. We also use the topological versus geometric duality to exhibit topo-rigid patches, whose topology (but not geometry) remains stable upon docking. Third, we use our comparison algorithms to infer specificity-related information amidst a database of complexes. Finally, we exhibit a descriptor outperforming its contenders to predict the binding affinities of the affinity benchmark. The softwares developed with this article are availablefrom http://team.inria.fr/abs/vorpatch_compatch/.

  11. Penicillin-binding proteins in Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Because some Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are β-lactam-producing bacteria, they have to have some self-resistant mechanism. The β-lactam biosynthetic gene clusters include genes for β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), suggesting that these are involved in self-resistance. However, direct evidence for the involvement of β-lactamases does not exist at the present time. Instead, phylogenetic analysis revealed that PBPs in Streptomyces are distinct in that Streptomyces species have much more PBPs than other Actinobacteria, and that two to three pairs of similar PBPs are present in most Streptomyces species examined. Some of these PBPs bind benzylpenicillin with very low affinity and are highly similar in their amino-acid sequences. Furthermore, other low-affinity PBPs such as SCLAV_4179 in Streptomyces clavuligerus, a β-lactam-producing Actinobacterium, may strengthen further the self-resistance against β-lactams. This review discusses the role of PBPs in resistance to benzylpenicillin in Streptomyces belonging to Actinobacteria.

  12. Latent TGF-β-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ian B.; Horiguchi, Masahito; Zilberberg, Lior; Dabovic, Branka; Hadjiolova, Krassimira; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The LTBPs (or latent transforming growth factor β binding proteins) are important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that interact with fibrillin microfibrils and have a number of different roles in microfibril biology. There are four LTBPs isoforms in the human genome (LTBP-1, -2, -3, and -4), all of which appear to associate with fibrillin and the biology of each isoform is reviewed here. The LTBPs were first identified as forming latent complexes with TGFβ by covalently binding the TGFβ propeptide (LAP) via disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum. LAP in turn is cleaved from the mature TGFβ precursor in the trans golgi network but LAP and TGFβ remain strongly bound through non-covalent interactions. LAP, TGFβ, and LTBP together form the large latent complex (LLC). LTBPs were originally thought to primarily play a role in maintaining TGFβ latency and targeting the latent growth factor to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but it has also been shown that LTBP-1 participates in TGFβ activation by integrins and may also regulate activation by proteases and other factors. LTBP-3 appears to have a role in skeletal formation including tooth development. As well as having important functions in TGFβ regulation, TGFβ-independent activities have recently been identified for LTBP-2 and LTBP-4 in stabilizing microfibril bundles and regulating elastic fiber assembly. PMID:25960419

  13. Calcyclin Binding Protein/Siah-1 Interacting Protein Is a Hsp90 Binding Chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Agnieszka; Bieganowski, Paweł; Prus, Wiktor; Krzemień-Ojak, Łucja; Kądziołka, Beata; Fabczak, Hanna; Filipek, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp90 chaperone activity is tightly regulated by interaction with many co-chaperones. Since CacyBP/SIP shares some sequence homology with a known Hsp90 co-chaperone, Sgt1, in this work we performed a set of experiments in order to verify whether CacyBP/SIP can interact with Hsp90. By applying the immunoprecipitation assay we have found that CacyBP/SIP binds to Hsp90 and that the middle (M) domain of Hsp90 is responsible for this binding. Furthermore, the proximity ligation assay (PLA) performed on HEp-2 cells has shown that the CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 complexes are mainly localized in the cytoplasm of these cells. Using purified proteins and applying an ELISA we have shown that Hsp90 interacts directly with CacyBP/SIP and that the latter protein does not compete with Sgt1 for the binding to Hsp90. Moreover, inhibitors of Hsp90 do not perturb CacyBP/SIP-Hsp90 binding. Luciferase renaturation assay and citrate synthase aggregation assay with the use of recombinant proteins have revealed that CacyBP/SIP exhibits chaperone properties. Also, CacyBP/SIP-3xFLAG expression in HEp-2 cells results in the appearance of more basic Hsp90 forms in 2D electrophoresis, which may indicate that CacyBP/SIP dephosphorylates Hsp90. Altogether, the obtained results suggest that CacyBP/SIP is involved in regulation of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery. PMID:27249023

  14. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Atshaves, B.P.; Martin, G.G.; Hostetler, H.A.; McIntosh, A.L.; Kier, A.B.; Schroeder, F.

    2010-01-01

    While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them for rapid removal in oxidative (mitochondria, peroxisomes) or storage (endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets) organelles. Mammals have a large (15 member) family of FABPs with multiple members occurring within a single cell type. The first described FABP, liver-FABP (L-FABP, or FABP1), is expressed in very high levels (2-5% of cytosolic protein) in liver as well as intestine and kidney. Since L-FABP facilitates uptake and metabolism of LCFAs in vitro and in cultured cells, it was expected that abnormal function or loss of L-FABP would reduce hepatic LCFA uptake/oxidation and thereby increase LCFAs available for oxidation in muscle and/or storage in adipose. This prediction was confirmed in vitro with isolated liver slices and cultured primary hepatocytes from L-FABP gene-ablated mice. Despite unaltered food consumption when fed a control diet ad libitum, the L-FABP null mice exhibited age- and sex-dependent weight gain and increased fat tissue mass. The obese phenotype was exacerbated in L-FABP null mice pair-fed a high fat diet. Taken together with other findings, these data suggest that L-FABP could have an important role in preventing age- or diet-induced obesity. PMID:20537520

  15. Protein function annotation by local binding site surface similarity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against ∼60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that predated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of 12 currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins.

  16. Subunit Interactions and Glutamine Utilization by Escherichia coli Imidazole Glycerol Phosphate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Klem, Thomas J.; Chen, Yuan; Davisson, V. Jo

    2001-01-01

    A selection strategy has been developed to identify amino acid residues involved in subunit interactions that coordinate the two half-reactions catalyzed by glutamine amidotransferases. The protein structures known for this class of enzymes have revealed that ammonia is shuttled over long distances and that each amidotransferase evolved different molecular tunnels for this purpose. The heterodimeric Escherichia coli imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) synthase was probed to assess if residues in the substrate amination subunit (HisF) are critical for the glutaminase activity in the HisH subunit. The activity of the HisH subunit is dependent upon binding of the nucleotide substrate at the HisF active site. This regulatory function has been exploited as a biochemical selection of mutant HisF subunits that retain full activity with ammonia as a substrate but, when constituted as a holoenzyme with wild-type HisH, impair the glutamine-dependent activity of IGP synthase. The steady-state kinetic constants for these IGP synthases with HisF alleles showed three distinct effects depending upon the site of mutation. For example, mutation of the R5 residue has similar effects on the glutamine-dependent amidotransfer reaction; however, kcat/Km for the glutaminase half-reaction was increased 10-fold over that for the wild-type enzyme with nucleotide substrate. This site appears essential for coupling of the glutamine hydrolysis and ammonia transfer steps and is the first example of a site remote to the catalytic triad that modulates the process. The results are discussed in the context of recent X-ray crystal structures of glutamine amidotransferases that relate the glutamine binding and acceptor binding sites. PMID:11208798

  17. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, R. Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L.; Saini, Harpreet K.; Tickle, Ian J.; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-01-01

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26655740

  18. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Behrendt, D; Dembinski, J; Heep, A; Bartmann, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in preterm infants with neonatal bacterial infection (NBI). Methods: Blood samples were analysed of 57 preterm (28+1 to 36+6, median 33+2 weeks gestation) and 17 term infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit within the first 72 hours of life with suspicion of NBI. Samples were obtained at first suspicion of sepsis and after 12 and 24 hours. Diagnosis of NBI was confirmed by raised concentrations of C reactive protein and/or interleukin 6. The influence of gestational age and labour was analysed. Results: Maximum LBP concentrations in infants with NBI were greatly increased compared with infants without NBI (13.0–46.0 µg/ml (median 20.0 µg/ml) v 0.6–17.4 µg/ml (median 4.2 µg/ml)). LBP concentrations in infected infants were not yet significantly raised when NBI was first suspected. The LBP concentrations of preterm infants were comparable to those of term infants. Regression analysis revealed no significant effect of labour or gestational age on LBP. Conclusions: Raised LBP concentrations indicate NBI in preterm and term infants. Preterm infants of > 28 weeks gestation seem to be capable of producing LBP as efficiently as term infants. Neonatal LBP concentrations are not influenced by labour. LBP may be a useful diagnostic marker of NBI in preterm infants. PMID:15499153

  19. An ent-kaurene that inhibits mitotic chromosome movement and binds the kinetochore protein ran-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Natalie T; Nelson, Jim; Flory, Mark R; Joseph, Jomon; Th'ng, John; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dasso, Mary; Andersen, Raymond J; Roberge, Michel

    2006-08-22

    Using a chemical genetics screen, we have identified ent-15-oxokaurenoic acid (EKA) as a chemical that causes prolonged mitotic arrest at a stage resembling prometaphase. EKA inhibits the association of the mitotic motor protein centromeric protein E with kinetochores and inhibits chromosome movement. Unlike most antimitotic agents, EKA does not inhibit the polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin. To identify EKA-interacting proteins, we used a cell-permeable biotinylated form that retains biological activity to isolate binding proteins from living cells. Mass spectrometric analysis identified six EKA-binding proteins, including Ran-binding protein 2, a kinetochore protein whose depletion by small interfering RNA causes a similar mitotic arrest phenotype.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of GatD, a glutamine amidotransferase-like protein from Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Diana; Figueiredo, Teresa A; Verma, Anil; Sobral, Rita G; Ludovice, Ana M; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Trincao, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Amidation of peptidoglycan is an essential feature in Staphylococcus aureus that is necessary for resistance to β-lactams and lysozyme. GatD, a 27 kDa type I glutamine amidotransferase-like protein, together with MurT ligase, catalyses the amidation reaction of the glutamic acid residues of the peptidoglycan of S. aureus. The native and the selenomethionine-derivative proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol, sodium acetate and calcium acetate. The crystals obtained diffracted beyond 1.85 and 2.25 Å, respectively, and belonged to space group P212121. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected at Diamond Light Source (on beamlines I02 and I04) and were used to obtain initial phases.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of GatD, a glutamine amidotransferase-like protein from Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Diana; Figueiredo, Teresa A.; Verma, Anil; Sobral, Rita G.; Ludovice, Ana M.; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Trincao, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Amidation of peptidoglycan is an essential feature in Staphylococcus aureus that is necessary for resistance to β-lactams and lysozyme. GatD, a 27 kDa type I glutamine amidotransferase-like protein, together with MurT ligase, catalyses the amidation reaction of the glutamic acid residues of the peptidoglycan of S. aureus. The native and the selenomethionine-derivative proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol, sodium acetate and calcium acetate. The crystals obtained diffracted beyond 1.85 and 2.25 Å, respectively, and belonged to space group P212121. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected at Diamond Light Source (on beamlines I02 and I04) and were used to obtain initial phases. PMID:24817726

  2. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  3. Identification of a fibronectin-binding protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel J; Henderson, Brian; Sharp, Lindsay J; Nair, Sean P

    2002-12-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has been reported to bind to a number of host cell extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin. Here we report the identification of a fibronectin-binding protein from S. epidermidis. A phage display library of S. epidermidis genomic DNA was constructed and panned against immobilized fibronectin. A number of phagemid clones containing overlapping inserts were identified, and one of these clones, pSE109FN, contained a 1.4-kb insert. Phage pSE109FN was found to bind to fibronectin but not to collagen, fibrinogen, laminin, or vitronectin. However, pSE109FN also bound to heparin, hyaluronate, and plasminogen, although to a lesser extent than it bound to fibronectin. Analysis of The Institute for Genomic Research S. epidermidis genome sequence database revealed a 1.85-kb region within a putative 30.5-kb open reading frame, to which the overlapping DNA inserts contained within the fibronectin-binding phagemids mapped. We have designated the gene encoding the fibronectin-binding domain embp. A recombinant protein, Embp32, which encompassed the fibronectin-binding domain of Embp, blocked the binding of S. epidermidis, but not the binding of Staphylococcus aureus, to fibronectin. In contrast, a recombinant protein, FnBPB[D1-D4], spanning the fibronectin-binding domain of the S. aureus fibronectin-binding protein FnBPB, blocked binding of S. aureus to fibronectin but had a negligible effect on the binding of S. epidermidis.

  4. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  5. Partial characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Hasunuma, K.; Miyamoto-Shinohara, Y.; Furukawa, K.

    1987-08-14

    Six fractions of GTP-binding proteins separated by gel filtration of a mycelial extract containing membrane components of Neurospora crassa were partially characterized. (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S bound to GTP-binding protein was assayed by repeated treatments with a Norit solution and centrifugation. The binding of (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S to GTP-binding proteins was competitively prevented in the presence of 0.1 to 1 mM GTP but not in the presence of ATP. These GTP-binding proteins fractionated by the gel column had Km values of 20, 7, 4, 4, 80 and 2 nM. All six fractions of these GTP-binding proteins showed the capacity to be ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin.

  6. Discovery of binding proteins for a protein target using protein-protein docking-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changsheng; Tang, Bo; Wang, Qian; Lai, Luhua

    2014-10-01

    Target structure-based virtual screening, which employs protein-small molecule docking to identify potential ligands, has been widely used in small-molecule drug discovery. In the present study, we used a protein-protein docking program to identify proteins that bind to a specific target protein. In the testing phase, an all-to-all protein-protein docking run on a large dataset was performed. The three-dimensional rigid docking program SDOCK was used to examine protein-protein docking on all protein pairs in the dataset. Both the binding affinity and features of the binding energy landscape were considered in the scoring function in order to distinguish positive binding pairs from negative binding pairs. Thus, the lowest docking score, the average Z-score, and convergency of the low-score solutions were incorporated in the analysis. The hybrid scoring function was optimized in the all-to-all docking test. The docking method and the hybrid scoring function were then used to screen for proteins that bind to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is a well-known therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A protein library containing 677 proteins was used for the screen. Proteins with scores among the top 20% were further examined. Sixteen proteins from the top-ranking 67 proteins were selected for experimental study. Two of these proteins showed significant binding to TNFα in an in vitro binding study. The results of the present study demonstrate the power and potential application of protein-protein docking for the discovery of novel binding proteins for specific protein targets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sequence and expression of GLN3, a positive nitrogen regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a protein with a putative zinc finger DNA-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Minehart, P L; Magasanik, B

    1991-01-01

    The GLN3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the activation of transcription of a number of genes in response to the replacement of glutamine by glutamate as source of nitrogen. We cloned the GLN3 gene and constructed null alleles by gene disruption. GLN3 is not essential for growth, but increased copies of GLN3 lead to a drastic decrease in growth rate. The complete nucleotide sequence of the GLN3 gene was determined, revealing one open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 730 amino acids, with a molecular weight of approximately 80,000. The GLN3 protein contains a single putative Cys2/Cys2 zinc finger which has homology to the Neurospora crassa NIT2 protein, the Aspergillus nidulans AREA protein, and the erythroid-specific transcription factor GATA-1. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that the GLN3 protein binds the nitrogen upstream activation sequence of GLN1, the gene encoding glutamine synthetase. Neither control of transcription nor control of initiation of translation of GLN3 is important for regulation in response to glutamine availability. Images PMID:1682800

  8. Proteomic identification of oxidatively modified proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain. Part I: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1.

    PubMed

    Castegna, Alessandra; Aksenov, Michael; Aksenova, Marina; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Klein, Jon B; Pierce, William M; Booze, Rosemarie; Markesbery, William R; Butterfield, D Allan

    2002-08-15

    Oxidative alterations of proteins by reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the progression of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein carbonyls, a marker of protein oxidation, are increased in AD brain, indicating that oxidative modification of proteins is relevant in AD. Oxidative damage can lead to several events such as loss in specific protein function, abnormal protein clearance, depletion of the cellular redox-balance and interference with the cell cycle, and, ultimately, to neuronal death. Identification of specific targets of protein oxidation represents a crucial step in establishing a relationship between oxidative modification and neuronal death in AD, and was partially achieved previously in our laboratory through immunochemical detection of creatine kinase BB and beta-actin as specifically oxidized proteins in AD brain versus control brain. However, this process is laborious, requires the availability of specific antibodies, and, most importantly, requires a reasonable guess as to the identity of the protein in the first place. In this study, we present the first proteomics approach to identify specifically oxidized proteins in AD, by coupling 2D fingerprinting with immunological detection of carbonyls and identification of proteins by mass spectrometry. The powerful techniques, emerging from application of proteomics to neurodegenerative disease, reveal the presence of specific targets of protein oxidation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1. These results are discussed with reference to potential involvement of these oxidatively modified proteins in neurodegeneration in AD brain. Proteomics offers a rapid means of identifying oxidatively modified proteins in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders without the limitations of the immunochemical detection method.

  9. Exploring NMR ensembles of calcium binding proteins: Perspectives to design inhibitors of protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disrupting protein-protein interactions by small organic molecules is nowadays a promising strategy employed to block protein targets involved in different pathologies. However, structural changes occurring at the binding interfaces make difficult drug discovery processes using structure-based drug design/virtual screening approaches. Here we focused on two homologous calcium binding proteins, calmodulin and human centrin 2, involved in different cellular functions via protein-protein interactions, and known to undergo important conformational changes upon ligand binding. Results In order to find suitable protein conformations of calmodulin and centrin for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening, we performed in silico structural/energetic analysis and molecular docking of terphenyl (a mimicking alpha-helical molecule known to inhibit protein-protein interactions of calmodulin) into X-ray and NMR ensembles of calmodulin and centrin. We employed several scoring methods in order to find the best protein conformations. Our results show that docking on NMR structures of calmodulin and centrin can be very helpful to take into account conformational changes occurring at protein-protein interfaces. Conclusions NMR structures of protein-protein complexes nowadays available could efficiently be exploited for further structure-based drug design/virtual screening processes employed to design small molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. PMID:21569443

  10. Biotin-binding proteins and biotin transport to oocytes.

    PubMed

    White, H B

    1985-01-01

    The eggs of chickens and other birds contain two proteins that bind biotin. Both are homotetrameric proteins of similar size. In contrast to the well-characterized egg white avidin, egg yolk biotin-binding protein has a very acidic isoelectric point, binds biotin with lower affinity, and is usually saturated with biotin. Like other egg yolk proteins, biotin-binding protein appears to be synthesized in the liver, transported by the blood stream to the ovary and deposited in the developing oocyte. Since the yolk of a chicken egg contains over 90% of the biotin in an egg and all of the biotin is bound to biotin-binding protein, the function of biotin-binding protein is undoubtedly to transport biotin to the egg for future use by the developing embryo. Avidin is produced by the oviduct and in the egg it is presumed to deter microbial growth around the oocyte by sequestering biotin. Among the eggs examined, those from turkeys have the lowest amount of biotin-binding protein and the highest amount of avidin. Furthermore, the majority of the biotin in turkey eggs can be bound to avidin in the egg white, suggesting a nutritional role for avidin in turkeys. An assay has been developed to conveniently measure apo- and holobiotin-binding proteins.

  11. Actin binding proteins, spermatid transport and spermiation*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, Yan-Ho; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M.; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    The transport of germ cells across the seminiferous epithelium is composed of a series of cellular events during the epithelial cycle essential to the completion of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids during spermiogenesis, spermatozoa that are transformed from step 19 spermatids in the rat testis fail to reach the luminal edge of the apical compartment and enter the tubule lumen at spermiation, thereby entering the epididymis for further maturation. Step 19 spermatids and/or sperms that remain in the epithelium will be removed by the Sertoli cell via phagocytosis to form phagosomes and be degraded by lysosomes, leading to subfertility and/or infertility. However, the biology of spermatid transport, in particular the final events that lead to spermiation remain elusive. Based on recent data in the field, we critically evaluate the biology of spermiation herein by focusing on the actin binding proteins (ABPs) that regulate the organization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, which is crucial for spermatid transport during this event. The hypothesis we put forth herein also highlights some specific areas of research that can be pursued by investigators in the years to come. PMID:24735648

  12. Plasma protein binding: from discovery to development.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Tonika; Gan, Liang-Shang

    2013-09-01

    The importance of plasma protein binding (PPB) in modulating the effective drug concentration at pharmacological target sites has been the topic of significant discussion and debate amongst drug development groups over the past few decades. Free drug theory, which states that in absence of energy-dependent processes, after steady state equilibrium has been attained, free drug concentration in plasma is equal to free drug concentration at the pharmacologic target receptor(s) in tissues, has been used to explain pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics relationships in a large number of cases. Any sudden increase in free concentration of a drug could potentially cause toxicity and may need dose adjustment. Free drug concentration is also helpful to estimate the effective concentration of drugs that potentially can precipitate metabolism (or transporter)-related drug-drug interactions. Disease models are extensively validated in animals to progress a compound into development. Unbound drug concentration, and therefore PPB information across species is very informative in establishing safety margins and guiding selection of First in Human (FIH) dose and human efficacious dose. The scope of this review is to give an overview of reported role of PPB in several therapeutic areas, highlight cases where PPB changes are clinically relevant, and provide drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics recommendations in discovery and development settings.

  13. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores the merit of utilizing available pharmaceutical data to predict Fub for environmentally relevant chemicals via machine learning techniques. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were constructed with k nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machines (SVM), and random forest (RF) machine learning algorithms from a training set of 1045 pharmaceuticals. The models were then evaluated with independent test sets of pharmaceuticals (200 compounds) and environmentally relevant ToxCast chemicals (406 total, in two groups of 238 and 168 compounds). The selection of a minimal feature set of 10-15 2D molecular descriptors allowed for both informative feature interpretation and practical applicability domain assessment via a bounded box of descriptor ranges and principal component analysis. The diverse pharmaceutical and environmental chemical sets exhibit similarities in terms of chemical space (99-82% overlap), as well as comparable bias and variance in constructed learning curves. All the models exhibit significant predictability with mean absolute errors (MAE) in the range of 0.10-0.18 Fub. The models performed best for highly bound chemicals (MAE 0.07-0.12), neutrals (MAE 0

  14. Determination of binding affinities of retinoids to retinoic acid-binding protein and serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Brahma P.; Titus, Belinda C.; Banerjee, Chandra K.

    1978-01-01

    Binding affinities of retinoic acid and its synthetic analogues to intracellular retinoic acid-binding protein, which is a possible candidate for mediating their biological function, and to serum albumin, the plasma transport protein, were evaluated. A quantitative method involving elimination of interfering serum albumin by immunoprecipitation was developed to measure the binding efficiency of these retinoids, some of which are active in modifying epithelial differentiation and preventing tumorigenesis. Two cyclopentenyl analogues of retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid showed, like retinoic acid, a binding efficiency of 100% for the cellular binding protein. With the phenyl, dichlorophenyl and trimethylmethoxyphenyl analogues of retinoic acid, the binding efficiency increased as the substituents on the aromatic ring increased; thus the trimethylmethoxyphenyl analogue binds almost as efficiently as retinoic acid itself. However, the trimethylmethoxyphenyl analogue with a sulphur atom on the side chain has a much decreased binding affinity. The correlation noticed between the binding efficiency of these retinoids and their biological activity in differentiation and/or in the control of tumorigenesis particularly enhances the confidence in the present method of determining the relative binding efficiencies. None of the vitamins, hormones and cofactors tested, showed appreciable affinity for the retinoic acid-binding site. Studies on binding of retinoic acid and its analogues to serum albumin indicate that no correlation exists between binding affinity for albumin and their biological potency. PMID:666734

  15. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins.

  16. Learning to Translate Sequence and Structure to Function: Identifying DNA Binding and Membrane Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Robert E; Carson, Matthew B; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Lu, Hui

    2009-01-01

    A protein's function depends in a large part on interactions with other molecules. With an increasing number of protein structures becoming available every year, a corresponding structural annotation approach identifying such interactions grows more expedient. At the same time, machine learning has gained popularity in bioinformatics because it provides robust annotation of genes and proteins without depending solely on sequence similarity. Here we developed a machine learning protocol to identify DNA-binding proteins and membrane-binding proteins. In general, there is no theory or even rule of thumb to pick the best machine learning algorithm. Thus, a systematic comparison of several classification algorithms known to perform well was investigated. Indeed, the boosted tree classifier was found to give the best performance, achieving 93% and 88% accuracy to discriminate non-homologous DNA-binding proteins and membrane-binding proteins respectively from non-binding proteins, significantly outperforming all previously published works. We also explored the importance of a protein's attributes in function prediction and the relationships between relevant attributes. A graphical model based on boosted trees was applied to study the important features in discriminating DNA-binding proteins. In summary, the current protocol identified physical features important in DNA- and membrane-binding, rather than annotating function through sequence similarity. PMID:17436108

  17. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  18. RNA binding protein and binding site useful for expression of recombinant molecules

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2006-10-17

    The present invention relates to a gene expression system in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, preferably plant cells and intact plants. In particular, the invention relates to an expression system having a RB47 binding site upstream of a translation initiation site for regulation of translation mediated by binding of RB47 protein, a member of the poly(A) binding protein family. Regulation is further effected by RB60, a protein disulfide isomerase. The expression system is capable of functioning in the nuclear/cytoplasm of cells and in the chloroplast of plants. Translation regulation of a desired molecule is enhanced approximately 100 fold over that obtained without RB47 binding site activation.

  19. Immobilized purified folate-binding protein: binding characteristics and use for quantifying folate in erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Nexo, E.

    1987-08-01

    Purified folate-binding protein from cow's milk was immobilized on monodisperse polymer particles (Dynospheres) activated by rho-toluenesulfonyl chloride. Leakage from the spheres was less than 0.1%, and the binding properties were similar to those of the soluble protein with regard to dissociation, pH optimum for binding pteroylglutamic acid, and specificity for binding various folate derivatives. We used the immobilized folate-binding protein as binding protein in an isotope-dilution assay for quantifying folate in erythrocytes. The detection limit was 50 nmol/L and the CV over a six-month period was 2.3% (means = 1.25 mumol/L, n = 15). The reference interval, for folate measured in erythrocytes of 43 blood donors, was 0.4-1.5 mumol/L.

  20. Odorant-Binding Protein: Localization to Nasal Glands and Secretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevsner, Jonathan; Sklar, Pamela B.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1986-07-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants.

  1. Acyl-CoA binding proteins: multiplicity and function.

    PubMed

    Gossett, R E; Frolov, A A; Roths, J B; Behnke, W D; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F

    1996-09-01

    The physiological role of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA is thought to be primarily in intermediary metabolism of fatty acids. However, recent data show that nM to microM levels of these lipophilic molecules are potent regulators of cell functions in vitro. Although long-chain fatty acyl-CoA are present at several hundred microM concentration in the cell, very little long-chain fatty acyl-CoA actually exists as free or unbound molecules, but rather is bound with high affinity to membrane lipids and/or proteins. Recently, there is growing awareness that cytosol contains nonenzymatic proteins also capable of binding long-chain fatty acyl-CoA with high affinity. Although the identity of the cytosolic long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding protein(s) has been the subject of some controversy, there is growing evidence that several diverse nonenzymatic cytosolic proteins will bind long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Not only does acyl-CoA binding protein specifically bind medium and long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCFA-CoA), but ubiquitous proteins with multiple ligand specificities such as the fatty acid binding proteins and sterol carrier protein-2 also bind LCFA-CoA with high affinity. The potential of these acyl-CoA binding proteins to influence the level of free LCFA-CoA and thereby the amount of LCFA-CoA bound to regulatory sites in proteins and enzymes is only now being examined in detail. The purpose of this article is to explore the identity, nature, function, and pathobiology of these fascinating newly discovered long-chain fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins. The relative contributions of these three different protein families to LCFA-CoA utilization and/or regulation of cellular activities are the focus of new directions in this field.

  2. Xenopus interspersed RNA families, Ocr and XR, bind DNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Guttridge, K L; Smith, L D

    1995-05-01

    Interspersed RNA makes up two-thirds of cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNA in Xenopus and sea urchin eggs. Although it has no known function, previous work has suggested that at least one family of interspersed RNA, XR, binds Xenopus oocyte proteins, and can influence the rate of translation. We have used two Xenopus repeat families, Ocr and XR, to explore their protein binding abilities. Ocr RNA binds the same pattern of highly abundant oocyte proteins that XR RNA binds, which are believed to be messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle proteins. In addition, we show that Ocr RNA binds the Oct-60 protein, a member of the POU-domain family of transcription factors found in Xenopus oocytes. Using a 32 base pair sequence from the XR repeat in a DNA affinity column two proteins were isolated, 66 kDa and 92 kDa, that together form a complex with XR DNA. One of these proteins (92 kDa) also binds XR RNA. We suggest that the role of at least a subset of interspersed RNAs in development may be to bind, and sequester in the cytoplasm, DNA-binding proteins until the end of oogenesis.

  3. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    PubMed Central

    Teyra, Joan; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Anders, Gerd; Pisabarro, M Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Background Detailed information about protein interactions is critical for our understanding of the principles governing protein recognition mechanisms. The structures of many proteins have been experimentally determined in complex with different ligands bound either in the same or different binding regions. Thus, the structural interactome requires the development of tools to classify protein binding regions. A proper classification may provide a general view of the regions that a protein uses to bind others and also facilitate a detailed comparative analysis of the interacting information for specific protein binding regions at atomic level. Such classification might be of potential use for deciphering protein interaction networks, understanding protein function, rational engineering and design. Description Protein binding regions (PBRs) might be ideally described as well-defined separated regions that share no interacting residues one another. However, PBRs are often irregular, discontinuous and can share a wide range of interacting residues among them. The criteria to define an individual binding region can be often arbitrary and may differ from other binding regions within a protein family. Therefore, the rational behind protein interface classification should aim to fulfil the requirements of the analysis to be performed. We extract detailed interaction information of protein domains, peptides and interfacial solvent from the SCOWLP database and we classify the PBRs of each domain family. For this purpose, we define a similarity index based on the overlapping of interacting residues mapped in pair-wise structural alignments. We perform our classification with agglomerative hierarchical clustering using the complete-linkage method. Our classification is calculated at different similarity cut-offs to allow flexibility in the analysis of PBRs, feature especially interesting for those protein families with conflictive binding regions. The hierarchical

  4. The canine prostate cancer cell line CHP-1 shows over-expression of the co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α.

    PubMed

    Azakami, D; Nakahira, R; Kato, Y; Michishita, M; Kobayashi, M; Onozawa, E; Bonkobara, M; Kobayashi, M; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, M; Ishioka, K; Sako, T; Ochiai, K; Omi, T

    2017-06-01

    Although androgen therapy resistance and poor clinical outcomes are seen in most canine prostate cancer cases, there are only a few tools for analysing canine prostate cancer by using a cell biological approach. Therefore, to evaluate androgen-independent neoplastic cell growth, a new canine prostate cancer cell line (CHP-1) was established in this study. CHP-1 over-expressed the co-chaperone small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein α (SGTA), which is over-expressed in human androgen-independent prostate cancer. The CHP-1 xenograft also showed SGTA over-expression. Although CHP-1 shows poor androgen receptor (AR) signalling upon dihydrotestosterone stimulation, forced expression of AR enabled evaluation of AR signalling. Taken together, these results suggest that CHP-1 will be a useful model for investigating the pathogenesis of androgen-dependent and androgen-independent canine prostate cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  6. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  7. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S.; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G.; Moses, John E.; Oldham, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  8. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G; Moses, John E; Oldham, Neil J

    2016-11-16

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  9. Clinical relevance of drug binding to plasma proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Fanali, Gabriella; Fasano, Mauro; Pallottini, Valentina; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Binding to plasma proteins highly influences drug efficacy, distribution, and disposition. Serum albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, is a monomeric multi-domain macromolecule that displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity, providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds, such as fatty acids and most acidic drugs. α-1-Acid glycoprotein, the second main plasma protein, is a glycoprotein physiologically involved in the acute phase reaction and is the main carrier for basic and neutral drugs. High- and low-density lipoproteins play a limited role in drug binding and are natural drug delivery system only for few lipophilic drugs or lipid-based formulations. Several factors influence drug binding to plasma proteins, such as pathological conditions, concurrent administration of drugs, sex, and age. Any of these factors, in turn, influences drug efficacy and toxicity. Here, biochemical, biomedical, and biotechnological aspects of drug binding to plasma proteins are reviewed.

  10. Identification of a common hyaluronan binding motif in the hyaluronan binding proteins RHAMM, CD44 and link protein.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, B; Yang, B L; Savani, R C; Turley, E A

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified two hyaluronan (HA) binding domains in the HA receptor, RHAMM, that occur near the carboxyl-terminus of this protein. We show here that these two HA binding domains are the only HA binding regions in RHAMM, and that they contribute approximately equally to the HA binding ability of this receptor. Mutation of domain II using recombinant polypeptides of RHAMM demonstrates that K423 and R431, spaced seven amino acids apart, are critical for HA binding activity. Domain I contains two sets of two basic amino acids, each spaced seven residues apart, and mutation of these basic amino acids reduced their binding to HA--Sepharose. These results predict that two basic amino acids flanking a seven amino acid stretch [hereafter called B(X7)B] are minimally required for HA binding activity. To assess whether this motif predicts HA binding in the intact RHAMM protein, we mutated all basic amino acids in domains I and II that form part of these motifs using site-directed mutagenesis and prepared fusion protein from the mutated cDNA. The altered RHAMM protein did not bind HA, confirming that the basic amino acids and their spacing are critical for binding. A specific requirement for arginine or lysine residues was identified since mutation of K430, R431 and K432 to histidine residues abolished binding. Clustering of basic amino acids either within or at either end of the motif enhanced HA binding activity while the occurrence of acidic residues between the basic amino acids reduced binding. The B(X7)B motif, in which B is either R or K and X7 contains no acidic residues and at least one basic amino acid, was found in all HA binding proteins molecularly characterized to date. Recombinant techniques were used to generate chimeric proteins containing either the B(X7)B motifs present in CD44 or link protein, with the amino-terminus of RHAMM (amino acids 1-238) that does not bind HA. All chimeric proteins containing the motif bound HA in transblot analyses

  11. Molecular simulations of multimodal ligand-protein binding: elucidation of binding sites and correlation with experiments.

