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Sample records for glutathione s-transferase m1-null

  1. Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype related to poor prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shushan; Wang, Zengfang; Wang, Zengyan; Duan, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Jun; Sun, Beicheng

    2016-08-01

    Published studies showed controversial findings about the relationship between glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype and clinical outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between GSTM1 null genotype and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify prospective or retrospective cohort studies assessing the association of GSTM1 null genotype with overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) in colorectal cancer. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were used to assess the association of GSTM1 null genotype with OS or DFS. Finally, 15 studies from 14 publications with 4326 colorectal cancer patients were included into the meta-analysis. There was no heterogeneity in the meta-analysis relating OS (I (2) = 0 %) and DFS (I (2) = 0 %). Overall, GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with poor OS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.07-1.30, P = 0.001). In addition, GSTM1 null genotype was also significantly associated with poor DFS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.03-1.28, P = 0.015). No obvious risk of publication bias was observed. GSTM1 null genotype is significantly associated with poor OS and DFS in patients with colorectal cancer, which suggests that GSTM1 null genotype confers poor effect on the prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  2. Association between glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Li; Han, Bing; Zhai, Hong-Peng; Cheng, Xin-Hua; Ma, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of potential carcinogens. Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype can impair the enzyme activity of GSTs and is suspected to increase the susceptibility to gallbladder cancer. Previous studies investigating the association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer reported inconsistent findings. To quantify the association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases for all possible studies. We estimated the pooled odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to assess the association. Meta-analysis of total included studies showed that GSTM1 null genotype was not associated with gallbladder cancer risk (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.88-1.46, P = 0.332). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that there was no association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer in both Caucasians and Asians. However, meta-analysis of studies with adjusted estimations showed that GSTM1 null genotype was associated with increased risk of gallbladder cancer (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09, P = 0.038). Thus, this meta-analysis shows that GSTM1 null genotype is likely to be associated with risk of gallbladder cancer. More studies with well design and large sample size are needed to further validate the association between GSTM1 null genotype and gallbladder cancer.

  3. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GLUTATHIONE s-TRANSFERASE-MEDIATED METABOLISM OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE. M K Ross1 and R A Pegram2. 1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL/ORD, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  4. [Glutathione S-transferase of alpha class from pike liver].

    PubMed

    Borvinskaia, E V; Smirnov, L P; Nemova, N N

    2013-01-01

    In this study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from the liver of pike Esox lucius, which was homogenous according to SDS-PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. It is a homodimer with subunits mass 25235.36 Da (according to HPLC-MS/MS) and pI about 6.4. Substrate specificity, thermostability, some kinetic characteristics and optimum pH were determined. The enzyme was identified as Alpha class GST.

  5. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Vibanco-Pérez, N; Jiménez, L; Merchant, M T; Landa, A

    1999-06-01

    A Taenia solium glutathione-S-transferase fraction (SGSTF) was isolated from a metacestode crude extract by affinity chromatography on reduced glutathione (GSH)-sepharose. The purified fraction displayed a specific glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity of 2.8 micromol/min/mg and glutathione peroxidase selenium-independent activity of 0.22 micromol/min/mg. Enzymatic characterization of the fraction suggested that the activity was closer to the mammalian mu-class GSTs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and enzyme activity analysis showed that the fraction was composed of a major band of Mr = 26 kd and that the active enzyme was dimeric. Immunohistochemical studies using specific antibodies against the major 26-kd band of the SGSTF indicated that GST protein was present in the tegument, parenchyma, protonephridial, and tegumentary cytons of the T. solium metacestode. Antibodies generated against the SGSTF tested in western blot showed cross-reactivity against GSTs purified from Taenia saginata, T. taeniaeformis, and T. crassiceps, but did not react with GSTs from Schistosoma mansoni, or mice, rabbit, and pig liver tissue. Furthermore, immunization of mice with SGSTF reduced the metacestode burden up to 74.2%. Our findings argue in favor of GST having an important role in the survival of T. solium in its hosts.

  6. Glutathione S-transferase class {pi} polymorphism in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Aivaliotis, M.J.; Cantu, T.; Gilligan, R.

    1995-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) comprises a family of isozymes with broad substrate specificities. One or more GST isozymes are present in most animal tissues and function in several detoxification pathways through the conjugation of reduced glutathione with various electrophiles, thereby reducing their potential toxicity. Four soluble GST isozymes encoded by genes on different chromosomes have been identified in humans. The acidic class pi GST, GSTP (previously designated GST-3), is widely distributed in adult tissues and appears to be the only GST isozyme present in leukocytes and placenta. Previously reported electrophoretic analyses of erythrocyte and leukocyte extracts revealed single bands of activity, which differed slightly in mobility between the two cell types, or under other conditions, a two-banded pattern. To our knowledge, no genetically determined polymorphisms have previously been reported in GSTP from any species. We now report a polymorphism of GSTP in baboon leukocytes, and present family data that verifies autosomal codominant inheritance. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Nutricati, Eliana; Miceli, Antonio; Blando, Federica; De Bellis, Luigi

    2006-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family, divided on the basis of sequence identity into phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The phi and tau classes are present only in plants. GSTs appear to be ubiquitous in plants and are involved in herbicide detoxification and stress response, but little is known about the precise role of GSTs in normal plant physiology and during biotic and abiotic stress response. Two cDNAs representing the two plant classes tau and phi, AtGSTF9 and AtGSTU26, were expressed in vitro and the corresponding proteins were analysed. Both GSTs were able to catalyse a glutathione conjugation to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), but they were inactive as transferases towards p-nitrobenzylchloride (pNBC). AtGSTF9 showed activity towards benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and an activity as glutathione peroxidase with cumene hydroperoxide (CumHPO). AtGSTU26 was not active as glutathione peroxidase and towards BITC. RT-PCR analysis was used to evaluate the expression of the two genes in response to treatment with herbicides and safeners, chemicals, low and high temperature. Our results reveal that AtGSTU26 is induced by the chloroacetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor and the safener benoxacor, and after exposure to low temperatures. In contrast, AtGSTF9 seems not to be influenced by the treatments employed.

  8. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alba; Céspedes, Walkiria; Xamena, Noel; Surrallés, Jordi; Creus, Amadeu; Galofré, Pere; Marcos, Ricardo

    2003-02-10

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are enzymes involved in the metabolism of many carcinogens and mutagens, also acting as important free-radical scavengers. The existence of different genetic polymorphisms in human populations has proven to be a susceptibility factor for different tumours. Nevertheless, as far as we know, for thyroid cancer no study has been conducted until now linking its incidence to genetic susceptibility biomarkers. The present investigation has been conducted to detect the possible association between polymorphism at the GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes and thyroid cancer incidence. Thus, 134 thyroid cancer patients and 116 controls, all from the urban district of Barcelona (Spain), have been included in this study. The results indicate that, according to the calculated odds ratio, the frequencies of the different genotypes found in the group of cancer patients do not significantly differ from those values obtained in the controls. This is true for the overall data as well as for the tumour characterization as follicular and papillar types. In addition, none of the possible combinations of mutant genotypes were shown to be risk factors. Finally, when the sex of the patients, the age of tumour onset, and life-style habits were also taken into account, no influence was observed related to the different genotypes. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study clearly suggest that those susceptibility factors related to the different GST polymorphic enzymes are not a predisposing factor in thyroid cancer disease.

  9. Does Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Pesticides in Association with Glutathione S-Transferase A1, M1, P1, and T1 Polymorphisms Increase the Risk of Bladder Cancer? The Belgrade Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Savic-Radojevic, Ana R.; Bulat, Petar V.; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija S.; Dragicevic, Dejan P.; Djukic, Tatjana I.; Simic, Tatjana P.; Pekmezovic, Tatjana D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated the role of the glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1 and T1 gene polymorphisms and potential effect modification by occupational exposure to different chemicals in Serbian bladder cancer male patients. Patients and Methods A hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer in men comprised 143 histologically confirmed cases and 114 age-matched male controls. Deletion polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 was identified by polymerase chain reaction method. Single nucleotide polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase A1 and P1 was identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. As a measure of effect size, odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated. Results The glutathione S-transferase A1, T1 and P1 genotypes did not contribute independently toward the risk of bladder cancer, while the glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype was overrepresented among cases (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.1–4.2, p = 0.032). The most pronounced effect regarding occupational exposure to solvents and glutathione S-transferase genotype on bladder cancer risk was observed for the low activity glutathione S-transferase A1 genotype (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 2.4–34.7, p = 0.001). The glutathione S-transferase M1-null genotype also enhanced the risk of bladder cancer among subjects exposed to solvents (OR = 6,5, 95% CI = 2.1–19.7, p = 0.001). The risk of bladder cancer development was 5.3–fold elevated among glutathione S-transferase T1-active patients exposed to solvents in comparison with glutathione S-transferase T1-active unexposed patients (95% CI = 1.9–15.1, p = 0.002). Moreover, men with glutathione S-transferase T1-active genotype exposed to pesticides exhibited 4.5 times higher risk in comparison with unexposed glutathione S-transferase T1-active subjects (95% CI = 0.9–22.5, p = 0.067). Conclusion Null or low-activity genotypes of the

  10. Expression of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase pi in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important agents of the antioxidant defense system of the cell because, in conjunction with the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S transferase pi (GSTpi), it plays a central role in the detoxification and biotransformation of chemotherapeutic drugs. This study evaluated the expression of GSH and the GSH-Px and GSTpi enzymes by immunohistochemistry in 30 canine mammary tumors, relating the clinicopathological parameters, clinical outcome and survival of the bitches. In an in vitro study, the expression of the genes glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC) and glutathione synthetase (GSS) that synthesize GSH and GSH-Px gene were verified by qPCR and subjected to treatment with doxorubicin, to check the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Results The immunohistochemical expression of GSH, GSH-Px and GSTpi was compared with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the clinical outcome in the bitches, including metastasis and death. The results showed that high immunoexpression of GSH was correlated to the absence of tumor ulceration and was present in dogs without metastasis (P < 0.05). There was significant correlation of survival with the increase of GSH (P < 0.05). The expression of the GSH-Px and GSTpi enzymes showed no statistically significant correlation with the analyzed variables (p > 0.05). The analysis of the relative expression of genes responsible for the synthesis of GSH (GCLC and GSS) and GSH-Px by quantitative PCR was done with cultured cells of 10 tumor fragments from dogs with mammary tumors. The culture cells showed a decrease in GCLC and GSS expression when compared with no treated cells (P < 0.05). High GSH immunoexpression was associated with better clinical outcomes. Conclusion Therefore, high expression of the GSH seems to play an important role in the clinical outcome of patients with mammary tumors and suggest its use as prognostic marker. The in

  11. The Glutathione System of Aspergillus nidulans Involves a Fungus-specific Glutathione S-Transferase*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ikuo; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is involved in cellular defense mechanisms for xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species. This study investigated glutathione-dependent mechanisms in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans. A recombinant dimeric protein of A. nidulans glutathione reductase (GR) contained FAD and reduced oxidized glutathione (GSSG) using NADPH as an electron donor. A deletion strain of the GR gene (glrA) accumulated less intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), indicating that the fungal GR contributes to GSSG reduction in vivo. Growth of the deletion strain of glrA was temperature-sensitive, and this phenotype was suppressed by adding GSH to the medium. The strain subsequently accumulated more intracellular superoxide, and cell-free respiration activity was partly defective. Growth of the strain decreased in the presence of oxidants, which induced glrA expression 1.5-6-fold. These results indicated that the fungal glutathione system functions as an antioxidant mechanism in A. nidulans. Our findings further revealed an initial proteomic differential display on GR-depleted and wild type strains. Up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxins, catalases, and cytochrome c peroxidase in the glrA-deletion strain revealed interplay between the glutathione system and both the thioredoxin system and hydrogen peroxide defense mechanisms. We also identified a hypothetical, up-regulated protein in the GR-depleted strains as glutathione S-transferase, which is unique among Ascomycetes fungi. PMID:19171936

  12. Plasmodium spp. membrane glutathione S-transferases: detoxification units and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Lisewski, Andreas M.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane glutathione S-transferases from the class of membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG) form a superfamily of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a broad spectrum of xenobiotics and hydrophobic electrophiles. Evolutionarily unrelated to the cytosolic glutathione S-transferases, they are found across bacterial and eukaryotic domains, for example in mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria in which significant levels of glutathione are maintained. Species of genus Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoa that are commonly known as malaria parasites, do actively support glutathione homeostasis and maintain its metabolism throughout their complex parasitic life cycle. In humans and in other mammals, the asexual intraerythrocytic stage of malaria, when the parasite feeds on hemoglobin, grows and eventually asexually replicates inside infected red blood cells (RBCs), is directly associated with host disease symptoms and during this critical stage GSH protects the host RBC and the parasite against oxidative stress from parasite-induced hemoglobin catabolism. In line with these observations, several GSH-dependent Plasmodium enzymes have been characterized including glutathione reductases, thioredoxins, glyoxalases, glutaredoxins and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs); furthermore, GSH itself have been found to associate spontaneously and to degrade free heme and its hydroxide, hematin, which are the main cytotoxic byproducts of hemoglobin catabolism. However, despite the apparent importance of glutathione metabolism for the parasite, no membrane associated glutathione S-transferases of genus Plasmodium have been previously described. We recently reported the first examples of MAPEG members among Plasmodium spp. PMID:28357217

  13. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferase Isozymes in Sorghum by Herbicide Antidotes 1

    PubMed Central

    Dean, John V.; Gronwald, John W.; Eberlein, Charlotte V.

    1990-01-01

    Certain chemicals referred to as herbicide antidotes protect sorghum from injury by chloroacetanilide herbicides such as metolachlor. The effect of herbicide antidotes on the glutathione S-transferase isozyme complement of etiolated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) shoots was examined. Elution profiles of glutathione S-transferase isozymes from untreated and antidote-treated seedlings were generated by fast protein liquid chromatography utilizing an anion exchange (Mono Q) column. In untreated seedlings, there were two glutathione S-transferase isozymes, a major isozyme which exhibited activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and a minor isozyme which exhibited activity toward metolachlor. Treating sorghum seedlings with various antidotes (flurazole, oxabetrinil, CGA-133205, naphthalic anhydride, dichlormid) resulted in the appearance of four to five additional glutathione S-transferase isozymes (de-pending on the particular antidote) which exhibited activity toward metolachlor as a substrate and little or no activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Treating etiolated sorghum shoots with metolachlor was also found to induce at least four isozymes which exhibited activity toward the herbicide. An increase in glutathione S-transferase activity, measured with metolachlor as substrate, was detected within 4 h after treatment with 30 micromolar oxabetrinil, but 36 hours were required for maximum expression of activity. Addition of either the transcription inhibitor cordycepin or the translation inhibitor cycloheximide inhibited the appearance of glutathione S-transferase activity measured with metolachlor as substrate. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that antidotes confer protection against metolachlor injury in sorghum by inducing the de novo synthesis of glutathione S-transferase isozymes which catalyze the detoxification of the herbicide. PMID:16667299

  14. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  15. Identification of a diazinon-metabolizing glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Yamada, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase superfamily play key roles in the metabolism of numerous xenobiotics. We report herein the identification and characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The enzyme (bmGSTu2) conjugates glutathione to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as metabolizing diazinon, one of the organophosphate insecticides. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis of transcripts demonstrated that bmGSTu2 expression was induced 1.7-fold in a resistant strain of B. mori. Mutagenesis of putative amino acid residues in the glutathione-binding site revealed that Ile54, Glu66, Ser67, and Asn68 are crucial for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTu2 and into the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides. PMID:27440377

  16. GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1-DEPENDENT METABOLISM OF THE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT BROMODICHLOROMETHANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a prevalent drinking water disinfection by-product, was previously shown to be mutagenic in Salmonella expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) theta 1-1 (GST T1-1). In the present study, in vitro experiments were performed to study the...

  17. DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1

    EPA Science Inventory


    DNA BINDING POTENTIAL OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE MEDIATED BY GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1-1. R A Pegram1 and M K Ross2. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 1Pharmacokinetics Branch, NHEERL, ORD, United States Environmental Protection Ag...

  18. Allyl isothiocyanate depletes glutathione and upregulates expression of glutathione S-transferases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Øverby, Anders; Stokland, Ragni A.; Åsberg, Signe E.; Sporsheim, Bjørnar; Bones, Atle M.

    2015-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a phytochemical associated with plant defense in plants from the Brassicaceae family. AITC has long been recognized as a countermeasure against external threats, but recent reports suggest that AITC is also involved in the onset of defense-related mechanisms such as the regulation of stomatal aperture. However, the underlying cellular modes of action in plants remain scarcely investigated. Here we report evidence of an AITC-induced depletion of glutathione (GSH) and the effect on gene expression of the detoxification enzyme family glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment of A. thaliana wild-type with AITC resulted in a time- and dose-dependent depletion of cellular GSH. AITC-exposure of mutant lines vtc1 and pad2-1 with elevated and reduced GSH-levels, displayed enhanced and decreased AITC-tolerance, respectively. AITC-exposure also led to increased ROS-levels in the roots and loss of chlorophyll which are symptoms of oxidative stress. Following exposure to AITC, we found that GSH rapidly recovered to the same level as in the control plant, suggesting an effective route for replenishment of GSH or a rapid detoxification of AITC. Transcriptional analysis of genes encoding GSTs showed an upregulation in response to AITC. These findings demonstrate cellular effects by AITC involving a reversible depletion of the GSH-pool, induced oxidative stress, and elevated expression of GST-encoding genes. PMID:25954298

  19. The response to cyclophosphamide in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome is influenced by polymorphic expression of glutathion-S-transferases-M1 and -P1.

    PubMed

    Vester, Udo; Kranz, Birgitta; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Büscher, Rainer; Hoyer, Peter F

    2005-04-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) play a central role in the inactivation of toxic drugs like cyclophosphamide (CP). These enzymes depict several polymorphisms with altered activity, and it has been shown that different polymorphisms influence the risk of malignancies and the outcome after chemotherapy. To prove the hypothesis that CP efficacy in children with nephrotic syndrome is influenced by polymorphic expression of GSTs, the genotype of 26 patients was analyzed and correlated with the outcome after CP treatment. All 26 children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and frequent relapses or steroid dependency were treated with CP at a mean age of 6.7+/-4.0 years. CP was given in a dose of 2 mg/kg/day for 12+/-1 week. GST-M1, GST-P1 and GST-T1 polymorphisms were detected by PCR. In patients with GST-M1 null polymorphism, a significantly better rate of sustained remission was seen than in patients with the heterozygous or homozygous GST-M1 wildtype (0 versus 29%, P <0.01). In contrast, children with GST-P heterozygous or homozygous polymorphism had a significantly lower rate of sustained remission compared to homozygous wildtype (7 versus 38%, P <0.02). The GST-T1 genotype did not influence the outcome after CP treatment (P =0.32). Patients with the combination of GST-M1 null and GST-P1 wildtype did not relapse in 50%, compared to 6% in other children (P <0.01). We conclude that the polymorphic expression of GST-M1 and -P1 did significantly influence the long-term remission rate after CP treatment of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children. Whereas GST-M1 null will increase cyclophosphamide efficacy, GST-P1 polymorphism seems to be related to enhanced susceptibility to further relapses.

  20. Human glutathione S-transferases. Characterization of the anionic forms from lung and placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Dao, D D; Partridge, C A; Kurosky, A; Awasthi, Y C

    1984-01-01

    Anionic glutathione S-transferases were purified from human lung and placenta. Chemical and immunochemical characterization, including polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, gave strong evidence that the anionic lung and placental enzymes are chemically similar, if not identical, proteins. The electrophoretic mobilities of both proteins were identical in conventional alkaline gels as well as in gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate. Gel filtration of the intact active enzyme established an Mr value of 45000; however, with sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under dissociating conditions a subunit Mr of 22500 was obtained. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N-terminal region of the placental enzyme revealed a single polypeptide sequence identical with that of lung. Results obtained from immunoelectrophoresis, immunotitration, double immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoresis also indicated the anionic lung and placental enzymes to be closely similar. The chemical similarity of these two proteins was further supported by protein compositional analysis and fragment analysis after chemical hydrolysis. Immunochemical comparison of the anionic lung and placental enzymes with human liver glutathione S-transferases revealed cross-reactivity with the anionic omega enzyme, but no cross-reactivity was detectable with the cationic enzymes. Comparison of the N-terminal region of the human anionic enzyme with reported sequences of rat liver glutathione S-transferases gave strong evidence of chemical similarity, indicating that these enzymes are evolutionarily related. However, computer analysis of the 30-residue N-terminal sequence did not show any significant chemical similarity to any other reported protein sequence, pointing to the fact that the glutathione S-transferases represent a unique class of proteins. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6466318

  1. Correlation Between Iron and alpha and pi Glutathione-S-Transferase Levels in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    including duodenal crypt cells and macrophages . Several well characterized mutations in this gene have been shown to increase iron levels.16 Of...genotoxic products of lipid peroxication. (1998) Biochem. J. 330:174-179. 4Townsend DM, Tew KD. “The role of glutathione-S-transferase in anti- cancer ...and ferritin.” Semin Hematol. (1998) 35:35-54. 12Iancu TC. “ Ultrastructural aspects of iron storage, transport, and metabolism.” J Neural Transm

  2. The synthesis of ethacrynic acid thiazole derivatives as glutathione S-transferase pi inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Liu, Guyue; Li, Hongcai; Yang, Xinmei; Jing, Yongkui; Zhao, Guisen

    2012-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) is a phase II enzyme which protects cells from death and detoxifies chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a weak GSTpi inhibitor. Structure modifications were done to improve the ability of EA to inhibit GSTpi activity. Eighteen EA thiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized. Compounds 9a, 9b and 9c with a replacement of carboxyl group of EA by a heterocyclic thiazole exhibited improvement over EA to inhibit GSTpi activity.

  3. Value of glutathion-S transferase pi as a prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saip, P; Tuzlali, S; Demir, K; Sakar, B; Yavuz, E; Berkman, S; Bengisu, E; Topuz, E

    2005-01-01

    The association between glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) and other clinicopathological parameters, response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome were investigated in chemotherapy naive epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Paraffin-embedded material from 55 patients were used for immunohistochemical analysis. All patients had received six cycles of cisplatinum-based chemotherapy and 41 of them were revalued by laparotomy. Pre- and post-chemotherapy GSTpi staining were detected in the cancer tissues of 18/55 (32.7%) and 5/14 (35.7%) patients, respectively. GSTpi expression was not associated with other clinicopathologic parameters. Of 17 patients with postoperative measurable residual disease clinical response was observed in 4/7 of GSTpi positive and in 9/10 GSTpi negative patients (p = 0.25). Pathologic complete response (pCR) was achieved in 5/8 of GSTpi positive and 11/22 of GSTpi negative cases (p = 0.69). There was no significant difference in overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) according to initial GSTpi status. However the PFS of the five patients (median 22 +/- 5.9 months) who had postchemotherapy positive GSTpi was significantly shorter than the nine patients (10.0 +/- 2.19 months) who had negative GSTpi (p = 0.006). This difference was not observed in overall survival. These results suggest that initial immunohistochemical staining of GSTpi does not aid in the prediction of pCR and clinical outcome in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Nonetheless investigation of GSTpi expression after chemotherapy needs further evaluation.