    PubMed

    Freed, Alexander S; Garde, Shekhar; Cramer, Steven M

    2011-11-17

    Multimodal chromatography, which employs more than one mode of interaction between ligands and proteins, has been shown to have unique selectivity and high efficacy for protein purification. To test the ability of free solution molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit water to identify binding regions on the protein surface and to shed light on the "pseudo affinity" nature of multimodal interactions, we performed MD simulations of a model protein ubiquitin in aqueous solution of free ligands. Comparisons of MD with NMR spectroscopy of ubiquitin mutants in solutions of free ligands show a good agreement between the two with regard to the preferred binding region on the surface of the protein and several binding sites. MD simulations also identify additional binding sites that were not observed in the NMR experiments. "Bound" ligands were found to be sufficiently flexible and to access a number of favorable conformations, suggesting only a moderate loss of ligand entropy in the "pseudo affinity" binding of these multimodal ligands. Analysis of locations of chemical subunits of the ligand on the protein surface indicated that electrostatic interaction units were located on the periphery of the preferred binding region on the protein. The analysis of the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity maps, and the binding of both acetate and benzene probes were used to further study the localization of individual ligand moieties. These results suggest that water-mediated electrostatic interactions help the localization and orientation of the MM ligand to the binding region with additional stability provided by nonspecific hydrophobic interactions.

  12. The Actin Binding Protein Adseverin Regulates Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W. P.; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  13. Identification of an imidazoline binding protein: Creatine kinase and an imidazoline-2 binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Atsuko; Tyacke, Robin J.; Robinson, James J.; Husbands, Stephen M.; Minchin, Michael C.W.; Nutt, David J.; Hudson, Alan L.

    2009-01-01

    Drugs that bind to imidazoline binding proteins have major physiological actions. To date, three subtypes of such proteins, I1, I2 and I3, have been proposed, although characterisations of these binding proteins are lacking. I2 binding sites are found throughout the brain, particularly dense in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Selective I2 ligands demonstrate antidepressant-like activity and the identity of the proteins that respond to such ligands remained unknown until now. Here we report the isolation of a ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein from rabbit and rat brain using a high affinity ligand for the I2 subtype, 2-BFI, to generate an affinity column. Following protein sequencing of the isolated ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein, we identified it to be brain creatine kinase (B-CK). B-CK shows high binding capacity to selective I2 ligands; [3H]-2-BFI (5 nM) specifically bound to B-CK (2330 ± 815 fmol mg protein− 1). We predicted an I2 binding pocket near the active site of B-CK using molecular modelling. Furthermore, B-CK activity was inhibited by a selective I2 irreversible ligand, where 20 μM BU99006 reduced the enzyme activity by 16%, confirming the interaction between B-CK and the I2 ligand. In summary, we have identified B-CK to be the ∼ 45 kDa imidazoline binding protein and we have demonstrated the existence of an I2 binding site within this enzyme. The importance of B-CK in regulating neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release may well explain the various actions of I2 ligands in brain and the alterations in densities of I2 binding sites in psychiatric disorders. PMID:19410564

  14. Fibrinogen and Fibronectin Binding Activity and Immunogenic Nature of Choline Binding Protein M

    PubMed Central

    AFSHAR, Davoud; POURMAND, Mohammad Reza; JEDDI-TEHRANI, Mahmood; SABOOR YARAGHI, Ali Akbar; AZARSA, Mohammad; SHOKRI, Fazel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Choline-binding proteins (CBPs) are a group of surface-exposed proteins, which play crucial and physiological roles in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The novel member of CBPs, choline-binding protein M (CbpM) may have binding activity to plasma proteins. This study aimed to clone and express CbpM and demonstrate its interaction with plasma proteins and patients’ sera. Methods: The total length of cbpM gene was cloned in pET21a vector and expressed in BL21 expression host. Verification of recombinant protein was evaluated by Western blot using anti-His tag monoclonal antibody. Binding ability of the recombinant protein to plasma proteins and the interaction with patients’ sera were assessed by Western blot and ELISA methods. Results: The cbpM gene was successfully cloned into pET21a and expressed in BL21 host. Binding activity to fibronectin and fibrinogen and antibody reaction of CbpM to patients’ sera was demonstrated by Western blot and ELISA methods, respectively. Conclusion: CbpM is one of the pneumococcal surface-exposed proteins, which mediates pneumococcal binding to fibronectin and fibrinogen proteins. PMID:28053927

  15. Binding of globular proteins to DNA from surface tension measurement.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Chattoraj, D K; Chakraborty, P

    2001-10-01

    Extent of binding (gammap) of globular proteins to calf-thymus DNA have been measured in mole per mole of nucleotide as function of equilibrium protein concentration. We have exploited measurement of the surface tension of the protein solution in the presence and absence of DNA to calculate the binding ration (gammap). Interaction of bovine serum albumin with DNA has been studied at different pH. Interaction of bovine serum albumin with DNA has been studied at different pH, ionic strength and in presence of Ca2+. Interaction of BSA with denatured DNA has also been investigated. Binding isotherms for other globular proteins like beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin and lysozyme have been compared under identical physicochemical condition. It has been noted with considerable interest that globular form of protein is important to some extent in protein-DNA interaction. An attempt has been made to explain the significance of difference in binding ratios of these two biopolymers in aqueous medium for different systems in the light of electrostatic and hydrophobic effects. Values of maximum binding ration (gammap(m)) at saturated level for different systems have been also presented. The Gibb's free energy decrease (-deltaG0) of the binding of proteins to DNA has been compared more precisely for the saturation of binding sites in the DNA with the change of activity of protein in solution from zero to unity in the rational mole fraction scale.

  16. Thermodynamic parameters of the binding of retinol to binding proteins and to membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Noy, N.; Xu, Z.J. )

    1990-04-24

    Retinol (vitamin A alcohol) is a hydrophobic compound and distributes in vivo mainly between binding proteins and cellular membranes. To better clarify the nature of the interactions of retinol with these phases which have a high affinity for it, the thermodynamic parameters of these interactions were studied. The temperature-dependence profiles of the binding of retinol to bovine retinol binding protein, bovine serum albumin, unilamellar vesicles of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, and plasma membranes from rat liver were determined. It was found that binding of retinol to retinol binding protein is characterized by a large increase in entropy and no change in enthalpy. Binding to albumin is driven by enthalpy and is accompanied by a decrease in entropy. Partitioning of retinal into unilamellar vesicles and into plasma membranes is stabilized both by enthalpic and by entropic components. The implications of these finding are discussed.

  17. Concentration-dependent Cu(II) binding to prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2008-03-01

    The prion protein plays a causative role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including mad cow disease in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of the prion protein is unknown, but it has been linked to its ability to bind copper ions. Experimental evidence suggests that copper can be bound in three distinct modes depending on its concentration, but only one of those binding modes has been fully characterized experimentally. Using a newly developed hybrid DFT/DFT method [1], which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with orbital-free DFT, we have examined all the binding modes and obtained their detailed binding geometries and copper ion binding energies. Our results also provide explanation for experiments, which have found that when the copper concentration increases the copper binding mode changes, surprisingly, from a stronger to a weaker one. Overall, our results indicate that prion protein can function as a copper buffer. 1. Hodak, Lu, Bernholc, JCP, in press.

  18. Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marshall P; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron J; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein targets, whereas adding RNA to recombinant RNA binding protein substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Preincubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G. During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps, which bind NE and cathepsin G. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and neutrophil extracellular traps in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high-affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation.

  19. Cooperative binding modes of Cu(II) in prion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Chisnell, Robin; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2007-03-01

    The misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, is responsible for a group of neurodegenerative diseases including mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is known that the PrP can efficiently bind copper ions; four high-affinity binding sites located in the octarepeat region of PrP are now well known. Recent experiments suggest that at low copper concentrations new binding modes, in which one copper ion is shared between two or more binding sites, are possible. Using our hybrid Thomas-Fermi/DFT computational scheme, which is well suited for simulations of biomolecules in solution, we investigate the geometries and energetics of two, three and four binding sites cooperatively binding one copper ion. These geometries are then used as inputs for classical molecular dynamics simulations. We find that copper binding affects the secondary structure of the PrP and that it stabilizes the unstructured (unfolded) part of the protein.

  20. A stable G-quartet binds to a huntingtin protein fragment containing expanded polyglutamine tracks.

    PubMed

    Yerkes, Sarah; Vesenka, James; Kmiec, Eric B

    2010-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. The disease is the result of an expanded CAG repeat in exon 1 of the HD gene, which encodes an elongated polyglutamine tract in the mutant form of the protein, huntingtin. Disease pathogenesis is linked to intracellular aggregates that form because of the tendency of the mutant protein to misfold. The role of huntingtin aggregates in disease pathology is unclear; it has been proposed that the aggregates themselves are toxic because of their ability to sequester intracellular proteins and disrupt normal cellular function. In addition, the mechanistic steps that lead to aggregate formation appear to be central to HD pathology. We have previously reported that guanosine-rich oligonucleotides with the ability to fold into a G-quartet are effective inhibitors of the aggregation process of a huntingtin protein fragment with an elongated polyglutamine tract, Htn 1-171(Q58). The most active molecule is composed of 20 guanosine residues, which adopt a G-wire conformation. Here we establish that G20 inhibits protein aggregation as judged by native gel electrophoresis, an agarose gel electrophoresis for resolving aggregates (AGERA) assay, and an immunoblotting assay. We also visualize the G20-Htn1-171(Q58) protein complex by using a streptavidin-biotin pull-down assay as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM). The G20 molecule also interacts with Htn1-171(Q23), a fusion protein that contains 23 glutamine residues instead of 58 (Q58), but in a more degenerate and nonspecific fashion. Taken together, our data support the notion that G20 exhibits some selectivity in binding to specific protein species that assemble along the aggregation pathway.

  1. Binding of perfluorooctanoic acid to rat and human plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Han, Xing; Snow, Timothy A; Kemper, Raymond A; Jepson, Gary W

    2003-06-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a commercially important organic fluorochemical and is considered to have a long half-life in human blood. In this paper, PFOA binding to rat and human plasma proteins was investigated. On the basis of results from size-exclusion chromatography and ligand blotting, most PFOA was in protein-bound form in male and female rat plasma, and the primary PFOA binding protein in plasma was serum albumin. PFOA binding to rat serum albumin (RSA) in the gas phase was observed by electrospray ionization MS. (19)F NMR experiments revealed that binding to RSA caused peak broadening and chemical shift changes of PFOA resonances, and on the basis of this observation, the dissociation constant was determined to be approximately 0.3 mM. The dissociation constants for PFOA binding to RSA and human serum albumin (HSA) and the numbers of PFOA binding sites on RSA and HSA were also determined by a separation method using microdesalting columns. No significant difference was found between PFOA binding to RSA and PFOA binding to HSA. The dissociation constants for binding of PFOA to RSA or HSA and the numbers of PFOA binding sites were in the range of 0.3-0.4 mM and 6-9, respectively. On the basis of these binding parameters and the estimated plasma concentration of serum albumin, greater than 90% of PFOA would be bound to serum albumin in both rat and human blood.

  2. The RNA-binding protein Gemin5 binds directly to the ribosome and regulates global translation

    PubMed Central

    Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Ramajo, Jorge; Martinez-Salas, Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play crucial roles in all organisms. The protein Gemin5 harbors two functional domains. The N-terminal domain binds to snRNAs targeting them for snRNPs assembly, while the C-terminal domain binds to IRES elements through a non-canonical RNA-binding site. Here we report a comprehensive view of the Gemin5 interactome; most partners copurified with the N-terminal domain via RNA bridges. Notably, Gemin5 sediments with the subcellular ribosome fraction, and His-Gemin5 binds to ribosome particles via its N-terminal domain. The interaction with the ribosome was lost in F381A and Y474A Gemin5 mutants, but not in W14A and Y15A. Moreover, the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 bind directly with Gemin5, and conversely, Gemin5 mutants impairing the binding to the ribosome are defective in the interaction with L3 and L4. The overall polysome profile was affected by Gemin5 depletion or overexpression, concomitant to an increase or a decrease, respectively, of global protein synthesis. Gemin5, and G5-Nter as well, were detected on the polysome fractions. These results reveal the ribosome-binding capacity of the N-ter moiety, enabling Gemin5 to control global protein synthesis. Our study uncovers a crosstalk between this protein and the ribosome, and provides support for the view that Gemin5 may control translation elongation. PMID:27507887

  3. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Yu, Lu-shan; Zeng, Su

    2013-08-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body. The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity, which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and lipoprotein, three most important proteins in human plasma, are detailed. Furthermore, the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed. Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding, enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described. Additionally, the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed.

  4. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qi; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Yu, Lu-shan; Zeng, Su

    2013-01-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body. The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity, which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and lipoprotein, three most important proteins in human plasma, are detailed. Furthermore, the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed. Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding, enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described. Additionally, the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed. PMID:23852086

  5. Glutamine, insulin and glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase expression in C2C12 myotubes, Hep G2 hepatoma cells and 3T3 L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxin; Watford, Malcolm

    2007-04-01

    The cell-specific regulation of glutamine synthetase expression was studied in three cell lines. In C2C12 myotubes, glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase protein and mRNA. Culture in the absence of glutamine also resulted in very high glutamine synthetase protein abundance but mRNA levels were unchanged. Glucocorticoids also increased the abundance of glutamine synthetase mRNA in Hep G2 hepatoma cells but this was not reflected in changes in protein abundance. Culture of Hep G2 cells without glutamine resulted in very high levels of protein, again with no change in mRNA abundance. Insulin was without effect in both C2C12 and Hep G2 cells. In 3T3 L1 adipocytes glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase mRNA and protein, insulin added alone had no effect but in the presence of glucocorticoids resulted in lower mRNA levels than seen with glucocorticoids alone, although protein levels remained high under such conditions. In contrast to the other cell lines glutamine synthetase protein levels were relatively unchanged by culture in the absence of glutamine. The results support the hypothesis that in myocytes, and hepatomas, but not in adipocytes, glutamine acts to moderate glutamine synthetase induction by glucocorticoids.

  6. CaMELS: In silico prediction of calmodulin binding proteins and their binding sites.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Wajid Arshad; Asif, Amina; Andleeb, Saiqa; Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar

    2017-09-01

    Due to Ca(2+) -dependent binding and the sequence diversity of Calmodulin (CaM) binding proteins, identifying CaM interactions and binding sites in the wet-lab is tedious and costly. Therefore, computational methods for this purpose are crucial to the design of such wet-lab experiments. We present an algorithm suite called CaMELS (CalModulin intEraction Learning System) for predicting proteins that interact with CaM as well as their binding sites using sequence information alone. CaMELS offers state of the art accuracy for both CaM interaction and binding site prediction and can aid biologists in studying CaM binding proteins. For CaM interaction prediction, CaMELS uses protein sequence features coupled with a large-margin classifier. CaMELS models the binding site prediction problem using multiple instance machine learning with a custom optimization algorithm which allows more effective learning over imprecisely annotated CaM-binding sites during training. CaMELS has been extensively benchmarked using a variety of data sets, mutagenic studies, proteome-wide Gene Ontology enrichment analyses and protein structures. Our experiments indicate that CaMELS outperforms simple motif-based search and other existing methods for interaction and binding site prediction. We have also found that the whole sequence of a protein, rather than just its binding site, is important for predicting its interaction with CaM. Using the machine learning model in CaMELS, we have identified important features of protein sequences for CaM interaction prediction as well as characteristic amino acid sub-sequences and their relative position for identifying CaM binding sites. Python code for training and evaluating CaMELS together with a webserver implementation is available at the URL: http://faculty.pieas.edu.pk/fayyaz/software.html#camels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Role of the C-terminal extension peptide of plastid located glutamine synthetase from Medicago truncatula: Crucial for enzyme activity and needless for protein import into the plastids.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria João; Vale, Diogo; Cunha, Luis; Melo, Paula

    2017-02-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in plant nitrogen metabolism, is encoded by a small family of highly homologous nuclear genes that produce cytosolic (GS1) and plastidic (GS2) isoforms. Compared to GS1, GS2 proteins have two extension peptides, one at the N- and the other at the C-terminus, which show a high degree of conservation among plant species. It has long been known that the N-terminal peptide acts as a transit peptide, targeting the protein to the plastids however, the function of the C-terminal extension is still unknown. To investigate whether the C-terminal extension influences the activity of the enzyme, we produced a C-terminal truncated version of Medicago truncatula GS2a in Escherechia coli and studied its catalytic properties. The activity of the truncated protein was found to be lower than that of MtGS2a and with less affinity for glutamate. The importance of the C-terminal extension for the protein import into the chloroplast was also assessed by transient expression of fluorescently-tagged MtGS2a truncated at the C-terminus, which was correctly detected in the chloroplast. The results obtained in this work demonstrate that the C-terminal extension of M. truncatula GS2a is important for the activity of the enzyme and does not contain crucial information for the import process.

  8. Glutamine synthetase in cultured whole retinas from the embryonic chick. Role of protein and RNA syntheses in 4 degrees C storage enhancement.

    PubMed

    Piperberg, J B; Reif-Lehrer, L

    1984-06-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity is enhanced in cultured whole retinas when a 72 h incubation at 37 degrees C is preceded by storage at 4 degrees C for 2-24 h. This enhancement occurs even in the absence of glucocorticoids and is maximal in retinas from 11 to 14 d embryos. In comparison, cortisol-induced increases in retinal GS activity at 37 degrees C are optimal in retinas from 8 to 12 d embryos. This study, using cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis) and cordycepin (an inhibitor of RNA synthesis), indicates that both protein and RNA synthesis are required for the 4 degrees C storage enhancement of GS activity. The necessary RNA synthesis occurs within the first 48 h following transfer to 37 degrees C and does not require concomitant protein synthesis. Uridine uptake, but not incorporation into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material, is increased by initial 4 degrees C storage when compared with whole retina controls incubated at 37 degrees C for the total time. In contrast, both uptake and incorporation of amino acids are increased in 4 degrees C-stored retinas for as long as 72 h subsequent to transfer from 4 to 37 degrees C. This suggests that enhancement GS activity may arise from a combination of elevated general protein synthesis and specific messenger-RNA synthesis following 4 degrees C storage.

  9. The RNA-binding protein SFPQ orchestrates an RNA regulon to promote axon viability.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Fenstermacher, Sara J; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Elliott, Hunter L; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-05-01

    To achieve accurate spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) guide nuclear processing, intracellular trafficking and local translation of target mRNAs. In neurons, RBPs direct transport of target mRNAs to sites of translation in remote axons and dendrites. However, it is not known whether an individual RBP coordinately regulates multiple mRNAs within these morphologically complex cells. Here we identify SFPQ (splicing factor, poly-glutamine rich) as an RBP that binds and regulates multiple mRNAs in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and thereby promotes neurotrophin-dependent axonal viability. SFPQ acts in nuclei, cytoplasm and axons to regulate functionally related mRNAs essential for axon survival. Notably, SFPQ is required for coassembly of LaminB2 (Lmnb2) and Bclw (Bcl2l2) mRNAs in RNA granules and for axonal trafficking of these mRNAs. Together these data demonstrate that SFPQ orchestrates spatial gene expression of a newly identified RNA regulon essential for axonal viability.

  10. Salt modulates the stability and lipid binding affinity of the adipocyte lipid-binding proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Joubert, Allison M.; Yang, Xuemei; LiCata, Vince J.

    2003-01-01

    Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP or aP2) is an intracellular fatty acid-binding protein that is found in adipocytes and macrophages and binds a large variety of intracellular lipids with high affinity. Although intracellular lipids are frequently charged, biochemical studies of lipid-binding proteins and their interactions often focus most heavily on the hydrophobic aspects of these proteins and their interactions. In this study, we have characterized the effects of KCl on the stability and lipid binding properties of ALBP. We find that added salt dramatically stabilizes ALBP, increasing its Delta G of unfolding by 3-5 kcal/mol. At 37 degrees C salt can more than double the stability of the protein. At the same time, salt inhibits the binding of the fluorescent lipid 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) to the protein and induces direct displacement of the lipid from the protein. Thermodynamic linkage analysis of the salt inhibition of ANS binding shows a nearly 1:1 reciprocal linkage: i.e. one ion is released from ALBP when ANS binds, and vice versa. Kinetic experiments show that salt reduces the rate of association between ANS and ALBP while simultaneously increasing the dissociation rate of ANS from the protein. We depict and discuss the thermodynamic linkages among stability, lipid binding, and salt effects for ALBP, including the use of these linkages to calculate the affinity of ANS for the denatured state of ALBP and its dependence on salt concentration. We also discuss the potential molecular origins and potential intracellular consequences of the demonstrated salt linkages to stability and lipid binding in ALBP.

  11. Salt modulates the stability and lipid binding affinity of the adipocyte lipid-binding proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Joubert, Allison M.; Yang, Xuemei; LiCata, Vince J.

    2003-01-01

    Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP or aP2) is an intracellular fatty acid-binding protein that is found in adipocytes and macrophages and binds a large variety of intracellular lipids with high affinity. Although intracellular lipids are frequently charged, biochemical studies of lipid-binding proteins and their interactions often focus most heavily on the hydrophobic aspects of these proteins and their interactions. In this study, we have characterized the effects of KCl on the stability and lipid binding properties of ALBP. We find that added salt dramatically stabilizes ALBP, increasing its Delta G of unfolding by 3-5 kcal/mol. At 37 degrees C salt can more than double the stability of the protein. At the same time, salt inhibits the binding of the fluorescent lipid 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) to the protein and induces direct displacement of the lipid from the protein. Thermodynamic linkage analysis of the salt inhibition of ANS binding shows a nearly 1:1 reciprocal linkage: i.e. one ion is released from ALBP when ANS binds, and vice versa. Kinetic experiments show that salt reduces the rate of association between ANS and ALBP while simultaneously increasing the dissociation rate of ANS from the protein. We depict and discuss the thermodynamic linkages among stability, lipid binding, and salt effects for ALBP, including the use of these linkages to calculate the affinity of ANS for the denatured state of ALBP and its dependence on salt concentration. We also discuss the potential molecular origins and potential intracellular consequences of the demonstrated salt linkages to stability and lipid binding in ALBP.

  12. Role of GlnR in acid-mediated repression of genes encoding proteins involved in glutamine and glutamate metabolism in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Min; Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Yu, Sung-Liang; Sher, Singh; Lai, Chern-Hsiung; Chia, Jean-San

    2010-04-01

    The acid tolerance response (ATR) is one of the major virulence traits of Streptococcus mutans. In this study, the role of GlnR in acid-mediated gene repression that affects the adaptive ATR in S. mutans was investigated. Using a whole-genome microarray and in silico analyses, we demonstrated that GlnR and the GlnR box (ATGTNAN(7)TNACAT) were involved in the transcriptional repression of clusters of genes encoding proteins involved in glutamine and glutamate metabolism under acidic challenge. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the coordinated regulation of the GlnR regulon occurred 5 min after acid treatment and that prolonged acid exposure (30 min) resulted in further reduction in expression. A lower level but consistent reduction in response to acidic pH was also observed in chemostat-grown cells, confirming the negative regulation of GlnR. The repression by GlnR through the GlnR box in response to acidic pH was further confirmed in the citBZC operon, containing genes encoding the first three enzymes in the glutamine/glutamate biosynthesis pathway. The survival rate of the GlnR-deficient mutant at pH 2.8 was more than 10-fold lower than that in the wild-type strain 45 min after acid treatment, suggesting that the GlnR regulon participates in S. mutans ATR. It is hypothesized that downregulation of the synthesis of the amino acid precursors in response to acid challenge would promote citrate metabolism to pyruvate, with the consumption of H(+) and potential ATP synthesis. Such regulation will ensure an optimal acid adaption in S. mutans.

  13. Amidoligases with ATP-grasp, glutamine synthetase-like and acetyltransferase-like domains: synthesis of novel metabolites and peptide modifications of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Aravind, L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the ubiquitin system had its origins in ancient cofactor/amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Preliminary studies also indicated that conjugation systems for other peptide tags on proteins, such as pupylation, have evolutionary links to cofactor/amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Following up on these observations, we systematically investigated the non-ribosomal amidoligases of the ATP-grasp, glutamine synthetase-like and acetyltransferase folds by classifying the known members and identifying novel versions. We then established their contextual connections using information from domain architectures and conserved gene neighborhoods. This showed remarkable, previously uncharacterized functional links between diverse peptide ligases, several peptidases of unrelated folds and enzymes involved in synthesis of modified amino acids. Using the network of contextual connections we were able to predict numerous novel pathways for peptide synthesis and modification, amine-utilization, secondary metabolite synthesis and potential peptide-tagging systems. One potential peptide-tagging system, which is widely distributed in bacteria, involves an ATP-grasp domain and a glutamine synthetase-like ligase, both of which are circularly permuted, an NTN hydrolase fold peptidase and a novel alpha helical domain. Our analysis also elucidates key steps in the biosynthesis of antibiotics such as friulimicin, butirosin and bacilysin and cell surface structures such as capsular polymers and teichuronopeptides. We also report the discovery of several novel ribosomally synthesized bacterial peptide metabolites that are cyclized via amide and lactone linkages formed by ATP-grasp enzymes. We present an evolutionary scenario for the multiple convergent origins of peptide ligases in various folds and clarify the bacterial origin of eukaryotic peptide-tagging enzymes of the TTL family. PMID:20023723

  14. Amidoligases with ATP-grasp, glutamine synthetase-like and acetyltransferase-like domains: synthesis of novel metabolites and peptide modifications of proteins.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Maxwell Burroughs, A; Aravind, L

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the ubiquitin system had its origins in ancient cofactor/amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Preliminary studies also indicated that conjugation systems for other peptide tags on proteins, such as pupylation, have evolutionary links to cofactor/amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Following up on these observations, we systematically investigated the non-ribosomal amidoligases of the ATP-grasp, glutamine synthetase-like and acetyltransferase folds by classifying the known members and identifying novel versions. We then established their contextual connections using information from domain architectures and conserved gene neighborhoods. This showed remarkable, previously uncharacterized functional links between diverse peptide ligases, several peptidases of unrelated folds and enzymes involved in synthesis of modified amino acids. Using the network of contextual connections we were able to predict numerous novel pathways for peptide synthesis and modification, amine-utilization, secondary metabolite synthesis and potential peptide-tagging systems. One potential peptide-tagging system, which is widely distributed in bacteria, involves an ATP-grasp domain and a glutamine synthetase-like ligase, both of which are circularly permuted, an NTN-hydrolase fold peptidase and a novel alpha helical domain. Our analysis also elucidates key steps in the biosynthesis of antibiotics such as friulimicin, butirosin and bacilysin and cell surface structures such as capsular polymers and teichuronopeptides. We also report the discovery of several novel ribosomally synthesized bacterial peptide metabolites that are cyclized via amide and lactone linkages formed by ATP-grasp enzymes. We present an evolutionary scenario for the multiple convergent origins of peptide ligases in various folds and clarify the bacterial origin of eukaryotic peptide-tagging enzymes of the TTL family.

  15. Identification of IgE-binding proteins in soy lecithin.

    PubMed

    Gu, X; Beardslee, T; Zeece, M; Sarath, G; Markwell, J

    2001-11-01

    Soy lecithin is widely used as an emulsifier in processed foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Soy lecithin is composed principally of phospholipids; however, it has also been shown to contain IgE-binding proteins, albeit at a low level. A few clinical cases involving allergic reactions to soy lecithin have been reported. The purpose of this investigation is to better characterize the IgE-binding proteins typically found in lecithin. Soy lecithin proteins were isolated following solvent extraction of lipid components and then separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The separated lecithin proteins were immunoblotted with sera from soy-sensitive individuals to determine the pattern of IgE-binding proteins. The identity of IgE-reactive bands was determined from their N-terminal sequence. The level of protein in six lecithin samples obtained from commercial suppliers ranged from 100 to 1,400 ppm. Lecithin samples showed similar protein patterns when examined by SDS-PAGE. Immunoblotting with sera from soy-sensitive individuals showed IgE binding to bands corresponding to 7, 12, 20, 39 and 57 kD. N-terminal analysis of these IgE-binding bands resulted in sequences for 3 components. The 12-kD band was identified as a methionine-rich protein (MRP) and a member of the 2S albumin class of soy proteins. The 20-kD band was found to be soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. The 39-kD band was matched to a soy protein with unknown function. Soy lecithin contains a number of IgE-binding proteins; thus, it might represent a source of hidden allergens. These allergens are a more significant concern for soy-allergic individuals consuming lecithin products as a health supplement. In addition, the MRP and the 39-kD protein identified in this study represent newly identified IgE-binding proteins. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Sa-Lrp from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a versatile, glutamine-responsive, and architectural transcriptional regulator

    PubMed Central

    Vassart, Amelia; Wolferen, Marleen; Orell, Alvaro; Hong, Ye; Peeters, Eveline; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Charlier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Sa-Lrp is a member of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp)-like family of transcriptional regulators in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Previously, we demonstrated the binding of Sa-Lrp to the control region of its own gene in vitro. However, the function and cofactor of Sa-Lrp remained an enigma. In this work, we demonstrate that glutamine is the cofactor of Sa-Lrp by inducing the formation of octamers and increasing the DNA-binding affinity and sequence specificity. In vitro protein-DNA interaction assays indicate that Sa-Lrp binds to promoter regions of genes with a variety of functions including ammonia assimilation, transcriptional control, and UV-induced pili synthesis. DNA binding occurs with a specific affinity for AT-rich binding sites, and the protein induces DNA bending and wrapping upon binding, indicating an architectural role of the regulator. Furthermore, by analyzing an Sa-lrp deletion mutant, we demonstrate that the protein affects transcription of some of the genes of which the promoter region is targeted and that it is an important determinant of the cellular aggregation phenotype. Taking all these results into account, we conclude that Sa-Lrp is a glutamine-responsive global transcriptional regulator with an additional architectural role. PMID:23255531

  17. Sa-Lrp from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a versatile, glutamine-responsive, and architectural transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed

    Vassart, Amelia; Van Wolferen, Marleen; Orell, Alvaro; Hong, Ye; Peeters, Eveline; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Charlier, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Sa-Lrp is a member of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp)-like family of transcriptional regulators in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Previously, we demonstrated the binding of Sa-Lrp to the control region of its own gene in vitro. However, the function and cofactor of Sa-Lrp remained an enigma. In this work, we demonstrate that glutamine is the cofactor of Sa-Lrp by inducing the formation of octamers and increasing the DNA-binding affinity and sequence specificity. In vitro protein-DNA interaction assays indicate that Sa-Lrp binds to promoter regions of genes with a variety of functions including ammonia assimilation, transcriptional control, and UV-induced pili synthesis. DNA binding occurs with a specific affinity for AT-rich binding sites, and the protein induces DNA bending and wrapping upon binding, indicating an architectural role of the regulator. Furthermore, by analyzing an Sa-lrp deletion mutant, we demonstrate that the protein affects transcription of some of the genes of which the promoter region is targeted and that it is an important determinant of the cellular aggregation phenotype. Taking all these results into account, we conclude that Sa-Lrp is a glutamine-responsive global transcriptional regulator with an additional architectural role.

  18. DNA Shape versus Sequence Variations in the Protein Binding Process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanying; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2016-02-02

    The binding process of a protein with a DNA involves three stages: approach, encounter, and association. It has been known that the complexation of protein and DNA involves mutual conformational changes, especially for a specific sequence association. However, it is still unclear how the conformation and the information in the DNA sequences affects the binding process. What is the extent to which the DNA structure adopted in the complex is induced by protein binding, or is instead intrinsic to the DNA sequence? In this study, we used the multiscale simulation method to explore the binding process of a protein with DNA in terms of DNA sequence, conformation, and interactions. We found that in the approach stage the protein can bind both the major and minor groove of the DNA, but uses different features to locate the binding site. The intrinsic conformational properties of the DNA play a significant role in this binding stage. By comparing the specific DNA with the nonspecific in unbound, intermediate, and associated states, we found that for a specific DNA sequence, ∼40% of the bending in the association forms is intrinsic and that ∼60% is induced by the protein. The protein does not induce appreciable bending of nonspecific DNA. In addition, we proposed that the DNA shape variations induced by protein binding are required in the early stage of the binding process, so that the protein is able to approach, encounter, and form an intermediate at the correct site on DNA. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative serum protein binding of anthracycline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chassany, O; Urien, S; Claudepierre, P; Bastian, G; Tillement, J P

    1996-01-01

    The binding of doxorubicin, iododoxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, pirarubicin, zorubicin, aclarubicin, and mitoxantrone to 600 microM human serum albumin and 50 microM alpha 1-acid glycoprotein was studied by ultrafiltration at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. Anthracycline concentrations (total and free) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection. Binding to albumin (600 microM) varied from 61% (daunorubicin) to 94% (iododoxorubicin). The binding to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (50 microM) was more variable, ranging from 31% (epirubicin) to 64% (zorubicin), and was essentially related to the hydrophobicity of the derivatives. Simulations showed that the total serum binding varied over a broad range from 71% (doxorubicin) to 96% (iododoxorubicin). We recently reported that the binding to lipoproteins of a series of eight anthracycline analogues could be ascribed to chemicophysical determinants of lipophilicity [2]. The present study was conducted to evaluate in vitro the contribution of albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to the total serum binding of these drugs.

  20. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-06

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins.

  1. Structure and Function of Nematode RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kaymak, Ebru; Wee, L.M.; Ryder, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins are critical effectors of gene expression. They guide mRNA localization, translation, and stability, and potentially play a role in regulating mRNA synthesis. The structural basis for RNA recognition by RNA-binding proteins is the key to understanding how they target specific transcripts for regulation. Compared to other metazoans, nematode genomes contain a significant expansion in several RNA-binding protein families, including Pumilio-FBF (PUF), TTP-like zinc finger (TZF), and argonaute-like (AGO) proteins. Genetic data suggest that individual members of each family have distinct functions, presumably due to sequence variations that alter RNA binding specificity or protein interaction partners. In this review, we highlight example structures and identify the variable regions that likely contribute to functional divergence in nematodes. PMID:20418095

  2. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-01

    RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26751491

  3. Stage specific kinetoplast DNA-binding proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Castro, J E; Acosta-Viana, K; Guzmán-Marín, E; Rosado-Barrera, M E; Rosales-Encina, J L

    2000-09-18

    Knowledge regarding kinetoplast DNA organization in all members of the Trypanosomatid family is incomplete. Recently, the presence of kinetoplast-associated proteins in condensing kDNA networks in Crithidia fasciculata has been described and a role for these proteins in the maintenance of these complex structures was suggested. To investigate the presence of protein components in Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast, we previously described seven epimastigote kinetoplast-associated proteins. We report here the existence of kinetoplast binding proteins in amastigote and trypomastigote stages of T. cruzi, which could bind both mini and maxicircles components with a stage specific elements for every infective form of the parasite. We propose three major classes of kinetoplast-associated proteins related to the basic processes of this intricate disc structure and suggest a possible function of these binding proteins in the T. cruzi mitochondrial DNA organization.