  4. Characterization of glutathione S-transferase from dwarf pine needles (Pinus mugo Turra).

    PubMed

    Schröder, P; Rennenberg, H

    1992-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity conjugating xenobiotics with glutathione (GSH) was found in extracts from needles of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo Turra). In vivo incubation of needle segments with the herbicide fluorodifen at 25 degrees C resulted in conversion of the xenobiotic to water-soluble products at initial rates of 0.7 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). At 15 degrees C, the initial rate of product formation was decreased to 0.1 nmol h(-1) g(fw) (-1). In vitro conjugation studies with chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) as model substrates gave apparent K(m) values of 0.5 mM GSH and 1.14 mM CDNB in the GSH/CDNB system and 0.3 mM GSH and 0.44 mM DCNB in the GSH/DCNB system. The pH optimum was between 7.7 and 7.9 for both the GSH/CDNB and the GSH/DCNB systems. The temperature optimum for these model substrates was between 30 and 35 degrees C, and only minute amounts of enzyme activity were detected at 15 degrees C. The activation energy in the temperature range of 15 to 30 degrees C was 46 kJ mol(-1). Dwarf pine glutathione S-transferase exhibited an approximate molecular weight of 52 kD.

  5. Glutathion S-transferase activity and DDT-susceptibility of Malaysian mosquitos.

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Chong, W L

    1995-03-01

    Comparative DDT-susceptibility status and glutathion s-transferase (GST) activity of Malaysian Anopheles maculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was investigated to ascertain the role of this enzyme in DDT resistance. The standardised WHO dose-mortality bioassay tests were used to determine DDT susceptibility in these mosquitos, whilst GST microassay (Brogdon and Barber, 1990) was conducted to measure the activity of this enzyme in mosquito homogenate. It appeared that DDT susceptibility status of Malaysian mosquitos was not correlated with GST activity.

  6. Glutathione-S-transferase selective release of metformin from its sulfonamide prodrug.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Jarkko; Vernerová, Monika; Aufderhaar, Imke; Huttunen, Kristiina M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, three sulfonamide prodrugs of metformin were designed and synthesized. The bioconversion of the sulfonamide prodrugs by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was evaluated in rat and human liver S9 fractions as well as with recombinant human GST forms. One of the prodrugs (3) was bioactivated by GST and released metformin in a quantitative manner, whereas the two others were enzymatically stable. Prodrug 3 had a much higher logD value relative to metformin and it was reasonably stable in both acidic buffer and rat small intestine homogenate, which indicates that this prodrug has the potential to increase the oral absorption of metformin.

  7. Null genotypes of glutathione S-transferase μ1 and glutathione S-transferase θ1 are associated with osteosarcoma risk: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HAN, JICHENG; DENG, WEI; WANG, LAIYING; QI, WANLI

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms has been reported to be associated with osteosarcoma; however, the results of previous studies are conflicting. Thus, in the present study, a meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms on osteosarcoma risk. A literature search was performed in the PubMed, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases to identify case-control studies published prior to March 2014. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. In addition, Begg’s test was used to measure publication bias. Sensitivity analysis were performed to ensure the accuracy of the results. The meta-analysis results demonstrated no significant association between the null genotype of GSTM1 and osteosarcoma risk (OR=0.83; 95% CI, 0.37–1.85). By contrast, the results revealed a significant association for the comparison of null vs. non-null genotypes of GSTT1 (OR=1.54; 95% CI, 1.09–2.19). In conclusion, the GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with an increased risk of developing osteosarcoma. Further studies with larger sample sizes and well-designed methodologies are required to verify these conclusions. PMID:25789067

  8. Glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 risk polymorphism and increased bilateral thalamus mean diffusivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Gravina, Paolo; Bello, Mario Lo; Bernardini, Sergio; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage in brain cells is one of the factors hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1*B polymorphism, a genotype associated with a higher risk of oxidative damage, is associated with increased frequency of schizophrenia diagnosis. Thus, here we studied Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1 polymorphism and diffusion tensor imaging-mean diffusivity (MD) data on deep grey matter brain structures in 56 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) schizophrenia. Clinical diagnosis and psychopathological symptom severity were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-P) and the Scales for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS). Results confirmed that patients with schizophrenia who were carriers of the GSTA1 *B risk allele had an increased MD in bilateral thalami and increased severity of auditory and global hallucinations in comparison with non-B carriers. Thus, oxidative stress associated factors may be implicated in specific mechanisms of schizophrenia such as altered microstructure of the thalami and specific psychopathological features of auditory hallucinations.

  9. Miners compensated for pneumoconiosis and glutathione s-transferases M1 and T1 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Anna; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Prager, Hans-Martin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of quartz-containing dust produces reversible inflammatory changes in lungs resulting in irreversible fibrotic changes termed pneumoconiosis. Due to the inflammatory process in the lungs, highly reactive substances are released that may be detoxified by glutathione S-transferases. Therefore, 90 hard coal miners with pneumoconiosis as a recognized occupational disease (in Germany: Berufskrankheit BK 4101) were genotyped for glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) according to standard methods. Furthermore, occupational exposure and smoking habits were assessed by questionnaire. Changes in a chest x-ray were classified according to ILO classification 2000. Of the investigated hard coal miners 43% were GSTM1 negative whereas 57% were GSTM1 positive. The arithmetic mean of the age at time of investigation was 74.2 yr (range: 42-87 yr). Seventy-four percent of the hard coal miners reported being ever smokers, while 26% denied smoking. All hard coal miners provided pneumoconiosis-related changes in the chest x-ray. The observed frequency of GSTM1 negative hard coal miners was not different from frequencies reported for general Caucasian populations and in agreement with findings reported for Chinese coal miners. In contrast, in a former study, 16 of 19 German hard coal miners (84%) with urinary bladder cancer displayed a GSTM1 negative genotype. The outcome of this study provides evidence that severely occupationally exposed Caucasian hard coal miners do not present an elevated level of GSTM1 negative individuals.

  10. Biochemical properties of an omega-class glutathione S-transferase of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kohji; Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Banno, Yutaka; Aso, Yoichi

    2009-05-01

    A cDNA encoding an omega-class glutathione S-transferase of the silkmoth, Bombyx mori (bmGSTO), was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The resulting clone was sequenced and deduced for amino acid sequence, which revealed 40, 40, and 39% identities to omega-class GSTs from human, pig, and mouse, respectively. A recombinant protein (rbmGSTO) was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells in a soluble form and purified to homogeneity. rbmGSTO was able to catalyze the biotranslation of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a model substrate for GST, as well as with 4-hydroxynonenal, a product of lipid peroxidation. This enzyme was shown to have high affinity for organophosphorus insecticide and was present abundantly in silkmoth strain exhibiting fenitrothion resistance. These results indicate that bmGSTO could be involved in the increase in level of insecticide resistance for lepidopteran insects.

  11. Irreversible Inhibition of Glutathione S-Transferase by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate (PEITC), a Dietary Cancer Chemopreventive Phytochemical

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Vandana; Dyba, Marzena A.; Holland, Ryan J.; Liang, Yu-He; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates abundant as glucosinolate precursors in many edible cruciferous vegetables are effective for prevention of cancer in chemically-induced and transgenic rodent models. Some of these agents, including phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), have already advanced to clinical investigations. The primary route of isothiocyanate metabolism is its conjugation with glutathione (GSH), a reaction catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST). The pi class GST of subunit type 1 (hGSTP1) is much more effective than the alpha class GST of subunit type 1 (hGSTA1) in catalyzing the conjugation. Here, we report the crystal structures of hGSTP1 and hGSTA1 each in complex with the GSH adduct of PEITC. We find that PEITC also covalently modifies the cysteine side chains of GST, which irreversibly inhibits enzymatic activity. PMID:27684484

  12. Molecular mimicry between cockroach and helminth glutathione S-transferases promotes cross-reactivity and cross-sensitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extensive similarities between helminth proteins and allergens are thought to contribute to helminth-driven allergic sensitization. We investigated the molecular and structural similarities between Bla g 5, a major glutathione-S transferase (GST) allergen of cockroaches, and the GST of Wucherer...

  13. Reversal of hypermethylation and reactivation of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene by curcumin in breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Umesh; Sharma, Ujjawal; Rathi, Garima

    2017-02-01

    One of the mechanisms for epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes is hypermethylation of cytosine residue at CpG islands at their promoter region that contributes to malignant progression of tumor. Therefore, activation of tumor suppressor genes that have been silenced by promoter methylation is considered to be very attractive molecular target for cancer therapy. Epigenetic silencing of glutathione S-transferase pi 1, a tumor suppressor gene, is involved in various types of cancers including breast cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes can be reversed by several molecules including natural compounds such as polyphenols that can act as a hypomethylating agent. Curcumin has been found to specifically target various tumor suppressor genes and alter their expression. To check the effect of curcumin on the methylation pattern of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in dose-dependent manner. To check the reversal of methylation pattern of hypermethylated glutathione S-transferase pi 1, MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was treated with different concentrations of curcumin for different time periods. DNA and proteins of treated and untreated cell lines were isolated, and methylation status of the promoter region of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 was analyzed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, and expression of this gene was analyzed by immunoblotting using specific antibodies against glutathione S-transferase pi 1. A very low and a nontoxic concentration (10 µM) of curcumin treatment was able to reverse the hypermethylation and led to reactivation of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 protein expression in MCF-7 cells after 72 h of treatment, although the IC50 value of curcumin was found to be at 20 µM. However, curcumin less than 3 µM of curcumin could not alter the promoter methylation pattern of glutathione S-transferase pi 1. Treatment of breast cancer MCF-7 cells with curcumin causes

  14. Glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) expression in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Horti, Maria; Kandilaris, Kosmas; Skolarikos, Andreas; Trakas, Nikolaos; Kastriotis, Ioannis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance correlates with unfavourable treatment outcomes in numerous cancers including renal cell carcinoma. The expression and clinical relevance of Glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi), a multidrug resistance factor, in kidney tumors remain controversial. We analyzed the expression of GST-pi in 60 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded renal cell carcinoma samples by immunohistochemistry and compared them with matched normal regions of the kidney. A significantly higher expression of GST-pi was observed in 87% of clear cell carcinoma and 50% of papillary subtypes. GST-pi expression did not correlate with tumor grade or patient survival. GST-pi is unlikely to be a prognostic factor for renal cell carcinoma. However, further studies with large number of samples are warranted to establish the role of GST-pi, if any, in intrinsic or acquired resistance of renal cell carcinoma to conventional treatments.

  15. Glutathione S-transferase mediates an ageing response to mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Dancy, Beverley M.; Brockway, Nicole; Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Yang, Yoing; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Morgan, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    To understand primary mitochondrial disease, we utilized a complex I-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans mutant, gas-1. These animals strongly upregulate the expression of gst-14 (encoding a glutathione S-transferase). Knockdown of gst-14 dramatically extends the lifespan of gas-1 and increases hydroxynonenal (HNE) modified mitochondrial proteins without improving complex I function. We observed no change in reactive oxygen species levels as measured by Mitosox staining, consistent with a potential role of GST-14 in HNE clearance. The upregulation of gst-14 in gas-1 animals is specific to the pharynx. These data suggest that an HNE-mediated response in the pharynx could be beneficial for lifespan extension in the context of complex I dysfunction in C. elegans. Thus, whereas HNE is typically considered damaging, our work is consistent with recent reports of its role in signaling, and that in this case, the signal is pro-longevity in a model of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26704446

  16. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs. PMID:26884677

  17. Insights into ligand binding to a glutathione S-transferase from mango: Structure, thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Chavira, Ignacio; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; García-Orozco, Karina D; Hernandez-Paredes, Javier; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Stojanoff, Vivian; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2017-04-01

    We studied a mango glutathione S-transferase (GST) (Mangifera indica) bound to glutathione (GSH) and S-hexyl glutathione (GSX). This GST Tau class (MiGSTU) had a molecular mass of 25.5 kDa. MiGSTU Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants were determined for their substrates obtaining a Km, Vmax and kcat for CDNB of 0.792 mM, 80.58 mM min(-1) and 68.49 s(-1) respectively and 0.693 mM, 105.32 mM min(-1) and 89.57 s(-1), for reduced GSH respectively. MiGSTU had a micromolar affinity towards GSH (5.2 μM) or GSX (7.8 μM). The crystal structure of the MiGSTU in apo or bound to GSH or GSX generated a model that explains the thermodynamic signatures of binding and showed the importance of enthalpic-entropic compensation in ligand binding to Tau-class GST enzymes.

  18. Recognition and Detoxification of the Insecticide DDT by Drosophila melanogaster Glutathione S-Transferase D1

    SciTech Connect

    Low, Wai Yee; Feil, Susanne C.; Ng, Hooi Ling; Gorman, Michael A.; Morton, Craig J.; Pyke, James; McConville, Malcolm J.; Bieri, Michael; Mok, Yee-Foong; Robin, Charles; Gooley, Paul R.; Parker, Michael W.; Batterham, Philip

    2010-06-14

    GSTD1 is one of several insect glutathione S-transferases capable of metabolizing the insecticide DDT. Here we use crystallography and NMR to elucidate the binding of DDT and glutathione to GSTD1. The crystal structure of Drosophila melanogaster GSTD1 has been determined to 1.1 {angstrom} resolution, which reveals that the enzyme adopts the canonical GST fold but with a partially occluded active site caused by the packing of a C-terminal helix against one wall of the binding site for substrates. This helix would need to unwind or be displaced to enable catalysis. When the C-terminal helix is removed from the model of the crystal structure, DDT can be computationally docked into the active site in an orientation favoring catalysis. Two-dimensional {sup 1}H,{sup 15}N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence NMR experiments of GSTD1 indicate that conformational changes occur upon glutathione and DDT binding and the residues that broaden upon DDT binding support the predicted binding site. We also show that the ancestral GSTD1 is likely to have possessed DDT dehydrochlorinase activity because both GSTD1 from D. melanogaster and its sibling species, Drosophila simulans, have this activity.

  19. Optical biosensor consisting of glutathione-S-transferase for detection of captan.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Young-Kee; Song, Sun-Young; Lee, In-ho; Lee, Won-Hong

    2003-10-15

    The optical biosensor consisting of a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-immobilized gel film was developed to detect captan in contaminated water. The sensing scheme was based on the decrease of yellow product, s-(2,4-dinitrobenzene) glutathione, produced from substrates, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH), due to the inhibition of GST reaction by captan. Absorbance of the product as the output of enzyme reaction was detected and the light was guided through the optical fibers. The enzyme reactor of the sensor system was fabricated by the gel entrapment technique for the immobilized GST film. The immobilized GST had the maximum activity at pH 6.5. The optimal concentrations of substrates were determined with 1 mM for both of CDNB and GSH. The optimum concentration of enzyme was also determined with 100 microg/ml. The activity of immobilized enzyme was fairly sustained during 30 days. The proposed biosensor could successfully detect the captan up to 2 ppm and the response time to steady signal was about 15 min.

  20. MIF protein are theta-class glutathione S-transferase homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Blocki, F. A.; Ellis, L. B.; Wackett, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    MIF proteins are mammalian polypeptides of approximately 13,000 molecular weight. This class includes human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a rat liver protein that has glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity (TRANSMIF), and the mouse delayed early response gene 6 (DER6) protein. MIF proteins were previously linked to GSTs by demonstrating transferase activity and observing N-terminal sequence homology with a mu-class GST (Blocki, F.A., Schlievert, P.M., & Wackett, L.P., 1992, Nature 360, 269-270). In this study, MIF proteins are shown to be structurally related to the theta class of GSTs. This is established in three ways. First, unique primary sequence patterns are developed for each of the GST gene classes. The patterns identify the three MIF proteins as theta-like transferase homologs. Second, pattern analysis indicates that GST members of the theta class contain a serine residue in place of the N-terminal tyrosine that is implicated in glutathione deprotonation and activation in GSTs of known structure (Liu, S., et al., 1992, J. Biol. Chem. 267, 4296-4299). The MIF proteins contain a threonine at this position. Third, polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant human MIF cross-react on Western blots with rat theta GST but not with alpha and mu GSTs. That MIF proteins have glutathione-binding ability may provide a common structural key toward understanding the varied functions of this widely distributed emerging gene family. Because theta is thought to be the most ancient evolutionary GST class, MIF proteins may have diverged early in evolution but retained a glutathione-binding domain. PMID:8298459

  1. Functional complementation of anthocyanin sequestration in the vacuole by widely divergent glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Alfenito, M R; Souer, E; Goodman, C D; Buell, R; Mol, J; Koes, R; Walbot, V

    1998-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) traditionally have been studied in plants and other organisms for their ability to detoxify chemically diverse herbicides and other toxic organic compounds. Anthocyanins are among the few endogenous substrates of plant GSTs that have been identified. The Bronze2 (Bz2) gene encodes a type III GST and performs the last genetically defined step of the maize anthocyanin pigment pathway. This step is the conjugation of glutathione to cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G). Glutathionated C3G is transported to the vacuole via a tonoplast Mg-ATP-requiring glutathione pump (GS-X pump). Genetically, the comparable step in the petunia anthocyanin pathway is controlled by the Anthocyanin9 (An9) gene. An9 was cloned by transposon tagging and found to encode a type I plant GST. Bz2 and An9 have evolved independently from distinct types of GSTs, but each is regulated by the conserved transcriptional activators of the anthocyanin pathway. Here, a phylogenetic analysis is presented, with special consideration given to the origin of these genes and their relaxed substrate requirements. In particle bombardment tests, An9 and Bz2 functionally complement both mutants. Among several other GSTs tested, only soybean GmGST26A (previously called GmHsp26A and GH2/4) and maize GSTIII were found to confer vacuolar sequestration of anthocyanin. Previously, these genes had not been associated with the anthocyanin pathway. Requirements for An9 and Bz2 gene function were investigated by sequencing functional and nonfunctional germinal revertants of an9-T3529, bz2::Ds, and bz2::Mu1. PMID:9668133

  2. Relationship between oxidative stress, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and hydroxyurea treatment in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Belini Junior, Edis; Torres, Lidiane de Souza; Ricci Júnior, Octávio; Lobo, Clarisse de Castro; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia Regina; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2011-06-15

    This study evaluated the oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity markers in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients with and without treatment with hydroxyurea. We assessed GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms in patients and a control group. The study groups were composed of 48 subjects without hemoglobinopathies and 28 SCA patients, 13 treated with HU [SCA (+HU)], and 15 SCA patients not treated with HU [SCA (-HU)]. We observed a significant difference for GSTP1 polymorphisms in SCA patients with the V/V genotype that showed higher glutathione (GSH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) (p=0.0445 and p=0.0360), respectively, compared with the I/I genotype. HU use was associated with a 35.2% decrease in the lipid peroxidation levels of the SCA (+HU) group (p<0.0001). Moreover, the SCA (+HU) group showed higher TEAC as compared to the control group (p=0.002). We did not find any significant difference in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity between the groups (p=0.76), but the catalase (CAT) activity was about 17% and 30% decreased in the SCA (+HU) and SCA (-HU) groups, respectively (p<0.00001). Whereas the plasma GSH levels were ~2 times higher in the SCA patients than the control group (p=0.0005). HU use has contributed to higher CAT activity and TEAC, and lower lipid peroxidation in patients under treatment. These findings may explain the influence of HU in ameliorating oxidative stress on SCA subjects.

  3. Association between herbivore stress and glutathione S-transferase expression in Pinus brutia Ten.

    PubMed

    Semiz, A; Çelik-Turgut, G; Semiz, G; Özgün, Ö; Şen, A

    2016-03-31

    Plants have developed mechanisms to defend themselves against many factors including biotic stress such as herbivores and pathogens. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzyme and plays critical roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. Pinus brutia Ten. is a prominent native forest tree species in Turkey, due to both its economic and ecological assets. One of the problems faced by P. brutia afforestation sites is the attacks by pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams.). In this study, we investigated the changes in activity and mRNA expression of GST in pine samples taken from both resistant and susceptible clones against T. wilkinsoni over a nine month period in a clonal seed orchard. It was found that the average cytosolic GST activities of trees in March and July were significantly higher than the values obtained in November. November was considered to be the control since trees were not under stress yet. In addition, RT-PCR results clearly showed that levels of GST transcripts in March and July samples were significantly higher as compared to the level seen in November. These findings strongly suggest that GST activity from P. brutia would be a valuable marker for exposure to herbivory stress.

  4. Copper-Induced Inactivation of Camel Liver Glutathione S-Transferase.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwar; Malik, Ajamaluddin; Jagirdar, Haseeb; Rabbani, Nayyar; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Ismael, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes and play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics and protection against oxidative stress. Camel liver glutathione transferase (cGST) was recently isolated and characterized in our lab. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of monovalent, divalent, and trivalent cations on its activity and stability. Cu(++) was found to be the potent inhibitor of GST activity which loses complete activity at 0.5-mM concentration. Other metal ions did not inhibit GST even at higher concentration of 2 mM. GST incubated with Cu(++) (0.1 mM) resulted decrease in free sulfhydryl groups by 55%, whereas other metal ions did not show any effect on free thiol content. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed formation of GST aggregates instantly in the presence of Cu(++), which further increased in molecular size with increase in time of incubation. DTT treatment resulted in de-aggregation of GST oligomers to its monomeric form. However, the GST activity was not recovered completely after de-aggregation. Cu(++) was found to inhibit GST activity by accelerating the inter- and intra-disulfide bond formation. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) results showed that Cu(++)-catalyzed air oxidation of sulfhydryl groups leads to minor conformational changes in the GST.

  5. Enzyme immobilization in porous silicon: quantitative analysis of the kinetic parameters for glutathione-S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Delouise, Lisa A; Miller, Benjamin L

    2005-04-01

    Porous silicon matrixes are attractive materials for the construction of biosensors and may also have utility for the production of immobilized enzyme bioreactors. In an effort to gain a quantitative understanding of the effects of immobilization on enzyme activity, we compared the activity of glutathione-S-transferase immobilized in electrochemically etched porous silicon films (approximately 6.5 microm thick) with the enzyme in solution. Kinetic measurements were made by varying the glutathione concentration while maintaining a fixed saturating concentration of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The reaction kinetics follow steady-state equilibrium behavior. The specific activity of the free enzyme in solution is approximately 4x higher than the immobilized enzyme, for which we measured an apparent K'(m)(GSH) value of 1.0 +/- 0.3. The maximum velocity, V'(max), is linearly proportional to immobilized enzyme concentration, but the magnitude is approximately 20 times lower than that in solution. Results suggest approximately 25% of the enzyme is bound with the catalytic site in an inactive conformation or in a hindered orientation. Finally, the effects of hydration and exposure to denaturants on the immobilized enzyme activity are presented.