  4. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-01-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared to patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. PMID:22086767

  5. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins.

    PubMed

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2012-02-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However, the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three-dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared with patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Predicting protein-binding RNA nucleotides with consideration of binding partners.

    PubMed

    Tuvshinjargal, Narankhuu; Lee, Wook; Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2015-06-01

    In recent years several computational methods have been developed to predict RNA-binding sites in protein. Most of these methods do not consider interacting partners of a protein, so they predict the same RNA-binding sites for a given protein sequence even if the protein binds to different RNAs. Unlike the problem of predicting RNA-binding sites in protein, the problem of predicting protein-binding sites in RNA has received little attention mainly because it is much more difficult and shows a lower accuracy on average. In our previous study, we developed a method that predicts protein-binding nucleotides from an RNA sequence. In an effort to improve the prediction accuracy and usefulness of the previous method, we developed a new method that uses both RNA and protein sequence data. In this study, we identified effective features of RNA and protein molecules and developed a new support vector machine (SVM) model to predict protein-binding nucleotides from RNA and protein sequence data. The new model that used both protein and RNA sequence data achieved a sensitivity of 86.5%, a specificity of 86.2%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72.6%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.8% and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.69 in a 10-fold cross validation; it achieved a sensitivity of 58.8%, a specificity of 87.4%, a PPV of 65.1%, a NPV of 84.2% and MCC of 0.48 in independent testing. For comparative purpose, we built another prediction model that used RNA sequence data alone and ran it on the same dataset. In a 10 fold-cross validation it achieved a sensitivity of 85.7%, a specificity of 80.5%, a PPV of 67.7%, a NPV of 92.2% and MCC of 0.63; in independent testing it achieved a sensitivity of 67.7%, a specificity of 78.8%, a PPV of 57.6%, a NPV of 85.2% and MCC of 0.45. In both cross-validations and independent testing, the new model that used both RNA and protein sequences showed a better performance than the model that used RNA sequence data alone in

  7. 9S binding protein for androgens and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Wilson, E M; Lea, O A; French, F S

    1977-05-01

    A steroid binding protein fraction with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 9 S (molecular weight approximately equal to 200,000) has been identified in 105,000 X g supernatants of several androgen-responsive organs. Highest concentrations were found in epididymis and testis, but small amounts were detected in prostate, seminal vesicle, kidney, submandibular gland, and lung. The 9S protein binds [3H]dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one) and [3H]progesterone (4-pregnene-3,20-dione) with equilibrium binding constants of approximately 10(5) M-1 and 10(6) M-1, respectively. The concentration of 9S binding sites in epididymis is approximately 10(-11) mol/mg of supernatant protein, which is at least 10(5) times greater than the concentration of androgen receptor. 9S binding protein appears to be a nonsecretory, intracellular protein and has properties different from the andorgen receptor. It is unretarded on DEAE-Sephadex chromatography at pH 8.0, and its sedimentation rate on sucrose gradients is not altered at high ionic strength (0.4 M KCl). Like the androgen receptor, its binding activity, which is maximal between pH 7 and 9.5, is heat labile, decreased by sulfhydryl reagents, and enhanced by 2-mercaptoethanol. It is suggested that because of its high concentration and low affinity, 9S binding protein may function in the intracellular accumulation of compartmentalization of androgens or progesterone.

  8. HTLV-1 Tax Protein Stimulation of DNA Binding of bZIP Proteins by Enhancing Dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Susanne; Green, Michael R.

    1993-10-01

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  9. Complexed Structures of Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima Describe a Novel ATP Binding Protein Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Morar, Mariya; Anand, Ruchi; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-09-11

    Formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase (FGAR-AT) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) from formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine in the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway. FGAR-AT is encoded by the purL gene. Two types of PurL have been detected. The first type, found in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, consists of a single 140 kDa polypeptide chain and is designated large PurL (lgPurL). The second type, small PurL (smPurL), is found in archaea and Gram-positive bacteria and consists of an 80 kDa polypeptide chain. SmPurL requires two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS, for activity. PurL is a member of a protein superfamily that contains a novel ATP-binding domain. Structures of several members of this superfamily are available in the unliganded form. We determined five different structures of FGAR-AT from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of substrates, a substrate analogue, and a product. These complexes have allowed a detailed description of the novel ATP-binding motif. The availability of a ternary complex enabled mapping of the active site, thus identifying potential residues involved in catalysis. The complexes show a conformational change in the active site compared to the unliganded structure. Surprising discoveries, an ATP molecule in an auxiliary site of the protein and the conformational changes associated with its binding, provoke speculation about the regulatory role of the auxiliary site in formation of the PurLSQ complex as well as the evolutionary relationship of PurLs from different organisms.

  10. PrionW: a server to identify proteins containing glutamine/asparagine rich prion-like domains and their amyloid cores

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Rafael; Conchillo-Sole, Oscar; Iglesias, Valentin; Illa, Ricard; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost; Sabate, Raimon; Daura, Xavier; Ventura, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Prions are a particular type of amyloids with the ability to self-perpetuate and propagate in vivo. Prion-like conversion underlies important biological processes but is also connected to human disease. Yeast prions are the best understood transmissible amyloids. In these proteins, prion formation from an initially soluble state involves a structural conversion, driven, in many cases, by specific domains enriched in glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) residues. Importantly, domains sharing this compositional bias are also present in the proteomes of higher organisms, thus suggesting that prion-like conversion might be an evolutionary conserved mechanism. We have recently shown that the identification and evaluation of the potency of amyloid nucleating sequences in putative prion domains allows discrimination of genuine prions. PrionW is a web application that exploits this principle to scan sequences in order to identify proteins containing Q/N enriched prion-like domains (PrLDs) in large datasets. When used to scan the complete yeast proteome, PrionW identifies previously experimentally validated prions with high accuracy. Users can analyze up to 10 000 sequences at a time, PrLD-containing proteins are identified and their putative PrLDs and amyloid nucleating cores visualized and scored. The output files can be downloaded for further analysis. PrionW server can be accessed at http://bioinf.uab.cat/prionw/. PMID:25977297

  11. Adaptive Calcified Matrix Response of Dental Pulp to Bacterial Invasion Is Associated with Establishment of a Network of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein+/Glutamine Synthetase+ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Ramin M.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Simonian, Mary; Hunter, Neil

    2010-01-01

    We report evidence for anatomical and functional changes of dental pulp in response to bacterial invasion through dentin that parallel responses to noxious stimuli reported in neural crest-derived sensory tissues. Sections of resin-embedded carious adult molar teeth were prepared for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, ultrastructural analysis, and microdissection to extract mRNA for quantitative analyses. In odontoblasts adjacent to the leading edge of bacterial invasion in carious teeth, expression levels of the gene encoding dentin sialo-protein were 16-fold greater than in odontoblasts of healthy teeth, reducing progressively with distance from this site of the carious lesion. In contrast, gene expression for dentin matrix protein-1 by odontoblasts was completely suppressed in carious teeth relative to healthy teeth. These changes in gene expression were related to a gradient of deposited reactionary dentin that displayed a highly modified structure. In carious teeth, interodontoblastic dentin sialo-protein− cells expressing glutamine synthetase (GS) showed up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These cells extended processes that associated with odontoblasts. Furthermore, connexin 43 established a linkage between adjacent GFAP+/GS+ cells in carious teeth only. These findings indicate an adaptive pulpal response to encroaching caries that includes the deposition of modified, calcified, dentin matrix associated with networks of GFAP+/GS+ interodontoblastic cells. A regulatory role for the networks of GFAP+/GS+ cells is proposed, mediated by the secretion of glutamate to modulate odontoblastic response. PMID:20802180

  12. Paramagnetic Ligand Tagging To Identify Protein Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transient biomolecular interactions are the cornerstones of the cellular machinery. The identification of the binding sites for low affinity molecular encounters is essential for the development of high affinity pharmaceuticals from weakly binding leads but is hindered by the lack of robust methodologies for characterization of weakly binding complexes. We introduce a paramagnetic ligand tagging approach that enables localization of low affinity protein–ligand binding clefts by detection and analysis of intermolecular protein NMR pseudocontact shifts, which are invoked by the covalent attachment of a paramagnetic lanthanoid chelating tag to the ligand of interest. The methodology is corroborated by identification of the low millimolar volatile anesthetic interaction site of the calcium sensor protein calmodulin. It presents an efficient route to binding site localization for low affinity complexes and is applicable to rapid screening of protein–ligand systems with varying binding affinity. PMID:26289584

  13. Protein surface-distribution and protein-protein interactions in the binding of peripheral proteins to charged lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Heimburg, T; Marsh, D

    1995-01-01

    The binding of native cytochrome c to negatively charged lipid dispersions of dioleoyl phosphatidylglycerol has been studied over a wide range of ionic strengths. Not only is the strength of protein binding found to decrease rapidly with increasing ionic strength, but also the binding curves reach an apparent saturation level that decreases rapidly with increasing ionic strength. Analysis of the binding isotherms with a general statistical thermodynamic model that takes into account not only the free energy of the electrostatic double layer, but also the free energy of the surface distribution of the protein, demonstrates that the apparent saturation effects could arise from a competition between the out-of-plane binding reaction and the lateral in-plane interactions between proteins at the surface. It is found that association with nonlocalized sites results in binding isotherms that display the apparent saturation effect to a much more pronounced extent than does the Langmuir adsorption isotherm for binding to localized sites. With the model for nonlocalized sites, the binding isotherms of native cytochrome c can be described adequately by taking into account only the entropy of the surface distribution of the protein, without appreciable enthalpic interactions between the bound proteins. The binding of cytochrome c to dioleoyl phosphatidylglycerol dispersions at a temperature at which the bound protein is denatured on the lipid surface, but is nondenatured when free in solution, has also been studied. The binding curves for the surface-denatured protein differ from those for the native protein in that the apparent saturation at high ionic strength is less pronounced. This indicates the tendency of the denatured protein to aggregate on the lipid surface, and can be described by the binding isotherms for nonlocalized sites only if attractive interactions between the surface-bound proteins are included in addition to the distributional entropic terms. Additionally

  14. Terahertz dielectric assay of solution phase protein binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing-Yin; Knab, J. R.; Ye, Shuji; He, Yunfen; Markelz, A. G.

    2007-06-01

    The authors demonstrate a method for rapid determination of protein-ligand binding on solution phase samples using terahertz dielectric spectroscopy. Measurements were performed using terahertz time domain spectroscopy on aqueous solutions below the liquid-solid transition for water. Small ligand binding sensitivity was demonstrated using triacetylglucosamine and hen egg white lysozyme with a decrease in dielectric response with binding. The magnitude of the change increases with frequency.

  15. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  16. Pleiotropic virulence factor - Streptococcus pyogenes fibronectin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Terao, Yutaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes a broad spectrum of infectious diseases, including pharyngitis, skin infections and invasive necrotizing fasciitis. The initial phase of infection involves colonization, followed by intimate contact with the host cells, thus promoting bacterial uptake by them. S. pyogenes recognizes fibronectin (Fn) through its own Fn-binding proteins to obtain access to epithelial and endothelial cells in host tissue. Fn-binding proteins bind to Fn to form a bridge to α5 β1 -integrins, which leads to rearrangement of cytoskeletal actin in host cells and uptake of invading S. pyogenes. Recently, several structural analyses of the invasion mechanism showed molecular interactions by which Fn converts from a compact plasma protein to a fibrillar component of the extracellular matrix. After colonization, S. pyogenes must evade the host innate immune system to spread into blood vessels and deeper organs. Some Fn-binding proteins contribute to evasion of host innate immunity, such as the complement system and phagocytosis. In addition, Fn-binding proteins have received focus as non-M protein vaccine candidates, because of their localization and conservation among different M serotypes.Here, we review the roles of Fn-binding proteins in the pathogenesis and speculate regarding possible vaccine antigen candidates. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Exchange Kinetics of a Hydrophobic Ligand Binding Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Jeff; Stone, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Conformational fluctuations of proteins are thought to be important for determining the functional roles in biological activity. In some cases, the rates of these conformational changes may be directly correlated to, for example, the rates of catalysis or ligand binding. We are studying the role of conformational fluctuations in the binding of small volatile hydrophobic pheromones by the mouse major urinary proteins (MUPs). Communication among mice occurs, in part, with the MUP-1 protein. This urinary protein binds pheromones as a way to increase the longevity of the pheromone in an extracellular environment. Of interest is that the crystal structure of MUP-1 with a pheromone ligand shows the ligand to be completely occluded from the solvent with no obvious pathway to enter or exit. This suggests that conformational exchange of the protein may be required for ligand binding and release to occur. We hypothesize that the rate of conformational exchange may be a limiting factor determining the rate of ligand association and dissociation. By careful measurement of the on- and off-rates of ligand binding and the rates of conformational changes of the protein, a more defined picture of the interplay between protein structure and function can be obtained. To this end, heteronuclear saturation transfer, ^15N-exchange and ^15N dynamics experiments have been employed to probe the kinetics of ligand binding to MUP-1.

  18. De-novo protein function prediction using DNA binding and RNA binding proteins as a test case.

    PubMed

    Peled, Sapir; Leiderman, Olga; Charar, Rotem; Efroni, Gilat; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Ofran, Yanay

    2016-11-21

    Of the currently identified protein sequences, 99.6% have never been observed in the laboratory as proteins and their molecular function has not been established experimentally. Predicting the function of such proteins relies mostly on annotated homologs. However, this has resulted in some erroneous annotations, and many proteins have no annotated homologs. Here we propose a de-novo function prediction approach based on identifying biophysical features that underlie function. Using our approach, we discover DNA and RNA binding proteins that cannot be identified based on homology and validate these predictions experimentally. For example, FGF14, which belongs to a family of secreted growth factors was predicted to bind DNA. We verify this experimentally and also show that FGF14 is localized to the nucleus. Mutating the predicted binding site on FGF14 abrogated DNA binding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of automated de-novo function prediction based on identifying function-related biophysical features.

  19. De-novo protein function prediction using DNA binding and RNA binding proteins as a test case

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Sapir; Leiderman, Olga; Charar, Rotem; Efroni, Gilat; Shav-Tal, Yaron; Ofran, Yanay

    2016-01-01

    Of the currently identified protein sequences, 99.6% have never been observed in the laboratory as proteins and their molecular function has not been established experimentally. Predicting the function of such proteins relies mostly on annotated homologs. However, this has resulted in some erroneous annotations, and many proteins have no annotated homologs. Here we propose a de-novo function prediction approach based on identifying biophysical features that underlie function. Using our approach, we discover DNA and RNA binding proteins that cannot be identified based on homology and validate these predictions experimentally. For example, FGF14, which belongs to a family of secreted growth factors was predicted to bind DNA. We verify this experimentally and also show that FGF14 is localized to the nucleus. Mutating the predicted binding site on FGF14 abrogated DNA binding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of automated de-novo function prediction based on identifying function-related biophysical features. PMID:27869118

  20. Prediction of DNA-binding proteins from relational features

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The process of protein-DNA binding has an essential role in the biological processing of genetic information. We use relational machine learning to predict DNA-binding propensity of proteins from their structures. Automatically discovered structural features are able to capture some characteristic spatial configurations of amino acids in proteins. Results Prediction based only on structural relational features already achieves competitive results to existing methods based on physicochemical properties on several protein datasets. Predictive performance is further improved when structural features are combined with physicochemical features. Moreover, the structural features provide some insights not revealed by physicochemical features. Our method is able to detect common spatial substructures. We demonstrate this in experiments with zinc finger proteins. Conclusions We introduced a novel approach for DNA-binding propensity prediction using relational machine learning which could potentially be used also for protein function prediction in general. PMID:23146001

  1. Ca2+ signaling and intracellular Ca2+ binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Niki, I; Yokokura, H; Sudo, T; Kato, M; Hidaka, H

    1996-10-01

    Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations evoke a wide range of cellular responses and intracellular Ca(2+)-binding proteins are the key molecules to transduce Ca2+ signaling via enzymatic reactions or modulation of protein/protein interations (Fig.1). The EF hand proteins, like calmodulin and S100 proteins, are considered to exert Ca(2+)-dependent actions in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. The Ca2+/phospholipid binding proteins are classified into two groups, the annexins and the C2 region proteins. These proteins, distributed mainly in the cytoplasm, translocate to the plasma membrane in response to an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and function in the vicinity of the membrane. Ca2+ storage proteins in the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum provide the high Ca2+ capacity of the Ca2+ store sites, which regulate intracellular Ca2+ distribution. The variety and complexity of Ca2+ signaling result from the cooperative actions of specific Ca(2+)-binding proteins. This review describes biochemical properties of intracellular Ca(2+)-binding proteins and their proposed roles in mediating Ca2+ signaling.

  2. Leukocyte Protease Binding to Nucleic Acids Promotes Nuclear Localization and Cleavage of Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Marshall P.; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein (RBP) targets, while adding RNA to recombinant RBP substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Pre-incubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CATG). During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which bind NE and CATG. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and NETs in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation. PMID:24771851

  3. A new aspect of serum protein binding of tolbutamide.

    PubMed

    Ayanoğlu, G; Uihlein, M; Grigoleit, H G

    1986-02-01

    Tolbutamide is known to bind highly to serum proteins. Quite different values have, however, been reported for binding, ranging from 80 to 99 percent. In this study, in vivo and in vitro binding of increasing concentrations of tolbutamide to human serum proteins were evaluated. In vitro studies were done serum from three healthy males and for in vivo studies serum samples from eight healthy males who had received 1,000 mg tolbutamide were used. Protein binding was determined by equilibrium dialysis, using DIANORM system. Tolbutamide concentrations were determined by HPLC method of Uihlein and Hack. The results suggest that there is an increase in percent tolbutamide bound with increasing concentrations of tolbutamide. Generally, an inverse relationship between the total concentration of a drug in serum and its bound fraction is observed. Our findings seem to be contrary to this, at least within the concentration range studied. There exist at least two binding sites on albumin with different affinities for tolbutamide and most probably, at low concentrations, the drug binds mainly to the high affinity sites, whereas at higher concentrations additional drug will bind to the lower affinity sites leading to the observed increase in fraction bound with concentration. In conclusion it may be said that serum protein binding is a much more complicated phenomenon than generally stated and that the normal observations are only true for some ideal compounds where only one site of adsorption has to be taken into account.

  4. Protein binding to expanded telomere repeats in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jennifer M; Gana, Joyce Ache; Petcherskaia, Marina; Kirk, Karen E

    2003-01-01

    The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein structures called telomeres. Telomeric DNA is highly conserved, usually consisting of long tracts of a repeating G-rich sequence. Tetrahymena thermophila telomeric DNA consists of alternating blocks of GGGG and TT sequences (i.e. a G4T2 repeat sequence). We examined the relative importance of the guanine and thymine elements of the repeat sequence in promoting in vitro binding by T. thermophila proteins. We identified single- and, for the first time, double-stranded telomere binding activities from a crude T. thermophila protein extract and tested the binding of these activities to altered telomere repeat sequences. All deletions or substitutions made to the guanine element virtually abolished binding, indicating that four G's are essential for recognition by the binding activity. However, G's alone are not sufficient for efficient binding, as elimination of the thymine element dramatically reduced binding. By contrast, substantial expansion of the thymine element was well tolerated, even though one such change, G4T4, is lethal in vivo. We tested up to a four-fold expansion of the thymine element and found that highly efficient binding was still achieved. These results suggest a minimal recognition sequence for T. thermophila proteins, with the T element providing an important spacer between essential G elements.

  5. Nucleic acid-binding specificity of human FUS protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueyin; Schwartz, Jacob C.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    FUS, a nuclear RNA-binding protein, plays multiple roles in RNA processing. Five specific FUS-binding RNA sequence/structure motifs have been proposed, but their affinities for FUS have not been directly compared. Here we find that human FUS binds all these sequences with Kdapp values spanning a 10-fold range. Furthermore, some RNAs that do not contain any of these motifs bind FUS with similar affinity. FUS binds RNA in a length-dependent manner, consistent with a substantial non-specific component to binding. Finally, investigation of FUS binding to different nucleic acids shows that it binds single-stranded DNA with three-fold lower affinity than ssRNA of the same length and sequence, while binding to double-stranded nucleic acids is weaker. We conclude that FUS has quite general nucleic acid-binding activity, with the various proposed RNA motifs being neither necessary for FUS binding nor sufficient to explain its diverse binding partners. PMID:26150427

  6. Erythrocyte Protein 4.1 Binds and Regulates Myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, Gary R.; Racusen, Richard H.

    1989-12-01

    Myosin was recently identified in erythrocytes and was shown to partition both with membrane and cytosolic fractions, suggesting that it may be loosely bound to membranes [Fowler, V. M., Davis, J. Q. & Bennett, V. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 47-55, and Wong, A. J., Kiehart, D. P. & Pollard, T. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 46-49]; however, the molecular basis for this binding was unclear. The present studies employed immobilized monomeric myosin to examine the interaction of myosin with erythrocyte protein 4.1. In human erythrocytes, protein 4.1 binds to integral membrane proteins and mediates spectrin-actin assembly. Protein 4.1 binds to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with a Kd = 140 nM and a stoichiometry consistent with 1:1 binding. Heavy meromyosin competes for protein 4.1 binding with Ki = 36-54 nM; however, the S1 fragment (the myosin head) competes less efficiently. Affinity chromatography of partial chymotryptic digests of protein 4.1 on immobilized myosin identified a 10-kDa domain of protein 4.1 as the myosin-binding site. In functional studies, protein 4.1 partially inhibited the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin with Ki = 51 nM. Liver cytosolic and erythrocyte myosins preactivated with myosin light-chain kinase were similarly inhibited by protein 4.1. These studies show that protein 4.1 binds, modulates, and thus may regulate myosin. This interaction might serve to generate the contractile forces involved in Mg2+-ATP-dependent shape changes in erythrocytes and may additionally serve as a model for myosin organization and regulation in non-muscle cells.

  7. Glutamine Modulates Macrophage Lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Weber, Kassandra J; Schilling, Joel D

    2016-04-12

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with excessive inflammation and impaired wound healing. Increasing evidence suggests that macrophage dysfunction is responsible for these inflammatory defects. In the setting of excess nutrients, particularly dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs), activated macrophages develop lysosome dysfunction, which triggers activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and cell death. The molecular pathways that connect lipid stress to lysosome pathology are not well understood, but may represent a viable target for therapy. Glutamine uptake is increased in activated macrophages leading us to hypothesize that in the context of excess lipids glutamine metabolism could overwhelm the mitochondria and promote the accumulation of toxic metabolites. To investigate this question we assessed macrophage lipotoxicity in the absence of glutamine using LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages exposed to the SFA palmitate. We found that glutamine deficiency reduced lipid induced lysosome dysfunction, inflammasome activation, and cell death. Under glutamine deficient conditions mTOR activation was decreased and autophagy was enhanced; however, autophagy was dispensable for the rescue phenotype. Rather, glutamine deficiency prevented the suppressive effect of the SFA palmitate on mitochondrial respiration and this phenotype was associated with protection from macrophage cell death. Together, these findings reveal that crosstalk between activation-induced metabolic reprogramming and the nutrient microenvironment can dramatically alter macrophage responses to inflammatory stimuli.

  8. Glutamine Modulates Macrophage Lipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Weber, Kassandra J.; Schilling, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with excessive inflammation and impaired wound healing. Increasing evidence suggests that macrophage dysfunction is responsible for these inflammatory defects. In the setting of excess nutrients, particularly dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs), activated macrophages develop lysosome dysfunction, which triggers activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and cell death. The molecular pathways that connect lipid stress to lysosome pathology are not well understood, but may represent a viable target for therapy. Glutamine uptake is increased in activated macrophages leading us to hypothesize that in the context of excess lipids glutamine metabolism could overwhelm the mitochondria and promote the accumulation of toxic metabolites. To investigate this question we assessed macrophage lipotoxicity in the absence of glutamine using LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages exposed to the SFA palmitate. We found that glutamine deficiency reduced lipid induced lysosome dysfunction, inflammasome activation, and cell death. Under glutamine deficient conditions mTOR activation was decreased and autophagy was enhanced; however, autophagy was dispensable for the rescue phenotype. Rather, glutamine deficiency prevented the suppressive effect of the SFA palmitate on mitochondrial respiration and this phenotype was associated with protection from macrophage cell death. Together, these findings reveal that crosstalk between activation-induced metabolic reprogramming and the nutrient microenvironment can dramatically alter macrophage responses to inflammatory stimuli. PMID:27077881

  9. Carbohydrate-binding protein identification by coupling structural similarity searching with binding affinity prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiying; Yang, Yuedong; von Itzstein, Mark; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2014-11-15

    Carbohydrate-binding proteins (CBPs) are potential biomarkers and drug targets. However, the interactions between carbohydrates and proteins are challenging to study experimentally and computationally because of their low binding affinity, high flexibility, and the lack of a linear sequence in carbohydrates as exists in RNA, DNA, and proteins. Here, we describe a structure-based function-prediction technique called SPOT-Struc that identifies carbohydrate-recognizing proteins and their binding amino acid residues by structural alignment program SPalign and binding affinity scoring according to a knowledge-based statistical potential based on the distance-scaled finite-ideal gas reference state (DFIRE). The leave-one-out cross-validation of the method on 113 carbohydrate-binding domains and 3442 noncarbohydrate binding proteins yields a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.56 for SPalign alone and 0.63 for SPOT-Struc (SPalign + binding affinity scoring) for CBP prediction. SPOT-Struc is a technique with high positive predictive value (79% correct predictions in all positive CBP predictions) with a reasonable sensitivity (52% positive predictions in all CBPs). The sensitivity of the method was changed slightly when applied to 31 APO (unbound) structures found in the protein databank (14/31 for APO versus 15/31 for HOLO). The result of SPOT-Struc will not change significantly if highly homologous templates were used. SPOT-Struc predicted 19 out of 2076 structural genome targets as CBPs. In particular, one uncharacterized protein in Bacillus subtilis (1oq1A) was matched to galectin-9 from Mus musculus. Thus, SPOT-Struc is useful for uncovering novel carbohydrate-binding proteins. SPOT-Struc is available at http://sparks-lab.org.

  10. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of Cytokinesis Actin-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Dennis; Morganthaler, Alisha N; Kovar, David R; Suarez, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the biochemical and biophysical properties of purified proteins is critical to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms that facilitate complicated cellular processes such as cytokinesis. Here we outline in vitro assays to investigate the effects of cytokinesis actin-binding proteins on actin filament dynamics and organization. We describe (1) multicolor single-molecule TIRF microscopy actin assembly assays, (2) "bulk" pyrene actin assembly/disassembly assays, and (3) "bulk" sedimentation actin filament binding and bundling assays.

  11. Subcellular distribution of small GTP binding proteins in pancreas: Identification of small GTP binding proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Nigam, S.K. )

    1990-02-01

    Subfractionation of a canine pancreatic homogenate was performed by several differential centrifugation steps, which gave rise to fractions with distinct marker profiles. Specific binding of guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-({sup 35}S)thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S)) was assayed in each fraction. Enrichment of GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding was greatest in the interfacial smooth microsomal fraction, expected to contain Golgi and other smooth vesicles. There was also marked enrichment in the rough microsomal fraction. Electron microscopy and marker protein analysis revealed the rough microsomes (RMs) to be highly purified rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The distribution of small (low molecular weight) GTP binding proteins was examined by a ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP blot-overlay assay. Several apparent GTP binding proteins of molecular masses 22-25 kDa were detected in various subcellular fractions. In particular, at least two such proteins were found in the Golgi-enriched and RM fractions, suggesting that these small GTP binding proteins were localized to the Golgi and RER. To more precisely localize these proteins to the RER, native RMs and RMs stripped of ribosomes by puromycin/high salt were subjected to isopycnic centrifugation. The total GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding, as well as the small GTP binding proteins detected by the ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)GTP blot overlay, distributed into fractions of high sucrose density, as did the RER marker ribophorin I. Consistent with a RER localization, when the RMS were stripped of ribosomes and subjected to isopycnic centrifugation, the total GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding and the small GTP binding proteins detected in the blot-overlay assay shifted to fractions of lighter sucrose density along with the RER marker.

  12. Binding of exogenous brain protein kinase C to liver nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, U.K.; Wolf, M.; Besterman, J.; Cuatrecasas, P.; Sahyoun, N.

    1986-05-01

    Protein kinase C is found both in the cytosol and bound to membranes. Binding of the enzyme to plasma membranes is controlled by calcium whereas enzyme activators regulate both its membrane binding and enzyme catalysis. Activation of protein kinase C has been implicated in several regulatory processes including gene expression. Accordingly, the possibility of direct interaction of protein kinase C with the nucleus was examined utilizing /sup 3/H-PDBu binding to detect the enzyme. Purified protein kinase C from rat brain could bind to purified rat liver nuclei at 4/sup 0/C or at 21/sup 0/C, and the reaction was completed by 20 min. The binding was linearly dependent on protein kinase C concentration and required free Ca/sup 2 +/ with a K/sub m/sub app// of 0.5 ..mu..M. Chelation of Ca/sup 2 +/ with EGTA resulted in a rapid dissociation of protein kinase C from the nuclei. Differential extraction experiments suggested that about 50% of the enzyme was bound to chromatin and 25% was associated with the nuclear matrix. Moreover, protein kinase C bound to nuclei was able to phosphorylate several endogenous nuclear substrates, including chromatin proteins, in a Ca/sup 2 +/ phosphatidyl serine dependent reaction.

  13. Theoretical studies of protein-protein and protein-DNA binding rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsallaq, Ramzi A.

    Proteins are folded chains of amino acids. Some of the amino acids (e.g. Lys, Arg, His, Asp, and Glu) carry charges under physiological conditions. Proteins almost always function through binding to other proteins or ligands, for example barnase is a ribonuclease protein, found in the bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaceus. Barnase degrades RNA by hydrolysis. For the bacterium to inhibit the potentially lethal action of Barnase within its own cell it co-produces another protein called barstar which binds quickly, and tightly, to barnase. The biological function of this binding is to block the active site of barnase. The speeds (rates) at which proteins associate are vital to many biological processes. They span a wide range (from less than 103 to 108 M-1s-1 ). Rates greater than ˜ 106 M -1s-1 are typically found to be manifestations of enhancements by long-range electrostatic interactions between the associating proteins. A different paradigm appears in the case of protein binding to DNA. The rate in this case is enhanced through attractive surface potential that effectively reduces the dimensionality of the available search space for the diffusing protein. This thesis presents computational and theoretical models on the rate of association of ligands/proteins to other proteins or DNA. For protein-protein association we present a general strategy for computing protein-protein rates of association. The main achievements of this strategy is the ability to obtain a stringent reaction criteria based on the landscape of short-range interactions between the associating proteins, and the ability to compute the effect of the electrostatic interactions on the rates of association accurately using the best known solvers for Poisson-Boltzmann equation presently available. For protein-DNA association we present a mathematical model for proteins targeting specific sites on a circular DNA topology. The main achievements are the realization that a linear DNA with reflecting ends

  14. Being a binding site: characterizing residue composition of binding sites on proteins.

    PubMed

    Iván, Gábor; Szabadka, Zoltán; Grolmusz, Vince

    2007-12-30

    The Protein Data Bank contains the description of more than 45,000 three-dimensional protein and nucleic-acid structures today. Started to exist as the computer-readable depository of crystallographic data complementing printed articles, the proper interpretation of the content of the individual files in the PDB still frequently needs the detailed information found in the citing publication. This fact implies that the fully automatic processing of the whole PDB is a very hard task. We first cleaned and re-structured the PDB data, then analyzed the residue composition of the binding sites in the whole PDB for frequency and for hidden association rules. Main results of the paper: (i) the cleaning and repairing algorithm (ii) redundancy elimination from the data (iii) application of association rule mining to the cleaned non-redundant data set. We have found numerous significant relations of the residue-composition of the ligand binding sites on protein surfaces, summarized in two figures. One of the classical data-mining methods for exploring implication-rules, the association-rule mining, is capable to find previously unknown residue-set preferences of bind ligands on protein surfaces. Since protein-ligand binding is a key step in enzymatic mechanisms and in drug discovery, these uncovered preferences in the study of more than 19,500 binding sites may help in identifying new binding protein-ligand pairs.

  15. Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein (TXNIP) Suppresses Expression of Glutamine Synthetase by Inducing Oxidative Stress in Retinal Muller Glia Under Diabetic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jia; Shen, Xi; Lu, Qiong; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with early-stage symptoms such as dysfunction of Muller cells, which leads to ganglion cell death. Its pathogenesis is probably associated with oxidative stress and a recently discovered protein, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Material/Methods To explore the role of TXNIP in DR, we cultured Muller cells under diabetic conditions, and then used immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and RT-PCR to detect the expression level of TXNIP under diabetic conditions. We demonstrated the expression level of glutamine synthetase (GS) when TXNIP was inhibited. To explore the potential pathway of TXNIP-induced cell damage in DR, we confirmed the role of IL-1β under diabetic conditions. Results Diabetes induces TXNIP expressions at mRNA levels, but shows the opposite effect on GS. IL-1β plays an important role in this pathway. Azaserine effectively increased the expression of GS via attenuating the expression of TXNIP. Conclusions This study demonstrates the role of TXNIP and its mechanism in DR, provides a possible treatment for DR, and lays a new theoretical foundation for the clinical treatment of DR and other diabetic microvascular changes. PMID:27131835

  16. Characterization of binding of N'-nitrosonornicotine to protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent activation of the carcinogenic nitrosamine, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) to a reactive intermediate which binds covalently to protein was assessed using male Sprague-Dawley rat liver and lung microsomes. The NADPH-dependent covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)NNN to liver and lung microsomes was linear with time up to 90 and 45 min, respectively and was also linear with protein concentrations up to 3.0 and 2.0 mg/ml, respectively. The apparent K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ of the NADPH-dependent binding to liver microsomes were determined from the initial velocities. Addition of the thiols glutathione, cystein, N-acetylcysteine or 2-mercapthoethanol significantly decreased the non-NADPH-dependent binding to liver microsomal protein, but did not affect the NADPH-dependent binding. Glutathione was required in order to observe any NADPH-dependent binding to lung microsomal protein. In lung microsomes, SKF-525A significantly decreased the NADPH-dependent binding by 79%. Replacement of an air atmosphere with N/sub 2/ or CO:O/sub 2/ (8:2) significantly decreased the NADPH-dependent binding of (/sup 14/C)NNN to liver microsomal protein by 40% or 27% respectively. Extensive covalent binding of (/sup 14/C)NNN to liver and muscle microsomal protein occurred in the absence of an NADPH-generating system, in the presence of 50% methanol and also to bovine serum albumin, indicating a nonenzymatic reaction. These data indicate that cytochrome P-450 is at least in part responsible for the metabolic activation of the carcinogen NNN, but also suggest additional mechanisms of activation.

  17. Convertase Inhibitory Properties of Staphylococcal Extracellular Complement-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Jongerius, Ilse; Garcia, Brandon L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Rooijakkers, Suzan H. M.

    2010-01-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus secretes several complement evasion molecules to combat the human immune response. Extracellular complement-binding protein (Ecb) binds to the C3d domain of C3 and thereby blocks C3 convertases of the alternative pathway and C5 convertases via all complement pathways. Inhibition of C5 convertases results in complete inhibition of C5a generation and subsequent neutrophil migration. Here, we show that binding of Ecb to the C3d domain of C3b is crucial for inhibition of C5 convertases. Ecb does not interfere with substrate binding to convertases but prevents formation of an active convertase enzyme. PMID:20304920

  18. Discodermolide interferes with the binding of tau protein to microtubules.

    PubMed

    Kar, Santwana; Florence, Gordon J; Paterson, Ian; Amos, Linda A

    2003-03-27

    We investigated whether discodermolide, a novel antimitotic agent, affects the binding to microtubules of tau protein repeat motifs. Like taxol, the new drug reduces the proportion of tau that pellets with microtubules. Despite their differing structures, discodermolide, taxol and tau repeats all bind to a site on beta-tubulin that lies within the microtubule lumen and is crucial in controlling microtubule assembly. Low concentrations of tau still bind strongly to the outer surfaces of preformed microtubules when the acidic C-terminal regions of at least six tubulin dimers are available for interaction with each tau molecule; otherwise binding is very weak.

  19. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA cross-linking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5' → 3' exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATAC-seq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches.

  20. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA crosslinking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5′ → 3′ exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATACseq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases, and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches. PMID:26038153

  1. The presence of zinc-binding proteins in brain.

    PubMed

    Itoh, M; Ebadi, M; Swanson, S

    1983-09-01

    Zinc is one of the most abundant divalent metal ions in the brain, its concentration being greater than those of copper and manganese. Since free zinc ion is a potent inhibitor of sulfhydryl enzymes, we postulated that zinc in the brain most probably exists bound to macromolecules. As zinc-binding proteins in brain have not been characterized, we attempted to discover the occurrence and properties of these proteins. By using Sephadex G-75 column chromatography calibrated with proteins of known molecular weights, and by other techniques, we detected separate zinc-binding proteins, with apparent estimated molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 210,000. Unlike the hepatic or renal zinc thioneins, the zinc-binding proteins in brain are not inducible following administration of zinc. Our interpretation of the results is that the major portion of the existing zinc in the brain is bound, and does not exist in free form.

  2. HIGH AFFINITY, DSRNA BINDING BY DISCONNECTED INTERACTING PROTEIN 1†

    PubMed Central

    Catanese, Daniel J.; Matthews, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Disconnected Interacting Protein 1 (DIP1) appears from sequence analysis and preliminary binding studies to be a member of the dsRNA-binding protein family. Of interest, DIP1 was shown previously to interact with and influence multiple proteins involved in transcription regulation in Drosophila melanogaster. We show here that the longest isoform of this protein, DIP1-c, exhibits a 500-fold preference for dsRNA over dsDNA of similar nucleotide sequence. Further, DIP1-c demonstrated very high affinity for a subset of dsRNA ligands, with binding in the picomolar range for VA1 RNA and miR-iab-4 precursor stem-loop, a potential physiological RNA target involved in regulating expression of its protein partner, Ultrabithorax. PMID:20643095

  3. A sliding selectivity scale for lipid binding to membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Landreh, Michael; Marty, Michael T.; Gault, Joseph; Robinson, Carol V.

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes form barriers that are essential for cellular integrity and compartmentalisation. Proteins that reside in the membrane have co-evolved with their hydrophobic lipid environment which serves as a solvent for proteins with very diverse requirements. As a result, membrane protein-lipid interactions range from completely non-selective to highly discriminating. Mass spectrometry (MS), in combination with X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations, enables us to monitor how lipids interact with intact membrane protein complexes and assess their effects on structure and dynamics. Recent studies illustrate the ability to differentiate specific lipid binding, preferential interactions with lipid subsets, and nonselective annular contacts. In this review, we consider the biological implications of different lipid-binding scenarios and propose that binding occurs on a sliding selectivity scale, in line with the view of biological membranes as facilitators of dynamic protein and lipid organization. PMID:27155089

  4. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  9. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, Y.; Akino, T. )

    1991-02-15

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed.

  10. Interaction of ruthenium red with Ca2(+)-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Charuk, J.H.; Pirraglia, C.A.; Reithmeier, R.A. )

    1990-07-01

    The interaction of ruthenium red, ((NH3)5Ru-O-Ru(NH3)4-O-Ru(NH3)5)Cl6.4H2O, with various Ca2(+)-binding proteins was studied. Ruthenium red inhibited Ca2+ binding to the sarcoplasmic reticulum protein, calsequestrin, immobilized on Sepharose 4B. Furthermore, ruthenium red bound to calsequestrin with high affinity (Kd = 0.7 microM; Bmax = 218 nmol/mg protein). The dye stained calsequestrin in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels or on nitrocellulose paper and was displaced by Ca2+ (Ki = 1.4 mM). The specificity of ruthenium red staining of several Ca2(+)-binding proteins was investigated by comparison with two other detection methods, 45Ca2+ autoradiography and the Stains-all reaction. Ruthenium red bound to the same proteins detected by the 45Ca2+ overlay technique. Ruthenium red stained both the erythrocyte Band 3 anion transporter and the Ca2(+)-ATPase of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Ruthenium red also stained the EF hand conformation Ca2(+)-binding proteins, calmodulin, troponin C, and S-100. This inorganic dye provides a simple, rapid method for detecting various types of Ca2(+)-binding proteins following electrophoresis.

  11. Probing binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites.

    PubMed

    Barik, Amita; Nithin, Chandran; Karampudi, Naga Bhushana Rao; Mukherjee, Sunandan; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad

    2016-01-29

    We use evolutionary conservation derived from structure alignment of polypeptide sequences along with structural and physicochemical attributes of protein-RNA interfaces to probe the binding hot spots at protein-RNA recognition sites. We find that the degree of conservation varies across the RNA binding proteins; some evolve rapidly compared to others. Additionally, irrespective of the structural class of the complexes, residues at the RNA binding sites are evolutionary better conserved than those at the solvent exposed surfaces. For recognitions involving duplex RNA, residues interacting with the major groove are better conserved than those interacting with the minor groove. We identify multi-interface residues participating simultaneously in protein-protein and protein-RNA interfaces in complexes where more than one polypeptide is involved in RNA recognition, and show that they are better conserved compared to any other RNA binding residues. We find that the residues at water preservation site are better conserved than those at hydrated or at dehydrated sites. Finally, we develop a Random Forests model using structural and physicochemical attributes for predicting binding hot spots. The model accurately predicts 80% of the instances of experimental ΔΔG values in a particular class, and provides a stepping-stone towards the engineering of protein-RNA recognition sites with desired affinity.

  12. Modulation of Auxin-Binding Proteins in Cell Suspensions 1

    PubMed Central

    LoSchiavo, Fiorella; Filippini, Francesco; Cozzani, Fabrizio; Vallone, Daniela; Terzi, Mario

    1991-01-01

    This paper shows that the level of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the medium determines the level of auxin-binding proteins in the membranes of carrot, Daucus carota, cells grown in suspension. This induction takes slightly more than 2 hours to complete and can be elicited by natural as well as synthetic auxins. The auxin binding sites thus generated, which are pronase-sensitive, bind 2,4-D, indoleacetic acid, and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) equally well. However both α- and β-NAA bind, whereas only α-NAA is effective in the inductive process. Cells committed to embryogeny (proembryogenic masses) do not respond to auxin, i.e. their level of auxin-binding proteins remains very low, and they do not seem to synthesize the hormone, as indicated by inhibitor studies. Sensitivity to, and production of, auxin, begins when the embryo becomes polarized, i.e. at postglobular stage. PMID:16668416

  13. Lipid A binding proteins in macrophages detected by ligand blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, R.Y.; Golenbock, D.T.; Raetz, C.R.H.

    1987-05-01

    Endotoxin (LPS) stimulates a variety of eukaryotic cells. These actions are involved in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septicemia. The site of action of the LPS toxic moiety, lipid A (LA), is unclear. Their laboratory has previously identified a bioactive LA precursor lipid IV/sub A/, which can be enzymatically labeled with /sup 32/P/sub i/ (10/sup 9/ dpm/nmole) and purified (99%). They now show that this ligand binds to specific proteins immobilized on nitrocellulose (NC) from LPS-sensitive RAW 264.7 cultured macrophages. NC blots were incubated with (/sup 32/P)-IV/sub A/ in a buffer containing BSA, NaCl, polyethylene glycol, and azide. Binding was assessed using autoradiography or scintillation counting. Dot blot binding of the radioligand was inhibited by excess cold IV/sub A/, LA, or ReLPS but not by phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin, phosphatidylinositol, or phosphatidic acid. Binding was trypsin-sensitive and dependent on protein concentration. Particulate macrophage proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE and then electroblotted onto NC. Several discrete binding proteins were observed. Identical treatment of fetal bovine serum or molecular weight standards revealed no detectable binding. By avoiding high nonspecific binding of intact membranes, this ligand blotting assay may be useful in elucidating the molecular actions of LPS.

  14. Role of glutamine and interlinked asparagine metabolism in vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongling; Vandekeere, Saar; Kalucka, Joanna; Bierhansl, Laura; Zecchin, Annalisa; Brüning, Ulrike; Visnagri, Asjad; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Goveia, Jermaine; Cruys, Bert; Brepoels, Katleen; Wyns, Sabine; Rayport, Stephen; Ghesquière, Bart; Vinckier, Stefan; Schoonjans, Luc; Cubbon, Richard; Dewerchin, Mieke; Eelen, Guy; Carmeliet, Peter

    2017-08-15

    Endothelial cell (EC) metabolism is emerging as a regulator of angiogenesis, but the precise role of glutamine metabolism in ECs is unknown. Here, we show that depriving ECs of glutamine or inhibiting glutaminase 1 (GLS1) caused vessel sprouting defects due to impaired proliferation and migration, and reduced pathological ocular angiogenesis. Inhibition of glutamine metabolism in ECs did not cause energy distress, but impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis, macromolecule production, and redox homeostasis. Only the combination of TCA cycle replenishment plus asparagine supplementation restored the metabolic aberrations and proliferation defect caused by glutamine deprivation. Mechanistically, glutamine provided nitrogen for asparagine synthesis to sustain cellular homeostasis. While ECs can take up asparagine, silencing asparagine synthetase (ASNS, which converts glutamine-derived nitrogen and aspartate to asparagine) impaired EC sprouting even in the presence of glutamine and asparagine. Asparagine further proved crucial in glutamine-deprived ECs to restore protein synthesis, suppress ER stress, and reactivate mTOR signaling. These findings reveal a novel link between endothelial glutamine and asparagine metabolism in vessel sprouting. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Glutamate and asparagine cataplerosis underlie glutamine addiction in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ratnikov, Boris; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Ronai, Ze'ev A.; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Scott, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine dependence is a prominent feature of cancer metabolism, and here we show that melanoma cells, irrespective of their oncogenic background, depend on glutamine for growth. A quantitative audit of how carbon from glutamine is used showed that TCA-cycle-derived glutamate is, in most melanoma cells, the major glutamine-derived cataplerotic output and product of glutaminolysis. In the absence of glutamine, TCA cycle metabolites were liable to depletion through aminotransferase-mediated α-ketoglutarate-to-glutamate conversion and glutamate secretion. Aspartate was an essential cataplerotic output, as melanoma cells demonstrated a limited capacity to salvage external aspartate. Also, the absence of asparagine increased the glutamine requirement, pointing to vulnerability in the aspartate-asparagine biosynthetic pathway within melanoma metabolism. In contrast to melanoma cells, melanocytes could grow in the absence of glutamine. Melanocytes use more glutamine for protein synthesis rather than secreting it as glutamate and are less prone to loss of glutamate and TCA cycle metabolites when starved of glutamine. PMID:25749035

  16. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M.; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the “fly-casting” hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context. PMID:27668217

  17. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the "fly-casting" hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context.

  18. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, H.F.

    1986-03-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass.

  19. Metal-binding proteins as metal pollution indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, H F

    1986-01-01

    The fact that metal-binding proteins are a consequence of elevated metal concentration in organisms is well known. What has been overlooked is that the presence of these proteins provides a unique opportunity to reformulate the criteria of metal pollution. The detoxification effect of metal-binding proteins in animals from polluted areas has been cited, but there have been only very few studies relating metal-binding proteins to pollution. This lack is due partly to the design of most experiments, which were aimed at isolation of metal-binding proteins and hence were of too short duration to allow for correlation to adverse physiological effects on the organism. In this study metal-binding proteins were isolated and characterized from five different marine animals (rock lobster, Jasus lalandii; hermit crab, Diogenes brevirostris; sandshrimp, Palaemon pacificus; black mussel, Choromytilus meridionalis; and limpet, Patella granularis). These animals were kept under identical metal-enriched conditions, hence eliminating differences in method and seasons. The study animals belonged to different phyla; varied in size, mass, age, behavior, food requirements and life stages; and accumulated metals at different rates. It is possible to link unseasonal moulting in crustacea, a known physiological effect due to a metal-enriched environment, to the production of the metal-binding protein without evidence of obvious metal body burden. Thus a new concept of pollution is defined: the presence of metal-binding proteins confirms toxic metal pollution. This concept was then tested under field conditions in the whelk Bullia digitalis and in metal-enriched grass. PMID:3709437

  20. Protein binding elements in the human beta-polymerase promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Englander, E W; Wilson, S H

    1990-01-01

    The core promoter for human DNA polymerase beta contains discrete binding sites for mammalian nuclear proteins, as revealed by DNasel footprinting and gel mobility shift assays. Two sites correspond to sequences identical with the Sp1 factor binding element, and a third site includes an eight residue palindromic sequence, TGACGTCA, known as the CRE element of several cAMP responsive promoters; the 5 to 10 residues flanking this palindrome on each side have no apparent sequence homology with known elements in other promoters. Nuclear extract from a variety of tissues and cells were examined; these included rat liver and testes and cultured cells of human and hamster origin. The DNasel footprint is strong over and around the palindromic element for each of the extracts and is equivalent in size (approximately 22 residues); footprinting over the Sp1 binding sites is seen also. Two potential tissue-specific binding sites, present in liver but not in testes, were found corresponding to residues -13 to -10 and +33 to +48, respectively. Protein binding to the palindromic element was confirmed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay with the core promoter as probe. Binding specificity of the 22 residue palindromic element, as revealed by oligonucleotide competition, is different from that of AP-1 binding element. Controlled proteolysis with trypsin was used to study structural properties of proteins forming the mobility shift bands. Following digestion with trypsin, most of the palindrome binding activity of each extract corresponded to a sharp, faster migrating band, potentially representing a DNA binding domain of the palindrome binding protein. Images PMID:2315044

  1. Glutamine and interleukin-1beta interact at the level of Sp1 and nuclear factor-kappaB to regulate argininosuccinate synthetase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Lavoinne, Alain; Loeber, David; Fairand, Alain; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Deniel, Nicolas; Husson, Annie

    2007-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene, a key step in nitric oxide production, is stimulated either by interleukin-1beta[Brasse-Lagnel et al. (2005) Biochimie 87, 403-9] or by glutamine in Caco-2 cells [Brasse-Lagnel et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 52504-10], through the activation of transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB and Sp1, respectively. In these cells, the fact that glutamine stimulated the expression of a gene induced by pro-inflammatory factors appeared paradoxical as the amino acid is known to exert anti-inflammatory properties in intestinal cells. We therefore investigated the effect of simultaneous addition of both glutamine and interleukin-1beta on ASS gene expression in Caco-2 cells. In the presence of both compounds for 4 h, the increases in ASS activity, protein amount and mRNA level were almost totally inhibited, implying a reciprocal inhibition between the amino acid and the cytokine. The inhibition was exerted at the level of the transcription factors Sp1 and nuclear-kappaB: (a) interleukin-1beta inhibited the glutamine-stimulated DNA-binding of Sp1, which might be related to a decrease of its glutamine-induced O-glycosylation, and (b) glutamine induced per se a decrease in the amount of nuclear p65 protein without affecting the stimulating effect of interleukin-1beta on nuclear factor-kappaB, which might be related to the metabolism of glutamine into glutamate. The present results constitute the first demonstration of a reciprocal inhibition between the effects of an amino acid and a cytokine on gene expression, and provide a molecular basis for the protective role of glutamine against inflammation in the intestine.

  2. Odorant-binding protein: localization to nasal glands and secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Pevsner, J; Sklar, P B; Snyder, S H

    1986-01-01

    An odorant-binding protein (OBP) was isolated from bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. We have produced polyclonal antisera to this protein and report its immunohistochemical localization to mucus-secreting glands of the olfactory and respiratory mucosa. Although OBP was originally isolated as a pyrazine binding protein, both rat and bovine OBP also bind the odorants [3H]methyldihydrojasmonate and 3,7-dimethyl-octan-1-ol as well as 2-isobutyl-3-[3H]methoxypyrazine. We detect substantial odorant-binding activity attributable to OBP in secreted rat nasal mucus and tears but not in saliva, suggesting a role for OBP in transporting or concentrating odorants. Images PMID:3523479

  3. A Correlation between Protein Function and Ligand Binding Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge, Matthew D.; Bokemper, Michael; Copeland, Jennifer C.; Stark, Jaime L.; Powers, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We report that proteins with the same function bind the same set of small molecules from a standardized chemical library. This observation led to a quantifiable and rapidly adaptable method for protein functional analysis using experimentally-derived ligand binding profiles. Ligand binding is measured using a high-throughput NMR ligand affinity screen with a structurally diverse chemical library. The method was demonstrated using a set of 19 proteins with a range of functions. A statistically significant similarity in ligand binding profiles was only observed between the two functionally identical albumins and between the five functionally similar amylases. This new approach is independent of sequence, structure or evolutionary information, and therefore, extends our ability to analyze and functionally annotate novel genes. PMID:21366353

  4. Detecting O2 binding sites in protein cavities

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Ryo; Yoshimura, Yuichi; Xue, Mengjun; Kameda, Tomoshi; Mulder, Frans A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Internal cavities are important elements in protein structure, dynamics, stability and function. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate the binding of molecular oxygen (O2) to cavities in a well-studied model for ligand binding, the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme. On increasing the O2 concentration to 8.9 mM, changes in 1H, 15N, and 13C chemical shifts and signal broadening were observed specifically for backbone amide and side chain methyl groups located around the two hydrophobic cavities of the protein. O2-induced longitudinal relaxation enhancements for amide and methyl protons could be adequately accounted for by paramagnetic dipolar relaxation. These data provide the first experimental demonstration that O2 binds specifically to the hydrophobic, and not the hydrophilic cavities, in a protein. Molecular dynamics simulations visualized the rotational and translational motions of O2 in the cavities, as well as the binding and egress of O2, suggesting that the channel consisting of helices D, E, G, H, and J could be the potential gateway for ligand binding to the protein. Due to strong paramagnetic relaxation effects, O2 gas-pressure NMR measurements can detect hydrophobic cavities when populated to as little as 1%, and thereby provide a general and highly sensitive method for detecting oxygen binding in proteins. PMID:26830762

  5. Binding and measuring natural rubber latex proteins on glove powder.

    PubMed

    Tomazic-Jezic, Vesna J; Lucas, Anne D; Sanchez, Beatriz A

    2004-01-01

    Cornstarch used as a donning powder on natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves adsorbs NRL proteins. During glove use, powder-carried proteins can be aerosolized and can cause allergic reactions in NRL sensitized individuals. The amount of NRL proteins bound to glove powder and its relative relationship to the total amount of proteins on the glove has not been studied, due to the difficulty in measuring proteins on powder. Using the ELISA inhibition assay for NRL proteins [Standard test method for the immunological measurement of antigenic protein in natural rubber and its products. In: The Annual Book of ASTM Standards; ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA, 2000; ASTM D 64-0] we have investigated possible protocol modifications in order to include measurement of proteins bound to glove powder, as well as the water-extractable glove proteins. Possible interference of the starch itself was evaluated by adding clean cornstarch to the assay. No significant interference was observed with powder concentrations below 5 mg/mL. We analyzed 19 extracts of powdered surgical and examination gloves before and after removal of the particulate component. Comparison of NRL glove extracts with, and without, the cornstarch powder fraction indicated significant variations in the ratios of powder-bound protein and corresponding water-extractable protein. The ratios did not appear to correlate with either the total protein on the glove, the glove weight, or the total amount of powder on the glove. However, when virgin glove powders were exposed to NRL proteins, binding was proportional to the protein concentration in the suspension. Temperature in the range from 4 degrees C to 37 degrees C, did not affect binding intensity, while a higher pH resulted in a higher level of protein associated with, or bound to, the starch. The major differences in the propensity for NRL protein binding were observed among different glove powders. The data indicate that the amount of protein that binds to glove powder

  6. Theoretical studies of binding of mannose-binding protein to monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aida-Hyugaji, Sachiko; Takano, Keiko; Takada, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Haruo; Kojima, Naoya; Mizuochi, Tsuguo; Inoue, Yasushi

    2004-11-01

    Binding properties of mannose-binding protein (MBP) to monosaccharides are discussed based on ab initio molecular orbital calculations for cluster models constructed. The calculated binding energies indicate that MBP has an affinity for N-acetyl- D-glucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, and D-glucose rather than D-galactose and N-acetyl- D-galactosamine, which is consistent with the biochemical experimental results. Electrostatic potential surfaces at the binding site of four monosaccharides having binding properties matched well with that of MBP. A vacant frontier orbital was found to be localized around the binding site of MBP, suggesting that MBP-monosaccharide interaction may occur through electrostatic and orbital interactions.

  7. Recombinant small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein of Leishmania infantum: Potential vaccine and diagnostic application against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel S; Ribeiro, Patrícia A F; Martins, Vívian T; Lage, Daniela P; Portela, Áquila S B; Costa, Lourena E; Salles, Beatriz C S; Lima, Mariana P; Ramos, Fernanda F; Santos, Thaís T O; Caligiorne, Rachel B; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Silveira, Julia A G; Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Gonçalves, Denise U; Oliveira, Jamil S; Roatt, Bruno M; Duarte, Mariana C; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Silva, Eduardo S; Galdino, Alexsandro S; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Teixeira, Antonio L; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2017-10-05

    Different Leishmania proteins have been evaluated in order to find a potential vaccine candidate or diagnostic marker capable of providing long lasting protection against infection or helping to identify infected mammalian hosts, respectively. However, just few molecules have fulfilled all the requirements to be evaluated. In the current study, we evaluated the prophylactic and diagnostic value against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) of a small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing (SGT) protein from Leishmania infantum species. In a first step, the immune response elicited by the immunization using the recombinant protein (rSGT) plus saponin was evaluated in BALB/c mice. Immunized animals had a low parasitism in all evaluated organs. They developed a specific Th1 immune response, which was based on protein-specific production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF, and a humoral response dominated by antibodies of the IgG2a isotype. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells contributed to the IFN-γ production, showing that both T cell subtypes contribute to the resistance against infection. Regarding its value as a diagnostic marker, rSGT showed maximum sensitivity and specificity to serologically identify L. infantum-infected dog and human sera. No cross-reactivity with sera from humans or dogs that had other diseases was found. Although further studies are necessary to validate these findings, data showed here suggest immunogenicity of rSGT and its protective effect against murine VL, as well as its potential for the serodiagnosis of human and canine VL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intravenous Glutamine Administration Modulates TNF-α/IL-10 Ratio and Attenuates NFkB Phosphorylation in a Protein Malnutrition Model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andressa Cristina Antunes; Correia, Carolina Argondizo; de Oliveira, Dalila Cunha; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrosio

    2016-12-01

    Protein malnutrition (PM) is a major public health problem in developing countries, affecting the inflammatory response and increasing susceptibility to opportunistic infections. For this reason, an adequate nutritional intervention can improve the quality of life of patients. Glutamine (GLN) is a nonessential amino acid, but can be considered "conditionally essential" for macrophage function in stress situations, in which it plays a role in the improvement of the inflammatory response. Concerning this issue, in the current study, it was of interest to evaluate some biological aspects of peritoneal cells from a protein malnutrition (PM) mouse model challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated intravenously with GLN. Two-month-old male Balb/c mice were subjected to a low-protein diet (2 % protein) and stimulated intravenously with LPS 1 h prior to the injection of 0.75 mg/kg GLN. Malnourished animals showed a reduced number of total peritoneal cells. Malnourished animals stimulated with LPS or LPS plus GLN did not show differences in peritoneal cell counts; however, the control group showed increased cellularity after LPS stimulus, which was reversed after GLN injection. Further, in the animals from both groups stimulated with LPS, GLN decreased the circulating levels of TNF-α and the levels of TNF-α produced by peritoneal cells; additionally, GLN decreased the IL-10 circulating levels in the malnourished animals stimulated with LPS. In addition, peritoneal cells of the control and malnourished groups stimulated with LPS showed a negative modulation of the NFkB signaling pathway after GLN injection. In conclusion, this study shows that GLN has the capacity to reduce TNF-α synthesis as well as to act as a negative regulator of NFkB phosphorylation, leading to a positive outcome in the control of TNF-α production.

  9. Relating the shape of protein binding sites to binding affinity profiles: is there an association?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Various pattern-based methods exist that use in vitro or in silico affinity profiles for classification and functional examination of proteins. Nevertheless, the connection between the protein affinity profiles and the structural characteristics of the binding sites is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between virtual drug screening results (calculated binding free energy values) and the geometry of protein binding sites. Molecular Affinity Fingerprints (MAFs) were determined for 154 proteins based on their molecular docking energy results for 1,255 FDA-approved drugs. Protein binding site geometries were characterized by 420 PocketPicker descriptors. The basic underlying component structure of MAFs and binding site geometries, respectively, were examined by principal component analysis; association between principal components extracted from these two sets of variables was then investigated by canonical correlation and redundancy analyses. Results PCA analysis of the MAF variables provided 30 factors which explained 71.4% of the total variance of the energy values while 13 factors were obtained from the PocketPicker descriptors which cumulatively explained 94.1% of the total variance. Canonical correlation analysis resulted in 3 statistically significant canonical factor pairs with correlation values of 0.87, 0.84 and 0.77, respectively. Redundancy analysis indicated that PocketPicker descriptor factors explain 6.9% of the variance of the MAF factor set while MAF factors explain 15.9% of the total variance of PocketPicker descriptor factors. Based on the salient structures of the factor pairs, we identified a clear-cut association between the shape and bulkiness of the drug molecules and the protein binding site descriptors. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate complex multivariate associations between affinity profiles and the geometric properties of protein binding sites. We found that, except for few specific

  10. Assembly of a π-π stack of ligands in the binding site of an acetylcholine-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Stornaiuolo, Mariano; De Kloe, Gerdien E; Rucktooa, Prakash; Fish, Alexander; van Elk, René; Edink, Ewald S; Bertrand, Daniel; Smit, August B; de Esch, Iwan J P; Sixma, Titia K

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine-binding protein is a water-soluble homologue of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of cys-loop receptors. It is used as a structurally accessible prototype for studying ligand binding to these pharmaceutically important pentameric ion channels, in particular to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, due to conserved binding site residues present at the interface between two subunits. Here we report that an aromatic conjugated small molecule binds acetylcholine-binding protein in an ordered π-π stack of three identical molecules per binding site, two parallel and one antiparallel. Acetylcholine-binding protein stabilizes the assembly of the stack by aromatic contacts. Thanks to the plasticity of its ligand-binding site, acetylcholine-binding protein can accommodate the formation of aromatic stacks of different size by simple loop repositioning and minimal adjustment of the interactions. This type of supramolecular binding provides a novel paradigm in drug design.

  11. Mining the characteristic interaction patterns on protein-protein binding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Zhihai; Han, Li; Li, Chengke; Wang, Renxiao

    2013-09-23

    Protein-protein interactions are observed in various biological processes. They are important for understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and can be potential targets for developing small-molecule regulators of such processes. Previous studies suggest that certain residues on protein-protein binding interfaces are "hot spots". As an extension to this concept, we have developed a residue-based method to identify the characteristic interaction patterns (CIPs) on protein-protein binding interfaces, in which each pattern is a cluster of four contacting residues. Systematic analysis was conducted on a nonredundant set of 1,222 protein-protein binding interfaces selected out of the entire Protein Data Bank. Favored interaction patterns across different protein-protein binding interfaces were retrieved by considering both geometrical and chemical conservations. As demonstrated on two test tests, our method was able to predict hot spot residues on protein-protein binding interfaces with good recall scores and acceptable precision scores. By analyzing the function annotations and the evolutionary tree of the protein-protein complexes in our data set, we also observed that protein-protein interfaces sharing common characteristic interaction patterns are normally associated with identical or similar biological functions.

  12. Immunochemical analysis of acetaminophen covalent binding to proteins. Partial characterization of the major acetaminophen-binding liver proteins.

    PubMed

    Bartolone, J B; Birge, R B; Sparks, K; Cohen, S D; Khairallah, E A

    1988-12-15

    A sensitive immunoassay for detecting acetaminophen (APAP) bound to proteins was developed using an affinity purified antibody directed against the N-acetylated end of the APAP molecule. Western blots of electrophoretically resolved liver proteins taken from mice given an hepatotoxic dose of APAP demonstrated that nearly 85% of the total detectable protein-bound APAP was covalently associated with proteins of 44 and 58 kD. Pretreatment of liver extracts with the sulfhydryl-specific reagent, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), prior to derivatization with the reactive metabolite of APAP, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), greatly reduced immunochemically detectable APAP-protein adducts and indicated that the antibody detects protein-thiol conjugates of APAP. To investigate the basis of the binding selectivity in vivo, a variety of systems which yielded APAP-protein adducts were analyzed. Systems which activate APAP enzymatically, as in hepatocyte suspensions or in post-mitochondrial (S9) fractions fortified with an NADPH-regenerating system, resulted in a protein binding profile similar to that produced in vivo. Conversely, when extracts or cells were treated with chemically synthesized NAPQI, an alternative protein binding profile was obtained. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of the reduced protein thiol (PSH) content of liver proteins using [3H]NEM labeling revealed that the 58 kD APAP-binding proteins were rich in PSH, whereas the major 44 kD binding protein had virtually no detectable PSH. Many PSH-rich proteins that were not arylated in vivo did bind NAPQI in vitro. However, the 44 kD proteins were not arylated when chemically synthesized NAPQI was added to homogenates or cell suspensions. The present data further suggest that, in addition to the amount and reactivity of free protein sulfhydryls, the cellular localization with respect to the cytochrome P-450 activation site may influence the susceptibility of proteins to NAPQI binding. These findings signal

  13. Structural mechanism of the simultaneous binding of two drugs to a multidrug-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Maria A; Miller, Marshall C; Brennan, Richard G

    2004-01-01

    The structural basis of simultaneous binding of two or more different drugs by any multidrug-binding protein is unknown and also how this can lead to a noncompetitive, uncompetitive or cooperative binding mechanism. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the Staphylococcus aureus multidrug-binding transcription repressor, QacR, bound simultaneously to ethidium (Et) and proflavin (Pf). The structure underscores the plasticity of the multidrug-binding pocket and reveals an alternative, Pf-induced binding mode for Et. To monitor the simultaneous binding of Pf and Et to QacR, as well as to determine the effects on the binding affinity of one drug when the other drug is prebound, a novel application of near-ultraviolet circular dichroism (UVCD) was developed. The UVCD equilibrium-binding studies revealed identical affinities of Pf for QacR in the presence or absence of Et, but significantly diminished affinity of Et for QacR when Pf is prebound, findings that are readily explicable by their structures. The principles for simultaneous binding of two different drugs discerned here are likely employed by the multidrug efflux transporters. PMID:15257299

  14. Ligand binding to a high-energy partially unfolded protein.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Joseph R; Park, Chiwook

    2015-01-01

    The conformational energy landscape of a protein determines populations of all possible conformations of the protein and also determines the kinetics of the conversion between the conformations. Interaction with ligands influences the conformational energy landscapes of proteins and shifts populations of proteins in different conformational states. To investigate the effect of ligand binding on partial unfolding of a protein, we use Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and its functional ligand NADP(+) as a model system. We previously identified a partially unfolded form of DHFR that is populated under native conditions. In this report, we determined the free energy for partial unfolding of DHFR at varying concentrations of NADP(+) and found that NADP(+) binds to the partially unfolded form as well as the native form. DHFR unfolds partially without releasing the ligand, though the binding affinity for NADP(+) is diminished upon partial unfolding. Based on known crystallographic structures of NADP(+) -bound DHFR and the model of the partially unfolded protein we previously determined, we propose that the adenosine-binding domain of DHFR remains folded in the partially unfolded form and interacts with the adenosine moiety of NADP(+) . Our result demonstrates that ligand binding may affect the conformational free energy of not only native forms but also high-energy non-native forms.