  6. Co-Induction of a Glutathione-S-transferase, a Glutathione Transporter and an ABC Transporter in Maize by Xenobiotics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqian; Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Chengju

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione conjugation reactions are one of the principal mechanisms that plants utilize to detoxify xenobiotics. The induction by four herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, metolachlor and primisulfuron) and a herbicide safener (dichlormid) on the expression of three genes, ZmGST27, ZmGT1 and ZmMRP1, encoding respectively a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was studied in maize. The results demonstrate that the inducing effect on gene expression varies with both chemicals and genes. The expression of ZmGST27 and ZmMRP1 was up-regulated by all five compounds, whereas that of ZmGT1 was increased by atrazine, metolachlor, primisulfuron and dichlormid, but not by 2,4-D. For all chemicals, the inducing effect was first detected on ZmGST27. The finding that ZmGT1 is activated alongside ZmGST27 and ZmMRP1 suggests that glutathione transporters are an important component in the xenobiotic detoxification system of plants. PMID:22792398

  7. The glutathione-S-transferase Mu 1 null genotype modulates ozone-induced airway inflammation in humans*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The Glutathione-S-Transferase Mu 1 null genotype has been reported to be a risk factor for acute respiratory disease associated with increases in ambient air ozone. Ozone is known to cause an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. Howev...

  8. Inhibition of the recombinant cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Guneidy, Rasha A; Shahein, Yasser E; Abouelella, Amira M K; Zaki, Eman R; Hamed, Ragaa R

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is a bloodsucking ectoparasite that causes severe production losses in the cattle industry. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro effects of tannic acid, hematin (GST inhibitors) and different plant extracts (rich in tannic acid) on the activity of the recombinant glutathione S-transferase enzyme of the Egyptian cattle tick R. annulatus (rRaGST), in order to confirm their ability to inhibit the parasitic essential detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase. Extraction with 70% ethanol of Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf flowers), Punica granatum (red and white pomegranate peel), Musa acuminata (banana peel) (Musaceae), Medicago sativa (alfalfa seeds), Tamarindus indicus (seed) and Cuminum cyminum (cumin seed) were used to assess: (i) inhibitory capacities of rRaGST and (ii) their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Ethanol extraction of red pomegranate peel contained the highest content of phenolic compounds (29.95mg gallic acid/g dry tissue) compared to the other studied plant extracts. The highest inhibition activities of rRaGST were obtained with kenaf and red pomegranate peel (P. granatum) extracts with IC50 values of 0.123 and 0.136mg dry tissue/ml, respectively. Tannic acid was the more effective inhibitor of rRaGST with an IC50 value equal to 4.57μM compared to delphinidine-HCl (IC50=14.9±3.1μM). Gossypol had a weak inhibitory effect (IC50=43.7μM), and caffeic acid had almost no effect on tick GST activity. The IC50 values qualify ethacrynic acid as a potent inhibitor of rRaGST activity (IC50=0.034μM). Cibacron blue and hematin showed a considerable inhibition effect on rRaGST activity, and their IC50 values were 0.13μM and 7.5μM, respectively. The activity of rRaGST was highest for CDNB (30.2μmol/min/mg protein). The enzyme had also a peroxidatic activity (the specific activity equals 26.5μmol/min/mg protein). Both tannic acid and hematin inhibited rRaGST activity non-competitively with respect to GSH and

  9. Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in selenium deficiency and toxicity in the chick

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    First, the hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} was increased only under conditions of severe oxidative stress produced by combined Se- and vitamin E (VE)-deficiency, indicating that VE also affects GSH metabolism. Second, the incorporation of {sup 35}S-methionine into GSH and protein was about 4- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in Se- and VE-deficient chick hepatocytes as compared to controls. Third, chicks injected with the glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) inhibitor, aurothioglucose (AuTG), showed increase hepatic GSH-T{sub CDNB} activity and plasma GSH concentration regardless of their Se status. Fourth, the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), on GSH metabolism was studied. Chicks fed 1000 ppm AA showed decreased hepatic GSH concentration compared to chicks fed no AA in a Se- and VE-deficient diet. Fifth, chicks fed excess Se showed increase hepatic activity of GSH-T{sub CDNB} and GSH concentration regardless of VE status.

  10. Urinary π-glutathione S-transferase Predicts Advanced Acute Kidney Injury Following Cardiovascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shu, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Che-Hsiung; Huang, Tao-Min; Wu, Pei-Chen; Lai, Chien-Heng; Tseng, Li-Jung; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Connolly, Rory; Wu, Vin-Cent

    2016-08-16

    Urinary biomarkers augment the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI), with AKI after cardiovascular surgeries being a prototype of prognosis scenario. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) were evaluated as biomarkers of AKI. Urine samples were collected in 141 cardiovascular surgical patients and analyzed for urinary alpha-(α-) and pi-(π-) GSTs. The outcomes of advanced AKI (KDIGO stage 2, 3) and all-cause in-patient mortality, as composite outcome, were recorded. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to predict outcomes. Thirty-eight (26.9%) patients had AKI, while 12 (8.5%) were with advanced AKI. Urinary π-GST differentiated patients with/without advanced AKI or composite outcome after surgery (p < 0.05 by generalized estimating equation). Urinary π-GST predicted advanced AKI at 3 hrs post-surgery (p = 0.033) and composite outcome (p = 0.009), while the corresponding ROC curve had AUC of 0.784 and 0.783. Using GAM, the cutoff value of 14.7 μg/L for π-GST showed the best performance to predict composite outcome. The addition of π-GST to the SOFA score improved risk stratification (total net reclassification index = 0.47). Thus, urinary π-GST levels predict advanced AKI or hospital mortality after cardiovascular surgery and improve in SOFA outcome assessment specific to AKI.

  11. Comparison of glycation of glutathione S-transferase by methylglyoxal, glucose or fructose.

    PubMed

    Boušová, Iva; Průchová, Zuzana; Trnková, Lucie; Dršata, Jaroslav

    2011-11-01

    Glycation is a process closely related to the aging and pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In this process, reactive α-dicarbonyl compounds (e.g., methylglyoxal) cause protein modification accompanied with potential loss of their biological activity and persistence of damaged molecules in tissues. We suppose that glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), a group of cytosolic biotransformation enzymes, may be modified by glycation in vivo, which would provide a rationale of its use as a model protein for studying glycation reactions. Glycation of GST by methylglyoxal, fructose, and glucose in vitro was studied. The course of protein glycation was evaluated using the following criteria: enzyme activity, formation of advanced glycation end-products using fluorescence and western blotting, amine content, protein conformation, cross linking and aggregation, and changes in molecular charge of GST. The ongoing glycation by methylglyoxal 2 mM resulted in pronounced decrease in the GST activity. It also led to the loss of 14 primary amino groups, which was accompanied by changes in protein mobility during native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Formation of cross links with molecular weight of 75 kDa was observed. Obtained results can contribute to understanding of changes, which proceed in metabolism of xenobiotics during diabetes mellitus and ageing.

  12. Glutathione S-transferases as a cefpiramide binding protein in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Guji, A; Nishiya, H; Aoki, M; Ohyatsu, I; Yamaguchi, M; Tokumura, Y; Sugiyama, H; Miyashita, T; Ono, Y; Kunii, O

    1995-03-01

    To clarify the intrahepatical transport mechanism of cefpiramide, we investigated effects of various agents mainly excreted into the bile by several different mechanisms on the biliary excretion of cefpiramide in rats. Sulfobromophthalein, indocyanine green, bilirubin and probenecid, known to be bound to glutathione S-transferases (GST) (EC 2.5.1.18) in liver cytosol, reduced the biliary excretion of cefpiramide, while neither secretory IgA, which is transported via vesicles in the liver, nor colchicine, which inhibits movements of vesicles, had any effect on the excretion of cefpiramide. Propranolol and metoprolol, metabolized by mixed function oxidases, had no effect on the biliary excretion of cefpiramide. In the chromatography of liver cytosol, the amount of sulfobromophthalein or benzylpenicillin bound to the GST fraction decreased in the presence of cefpiramide or probenecid. The study showed that cefpiramide was transported in the liver without relation to mixed function oxidases or vesichle-mediated transporting system, but in relation to GST which binds cefpiramide, sulfobromophthalein, benzylpenicillin and probenecid, indicating an important role of GST in the cefpiramide excretion into the bile.

  13. Contribution of glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms to development of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zeyuan; Liu, Ting; Li, Xiang; Xu, Xiaoxia; Fan, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glutathione S-transferase (GST) family genes are of vital importance in maintaining cellular defence systems, protecting cells against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen produced during the synthesis of melanin, and detoxifying environmental mutagens and chemical or synthetic drugs. As no previous meta-analyses have examined the association of polymorphisms at GSTT1, GSTP1 Ile105Val with skin cancer risk and independently published studies have produced inconsistent conclusions, we were promoted to estimate the associations in the largest study to date. Methods: Computer-assisted searches were carried out to systematically identify the studies of GST polymorphisms and skin cancer. The eligibility of studies was evaluated following the requirements of inclusion criteria. Risk of skin cancers (OR and 95% CI) was assessed with the fixed or random effects meta-analysis. Major findings: The fixed effects meta-analysis of 15 studies suggested no overall association between GSTT1 null and skin cancer. Nor was there a significant association in any subgroup. However, in the stratified analysis by histologic type for GSTP1 Ile105Val, we found 1.56 times higher risk of malignant melanoma (MM) among people with the 105-Val/Val genotype (Val/Val vs. Ile/Ile: OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.05-2.32, pheterogeneity = 0.584). Conclusions: These statistical data demonstrate that Ile105Val polymorphism of the GSTP1 gene may have genetic contribution to the development of skin cancer, MM in particular. PMID:25785008

  14. Role of glutathione S-transferases in the spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 clinical phenotype.

    PubMed

    Almaguer-Gotay, D; Almaguer-Mederos, L E; Aguilera-Rodríguez, R; Estupiñán-Rodríguez, A; González-Zaldivar, Y; Cuello-Almarales, D; Laffita-Mesa, J M; Vázquez-Mojena, Y

    2014-06-15

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a neurodegenerative and incurable hereditary disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion mutation on ATXN2 gene. The identification of reliable biochemical markers of disease severity is of paramount significance for the development and assessment of clinical trials. In order to evaluate the potential use of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity as a biomarker for SCA2, a case-control study in 38 affected, presymptomatic individuals or healthy controls was conducted. An enlarged sample of 121 affected individuals was set to assess the impact of GST activity on SCA2 clinical expression. There was a significant increase in GST activity in affected individuals relative to controls, although sensibility and specificity were not high. GST activity was not significantly influenced by sex, age, disease duration or CAG repeat size and did not significantly influence disease severity markers. These findings show a disruption of in vivo GST activity in SCA2, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in the neurodegenerative process.

  15. Purification and kinetic mechanism of the major glutathione S-transferase from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Young, P R; Briedis, A V

    1989-01-01

    The major glutathione S-transferase isoenzyme from bovine brain was isolated and purified approx. 500-fold. The enzyme has a pI of 7.39 +/- 0.02 and consists of two non-identical subunits having apparent Mr values of 22,000 and 24,000. The enzyme is uniformly distributed in brain, and kinetic data at pH 6.5 with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrate suggest a random rapid-equilibrium mechanism. The kinetics of inhibition by product, by GSH analogues and by NADH are consistent with the suggested mechanism and require inhibitor binding to several different enzyme forms. Long-chain fatty acids are excellent inhibitors of the enzyme, and values of 1nKi for hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid and lauric acid form a linear series when plotted as a function of alkyl chain length. A free-energy change of -1900 J/mol (-455 cal/mol) per CH2 unit is calculated for the contribution of hydrophobic binding energy to the inhibition constants. The turnover number of the purified enzyme dimer is approx. 3400/min. When compared with the second-order rate constant for the reaction between CDNB and GSH, the enzyme is providing a rate acceleration of about 1000-fold. The role of entropic contributions to this small rate acceleration is discussed. PMID:2930465

  16. Biochemical characterization and distribution of glutathione S-transferases in leaping mullet (Liza saliens).

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Kirikbakan, A

    2004-09-01

    In this study, feral leaping mullet (Liza saliens) liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were investigated and characterized using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and ethacrynic acid (EA) as substrates. The average GST activities towards CDNB and EA were found to be 1365 +/- 41 and 140 +/- 20 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively. The effects of cytosolic protein amount and temperature ranging from 4 to 70 degrees C on enzyme activities were examined. While both activities towards CDNB and EA showed similar dependence on protein amount, temperature optima were found as 37 and 42 degrees C, respectively. In addition, the effects of pH on GST-CDNB and -EA activities were studied and different pH activity profiles were observed. For both substrates, GST activities were found to obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent V(max) and K(m) values of 1661 nmol/min per mg protein and 0.24 mM and 157 nmol/min per mg protein and 0.056 mM for CDNB and EA, respectively. Distribution of GST in Liza saliens tissues was investigated and compared with other fish species. Very high GST activities were measured in tissues from Liza saliens such as liver, kidney, testis, proximal intestine, and gills. Moreover, our results suggested that GST activities from Liza saliens would be a valuable biomarker for aquatic pollution.

  17. Development of pyrethroid-like fluorescent substrates for glutathione S-transferase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huazhang; Yao, Hongwei; Liu, Jun-Yan; Samra, Aman I.; Kamita, Shizuo G.; Cornel, Anthony J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive substrates is critical for the development of precise and rapid assays for detecting changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity that are associated with GST-mediated metabolism of insecticides. In this study, six pyrethroid-like compounds were synthesized and characterized as substrates for insect and mammalian GSTs. All of the substrates were esters composed of the same alcohol moiety, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, and acid moieties that structurally mimic some commonly used pyrethroid insecticides including cypermethrin and cyhalothrin. CpGSTD1, a recombinant Delta class GST from the mosquito Culex pipiens, metabolized our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric (i.e., the cis-isomers were metabolized at 2- to 5-fold higher rates than the corresponding trans-isomers) preference. A GST preparation from mouse liver also metabolized most of our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric preference but at 10- to 170-fold lower rates. CpGSTD1 and mouse GSTs metabolized CDNB, a general GST substrate, at more than 200-fold higher rates than our novel pyrethroid-like substrates. There was a 10-fold difference in the specificity constant (kcat/KM ratio) of CpGSTD1 for CDNB and those of CpGSTD1 for cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC suggesting that cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC may be useful for the detection of GST-based metabolism of pyrethroids in mosquitoes. PMID:23000005

  18. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase activity in human buccal epithelial dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Lin, L M

    1997-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and amount of GST alpha, mu and pi isoforms were measured in 40 patients with histopathologically confirmed oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa. The results were compared with those of normal mucosa in an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Mean total GST activities were significantly elevated from normal buccal mucosa for mild OED, moderate OED, severe OED and squamous cell carcinoma. GST activity of value approximating 100 nmol/min/mg distinguished between normal and dysplasia, and of value about 400 nmol/min/mg delineated between dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma were observed. GST pi was the predominant class in both the diseased and normal buccal mucosa examined. This class pi GST was present at an intracellular concentration, which was significantly higher in diseased buccal mucosa than in normal buccal mucosa. These results indicated that pi class GST was the major form of this enzyme in the cytosolic fraction of oral mucosa. The severity of OED related to squamous cell carcinoma development seemed to increase concomitantly with an increase in the level of this enzyme. Further studies will validate the role of GST pi estimation in predicting the potential malignancy of OED.

  19. Mechanistic evaluation and transcriptional signature of a glutathione S-transferase omega 1 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Kavya; Samanta, Soma; Kyani, Anahita; Yang, Suhui; Tamura, Shuzo; Ziemke, Elizabeth; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Li, Si; Chinnaswamy, Krishnapriya; Otake, Hiroyuki; Debnath, Bikash; Yarovenko, Vladimir; Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S.; Ljungman, Mats; Neamati, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) is an atypical GST isoform that is overexpressed in several cancers and has been implicated in drug resistance. Currently, no small-molecule drug targeting GSTO1 is under clinical development. Here we show that silencing of GSTO1 with siRNA significantly impairs cancer cell viability, validating GSTO1 as a potential new target in oncology. We report on the development and characterization of a series of chloroacetamide-containing potent GSTO1 inhibitors. Co-crystal structures of GSTO1 with our inhibitors demonstrate covalent binding to the active site cysteine. These potent GSTO1 inhibitors suppress cancer cell growth, enhance the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin and inhibit tumour growth in colon cancer models as single agent. Bru-seq-based transcription profiling unravelled novel roles for GSTO1 in cholesterol metabolism, oxidative and endoplasmic stress responses, cytoskeleton and cell migration. Our findings demonstrate the therapeutic utility of GSTO1 inhibitors as anticancer agents and identify the novel cellular pathways under GSTO1 regulation in colorectal cancer. PMID:27703239

  20. Organometallic ruthenium anticancer complexes inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu; Huang, Yongdong; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Fuyi; Habtemariam, Abraha; Luo, Qun; Li, Xianchan; Wu, Kui; Sadler, Peter J; Xiong, Shaoxiang

    2013-11-01

    The organometallic ruthenium(II) anticancer complexes [(η(6)-arene)Ru(en)Cl](+) (arene = p-cymene (1), biphenyl (2) or 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3); en = ethylenediamine), exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. In the present work, we show that they inhibit human glutathione-S-transferase π (GSTπ) with IC50 values of 59.4 ± 1.3, 63.2 ± 0.4 and 37.2 ± 1.1 μM, respectively. Mass spectrometry revealed that complex 1 binds to the S-donors of Cys15, Cys48 within the G-site and Cys102 at the interface of the GSTπ dimer, while complex 2 binds to Cys48 and Met92 at the dimer interface and complex 3 to Cys15, Cys48 and Met92. Moreover, the binding of complex 1 to Cys15 and Cys102, complex 2 to Cys48 and complex 3 to Cys15 induces the irreversible oxidation of the coordinated thiolates to sulfenates. Molecular modeling studies indicate that the coordination of the {(arene)Ru(en)}(2+) fragment to Cys48 blocks the hydrophilic G-site sterically, perhaps preventing substrate from proper positioning and accounting for the reduction in enzymatic activity of ruthenated GSTπ. The binding of the ruthenium arene complexes to Cys102 or Met92 disrupts the dimer interface which is an essential structural feature for the proper functioning of GSTπ, perhaps also contributing to the inhibition of GSTπ.

  1. A glutathione S-transferase gene associated with antioxidant properties isolated from Apis cerana cerana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuchang; Liu, Feng; Jia, Haihong; Yan, Yan; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important family of multifunctional enzymes in aerobic organisms. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of exogenous compounds, especially insecticides, and protection against oxidative stress. Most previous studies of GSTs in insects have largely focused on their role in insecticide resistance. Here, we isolated a theta class GST gene designated AccGSTT1 from Apis cerana cerana and aimed to explore its antioxidant and antibacterial attributes. Analyses of homology and phylogenetic relationships suggested that the predicted amino acid sequence of AccGSTT1 shares a high level of identity with the other hymenopteran GSTs and that it was conserved during evolution. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AccGSTT1 is most highly expressed in adult stages and that the expression profile of this gene is significantly altered in response to various abiotic stresses. These results were confirmed using western blot analysis. Additionally, a disc diffusion assay showed that a recombinant AccGSTT1 protein may be roughly capable of inhibiting bacterial growth and that it reduces the resistance of Escherichia coli cells to multiple adverse stresses. Taken together, these data indicate that AccGSTT1 may play an important role in antioxidant processes under adverse stress conditions.

  2. Characterization of the safener-induced glutathione S-transferase isoform II from maize.

    PubMed

    Holt, D C; Lay, V J; Clarke, E D; Dinsmore, A; Jepson, I; Bright, S W; Greenland, A J

    1995-01-01

    The safener-induced maize (Zea mays L.) glutathione S-transferase, GST II (EC 2.5.1.18) and another predominant isoform, GST I, were purified from extracts of maize roots treated with the safeners R-25788 (N,N-diallyl-2-dichloroacetamide) or R-29148 (3-dichloroacetyl-2,2,5-trimethyl-1,3-oxazolidone). The isoforms GST I and GST II are respectively a homodimer of 29-kDa (GST-29) subunits and a heterodimer of 29- and 27-kDa (GST-27) subunits, while GST I is twice as active with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as GST II, GST II is about seven times more active against the herbicide, alachlor. Western blotting using antisera raised against GST-29 and GST-27 showed that GST-29 is present throughout the maize plant prior to safener treatment. In contrast, GST-27 is only present in roots of untreated plants but is induced in all the major aerial organs of maize after root-drenching with safener. The amino-acid sequences of proteolytic fragments of GST-27 show that it is related to GST-29 and identical to the 27-kDa subunit of GST IV.

  3. Prolactin confers resistance against cisplatin in breast cancer cells by activating glutathione-S-transferase.

    PubMed

    LaPensee, Elizabeth W; Schwemberger, Sandy J; LaPensee, Christopher R; Bahassi, El Mustapha; Afton, Scott E; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2009-08-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for successful treatment of breast cancer patients. Given that prolactin (PRL) acts as an anti-apoptotic/survival factor in the breast, we postulated that it antagonizes cytotoxicity by chemotherapeutic drugs. Treatment of breast cancer cells with PRL caused variable resistance to taxol, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin. PRL prevented cisplatin-induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the presence of PRL, significantly less cisplatin was bound to DNA, as determined by mass spectroscopy, and little DNA damage was seen by gamma-H2AX staining. PRL dramatically increased the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), which sequesters cisplatin in the cytoplasm; this increase was abrogated by Jak and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors. PRL upregulated the expression of the GSTmu, but not the pi, isozyme. A GST inhibitor abrogated antagonism of cisplatin cytotoxicity by PRL. In conclusion, PRL confers resistance against cisplatin by activating a detoxification enzyme, thereby reducing drug entry into the nucleus. These data provide a rational explanation for the ineffectiveness of cisplatin in breast cancer, which is characterized by high expression of both PRL and its receptor. Suppression of PRL production or blockade of its actions should benefit patients undergoing chemotherapy by allowing for lower drug doses and expanded drug options.

  4. Identification, genomic organization and expression pattern of glutathione S-transferase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yu, Quanyou; Lu, Cheng; Li, Bin; Fang, Shoumin; Zuo, Weidong; Dai, Fangyin; Zhang, Ze; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2008-12-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional supergene family and some play an important role in insecticide resistance. We have identified 23 putative cytosolic GSTs by searching the new assembly of the Bombyx mori genome sequence. Phylogenetic analyses on the amino acid sequences reveal that 21 of the B. mori GSTs fall into six classes represented in other insects, the other two being unclassified. The majority of the silkworm GSTs belong to the Delta, Epsilon, and Omega classes. Most members of each class are tandemly arranged in the genome, except for the Epsilon GSTs. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) corresponding to 19 of the 23 GSTs were found in available databases. Furthermore RT-PCR experiments detected expression of all the GSTs in multiple tissues on day 3 of fifth instar larvae. Surprisingly, we found little or no expression of most Delta and Epsilon GSTs in the fat body, which is thought to be the main detoxification organ. This may explain the sensitivity of the silkworm to certain insecticides. Our data provide some insights into the evolution of the B. mori GST family and the functions of individual GST enzymes.