  15. Inhibition of tristetraprolin deadenylation by poly(A) binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Rowlett, Robert M.; Chrestensen, Carol A.; Schroeder, Melanie J.; Harp, Mary G.; Pelo, Jared W.; Shabanowitz, Jeffery; DeRose, Robert; Hunt, Donald F.; Sturgill, Thomas W.; Worthington, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the prototype for a family of RNA binding proteins that bind the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) messenger RNA AU-rich element (ARE), causing deadenylation of the TNF poly(A) tail, RNA decay, and silencing of TNF protein production. Using mass spectrometry sequencing we identified poly(A) binding proteins-1 and -4 (PABP1 and PABP4) in high abundance and good protein coverage from TTP immunoprecipitates. PABP1 significantly enhanced TNF ARE binding by RNA EMSA and prevented TTP-initiated deadenylation in an in vitro macrophage assay of TNF poly(A) stability. Neomycin inhibited TTP-promoted deadenylation at concentrations shown to inhibit the deadenylases poly(A) ribonuclease and CCR4. Stably transfected RAW264.7 macrophages overexpressing PABP1 do not oversecrete TNF; instead they upregulate TTP protein without increasing TNF protein production. The PABP1 inhibition of deadenylation initiated by TTP does not require the poly(A) binding regions in RRM1 and RRM2, suggesting a more complicated interaction than simple masking of the poly(A) tail from a 3′-exonuclease. Like TTP, PABP1 is a substrate for p38 MAP kinase. Finally, PABP1 stabilizes cotransfected TTP in 293T cells and prevents the decrease in TTP levels seen with p38 MAP kinase inhibition. These findings suggest several levels of functional antagonism between TTP and PABP1 that have implications for regulation of unstable mRNAs like TNF. PMID:18467502

  16. A Binding Model and Similarity for Flexible Modular Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Máté, Gabriell; Feinauer, Christoph J.; Hofmann, Andreas; Goldt, Sebastian; Liu, Lei; Heermann, Dieter W.

    2013-03-01

    Modular proteins are one of the most commonly found disordered protein motifs. An example is CTCF, a protein that has been named the master waver of the genome i.e., the organizer of the 3D structure of the chromosomes. Using NMR and numerical simulations, much progress has been made in understanding their various functions and ways of binding. Modular proteins are often composed of protein modules interconnected by flexible linkers. They can be imagined as ``beads on a string.'' We argue that when the number of beads is small, these structures behave like a self avoiding random walk. Nevertheless, when binding to a target, linkers can fold in more ordered and stable states. At the same time, folding can influence functional roles. We show that the flexibility of the linkers can boost binding affinity. As a result of flexibility, the conformations of these proteins before and after binding are different. So this implies that generic binding site prediction methods may fail. To deal with this we introduce a new methodology to characterize and compare these flexible structures. Employing topological concepts we propose a method which intrinsically fuses topology and geometry. GM gratefully acknowledges support from the HGS-MathComp and the RTG 1653.

  17. Assessing Energetic Contributions to Binding from a Disordered Region in a Protein-Protein Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    S Cho; C Swaminathan; D Bonsor; M Kerzic; R Guan; J Yang; C Kieke; P Anderson; D Kranz; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Many functional proteins are at least partially disordered prior to binding. Although the structural transitions upon binding of disordered protein regions can influence the affinity and specificity of protein complexes, their precise energetic contributions to binding are unknown. Here, we use a model protein-protein interaction system in which a locally disordered region has been modified by directed evolution to quantitatively assess the thermodynamic and structural contributions to binding of disorder-to-order transitions. Through X-ray structure determination of the protein binding partners before and after complex formation and isothermal titration calorimetry of the interactions, we observe a correlation between protein ordering and binding affinity for complexes along this affinity maturation pathway. Additionally, we show that discrepancies between observed and calculated heat capacities based on buried surface area changes in the protein complexes can be explained largely by heat capacity changes that would result solely from folding the locally disordered region. Previously developed algorithms for predicting binding energies of protein-protein interactions, however, are unable to correctly model the energetic contributions of the structural transitions in our model system. While this highlights the shortcomings of current computational methods in modeling conformational flexibility, it suggests that the experimental methods used here could provide training sets of molecular interactions for improving these algorithms and further rationalizing molecular recognition in protein-protein interactions.

  18. Important amino acid residues involved in folding and binding of protein-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Kulandaisamy, A; Lathi, V; ViswaPoorani, K; Yugandhar, K; Gromiha, M Michael

    2017-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions perform diverse functions in living organism. The integrative analysis of binding and stabilizing residues will provide insights on the functions of protein-protein complexes. In this work, we constructed a non-redundant dataset of 261 protein-protein complexes and identified binding site residues, stabilizing residues and common to both binding and stabilizing, termed as "key residues". We found that 6.1% of residues are involved in binding and 6.8% of residues are important for folding and stability. Among them, only 2% are involved in both folding and binding, which shows the importance and specific roles played by these residues. The key residues have been analyzed based on protein function, binding affinity, rigid and flexible complexes, amino acid preference and structure based parameters. We found that high affinity complexes have more key residues than low affinity complexes. In addition, key residues are enriched with the combination of specific hydrophobic and charged/polar residues. Atomic contacts between interacting proteins have distinct preferences of polar-polar, nonpolar-nonpolar and polar-nonpolar contacts in different functional classes of protein-protein complexes. Further, the influence of sequence and structural parameters such as surrounding hydrophobicity, solvent accessibility, secondary structure, long-range order and conservation score has been discussed. The analysis can be used to comprehend the interplay between stability and binding in protein-protein complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dose-dependency of theophylline clearance and protein binding.

    PubMed Central

    Fleetham, J A; Bird, C E; Nakatsu, K; Wigle, R D; Munt, P W

    1981-01-01

    Dose-dependency in theophylline pharmacokinetics and protein binding characteristics was examined in 10 healthy male volunteers. Theophylline disposition was determined after an intravenous infusion of both 1 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg aminophylline in a randomised crossover study. There was considerable intrasubject variability in theophylline clearance but no significant dose-dependency. Theophylline protein binding was assessed by equilibrium dialysis at varying theophylline concentrations. The percentage of free non-protein bound theophylline was significantly increased at high theophylline concentrations. This increase in free theophylline would lead to a non-linear increase in the risk of toxicity with increasing drug concentration. Images PMID:7314008

  20. Actin and Actin-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2016-08-01

    Organisms from all domains of life depend on filaments of the protein actin to provide structure and to support internal movements. Many eukaryotic cells use forces produced by actin polymerization for their motility, and myosin motor proteins use ATP hydrolysis to produce force on actin filaments. Actin polymerizes spontaneously, followed by hydrolysis of a bound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Dissociation of the γ-phosphate prepares the polymer for disassembly. This review provides an overview of the properties of actin and shows how dozens of proteins control both the assembly and disassembly of actin filaments. These players catalyze nucleotide exchange on actin monomers, initiate polymerization, promote phosphate dissociation, cap the ends of polymers, cross-link filaments to each other and other cellular components, and sever filaments. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. DNA-binding proteins in plant mitochondria: implications for transcription.

    PubMed

    Gualberto, José M; Kühn, Kristina

    2014-11-01

    The structural complexity of plant mitochondrial genomes correlates with the variety of single-strand DNA-binding proteins found in plant mitochondria. Most of these are plant-specific and have roles in homologous recombination and genome maintenance. Mitochondrial nucleoids thus differ fundamentally between plants and yeast or animals, where the principal nucleoid protein is a DNA-packaging protein that binds double-stranded DNA. Major transcriptional cofactors identified in mitochondria of non-plant species are also seemingly absent from plants. This article reviews current knowledge on plant mitochondrial DNA-binding proteins and discusses that those may affect the accessibility and conformation of transcription start sites, thus functioning as transcriptional modulators without being dedicated transcription factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Liver takes up retinol-binding protein from plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gjoen, T.; Bjerkelund, T.; Blomhoff, H.K.; Norum, K.R.; Berg, T.; Blomhoff, R.

    1987-08-15

    Retinol is transported in plasma bound to a specific transport protein, retinol-binding protein. We prepared /sup 125/I-tyramine cellobiose-labeled rat retinol-binding protein and studied its tissue uptake 1, 5, and 24 h after intravenous injection into rats. The liver was the organ containing most radioactivity at all time points studied. After 5 and 24 h, 30 and 22% of the injected dose were recovered in liver, respectively. After separating the liver into parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells in the 5-h group, we found that both cell fractions contained approximately the same amount of radioactivity (per gram of liver). Most of the retinol-binding protein radioactivity in the nonparenchymal cell fraction was in the stellate cells. The implication of these results for a possible transfer mechanism for retinol between parenchymal and stellate cells is discussed.

  3. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with ..beta..-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to ..beta..-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants (lipids/detergents).

  4. [Characterization of propofol binding to plasma proteins and possible interactions].

    PubMed

    Garrido, M J; Jiménez, R M; Rodríguez-Sasiaín, J M; Aguirre, C; Aguilera, L; Calvo, R

    1994-01-01

    a) To study the binding of propofol to proteins in plasma samples from healthy volunteers and in solutions of albumin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGA); b) to describe the nature of the bond and possible interactions with other substances that are potential displacers: salicylate, phenylbutazone, sulfisoxazole, tolbutamide, sodium valproate, sodium oleate and penbutolol; c) to assess the effect of propofol on the binding of specific markers and possible binding sites in the following proteins: 14C-warfarin, 3H-diazepam, 3H-midazolam, 3H-imidazole, 3H-penbutolol and 3H-morphine. The free fraction was obtained in all samples by ultrafiltration and measurement of the free concentration of propofol by liquid chromatography and of the markers by scintillation spectrometry. The free fraction of propofol in plasma was 0.98 +/- 0.12% and binding was not saturable. Albumin seems to play an important role (95% bound), whereas the participation of AGA was low (54% bound). Propofol did not affect the binding of any of the markers studied. Nor did the presence of other drugs at therapeutic plasma concentrations affect the binding of propofol. The binding of propofol to plasma proteins seems unlikely to cause drug interactions in clinical practice.

  5. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology) – a drug’s ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand flexibility to have a

  6. Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins regulate the abundance of LIM domain and LIM domain-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhixiong; Meng, Xianzhang; Cai, Ying; Liang, Hong; Nagarajan, Lalitha; Brandt, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The LIM domain-binding protein Ldb1 is an essential cofactor of LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) and LIM-only (LMO) proteins in development. The stoichiometry of Ldb1, LIM-HD, and LMO proteins is tightly controlled in the cell and is likely a critical determinant of their biological actions. Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBPs) were recently shown to interact with Ldb1 and are also important in developmental programs. We establish here that two mammalian SSBPs, SSBP2 and SSBP3, contribute to an erythroid DNA-binding complex that contains the transcription factors Tal1 and GATA-1, the LIM domain protein Lmo2, and Ldb1 and binds a bipartite E-box-GATA DNA sequence motif. In addition, SSBP2 was found to augment transcription of the Protein 4.2 (P4.2) gene, a direct target of the E-box-GATA-binding complex, in an Ldb1-dependent manner and to increase endogenous Ldb1 and Lmo2 protein levels, E-box-GATA DNA-binding activity, and P4.2 and β-globin expression in erythroid progenitors. Finally, SSBP2 was demonstrated to inhibit Ldb1 and Lmo2 interaction with the E3 ubiquitin ligase RLIM, prevent RLIM-mediated Ldb1 ubiquitination, and protect Ldb1 and Lmo2 from proteasomal degradation. These results define a novel biochemical function for SSBPs in regulating the abundance of LIM domain and LIM domain-binding proteins. PMID:17437998

  7. Determinants of the plasma protein binding of theophylline in health.

    PubMed Central

    Buss, D; Leopold, D; Smith, A P; Routledge, P A

    1983-01-01

    1 The plasma protein binding of theophylline was determined after addition of [14C]-theophylline (15 micrograms/ml) to plasma from 24 healthy drug-free volunteers and equilibrium dialysis for 2 h at 37 degrees C. 2 The percentage of drug unbound was 60.0% +/- 2.2% (s.d.) with very little variation between individuals. The binding ratio of theophylline was not significantly related to the plasma albumin or alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) concentrations but was significantly, although weakly, negatively related to the logarithm of the non-esterified fatty acid concentration (NEFA) (r = 0.443, P less than 0.05). 3 Intravenous administration of heparin (1000 units) caused a significant rise in plasma NEFA concentration and in the percentage of drug unbound in plasma after equilibrium dialysis. 4 In human serum albumin solutions, the binding ratio of theophylline was significantly related to the albumin concentration and at the albumin concentration seen in the 24 normal subjects, the percentage of drug unbound was almost identical. Addition of AAG in physiological concentrations did not enhance theophylline binding but oleic acid, and to a lesser extent palmitic acid, reduced binding significantly. 5 The percentage of theophylline unbound in plasma varied markedly with pH so that at pH7 the percentage unbound was 52% greater than at pH 8. There was no evidence of concentration dependence of binding up to 140 micrograms/ml theophylline. 6 Theophylline appears to bind almost exclusively to albumin and its plasma protein binding varies little in healthy subjects, showing no concentration-dependence over the therapeutic range of concentrations. The binding is affected by pH and by NEFA concentration, however, and these factors may be of greater importance in disease states. Caution should be employed in the use of heparin in studies of plasma protein binding of theophylline. PMID:6849774

  8. Curariform Antagonists Bind in Different Orientations to Acetylcholine-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fan; Bren, Nina; Little, Alicia; Wang, Hai-Long; Hansen, Scott B.; Talley, Todd T.; Taylor, Palmer; Sine, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) recently emerged as a prototype for relating structure to function of the ligand binding domain of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). To understand interactions of competitive antagonists at the atomic structural level, we studied binding of the curare derivatives d-tubocurarine (d-TC) and metocurine to AChBP using computational methods, mutagenesis, and ligand binding measurements. To account for protein flexibility, we used a 2-ns molecular dynamics simulation of AChBP to generate multiple snapshots of the equilibrated dynamic structure to which optimal docking orientations were determined. Our results predict a predominant docking orientation for both d-TC and metocurine, but unexpectedly, the bound orientations differ fundamentally for each ligand. At one subunit interface of AChBP, the side chain of Tyr-89 closely approaches a positively charged nitrogen in d-TC but is farther away from the equivalent nitrogen in metocurine, whereas, at the opposing interface, side chains of Trp-53 and Gln-55 closely approach the metocurine scaffold but not that of d-TC. The different orientations correspond to ~170° rotation and ~30° degree tilt of the curare scaffold within the binding pocket. Mutagenesis of binding site residues in AChBP, combined with measurements of ligand binding, confirms the different docking orientations. Thus structurally similar ligands can adopt distinct orientations at receptor binding sites, posing challenges for interpreting structure-activity relationships for many drugs. PMID:12682067

  9. Leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein contracts upon binding of ligand.

    PubMed

    Olah, G A; Trakhanov, S; Trewhella, J; Quiocho, F A

    1993-08-05

    Small-angle x-ray scattering and computer modeling have been used to study the effects of ligand binding to the leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein, an initial component of the high-affinity active transport system for branched-chain aliphatic amino acids in Escherichia coli. Measurements were made with no ligand present and with either L-leucine or L-valine present. Upon binding of either leucine or valine, there is a decrease in the radius of gyration, from 23.2 +/- 0.2 to 22.2 +/- 0.2 A, and in the maximum particle dimension, from 82 +/- 3 to 73 +/- 3 A. The x-ray structure of the unbound form has been determined and gives a radius of gyration and a maximum dimension consistent with the values found for the solution structure in this study (Sack, J. S., Saper, M. A., and Quiocho, F. A. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 206, 171-191). The reduction in the radius of gyration and maximum dimension upon ligand binding can be accounted for by a substrate-induced cleft closure in a combined "hinge-twist" motion. Modeling of the substrate-bound state was done by comparison of this protein with another periplasmic binding protein (L-arabinose-binding protein), which possesses a similar two-lobe structure and for which the x-ray structure is known in its ligand-bound form.

  10. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis of ligand binding by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Santambrogio, C; Favretto, F; D'Onofrio, M; Assfalg, M; Grandori, R; Molinari, H

    2013-08-01

    Human liver fatty acid binding protein (hL-FABP) is the most abundant cytosolic protein in the liver. This protein plays important roles associated to partitioning of fatty acids (FAs) to specific metabolic pathways, nuclear signaling and protection against oxidative damage. The protein displays promiscuous binding properties and can bind two internal ligands, unlike FABPs from other tissues. Different topologies for the ligand located in the more accessible site have been reported, with either a 'head-in' or 'head-out' orientation of the carboxylate end. Electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance titrations are employed here in order to investigate in further detail the binding properties of this system, the equilibria established in solution and the pH dependence of the complexes. The results are consistent with two binding sites with different affinity and a unique head-out topology for the second molecule of either ligand. Competition experiments indicate a higher affinity for oleic acid relative to palmitic acid at each binding site. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The biotin repressor: thermodynamic coupling of corepressor binding, protein assembly, and sequence-specific DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Streaker, Emily D; Gupta, Aditi; Beckett, Dorothy

    2002-12-03

    The Escherichia coli biotin repressor, an allosteric transcriptional regulator, is activated for binding to the biotin operator by the small molecule biotinyl-5'-AMP. Results of combined thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural studies of the protein have revealed that corepressor binding results in disorder to order transitions in the protein monomer that facilitate tighter dimerization. The enhanced stability of the dimer leads to stabilization of the resulting biotin repressor-biotin operator complex. It is not clear, however, that the allosteric response in the system is transmitted solely through the protein-protein interface. In this work, the allosteric mechanism has been quantitatively probed by measuring the biotin operator binding and dimerization properties of three biotin repressor species: the apo or unliganded form, the biotin-bound form, and the holo or bio-5'-AMP-bound form. Comparisons of the pairwise differences in the bioO binding and dimerization energetics for the apo and holo species reveal that the enhanced DNA binding energetics resulting from adenylate binding track closely with the enhanced assembly energetics. However, when the results for repressor pairs that include the biotin-bound species are compared, no such equivalence is observed.

  12. The binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate to various proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pitt-Rivers, Rosalind; Impiombato, F. S. Ambesi

    1968-01-01

    1. The binding of sodium dodecyl sulphate to proteins by equilibrium dialysis was investigated. 2. Most of the proteins studied bound 90–100% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. The glycoproteins studied bound 70–100% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate, calculated in terms of the polypeptide moiety of the molecule. 4. Proteins not containing S·S groups bound about 140% of their weight of sodium dodecyl sulphate. 5. Reduction of four proteins containing S·S groups caused a rise in sodium dodecyl sulphate binding to 140% of the weight of protein. 6. The apparent micellar molecular weights of the protein–sodium dodecyl sulphate complexes were measured by the dye-solubilization method; they were all found to have approximately the same micellar molecular weight (34000–41000) irrespective of the molecular weight of the protein to which they were attached. PMID:4177067

  13. FRET in a Synthetic Flavin- and Bilin-binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Simon, Julian; Losi, Aba; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    The last decade has seen development and application of a large number of novel fluorescence-based techniques that have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy in life sciences. Preferred tags for such applications are genetically encoded fluorescent proteins (FP), mostly derivatives of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Combinations of FPs with wavelength-separated absorption/fluorescence properties serve as excellent tools for molecular interaction studies, for example, protein-protein complexes or enzyme-substrate interactions, based on the FRET phenomenon (Förster resonance energy transfer). However, alternatives are requested for experimental conditions where FP proteins or FP couples are not or less efficiently applicable. We here report as a "proof of principle" a specially designed, non-naturally occurring protein (LG1) carrying a combination of a flavin-binding LOV- and a photochromic bilin-binding GAF domain and demonstrate a FRET process between both chromophores. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Lactation-induced cadmium-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Solaiman, D.; Garvey, J.S.; Miyazaki, W.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated an increase during midlactation in /sup 109/Cd adsorption and increased retention by the duodenum, kidney, and mammary tissue of mouse dams receiving environmental levels of cadmium//sup 109/Cd via drinking water, with little change in /sup 109/Cd retention in liver and jejunum compared to nonpregnant controls. Results are reported here of a study of cadmium deposition during midlactation as associated with induction of metallothionein (MT). A cadmium/hemoglobin (Cd/Hb) assay and radioimmunoassay for MT which measures heat-stable cadmium binding capacity in tissues was used to determine MT concentrations in fractions of kidney, liver, duodenum, and jejunum from female mice. Both assays demonstrated clear lactation-induced increases in MT concentrations in liver, kidney, and duodenum, with MT concentrations falling rapidly to control levels after weaning. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  15. In vivo modification of Azotobacter chroococcum glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Centeno, M C; Cejudo, F J; Paneque, A

    1994-03-15

    A monospecific anti-(glutamine synthetase) antibody raised against glutamine synthetase of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 immunoreacted with glutamine synthetase from the N2-fixing heterotrophic bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum. In Western-blotting experiments this antibody recognized a single protein of a molecular mass of 59 kDa corresponding to glutamine synthetase subunit. This protein was in vivo-labelled in response to addition of ammonium, both [3H]adenine and H(3)32PO4 preincubation of the cells being equally effective. Nevertheless, the amount of glutamine synthetase present in A. chroococcum was independent of the available nitrogen source. Modified, inactive glutamine synthetase was re-activated by treatment with snake-venom phosphodiesterase but not by alkaline phosphatase. L-Methionine-DL-sulphoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, prevented the enzyme from being covalently modified. We conclude that, in A. chroococcum, glutamine synthetase is adenylylated in response to ammonium and that for the modification to take place ammonium must be metabolized.

  16. In vivo modification of Azotobacter chroococcum glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Centeno, M C; Cejudo, F J; Paneque, A

    1994-01-01

    A monospecific anti-(glutamine synthetase) antibody raised against glutamine synthetase of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 immunoreacted with glutamine synthetase from the N2-fixing heterotrophic bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum. In Western-blotting experiments this antibody recognized a single protein of a molecular mass of 59 kDa corresponding to glutamine synthetase subunit. This protein was in vivo-labelled in response to addition of ammonium, both [3H]adenine and H(3)32PO4 preincubation of the cells being equally effective. Nevertheless, the amount of glutamine synthetase present in A. chroococcum was independent of the available nitrogen source. Modified, inactive glutamine synthetase was re-activated by treatment with snake-venom phosphodiesterase but not by alkaline phosphatase. L-Methionine-DL-sulphoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, prevented the enzyme from being covalently modified. We conclude that, in A. chroococcum, glutamine synthetase is adenylylated in response to ammonium and that for the modification to take place ammonium must be metabolized. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7908189

  17. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm-positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis, respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis. The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  18. Natural history of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kozbial, Piotr Z; Mushegian, Arcady R

    2005-01-01

    Background S-adenosylmethionine is a source of diverse chemical groups used in biosynthesis and modification of virtually every class of biomolecules. The most notable reaction requiring S-adenosylmethionine, transfer of methyl group, is performed by a large class of enzymes, S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases, which have been the focus of considerable structure-function studies. Evolutionary trajectories of these enzymes, and especially of other classes of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins, nevertheless, remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by computational comparison of sequences and structures of various S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins. Results Two widespread folds, Rossmann fold and TIM barrel, have been repeatedly used in evolution for diverse types of S-adenosylmethionine conversion. There were also cases of recruitment of other relatively common folds for S-adenosylmethionine binding. Several classes of proteins have unique unrelated folds, specialized for just one type of chemistry and unified by the theme of internal domain duplications. In several cases, functional divergence is evident, when evolutionarily related enzymes have changed the mode of binding and the type of chemical transformation of S-adenosylmethionine. There are also instances of functional convergence, when biochemically similar processes are performed by drastically different classes of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins. Comparison of remote sequence similarities and analysis of phyletic patterns suggests that the last universal common ancestor of cellular life had between 10 and 20 S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins from at least 5 fold classes, providing for S-adenosylmethionine formation, polyamine biosynthesis, and methylation of several substrates, including nucleic acids and peptide chain release factor. Conclusion We have observed several novel relationships between families that were not known to be related before, and defined 15

  19. Fragile X mental retardation protein: A paradigm for translational control by RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eileen; Joseph, Simpson

    2015-07-01

    Translational control is a common mechanism used to regulate gene expression and occur in bacteria to mammals. Typically in translational control, an RNA-binding protein binds to a unique sequence in the mRNA to regulate protein synthesis by the ribosomes. Alternatively, a protein may bind to or modify a translation factor to globally regulate protein synthesis by the cell. Here, we review translational control by the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the absence of which causes the neurological disease, fragile X syndrome (FXS).

  20. Camptothecin-binding site in human serum albumin and protein transformations induced by drug binding.

    PubMed

    Fleury, F; Ianoul, A; Berjot, M; Feofanov, A; Alix, A J; Nabiev, I

    1997-07-14

    Circular dichroism (CD) and Raman spectroscopy were employed in order to locate a camptothecin (CPT)-binding site within human serum albumin (HSA) and to identify protein structural transformations induced by CPT binding. A competitive binding of CPT and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (a ligand occupying IIIA structural sub-domain of the protein) to HSA does not show any competition and demonstrates that the ligands are located in the different binding sites, whereas a HSA-bound CPT may be replaced by warfarin, occupying IIA structural sub-domain of the protein. Raman and CD spectra of HSA and HSA/CPT complexes show that the CPT-binding does not induce changes of the global protein secondary structure. On the other hand, Raman spectra reveal pronounced CPT-induced local structural modifications of the HSA molecule, involving changes in configuration of the two disulfide bonds and transfer of a single Trp-residue to hydrophilic environment. These data suggest that CPT is bound in the region of interdomain connections within the IIA structural domain of HSA and it induces relative movement of the protein structural domains.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 erythrocyte binding peptides implicate AMA-1 as erythrocyte binding protein.

    PubMed

    Urquiza, M; Suarez, J E; Cardenas, C; Lopez, R; Puentes, A; Chavez, F; Calvo, J C; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-10-15

    The role of AMA-1 during merozoite invasion has not yet been determined. However, reported experimental evidence suggests that this protein can be used, in particular as erythrocyte-binding protein, since, Fab fragments against this protein are able to block merozoite invasion. Using a previously described methodology, eight peptides with high binding activity to human erythrocyte, scattered along the different domains and having around 130 nM affinity constants, were identified in the Plasmodium falciparum AMA-1 protein. Their binding activity was sialic acid independent. Some of these peptides showed homology with the erythrocyte binding domains of one of the apical organelle protein family, MAEBL, identified in rodent malarial parasites. One of these peptides shares amino acid sequence with a previously reported B-cell epitope which induces antibodies to block parasite growth. The critical residues were identified for erythrocyte binding conserved peptides 4313 (DAEVAGTQYRLPSGKCPVFG), 4321 (VVDNWEKVCPRKNLQNAKFG), 4325 (MIKSAFLPTGAFKADRYKSH) and 4337 (WGEEKRASHTTPVLMEKPYY). All conserved peptides were able to block merozoite invasion of new RBC and development, suggesting that these peptides are involved in P. falciparum invasion.

  2. Part I. Cobalt thiolate complexes modeling the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. Part II. Formation of inorganic nanoparticles on protein scaffolding in Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Irene Yuk Man

    Part I. A series of novel cobalt dithiolate complexes with mixed imine/amine ligand systems is presented here as electronic and structural models for the active site in the bacterial enzyme class, nitrile hydratase (NHase). Pentadentate cobalt(II) complexes with S2N 3 ligand environments are first studied as precursors to the more relevant cobalt(III) complexes. Adjustment of the backbone length by removal of a methylene group increases the reactivity of the system; whereas reduction of the two backbone imine bonds to allow free rotation about those bonds may decrease reactivity. Reactivity change due to the replacement of the backbone amine proton with a more sterically challenging methyl group is not yet clear. Upon oxidation, the monocationic pentadentate cobalt(III) complex, 1b, shows promising reactivity similar to that of NHase. The metal's open coordination site allows reversible binding of the endogenous, monoanionic ligands, N 3- and NCS-. Oxygenation of the thiolate sulfur atoms by exposure to O2 and H2O 2 produces sulfenate and sulfinate ligands in complex 8, which resembles the crystal structure of "deactivated" Fe NHase. However, its lack of reactivity argues against the oxygenated enzyme structure as the active form. Six-coordinate cobalt(III) complexes with S2N4 amine/amine ligand systems are also presented as analogues of previously reported iron(III) compounds, which mimic the spectroscopic properties of Fe NHase. The cobalt complexes do not seem to similarly model Co NHase. However, the S = 0 cobalt(III) center can be spectroscopically silent and difficult to detect, making comparison with synthetic models using common techniques hard. Part II. Dodecameric Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase mutant, E165C, stacks along its six-fold axis to produce tubular nanostructures in the presence of some divalent metal ions, as does the wild type enzyme. The centrally located, engineered Cys-165 residues appear to bind to various species and may serve as

  3. RNA-Binding Proteins in Female Reproductive Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Khalaj, Kasra; Miller, Jessica E; Fenn, Christian R; Ahn, SooHyun; Luna, Rayana L; Symons, Lindsey; Monsanto, Stephany P; Koti, Madhuri; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2017-06-01

    RNA-binding proteins are key regulatory molecules involved primarily in post-transcriptional gene regulation of RNAs. Post-transcriptional gene regulation is critical for adequate cellular growth and survival. Recent reports have shown key interactions between these RNA-binding proteins and other regulatory elements, such as miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, either enhancing or diminishing their response to RNA stabilization. Many RNA-binding proteins have been reported to play a functional role in mediation of cytokines involved in inflammation and immune dysfunction, and some have been classified as global post-transcriptional regulators of inflammation. The ubiquitous expression of RNA-binding proteins in a wide variety of cell types and their unique mechanisms of degradative action provide evidence that they are involved in reproductive tract pathologies. Aberrant inflammation and immune dysfunction are major contributors to the pathogenesis and disease pathophysiology of many reproductive pathologies, including ovarian and endometrial cancers in the female reproductive tract. Herein, we discuss various RNA-binding proteins and their unique contributions to female reproductive pathologies with a focus on those mediated by aberrant inflammation and immune dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative analysis of EGR proteins binding to DNA: assessing additivity in both the binding site and the protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajian; Stormo, Gary D

    2005-01-01

    Background Recognition codes for protein-DNA interactions typically assume that the interacting positions contribute additively to the binding energy. While this is known to not be precisely true, an additive model over the DNA positions can be a good approximation, at least for some proteins. Much less information is available about whether the protein positions contribute additively to the interaction. Results Using EGR zinc finger proteins, we measure the binding affinity of six different variants of the protein to each of six different variants of the consensus binding site. Both the protein and binding site variants include single and double mutations that allow us to assess how well additive models can account for the data. For each protein and DNA alone we find that additive models are good approximations, but over the combined set of data there are context effects that limit their accuracy. However, a small modification to the purely additive model, with only three additional parameters, improves the fit significantly. Conclusion The additive model holds very well for every DNA site and every protein included in this study, but clear context dependence in the interactions was detected. A simple modification to the independent model provides a better fit to the complete data. PMID:16014175

  5. Specific binding of gibberellic acid by cytokinin-specific binding proteins: a new aspect of plant hormone-binding proteins with the PR-10 fold.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Sliwiak, Joanna; Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Barciszewski, Jakub; Sikorski, Michal; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins of class 10 (PR-10) are a family of plant proteins with the same fold characterized by a large hydrophobic cavity that allows them to bind various ligands, such as phytohormones. A subfamily with only ~20% sequence identity but with a conserved canonical PR-10 fold have previously been recognized as Cytokinin-Specific Binding Proteins (CSBPs), although structurally the binding mode of trans-zeatin (a cytokinin phytohormone) was found to be quite diversified. Here, it is shown that two CSBP orthologues from Medicago truncatula and Vigna radiata bind gibberellic acid (GA3), which is an entirely different phytohormone, in a conserved and highly specific manner. In both cases a single GA3 molecule is found in the internal cavity of the protein. The structural data derived from high-resolution crystal structures are corroborated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), which reveals a much stronger interaction with GA3 than with trans-zeatin and pH dependence of the binding profile. As a conclusion, it is postulated that the CSBP subfamily of plant PR-10 proteins should be more properly linked with general phytohormone-binding properties and termed phytohormone-binding proteins (PhBP).

  6. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. © 2014 The Authors.

  7. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  8. Characterization of the cellulose-binding domain of the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose-binding protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, M A; Takagi, M; Hashida, S; Shoseyov, O; Doi, R H; Segel, I H

    1993-01-01

    Cellulose-binding protein A (CbpA), a component of the cellulase complex of Clostridium cellulovorans, contains a unique sequence which has been demonstrated to be a cellulose-binding domain (CBD). The DNA coding for this putative CBD was subcloned into pET-8c, an Escherichia coli expression vector. The protein produced under the direction of the recombinant plasmid, pET-CBD, had a high affinity for crystalline cellulose. Affinity-purified CBD protein was used in equilibrium binding experiments to characterize the interaction of the protein with various polysaccharides. It was found that the binding capacity of highly crystalline cellulose samples (e.g., cotton) was greater than that of samples of low crystallinity (e.g., fibrous cellulose). At saturating CBD concentration, about 6.4 mumol of protein was bound by 1 g of cotton. Under the same conditions, fibrous cellulose bound only 0.2 mumol of CBD per g. The measured dissociation constant was in the 1 microM range for all cellulose samples. The results suggest that the CBD binds specifically to crystalline cellulose. Chitin, which has a crystal structure similar to that of cellulose, also was bound by the CBD. The presence of high levels of cellobiose or carboxymethyl cellulose in the assay mixture had no effect on the binding of CBD protein to crystalline cellulose. This result suggests that the CBD recognition site is larger than a simple cellobiose unit or more complex than a repeating cellobiose moiety. This CBD is of particular interest because it is the first CBD from a completely sequenced nonenzymatic protein shown to be an independently functional domain. Images PMID:8376323

  9. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle binding to major human blood proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Katsutomo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Nanomaterials are used for various biomedical applications because they are often more effective than conventional materials. Recently, however, it has become clear that the protein corona that forms on the surface of nanomaterials when they make contact with biological fluids, such as blood, influences the pharmacokinetics and biological responses induced by the nanomaterials. Therefore, when evaluating nanomaterial safety and efficacy, it is important to analyze the interaction between nanomaterials and proteins in biological fluids and to evaluate the effects of the protein corona. Here, we evaluated the interaction of silica nanoparticles, a commonly used nanomaterial, with the human blood proteins albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and IgG. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to the silica particles increased as the particle size decreased under conditions where the silica particle mass remained the same. However, under conditions in which the specific surface area remained constant, there were no differences in the binding of human plasma proteins to the silica particles tested, suggesting that the binding of silica particles with human plasma proteins is dependent on the specific surface area of the silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70) and a functional amino group was lower than that with unmodified nSP70, although there was no difference in the binding between nSP70 with the surface modification of a carboxyl functional group and nSP70. These results suggest that the characteristics of nanomaterials are important for binding with human blood proteins; this information may contribute to the development of safe and effective nanomaterials.