  5. Developmental expression and stress induction of glutathione S-transferase in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Feng; Davey; S D Pang A; Ladd; Retnakaran; Tomkins; Zheng; Palli

    2001-01-01

    Developmental and stress-induced expression of Choristoneura fumiferana glutathione S-transferase (CfGST) mRNA and protein were examined using Northern blots and Western blots. High levels of CfGST mRNA and protein were detected in 1st instar larvae and diapausing 2nd instar larvae. Expression of CfGST gradually decreased during larval development from 3rd to 5th instar, after which the expression increased once again, reaching peak levels in 6th instar larvae. CfGST mRNA and protein were undetectable in the pupal stage. Exposure to low temperature did not induce an increase in CfGST expression. Feeding on balsam fir foliage resulted in an increase in the expression of CfGST as compared to larvae that fed on artificial diet. The bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin (Bt), the non-steroidal ecdysone analog, tebufenozide, and the synthetic pyrethroid, permethrin, induced the expression of CfGST mRNA in 5th instar larvae, whereas the chitin synthesis inhibitor, diflubenzuron, did not have any such effect. These results suggest that CfGST plays an important role in detoxifying various allelochemicals and insecticides in the spruce budworm. The developmental expression pattern strongly suggests that in addition to detoxification, CfGST might be involved in other functions.

  6. Glutathione-S-transferase activity of Fucus spp. as a biomarker of environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Cairrão, E; Couderchet, M; Soares, A M V M; Guilhermino, L

    2004-12-20

    Coastal zones are important areas from both ecological and economical points of view. However, in the last decades, in several regions of the globe, they have been increasingly impacted by complex discharges of contaminants and by marine traffic accidents. The Portuguese Atlantic coast is particularly exposed to these contaminants due to the proximity of important navigation routes. Several rocky shore organisms have been tested and used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. However, to the best of our knowledge Fucus spp., which are key species in rocky shore communities, have not been used as bioindicators in monitoring studies based on biomarkers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity of several Fucus species (Fucus ceranoides, Fucus spiralis var. platycarpus, Fucus spiralis var. spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus var. vesiculosus) to discriminate sites with different contamination levels along the Portuguese Northwestern coast, between the Minho river estuary and the Aveiro's Lagoon, as an environmental biomarker. With the exception of F. spiralis var. spiralis, for which a confusing pattern of activity was found requiring further analysis, all the other species and varieties showed higher GST levels in more contaminated sites than in less contaminated ones, indicating that Fucus spp. are suitable for use as bioindicators and their GSTs as biomarkers of environmental contamination in coastal zones and estuaries.

  7. Association study of Glutathione S-Transferase polymorphisms and risk of endometriosis in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Mina; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Heidarizadeh, Masood; Kamali, Koorosh; Memariani, Toktam; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Associations of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes polymorphisms in endometriosis have been investigated by various researchers; however, the results are not consistent. Objective: We examined the associations of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes and GSTP1 313 A/G polymorphisms with endometriosis in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 151 women with diagnosis of endometriosis and 156 normal healthy women as control group were included. The genotyping was determined using multiplex PCR and PCR- RFLP methods. Results: The GSTM1 null genotype was significantly higher (p=0.027) in the cases (7.3%) than the control group (1.3%). There was no significant difference between the frequency of GSTT1 genotypes between the cases and controls. The GSTP1 313 AG genotype was significantly lower (p=0.048) in the case (33.1%) than the control group (44.4%). Conclusion: Our results showed that GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms may be associated with susceptibility of endometriosis in Iranian women. PMID:27351025

  8. A test for adequate wastewater treatment based on glutathione S transferase isoenzyme profile.

    PubMed

    Grammou, A; Samaras, P; Papadimitriou, C; Papadopoulos, A I

    2013-04-01

    Discharge to the environment of treated or non-treated municipal wastewater imposes several threats to coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are difficult to assess. In our study we evaluate the use of the isoenzyme profile of glutathione S transferase (GST) in combination with the kinetic characteristics of the whole enzyme and of heme peroxidase, as a test of adequate treatment of municipal wastewater. For this reason, Artemia nauplii were incubated in artificial seawater prepared by wastewater samples, such as secondary municipal effluents produced by a conventional activated sludge unit and advanced treated effluents produced by the employment of coagulation, activated carbon adsorption and chlorination as single processes or as combined ones. Characteristic changes of the isoenzyme pattern and the enzymes' kinetic properties were caused by chlorinated secondary municipal effluent or by secondary non-chlorinated effluent. Advanced treatment by combination of coagulation and/or carbon adsorption resulted to less prominent changes, suggesting more adequate treatment. Our results suggest that GST isoenzyme profile in combination with the kinetic properties of the total enzyme family is a sensitive test for the evaluation of the adequateness of the treatment of reclaimed wastewater and the reduction of potentially harmful compounds. Potentially, it may offer a 'fingerprint' characteristic of a particular effluent and probably of the treatment level it has been subjected.

  9. Induction of glutathione S-transferases in Arabidopsis by herbicide safeners.

    PubMed

    DeRidder, Ben P; Dixon, David P; Beussman, Douglas J; Edwards, Robert; Goldsbrough, Peter B

    2002-11-01

    Herbicide safeners increase herbicide tolerance in cereals but not in dicotyledenous crops. The reason(s) for this difference in safening is unknown. However, safener-induced protection in cereals is associated with increased expression of herbicide detoxifying enzymes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium with various safeners similarly resulted in enhanced GST activities toward a range of xenobiotics with benoxacor, fenclorim, and fluxofenim being the most effective. Safeners also increased the tripeptide glutathione content of Arabidopsis seedlings. However, treatment of Arabidopsis plants with safeners had no effect on the tolerance of seedlings to chloroacetanilide herbicides. Each safener produced a distinct profile of enhanced GST activity toward different substrates suggesting a differential induction of distinct isoenzymes. This was confirmed by analysis of affinity-purified GST subunits by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. AtGSTU19, a tau class GST, was identified as a dominant polypeptide in all samples. When AtGSTU19 was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme was highly active toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as chloroacetanilide herbicides. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that AtGSTU19 was induced in response to several safeners. Differential induction of tau GSTs, as well as members of the phi and theta classes by safeners, was demonstrated by RNA-blot analysis. These results indicate that, although Arabidopsis may not be protected from herbicide injury by safeners, at least one component of their detoxification systems is responsive to these compounds.

  10. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferases in Arabidopsis by Herbicide Safeners1

    PubMed Central

    DeRidder, Ben P.; Dixon, David P.; Beussman, Douglas J.; Edwards, Robert; Goldsbrough, Peter B.

    2002-01-01

    Herbicide safeners increase herbicide tolerance in cereals but not in dicotyledenous crops. The reason(s) for this difference in safening is unknown. However, safener-induced protection in cereals is associated with increased expression of herbicide detoxifying enzymes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium with various safeners similarly resulted in enhanced GST activities toward a range of xenobiotics with benoxacor, fenclorim, and fluxofenim being the most effective. Safeners also increased the tripeptide glutathione content of Arabidopsis seedlings. However, treatment of Arabidopsis plants with safeners had no effect on the tolerance of seedlings to chloroacetanilide herbicides. Each safener produced a distinct profile of enhanced GST activity toward different substrates suggesting a differential induction of distinct isoenzymes. This was confirmed by analysis of affinity-purified GST subunits by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. AtGSTU19, a tau class GST, was identified as a dominant polypeptide in all samples. When AtGSTU19 was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme was highly active toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as chloroacetanilide herbicides. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that AtGSTU19 was induced in response to several safeners. Differential induction of tau GSTs, as well as members of the phi and theta classes by safeners, was demonstrated by RNA-blot analysis. These results indicate that, although Arabidopsis may not be protected from herbicide injury by safeners, at least one component of their detoxification systems is responsive to these compounds. PMID:12428014

  11. Functional characterization of glutathione S-transferases associated with insecticide resistance in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Pavlidi, Nena; Tseliou, Vasilis; Riga, Maria; Nauen, Ralf; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important agricultural pests world-wide. It is extremely polyphagous and develops resistance to acaricides. The overexpression of several glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) has been associated with insecticide resistance. Here, we functionally expressed and characterized three GSTs, two of the delta class (TuGSTd10, TuGSTd14) and one of the mu class (TuGSTm09), which had been previously associated with striking resistance phenotypes against abamectin and other acaricides/insecticides, by transcriptional studies. Functional analysis showed that all three GSTs were capable of catalyzing the conjugation of both 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene(DCNB) to glutathione (GSH), as well as exhibiting GSH-dependent peroxidase activity toward Cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH). The steady-state kinetics of the T. urticae GSTs for the GSH/CDNB conjugation reaction were determined and compared with other GSTs. The interaction of the three recombinant proteins with several acaricides and insecticides was also investigated. TuGSTd14 showed the highest affinity toward abamectin and a competitive type of inhibition, which suggests that the insecticide may bind to the H-site of the enzyme. The three-dimensional structure of the TuGSTd14 was predicted based on X-ray structures of delta class GSTs using molecular modeling. Structural analysis was used to identify key structural characteristics and to provide insights into the substrate specificity and the catalytic mechanism of TuGSTd14.

  12. Characterization of the ligandin site of maize glutathione S-transferase I

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic GSTs (glutathione S-transferases) are a major reserve of high-capacity binding proteins and exhibit ligand-binding properties for a large variety of compounds. In the present study, the binding of two non-substrate anthraquinone dyes VBAR (Vilmafix Blue A-R) and CB3GA (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to maize (Zea mays) GST I was investigated. The results showed that the enzyme was specifically and irreversible inactivated by VBAR with a Kd of 35.5±2.2 μM and a k3 of 0.47 min−1. Proteolytic cleavage of the VBAR-modified enzyme and subsequent separation of peptides gave only one modified peptide. Sequencing of the modified peptide revealed the target site of VBAR reaction to be Lys41. CB3GA binds reversibly to GST I and behaves as a competitive inhibitor towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and glutathione. CB3GA binding to GST I is accompanied by a characteristic spectral change in the absorption at positive maximum (670 nm) which exhibited a hyperbolic dependence on dye concentration with a Kd of 12.1±0.5 μM. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues (Trp12, Phe35, Lys41, Asn49, Gln53, Ser67 and Ile118) was employed, and the mutated enzymes were assessed for CB3GA binding. These results, together with molecular-modelling studies, established that the ligandin-binding site of GST I is located mainly in the hydrophobic binding site. The ability of VBAR to specifically inactivate GST I was exploited further to demonstrate the specific binding of several plant hormones and flavonoids to GST I. The inactivation of other GST isoenzymes by VBAR was also investigated, and it was concluded that VBAR may have wide applicability as an affinity label for probing structure–function relationships of GST isoenzymes. PMID:15196053

  13. Genetic Deficiency of Glutathione S-Transferase P Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Guo, Yiru; Jagatheesan, Ganapathy; Kilfoil, Peter; Haberzettl, Petra; Hill, Bradford G.; Baba, Shahid P.; Guo, Luping; Wetzelberger, Karin; Obal, Detlef; Rokosh, D. Gregg; Prough, Russell A.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Velayutham, Murugesan; Zweier, Jay L.; Hoetker, David; Riggs, Daniel W.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bolli, Roberto; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) results in the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and the accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. However, the contribution of aldehydes to myocardial I/R injury has not been assessed. Objective We tested the hypothesis that removal of aldehydes by glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) diminishes I/R injury. Methods and Results In adult male C57BL/6 mouse hearts, Gstp1/2 was the most abundant GST transcript followed by Gsta4 and Gstm4.1, and GSTP activity was a significant fraction of the total GST activity. mGstp1/2 deletion reduced total GST activity, but no compensatory increase in GSTA and GSTM or major antioxidant enzymes was observed. Genetic deficiency of GSTP did not alter cardiac function, but in comparison with hearts from wild-type (WT) mice, the hearts isolated from GSTP-null mice were more sensitive to I/R injury. Disruption of the GSTP gene also increased infarct size after coronary occlusion in situ. Ischemia significantly increased acrolein in hearts, and GSTP deficiency induced significant deficits in the metabolism of the unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein, but not in the metabolism 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) or trans-2-hexanal; and, upon ischemia, the GSTP-null hearts accumulated more acrolein-modified proteins than WT hearts. GSTP-deficiency did not affect I/R-induced free radical generation, JNK activation or depletion of reduced glutathione. Acrolein-exposure induced a hyperpolarizing shift in INa, and acrolein-induced cell death was delayed by SN-6, a Na+/Ca++ exchange inhibitor. Cardiomyocytes isolated from GSTP-null hearts were more sensitive than WT myocytes to acrolein-induced protein crosslinking and cell death. Conclusions GSTP protects the heart from I/R injury by facilitating the detoxification of cytotoxic aldehydes such as acrolein. PMID:26169370

  14. Differential induction of distinct glutathione-S-transferases of wheat by xenobiotics and by pathogen attack.

    PubMed Central

    Mauch, F; Dudler, R

    1993-01-01

    We have previously characterized a pathogen-induced gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was named GstA1 based on sequence similarities with glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) of maize (R. Dudler, C. Hertig, G. Rebmann, J. Bull, F. Mauch [1991] Mol Plant Microbe Interact 4: 14-18). We have constructed a full-length GstA1 cDNA by combinatorial polymerase chain reaction and demonstrate by functional expression of the cDNA in Escherichia coli that the GstA1-encoded protein has GST activity. An antiserum raised against a GstA1 fusion protein specifically recognized a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kD on immunoblots of extracts from bacteria expressing the GstA1 cDNA and extracts from wheat inoculated with Erysiphe graminis. The GstA1-encoded protein was named GST29. RNA and immunoblot analysis showed that GstA1 was only weakly expressed in control plants and was specifically induced by pathogen attack and by the GST substrate glutathione, but not by various xenobiotics. In contrast, a structurally and antigenically unrelated GST with an apparent molecular mass of 25 kD that was detected with an antiserum raised against GSTs of maize was expressed at a high basal level. This GST25 and an additional immunoreactive protein named GST26 were strongly induced by cadmium and by the herbicides atrazine, paraquat, and alachlor, but not by pathogen attack. Compared with the pathogen-induced GST29, GST25 and GST26 showed a high affinity toward glutathione-agarose and were much more active toward the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Thus, wheat contains at least two distinct GST classes that are differentially regulated by xenobiotics and by pathogen attack and whose members have different enzymic properties. GST25 and GST26 appear to have a function in xenobiotic metabolism, whereas GST29 is speculated to fulfill a more specific role in defense reactions against pathogens. PMID:8278547

  15. Glutathione S-transferase P protects against cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; Jagatheesan, Ganapathy; Baba, Shahid; Merchant, Michael L.; Prough, Russell A.; Williams, Jessica D.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2015-06-01

    High-dose chemotherapy regimens using cyclophosphamide (CY) are frequently associated with cardiotoxicity that could lead to myocyte damage and congestive heart failure. However, the mechanisms regulating the cardiotoxic effects of CY remain unclear. Because CY is converted to an unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a toxic, reactive CY metabolite that induces extensive protein modification and myocardial injury, we examined the role of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), an acrolein-metabolizing enzyme, in CY cardiotoxicity in wild-type (WT) and GSTP-null mice. Treatment with CY (100–300 mg/kg) increased plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK·MB) and heart-to-body weight ratio to a significantly greater extent in GSTP-null than WT mice. In addition to modest yet significant echocardiographic changes following acute CY-treatment, GSTP insufficiency was associated with greater phosphorylation of c-Jun and p38 as well as greater accumulation of albumin and protein–acrolein adducts in the heart. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed likely prominent modification of albumin, kallikrein-1-related peptidase, myoglobin and transgelin-2 by acrolein in the hearts of CY-treated mice. Treatment with acrolein (low dose, 1–5 mg/kg) also led to increased heart-to-body weight ratio and myocardial contractility changes. Acrolein induced similar hypotension in GSTP-null and WT mice. GSTP-null mice also were more susceptible than WT mice to mortality associated with high-dose acrolein (10–20 mg/kg). Collectively, these results suggest that CY cardiotoxicity is regulated, in part, by GSTP, which prevents CY toxicity by detoxifying acrolein. Thus, humans with low cardiac GSTP levels or polymorphic forms of GSTP with low acrolein-metabolizing capacity may be more sensitive to CY toxicity. - Graphical abstract: Cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment results in P450-mediated metabolic formation of phosphoramide mustard and acrolein (3-propenal). Acrolein is either metabolized and

  16. 8-Methoxypsoralen is a competitive inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase P1-1

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; de Farias, Marcel Tavares; Teles, André Lacerda Braga; dos Santos Junior, Manoelito Coelho; de Cerqueira, Martins Dias; Lima, Rute Maria Ferreira; El-Bachá, Ramon Santos

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is known to protect healthy brain cells from potentially dangerous chemical agents, but there are many evidences supporting the idea that this protective action is extended to tumor cells. Since the process of angiogenesis in brain tumors leads to BBB breakdown, biochemical characteristics of the BBB seem to be more relevant than physical barriers to protect tumor cells from chemotherapy. In fact, a number of resistance related factors were already demonstrated to be component of both BBB and tumor cells. The enzyme glutathione S-transferases (GST) detoxify electrophilic xenobiotics and endogenous secondary metabolites formed during oxidative stress. A role has been attributed to GST in the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. This study characterized 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) as a human GST P1-1 (hGST P1-1) inhibitor. To identify and characterize the potential inhibitory activity of 8-MOP, we studied the enzyme kinetics of the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) with GSH catalyzed by hGST P1-1. We report here that 8-MOP competitively inhibited hGST P1-1 relative to CDNB, but there was an uncompetitive inhibition relative to GSH. Chromatographic analyses suggest that 8-MOP is not a substrate. Molecular docking simulations suggest that 8-MOP binds to the active site, but its position prevents the GSH conjugation. Thus, we conclude that 8-MOP is a promising prototype for new GST inhibitors pharmacologically useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and the resistance of cancer to chemotherapy. PMID:25324722

  17. Genetic polymorphism in three glutathione s-transferase genes and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Woldegiorgis, S.; Ahmed, R.C.; Zhen, Y.; Erdmann, C.A.; Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.

    2002-04-01

    The role of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme family is to detoxify environmental toxins and carcinogens and to protect organisms from their adverse effects, including cancer. The genes GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 code for three GSTs involved in the detoxification of carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene. In humans, GSTM1 is deleted in about 50% of the population, GSTT1 is absent in about 20%, whereas the GSTP1 gene has a single base polymorphism resulting in an enzyme with reduced activity. Epidemiological studies indicate that GST polymorphisms increase the level of carcinogen-induced DNA damage and several studies have found a correlation of polymorphisms in one of the GST genes and an increased risk for certain cancers. We examined the role of polymorphisms in genes coding for these three GST enzymes in breast cancer. A breast tissue collection consisting of specimens of breast cancer patients and non-cancer controls was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence or absence of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and for GSTP1 single base polymorphism by PCR/RFLP. We found that GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions occurred more frequently in cases than in controls, and GSTP1 polymorphism was more frequent in controls. The effective detoxifier (putative low-risk) genotype (defined as presence of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and GSTP1 wild type) was less frequent in cases than controls (16% vs. 23%, respectively). The poor detoxifier (putative high-risk) genotype was more frequent in cases than controls. However, the sample size of this study was too small to provide conclusive results.

  18. Radiosensitivity in HeLa cervical cancer cells overexpressing glutathione S-transferase π 1

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LIANG; LIU, REN; MA, HONG-BIN; YING, MING-ZHEN; WANG, YA-JIE

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of overexpressed exogenous glutathione S-transferase π 1 (GSTP1) gene on the radiosensitivity of the HeLa human cervical cancer cell line and conduct a preliminarily investigation into the underlying mechanisms of the effect. The full-length sequence of human GSTP1 was obtained by performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers based on the GenBank sequence of GSTP1. Subsequently, the gene was cloned into a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid, and the resulting construct was confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. A HeLa cell line that was stably expressing high levels of GSTP1 was obtained through stable transfection of the constructed plasmids using lipofectamine and screening for G418 resistance, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Using the transfected HeLa cells, a colony formation assay was conducted to detect the influence of GSTP1 overexpression on the cell radiosensitivity. Furthermore, flow cytometry was used to investigate the effect of GSTP1 overexpression on cell cycle progression, with the protein expression levels of the cell cycle regulating factor cyclin B1 detected using western blot analysis. Colony formation and G2/M phase arrest in the GSTP1-expressing cells were significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.01). In addition, the expression of cyclin B1 was significantly reduced in the GSTP1-expressing cells. These results demonstrated that increased expression of GSTP1 inhibits radiosensitivity in HeLa cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may be associated with the ability of the GSTP1 protein to reduce cyclin B1 expression, resulting in significant G2/M phase arrest. PMID:26622693

  19. Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide naïve mites (p < 0.0001). The addition of the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate restored in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to naïve mites (p < 0.0001). Increased transcription of three different GST molecules was observed in permethrin resistant S. scabiei var. canis- mu 1 (p < 0.0001), delta 1 (p < 0.001), and delta 3 (p < 0.0001). mRNA levels of GST mu 1, delta 3 and P-glycoprotein also significantly increased in S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite. PMID:20482766

  20. Effects of Local Heart Irradiation in a Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 4-Null Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Marjan; Singh, Preeti; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Tripathi, Preeti; Sharma, Sunil; Singh, Sharda P

    2015-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (GSTA4-4) is one of the enzymes responsible for the removal of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), an electrophilic product of lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes during oxidative stress. 4-HNE is a direct activator of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor with many target genes encoding antioxidant and anti-electrophile enzymes. We have previously shown that Gsta4-null mice on a 129/Sv background exhibited increased activity of Nrf2 in the heart. Here we examined the sensitivity of this Gsta4-null mouse model towards cardiac function and structure loss due to local heart irradiation. Male Gsta4-null and wild-type mice were exposed to a single X-ray dose of 18 Gy to the heart. Six months after irradiation, immunohistochemical staining for respiratory complexes 2 and 5 indicated that radiation exposure had caused most pronounced alterations in mitochondrial morphology in Gsta4-null mice. On the other hand, wild-type mice showed a decline in cardiac function and an increase in plasma levels of troponin-I, while no such changes were observed in Gsta4-null mice. Radiation-induced Nrf2-target gene expression only in Gsta4-null mice. In conclusion, although loss of GSTA4-4 led to enhanced susceptibility of cardiac mitochondria to radiation-induced loss of morphology, cardiac function was preserved in Gsta4-null mice. We propose that this protection against cardiac function loss may occur, at least in part, by upregulation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  1. Effects of chlorpyrifos on glutathione S-transferase in migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Liu, Ting; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Xueyao; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2014-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a typical organophosphate pesticide and is among the most widely used worldwide. The objective of the present investigation was to assess the effect of chlorpyrifos exposure on glutathione S-transferase in Locusta migratoria. In the present study, chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4mgg(-1) body weight) was topically applied in the abdomen of locusts. The GST activity, mRNA levels of ten L. migratoria GSTs and protein levels of four representative GSTs were detected. The results showed that chlorpyrifos treatment caused significant decrease of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) and p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) activities, whereas 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) activity was not altered in locusts. The mRNA levels of seven L. migratoria GSTs, including LmGSTs2, LmGSTs3, LmGSTs4, LmGSTs5, LmGSTs6, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1, were decreased after chlorpyrifos exposure. The protein levels of LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1 and LmGSTu1 were significantly decreased at higher doses of chlorpyrifos. However, chlorpyrifos elevated the mRNA and protein expression of LmGSTd1. It indicated that LmGSTd1 might contribute to the resistance of locust to organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos, whereas the decrease in other GSTs might be an economic compensation by the insect to differentially regulate the expression of enzymes involved in the detoxification of insecticides on the expense of those that are not.

  2. Organisation and structural evolution of the rice glutathione S-transferase gene family.

    PubMed

    Soranzo, N; Sari Gorla, M; Mizzi, L; De Toma, G; Frova, C

    2004-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) comprise a large family of key defence enzymes against xenobiotic toxicity. Here we describe the comprehensive characterisation of this important multigene family in the model monocot species rice [ Oryza sativa(L.)]. Furthermore, we investigate the molecular evolution of the family based on the analysis of (1) the patterns of within-genome duplication, and (2) the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary divergence among rice, Arabidopsis, maize and soybean GSTs. By in-silico screening of the EST and genome divisions of the Genbank/EMBL/DDBJ database we have isolated 59 putative genes and two pseudogenes, making this the largest plant GST family characterised to date. Of these, 38 (62%) are represented by genomic and EST sequences and 23 (38%) are known only from their genomic sequences. A preliminary survey of EST collections shows a large degree of variability in gene expression between different tissues and environmental conditions, with a small number of genes (13) accounting for 80% of all ESTs. Rice GSTs are organised in four main phylogenetic classes, with 91% of all rice genes belonging to the two plant-specific classes Tau (40 genes) and Phi (16 genes). Pairwise identity scores range between 17 and 98% for proteins of the same class, and 7 and 21% for interclass comparisons. Rapid evolution by gene duplication is suggested by the discovery of two large clusters of 7 and 23 closely related genes on chromosomes 1 and 10, respectively. A comparison of the complete GST families in two monocot and two dicot species suggests a monophyletic origin for all Theta and Zeta GSTs, and no more than three common ancestors for all Phi and Tau genes.

  3. Characterization and functional analysis of four glutathione S-transferases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Jia, Miao; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xueyao; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In this study, four GSTs (LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1) representing different classes were identified from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. These four proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins, purified by Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose column and biochemically characterized. LmGSTd1, LmGSTs5, and LmGSTu1 showed high activities with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), detectable activity with p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) and 1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), whereas LmGSTt1 showed high activity with p-NBC and detectable activity with CDNB. The optimal pH of the locust GSTs ranged between 7.0 to 9.0. Ethacrynic acid and reactive blue effectively inhibited all four GSTs. LmGSTs5 was most sensitive to heavy metals (Cu(2+) and Cd(2+)). The maximum expression of the four GSTs was observed in Malpighian tubules and fat bodies as evaluated by western blot. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased by 28 and 12% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. The nymph mortalities after malathion and chlorpyrifos treatments increased by 26 and 18% after LmGSTs5 and LmGSTu1 were silenced, respectively. These results suggest that sigma GSTs in L. migratoria play a significant role in carbaryl detoxification, whereas some of other GSTs may also involve in the detoxification of carbaryl and chlorpyrifos.

  4. Glutathione S Transferases Polymorphisms Are Independent Prognostic Factors in Lupus Nephritis Treated with Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Verstuyft, Céline; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Hummel, Aurélie; Le Guern, Véronique; Sacré, Karim; Meyer, Olivier; Daugas, Eric; Goujard, Cécile; Sultan, Audrey; Lobbedez, Thierry; Galicier, Lionel; Pourrat, Jacques; Le Hello, Claire; Godin, Michel; Morello, Rémy; Lambert, Marc; Hachulla, Eric; Vanhille, Philippe; Queffeulou, Guillaume; Potier, Jacky; Dion, Jean-Jacques; Bataille, Pierre; Chauveau, Dominique; Moulis, Guillaume; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Duhaut, Pierre; Saint-Marcoux, Bernadette; Deroux, Alban; Manuzak, Jennifer; Francès, Camille; Aumaitre, Olivier; Bezanahary, Holy; Becquemont, Laurent; Bienvenu, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate association between genetic polymorphisms of GST, CYP and renal outcome or occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in lupus nephritis (LN) treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC). CYC, as a pro-drug, requires bioactivation through multiple hepatic cytochrome P450s and glutathione S transferases (GST). Methods We carried out a multicentric retrospective study including 70 patients with proliferative LN treated with CYC. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of the CYP2B6, CYP2C19, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Complete remission (CR) was defined as proteinuria ≤0.33g/day and serum creatinine ≤124 µmol/l. Partial remission (PR) was defined as proteinuria ≤1.5g/day with a 50% decrease of the baseline proteinuria value and serum creatinine no greater than 25% above baseline. Results Most patients were women (84%) and 77% were Caucasian. The mean age at LN diagnosis was 41 ± 10 years. The frequency of patients carrying the GST null genotype GSTT1-, GSTM1-, and the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype were respectively 38%, 60% and 44%. In multivariate analysis, the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype was an independent factor of poor renal outcome (achievement of CR or PR) (OR = 5.01 95% CI [1.02–24.51]) and the sole factor that influenced occurrence of ADRs was the GSTM1 null genotype (OR = 3.34 95% CI [1.064–10.58]). No association between polymorphisms of cytochrome P450s gene and efficacy or ADRs was observed. Conclusion This study suggests that GST polymorphisms highly impact renal outcome and occurrence of ADRs related to CYC in LN patients. PMID:27002825

  5. Glutathione-S-transferase P protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Daniel J; Haberzettl, Petra; Prough, Russell A; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-05-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke impairs endothelium-dependent arterial dilation. Reactive constituents of cigarette smoke are metabolized and detoxified by glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs). Although polymorphisms in GST genes are associated with the risk of cancer in smokers, the role of these enzymes in regulating the cardiovascular effects of smoking has not been studied. The P isoform of GST (GSTP), which catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic molecules in cigarette smoke such as acrolein, was expressed in high abundance in the mouse lung and aorta. Exposure to tobacco smoke for 3 days (5 h/day) decreased total plasma protein. These changes were exaggerated in GSTP(-/-) mice. Aortic rings isolated from tobacco smoke-exposed GSTP(-/-) mice showed greater attenuation of ACh-evoked relaxation than those from GSTP(+/+) mice. The lung, plasma, and aorta of mice exposed to tobacco smoke or acrolein (for 5 h) accumulated more acrolein-adducted proteins than those tissues of mice exposed to air, indicating that exposure to tobacco smoke results in the systemic delivery of acrolein. Relative to GSTP(+/+) mice, modification of some proteins by acrolein was increased in the aorta of GSTP(-/-) mice. Aortic rings prepared from GSTP(-/-) mice that inhaled acrolein (1 ppm, 5 h/day for 3 days) or those exposed to acrolein in an organ bath showed diminished ACh-induced arterial relaxation more strongly than GSTP(+/+) mice. Acrolein-induced endothelial dysfunction was prevented by pretreatment of the aorta with N-acetylcysteine. These results indicate that GSTP protects against the endothelial dysfunction induced by tobacco smoke exposure and that this protection may be related to the detoxification of acrolein or other related cigarette smoke constituents.

  6. Glutathione S-transferase activity in follicular fluid from women undergoing ovarian stimulation: role in maturation.

    PubMed

    Meijide, Susana; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Larreategui, Zaloa; Ferrando, Marcos; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2014-10-01

    Female infertility involves an emotional impact for the woman, often leading to a state of anxiety and low self-esteem. The assisted reproduction techniques (ART) are used to overcome the problem of infertility. In a first step of the in vitro fertilization therapy women are subjected to an ovarian stimulation protocol to obtain mature oocytes, which will result in competent oocytes necessary for fertilization to occur. Ovarian stimulation, however, subjects the women to a high physical and psychological stress, thus being essential to improve ART and to find biomarkers of dysfunction and fertility. GSH is an important antioxidant, and is also used in detoxification reactions, catalysed by glutathione S-transferases (GST). In the present work, we have investigated the involvement of GST in follicular maturation. Patients with fertility problems and oocyte donors were recruited for the study. From each woman follicles at two stages of maturation were extracted at the preovulatory stage. Follicular fluid was separated from the oocyte by centrifugation and used as the enzyme source. GST activity was determined based on its conjugation with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene and the assay was adapted to a 96-well microplate reader. The absorbance was represented against the incubation time and the curves were adjusted to linearity (R(2)>0.990). Results showed that in both donors and patients GST activity was significantly lower in mature oocytes compared to small ones. These results suggest that GST may play a role in the follicle maturation by detoxifying xenobiotics, thus contributing to the normal development of the oocyte. Supported by FIS/FEDER (PI11/02559), Gobierno Vasco (Dep. Educación, Universiades e Investigación, IT687-13), and UPV/EHU (CLUMBER UFI11/20 and PES13/58). The work was approved by the Ethics Committee of the UPV/EHU (CEISH/96/2011/RUIZLARREA), and performed according to the UPV/EHU and IVI-Bilbao agreement (Ref. 2012/01).

  7. Comparative Genomics of the Anopheline Glutathione S-Transferase Epsilon Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Constância; Müller, Pie; Dyer, Naomi; Wilding, Craig; Rigden, Daniel; Donnelly, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family play critical roles in detoxification of xenobiotics across many taxa. While GSTs are ubiquitous both in animals and plants, the GST epsilon class (GSTE) is insect-specific and has been associated with resistance to chemical insecticides. While both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae GSTE clusters consist of eight members, only four putative orthologs are identifiable between the species, suggesting independent expansions of the class in each lineage. We used a primer walking approach, sequencing almost the entire cluster from three Anopheles species (An. stephensi, An. funestus (both Cellia subgenus) and An. plumbeus (Anopheles subgenus)) and compared the sequences to putative orthologs in An. gambiae (Cellia) in an attempt to trace the evolution of the cluster within the subfamily Anophelinae. Furthermore, we measured transcript levels from the identified GSTE loci by real time reverse transcription PCR to determine if all genes were similarly transcribed at different life stages. Among the species investigated, gene order and orientation were similar with three exceptions: (i) GSTE1 was absent in An. plumbeus; (ii) GSTE2 is duplicated in An. plumbeus and (iii) an additional transcriptionally active pseudogene (ψAsGSTE2) was found in An. stephensi. Further statistical analysis and protein modelling gave evidence for positive selection on codons of the catalytic site in GSTE5 albeit its origin seems to predate the introduction of chemical insecticides. Gene expression profiles revealed differences in expression pattern among genes at different life stages. With the exception of GSTE1, ψAsGSTE2 and GSTE2b, all Anopheles species studied share orthologs and hence we assume that GSTE expansion generally predates radiation into subgenera, though the presence of GSTE1 may also suggest a recent duplication event in the Old World Cellia subgenus, instead of a secondary loss. The modifications of the catalytic site

  8. Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) polymorphisms are associated with relapse after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cotignola, Javier; Leonardi, Daiana B.; Shahabi, Ahva; Acuña, Alejandro D.; Stern, Mariana C.; Navone, Nora; Scorticati, Carlos; De Siervi, Adriana; Mazza, Osvaldo; Vazquez, Elba

    2013-01-01

    Background Organ confined prostate cancer (PCa) can be cured by radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP); however, some tumors will still recur. Current tools fail to identify patients at risk of recurrence. Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs) are involved in the metabolism of carcinogens, hormones and drugs. Thus, genetic polymorphisms that modify the GSTs activities may modify the risk of PCa recurrence. Methods We retrospectively recruited Argentine PCa patients treated with RRP to study the association between GSTs polymorphisms and PCa biochemical relapse after RRP. We genotyped germline DNA in 105 patients for: GSTP1 c.313 A>G (p.105 Ile>Val, rs1695) by PCR-RFLP; and GSTT1 null and GSTM1 null polymorphisms by multiplex-PCR. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate these associations. Results Patients with GSTP1 c.313 GG genotype showed shorter biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS) (p=0.003) and higher risk for recurrence in unadjusted (Hazard Ratio (HR)=3.16, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI)=1.41–7.06, p=0.005) and multivariate models (HR=3.01, 95% CI=1.13–8.02, p=0.028). We did not find significant associations for GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes. In addition, we found shorter BRFS (p=0.010) and increased risk for recurrence for patients having 2 or more risk alleles when we combined the genotypes of the three GSTs in multivariate models (HR=3.06, 95% CI=1.20–7.80, p=0.019). Conclusions Our results give support to the implementation of GSTs genotyping for personalized therapies as a novel alternative for PCa management for patients who undergo RRP. This is the first study that examined GST polymorphisms in PCa progression in Argentine men. Replication of our findings in larger cohort is warranted. PMID:23146971

  9. [Effects of Tagetes erecta extracts on glutathione S-transferase and protease activities and protein content in Tetranychus viennensis].

    PubMed

    Shi, Guang-lu; Wang, You-nian; Wang, Hong-lei; Zhao, Li-lin; Liu, Su-qi; Cao, Hui; Yu, Tong-quan; Lu, Ping

    2007-02-01

    With in vivo and in vitro Tagetes erecta roots under light and dark as test materials, this paper studied the effects of their extracts on the glutathione S-transferase and protease activities and protein content in Tetranychus viennensis. The results showed that the chloroform extract of T. erecta roots had the highest light-activated activity, followed by water extract, and methanol extract. After treated with chloroform extract, the glutathione S-transferase and protease activities in T. viennensis increased markedly, while its protein content decreased obviously. The variation degree of T. viennensis protease activity and protein content was significantly higher when the chloroform extract came from the T. erecta roots under light, suggesting that there existed active matters in the extract, which could promote the activation of protease, and thus, the decomposition of protein in T. viennensis. The bioactivity of T. erecta metabolites was mainly of light-activated one.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase Isozymes from Sorghum1

    PubMed Central

    Gronwald, John W.; Plaisance, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Two glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, A1/A1 and B1/B2, were purified from etiolated, O-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl-methyl-2,2,2,-trifluoro-4′-chloroacetophenone-oxime-treated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) shoots. GST A1/A1, a constitutively expressed homodimer, had a subunit molecular mass of 26 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.9. GST A1/A1 exhibited high activity with 1-chloro-2, 4,dinitrobenzene (CDNB) but low activity with the chloroacetanilide herbicide metolachlor. For GST A1/A1, the random, rapid-equilibrium bireactant kinetic model provided a good description of the kinetic data for the substrates CDNB and glutathione (GSH). GST B1/B2 was a heterodimer with subunit molecular masses of 26 kD (designated the B1 subunit) and 28 kD (designated the B2 subunit) and a native isoelectric point of 4.8. GST B1/B2 exhibited low activity with CDNB and high activity with metolachlor as the substrate. The kinetics of GST B1/B2 activity with GSH and metolachlor fit a model describing a multisite enzyme having two binding sites with different affinities for these substrates. Both GST A1/A1 and GST B1/B2 exhibited GSH-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and GSH peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide, 9-hydroperoxy-trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid. Both GST A1/A1 and GST B1/B2 are glycoproteins, as indicated by their binding of concanavalin A. Polyclonal antibodies raised against GST A1/A1 exhibited cross-reactivity with the B1 subunit of GST B1/B2. Comparisons of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of the GST A1, B1, and B2 subunits with other type I θ-GSTs indicated a high degree of homology with the maize GST I subunit and a sugarcane GST. PMID:9662530

  11. Catalytic characterization of human microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2: identification of rate-limiting steps.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shabbir; Niegowski, Damian; Wetterholm, Anders; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Morgenstern, Ralf; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes

    2013-03-12

    Microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2 (MGST2) is a 17 kDa trimeric integral membrane protein homologous to leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S). MGST2 has been suggested to catalyze the biosynthesis of the pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in cells devoid of LTC4S. A detailed biochemical study of MGST2 is critical for the understanding of its cellular function and potential role as an LTC4-producing enzyme. Here we have characterized the substrate specificity and catalytic properties of purified MGST2 by steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic experiments. In comparison with LTC4S, which has a catalytic efficiency of 8.7 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), MGST2, with a catalytic efficiency of 1.8 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), is considerably less efficient in producing LTC4. However, the two enzymes display a similar KM(LTA4) of 30-40 μM. While LTC4S has one activated glutathione (GSH) (forming a thiolate) per enzyme monomer, the MGST2 trimer seems to display only third-of-the-sites reactivity for thiolate activation, which in part would explain its lower catalytic efficiency. Furthermore, MGST2 displays GSH-dependent peroxidase activity of ∼0.2 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) toward several lipid hydroperoxides. MGST2, but not LTC4S, is efficient in catalyzing conjugation of the electrophilic substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal with GSH. Using stopped-flow pre-steady-state kinetics, we have characterized the full catalytic reaction of MGST2 with CDNB and GSH as substrates, showing an initial rapid equilibrium binding of GSH followed by thiolate formation. Burst kinetics for the CDNB-GSH conjugation step was observed only at low GSH concentrations (thiolate anion formation becoming rate-limiting under these conditions). Product release is rapid and does not limit the overall reaction. Therefore, in general, the chemical conjugation step is rate-limiting for MGST2 at physiological GSH concentrations. MGST2 and LTC4S

  12. Comprehensive characterization of three glutathione S-transferase family proteins from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, J D H E; Bathige, S D N K; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Jae Koo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are categorized as phase II enzymes, which form an important multifunctional family associated with a wide variety of catalytic activities. GSTω, GSTρ, and GSTθ are cytosolic GSTs which have been extensively studied in a variety of organisms; however, few studies have focused on teleosts. Those paralogs from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii; RfGSTω, RfGSTρ, and RfGSTθ, respectively) were molecularly, biochemically, and functionally characterized to determine their antioxidant extent and protective aptitudes upon pathogenic stress. RfGSTω, RfGSTρ, and RfGSTθ, contained open reading frames of 717bp, 678bp, and 720bp respectively, which encoded respective proteins of 239, 226, and 240 amino acids in length. In silico analysis revealed that all RfGSTs possessed characteristic N-terminal domains bearing glutathione (GSH)-binding sites, and C-terminal domains containing substrate-binding sites. Recombinant RfGSTω (rRfGSTω) catalyzed the conjugation of GSH to dehydroascorbate (DHA), while rRfGSTθ and rRfGSTρ catalyzed to the model GST substrate 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Kinetic analysis revealed variation in Km and Vmax values for each rRfGST, indicating their different conjugation rates. The optimum conditions (pH and temperature) and inhibition assays of each protein demonstrated different optimal ranges showing their wide range of activity as an assembly. RfGSTω and RfGSTθ paralogs demonstrated their antioxidant potential towards H2O2 and heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Cu) in vitro, while RfGSTρ had an antioxidant potential only towards heavy metals (Zn and Cu). Though all the paralogs were ubiquitously expressed in different magnitudes, RfGSTω was highly expressed in blood, whereas RfGSTρ and RfGSTθ were highly expressed in liver. The mRNA expression of RfGSTω and RfGSTθ, upon Streptococcus iniae and poly I:C stimulation, revealed a significantly up-regulated expression, whereas RfGSTρ m

  13. Effects of imidacloprid on detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase on Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    PubMed

    Sillapawattana, Panwad; Schäffer, Andreas

    2016-04-20

    Chemical analyses of the environment can document contamination by various xenobiotics, but it is also important to understand the effect of pollutants on living organisms. Thus, in the present work, we investigated the effect of the pesticide imidacloprid on the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Folsomia candida (Collembola), a standard test organism for estimating the effects of pesticides and environmental pollutants on non-target soil arthropods. Test animals were treated with different concentrations of imidacloprid for 48 h. Changes in steady-state levels of GST messenger RNA (mRNA) and GST enzyme activity were investigated. Extracted proteins were separated according to their sizes by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the resolved protein bands were detected by silver staining. The size of the glutathione (GSH) pool in Collembola was also determined. A predicted protein sequence of putative GSTs was identified with animals from control group. A 3-fold up-regulation of GST steady-state mRNA levels was detected in the samples treated with 5.0 mg L(-1) imidacloprid compared to the control, while a 2.5- and 2.0- fold up-regulation was found in organisms treated with 2.5 and 7.5 mg L(-1) imidacloprid, respectively. GST activity increased with increasing imidacloprid amounts from an initial activity of 0.11 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein in the control group up to 0.25 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein in the sample treated with the 5.0 mg L(-1) of pesticide. By contrast, the total amount of GSH decreased with increasing imidacloprid concentration. The results suggest that the alteration of GST activity, steady-state level of GST mRNA, and GSH level may be involved in the response of F. candida to the exposure of imidacloprid and can be used as biomarkers to monitor the toxic effects of imidacloprid and other environmental pollutants on Collembola.

  14. Glutathione S-transferase in the midgut tissue of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars exposed to dietary cadmium.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Matić, Dragana; Lazarević, Jelica; Mataruga, Vesna Perić

    2016-06-01

    Activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in midgut of gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to 10 and 30μg Cd/g dry food was examined. Based on the enzyme reaction through conjugation with glutathione, overall activity remained unaltered after acute and chronic treatment. No-observed-effect-concentration (10μg Cd/g dry food) significantly increased activity only after 3-day recovery following cadmium administration. Almost all comparisons of the indices of phenotypic plasticity revealed statistically significant differences. Despite the facts that GST has important role in xenobiotic biotransformation, our results indicate that this enzyme in insect midgut does not represent the key factor in cadmium detoxification.

  15. Genetic and epigenetic regulation and expression signatures of glutathione S-transferases in developing mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Cui, Julia Yue; Choudhuri, Supratim; Knight, Tamara R; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-07-01

    The hepatic glutathione S-transferases (Gsts) are critical phase II enzymes in protecting cellular macromolecules against electrophiles and oxidative stress. Little is known about the ontogeny of Gsts and the underlying regulatory mechanisms during liver development. Therefore, in this study, the ontogeny and the regulatory mechanisms of 19 known Gst isoforms were investigated in mouse liver from 2 days before birth to postnatal day 45. With the exception of Gstm5 and MGst2 that showed a progressive decline in postnatal messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, most other Gst isoforms showed a progressive increase in postnatal mRNA expression. Two-way hierarchical clustering revealed three distinct expression patterns of these Gsts isoforms: perinatal, adolescent, and adult enriched. The expression signatures of certain Gst isoforms showed positive association with the ontogeny of critical xenobiotic-sensing transcription factors, including aryl hydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor-2. Specifically, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with the next generation sequencing technology (ChIP-Seq) revealed direct PXR-binding sites to the Gsta, Gstm, Gstt, and Gstp polycistron clusters as well as to the Mgst1 gene locus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip analysis demonstrated that DNA methylation and histone H3K27-trimethylation (H3K27me3), two-gene expression-suppressing epigenetic marks, were consistently low around the Gstz1 gene locus. In contrast, enrichment of histone H3K4-dimethylation (H3K4me2), a hallmark for gene activation, increased 60% around the Gstz1 gene locus from prenatal to the young adult period. Regression analysis revealed a strong correlation between the enrichment of H3K4me2 and Gstz1 mRNA expression (r = 0.76). In conclusion, this study characterized three distinct ontogenic expression signatures of the 19 Gst isoforms

  16. Neuroantibodies (NAB) in African-American Children: Associations with Gender, Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST)Pi Polymorphisms (SNP) and Heavy Metals

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONTACT (NAME ONLY): Hassan El-Fawal Abstract Details PRESENTATION TYPE: Platform or Poster CURRENT CATEGORY: Neurodegenerative Disease | Biomarkers | Neurotoxicity, Metals KEYWORDS: Autoantibodies, Glutathione-S-Transferase, DATE/TIME LAST MODIFIED: DATE/TIME SUBMITTED: Abs...

  17. Glutathione-s-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms and associations with type 1 diabetes age-at-onset.