  10. Mercury-binding proteins from the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed Central

    Roesijadi, G

    1986-01-01

    The marine mussel, Mytilus edulis, possesses low molecular weight, metal-binding proteins which can be induced by and, in turn, bind mercury when individuals are exposed to low, but elevated concentrations of mercury as HgCl2. Induction of the proteins by exposure of mussels to copper, cadmium, or mercury is associated with enhanced tolerance to mercury toxicity. Mercury-binding proteins isolated from gills of mussels occur as two molecular weight variants of about 20-25 and 10-12 kdaltons, respectively, on Sephadex G-75. These have been designated as HgBP20 and HgBP10 following the nomenclature used for cadmium-binding proteins. HgBP20 represents the primary mercury-binding species. These exist as dimers which can be dissociated into subunits by treatment with 1% 2-mercaptoethanol. Further purification of HgBP20 by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography resulted in the resolution of three major mercury-binding protein peaks; analysis of two of these showed that both had similar amino acid compositions with 26% half-cystine, 16% glycine, and very low levels of the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine (0.3-0.5%), histidine (0.4%), methionine (about 0.5%), and leucine (about 1%). These are similar to the compositions of proteins reported as mussel thioneins by others. Separation of HgBP20 by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography resulted in the resolution of six peaks, indicating a more complex situation than was evident from DEAE-cellulose separations. Although not completely purified, these also contain cysteine- and glycine-rich proteins. PMID:3709464

  11. Probing the fibrate binding specificity of rat liver fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Sara; Velkov, Tony; Horne, James; Wielens, Jerome; Chalmers, David K; Porter, Christopher J H; Scanlon, Martin J

    2009-09-10

    Liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is found in high levels in enterocytes and is involved in cytosolic solubilization of fatty acids. In addition, L-FABP has been shown to bind endogenous and exogenous lipophilic compounds, suggesting that it may also play a role in modulating their absorption and disposition within enterocytes. Previously, we have described binding of L-FABP to a range of drugs, including a series of fibrates. In the present study, we have generated structural models of L-FABP-fibrate complexes and undertaken thermodynamic analysis of the binding of fibrates containing either a carboxylic acid or ester functionality. Analysis of the current data reveals that both the location and the energetics of binding are different for fibrates that contain a carboxylate compared to those that do not. As such, the data presented in this study suggest potential mechanisms that underpin molecular recognition and dictate specificity in the interaction between fibrates and L-FABP.

  12. Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 has an interdigitated double Tudor domain with DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weibin; Wang, Jinfeng; Perrett, Sarah; Feng, Yingang

    2014-02-21

    Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) is a tumor and leukemia suppressor that binds both methylated histone tails and DNA. Our previous studies indicated that RBBP1 possesses a Tudor domain, which cannot bind histone marks. In order to clarify the function of the Tudor domain, the solution structure of the RBBP1 Tudor domain was determined by NMR and is presented here. Although the proteins are unrelated, the RBBP1 Tudor domain forms an interdigitated double Tudor structure similar to the Tudor domain of JMJD2A, which is an epigenetic mark reader. This indicates the functional diversity of Tudor domains. The RBBP1 Tudor domain structure has a significant area of positively charged surface, which reveals a capability of the RBBP1 Tudor domain to bind nucleic acids. NMR titration and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicate that the RBBP1 Tudor domain binds both double- and single-stranded DNA with an affinity of 10-100 μM; no apparent DNA sequence specificity was detected. The DNA binding mode and key interaction residues were analyzed in detail based on a model structure of the Tudor domain-dsDNA complex, built by HADDOCK docking using the NMR data. Electrostatic interactions mediate the binding of the Tudor domain with DNA, which is consistent with NMR experiments performed at high salt concentration. The DNA-binding residues are conserved in Tudor domains of the RBBP1 protein family, resulting in conservation of the DNA-binding function in the RBBP1 Tudor domains. Our results provide further insights into the structure and function of RBBP1.

  13. Carotenoid Antenna Binding and Function in Retinal Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-13

    REPORT Carotenoid antenna binding and function in retinal proteins 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Xanthorhodopsin, a proton pump from the...eubacterium Salinibacter ruber, is a unique dual chromophore system that contains, in addition to retinal, the carotenoid salinixanthin as a light... carotenoid ring near the retinal ring. Substitution of the small glycine with bulky tryptophan in this site eliminates binding. The second factor is the 4

  14. Characterization of adenosine binding proteins in human placental membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized two adenosine binding proteins in human placenta. In membranes, one site is detected with ({sup 3}H) -N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). This site is similar to the adenosine A{sub 2} receptor. We call this site the adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site. In detergent extracts, the second site is detected and has the characteristics of an adenosine A{sub 1} receptor. The soluble adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site cannot be detected without a rapid assay. Binding to the adenosine A{sub 1} receptor with ({sup 3}H)-2-chloroadenosine and ({sup 3}H)NECA is time dependent, saturable, and reversible. Equilibrium displacement analysis with adenosine agonists reveals an A{sub 1} specificity: 2-chloroadenosine > R-phenylisopropyladenosine > 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine. The antagonist potency order is 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine > isobutylmethylxanthine > theophylline. Competition analysis of membranes with the A,-selective ligands ({sup 3}H)-cyclohexyladenosine ({sup 3}H) cylopentylxanthine revealed adenosine A{sub 1} agonist and antagonist potency orders. We have purified the adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site. The adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site is an ubiquitous major cellular protein. It is glycosylated, highly asymmetric, and acidic. The native protein is an homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 98 kDa. The sedimentation coefficient and partial specific volume of the binding complex are 6.9 s and 0.698 ml/g, respectively. The Stokes' radius is 70 {Angstrom}. The native molecular mass of the detergent-protein complex is 230 kDa. The adenosine A{sub 2}-like binding site has an agonist potency order of 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > 2-chloroadenosine >> R-phenylisopropyladenosine and an antagonist potency order of isobutylmethylxanthine > theophylline >> 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine.

  15. ASCONA: Rapid Detection and Alignment of Protein Binding Site Conformations.

    PubMed

    Bietz, Stefan; Rarey, Matthias

    2015-08-24

    The usage of conformational ensembles constitutes a widespread technique for the consideration of protein flexibility in computational biology. When experimental structures are applied for this purpose, alignment techniques are usually required in dealing with structural deviations and annotation inconsistencies. Moreover, many application scenarios focus on protein ligand binding sites. Here, we introduce our new alignment algorithm ASCONA that has been specially geared to the problem of aligning multiple conformations of sequentially similar binding sites. Intense efforts have been directed to an accurate detection of highly flexible backbone deviations, multiple binding site matches within a single structure, and a reliable, but at the same time highly efficient, search algorithm. In contrast, most available alignment methods rather target other issues, e.g., the global alignment of distantly related proteins that share structurally conserved regions. For conformational ensembles, this might not only result in an overhead of computation time but could also affect the achieved accuracy, especially for more complicated cases as highly flexible proteins. ASCONA was evaluated on a test set containing 1107 structures of 65 diverse proteins. In all cases, ASCONA was able to correctly align the binding site at an average alignment computation time of 4 ms per target. Furthermore, no false positive matches were observed when searching the same query sites in the structures of other proteins. ASCONA proved to cope with highly deviating backbone structures and to tolerate structural gaps and moderate mutation rates. ASCONA is available free of charge for academic use at http://www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/ascona .

  16. Protein D of Haemophilus influenzae is not a universal immunoglobulin D-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, K; Munson, R S

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b and nontypeable H. influenzae have been reported to bind human immunoglobulin D (IgD). IgD myeloma sera from five patients were tested for the ability of IgD to bind to H. influenzae. Serotype b strains bound human IgD in four of the five sera tested. IgD in the fifth serum bound strongly to type b strain MinnA but poorly to other type b strains. Additionally, IgD binding was not observed when nontypeable strains were tested. The gene for protein D, the putative IgD-binding protein, was cloned from the IgD-binding H. influenzae type b strain MinnA and expressed in Escherichia coli. IgD binding to E. coli expressing protein D was not demonstrable. Recombinant protein D was purified, and antisera were generated in rabbits. Using these rabbit sera, we detected protein D in nontypeable as well as serotype b strains by Western blotting (immunoblotting). In contrast, IgD myeloma protein 4490, which was previously reported to bind to protein D by Ruan and coworkers (M. Ruan, M. Akkoyunlu, A. Grubb, and A. Forsgren, J. Immunol. 145:3379-3384), bound strongly to both type b and nontypeable H. influenzae as well as to E. coli expressing protein D. Thus, IgD binding is a general property of H. influenzae type b strains but not a general property of nontypeable strains, although both type b and nontypeable strains produce protein D. With the exception of IgD myeloma protein 4490 binding, we have no evidence for a role of protein D in IgD binding to H. influenzae. Images PMID:8514409

  17. Substitution of histidine-137 by glutamine abolishes the catalytic activity of the ribosome-inactivating protein alpha-sarcin.

    PubMed Central

    Lacadena, J; Mancheño, J M; Martinez-Ruiz, A; Martínez del Pozo, A; Gasset, M; Oñaderra, M; Gavilanes, J G

    1995-01-01

    The alpha-sarcin cytotoxin is an extracellular fungal protein that inhibits protein biosynthesis by specifically cleaving one phosphodiester bond of the 28 S rRNA. The His137 residue of alpha-sarcin is suggested to be involved in the catalytic activity of this protein, based on the observed sequence similarity with some fungal ribonucleases. Replacement of this residue by Gln (H137Q mutant variant of alpha-sarcin) abolishes the ribonuclease activity of the protein. This has been demonstrated for an homogeneous preparation of the H137Q alpha-sarcin by measuring its effect against both intact rabbit ribosomes and the homopolymer poly(A). The conformation of H137Q alpha-sarcin is highly similar to that of the wild-type protein, which has been analysed by CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Both H137Q and wild-type alpha-sarcin exhibit identical CD spectra in the peptide-bond region, indicating that no changes at the level of the secondary structure are produced upon mutation. Only minor differences are observed in both near-UV CD and fluorescence emission spectra in comparison to those of the wild-type protein. Moreover, H137Q alpha-sarcin interacts with phospholipid vesicles, promoting the same effects as the native cytotoxin. Therefore, we propose that His137 is part of the ribonucleolytic active site of the cytotoxin alpha-sarcin. Images Figure 4 PMID:7626023

  18. Chromate Binding and Removal by the Molybdate-Binding Protein ModA.

    PubMed

    Karpus, Jason; Bosscher, Michael; Ajiboye, Ifedayo; Zhang, Liang; He, Chuan

    2017-02-02

    Effective and cheap methods and techniques for the safe removal of hexavalent chromate from the environment are in increasingly high demand. High concentrations of hexavalent chromate have been shown to have numerous harmful effects on human biology. We show that the E. coli molybdate-binding protein ModA is a genetically encoded tool capable of removing chromate from aqueous solutions. Although previously reported to not bind chromate, we show that ModA binds chromate tightly and is capable of removing chromate to levels well below current US federal standards.

  19. Universal protein binding microarrays for the comprehensive characterization of the DNA binding specificities of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Michael F.; Bulyk, Martha L.

    2010-01-01

    Protein binding microarray (PBM) technology provides a rapid, high-throughput means of characterizing the in vitro DNA binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs). Using high-density, custom-designed microarrays containing all 10-mer sequence variants, one can obtain comprehensive binding site measurements for any TF, regardless of its structural class or species of origin. Here, we present a protocol for the examination and analysis of TF binding specificities at high resolution using such ‘all 10-mer’ universal PBMs. This procedure involves double-stranding a commercially synthesized DNA oligonucleotide array, binding a TF directly to the double-stranded DNA microarray, and labeling the protein-bound microarray with a fluorophore-conjugated antibody. We describe how to computationally extract the relative binding preferences of the examined TF for all possible contiguous and gapped 8-mers over the full range of affinities, from highest affinity sites to nonspecific sites. Multiple proteins can be tested in parallel in separate chambers on a single microarray, enabling the processing of a dozen or more TFs in a single day. PMID:19265799

  20. Escherchia coli ribose binding protein based bioreporters revisited

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Artur; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon; Roy, Shantanu; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2014-01-01

    Bioreporter bacteria, i.e., strains engineered to respond to chemical exposure by production of reporter proteins, have attracted wide interest because of their potential to offer cheap and simple alternative analytics for specified compounds or conditions. Bioreporter construction has mostly exploited the natural variation of sensory proteins, but it has been proposed that computational design of new substrate binding properties could lead to completely novel detection specificities at very low affinities. Here we reconstruct a bioreporter system based on the native Escherichia coli ribose binding protein RbsB and one of its computationally designed variants, reported to be capable of binding 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Our results show in vivo reporter induction at 50 nM ribose, and a 125 nM affinity constant for in vitro ribose binding to RbsB. In contrast, the purified published TNT-binding variant did not bind TNT nor did TNT cause induction of the E. coli reporter system. PMID:25005019

  1. Novel DNA-binding properties of the RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    PubMed

    Suswam, Esther A; Li, Yan Yan; Mahtani, Harry; King, Peter H

    2005-01-01

    TIA-1 related protein binds avidly to uridine-rich elements in mRNA and pre-mRNAs of a wide range of genes, including interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The protein has diverse regulatory roles, which in part depend on the locus of binding within the transcript, including translational control, splicing and apoptosis. Here, we observed selective and potent inhibition of TIAR-RNP complex formation with IL-8 and VEGF 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) using thymidine-rich deoxyoligonucleotide (ODN) sequences derived from the VEFG 3'-UTR. We show by ultraviolet crosslinking and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that TIAR can bind directly to single-stranded, thymidine-rich ODNs but not to double-stranded ODNs containing the same sequence. TIAR had a nearly 6-fold greater affinity for DNA than RNA (K(d)app = 1.6x10(-9) M versus 9.4 x 10(-9) M). Truncation of TIAR indicated that the high affinity DNA-binding site overlaps with the RNA-binding site involving RNA recognition motif 2 (RRM2). However, RRM1 alone could also bind to DNA. Finally, we show that TIAR can be displaced from single-stranded DNA by active transcription through the binding site. These results provide a potential mechanism by which TIAR can shuttle between RNA and DNA ligands.

  2. Mind the methyl: methyllysine binding proteins in epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Tobias; Robaa, Dina; Sippl, Wolfgang; Jung, Manfred

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the phenomenon of heritable phenotypic traits that are not governed by alteration of the genetic code. Major epigenetic control mechanisms include DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones, such as reversible histone acetylation and methylation of lysine residues. Methyllysine binding proteins recognize various levels of lysine methylation and mediate the signaling events that are induced by histone methylation. Therefore, they are also referred to as readers of the epigenetic code. In this article we review the current literature on the structure and biology of methyllysine binding proteins, especially with regard to their potential as drug targets. We also present the available inhibitors that block the interaction of methylated histones with their binding proteins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Allosteric switch regulates protein–protein binding through collective motion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Colin A.; Pratihar, Supriya; Giller, Karin; Paulat, Maria; Becker, Stefan; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan; de Groot, Bert L.

    2016-01-01

    Many biological processes depend on allosteric communication between different parts of a protein, but the role of internal protein motion in propagating signals through the structure remains largely unknown. Through an experimental and computational analysis of the ground state dynamics in ubiquitin, we identify a collective global motion that is specifically linked to a conformational switch distant from the binding interface. This allosteric coupling is also present in crystal structures and is found to facilitate multispecificity, particularly binding to the ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) family of deubiquitinases. The collective motion that enables this allosteric communication does not affect binding through localized changes but, instead, depends on expansion and contraction of the entire protein domain. The characterization of these collective motions represents a promising avenue for finding and manipulating allosteric networks. PMID:26961002

  4. Grafting odorant binding proteins on diamond bio-MEMS.

    PubMed

    Manai, R; Scorsone, E; Rousseau, L; Ghassemi, F; Possas Abreu, M; Lissorgues, G; Tremillon, N; Ginisty, H; Arnault, J-C; Tuccori, E; Bernabei, M; Cali, K; Persaud, K C; Bergonzo, P

    2014-10-15

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are small soluble proteins found in olfactory systems that are capable of binding several types of odorant molecules. Cantilevers based on polycrystalline diamond surfaces are very promising as chemical transducers. Here two methods were investigated for chemically grafting porcine OBPs on polycrystalline diamond surfaces for biosensor development. The first approach resulted in random orientation of the immobilized proteins over the surface. The second approach based on complexing a histidine-tag located on the protein with nickel allowed control of the proteins' orientation. Evidence confirming protein grafting was obtained using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemical sensing performances of these OBP modified transducers were assessed. The second grafting method led to typically 20% more sensitive sensors, as a result of better access of ligands to the proteins active sites and also perhaps a better yield of protein immobilization. This new grafting method appears to be highly promising for further investigation of the ligand binding properties of OBPs in general and for the development of arrays of non-specific biosensors for artificial olfaction applications.

  5. Zinc-protein from rat prostate fluid binds epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sansone, G; Abrescia, P

    1991-09-01

    The detection and the isolation of a zinc-protein from the secretion of the rat dorsolateral prostate is described. The purification procedure, based on gel filtration and cationic exchange chromatography, allowed to separate a minor protein (Mr approximately 66,000) from free zinc ions and other secretory components. Two zinc ions were estimated to be associated with one molecule of isolated protein. The zinc-protein was labelled with 125I and then incubated at 37 degrees C with spermatozoa from rat epididymal cauda. Time-dependent in vitro binding of the radioactive protein to sperm cells was demonstrated. This binding was not affected by the presence of proteins from the seminal vesicle during the incubation, while it was blocked in the presence of an excess of unlabelled zinc-protein. After binding, the labelled spermatozoa were treated with a buffer containing 0.5% sodium deoxycholate and 40 mM EDTA; only very small amounts of label were removed from the cells, thus suggesting that the zinc-proteins were kept on the plasma membrane by interactions which do not involve merely hydrophobic bonds.

  6. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhou J; Mortimer, Gysell; Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren; Minchin, Rodney F

    2009-11-11

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO2, the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO2 and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  7. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhou J.; Mortimer, Gysell; Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren; Minchin, Rodney F.

    2009-11-01

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO2, the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO2 and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  8. Bovine coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 (p28) is an RNA binding protein that binds terminal genomic cis-replication elements.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Kortney M; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Brian, David A

    2009-06-01

    Nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1), a 28-kDa protein in the bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and closely related mouse hepatitis coronavirus, is the first protein cleaved from the open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) polyprotein product of genome translation. Recently, a 30-nucleotide (nt) cis-replication stem-loop VI (SLVI) has been mapped at nt 101 to 130 within a 288-nt 5'-terminal segment of the 738-nt nsp1 cistron in a BCoV defective interfering (DI) RNA. Since a similar nsp1 coding region appears in all characterized groups 1 and 2 coronavirus DI RNAs and must be translated in cis for BCoV DI RNA replication, we hypothesized that nsp1 might regulate ORF 1 expression by binding this intra-nsp1 cistronic element. Here, we (i) establish by mutation analysis that the 72-nt intracistronic SLV immediately upstream of SLVI is also a DI RNA cis-replication signal, (ii) show by gel shift and UV-cross-linking analyses that cellular proteins of approximately 60 and 100 kDa, but not viral proteins, bind SLV and SLVI, (SLV-VI) and (iii) demonstrate by gel shift analysis that nsp1 purified from Escherichia coli does not bind SLV-VI but does bind three 5' untranslated region (UTR)- and one 3' UTR-located cis-replication SLs. Notably, nsp1 specifically binds SLIII and its flanking sequences in the 5' UTR with approximately 2.5 muM affinity. Additionally, under conditions enabling expression of nsp1 from DI RNA-encoded subgenomic mRNA, DI RNA levels were greatly reduced, but there was only a slight transient reduction in viral RNA levels. These results together indicate that nsp1 is an RNA-binding protein that may function to regulate viral genome translation or replication but not by binding SLV-VI within its own coding region.

  9. Chkl binds and phosphorylates BAD protein.

    PubMed

    Han, Edward Kyu-ho; Butler, Chris; Zhang, Haichao; Severin, Jean M; Qin, Wenying; Holzman, Tom F; Gubbins, Earl J; Simmer, Robert L; Rosenberg, Saul; Giranda, Vincent L; Ng, Shi-Chung; Luo, Y

    2004-01-01

    Chk1 (checkpoint kinase 1) is a serine-threonine kinase that is critical for G2/M arrest in response to DNA damage. Chk1 phosphorylates Cdc25C at serine-216, a major regulatory site, in response to DNA damage. Furthermore, Chk1 also phosphorylates Cdc25A on serine 123 which accelerates its degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and arrests cells in late G2-phase after DNA damage. In the present study, we demonstrated that Chk1 phosphorylates pro-apoptotic protein BAD (Bcl-2/Bcl-XL-Antagonist, causing cell Death) in vitro. In vitro phosphorylation analysis with various mouse BAD peptides has revealed two phosphorylation sites for Chk1 at serine-155 and serine-170. When wild-type and mutant BAD (S155A) constructs were transfected into 293T cells, an association between BAD and Chk1 was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. In addition, there was an increase in the phosphorylation of serine-155 following DNA damage by adriamycin treatment. Our results suggest that Chk1 associates with BAD and phosphorylates the BAD protein at serine-155. Taken together, our results suggest that Chk1 may inactivate BAD by associating with and phosphorylating residues critical for BAD function in response to DNA damage.

  10. Profiling Protein Kinases and Other ATP Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis Using Acyl-ATP Probes*

    PubMed Central

    Villamor, Joji Grace; Kaschani, Farnusch; Colby, Tom; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Zhao, David; Kaiser, Markus; Patricelli, Matthew P.; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Many protein activities are driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Here, we explore the ATP binding proteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using acyl-ATP (AcATP)1 probes. These probes target ATP binding sites and covalently label lysine residues in the ATP binding pocket. Gel-based profiling using biotinylated AcATP showed that labeling is dependent on pH and divalent ions and can be competed by nucleotides. The vast majority of these AcATP-labeled proteins are known ATP binding proteins. Our search for labeled peptides upon in-gel digest led to the discovery that the biotin moiety of the labeled peptides is oxidized. The in-gel analysis displayed kinase domains of two receptor-like kinases (RLKs) at a lower than expected molecular weight, indicating that these RLKs lost the extracellular domain, possibly as a result of receptor shedding. Analysis of modified peptides using a gel-free platform identified 242 different labeling sites for AcATP in the Arabidopsis proteome. Examination of each individual labeling site revealed a preference of labeling in ATP binding pockets for a broad diversity of ATP binding proteins. Of these, 24 labeled peptides were from a diverse range of protein kinases, including RLKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and calcium-dependent kinases. A significant portion of the labeling sites could not be assigned to known nucleotide binding sites. However, the fact that labeling could be competed with ATP indicates that these labeling sites might represent previously uncharacterized nucleotide binding sites. A plot of spectral counts against expression levels illustrates the high specificity of AcATP probes for protein kinases and known ATP binding proteins. This work introduces profiling of ATP binding activities of a large diversity of proteins in plant proteomes. The data have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000188. PMID:23722185

  11. Identification of a new tissue-kallikrein-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, J; Tillman, D M; Wang, M Y; Margolius, H S; Chao, L

    1986-01-01

    We have identified a tissue-kallikrein-binding protein in human serum and in the serum-free culture media from human lung fibroblasts (WI-38) and rodent neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cells (NG108-15). Purified and 125I-labelled tissue kallikrein and human serum form an approximately 92,000-Mr SDS-stable complex. The relative quantity of this complex-formation is measured by densitometric scanning of autoradiograms. Complex-formation between tissue kallikrein and the serum binding protein was time-dependent and detectable after 5 min incubation at 37 degrees C, with half-maximal binding at 28 min. Binding of 125I-kallikrein to kallikrein-binding protein is temperature-dependent and can be inhibited by heparin or excess unlabelled tissue kallikrein but not by plasma kallikrein, collagenase, thrombin, urokinase, alpha 1-antitrypsin or kininogens. The kallikrein-binding protein is acid- and heat-labile, as pretreatment of sera at pH 3.0 or at 60 degrees C for 30 min diminishes complex-formation. However, the formed complexes are stable to acid or 1 M-hydroxylamine treatment and can only be partially dissociated with 10 mM-NaOH. When kallikrein was inhibited by the active-site-labelling reagents phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride or D-Phe-D-Phe-L-Arg-CH2Cl no complex-formation was observed. An endogenous approximately 92,000-Mr kallikrein-kallikrein-binding protein complex was isolated from normal human serum by using a human tissue kallikrein-agarose affinity column. These complexes were recognized by anti-(human tissue kallikrein) antibodies, but not by anti-alpha 1-antitrypsin serum, in Western-blot analyses. The results show that the kallikrein-binding protein is distinct from alpha 1-antitrypsin and is not identifiable with any of the well-characterized plasma proteinase inhibitors such as alpha 2-macroglobulin, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor, C1-inactivator or antithrombin III. The functional role of this kallikrein-binding protein and its impact on kallikrein

  12. Behind the scenes of vitamin D binding protein: more than vitamin D binding.

    PubMed

    Delanghe, Joris R; Speeckaert, Reinhart; Speeckaert, Marijn M

    2015-10-01

    Although being discovered in 1959, the number of published papers in recent years reveals that vitamin D binding protein (DBP), a member of the albuminoid superfamily, is a hot research topic. Besides the three major phenotypes (DBP1F, DBP1S and DBP2), more than 120 unique variants have been described of this polymorphic protein. The presence of DBP has been demonstrated in different body fluids (serum, urine, breast milk, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and seminal fluid) and organs (brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, placenta, spleen, testes and uterus). Although the major function is binding, solubilization and transport of vitamin D and its metabolites, the name of this glycoprotein hides numerous other important biological functions. In this review, we will focus on the analytical aspects of the determination of DBP and discuss in detail the multifunctional capacity [actin scavenging, binding of fatty acids, chemotaxis, binding of endotoxins, influence on T cell response and influence of vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF) on bone metabolism and cancer] of this abundant plasma protein.

  13. Disulfide bridge regulates ligand-binding site selectivity in liver bile acid-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Clelia; Tomaselli, Simona; Assfalg, Michael; Pedò, Massimo; Ferranti, Pasquale; Zetta, Lucia; Molinari, Henriette; Ragona, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Bile acid-binding proteins (BABPs) are cytosolic lipid chaperones that play central roles in driving bile flow, as well as in the adaptation to various pathological conditions, contributing to the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis and functional distribution within the cell. Understanding the mode of binding of bile acids with their cytoplasmic transporters is a key issue in providing a model for the mechanism of their transfer from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, for delivery to nuclear receptors. A number of factors have been shown to modulate bile salt selectivity, stoichiometry, and affinity of binding to BABPs, e.g. chemistry of the ligand, protein plasticity and, possibly, the formation of disulfide bridges. Here, the effects of the presence of a naturally occurring disulfide bridge on liver BABP ligand-binding properties and backbone dynamics have been investigated by NMR. Interestingly, the disulfide bridge does not modify the protein-binding stoichiometry, but has a key role in modulating recognition at both sites, inducing site selectivity for glycocholic and glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Protein conformational changes following the introduction of a disulfide bridge are small and located around the inner binding site, whereas significant changes in backbone motions are observed for several residues distributed over the entire protein, both in the apo form and in the holo form. Site selectivity appears, therefore, to be dependent on protein mobility rather than being governed by steric factors. The detected properties further establish a parallelism with the behaviour of human ileal BABP, substantiating the proposal that BABPs have parallel functions in hepatocytes and enterocytes.

  14. BindUP: a web server for non-homology-based prediction of DNA and RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Paz, Inbal; Kligun, Efrat; Bengad, Barak; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-08

    Gene expression is a multi-step process involving many layers of regulation. The main regulators of the pathway are DNA and RNA binding proteins. While over the years, a large number of DNA and RNA binding proteins have been identified and extensively studied, it is still expected that many other proteins, some with yet another known function, are awaiting to be discovered. Here we present a new web server, BindUP, freely accessible through the website http://bindup.technion.ac.il/, for predicting DNA and RNA binding proteins using a non-homology-based approach. Our method is based on the electrostatic features of the protein surface and other general properties of the protein. BindUP predicts nucleic acid binding function given the proteins three-dimensional structure or a structural model. Additionally, BindUP provides information on the largest electrostatic surface patches, visualized on the server. The server was tested on several datasets of DNA and RNA binding proteins, including proteins which do not possess DNA or RNA binding domains and have no similarity to known nucleic acid binding proteins, achieving very high accuracy. BindUP is applicable in either single or batch modes and can be applied for testing hundreds of proteins simultaneously in a highly efficient manner.

  15. Solvation structure of ice-binding antifreeze proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, John

    2009-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can be found in organisms which survive at subzero temperatures. They were first discovered in polar fishes since the 1950's [1] and have been isolated meanwhile also from insects, plants, and bacteria. While AFPs shift the freezing point of water below the bulk melting point and hence can prevent recrystallization; the effect is non-colligative and there is a pronounced hysteresis between freezing and melting. For many AFPs it is generally accepted that they function through an irreversible binding to the ice-water interface which leads to a piecewise convex growth front with a lower nonequilibrium freezing point due to the Kelvin effect. Recent molecular dynamics simulations of the AFP from Choristoneura fumiferana reveal that the solvation structures of water at ice-binding and non-ice-binding faces of the protein are crucial for understanding how the AFP binds to the ice surface and how it is protected from being overgrown [2]. We use density functional theory of classical fluids in order to assess the microscopic solvent structure in the vicinity of protein faces with different surface properties. With our method, binding energies of different protein faces to the water-ice-interface can be computed efficiently in a simplified model. [1] Y. Yeh and R.E. Feeney, Chem. Rev. 96, 601 (1996). [2] D.R. Nutt and J.C. Smith, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 13066 (2008).

  16. Reprogramming cellular events by poly(ADP-ribose)-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pic, Émilie; Ethier, Chantal; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Masson, Jean-Yves; Poirier, Guy G.; Gagné, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). These enzymes covalently modify glutamic, aspartic and lysine amino acid side chains of acceptor proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose (ADPr) units. The poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) polymers formed alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the substrate with functional consequences on its biological activities. Recently, non-covalent binding to pADPr has emerged as a key mechanism to modulate and coordinate several intracellular pathways including the DNA damage response, protein stability and cell death. In this review, we describe the basis of non-covalent binding to pADPr that has led to the emerging concept of pADPr-responsive signaling pathways. This review emphasizes the structural elements and the modular strategies developed by pADPr-binding proteins to exert a fine-tuned control of a variety of pathways. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions are highly regulated processes, both spatially and temporally, for which at least four specialized pADPr-binding modules accommodate different pADPr structures and reprogram protein functions. In this review, we highlight the role of well-characterized and newly discovered pADPr-binding modules in a diverse set of physiological functions. PMID:23268355

  17. Holo- And Apo- Structures of Bacterial Periplasmic Heme Binding Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, W.W.; Li, H.; Eakanunkul, S.; Tong, Y.; Wilks, A.; Guo, M.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-06-01

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an 'in' position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an 'out' orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg{sup 228} in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg{sup 228}, and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B{sub 12}-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B{sub 12}, compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  18. A general approach to visualize protein binding and DNA conformation without protein labelling.

    PubMed

    Song, Dan; Graham, Thomas G W; Loparo, Joseph J

    2016-03-08

    Single-molecule manipulation methods, such as magnetic tweezers and flow stretching, generally use the measurement of changes in DNA extension as a proxy for examining interactions between a DNA-binding protein and its substrate. These approaches are unable to directly measure protein-DNA association without fluorescently labelling the protein, which can be challenging. Here we address this limitation by developing a new approach that visualizes unlabelled protein binding on DNA with changes in DNA conformation in a relatively high-throughput manner. Protein binding to DNA molecules sparsely labelled with Cy3 results in an increase in fluorescence intensity due to protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE), whereas DNA length is monitored under flow of buffer through a microfluidic flow cell. Given that our assay uses unlabelled protein, it is not limited to the low protein concentrations normally required for single-molecule fluorescence imaging and should be broadly applicable to studying protein-DNA interactions.

  19. Characterization of the comparative drug binding to intra- (liver fatty acid binding protein) and extra- (human serum albumin) cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Andrew; Hallifax, David; Nussio, Matthew R; Shapter, Joseph G; Mackenzie, Peter I; Brian Houston, J; Knights, Kathleen M; Miners, John O

    2015-01-01

    1. This study compared the extent, affinity, and kinetics of drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) using ultrafiltration and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). 2. Binding of basic and neutral drugs to both HSA and LFABP was typically negligible. Binding of acidic drugs ranged from minor (fu > 0.8) to extensive (fu < 0.1). Of the compounds screened, the highest binding to both HSA and LFABP was observed for the acidic drugs torsemide and sulfinpyrazone, and for β-estradiol (a polar, neutral compound). 3. The extent of binding of acidic drugs to HSA was up to 40% greater than binding to LFABP. SPR experiments demonstrated comparable kinetics and affinity for the binding of representative acidic drugs (naproxen, sulfinpyrazone, and torsemide) to HSA and LFABP. 4. Simulations based on in vitro kinetic constants derived from SPR experiments and a rapid equilibrium model were undertaken to examine the impact of binding characteristics on compartmental drug distribution. Simulations provided mechanistic confirmation that equilibration of intracellular unbound drug with the extracellular unbound drug is attained rapidly in the absence of active transport mechanisms for drugs bound moderately or extensively to HSA and LFABP.

  20. Actin-binding proteins take the reins in growth cones.

    PubMed

    Pak, Chi W; Flynn, Kevin C; Bamburg, James R

    2008-02-01

    Higher-order actin-based networks (actin superstructures) are important for growth-cone motility and guidance. Principles for generating, organizing and remodelling actin superstructures have emerged from recent findings in cell-free systems, non-neuronal cells and growth cones. This Review examines how actin superstructures are initiated de novo at the leading-edge membrane and how the spontaneous organization of actin superstructures is driven by ensembles of actin-binding proteins. How the regulation of actin-binding proteins can affect growth-cone turning and axonal regeneration is also discussed.

  1. Fusicoccin-Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. 1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christiane; Feyerabend, Martin; Weiler, Elmar W.