    PubMed

    Bekris, Lynn M; Shephard, Cindy; Peterson, Morgan; Hoehna, Jana; Van Yserloo, Brian; Rutledge, Elizabeth; Farin, Federico; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Lernmark, Ake

    2005-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pancreatic beta cell destruction involving auto-reactive T-cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of insulin. Monozygotic twin studies show a 20-60% concordance with T1D indicating there may be an environmental component to the disease. Glutathione (GSH) is the major endogenous antioxidant produced by the cell. GSH participates directly in the neutralization of free radicals and plays a role in the immune response. Glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs) conjugate GSH to free-radicals or xenobiotics. GST activity depletes GSH levels and may either detoxify or enhance the toxicity of a compound. Glutathione-s-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and glutathione-s-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) have polymorphic homozygous deletion (null) genotypes resulting in complete absence of enzyme activity. GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes in Caucasian populations have frequencies of approximately 40-60% and 15-20%, respectively. GST null genotypes have been associated with susceptibility to cancer and protection against chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate associations with GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in a group T1D patients and control subjects 0-35 years old who participated in the Combined Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry and Diabetes Incidence Study (1986-1988). Results show that the presence of the GSTM1 and not the null genotype (OR, 2.13 95% CI, 1.23-3.70, p-value, 0.007, Bonferroni corrected p-value, 0.035) may be a susceptibility factor in T1D 14-20 years old. These results suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype is associated with T1D protection and T1D age-at-onset and that susceptibility to T1D may involve GST conjugation.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a glutathione S-transferase from Xylella fastidiosa

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Wanius; Travensolo, Regiane F.; Rodrigues, Nathalia C.; Muniz, João R. C.; Caruso, Célia S.; Lemos, Eliana G. M.; Araujo, Ana Paula U.; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2008-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase from X. fastidiosa (xfGST) has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.23 Å. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) form a group of multifunctional isoenzymes that catalyze the glutathione-dependent conjugation and reduction reactions involved in the cellular detoxification of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. GST from Xylella fastidiosa (xfGST) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by conventional affinity chromatography. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of xfGST is described. The purified protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method, producing crystals that belonged to the triclinic space group P1. The unit-cell parameters were a = 47.73, b = 87.73, c = 90.74 Å, α = 63.45, β = 80.66, γ = 94.55°. xfGST crystals diffracted to 2.23 Å resolution on a rotating-anode X-ray source.

  19. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase activity as a biomarker of PAH pollution in mudskipper, Boleophthalmus dussumieri, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Sinaei, Mahmood; Rahmanpour, Shirin

    2013-03-01

    As an attempt to study on the biomarkers types to assess the specification of the pollutants and health status of marine ecosystems, sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) were collected from the Persian Gulf. The liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in mudskipper was higher as compared with that in blood which could be illustrated by high metabolic rate in this organ, its key role in the metabolism of PAHs detoxification and specificity of enzymes composition. The results suggest that the liver GST activity in B. dussumieri was PAH inducible and could be extended as a biomarker of PAH pollution.

  20. Functional and structural roles of the glutathione-binding residues in maize (Zea mays) glutathione S-transferase I.

    PubMed Central

    Labrou, N E; Mello, L V; Clonis, Y D

    2001-01-01

    The isoenzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) I from maize (Zea mays) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and its catalytic mechanism was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and dynamic studies. The results showed that the enzyme promotes proton dissociation from the GSH thiol and creates a thiolate anion with high nucleophilic reactivity by lowering the pK(a) of the thiol from 8.7 to 6.2. Steady-state kinetics fit well to a rapid equilibrium, random sequential Bi Bi mechanism, with intrasubunit modulation between the GSH binding site (G-site) and the electrophile binding site (H-site). The rate-limiting step of the reaction is viscosity-dependent, and thermodynamic data suggest that product release is rate-limiting. Five residues of GST I (Ser(11), His(40), Lys(41), Gln(53) and Ser(67)), which are located in the G-site, were individually replaced with alanine and their structural and functional roles in the 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) conjugation reaction were investigated. On the basis of steady-state kinetics, difference spectroscopy and limited proteolysis studies it is concluded that these residues: (1) contribute to the affinity of the G-site for GSH, as they are involved in side-chain interaction with GSH; (2) influence GSH thiol ionization, and thus its reactivity; (3) participate in k(cat) regulation by affecting the rate-limiting step of the reaction; and (4) in the cases of His(40), Lys(41) and Gln(53) play an important role in the structural integrity of, and probably in the flexibility of, the highly mobile short 3(10)-helical segment of alpha-helix 2 (residues 35-46), as shown by limited proteolysis experiments. These structural perturbations are probably transmitted to the H-site through changes in Phe(35) conformation. This accounts for the modulation of K(CDNB)(m) by His(40), Lys(41) and Gln(53), and also for the intrasubunit communication between the G- and H-sites. Computer simulations using CONCOORD were applied to maize

  1. Aniline exposure associated with up-regulated transcriptional responses of three glutathione S-transferase Delta genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wen-Chiao; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2015-03-01

    Complex transcriptional profile of glutathione S-transferase Delta cluster genes occurred in the developmental process of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The purpose of this project was to quantify the expression levels of Gst Delta class genes altered by aniline exposure and to understand the relationship between aniline dosages and the variation of Gst Delta genes expressed in D. melanogaster. Using RT-PCR expression assays, the expression patterns of the transcript mRNAs of the glutathione S-transferase Delta genes were revealed and their expression levels were measured at eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. The adult stage was selected for further dose-response assays. After analysis, the results indicated that three Gst Delta genes (Gst D2, Gst D5 and Gst D6) were found to show a peak of up-regulated transcriptional response at 6-8h of exposure of aniline. Furthermore, the dose-response relationship of their induction levels within the dose regiments (from 1.2 to 2.0 μl/tube) had been measured. The expression patterns and annotations of these genes were discussed in the context.

  2. Cantharidin Impedes Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase in the Midgut of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rashid Ahmed; Liu, Ji Yuan; Rashid, Maryam; Wang, Dun; Zhang, Ya Lin

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations have implicated glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) as one of the major reasons for insecticide resistance. Therefore, effectiveness of new candidate compounds depends on their ability to inhibit GSTs to prevent metabolic detoxification by insects. Cantharidin, a terpenoid compound of insect origin, has been developed as a bio-pesticide in China, and proves highly toxic to a wide range of insects, especially lepidopteran. In the present study, we test cantharidin as a model compound for its toxicity, effects on the mRNA transcription of a model Helicoverpa armigera glutathione S-transferase gene (HaGST) and also for its putative inhibitory effect on the catalytic activity of GSTs, both in vivo and in vitro in Helicoverpa armigera, employing molecular and biochemical methods. Bioassay results showed that cantharidin was highly toxic to H. armigera. Real-time qPCR showed down-regulation of the HaGST at the mRNA transcript ranging from 2.5 to 12.5 folds while biochemical assays showed in vivo inhibition of GSTs in midgut and in vitro inhibition of rHaGST. Binding of cantharidin to HaGST was rationalized by homology and molecular docking simulations using a model GST (1PN9) as a template structure. Molecular docking simulations also confirmed accurate docking of the cantharidin molecule to the active site of HaGST impeding its catalytic activity. PMID:23528854

  3. In vitro binding of acetic acid and its chlorinated derivatives by the soluble glutathione S-transferases from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, P J

    1984-05-01

    The in vitro interaction of acetic acid and its chlorinated derivatives with rat liver glutathione S-transferases (GST) was studied, using glutathione (GSH) and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrates. The investigated compounds inhibited the GST activity in crude extracts in a dose dependent manner. Each of the different GST isoenzymes was inhibited by each of the compounds under study, albeit at very different degrees. Kinetic studies never revealed competitive inhibition kinetics, with GSH nor CDNB as the variable substrate. Titration of remaining GSH in appropriate incubation mixtures revealed no GST catalyzed conjugation with GSH. It is concluded that acetic acid and its chlorinated derivatives interact with GST by direct binding to these proteins. This binding could have a protective function against these compounds.

  4. Glutathione S-transferase from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana: identification, characterization, localization, cDNA cloning, and expression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Q L; Davey, K G; Pang, A S; Primavera, M; Ladd, T R; Zheng, S C; Sohi, S S; Retnakaran, A; Palli, S R

    1999-09-01

    A 23-kDa protein that was present at higher levels in diapausing 2nd instar larvae than in feeding 2nd instar larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana was purified, and polyclonal antibodies were raised against this protein. The antibodies were subsequently used to screen a cDNA library that was constructed using RNA from 2nd instar larvae. Eight identical cDNA clones were isolated. The cDNA clone had a 665-bp insert and the longest open reading frame coded for a 203-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 23.37 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to glutathione S-transferases and therefore, the cDNA clone was named C. fumiferana glutathione S-transferase (CfGST). Identity of CfGST was confirmed by using affinity-purification as well as enzyme activity assay. CfGST was closer in similarity to insect GST2 members than GST1 members. The apparent Vmax of the purified CfGST towards the substrates glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenezene (CDNB) were similar. However, the enzyme had a three-fold higher affinity towards CDNB than glutathione. Analyses using Northern blot, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that the fat body was the major tissue where the enzyme was synthesized and stored. Higher levels of CfGST protein were present in diapausing 2nd instar larvae compared to feeding 2nd and 6th instar larvae, suggesting that besides detoxification CfGST may have other roles during insect development that are not readily apparent at present. The CfGST cDNA was expressed in a recombinant baculovirus expression system and an active enzyme was produced.

  5. [Research on the association between glutathione S-transferase P1 genic polymorphism and heart rate and blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Xuechuan; Zhao, Guangcai

    2011-06-01

    Oxidative stress may reduce cardiovascular function. Glutathione Stransferases(GSTs) play an important role in cell defending against oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene is one of the most intensively investigated glutathione S-transferase genes in epidemiologic studies. The GSTP1 gene displays a polymorphism at codon 105 (Ile105 Val), which results in an enzyme with altered substrate affinity. To date, there have been few studies evaluating whether Ilel05Val polymorphism of GSTP1 gene has an effect on cardiovascular function in the broad masses of people. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Ile105 Val polymorphism of GSTP1 gene and heart rate and blood pressure in 197 unrelated adult males of Han nationality. It was found that there were two types of the GSTP1 genotypes, Ile105/Ile105 and Ile105/Val105, but genotype Val105/Val105 was not found, and the frequencies of IleIes/Ileos and Ile105/Val105 genotypes were 78% and 22% respectively. Comparison with individuals with lie105/Val105 genotype showed that those with Ile105/Ile105 genotype had higher rest heart rate and maximal heart rate mean values. However, whether for rest heart rate and maximal heart rate or for heart rate reserve, no significant differences were found between the two genotype groups (P>0.05). Compared with individuals with Ile105/Val105 genotype, those with Iler105/Ile105 genotype had higher systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure mean values and lower diastolic blood pressure mean value. However, for systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, no significant differences were found between the two genotype groups (P>0.05). The results suggested that Ile105 Val polymorphism of GSTP1 gene may not be associated with heart rate and blood pressure in the broad masses of people.

  6. Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null polymorphisms, smoking, and their interaction in oral cancer: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jiang; Hao, Ke; Shi, Rong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Song, Yiqing; Xu, Xiaohui; Ma, Jin

    2011-04-15

    The association between glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null polymorphisms and oral cancer is not consistent across studies, and data on their interaction with smoking in oral cancer are lacking. The authors systematically searched PubMed and SciVerse Scopus for case-control studies examining the association between null genotypes of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and oral cancer. Twenty-eight case-control studies published in English were identified. Summary odds ratios were derived via random-effects models. The summary odds ratio for the GSTM1 null genotype was 1.43 in Asians (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.78; P < 0.01, I (2) = 73%) and 0.98 in Caucasians (95% CI: 0.76, 1.28; P = 0.91, I (2) = 0%). Case-only analysis of 6 studies (552 cases) showed an inverse multiplicative interaction between GSTM1 null polymorphisms and smoking (ever/high levels of smoking vs. never/low levels) (odds ratio (OR) = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.82; P = 0.01, I (2) = 34%). The GSTT1 null genotype was not significantly associated with oral cancer in Asians (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.82, 1.38; P = 0.63, I (2) = 65%) or Caucasians (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.41, 2.65; P = 0.93, I (2) = 55%). In conclusion, the GSTM1 null genotype may be associated with a higher risk of oral cancer in Asians but not in Caucasians, and this effect may be modified by smoking status. The GSTT1 null genotype may not be associated with oral cancer.

  7. S-Glutathionylation of Keap1: a new role for glutathione S-transferase pi in neuronal protection.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Andreia Neves; Marques, Carla; Guedes, Rita C; Castro-Caldas, Margarida; Rodrigues, Elsa; van Horssen, Jack; Gama, Maria João

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative stress is a key pathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP) is a neuroprotective antioxidant enzyme regulated at the transcriptional level by the antioxidant master regulator nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Here, we show for the first time that upon MPTP-induced oxidative stress, GSTP potentiates S-glutathionylation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an endogenous repressor of Nrf2, in vivo. S-glutathionylation of Keap1 leads to Nrf2 activation and subsequently increases expression of GSTP. This positive feedback regulatory loop represents a novel mechanism by which GSTP elicits antioxidant protection in the brain.

  8. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing Tomato Glutathione S-Transferase Showed Enhanced Resistance to Salt and Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Xing, Xiao-Juan; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Xue, Yong; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) are involved in response to abiotic stress, limited information is available regarding gene function in tomato. In this study, a GST gene from tomato, designated LeGSTU2, was cloned and functionally characterized. Expression profile analysis results showed that it was expressed in roots and flowers, and the transcription was induced by salt, osmotic, and heat stress. The gene was then introduced to Arabidopsis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants were normal in terms of growth and maturity compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic plants also showed an enhanced resistance to salt and osmotic stress induced by NaCl and mannitol. The increased tolerance of transgenic plants was correlated with the changes in proline, malondialdehyde and antioxidative emzymes activities. Our results indicated that the gene from tomato plays a positive role in improving tolerance to salinity and drought stresses in Arabidopsis.

  9. Characterization of an omega-class glutathione S-transferase in the stress response of the silkmoth.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Teshiba, S; Shigeoka, Y; Aso, Y; Banno, Y; Fujiki, T; Katakura, Y

    2011-06-01

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily is involved in detoxification of various xenobiotics. Using real-time PCR, mRNA encoding an omega-class GST of Bombyx mori (bmGSTO) was shown to be induced after exposure to various environmental stresses. A soluble form of recombinant protein (rbmGSTO) was functionally overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified to homogeneity. Cys 38 and Pro 39 were found to be highly conserved in omega-class GSTs, and their roles were investigated by site-directed mutagenesis/kinetic analysis. Mutations of Cys 38 and Pro 39 residues affected the catalytic efficiency of enzymes, indicating that the presence of Cys 38 and Pro 39 residues is important for bmGSTO activity. Thus, bmGSTO could contribute to increasing the environmental stress resistance of lepidopteran insects.

  10. Identification of heavy metal-induced genes encoding glutathione S-transferases in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices.

    PubMed

    Waschke, A; Sieh, D; Tamasloukht, M; Fischer, K; Mann, P; Franken, P

    2006-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are able to alleviate the stress for plants caused by heavy metal contamination of soil. To analyze the molecular response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to these pollutants, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed using RNA from Glomus intraradices extraradical hyphae of a root organ culture treated with a mixture of Cd, Zn, and Cu. Screening by reverse Northern blot analysis indicated that, among 308 clones, 17% correspond to genes up-regulated by heavy metals. Sequence analysis of part of the clones resulted, amongst others, in the identification of six genes putatively coding for glutathione S-transferases belonging to two different classes of these enzymes. Expression analyses indicated that the genes are differentially expressed during fungal development and that their RNA accumulation dramatically increases in extraradical hyphae grown in a heavy metal-containing solution.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferases are associated with anxiety and mood disorders in nicotine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Pizzo de Castro, Márcia Regina; Ehara Watanabe, Maria Angelica; Losi Guembarovski, Roberta; Odebrecht Vargas, Heber; Vissoci Reiche, Edna Maria; Kaminami Morimoto, Helena; Dodd, Seetal; Berk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine dependence is associated with an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders and suicide. The primary hypothesis of this study was to identify whether the polymorphisms of two glutathione-S-transferase enzymes (GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes) predict an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders in smokers with nicotine dependence. Materials and methods Smokers were recruited at the Centre of Treatment for Smokers. The instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, diagnoses of mood disorder and nicotine dependence according to DSM-IV (SCID-IV), and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Anxiety disorder was assessed based on the treatment report. Laboratory assessment included glutathione-S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1), which were detected by a multiplex-PCR protocol. Results Compared with individuals who had both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, a higher frequency of at least one deletion of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes was identified in anxious smokers [odds ratio (OR)=2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05–4.65, P=0.034], but there was no association with bipolar and unipolar depression (P=0.943). Compared with nonanxious smokers, anxious smokers had a greater risk for mood disorders (OR=4.67; 95% CI=2.24–9.92, P<0.001), lung disease (OR=6.78, 95% CI=1.95–23.58, P<0.003), and suicide attempts (OR=17.01, 95% CI=2.23–129.91, P<0.006). Conclusion This study suggests that at least one deletion of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes represents a risk factor for anxious smokers. These two genes may modify the capacity for the detoxification potential against oxidative stress. PMID:24637631

  12. Caffeine junkie: an unprecedented glutathione S-transferase-dependent oxygenase required for caffeine degradation by Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    PubMed

    Summers, Ryan M; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Quandt, Erik M; Yu, Chi Li; Barrick, Jeffrey E; Subramanian, Mani V

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine and other N-methylated xanthines are natural products found in many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, it is not surprising that bacteria have evolved to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. The caffeine degradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida CBB5 utilizes an unprecedented glutathione-S-transferase-dependent Rieske oxygenase for demethylation of 7-methylxanthine to xanthine, the final step in caffeine N-demethylation. The gene coding this function is unusual, in that the iron-sulfur and non-heme iron domains that compose the normally functional Rieske oxygenase (RO) are encoded by separate proteins. The non-heme iron domain is located in the monooxygenase, ndmC, while the Rieske [2Fe-2S] domain is fused to the RO reductase gene, ndmD. This fusion, however, does not interfere with the interaction of the reductase with N1- and N3-demethylase RO oxygenases, which are involved in the initial reactions of caffeine degradation. We demonstrate that the N7-demethylation reaction absolutely requires a unique, tightly bound protein complex composed of NdmC, NdmD, and NdmE, a novel glutathione-S-transferase (GST). NdmE is proposed to function as a noncatalytic subunit that serves a structural role in the complexation of the oxygenase (NdmC) and Rieske domains (NdmD). Genome analyses found this gene organization of a split RO and GST gene cluster to occur more broadly, implying a larger function for RO-GST protein partners.

  13. The silkworm glutathione S-transferase gene noppera-bo is required for ecdysteroid biosynthesis and larval development.

    PubMed

    Enya, Sora; Daimon, Takaaki; Igarashi, Fumihiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Uchibori, Miwa; Sezutsu, Hideki; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2015-06-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are tightly controlled by ecdysteroids, which are important steroid hormones that are synthesized from dietary sterols in the prothoracic gland. One of the ecdysteroidogenic genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is noppera-bo (nobo), also known as GSTe14, which encodes a member of the epsilon class of glutathione S-transferases. In D. melanogaster, nobo plays a crucial role in utilizing cholesterol via regulating its transport and/or metabolism in the prothoracic gland. However, it is still not known whether the orthologs of nobo from other insects are also involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis via cholesterol transport and/or metabolism in the prothoracic gland. Here we report genetic evidence showing that the silkworm Bombyx mori ortholog of nobo (nobo-Bm; GSTe7) is essential for silkworm development. nobo-Bm is predominantly expressed in the prothoracic gland. To assess the functional importance of nobo-Bm, we generated a B. mori genetic mutant of nobo-Bm using TALEN-mediated genome editing. We show that loss of nobo-Bm function causes larval arrest and a glossy cuticle phenotype, which are rescued by the application of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Moreover, the prothoracic gland cells isolated from the nobo-Bm mutant exhibit an abnormal accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, a cholesterol metabolite. These results suggest that the nobo family of glutathione S-transferases is essential for development and for the regulation of sterol utilization in the prothoracic gland in not only the Diptera but also the Lepidoptera. On the other hand, loss of nobo function mutants of D. melanogaster and B. mori abnormally accumulates different sterols, implying that the sterol utilization in the PG is somewhat different between these two insect species.

  14. Structures of yeast glutathione-S-transferase Gtt2 reveal a new catalytic type of GST family

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Xiao; Jiang, Yong-Liang; He, Yong-Xing; Bao, Rui; Chen, Yuxing; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous detoxification enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to glutathione. Here, we present the crystal structures of Gtt2, a GST of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in apo and two ligand-bound forms, at 2.23 Å, 2.20 Å and 2.10 Å, respectively. Although Gtt2 has the overall structure of a GST, the absence of the classic catalytic essential residues—tyrosine, serine and cysteine—distinguishes it from all other cytosolic GSTs of known structure. Site-directed mutagenesis in combination with activity assays showed that instead of the classic catalytic residues, a water molecule stabilized by Ser129 and His123 acts as the deprotonator of the glutathione sulphur atom. Furthermore, only glycine and alanine are allowed at the amino-terminus of helix-α1 because of stereo-hindrance. Taken together, these results show that yeast Gtt2 is a novel atypical type of cytosolic GST. PMID:19851333

  15. Decreased Glutathione S-transferase Level and Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Associated with Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Perspective Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdi, Sameer Yaseen

    2017-02-01

    Classically, genetically decreased bilirubin conjugation and/or hemolysis account for the mechanisms contributing to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. However, these mechanisms are not involved in most cases of this hyperbilirubinemia. Additional plausible mechanisms for G6PD deficiency-associated hyperbilirubinemia need to be considered. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) activity depends on a steady quantity of reduced form of glutathione (GSH). If GSH is oxidized, it is reduced back by glutathione reductase, which requires the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The main source of NADPH is the pentose phosphate pathway, in which G6PD is the first enzyme. Rat kidney GSH, rat liver GST, and human red blood cell GST levels have been found to positively correlate with G6PD levels in their respective tissues. As G6PD is expressed in hepatocytes, it is expected that GST levels would be significantly decreased in hepatocytes of G6PD-deficient neonates. As hepatic GST binds bilirubin and prevents their reflux into circulation, hypothesis that decreased GST levels in hepatocytes is an additional mechanism contributing to G6PD deficiency-associated hyperbilirubinemia seems plausible. Evidence for and against this hypothesis are discussed in this article hoping to stimulate further research on the role of GST in G6PD deficiency-associated hyperbilirubinemia.