    1989-01-01

    Using the novel radioligand, [3H]-9′-nor-fusicoccin-8′-alcohol, high affinity binding sites for fusicoccin were characterized in preparations from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The binding site copartitioned with the plasmalemma marker, vanadate-sensitive K+, Mg2+-ATPase, when microsomal fractions were further purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning in polyethylene glycol-dextran phase systems and sedimented at an equilibrium density of 1.17 grams per cubic centimeter in continuous sucrose density gradients, as did the ATPase marker. The binding of [3H]-9′-nor-fusicoccin-8′-alcohol was saturable and Scatchard analysis revealed a biphasic plot with two apparent dissociation constants (KD), KD1 = 1.5 nanomolar and KD2 = 42 nanomolar, for the radioligand. Binding was optimal at pH 6, thermolabile, and was reduced by 70% when the membrane vesicles were pretreated with trypsin. The data are consistent with the presence of one or several binding proteins for fusicoccin at the plasma membrane of A. thaliana. Binding of the radioligand was unaffected by pretreatment of the sites with various alkylating and reducing agents, but was reduced by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, diethylpyrocarbonate, chloramine T, and periodate. A number of detergents were tested to find optimum conditions for solubilization. Nonanoyl-N-methylglucamide (50 millimolar) solubilized 70% of the radioligand-binding protein complex in undissociated form. Photoaffinity labeling of membrane preparations with a tritiated azido analog of fusicoccin resulted in the labeling of a 34 ± 1 kilodalton polypeptide. Labeling of this polypeptide, presumably the fusicoccin-binding protein, was severely reduced in the presence of unlabeled fusicoccin. PMID:16666603

  2. Light-dependent GTP-binding proteins in squid photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, P R; Wood, S F; Szuts, E Z; Fein, A; Hamm, H E; Lisman, J E

    1990-01-01

    Previous biochemical and electrophysiological evidence suggests that in invertebrate photoreceptors, a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) mediates the actions of photoactivated rhodopsin in the initial stages of transduction. We find that squid photoreceptors contain more than one protein (molecular masses 38, 42 and 46 kDa) whose ADP-ribosylation by bacterial exotoxins is light-sensitive. Several lines of evidence suggest that these proteins represent distinct alpha subunits of G-proteins. (1) Pertussis toxin and cholera toxin react with distinct subsets of these polypeptides. (2) Only the 42 kDa protein immunoreacts with the monoclonal antibody 4A, raised against the alpha subunit of the G-protein of vertebrate rods [Hamm & Bownds (1984) J. Gen. Physiol. 84. 265-280]. (3) In terms of ADP-ribosylation, the 42 kDa protein is the least labile to freezing. (4) Of the 38 kDa and 42 kDa proteins, the former is preferentially extracted with hypo-osmotic solutions, as demonstrated by the solubility of its ADP-ribosylated state and by the solubility of the light-dependent binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. The specific target enzymes for the observed G-proteins have not been established. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2124806

  3. Conserved Odorant-Binding Proteins from Aphids and Eavesdropping Predators

    PubMed Central

    Vandermoten, Sophie; Francis, Frédéric; Haubruge, Eric; Leal, Walter S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The sesquiterpene (E)-ß-farnesene is the main component of the alarm pheromone system of various aphid species studied to date, including the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae. Aphid natural enemies, such as the marmalade hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus and the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis, eavesdrop on aphid chemical communication and utilize (E)-ß-farnesene as a kairomone to localize their immediate or offspring preys. These aphid-predator systems are important models to study how the olfactory systems of distant insect taxa process the same chemical signal. We postulated that odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), which are highly expressed in insect olfactory tissues and involved in the first step of odorant reception, have conserved regions involved in binding (E)-ß-farnesene. Methodology We cloned OBP genes from the English grain aphid and two major predators of this aphid species. We then expressed these proteins and compare their binding affinities to the alarm pheromone/kairomone. By using a fluorescence reporter, we tested binding of (E)-ß-farnesene and other electrophysiologically and behaviorally active compounds, including a green leaf volatile attractant. Conclusion We found that OBPs from disparate taxa of aphids and their predators are highly conserved proteins, with apparently no orthologue genes in other insect species. Properly folded, recombinant proteins from the English grain aphid, SaveOBP3, and the marmalade hoverfly, EbalOBP3, specifically bind (E)-ß-farnesene with apparent high affinity. For the first time we have demonstrated that insect species belonging to distinct Orders have conserved OBPs, which specifically bind a common semiochemical and has no binding affinity for related compounds. PMID:21912599

  4. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Marondedze, Claudius; Thomas, Ludivine; Serrano, Natalia L.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses. PMID:27405932

  5. Structural and functional analysis of fatty acid-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Judith; McDermott, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian FA-binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain FA with high affinity. The large number of FABP types is suggestive of distinct functions in specific tissues. Multiple experimental approaches have shown that individual FABPs possess both unique and overlapping functions, some of which are based on specific elements in the protein structure. Although FA binding affinities for all FABPs tend to correlate directly with FA hydrophobicity, structure-function studies indicate that subtle three-dimensional changes that occur upon ligand binding may promote specific protein-protein or protein-membrane interactions that ultimately determine the function of each FABP. The conformational changes are focused in the FABP helical/portal domain, a region that was identified by in vitro studies to be vital for the FA transport properties of the FABPs. Thus, the FABPs modulate intracellular lipid homeostasis by regulating FA transport in the nuclear and extra-nuclear compartments of the cell; in so doing, they also impact systemic energy homeostasis. PMID:19017610

  6. Drug-drug plasma protein binding interactions of ivacaftor.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Elena K; Huang, Johnny X; Carbone, Vincenzo; Baker, Mark; Azad, Mohammad A K; Cooper, Matthew A; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

    2015-06-01

    Ivacaftor is a novel cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator that improves the pulmonary function for patients with CF bearing a G551D CFTR-protein mutation. Because ivacaftor is highly bound (>97%) to plasma proteins, there is the strong possibility that co-administered CF drugs may compete for the same plasma protein binding sites and impact the free drug concentration. This, in turn, could lead to drastic changes in the in vivo efficacy of ivacaftor and therapeutic outcomes. This biochemical study compares the binding affinity of ivacaftor and co-administered CF drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) and α1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) using surface plasmon resonance and fluorimetric binding assays that measure the displacement of site-selective probes. Because of their ability to strongly compete for the ivacaftor binding sites on HSA and AGP, drug-drug interactions between ivacaftor are to be expected with ducosate, montelukast, ibuprofen, dicloxacillin, omeprazole, and loratadine. The significance of these plasma protein drug-drug interactions is also interpreted in terms of molecular docking simulations. This in vitro study provides valuable insights into the plasma protein drug-drug interactions of ivacaftor with co-administered CF drugs. The data may prove useful in future clinical trials for a staggered treatment that aims to maximize the effective free drug concentration and clinical efficacy of ivacaftor.

  7. Binding-regulated click ligation for selective detection of proteins.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya; Han, Peng; Wang, Zhuxin; Chen, Weiwei; Shu, Yongqian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Herein, a binding-regulated click ligation (BRCL) strategy for endowing selective detection of proteins is developed with the incorporation of small-molecule ligand and clickable DNA probes. The fundamental principle underlying the strategy is the regulating capability of specific protein-ligand binding against the ligation between clickable DNA probes, which could efficiently combine the detection of particular protein with enormous DNA-based sensing technologies. In this work, the feasibly of the BRCL strategy is first verified through agarose gel electrophoresis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, and then confirmed by transferring it to a nanomaterial-assisted fluorescence assay. Significantly, the BRCL strategy-based assay is able to respond to target protein with desirable selectivity, attributing to the specific recognition between small-molecule ligand and its target. Further experiments validate the general applicability of the sensing method by tailoring the ligand toward different proteins (i.e., avidin and folate receptor), and demonstrate its usability in complex biological samples. To our knowledge, this work pioneers the practice of click chemistry in probing specific small-molecule ligand-protein binding, and therefore may pave a new way for selective detection of proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The size and detergent binding of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S

    1975-07-25

    Sucrose density gradient centrifugation has been used to measure the binding of Triton X-100 above its critical micellar concentration to a variety of purified membrane and non-membrane proteins. In addition, binding studies were done on the three proteins below the critical micellar concentration of detergent to distinguish between the interaction of proteins with detergent monomers and detergent micelles. A procedure is described for the calculation of the molecular weight of these Triton X-100 protein complexes and measurements were made for opsin, plasma low density lipoprotein, the (Na-+ plus K-+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase, the human red blood cell major sialoglycoprotein (PAS-1) and the human red blood cell minor glycoprotein (bandIII). These proteins behave as monomers or dimers in detergent and bind between 0.28 and 1.12 g of detergent per g of protein. A general method is also present for calculating the molecular size and shape of impure membrane proteins in detergent. Finally, Triton X-100 was shown to replace bound Na dodecyl-SO4 on the minor glycoprotein of the red blood cell.

  9. Glutamine deprivation initiates reversible assembly of mammalian rods and rings.

    PubMed

    Calise, S John; Carcamo, Wendy C; Krueger, Claire; Yin, Joyce D; Purich, Daniel L; Chan, Edward K L

    2014-08-01

    Rods and rings (RR) are protein assemblies composed of cytidine triphosphate synthetase type 1 (CTPS1) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type 2 (IMPDH2), key enzymes in CTP and GTP biosynthesis. Small-molecule inhibitors of CTPS1 or IMPDH2 induce RR assembly in various cancer cell lines within 15 min to hours. Since glutamine is an essential amide nitrogen donor in these nucleotide biosynthetic pathways, glutamine deprivation was examined to determine whether it leads to RR formation. HeLa cells cultured in normal conditions did not show RR, but after culturing in media lacking glutamine, short rods (<2 μm) assembled after 24 h, and longer rods (>5 μm) formed after 48 h. Upon supplementation with glutamine or guanosine, these RR underwent almost complete disassembly within 15 min. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase with methionine sulfoximine also increased RR assembly in cells deprived of glutamine. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that CTP/GTP biosynthetic enzymes polymerize to form RR in response to a decreased intracellular level of glutamine. We speculate that rod and ring formation is an adaptive metabolic response linked to disruption of glutamine homeostasis.

  10. Carotenoid-binding proteins; accessories to carotenoid function.

    PubMed

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Garama, Daniel; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the widespread biological importance of carotenoids is increasing. Accompanying this is the developing recognition that the interaction of carotenoids with other molecules, such as proteins, is also essential. Here the significance of carotenoid-protein interactions with respect to biological function is reviewed for three well characterised carotenoprotein complexes; crustacyanin, the orange carotenoid protein and glutathione-S-transferase P1. In addition a preliminary report is made on the recent partial purification of an echinenone-binding protein extracted from a New Zealand sea urchin, Evechinus chloroticus.

  11. Free-Energy Landscape of Protein-Ligand Interactions Coupled with Protein Structural Changes.

    PubMed

    Moritsugu, Kei; Terada, Tohru; Kidera, Akinori

    2017-02-02

    Protein-ligand interactions are frequently coupled with protein structural changes. Focusing on the coupling, we present the free-energy surface (FES) of the ligand-binding process for glutamine-binding protein (GlnBP) and its ligand, glutamine, in which glutamine binding accompanies large-scale domain closure. All-atom simulations were performed in explicit solvents by multiscale enhanced sampling (MSES), which adopts a multicopy and multiscale scheme to achieve enhanced sampling of systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. The structural ensemble derived from the MSES simulation yielded the FES of the coupling, described in terms of both the ligand's and protein's degrees of freedom at atomic resolution, and revealed the tight coupling between the two degrees of freedom. The derived FES led to the determination of definite structural states, which suggested the dominant pathways of glutamine binding to GlnBP: first, glutamine migrates via diffusion to form a dominant encounter complex with Arg75 on the large domain of GlnBP, through strong polar interactions. Subsequently, the closing motion of GlnBP occurs to form ligand interactions with the small domain, finally completing the native-specific complex structure. The formation of hydrogen bonds between glutamine and the small domain is considered to be a rate-limiting step, inducing desolvation of the protein-ligand interface to form the specific native complex. The key interactions to attain high specificity for glutamine, the "door keeper" existing between the two domains (Asp10-Lys115) and the "hydrophobic sandwich" formed between the ligand glutamine and Phe13/Phe50, have been successfully mapped on the pathway derived from the FES.

  12. An Ancient Family of RNA-Binding Proteins: Still Important!

    PubMed

    Wells, Melissa L; Perera, Lalith; Blackshear, Perry J

    2017-04-01

    RNA-binding proteins are important modulators of mRNA stability, a crucial process that determines the ultimate cellular levels of mRNAs and their encoded proteins. The tristetraprolin (TTP) family of RNA-binding proteins appeared early in the evolution of eukaryotes, and has persisted in modern eukaryotes. The domain structures and biochemical functions of family members from widely divergent lineages are remarkably similar, but their mRNA 'targets' can be very different, even in closely related species. Recent gene knockout studies in species as distantly related as plants, flies, yeasts, and mice have demonstrated crucial roles for these proteins in a wide variety of physiological processes. Inflammatory and hematopoietic phenotypes in mice have suggested potential therapeutic approaches for analogous human disorders.

  13. Translational repression by RNA-binding protein TIAR.

    PubMed

    Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; Lal, Ashish; Martindale, Jennifer L; Kawai, Tomoko; Gorospe, Myriam

    2006-04-01

    The RNA-binding protein TIAR has been proposed to inhibit protein synthesis transiently by promoting the formation of translationally silent stress granules. Here, we report the selective binding of TIAR to several mRNAs encoding translation factors such as eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) and eIF4E (translation initiation factors), eEF1B (a translation elongation factor), and c-Myc (which transcriptionally controls the expression of numerous translation regulatory proteins). TIAR bound the 3'-untranslated regions of these mRNAs and potently suppressed their translation, particularly in response to low levels of short-wavelength UV (UVC) irradiation. The UVC-imposed global inhibition of the cellular translation machinery was significantly relieved after silencing of TIAR expression. We propose that the TIAR-mediated inhibition of translation factor expression elicits a sustained repression of protein biosynthesis in cells responding to stress.

  14. Binding of pyrimethamine to human plasma proteins and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rudy, A C; Poynor, W J

    1990-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for pyrimethamine in plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and buffer for the purpose of studying its plasma protein binding and RBC partitioning. Pyrimethamine (1000 ng/ml) was 94% bound to plasma proteins on average, depending on the pH of plasma. A comparison of the lower and upper range of plasma concentrations that would be achieved after a malaria prophylaxis dosing regimen (25 mg/week) showed that the fraction unbound was significantly lower at 120 ng/ml than at the upper plasma concentration of 360 ng/ml, 3.5 vs 4.9%, respectively. Nonlinear regression of the effect of albumin concentration (g/L) on plasma binding yielded the equation: fraction unbound = 1/[(0.421 * albumin concentration) + 1] (R2 = 0.99). There was no binding to normal levels of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG). The mean ratio of the concentration of pyrimethamine in RBCs to that in plasma (RBC:plasma ratio) was 0.42, while the mean RBC:buffer ratio was 5.2. Binding to hemolysate did not account for all of the RBC uptake, suggesting that binding to or partitioning into RBC membranes may be important. Because pyrimethamine binding depends on both albumin concentration and pyrimethamine concentration in the plasma, these studies predict greater free fractions of pyrimethamine associated with the higher doses given for toxoplasmosis (75 mg/day) and with the hypoalbuminemia associated with AIDS and malaria.

  15. Free enthalpies of replacing water molecules in protein binding pockets.

    PubMed

    Riniker, Sereina; Barandun, Luzi J; Diederich, François; Krämer, Oliver; Steffen, Andreas; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2012-12-01

    Water molecules in the binding pocket of a protein and their role in ligand binding have increasingly raised interest in recent years. Displacement of such water molecules by ligand atoms can be either favourable or unfavourable for ligand binding depending on the change in free enthalpy. In this study, we investigate the displacement of water molecules by an apolar probe in the binding pocket of two proteins, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and tRNA-guanine transglycosylase, using the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) to obtain free enthalpy differences. In both cases, a ligand core is placed inside the respective pocket and the remaining water molecules are converted to apolar probes, both individually and in pairs. The free enthalpy difference between a water molecule and a CH(3) group at the same location in the pocket in comparison to their presence in bulk solution calculated from EDS molecular dynamics simulations corresponds to the binding free enthalpy of CH(3) at this location. From the free enthalpy difference and the enthalpy difference, the entropic contribution of the displacement can be obtained too. The overlay of the resulting occupancy volumes of the water molecules with crystal structures of analogous ligands shows qualitative correlation between experimentally measured inhibition constants and the calculated free enthalpy differences. Thus, such an EDS analysis of the water molecules in the binding pocket may give valuable insight for potency optimization in drug design.

  16. Free enthalpies of replacing water molecules in protein binding pockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riniker, Sereina; Barandun, Luzi J.; Diederich, François; Krämer, Oliver; Steffen, Andreas; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    2012-12-01

    Water molecules in the binding pocket of a protein and their role in ligand binding have increasingly raised interest in recent years. Displacement of such water molecules by ligand atoms can be either favourable or unfavourable for ligand binding depending on the change in free enthalpy. In this study, we investigate the displacement of water molecules by an apolar probe in the binding pocket of two proteins, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and tRNA-guanine transglycosylase, using the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) to obtain free enthalpy differences. In both cases, a ligand core is placed inside the respective pocket and the remaining water molecules are converted to apolar probes, both individually and in pairs. The free enthalpy difference between a water molecule and a CH3 group at the same location in the pocket in comparison to their presence in bulk solution calculated from EDS molecular dynamics simulations corresponds to the binding free enthalpy of CH3 at this location. From the free enthalpy difference and the enthalpy difference, the entropic contribution of the displacement can be obtained too. The overlay of the resulting occupancy volumes of the water molecules with crystal structures of analogous ligands shows qualitative correlation between experimentally measured inhibition constants and the calculated free enthalpy differences. Thus, such an EDS analysis of the water molecules in the binding pocket may give valuable insight for potency optimization in drug design.

  17. High-affinity RNA binding by a hyperthermophilic single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Morten, Michael J; Gamsjaeger, Roland; Cubeddu, Liza; Kariawasam, Ruvini; Peregrina, Jose; Penedo, J Carlos; White, Malcolm F

    2017-03-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs), including replication protein A (RPA) in eukaryotes, play a central role in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. SSBs utilise an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain to bind DNA, and typically oligomerise in solution to bring multiple OB fold domains together in the functional SSB. SSBs from hyperthermophilic crenarchaea, such as Sulfolobus solfataricus, have an unusual structure with a single OB fold coupled to a flexible C-terminal tail. The OB fold resembles those in RPA, whilst the tail is reminiscent of bacterial SSBs and mediates interaction with other proteins. One paradigm in the field is that SSBs bind specifically to ssDNA and much less strongly to RNA, ensuring that their functions are restricted to DNA metabolism. Here, we use a combination of biochemical and biophysical approaches to demonstrate that the binding properties of S. solfataricus SSB are essentially identical for ssDNA and ssRNA. These features may represent an adaptation to a hyperthermophilic lifestyle, where DNA and RNA damage is a more frequent event.

  18. Tritium NMR spectroscopy of ligand binding to maltose-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, K.; Williams, P.G.; Pelton, J.G.; Morimoto, H.; Wemmer, D.E. )

    1991-06-04

    Tritium-labeled {alpha}- and {beta}-maltodextrins have been used to study their complexes with maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40-kDa bacterial protein. Five substrates, from maltose to maltohexaose, were labeled at their reducing ends and their binding studied. Tritium NMR specctroscopy of the labeled sugars showed large upfield chamical shift changes upon binding and strong anomeric specficity. At 10{degrees}C, MBP bound {alpha}-maltose with 2.7 {plus minus} 0.5-fold higher affinity than {beta}-maltose, and, for longer maltodextrins, the ratio of affinities was even larger. The maximum chemical shift change was 2.2 ppm, suggesting that the reducing end of bound {alpha}-maltodextrin makes close contact with an aromatic residue in the MBP-binding site. Experiments with maltotriose (and longer maltodextrins) also revealed the presence of two bound {beta}-maltotriose resonances in rapid exchange. The authors interpret these two resonances as arising from two distinct sugar-protein complexes. In one complex, the {beta}-maltodextrin is bound by its reducing end, and, in the other complex, the {beta}-maltodextrin is bound by the middle glucose residue(s). This interpretation also suggests how MBP is able to bind both linear and circular maltodextrins.

  19. Glutamine alimentation in catabolic state.

    PubMed

    Boelens, P G; Nijveldt, R J; Houdijk, A P; Meijer, S; van Leeuwen, P A

    2001-09-01

    Glutamine should be reclassified as a conditionally essential amino acid in the catabolic state because the body's glutamine expenditures exceed synthesis and low glutamine levels in plasma are associated with poor clinical outcome. After severe stress, several amino acids are mobilized from muscle tissue to supply energy and substrate to the host. Glutamine is one of the most important amino acids that provide this function. Glutamine acts as the preferred respiratory fuel for lymphocytes, hepatocytes and intestinal mucosal cells and is metabolized in the gut to citrulline, ammonium and other amino acids. Low concentrations of glutamine in plasma reflect reduced stores in muscle and this reduced availability of glutamine in the catabolic state seems to correlate with increased morbidity and mortality. Adding glutamine to the nutrition of clinical patients, enterally or parenterally, may reduce morbidity. Several excellent clinical trials have been performed to prove efficacy and feasibility of the use of glutamine supplementation in parenteral and enteral nutrition. The increased intake of glutamine has resulted in lower septic morbidity in certain critically ill patient populations. This review will focus on the efficacy and the importance of glutamine supplementation in diverse catabolic states.

  20. Importance of DNA stiffness in protein-DNA binding specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, M. E.; Austin, R. H.

    1987-09-01

    From the first high-resolution structure of a repressor bound specifically to its DNA recognition sequence1 it has been shown that the phage 434 repressor protein binds as a dimer to the helix. Tight, local interactions are made at the ends of the binding site, causing the central four base pairs (bp) to become bent and overtwisted. The centre of the operator is not in contact with protein but repressor binding affinity can be reduced at least 50-fold in response to a sequence change there2. This observation might be explained should the structure of the intervening DNA segment vary with its sequence, or if DNA at the centre of the operator resists the torsional and bending deformation necessary for complex formation in a sequence dependent fashion. We have considered the second hypothesis by demonstrating that DNA stiffness is sequence dependent. A method is formulated for calculating the stiffness of any particular DNA sequence, and we show that this predicted relationship between sequence and stiffness can explain the repressor binding data in a quantitative manner. We propose that the elastic properties of DNA may be of general importance to an understanding of protein-DNA binding specificity.

  1. Using the telobox to search for plant telomere binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Peška, Vratislav; Schrumpfová, Petra Procházková; Fajkus, Jiŕí

    2011-03-01

    Telobox is a Myb-related DNA-binding domain which is present in a number of yeast, plant and animal proteins. Its capacity to bind preferentially double-stranded telomeric DNA has been used in numerous studies to search for candidate telomeric proteins in various organisms, including plants. Here we provide an overview of these studies with a special emphasis on plants, where a specific subfamily of the proteins possessing the N-terminally positioned telobox is present in addition to more common C-terminal telobox proteins. We further demonstrate the presence of a telobox protein (CpTBP1) in Cestrum parqui, a plant lacking typical telomeres and telomerase. The protein shows nuclear localisation and association with chromatin. The role of this protein in ancestral and current telomere structure is discussed in the evolutionary context. Altogether, the present overview shows the importance of the telobox domain in a search for candidate telomere proteins but at the same time warns against oversimplified identification of any telobox protein with telomere structure without appropriate evidence of its telomeric localisation and function.

  2. Cloning and mapping of a human RBP56 gene encoding a putative RNA binding protein similar to FUS/TLS and EWS proteins.

    PubMed

    Morohoshi, F; Arai, K; Takahashi, E I; Tanigami, A; Ohki, M

    1996-11-15

    The EWS gene was found at the chromosome breakpoints in Ewing sarcoma, and the FUS/TLS gene was found at the breakpoints of myxoid liposarcoma and acute myeloid leukemia. These genes encode proteins that carry a highly homologous RNA binding domain. Fusion proteins made of the N-terminal half of EWS or FUS/TLS and transcriptional regulatory proteins, also derived from genes located at breakpoints, have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of tumors. By PCR amplification of human Namalwa cell cDNA using degenerate primers made from the conserved amino acid sequences in the RNA binding domain of EWS and FUS/TLS, we obtained a cDNA fragment (RBP56 cDNA), the predicted amino acid sequences of which were similar but not identical to those of EWS and FUS/TLS. Using this fragment as a probe, we obtained two isoforms of cDNAs consisting of 2144 and 2153 bp, respectively, which encode proteins consisting of 589 and 592 amino acid residues, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequences of RBP56 protein have a serine-, tyrosine-, glutamine-, and glycine-rich region in the N-terminal region, an RNA binding domain and a C2C2 finger motif in the central region, and degenerate repeats of DR(S)GG(G)-YGG sequences in the C-terminal region. The expression of RBP56 mRNA was observed in all of the human fetal and adult tissues examined, as was the expression of EWS and FUS/TLS mRNAs. The RBP56 gene was mapped to chromosome 17q11.2 to q12.

  3. Recent molecular advances in mammalian glutamine transport.

    PubMed

    Bode, B P

    2001-09-01

    Much has been learned about plasma membrane glutamine transporter activities in health and disease over the past 30 years, including their potential regulatory role in metabolism. Since the 1960s, discrimination among individual glutamine transporters was based on functional characteristics such as substrate specificity, ion dependence, and kinetic and regulatory properties. Within the past two years, several genes encoding for proteins with these defined activities (termed "systems") have been isolated from human and rodent cDNA libraries and found to be distributed among four distinct gene families. The Na(+)-dependent glutamine transporter genes isolated thus far are System N (SN1), System A (ATA1, ATA2), System ASC/B(0) (ASCT2 or ATB(0)), System B(0,+) (ATB(0,+)) and System y(+)L (y(+)LAT1, y(+)LAT2). Na(+)-independent glutamine transporter genes encoding for System L (LAT1, LAT2) and System b(0,+) (b(0,+)AT) have also been recently isolated, and similar to y(+)L, have been shown to function as disulfide-linked heterodimers with the 4F2 heavy chain (CD98) or rBAT (related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter). In this review, the molecular features, catalytic mechanisms and tissue distributions of each are addressed. Although most of these transporters mediate the transmembrane movement of several other amino acids, their potential roles in regulating interorgan glutamine flux are discussed. Most importantly, these newly isolated transporter genes provide the long awaited tools necessary to study their molecular regulation during the catabolic states in which glutamine is considered to be "conditionally essential."

  4. Glutamine and the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, T R; Bazargan, N; Leader, L M; Martindale, R G

    2000-09-01

    The amino acid glutamine has become one of the most intensively studied nutrients in the field of nutrition and metabolic support. A variety of studies in cell culture systems, animal models of gut mucosal atrophy, injury/repair and adaptation and a limited number of clinical trials demonstrate trophic and cytoprotective effects of glutamine in small bowel and colonic mucosal cells. Although the routine clinical use of glutamine-enriched parenteral and enteral nutrient solutions remains controversial, available data demonstrate both the safety and metabolic and clinical efficacy of glutamine treatment in selected patient groups. Basic investigations are elucidating underlying mechanisms of glutamine action in intestinal cells. These will inform preclinical and clinical investigations designed to determine glutamine efficacy in selected gastrointestinal disorders. Emerging clinical trials will further define the utility of adjunctive glutamine supplementation as a component of specialized nutrition support in gastrointestinal disease.

  5. The tip of the iceberg: RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    King, Oliver D; Gitler, Aaron D; Shorter, James

    2012-06-26

    Prions are self-templating protein conformers that are naturally transmitted between individuals and promote phenotypic change. In yeast, prion-encoded phenotypes can be beneficial, neutral or deleterious depending upon genetic background and environmental conditions. A distinctive and portable 'prion domain' enriched in asparagine, glutamine, tyrosine and glycine residues unifies the majority of yeast prion proteins. Deletion of this domain precludes prionogenesis and appending this domain to reporter proteins can confer prionogenicity. An algorithm designed to detect prion domains has successfully identified 19 domains that can confer prion behavior. Scouring the human genome with this algorithm enriches a select group of RNA-binding proteins harboring a canonical RNA recognition motif (RRM) and a putative prion domain. Indeed, of 210 human RRM-bearing proteins, 29 have a putative prion domain, and 12 of these are in the top 60 prion candidates in the entire genome. Startlingly, these RNA-binding prion candidates are inexorably emerging, one by one, in the pathology and genetics of devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U), Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. For example, FUS and TDP-43, which rank 1st and 10th among RRM-bearing prion candidates, form cytoplasmic inclusions in the degenerating motor neurons of ALS patients and mutations in TDP-43 and FUS cause familial ALS. Recently, perturbed RNA-binding proteostasis of TAF15, which is the 2nd ranked RRM-bearing prion candidate, has been connected with ALS and FTLD-U. We strongly suspect that we have now merely reached the tip of the iceberg. We predict that additional RNA-binding prion candidates identified by our algorithm will soon surface as genetic modifiers or causes of diverse neurodegenerative conditions. Indeed, simple prion-like transfer mechanisms involving the prion

  6. Structural analysis of ibuprofen binding to human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4).

    PubMed

    González, Javier M; Fisher, S Zoë

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of human adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (FABP4) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. However, FABP4 displays a naturally low selectivity towards hydrophobic ligands, leading to the possibility of side effects arising from cross-inhibition of other FABP isoforms. In a search for structural determinants of ligand-binding selectivity, the binding of FABP4 towards a group of small molecules structurally related to the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen was analyzed through X-ray crystallography. Several specific hydrophobic interactions are shown to enhance the binding affinities of these compounds, whereas an aromatic edge-to-face interaction is proposed to determine the conformation of bound ligands, highlighting the importance of aromatic interactions in hydrophobic environments.

  7. Asymmetric DNA binding by a homodimeric bHLH protein.

    PubMed

    Winston, R L; Ehley, J A; Baird, E E; Dervan, P B; Gottesfeld, J M

    2000-08-08

    Protein-DNA interactions that lie outside of the core recognition sequence for the Drosophila bHLH transcription factor Deadpan (Dpn) were investigated using minor groove binding pyrrole-imidazole polyamides. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting demonstrate that hairpin polyamides bound immediately upstream, but not immediately downstream of the Dpn homodimer selectively inhibit protein-DNA complex formation. Mutation of the Dpn consensus binding site from the asymmetric sequence 5'-CACGCG-3' to the palindromic sequence 5'-CACGTG-3' abolishes asymmetric inhibition. A Dpn mutant containing the unnatural amino acid norleucine in place of lysine at position 80 in the bHLH loop region is not inhibited by the polyamide, suggesting that the epsilon amino group at this position is responsible for DNA contacts outside the major groove. We conclude that the nonpalindromic Dpn recognition site imparts binding asymmetry by providing unique contacts to the basic region of each monomer in the bHLH homodimer.

  8. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Measurements of Metal Ions Binding to Proteins.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Colette F; Carpenter, Margaret C; Croteau, Molly L; Wilcox, Dean E

    2016-01-01

    ITC measurements involving metal ions are susceptible to a number of competing reactions (oxidation, precipitation, and hydrolysis) and coupled reactions involving the buffer and protons. Stabilization and delivery of the metal ion as a well-defined and well-characterized complex with the buffer, or a specific ligand, can suppress undesired solution chemistry and, depending on the stability of the metal complex, allow accurate measurements of higher affinity protein-binding sites. This requires, however, knowledge of the thermodynamics of formation of the metal complex and accounting for its contribution to the experimentally measured values (KITC and ΔHITC) through a post hoc analysis that provides the condition-independent binding thermodynamics (K, ΔG(o), ΔH, ΔS, and ΔCP). This analysis also quantifies the number of protons that are displaced when the metal ion binds to the protein.

  9. Small Alarmone Synthetases as novel bacterial RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Hauryliuk, Vasili; Atkinson, Gemma C

    2017-08-18

    The alarmone nucleotides guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) and tetraphosphate (ppGpp), collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp, are key regulators of bacterial growth, stress adaptation, antibiotic tolerance and pathogenicity. We have recently shown that the Small Alarmone Synthetase (SAS) RelQ from the Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis has an RNA-binding activity (Beljantseva et al. 2017). RelQ's activities as an enzyme and as a RNA-binding protein are mutually incompatible: binding of single-stranded RNA potently inhibits (p)ppGpp synthesis in a sequence-specific manner, and RelQ's enzymatic activity destabilizes the RNA:RelQ complex. RelQ's allosteric regulator, pppGpp, destabilizes RNA binding and activates RelQ's enzymatic activity. Since SAS enzymes are widely distributed in bacteria, and, as it has been discovered recently, are also mobilized by phages (Dedrick et al. 2017), RNA binding to SAS is could be a wide-spread mechanism. The initial discovery raises numerous questions regarding RNA-binding function of the SAS enzymes: What is the molecular mechanism underlying the incompatibility of RNA:SAS complex formation with pppGpp binding and (p)ppGpp synthesis? What are the RNA targets in living cells? What is the regulatory output of the system - (p)ppGpp synthesis, modulation of RNA structure and function, or both?

  10. Effect of FGF-binding Protein 3 on Vascular Permeability*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wentao; Chen, Yifan; Swift, Matthew R.; Tassi, Elena; Stylianou, Dora C.; Gibby, Krissa A.; Riegel, Anna T.; Wellstein, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 1 (FGF-BP1 is BP1) is involved in the regulation of embryonic development, tumor growth, and angiogenesis by mobilizing endogenous FGFs from their extracellular matrix storage. Here we describe a new member of the FGF-BP family, human BP3. We show that the hBP3 protein is secreted from cells, binds to FGF2 in vitro and in intact cells, and inhibits FGF2 binding to heparin. To determine the function of hBP3 in vivo, hBP3 was transiently expressed in chicken embryos and resulted in >50% lethality within 24 h because of vascular leakage. The onset of vascular permeability was monitored by recording the extravasation kinetics of FITC-labeled 40-kDa dextran microperfused into the vitelline vein of 3-day-old embryos. Vascular permeability increased as early as 8 h after expression of hBP3. The increased vascular permeability caused by hBP3 was prevented by treatment of embryos with PD173074, a selective FGFR kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, a C-terminal 66-amino acid fragment (C66) of hBP3, which contains the predicted FGF binding domain, still inhibited binding of FGF2 to heparin similar to full-length hBP3. However, expression of the C66 fragment did not increase vascular permeability on its own, but required the administration of exogenous FGF2 protein. We conclude that the FGF binding domain and the heparin binding domain are necessary for the hBP3 interaction with endogenous FGF and the activation of FGFR signaling in vivo. PMID:18669637

  11. Identification of Enhancer Binding Proteins Important for Myxococcus xanthus Development▿

    PubMed Central

    Giglio, Krista M.; Eisenstatt, Jessica; Garza, Anthony G.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) control the temporal expression of fruiting body development-associated genes in Myxococcus xanthus. Eleven previously uncharacterized EBP genes were inactivated. Six EBP gene mutations produced minor but reproducible defects in fruiting body development. One EBP gene mutation that affected A-motility produced strong developmental defects. PMID:19897655

  12. Identification of enhancer binding proteins important for Myxococcus xanthus development.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Krista M; Eisenstatt, Jessica; Garza, Anthony G

    2010-01-01

    Enhancer binding proteins (EBPs) control the temporal expression of fruiting body development-associated genes in Myxococcus xanthus. Eleven previously uncharacterized EBP genes were inactivated. Six EBP gene mutations produced minor but reproducible defects in fruiting body development. One EBP gene mutation that affected A-motility produced strong developmental defects.