  16. Attenuation of lung fibrosis in mice with a clinically relevant inhibitor of glutathione-S-transferase π

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, David H.; van der Velden, Jos L.J.; Lahue, Karolyn G.; Qian, Xi; Schneider, Robert W.; Iberg, Martina S.; Nolin, James D.; Casey, Dylan T.; Tew, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland; Butnor, Kelly J.; Taatjes, Douglas J.; Budd, Ralph C.; Irvin, Charles G.; van der Vliet, Albert; Flemer, Stevenson; Anathy, Vikas; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a debilitating lung disease characterized by excessive collagen production and fibrogenesis. Apoptosis in lung epithelial cells is critical in IPF pathogenesis, as heightened loss of these cells promotes fibroblast activation and remodeling. Changes in glutathione redox status have been reported in IPF patients. S-glutathionylation, the conjugation of glutathione to reactive cysteines, is catalyzed in part by glutathione-S-transferase π (GSTP). To date, no published information exists linking GSTP and IPF to our knowledge. We hypothesized that GSTP mediates lung fibrogenesis in part through FAS S-glutathionylation, a critical event in epithelial cell apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that GSTP immunoreactivity is increased in the lungs of IPF patients, notably within type II epithelial cells. The FAS-GSTP interaction was also increased in IPF lungs. Bleomycin- and AdTGFβ-induced increases in collagen content, α-SMA, FAS S-glutathionylation, and total protein S-glutathionylation were strongly attenuated in Gstp–/– mice. Oropharyngeal administration of the GSTP inhibitor, TLK117, at a time when fibrosis was already apparent, attenuated bleomycin- and AdTGFβ-induced remodeling, α-SMA, caspase activation, FAS S-glutathionylation, and total protein S-glutathionylation. GSTP is an important driver of protein S-glutathionylation and lung fibrosis, and GSTP inhibition via the airways may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of IPF. PMID:27358914

  17. Interaction of the electrophilic ketoprofenyl-glucuronide and ketoprofenyl-coenzyme A conjugates with cytosolic glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Osbild, Sandra; Bour, Jérome; Maunit, Benoît; Guillaume, Cécile; Asensio, Carine; Muller, Jean-François; Netter, Patrick; Kirsch, Glbert; Bagrel, Denyse; Lapicque, Françoise; Battaglia, Eric

    2008-02-01

    Carboxylic acid-containing drugs are metabolized mainly through the formation of glucuronide and coenzyme A esters. These conjugates have been suspected to be responsible for the toxicity of several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of the reactivity of the electrophilic ester bond. In the present study we investigated the reactivity of ketoprofenyl-acylglucuronide (KPF-OG) and ketoprofenyl-acyl-coenzyme A (KPF-SCoA) toward cytosolic rat liver glutathione S-transferases (GST). We observed that KPF-SCoA, but not KPF-OG inhibited the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide catalyzed by both purified cytosolic rat liver GST and GST from FAO and H5-6 rat hepatoma cell lines. Photoaffinity labeling with KPF-SCoA suggested that the binding of this metabolite may overlap the binding site of 4-methylumbelliferone sulfate. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis showed that both hydrolysis and transacylation reactions were observed in the presence of GST and glutathione. The formation of ketoprofenyl-S-acyl-glutathione could be kinetically characterized (apparent K(m) = 196.0 +/- 70.6 microM). It is concluded that KPF-SCoA is both a GST inhibitor and a substrate of a GST-dependent transacylation reaction. The reactivity and inhibitory potency of thioester CoA derivatives toward GST may have potential implications on the reported in vivo toxicity of some carboxylic acid-containing drugs.

  18. Nuclear glutathione S-transferase pi prevents apoptosis by reducing the oxidative stress-induced formation of exocyclic DNA products.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Kensaku; Goto, Shinji; Okunaga, Tomohiro; Ihara, Yoshito; Tsuji, Kentaro; Kawai, Yoshichika; Uchida, Koji; Osawa, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Takayuki; Nagata, Izumi; Kondo, Takahito

    2004-12-01

    We previously found that nuclear glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) accumulates in cancer cells resistant to anticancer drugs, suggesting that it has a role in the acquisition of resistance to anticancer drugs. In the present study, the effect of oxidative stress on the nuclear translocation of GSTpi and its role in the protection of DNA from damage were investigated. In human colonic cancer HCT8 cells, the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced increase in nuclear condensation, the population of sub-G(1) peak, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells were observed in cells pretreated with edible mushroom lectin, an inhibitor of the nuclear transport of GSTpi. The DNA damage and the formation of lipid peroxide were dependent on the dose of H(2)O(2) and the incubation time. Immunological analysis showed that H(2)O(2) induced the nuclear accumulation of GSTpi but not of glutathione peroxidase. Formation of the 7-(2-oxo-hepyl)-substituted 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct by the reaction of 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE) with 2'-deoxyguanosine was inhibited by GSTpi in the presence of glutathione. The conjugation product of 4-oxo-2-nonenal, a lipid aldehyde of 13-HPODE, with GSH in the presence of GSTpi, was identified by LS/MS. These results suggested that nuclear GSTpi prevents H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage by scavenging the formation of lipid-peroxide-modified DNA.

  19. Purification and biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferase from Down syndrome and normal children erythrocytes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ragaa R; Maharem, Tahany M; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was determined in ten DS and ten healthy children matched for age (3-10 years). DS group exhibited significantly lower GST value (2.7 units/gHb) as compared to controls (6.6 units/gHb) (40.9%). GST activity was significantly decreased to 40.9% in the DS group as compared to controls. Also GSH concentration was significantly decreased to 60.6% in the DS group compared to the controls. Glutathione transferase was purified from erythrocytes of normal and DS pooled blood samples by affinity chromatography with specific activity of 23.7% and 7.9%, respectively. The effect of freezing and thawing, storage time of freezing and GSH concentration on the stability of the enzyme were examined. Normal GST exhibited a pH optimum at pH 7 followed by sharp decrease, however DS GST exhibited pH optimum between pH 7.5 and 8. The Km values for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and GSH were 0.205 mM and 0.786 mM, respectively, for normal GST, and 0.318 mM and 1.307 mM, respectively for DS GST. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be 2.25 and 4.25 cal/mol for normal GST and 3.8 cal/mol for DS GST. Normal and DS GST were inhibited by the same inhibitors (hematin, bromosulfophthalein and cibacron blue), but with different degree. On kinetic basis, the individuals with lower overall GST activity and slight differences in some kinetic characters are at greater risk from xenobiotic contamination as compared to those with higher overall GST activity observed in normal individuals.

  20. Response of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes to cadmium exposure in the marine pollution indicator worm, Perinereis nuntia.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Jehee; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2011-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a phase II enzyme that functions as a detoxicant by catalyzing the conjugation of reduced glutathione with a variety of xenobiotics via cysteine thiol. Molecular genetic approaches using gene biomarkers show substantial relevance as sensitive biomarkers for the indication of pollution levels. In order to use GSTs as molecular biomarkers for marine pollution monitoring, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNA of seven GST genes from the marine polychaete Perinereis nuntia. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pn-GSTs showed a high similarity to those of other species that clustered into the same clades in a phylogenetic analysis. In addition, to evaluate Pn-GSTs as useful biomarkers on effects after cadmium (Cd) exposure, we exposed sublethal concentrations of Cd (5, 50, and 500 μg/L) to P. nuntia, and they showed relatively different but significantly increases, depending on exposure time and Cd concentrations. Particularly, Pn-GST-omega and Pn-GST-sigma genes were highly sensitive with a clear dose-dependent manner on mRNA expression. The total GST activities also have significantly increased levels at higher concentrations of Cd exposure. These results indicate that Pn-GSTs play important roles in Cd-induced oxidative stress in terms of the physiological changes relating to metabolism and cell protection, and those genes would have great potential as molecular biomarkers to monitor marine environmental health.

  1. Salinity effects on activity and expression of glutathione S-transferases in white sturgeon and Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Donham, Rachel T; Morin, Dexter; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the activity and expression of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) detoxification isoenzymes in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during acclimation from freshwater (2 per thousand) to estuarine (15 per thousand) salinity conditions. In white sturgeon, GST activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) increased significantly (P = 0.005; n = 5) with elevated salinity, but not for the Chinook salmon (P = 0.174; n = 10). GST activity of both sturgeon and salmon toward ethacrynic acid (ETHA) did not significantly change with elevated salinity (P = 0.516 with n = 3, and P = 0.125 with n = 3, respectively). Expression of the GST classes, and hepatic glutathione (GSH) concentration, as determined by HPLC, also did not significantly change with increased salinity. In conclusion, overall GST activity in white sturgeon, but not Chinook salmon, is stimulated by elevated water salinity, thus electrophilic chemicals such as pesticides may be more effectively detoxified by sturgeon as they undergo seaward migration.

  2. Organophosphate pesticides increase the expression of alpha glutathione S-transferase in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Medina-Díaz, I M; Rubio-Ortíz, M; Martínez-Guzmán, M C; Dávalos-Ibarra, R L; Rojas-García, A E; Robledo-Marenco, M L; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Girón-Pérez, M I; Elizondo, G

    2011-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion are among the most widely used insecticides in the world. Human populations are constantly exposed to low doses of both due to their extensive use and presence in food and drinking water. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) catalyzes the conjugation of glutathione on electrophilic substrates and is an important line of defense in the protection of cellular components from reactive species. GST alpha1 (GSTA1) is the predominant isoform of GST expressed in the human liver; thus, determining the effect of insecticides on GSTA1 transcription is very important. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos on GSTA1 gene expression in HepG2 cells using real time PCR, and activity and immunoreactive protein assays. The results demonstrated that exposure to methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos increased the level of GSTA1 mRNA, GSTA1 immunoreactive protein and GST activity relative to a control. These results demonstrated that these insecticides can increase the expression of GSTA1. In conclusion, HepG2 cell cultures treated with methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos could be a useful model for studying the function of GSTA1 and its role in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the liver.

  3. Expression of the affinity tags, glutathione-S-transferase and maltose-binding protein, in tobacco chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Niaz; Michoux, Franck; McCarthy, James; Nixon, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Chloroplast transformation offers an exciting platform for the safe, inexpensive and large-scale production of recombinant proteins in plants. An important advantage for the isolation of proteins produced in the chloroplast would be the use of affinity tags for rapid purification by affinity chromatography. To date, only His-tags have been used. In this study, we have tested the feasibility of expressing two additional affinity tags: glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and a His-tagged derivative of the maltose-binding protein (His₆-MBP). By using the chloroplast 16S rRNA promoter and 5' untranslated region of phage T7 gene 10, GST and His₆-MBP were expressed in homoplastomic tobacco plants at approximately 7% and 37% of total soluble protein, respectively. GST could be purified by one-step-affinity purification using a glutathione column. Much better recoveries were obtained for His₆-MBP by using a twin-affinity purification procedure involving first immobilised nickel followed by binding to amylose. Interestingly, expression of GST led to cytoplasmic male sterility. Overall, our work expands the tools available for purifying recombinant proteins from the chloroplast.

  4. The Biochemical Adaptations of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to Fresh Fruits Reduced Fructose Concentrations and Glutathione-S Transferase Activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong; Kim, A-Young; Jung, Jin Kyo; Donahue, Kelly M; Jung, Chuleui; Choi, Man-Yeon; Koh, Young Ho

    2016-04-01

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is an invasive and economically damaging pest in Europe and North America. The females have a serrated ovipositor that enables them to infest almost all ripening small fruits. To understand the physiological and metabolic basis of spotted wing drosophila food preferences for healthy ripening fruits, we investigated the biological and biochemical characteristics of spotted wing drosophila and compared them with those of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. We found that the susceptibility to oxidative stressors was significantly increased in spotted wing drosophila compared with those of D. melanogaster. In addition, we found that spotted wing drosophila had significantly reduced glutathione-S transferase (GST) activity and gene numbers. Furthermore, fructose concentrations found in spotted wing drosophila were significantly lower than those of D. melanogaster. Our data strongly suggest that the altered food preferences of spotted wing drosophila may stem from evolutionary adaptations to fresh foods accompanied by alterations in carbohydrate metabolism and GST activities.

  5. Bioaccumulation of 4-nonylphenol and effects on biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussel gilla.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui, Soledad; Beiras, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Wild marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis showed a moderate bioaccumulation ability when exposed to waterborne 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), with a bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 6850 L Kg(-1) (dry weight). Kinetic and concentration-response experiments were performed and three enzymatic biomarkers in mussel gills were measured: Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Exposure of mussels to environmentally relevant concentrations (25-100 μg L(-1)) of 4-nonylphenol significantly inhibited the AChE activity and induced the GST and GPx activities. GST induction was dose dependent whilst GPx activity showed a less consistent pattern, but in both cases the induction remained after a 10 d depuration period. Mussels seem capable of eliminating 4-NP from their tissues through a mechanism involving GST induction.

  6. Bioaccumulation of PCB-153 and effects on molecular biomarkers acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan; Soriano, José Antonio; Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Muniategui, Soledad; Beiras, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    In this study, PCB-153 bioaccumulation kinetics and concentration-response experiments were performed employing wild Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels. In addition, the activity of three enzymatic biomarkers: glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), were measured in the mussel gills. The experimental data fitted well to an asymptotic accumulation model with a high bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 9324 L kg(-1) and a very limited depuration capacity, described by a low excretion rate coefficient (Kd = 0.083 d(-1)). This study reports by first time in mussels significant inhibition of GST activity and significant induction of GPx activity as a result of exposure to dissolved PCB-153. In contrast, AChE activity was unaffected at all concentrations and exposure times tested. The effects on both enzymes are time-dependent, which stresses the difficulties inherent to the use of these biomarkers in chemical pollution monitoring programs.

  7. Differential transcription of cytochrome P450s and glutathione S transferases in DDT-susceptible and resistant Drosophila melanogaster strains in response to DDT and oxidative stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic DDT resistance in Drosophila melanogaster has previously been associated with constitutive over-transcription of cytochrome P450s. Increased P450 activity has also been associated with increased oxidative stress. In contrast, over-transcription of glutathione S transferases (GSTs) has been...

  8. INDUCTION OF DNA-PROTEIN CROSSLINKS BY THE METABOLISM OF DICHLOROMETHANE IN V79 CELL LINES TRANSFECTED WITH THE MURINE GLUTATHIONE-S-TRANSFERASE THETA 1 GENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloromethane (DCM) is considered a probable human carcinogen. Laboratory studies have shown an increased incidence of lung and liver cancer in mice but not in rats or hamsters. Despite the correlation between metabolism of DCM by the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pathway and...

  9. 1-3-A Resolution Structure of Human Glutathione S-Transferase With S-Hexyl Glutathione Bound Reveals Possible Extended Ligandin Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Trong, I.Le; Stenkamp, R.E.; Ibarra, C.; Atkins, W.M.; Adman, E.T.

    2005-08-22

    Cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a critical role in xenobiotic binding and metabolism, as well as in modulation of oxidative stress. Here, the high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of homodimeric human GSTA1-1 in the apo form and in complex with S-hexyl glutathione (two data sets) are reported at 1.8, 1.5, and 1.3A respectively. At this level of resolution, distinct conformations of the alkyl chain of S-hexyl glutathione are observed, reflecting the nonspecific nature of the hydrophobic substrate binding site (H-site). Also, an extensive network of ordered water, including 75 discrete solvent molecules, traverses the open subunit-subunit interface and connects the glutathione binding sites in each subunit. In the highest-resolution structure, three glycerol moieties lie within this network and directly connect the amino termini of the glutathione molecules. A search for ligand binding sites with the docking program Molecular Operating Environment identified the ordered water network binding site, lined mainly with hydrophobic residues, suggesting an extended ligand binding surface for nonsubstrate ligands, the so-called ligandin site. Finally, detailed comparison of the structures reported here with previously published X-ray structures reveal a possible reaction coordinate for ligand-dependent conformational changes in the active site and the C-terminus.

  10. Endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase in protection of mesothelioma cells against hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Kinnula, K.; Linnainmaa, K.; Raivio, K. O.; Kinnula, V. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that cultured malignant mesothelioma cells contain elevated manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) mRNA levels and activities compared with non-malignant mesothelial cells. As many cytotoxic drugs generate both superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, we assessed the relative significance of catalase and the glutathione redox cycle, as well as glutathione S-transferase (GST), in protecting these cells against hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin toxicity. Mesothelioma cell lines containing high (M38K cells) and low (M14K cells) MnSOD, and non-malignant MeT-5A mesothelial cells were selected for the study. M38K cells were the most resistant of these three cell types to hydrogen peroxide (0.1-0.5 mM, 4 h) and epirubicin (0.1-0.5 microg ml(-1), 48 h) as judged by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and by high-energy nucleotide (ATP, ADP, AMP) depletion. Total glutathione was higher in M38K cells (63.8 +/- 20.3 nnmol mg(-1) protein) than in M14K (25.2 +/- 8.2 nmol mg[-1]) or MeT-5A cells (23.5 +/- 4.5 nmol mg[-1]). Furthermore, GST specific activity was higher in M38K cells (111.3 +/- 15.8 U mg[-1]) than in M14K cells (77.4 +/- 6.6 U mg[-1]) or in MeT-5A cells (68.8 +/- 7.6 U mg[-1]). Western blotting indicated the presence of GST-pi in all these cells, the reactivity again being highest in M38K cells. Depletion of glutathione by buthionine sulphoximine and inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole enhanced hydrogen peroxide toxicity in all cell types, while only the depletion of glutathione increased epirubicin toxicity. We conclude that simultaneous induction of multiple antioxidant enzymes can occur in human mesothelioma cells. In addition to the high MnSOD activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and GST can partly explain the high hydrogen peroxide and epirubicin resistance of these cells in vitro. Images Figure 4 PMID:9569045

  11. Purification and biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferases from four field populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jing-Jing; Jia, Fu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2011-12-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a group of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the nucleophilic addition of glutathione to a wide variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In this study, GSTs were purified from four field populations of Bactrocera dorsalis with different insecticide susceptibilities by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography. The populations were collected from Dongguan (DG) and Guangzhou (GZ) of the Guangdong Province, Haikou of the Hainan province (HN), and Kunming of the Yunnan province (YN), China. Differences in GST characteristics among the four populations were studied using purified enzyme samples through comparative SDS-PAGE, kinetic, and inhibition experiments. The specific activities of the purified enzymes were similar, but the purification yield of the GZ population (31.54%) was the lowest. SDS-PAGE analysis showed only one band at approximately 23 kDa for these four populations. Kinetic analyses showed that the affinities of the purified GSTs from the GZ and YN populations for 1-chloro-2.4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) were much higher than those of GSTs from the other two populations, whereas the HN population had the highest catalytic capability in terms of V(max) value. The optimum temperature for CDNB conjugation was 37 °C and the optimum pH was 7.5 in all four populations. Inhibition kinetics showed that ethacrynic acid, diethyl maleate, tetraethylthiuram disulfide, curcumin, bromosulfalein, and β-cypermethrin had excellent inhibitory effects on GSTs in the four populations of B. dorsalis, but the low inhibitory effects of malathion and avermectin did not differ between populations. These results suggest that GSTs may have a role in detoxification of β-cypermethrin in B. dorsalis.

  12. In vitro kinetics of hepatic glutathione s-transferase conjugation in largemouth bass and brown bullheads

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, E.P.; Sheehy, K.M.; Lame, M.W.; Segall, H.J.

    2000-02-01

    The kinetics of glutathione 5-transferase (GST) catalysis were investigated in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and brown bullheads (Amerius nebulosus), two freshwater fish species found in a variety of polluted waterways in the eastern US. The initial rates of hepatic GST activity toward four GST substrates, including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, ethacrynic acid, {Delta}5-androstene-17-dione, and nitrobutyl chloride, were significantly higher in brown bullheads than in largemouth bass. Hepatic GST activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, a {mu}-class GST substrate in rodents, was not detectable in either species. Liver cytosolic GSTs were more efficient in bullheads than in bass at catalyzing 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-reduced glutathione (CDNB-GSH) conjugation over a broad range of electrophile (CDNB) concentrations, including those representative of environmental exposure. In contrast, largemouth bass maintained higher ambient concentrations of GSH, the nucleophilic cofactor for GST-mediated conjugation, than brown bullheads. Biphasic kinetics for GST-CDNB conjugation under conditions of variable GSH concentration were apparent in Eadie-Hofstee plots of the kinetic data, suggesting the presence of at least two hepatic GST isozymes with markedly different K{sub m} values for GSH in both species. The GST-CDNB reaction rate data obtained under conditions of variable GSH were well fitted (R{sup 2} = 0.999) by the two-enzyme Michaelis-Menten equation. In addition, Western blotting experiments confirmed the presence of two different hepatic GST-like proteins in both largemouth bass and brown bullhead liver. Collectively, these findings indicate that largemouth bass and brown bullhead GSTs catalyze the conjugation of structurally diverse, class-specific GST substrates, and that brown bullheads exhibit higher initial rates of GST activity than largemouth bass. The relatively higher rates of in vitro liver GST activity at the low substrate concentrations

  13. Pi class glutathione S-transferase genes are regulated by Nrf 2 through an evolutionarily conserved regulatory element in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Takagi, Yaeko; Osanai, Hitoshi; Li, Li; Takeuchi, Miki; Katoh, Yasutake; Kobayashi, Makoto; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    Pi class GSTs (glutathione S-transferases) are a member of the vertebrate GST family of proteins that catalyse the conjugation of GSH to electrophilic compounds. The expression of Pi class GST genes can be induced by exposure to electrophiles. We demonstrated previously that the transcription factor Nrf 2 (NF-E2 p45-related factor 2) mediates this induction, not only in mammals, but also in fish. In the present study, we have isolated the genomic region of zebrafish containing the genes gstp1 and gstp2. The regulatory regions of zebrafish gstp1 and gstp2 have been examined by GFP (green fluorescent protein)-reporter gene analyses using microinjection into zebrafish embryos. Deletion and point-mutation analyses of the gstp1 promoter showed that an ARE (antioxidant-responsive element)-like sequence is located 50 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site which is essential for Nrf 2 transactivation. Using EMSA (electrophoretic mobility-shift assay) analysis we showed that zebrafish Nrf 2–MafK heterodimer specifically bound to this sequence. All the vertebrate Pi class GST genes harbour a similar ARE-like sequence in their promoter regions. We propose that this sequence is a conserved target site for Nrf 2 in the Pi class GST genes. PMID:15654768

  14. Polymorphisms and allele frequencies of glutathione S-transferases A1 and P1 genes in the Polish population.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak-Zielinska, M; Zakerska-Banaszak, O; Tamowicz, B; Sobieraj, I; Drweska-Matelska, N; Szalata, M; Slomski, R; Mikstacki, A

    2015-03-31

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) A1 and P1 are crucial enzymes involved in the biotransformation of drugs, carcinogens, and toxins, and their activity may influence drug response, susceptibility to diseases, and carcinogenesis. The genes encoding these enzymes, GSTA1 and GSTP1, have been examined in many studies because of their genetic variability, which may affect enzymatic activity. The goal of this study was to determine the distribution of the alleles GSTA1*A/*B and GSTP1*A, *B, and *C in the Polish population. A total of 160 subjects from the Polish population were genotyped for 2 polymorphisms (I105V and A114V) in the GSTP1 gene using pyrosequencing. The promoter region of the GSTA1 gene was screened using sequencing. The detected variants were subjected to haplotype analysis. We found that the distribution of the alleles GSTA1*A/*B and GSTP1*A, *B, and *C in the Polish population correspond to the results of studies in Caucasians. Furthermore, we identified additional single nucleotide polymorphisms, excluding 3 well-known changes (G-52A, C-69T, T-567G), which are linked to alleles GSTA1*A/*B, that affect enzyme activity. A total of 4 haplotypes were identified in 160 Polish individuals.