  13. RNA-protein binding kinetics in an automated microfluidic reactor.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, William K; Seitaridou, Effrosyni; Phillips, Rob; Williamson, James R

    2009-11-01

    Microfluidic chips can automate biochemical assays on the nanoliter scale, which is of considerable utility for RNA-protein binding reactions that would otherwise require large quantities of proteins. Unfortunately, complex reactions involving multiple reactants cannot be prepared in current microfluidic mixer designs, nor is investigation of long-time scale reactions possible. Here, a microfluidic 'Riboreactor' has been designed and constructed to facilitate the study of kinetics of RNA-protein complex formation over long time scales. With computer automation, the reactor can prepare binding reactions from any combination of eight reagents, and is optimized to monitor long reaction times. By integrating a two-photon microscope into the microfluidic platform, 5-nl reactions can be observed for longer than 1000 s with single-molecule sensitivity and negligible photobleaching. Using the Riboreactor, RNA-protein binding reactions with a fragment of the bacterial 30S ribosome were prepared in a fully automated fashion and binding rates were consistent with rates obtained from conventional assays. The microfluidic chip successfully combines automation, low sample consumption, ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection and a high degree of reproducibility. The chip should be able to probe complex reaction networks describing the assembly of large multicomponent RNPs such as the ribosome.

  14. RNA–protein binding kinetics in an automated microfluidic reactor

    PubMed Central

    Ridgeway, William K.; Seitaridou, Effrosyni; Phillips, Rob; Williamson, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic chips can automate biochemical assays on the nanoliter scale, which is of considerable utility for RNA–protein binding reactions that would otherwise require large quantities of proteins. Unfortunately, complex reactions involving multiple reactants cannot be prepared in current microfluidic mixer designs, nor is investigation of long-time scale reactions possible. Here, a microfluidic ‘Riboreactor’ has been designed and constructed to facilitate the study of kinetics of RNA–protein complex formation over long time scales. With computer automation, the reactor can prepare binding reactions from any combination of eight reagents, and is optimized to monitor long reaction times. By integrating a two-photon microscope into the microfluidic platform, 5-nl reactions can be observed for longer than 1000 s with single-molecule sensitivity and negligible photobleaching. Using the Riboreactor, RNA–protein binding reactions with a fragment of the bacterial 30S ribosome were prepared in a fully automated fashion and binding rates were consistent with rates obtained from conventional assays. The microfluidic chip successfully combines automation, low sample consumption, ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection and a high degree of reproducibility. The chip should be able to probe complex reaction networks describing the assembly of large multicomponent RNPs such as the ribosome. PMID:19759214

  15. Differential DNA binding properties of three human homeodomain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, M T; Briata, P; Sanseverino, L; Daga, A; Airoldi, I; Simeone, A; Palmisano, G; Angelini, C; Boncinelli, E; Corte, G

    1992-01-01

    The products of three human homeobox containing (HOX) genes, 2C, 3C and 4B, were produced in insect cells using the Baculovirus expression system and purified to near homogeneity. In this system we observed that the DNA binding forms of the three proteins are not glycosylated. HOX 3C and 4B are phosphorylated in insect cells, while HOX 2C is not. The three HOX proteins bind to a DNA sequence known to be a target site for Antennapedia protein with a very similar affinity (Kd = 1-2 x 10(-9) M). We then measured their binding properties to four human sequences present in the HOX 3D, 4C, 1C and 4B promoters. Two of these sequences have been reported to be binding sites for HOX proteins. HOX 2C, 3C and 4B behaved quite differently, showing low affinity for promoters of genes located upstream from their own gene in the HOX clusters and a higher affinity for regulatory sequences of their own gene and downstream HOX genes. Images PMID:1357628

  16. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1997-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1997-09-23

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  18. Ice-shell purification of ice-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Craig J; Basu, Koli; Davies, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    Ice-affinity purification is a simple and efficient method of purifying to homogeneity both natural and recombinant ice-binding proteins. The purification involves the incorporation of ice-binding proteins into slowly-growing ice and the exclusion of other proteins and solutes. In previous approaches, the ice was grown around a hollow brass finger through which coolant was circulated. We describe here an easily-constructed apparatus that employs ice affinity purification that not only shortens the time for purification from 1-2 days to 1-2 h, but also enhances yield and purity. In this apparatus, the surface area for the separation was increased by extracting the ice-binding proteins into an ice-shell formed inside a rotating round-bottom flask partially submerged in a sub-zero bath. In principle, any ice-binding compound can be recovered from liquid solution, and the method is readily scalable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Guanylate-binding proteins: niche recruiters for antimicrobial effectors.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Christopher D; Hunter, Christopher A

    2012-08-24

    There are fundamental questions regarding how IFN-γ activates host cells to eliminate intracellular pathogens. In this issue of Immunity, Yamamoto et al. (2012) demonstrate a critical role for the p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) in this process during infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

  20. JadX is a Disparate Natural Product Binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew W; Forget, Stephanie M; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; McCormick, Nicole E; Syvitski, Raymond T; Jakeman, David L

    2016-02-24

    We report that JadX, a protein of previously undetermined function coded for in the jadomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230, affects both chloramphenicol and jadomycin production levels in blocked mutants. Characterization of recombinant JadX through protein-ligand interactions by chemical shift perturbation and WaterLOGSY NMR spectroscopy resulted in the observation of binding between JadX and a series of jadomycins and between JadX and chloramphenicol, another natural product produced by S. venezuelae ISP5230. These results suggest JadX to be an unusual class of natural product binding protein involved in binding structurally disparate natural products. The ability for JadX to bind two different natural products in vitro and the ability to affect production of these secondary metabolites in vivo suggest a potential role in regulation or signaling. This is the first example of functional characterization of these JadX-like proteins, and provides insight into a previously unobserved regulatory process.

  1. Reversible binding of heme to proteins in cellular signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shangwei; Reynolds, Mark F; Horrigan, Frank T; Heinemann, Stefan H; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2006-12-01

    Heme plays critical roles in numerous biological phenomena. Recent evidence has uncovered a new role of heme in cellular signal transduction, and its mechanism involves reversible binding of heme to proteins. This Account highlights the novel function of heme as an intracellular messenger in the regulation of gene expression and ion channel function.

  2. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1997-09-23

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  3. Urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein predicts necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Katherine E; Winston, Abigail B; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Titilayo; Fichorova, Raina N; Van Marter, Linda J

    2014-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis, characterized by sudden onset and rapid progression, remains the most significant gastrointestinal disorder among premature infants. In seeking a predictive biomarker, we found intestinal fatty acid binding protein, an indicator of enterocyte damage, was substantially increased within three and seven days before the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis.

  4. Protein-Ligand Binding Detected by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knab, J.; Chen, J. Y.; Mader, M.; Markelz, A.

    2004-03-01

    Established measures of protein flexibility through the B-factor use time intensive and facility limited techniques such as X-ray crystallography, NMR structure analysis and inelastic neutron scattering. We demonstrate a novel technique that may be used for determination of ligand binding for proteins as well as a measure of protein flexibility. Using the method of terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy, we measured the far infrared dielectric response as a function of the binding of N (1-4)-acetylglucosamine (NAG) to hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Vibrational modes associated with tertiary structure conformational motions lay in the THz frequency range. The THz dielectric response reflects the density and amplitude of these normal modes through dipole coupling. Transmission measurements on thin films show that while there is no change in the real part of the refractive index as a function of binding, there is a decrease in the absorbance for the HEWL+NAG thin films relative to HEWL films. This decrease can be attributed to a reduction in the flexibility of the protein with binding. These results are compared to calculated absorbance spectra.

  5. Capacitance-modulated transistor detects odorant binding protein chiral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Tuccori, Elena; Magliulo, Maria; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Palazzo, Gerardo; Persaud, Krishna; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral events in olfaction involve odorant binding proteins (OBPs) whose role in the recognition of different volatile chemicals is yet unclear. Here we report on the sensitive and quantitative measurement of the weak interactions associated with neutral enantiomers differentially binding to OBPs immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer to the gate of an organic bio-electronic transistor. The transduction is remarkably sensitive as the transistor output current is governed by the small capacitance of the protein layer undergoing minute changes as the ligand-protein complex is formed. Accurate determination of the free-energy balances and of the capacitance changes associated with the binding process allows derivation of the free-energy components as well as of the occurrence of conformational events associated with OBP ligand binding. Capacitance-modulated transistors open a new pathway for the study of ultra-weak molecular interactions in surface-bound protein-ligand complexes through an approach that combines bio-chemical and electronic thermodynamic parameters.

  6. Damage-specific DNA-binding proteins from human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kanjilal, S.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to detect and characterize factors from human cells that bind DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation. An application of the gel-shift assay was devised in which a DNA probe was UV-irradiated and compared with non-irradiated probe DNA for the ability to bind to such factors in cell extracts. UV-dose dependent binding proteins were identified. Formation of the DNA-protein complexes was independent of the specific sequence, form or source of the DNA. There was a marked preference for lesions on double stranded DNA over those on single stranded DNA. DNA irradiated with gamma rays did not compete with UV-irradiated DNA for the binding activities. Cell lines from patients with genetic diseases associated with disorders of the DNA repair system were screened for the presence of damaged-DNA-binding activities. Simultaneous occurrence of the clinical symptoms of some of these diseases had been previously documented and possible links between the syndromes proposed. However, supporting biochemical or molecular evidence for such associations were lacking. The data from the present investigations indicate that some cases of Xeroderma Pigmentosum group A, Cockayne's Syndrome, Bloom's Syndrome and Ataxia Telangiectasia, all of which exhibit sensitivity to UV or gamma radiation, share an aberrant damaged-DNA-binding factor. These findings support the hypothesis that some of the repair disorder diseases are closely related and may have arisen from a common defect. Partial purification of the binding activities from HeLa cells was achieved. Size-exclusion chromatography resolved the activities into various peaks, one of which was less damage-specific than the others as determined by competition studies using native or UV-irradiated DNA. Some of the activities were further separated by ion-exchange chromatography. On using affinity chromatography methods, the major damage-binding factor could be eluted in the presence of 2 M KCl and 1% NP-40.

  7. Sequence specific binding of chlamydial histone H1-like protein.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, R; Allen, M; Bradbury, E M; Wenman, W M

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the few prokaryotic organisms known to contain proteins that bear homology to eukaryotic histone H1. Changes in macromolecular conformation of DNA mediated by the histone H1-like protein (Hc1) appear to regulate stage specific differentiation. We have developed a cross-linking immunoprecipitation protocol to examine in vivo protein-DNA interaction by immune precipitating chlamydial Hc1 cross linked to DNA. Our results strongly support the presence of sequence specific binding sites on the chlamydial plasmid and hc1 gene upstream of its open reading frame. The preferential binding sites were mapped to 520 bp BamHI-XhoI and 547 bp BamHI-DraI DNA fragments on the plasmid and hc1 respectively. Comparison of these two DNA sequences using Bestfit program has identified a 24 bp region with >75% identity that is unique to the chlamydial genome. Double-stranded DNA prepared by annealing complementary oligonucleotides corresponding to the conserved 24 bp region bind Hc1, in contrast to control sequences with similar A+T ratios. Further, Hc1 binds to DNA in a strand specific fashion, with preferential binding for only one strand. The site specific affinity to plasmid DNA was also demonstrated by atomic force microscopy data images. Binding was always followed by coiling, shrinking and aggregation of the affected DNA. Very low protein-DNA ratio was required if incubations were carried out in solution. However, if DNA was partially immobilized on mica substrate individual strands with dark foci were still visible even after the addition of excess Hc1. PMID:8760883

  8. Major coat protein and single-stranded DNA-binding protein of filamentous virus Pf3.

    PubMed Central

    Putterman, D G; Casadevall, A; Boyle, P D; Yang, H L; Frangione, B; Day, L A

    1984-01-01

    The region of the Pf3 virus genome encoding its major coat protein and its single-stranded DNA-binding protein is organized somewhat like the corresponding region of the fd (M13, f1) genome. Nevertheless, the major coat protein is unique among the major coat proteins of fd and the other filamentous phages studied in that it lacks a signal sequence and appears to be a direct translation product and in that it has fewer basic amino acid residues than its equivalent of DNA phosphates in the virion. These features are relevant to considerations of both protein insertion into membranes and DNA structure in filamentous viruses. The single-stranded DNA-binding protein also has a sequence that is different from the sequences of single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from other filamentous viruses. Images PMID:6422463

  9. The Overlap of Small Molecule and Protein Binding Sites within Families of Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Fred P.; Sali, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions are challenging targets for modulation by small molecules. Here, we propose an approach that harnesses the increasing structural coverage of protein complexes to identify small molecules that may target protein interactions. Specifically, we identify ligand and protein binding sites that overlap upon alignment of homologous proteins. Of the 2,619 protein structure families observed to bind proteins, 1,028 also bind small molecules (250–1000 Da), and 197 exhibit a statistically significant (p<0.01) overlap between ligand and protein binding positions. These “bi-functional positions”, which bind both ligands and proteins, are particularly enriched in tyrosine and tryptophan residues, similar to “energetic hotspots” described previously, and are significantly less conserved than mono-functional and solvent exposed positions. Homology transfer identifies ligands whose binding sites overlap at least 20% of the protein interface for 35% of domain–domain and 45% of domain–peptide mediated interactions. The analysis recovered known small-molecule modulators of protein interactions as well as predicted new interaction targets based on the sequence similarity of ligand binding sites. We illustrate the predictive utility of the method by suggesting structural mechanisms for the effects of sanglifehrin A on HIV virion production, bepridil on the cellular entry of anthrax edema factor, and fusicoccin on vertebrate developmental pathways. The results, available at http://pibase.janelia.org, represent a comprehensive collection of structurally characterized modulators of protein interactions, and suggest that homologous structures are a useful resource for the rational design of interaction modulators. PMID:20140189

  10. Lead(II) Binding in Natural and Artificial Proteins.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Virginia; Ruckthong, Leela; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2017-04-10

    This article describes recent attempts to understand the biological chemistry of lead using a synthetic biology approach. Lead binds to a variety of different biomolecules ranging from enzymes to regulatory and signaling proteins to bone matrix. We have focused on the interactions of this element in thiolate-rich sites that are found in metalloregulatory proteins such as Pbr, Znt, and CadC and in enzymes such as δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). In these proteins, Pb(II) is often found as a homoleptic and hemidirectic Pb(II)(SR)3- complex. Using first principles of biophysics, we have developed relatively short peptides that can associate into three-stranded coiled coils (3SCCs), in which a cysteine group is incorporated into the hydrophobic core to generate a (cysteine)3 binding site. We describe how lead may be sequestered into these sites, the characteristic spectral features may be observed for such systems and we provide crystallographic insight on metal binding. The Pb(II)(SR)3- that is revealed within these α-helical assemblies forms a trigonal pyramidal structure (having an endo orientation) with distinct conformations than are also found in natural proteins (having an exo conformation). This structural insight, combined with 207Pb NMR spectroscopy, suggests that while Pb(II) prefers hemidirected Pb(II)(SR)3- scaffolds regardless of the protein fold, the way this is achieved within α-helical systems is different than in β-sheet or loop regions of proteins. These interactions between metal coordination preference and protein structural preference undoubtedly are exploited in natural systems to allow for protein conformation changes that define function. Thus, using a design approach that separates the numerous factors that lead to stable natural proteins allows us to extract fundamental concepts on how metals behave in biological systems.

  11. A human TATA binding protein-related protein with altered DNA binding specificity inhibits transcription from multiple promoters and activators.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Ozer, J; Salunek, M; Jan, G; Zerby, D; Campbell, S; Lieberman, P M

    1999-11-01

    The TATA binding protein (TBP) plays a central role in eukaryotic and archael transcription initiation. We describe the isolation of a novel 23-kDa human protein that displays 41% identity to TBP and is expressed in most human tissue. Recombinant TBP-related protein (TRP) displayed barely detectable binding to consensus TATA box sequences but bound with slightly higher affinities to nonconsensus TATA sequences. TRP did not substitute for TBP in transcription reactions in vitro. However, addition of TRP potently inhibited basal and activated transcription from multiple promoters in vitro and in vivo. General transcription factors TFIIA and TFIIB bound glutathione S-transferase-TRP in solution but failed to stimulate TRP binding to DNA. Preincubation of TRP with TFIIA inhibited TBP-TFIIA-DNA complex formation and addition of TFIIA overcame TRP-mediated transcription repression. TRP transcriptional repression activity was specifically reduced by mutations in TRP that disrupt the TFIIA binding surface but not by mutations that disrupt the TFIIB or DNA binding surface of TRP. These results suggest that TFIIA is a primary target of TRP transcription inhibition and that TRP may modulate transcription by a novel mechanism involving the partial mimicry of TBP functions.

  12. Phosphatidic acid binding proteins display differential binding as a function of membrane curvature stress and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Putta, Priya; Rankenberg, Johanna; Korver, Ruud A; van Wijk, Ringo; Munnik, Teun; Testerink, Christa; Kooijman, Edgar E

    2016-11-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a crucial membrane phospholipid involved in de novo lipid synthesis and numerous intracellular signaling cascades. The signaling function of PA is mediated by peripheral membrane proteins that specifically recognize PA. While numerous PA-binding proteins are known, much less is known about what drives specificity of PA-protein binding. Previously, we have described the ionization properties of PA, summarized in the electrostatic-hydrogen bond switch, as one aspect that drives the specific binding of PA by PA-binding proteins. Here we focus on membrane curvature stress induced by phosphatidylethanolamine and show that many PA-binding proteins display enhanced binding as a function of negative curvature stress. This result is corroborated by the observation that positive curvature stress, induced by lyso phosphatidylcholine, abolishes PA binding of target proteins. We show, for the first time, that a novel plant PA-binding protein, Arabidopsis Epsin-like Clathrin Adaptor 1 (ECA1) displays curvature-dependence in its binding to PA. Other established PA targets examined in this study include, the plant proteins TGD2, and PDK1, the yeast proteins Opi1 and Spo20, and, the mammalian protein Raf-1 kinase and the C2 domain of the mammalian phosphatidylserine binding protein Lact as control. Based on our observations, we propose that liposome binding assays are the preferred method to investigate lipid binding compared to the popular lipid overlay assays where membrane environment is lost. The use of complex lipid mixtures is important to elucidate further aspects of PA binding proteins. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Treponema pallidum receptor binding proteins interact with fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of plasma proteins avidly bound to T. pallidum surfaces revealed the ability of T. pallidum to acquire numerous host macromolecules. No acquisition was evident by the avirulent spirochete, T. phagedenis biotype Reiter. Western blotting technology using hyperimmune antifibronectin serum as a probe revealed the ability of virulent treponemes to avidly bind fibronectin from a complex medium such as plasma. The specificity of the tiplike adherence of motile T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated glass surfaces and to fibronectin on HEp- 2 cells was reinforced by the observation that pretreatment of coverslips or cell monolayers with monospecific antiserum against fibronectin substantially reduced T. pallidum attachment. The stoichiometric binding of T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated coverslips and the inability of unlabeled or 35S-radiolabeled treponemes to interact with glass surfaces treated with other plasma proteins further established the specific nature of the interaction between virulent T. pallidum and fibronectin. The avid association between three outer envelope proteins of T. pallidum and fibronectin was also demonstrated. These treponemal surface proteins have been previously identified as putative receptor-binding proteins responsible for T. pallidum parasitism of host cells. The data suggest that surface fibronectin mediates tip-oriented attachment of T. pallidum to host cells via a receptor-ligand mechanism of recognition. PMID:6304227

  14. Observation of Protein Structural Vibrational Mode Sensitivity to Ligand Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Katherine; Xu, Mengyang; Snell, Edward; Markelz, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    We report the first measurements of the dependence of large-scale protein intramolecular vibrational modes on ligand binding. These collective vibrational modes in the terahertz (THz) frequency range (5-100 cm-1) are of great interest due to their predicted relation to protein function. Our technique, Crystals Anisotropy Terahertz Microscopy (CATM), allows for room temperature, table-top measurements of the optically active intramolecular modes. CATM measurements have revealed surprisingly narrowband features. CATM measurements are performed on single crystals of chicken egg-white lysozyme (CEWL) as well as CEWL bound to tri-N-acetylglucosamine (CEWL-3NAG) inhibitor. We find narrow band resonances that dramatically shift with binding. Quasiharmonic calculations are performed on CEWL and CEWL-3NAG proteins with CHARMM using normal mode analysis. The expected CATM response of the crystals is then calculated by summing over all protein orientations within the unit cell. We will compare the CATM measurements with the calculated results and discuss the changes which arise with protein-ligand binding. This work is supported by NSF grant MRI 2 grant DBI2959989.

  15. Phage display screen for peptides that bind Bcl-2 protein.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Joungmok; Cho, June-Haeng; Moon, Ji Young; Lee, Su-Jae; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2011-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins are key regulators of apoptosis associated with human disease, including cancer. Bcl-2 protein has been found to be overexpressed in many cancer cells. Therefore, Bcl-2 protein is a potential diagnostic target for cancer detection. In the present study, the authors have identified several Bcl-2 binding peptides with high affinity (picomolar range) from a 5-round M13 phage display library screening. These peptides can be used to develop novel diagnostic probes or potent inhibitors with diverse polyvalencies.

  16. DBD2BS: connecting a DNA-binding protein with its binding sites.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ting-Ying; Lin, Chih-Kang; Lin, Chih-Wei; Weng, Yi-Zhong; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chang, Darby Tien-Hao

    2012-07-01

    By binding to short and highly conserved DNA sequences in genomes, DNA-binding proteins initiate, enhance or repress biological processes. Accurately identifying such binding sites, often represented by position weight matrices (PWMs), is an important step in understanding the control mechanisms of cells. When given coordinates of a DNA-binding domain (DBD) bound with DNA, a potential function can be used to estimate the change of binding affinity after base substitutions, where the changes can be summarized as a PWM. This technique provides an effective alternative when the chromatin immunoprecipitation data are unavailable for PWM inference. To facilitate the procedure of predicting PWMs based on protein-DNA complexes or even structures of the unbound state, the web server, DBD2BS, is presented in this study. The DBD2BS uses an atom-level knowledge-based potential function to predict PWMs characterizing the sequences to which the query DBD structure can bind. For unbound queries, a list of 1066 DBD-DNA complexes (including 1813 protein chains) is compiled for use as templates for synthesizing bound structures. The DBD2BS provides users with an easy-to-use interface for visualizing the PWMs predicted based on different templates and the spatial relationships of the query protein, the DBDs and the DNAs. The DBD2BS is the first attempt to predict PWMs of DBDs from unbound structures rather than from bound ones. This approach increases the number of existing protein structures that can be exploited when analyzing protein-DNA interactions. In a recent study, the authors showed that the kernel adopted by the DBD2BS can generate PWMs consistent with those obtained from the experimental data. The use of DBD2BS to predict PWMs can be incorporated with sequence-based methods to discover binding sites in genome-wide studies. Available at: http://dbd2bs.csie.ntu.edu.tw/, http://dbd2bs.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/, and http://dbd2bs.ee.ncku.edu.tw.

  17. Vaccinia Virus Requires Glutamine but Not Glucose for Efficient Replication

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Krystal A.; Camarda, Roman

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses require host cell metabolism to provide the necessary energy and biosynthetic precursors for successful viral replication. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of the Poxviridae family, and its use as a vaccine enabled the eradication of variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox. A global metabolic screen of VACV-infected primary human foreskin fibroblasts suggested that glutamine metabolism is altered during infection. Glutamine and glucose represent the two main carbon sources for mammalian cells. Depriving VACV-infected cells of exogenous glutamine led to a substantial decrease in infectious virus production, whereas starving infected cells of exogenous glucose had no significant impact on replication. Viral yield in glutamine-deprived cells or in cells treated with an inhibitor of glutaminolysis, the pathway of glutamine catabolism, could be rescued by the addition of multiple tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Thus, VACV infection induces a metabolic alteration to fully rely on glutamine to anaplerotically maintain the TCA cycle. VACV protein synthesis, but not viral transcription, was decreased in glutamine-deprived cells, which corresponded with a dramatic reduction in all VACV morphogenetic intermediates. This study reveals the unique carbon utilization program implemented during poxvirus infection and provides a potential metabolic pathway to target viral replication. IMPORTANCE Viruses are dependent on the metabolic machinery of the host cell to supply the energy and molecular building blocks needed for critical processes including genome replication, viral protein synthesis, and membrane production. This study investigates how vaccinia virus (VACV) infection alters global cellular metabolism, providing the first metabolomic analysis for a member of the poxvirus family. Unlike most viruses examined to date, VACV does not activate glycolysis, and exogenous glucose is not required for maximal virus production. Instead, VACV

  18. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P.; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm-positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis, respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis. The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis. PMID:28401063

  19. Goodpasture Antigen-binding Protein (GPBP) Directs Myofibril Formation

    PubMed Central

    Revert-Ros, Francisco; López-Pascual, Ernesto; Granero-Moltó, Froilán; Macías, Jesús; Breyer, Richard; Zent, Roy; Hudson, Billy G.; Saadeddin, Anas; Revert, Fernando; Blasco, Raül; Navarro, Carmen; Burks, Deborah; Saus, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Goodpasture antigen-binding protein-1 (GPBP-1) is an exportable non-conventional Ser/Thr kinase that regulates glomerular basement membrane collagen organization. Here we provide evidence that GPBP-1 accumulates in the cytoplasm of differentiating mouse myoblasts prior to myosin synthesis. Myoblasts deficient in GPBP-1 display defective myofibril formation, whereas myofibrils assemble with enhanced efficiency in those overexpressing GPBP-1. We also show that GPBP-1 targets the previously unidentified GIP130 (GPBP-interacting protein of 130 kDa), which binds to myosin and promotes its myofibrillar assembly. This report reveals that GPBP-1 directs myofibril formation, an observation that expands its reported role in supramolecular organization of structural proteins to the intracellular compartment. PMID:21832087

  20. The Cbl proteins are binding partners for the Cool/Pix family of p21-activated kinase-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Flanders, James A; Feng, Qiyu; Bagrodia, Shubha; Laux, Maria T; Singavarapu, Avinash; Cerione, Richard A

    2003-08-28

    Members of the Cool protein family contain SH3, Dbl, and pleckstrin homology domains and are binding partners for the p21-activated kinase (PAK). Using the yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Cbl-b as a Cool family binding partner. We co-immunoprecipitated endogenous Cool and Cbl-b from a variety of breast cancer cell lines. The Cool-Cbl-b interaction requires the SH3 domain of Cool and competes with the binding of PAK to Cool proteins. Expression of Cbl-b effectively blocks the ability of Cool-2 to stimulate PAK, thus providing an additional mechanism, aside from catalyzing receptor ubiquitination, by which Cbl-b acts as a negative regulator for signaling activities requiring PAK activation.

  1. Resolving protein structure-function-binding site relationships from a binding site similarity network perspective.

    PubMed

    Mudgal, Richa; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2017-03-25

    Functional annotation is seldom straightforward with complexities arising due to functional divergence in protein families or functional convergence between non-homologous protein families, leading to mis-annotations. An enzyme may contain multiple domains and not all domains may be involved in a given function, adding to the complexity in function annotation. To address this, we use binding site information from bound cognate ligands and catalytic residues, since it can help in resolving fold-function relationships at a finer level and with higher confidence. A comprehensive database of 2,020 fold-function-binding site relationships has been systematically generated. A network-based approach is employed to capture the complexity in these relationships, from which different types of associations are deciphered, that identify versatile protein folds performing diverse functions, same function associated with multiple folds and one-to-one relationships. Binding site similarity networks integrated with fold, function and ligand similarity information are generated to understand the depth of these relationships. Apart from the observed continuity in the functional site space, network properties of these revealed versatile families with topologically different or dissimilar binding sites and structural families that perform very similar functions. As a case study, subtle changes in the active site of a set of evolutionarily related superfamilies are studied using these networks. Tracing of such similarities in evolutionarily related proteins provide clues into the transition and evolution of protein functions. Insights from this study will be helpful in accurate and reliable functional annotations of uncharacterized proteins, poly-pharmacology and designing enzymes with new functional capabilities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium binding to Procambarus clarkii sarcoplasmic calcium binding protein splice variants.

    PubMed

    E Rohrback, Suzanne; Wheatly, Michele G; Gillen, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic calcium binding protein (SCP) is a high-affinity calcium buffering protein expressed in muscle of crayfish and other invertebrates. In previous work, we identified three splice variants of Procambarus clarkii SCP (pcSCP1a, pcSCP1b, and pcSCP1c) that differ in a 37 amino acid region that lies mainly between the 2nd and 3ed EF-hand calcium binding domain. To evaluate the function of the proteins encoded by the pcSCP1 transcripts, we produced recombinant pcSCP1 and used tryptophan fluorescence to characterize calcium binding. Tryptophan fluorescence of pcSCP1a decreased in response to increased calcium, while tryptophan fluorescence of the pcSCP1b and pcSCP1c variants increased. We estimated calcium binding constants and Hill coefficients with two different equations: the standard Hill equation and a modified Hill equation that accounts for contributions from two different tryptophans. The approaches gave similar results. Steady-state calcium binding constants (Kd) ranged from 2.7±0.7×10(-8)M to 5.6±0.1×10(-7)M, consistent with previous work. Variants displayed significantly different apparent calcium affinities, which were decreased in the presence of magnesium. Calcium Kd was lowest for pcSCP1a and highest for pcSCP1c. Site-directed mutagenesis of pcSCP1c residues to the amino acids of pcSCP1b decreased the calcium Kd, identifying residues outside the EF-hand domains that contribute to calcium binding in crayfish SCP.

  3. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A Structural Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Briony E.; McCarthy, Peter; Norton, Raymond S.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6) bind insulin-like growth factors-I and -II (IGF-I and IGF-II) with high affinity. These binding proteins maintain IGFs in the circulation and direct them to target tissues, where they promote cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival via the type 1 IGF receptor. IGFBPs also interact with many other molecules, which not only influence their modulation of IGF action but also mediate IGF-independent activities that regulate processes such as cell migration and apoptosis by modulating gene transcription. IGFBPs-1 to -6 are structurally similar proteins consisting of three distinct domains, N-terminal, linker, and C-terminal. There have been major advances in our understanding of IGFBP structure in the last decade and a half. While there is still no structure of an intact IGFBP, several structures of individual N- and C-domains have been solved. The structure of a complex of N-BP-4:IGF-I:C-BP-4 has also been solved, providing a detailed picture of the structural features of the IGF binding site and the mechanism of binding. Structural studies have also identified features important for interaction with extracellular matrix components and integrins. This review summarizes structural studies reported so far and highlights features important for binding not only IGF but also other partners. We also highlight future directions in which structural studies will add to our knowledge of the role played by the IGFBP family in normal growth and development, as well as in disease. PMID:22654863

  4. Identification of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins in porcine milk

    PubMed Central

    Shahriar, Farshid; Gordon, John R.; Simko, Elemir

    2006-01-01

    Septicemia and endotoxemia initiated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are relatively common in suckling and weaned piglets. Maternal milk is a source of both nutrition and immune protection for piglets. Passive transfer of colostral antibodies is necessary for protection of neonatal piglets against diseases, but the concentration of immunoglobulins in milk rapidly declines during the 1st wk of lactation in all mammals. We hypothesized, therefore, that nonimmunoglobulin substances in milk contribute to the innate protection of neonates against septicemia during the suckling period. Using LPS-affinity chromatography for isolation of LPS-binding proteins and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for their identification, we identified in porcine milk the following proteins with LPS-binding capacity: lactoferrin, soluble CD14, serum amyloid A, α-S1 casein, β-casein, and κ-casein. For lactoferrin, α-S1 casein, and κ-casein, in vitro pepsin digestion did not inhibit LPS-binding activity, whereas combined digestion with pepsin and pancreatin abolished it. The biologic functions of these LPS-binding proteins and peptides were not determined. PMID:17042375

  5. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  6. Small-molecule ligands of methyl-lysine binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Herold, J Martin; Wigle, Tim J; Norris, Jacqueline L; Lam, Robert; Korboukh, Victoria K; Gao, Cen; Ingerman, Lindsey A; Kireev, Dmitri B; Senisterra, Guillermo; Vedadi, Masoud; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Brown, Peter J; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P; Frye, Stephen V

    2011-04-14

    Proteins which bind methylated lysines ("readers" of the histone code) are important components in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and can also modulate other proteins that contain methyl-lysine such as p53 and Rb. Recognition of methyl-lysine marks by MBT domains leads to compaction of chromatin and a repressed transcriptional state. Antagonists of MBT domains would serve as probes to interrogate the functional role of these proteins and initiate the chemical biology of methyl-lysine readers as a target class. Small-molecule MBT antagonists were designed based on the structure of histone peptide-MBT complexes and their interaction with MBT domains determined using a chemiluminescent assay and ITC. The ligands discovered antagonize native histone peptide binding, exhibiting 5-fold stronger binding affinity to L3MBTL1 than its preferred histone peptide. The first cocrystal structure of a small molecule bound to L3MBTL1 was determined and provides new insights into binding requirements for further ligand design.

  7. Capacitance-modulated transistor detects odorant binding protein chiral interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Tuccori, Elena; Magliulo, Maria; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Palazzo, Gerardo; Persaud, Krishna; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral events in olfaction involve odorant binding proteins (OBPs) whose role in the recognition of different volatile chemicals is yet unclear. Here we report on the sensitive and quantitative measurement of the weak interactions associated with neutral enantiomers differentially binding to OBPs immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer to the gate of an organic bio-electronic transistor. The transduction is remarkably sensitive as the transistor output current is governed by the small capacitance of the protein layer undergoing minute changes as the ligand–protein complex is formed. Accurate determination of the free-energy balances and of the capacitance changes associated with the binding process allows derivation of the free-energy components as well as of the occurrence of conformational events associated with OBP ligand binding. Capacitance-modulated transistors open a new pathway for the study of ultra-weak molecular interactions in surface-bound protein–ligand complexes through an approach that combines bio-chemical and electronic thermodynamic parameters. PMID:25591754

  8. Small Molecule Ligands of Methyl-Lysine Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central