  15. The Glutathione-S-Transferase, Cytochrome P450 and Carboxyl/Cholinesterase Gene Superfamilies in Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Marjorie A.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-resistant populations of the predatory mite Metaseiulus (= Typhlodromus or Galendromus) occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae) have been used in the biological control of pest mites such as phytophagous Tetranychus urticae. However, the pesticide resistance mechanisms in M. occidentalis remain largely unknown. In other arthropods, members of the glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 (CYP) and carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) gene superfamilies are involved in the diverse biological pathways such as the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g. pesticides) in addition to hormonal and chemosensory processes. In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of 123 genes in the GST, CYP and CCE superfamilies in the recently sequenced M. occidentalis genome. The gene count represents a reduction of 35% compared to T. urticae. The distribution of genes in the GST and CCE superfamilies in M. occidentalis differs significantly from those of insects and resembles that of T. urticae. Specifically, we report the presence of the Mu class GSTs, and the J’ and J” clade CCEs that, within the Arthropoda, appear unique to Acari. Interestingly, the majority of CCEs in the J’ and J” clades contain a catalytic triad, suggesting that they are catalytically active. They likely represent two Acari-specific CCE clades that may participate in detoxification of xenobiotics. The current study of genes in these superfamilies provides preliminary insights into the potential molecular components that may be involved in pesticide metabolism as well as hormonal/chemosensory processes in the agriculturally important M. occidentalis. PMID:27467523

  16. Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase are risk factors for perioperative acute myocardial infarction after cardiac surgery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Viktória; Gasz, Balazs; Balatonyi, Borbala; Jaromi, Luca; Kisfali, Peter; Borsiczky, Balazs; Jancso, Gabor; Marczin, Nandor; Szabados, Sandor; Melegh, Bela; Nasri, Alotti; Roth, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    In the present study we explored glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms in selected patients who experienced accelerated myocardial injury following open heart surgery and compared these to a control group of patients without postoperative complications. 758 Patients were enrolled from which 132 patients were selected to genotype analysis according to exclusion criteria. Patients were divided into the following groups: Group I: control patients (n = 78) without and Group II.: study patients (n = 54) with evidence of perioperative myocardial infarction. Genotyping for GSTP1 A (Ile105Ile/Ala113Ala), B (Ile105Val/Ala113Ala) and C (Ile105Val/Ala113Val) alleles was performed by using real-time-PCR. The heterozygous AC allele was nearly three times elevated (18.5 vs. 7.7 %) in the patients who suffered postoperative myocardial infarction compared to controls. Contrary, we found allele frequency of 14.1 % for homozygous BB allele in the control group whereas no such allele combination was present in the study group. These preliminary results may suggest the protective role for the B and C alleles during myocardial oxidative stress whereas the A allele may represent predisposing risk for cellular injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  17. Glutathione S-Transferase Omega 1 Activity Is Sufficient to Suppress Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila Model of Parkinson Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiyoung; Kim, Song-Hee; Kim, Jaekwang; Kim, Heuijong; Yim, Jeongbin

    2012-01-01

    A loss-of-function mutation in the gene parkin causes a common neurodegenerative disease that may be caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Glutathione S-transferase Omega (GSTO) is involved in cell defense mechanisms, but little is known about the role of GSTO in the progression of Parkinson disease. Here, we report that restoration of Drosophila GSTO1 (DmGSTO1), which is down-regulated in parkin mutants, alleviates some of the parkin pathogenic phenotypes and that the loss of DmGSTO1 function enhances parkin mutant phenotypes. We further identified the ATP synthase β subunit as a novel in vivo target of DmGSTO1. We found that glutathionylation of the ATP synthase β subunit is rescued by DmGSTO1 and that the expression of DmGSTO1 partially restores the activity and assembly of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase in parkin mutants. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for the protective role of DmGSTO1 in parkin mutants, through the regulation of ATP synthase activity, and provide insight into potential therapies for Parkinson disease neurodegeneration. PMID:22219196

  18. Modification of the association between maternal smoke exposure and congenital heart defects by polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Ying; Li, Shengli; Mu, Dezhi; Tian, Xiaoxian; Lin, Yuan; Yang, Jiaxiang; Li, Jun; Li, Nana; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Xinlin; Deng, Kui; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) arise through various combinations of genetic and environmental factors. Our study explores how polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes affect the association between cigarette smoke exposure and CHDs. We analysed 299 mothers of children with CHDs and 284 mothers of children without any abnormalities who were recruited from six hospitals. The hair nicotine concentration (HNC) was used to quantify maternal smoke exposure, and the maternal GSTT1, and GSTM1 and GSTP1 genes were sequenced. We found a trend of higher adjusted odds ratios with higher maternal HNC levels, suggesting a dose-response relationship between maternal smoke exposure and CHDs. The lowest HNC range associated with an increased risk of CHDs was 0.213–0.319 ng/mg among the mothers with functional deletions of GSTM1 or GSTT1and 0.319–0.573 ng/mg among the mothers with normal copies of GSTM1 and GSTT1. In addition, the adjusted odds ratio for an HNC of >0.573 ng/mg was 38.53 among the mothers with the GSTP1 AG or GG genotype, which was 7.76 (χ2 = 6.702, p = 0.010) times greater than the AOR in the mothers with GSTP1 AA genotype. Our study suggests that polymorphisms of maternal GST genes may modify the association of maternal smoke exposure with CHDs. PMID:26456689

  19. Glutathione S-transferases are involved in thiamethoxam resistance in the field whitefly Bemisia tabaci Q (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; He, Chao; Xie, Wen; Liu, Yating; Xia, Jixing; Yang, Zezong; Guo, Litao; Wen, Yanan; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Yang, Fengshan; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-11-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, has developed a high level of resistance to thiamethoxam, a second generation neonicotinoid insecticide that has been widely used to control this pest. In this study, we assessed the level of cross-resistance, the activities of detoxifying enzymes, and the expression profiles of 23 glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in a thiamethoxam-resistant ant and -susceptible strain of Bemisia tabaci Q. The thiamethoxam-resistant strain showed a moderate level of cross-resistance to another nicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, a low level of cross-resistance to acetamiprid and nitenpyram, and no significant cross-resistance to abamectin and bifenthrin. Among detoxifying enzymes, only GSTs had significantly higher activity in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain. Seven of 23 GST genes were over-expressed in the resistant strain relative to the susceptible strain. Using the technology of RNA interference to knockdown a GST gene (GST14), the results showed that silencing GST14 increased the mortality of whiteflies to thiamethoxam in Bemisia tabaci.

  20. Identification of a glutathione S-transferase associated with microsomes of tumor cells resistant to nitrogen mustards.

    PubMed

    Clapper, M L; Tew, K D

    1989-06-15

    Walker 256 rat mammary carcinoma cells resistant to chlorambucil (WR) exhibited an approximate 4-fold increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as compared to the sensitive parent cell line (WS). WR cells maintained without biannual exposure to chlorambucil (WRr) reverted to the sensitive phenotype and possessed GST levels equivalent to WS. Mitochondria, microsomes and cytosol were isolated from WS, WR and WRr cell lines and analyzed for their GST composition. GST activity in each subcellular compartment of resistant cells was increased over the sensitive cells. Antibodies raised against total rat liver cytosolic GST crossreacted in resistant cells with two microsomal proteins (25.7 kD and 29 kD). The 29 kD protein was not detected in microsomal fractions from either WS or WRr and this protein was found to be dissimilar from cytosolic GST subunits in its isoelectric point (pI 6.7) and migration on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. In addition, the 29 kD microsome-associated GST from WR cells was immunologically distinct from a 14 kD GST subunit previously identified in rat liver microsomes. These data implicate the induction of a specific microsomal GST subunit in WR cells following drug selection and suggest its potential involvement in the establishment of cellular resistance to chlorambucil.

  1. Glutathione S-transferase T1 mismatch constitutes a risk factor for de novo immune hepatitis after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Isabel; Sousa, Jose M; Gavilán, Francisco; Bernardos, Angel; Wichmann, Ingeborg; Nuñez-Roldán, Antonio

    2004-09-01

    A new form of autoimmune hepatitis referred to as de novo, has been reported after liver transplantation during the past 5 years. The features are identical to those of classical autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), but the facts involved in the onset and outcome of this type of graft dysfunction are still unclear. The identification of antibodies directed to glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) in the sera of patients with de novo immune hepatitis led us to the description of an alloimmune reaction due to a GSTT1 genetic incompatibility between donor and recipient. We analyzed a cohort of 110 liver transplant patients treated in the liver transplant unit of our hospital during a period of 1 year, from September 2002 to October 2003. We found the following distribution of the GSTT1 genotypes (recipient/donor): +/+ = 66, +/- = 23, -/+ = 15, -/- = 6. Six of these patients were diagnosed with de novo immune hepatitis; all of them belong to the group of negative recipients with positive donors, and all produced anti-GSTT1 antibodies. This genetic combination is associated with a statistically significant increased risk of de novo immune hepatitis (IH) in liver transplant patients (P < .0001 by the Fisher exact test). In conclusion, our results clearly establish the importance of the GSTT1 genotype from donor and recipient of a liver transplant as a predictive marker for de novo IH. At the same time, we confirmed our initial results that only this particular donor/recipient combination triggers the anti-GSTT1 antibody production.

  2. Altered expression of glutathione S-transferases in the liver of xenobiotic-resistant mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    SciTech Connect

    Armknecht, S.; Kaattari, S.; Cooper, P.; Van Veld, P.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic organisms frequently inhabit areas where biochemical adaptations to harsh chemical environments are necessary for survival. In the Elizabeth River VA, a population of mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabits a site severely contaminated with PAH of creosote origin. Although hepatic neoplasms are observed in adult mummichog, these fish are resistant to the acute effects of creosote contaminated sediments. The laboratory is currently investigating biochemical mechanisms of resistance in these fish and the role that biochemical adaptations play in the carcinogenic process. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels and activity are elevated three- to four-fold in livers of mummichog collected from the contaminated site relative to that of clean reference sites (Fish Physiol. Biochem. 9, 369, 1991). GSTs from livers of adult mummichog from resistant and reference site fish were purified by S-hexylglutathione affinity chromatography and isoelectric focusing. At least four forms were observed from each population with similar isoelectric focusing patterns in the basic pH range. However, there were differences in staining intensities of a protein with an isoelectric point of 8.1. Antibodies to mammalian GST 7-7, an important form that is overexpressed and involved in drug resistance in various tumor cell lines, did not recognize any present forms in mummichog liver. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being developed for the GST forms in resistant mummichog in order to allow a better understanding of factors influencing their regulation.

  3. Overexpression and amplification of glutathione S-transferase pi gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Pavelic, Z P; Li, Y; Gleich, L; Gartside, P S; Pavelic, L; Gluckman, J L; Stambrook, P J

    1997-01-01

    Human glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) may serve as a useful tumor marker because of the high frequency with which it is found in elevated levels in several tumor types. To determine whether GST-pi is useful as an indicator for cancers of the head and neck, expression of GST-pi mRNA was investigated by Northern analysis in this tumor type. Overexpression of GST-pi mRNA was detected in 9 of 36 (25%) primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). When Southern blot analysis was used to examine the relationship between overexpression and amplification of the GST-pi gene, only 3 of 36 tumors (8%) showed GST-pi gene amplification. Thus, gene amplification is not critical to GST-pi mRNA overexpression in HNSCCs. Moderately and poorly differentiated HNSCCs tended to manifest elevated GST-pi mRNA compared with well differentiated tumors (30% for moderately and poorly differentiated tumors versus none of the well differentiated tumors examined). However, there was no significant correlation between GST-% mRNA overexpression and clinical stage, T stage (tumor size), N stage (neck nodal status), pathological nodes, or patient survival.

  4. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs.

  5. Decreased lung function associated with occupational exposure to epichlorohydrin and the modification effects of glutathione s-transferase polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Kuo, Hsen-Wen; Chang, Ming J W

    2004-03-01

    Epichlorohydrin (1-chloro-2,3,-epoxypropane; ECH) is a strong irritant of the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin. Because the toxic effect of various chemicals can be modified by metabolic traits, in this study, we also investigated the influence of the glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1) and (GSTT1) genes on the toxic effect of ECH. In the GSTM1 null genotype workers, there is a dose-response of lung function tests (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MMEF) for ECH exposure, but not in the GSTM1 non-null genotype workers. The ECH exposure was found to be significantly associated with a decreased FEV1 value (P = 0.09) and a decreased MMEF value (P = 0.053) after adjusting for other factors. The GSTM1 null genotype was found to be significantly associated with a decreased FEV1 value (P = 0.038), decreased FEV1/FVC value (P = 0.056), and decreased MMEF value (P = 0.012) after adjusting for other factors. This study indicates that obstructive lung abnormalities and small airway lung damage are associated with ECH exposure, and ECH workers with GSTM1 null-type are also associated with increased respiratory damage.

  6. Molecular cloning, characterization and positively selected sites of the glutathione S-transferase family from Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Jianxin; Zhang, Min; Qin, Guohua; Li, Daqi; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds and are related to insecticide resistance. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on the molecular characteristics and the positive selection of locust GSTs. Based on the transcriptome database, we sequenced 28 cytosolic GSTs and 4 microsomal GSTs from the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria). We assigned the 28 cytosolic GSTs into 6 classes--sigma, epsilon, delta, theta, omega and zeta, and the 4 microsomal GSTs into 2 subclasses--insect and MGST3. The tissue- and stage-expression patterns of the GSTs differed at the mRNA level. Further, the substrate specificities and kinetic constants of the cytosolic GSTs differed markedly at the protein level. The results of likelihood ratio tests provided strong evidence for positive selection in the delta class. The result of Bayes Empirical Bayes analysis identified 4 amino acid sites in the delta class as positive selection sites. These sites were located on the protein surface. Our findings will facilitate the elucidation of the molecular characteristics and evolutionary aspects of insect GST superfamily.

  7. Modification of the association between maternal smoke exposure and congenital heart defects by polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Ying; Li, Shengli; Mu, Dezhi; Tian, Xiaoxian; Lin, Yuan; Yang, Jiaxiang; Li, Jun; Li, Nana; Wang, Yanping; Chen, Xinlin; Deng, Kui; Zhu, Jun

    2015-10-12

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) arise through various combinations of genetic and environmental factors. Our study explores how polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes affect the association between cigarette smoke exposure and CHDs. We analysed 299 mothers of children with CHDs and 284 mothers of children without any abnormalities who were recruited from six hospitals. The hair nicotine concentration (HNC) was used to quantify maternal smoke exposure, and the maternal GSTT1, and GSTM1 and GSTP1 genes were sequenced. We found a trend of higher adjusted odds ratios with higher maternal HNC levels, suggesting a dose-response relationship between maternal smoke exposure and CHDs. The lowest HNC range associated with an increased risk of CHDs was 0.213-0.319 ng/mg among the mothers with functional deletions of GSTM1 or GSTT1and 0.319-0.573 ng/mg among the mothers with normal copies of GSTM1 and GSTT1. In addition, the adjusted odds ratio for an HNC of >0.573 ng/mg was 38.53 among the mothers with the GSTP1 AG or GG genotype, which was 7.76 (χ(2) = 6.702, p = 0.010) times greater than the AOR in the mothers with GSTP1 AA genotype. Our study suggests that polymorphisms of maternal GST genes may modify the association of maternal smoke exposure with CHDs.

  8. Induction of glutathione-S-transferase-pi by short-chain fatty acids in the intestinal cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Stein, J; Schröder, O; Bonk, M; Oremek, G; Lorenz, M; Caspary, W F

    1996-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multigene family of detoxification and metabolizing enzymes that have been linked with the susceptibility of tissues to environmental carcinogens. In addition to their role as the main energy source in the colonic mucosa, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been found to act as potent antiproliferative and differentiating agents in various cancer cell lines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of SCFAs on the induction of GSTpi in the intestine as a possible new anticarcinogenic mechanism of SCFAs. Studies were performed in Caco-2 cells, a cell line resembling functionally normal enterocytes. Cells, cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, were studied from day 0 dpc (days post confluence) until 21 dpc and culture. SCFAs (acetate, propionate, butyrate) were added to give a final concentration of 5 mmol L(-1). At 0, 3, 6, 9, 15, and 21 dpc, protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and GSTpi were measured. Butyrate supplementation significantly (P < or = 0.01) increased GSTpi levels compared with controls in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect was detectable within 3 dpc with a maximum at 15 dpc. In contrast to butyrate, the other SCFAs tested had no (acetate) or little effect (propionate). In conclusion, the data suggest that the anticancer effect of butyrate in part may be based on the induction of GSTpi activity, resulting in an enhanced detoxification capacity of the gut.

  9. Tissue-specific expression and localization of safener-induced glutathione S-transferase proteins in Triticum tauschii.

    PubMed

    Riechers, Dean E; Zhang, Qin; Xu, Fangxiu; Vaughn, Kevin C

    2003-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) gene expression was examined in the coleoptile and new leaf tissue of etiolated shoots of the diploid wheat species Triticum tauschii (Coss.) Schmal., which is considered to be a progenitor and the D-genome donor to cultivated, hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. GST expression (mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity with a herbicide substrate) in these shoot tissues was examined in response to herbicide safener treatment. Two different antibody probes, raised against the same safener-inducible GST protein (TtGSTU1) but differing in their specificity, were utilized to determine tissue distribution and subcellular localization of GST proteins in etiolated shoots. GST transcripts, immunoreactive GST proteins, and herbicide-metabolizing activity were all highest in the coleoptile of etiolated, safener-treated T. tauschii shoots. Anti-GST immunolabeling was strongest in the outer epidermal and adjoining sub-epidermal cells in both coleoptiles and new leaves following safener treatment. Our data indicate that safeners protect grass crops from herbicide injury by dramatically inducing the expression of GST proteins in the outer cell layers of the coleoptile, which prevents the herbicide from reaching the sensitive new leaves of etiolated shoots as they emerge from the soil.

  10. A Genomics Approach to the Comprehensive Analysis of the Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Family in Soybean and Maize

    PubMed Central

    McGonigle, Brian; Keeler, Sharon J.; Lau, Sze-Mei Cindy; Koeppe, Mary K.; O'Keefe, Daniel P.

    2000-01-01

    By BLAST searching a large expressed sequence tag database for glutathione S-transferase (GST) sequences we have identified 25 soybean (Glycine max) and 42 maize (Zea mays) clones and obtained accurate full-length GST sequences. These clones probably represent the majority of members of the GST multigene family in these species. Plant GSTs are divided according to sequence similarity into three categories: types I, II, and III. Among these GSTs only the active site serine, as well as another serine and arginine in or near the “G-site” are conserved throughout. Type III GSTs have four conserved sequence patches mapping to distinct structural features. Expression analysis reveals the distribution of GSTs in different tissues and treatments: Maize GSTI is overall the most highly expressed in maize, whereas the previously unknown GmGST 8 is most abundant in soybean. Using DNA microarray analysis we observed increased expression among the type III GSTs after inducer treatment of maize shoots, with different genes responding to different treatments. Protein activity for a subset of GSTs varied widely with seven substrates, and any GST exhibiting greater than marginal activity with chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene activity also exhibited significant activity with all other substrates, suggesting broad individual enzyme substrate specificity. PMID:11080288

  11. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding a maize glutathione-S-transferase in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Moore, R E; Davies, M S; O'Connell, K M; Harding, E I; Wiegand, R C; Tiemeier, D C

    1986-09-25

    The isolation and characterization of a family of maize glutathione-S-transferases (GST's) has been described previously. These enzymes are designated GSTs I, II and III based on size, substrate specificity and responsiveness to safeners. GST III has been shown to act on the herbicide alachlor as well as the commonly used substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Clones were isolated from a maize cDNA library in lambda gt10. Three clones contained the entire coding region for GST III. The sequences of these clones were consistent with the known amino terminal GST III protein sequence. Moreover, expression of one of these clones in E. coli resulted in a GST activity as measured with both CDNB and alachlor, proving that at least one of the clones encodes an active GST III species. With the enzyme expressed in E. coli it will become possible to study enzyme structure-function relationships ex planta. While a number of different GST proteins are present in maize tissue the GST III gene is present in single or low copy in the genome.

  12. Influence of chemical treatments on glutathione S-transferases of maize with activity towards metolachlor and cinnamic acid.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, C K; Hatzios, K K; Meredith, S

    1998-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity extracted from shoots of 3-day-old etiolated seedlings of maize (Zea mays L., Northrup-King 9283 hybrid) and the induction of soluble and membrane-bound GST activity by the safener benoxacor, the herbicide metolachlor and their combination (CGA-180937) were investigated. GST activity extracted from maize shoots was detected in both cytosolic and microsomal fractions and utilized 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), metolachlor, and trans-cinnamic acid (CA) as substrates. Soluble GST activity extracted from maize shoots was greater than microsomal with CDNB or metolachlor as substrate. Membrane-bound GST activity was greater than soluble with cinnamic acid as substrate. Washing the microsomal preparations from maize shoots with Triton X-100 increased GST(CA) activity. Pretreatment with the safener benoxacor or a formulated combination of the herbicide metolachlor with benoxacor induced soluble GST(CDNB), GST(metolachlor) and GST(CA) activities in maize shoots. Benoxacor and CGA-180937 induced also membrane-bound GST(CDNB) and GST(CA) activities in maize shoots, but did not affect membrane-bound GST(metolachlor) activity. These results confirm that maize contains multiple GST isozymes that differ in their substrate specificity and inducibility by safeners or other chemicals.

  13. Festuca arundinacea, glutathione S-transferase and herbicide safeners: a preliminary case study to reduce herbicidal pollution.

    PubMed

    Scarponi, Luciano; Del Buono, Daniele

    2009-11-01

    The expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in Festuca arundinacea was investigated in response to the following herbicide safeners: benoxacor, cloquintocet-mexyl, fenchlorazol-ethyl, fenclorim, fluxofenim and oxabetrinil. All the above compounds enhanced the GST activity tested towards the "model" substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Assays of GST activity towards the herbicides terbuthylazine (N(2)-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N(4)-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and butachlor (N-butoxymethyl-2-chloro-2',6'-diethylacetanilide) as substrates also showed the ability of the safeners to enhance the enzyme activity towards both these herbicides, with the exception of cloquintocet-mexyl for the enzyme activity towards butachlor. As a consequence of the above effects at a macro-scale level, decreased herbicide accumulation and persistence were ascertained in response to the addition of the safener benoxacor to both terbuthylazine and butachlor treatments. These results are discussed in terms of capacity of benoxacor to induce herbicide detoxification in Festuca arundinacea with a view to utilizing them in reducing herbicide pollution.

  14. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding a maize glutathione-S-transferase in E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R E; Davies, M S; O'Connell, K M; Harding, E I; Wiegand, R C; Tiemeier, D C

    1986-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of a family of maize glutathione-S-transferases (GST's) has been described previously. These enzymes are designated GSTs I, II and III based on size, substrate specificity and responsiveness to safeners. GST III has been shown to act on the herbicide alachlor as well as the commonly used substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). Clones were isolated from a maize cDNA library in lambda gt10. Three clones contained the entire coding region for GST III. The sequences of these clones were consistent with the known amino terminal GST III protein sequence. Moreover, expression of one of these clones in E. coli resulted in a GST activity as measured with both CDNB and alachlor, proving that at least one of the clones encodes an active GST III species. With the enzyme expressed in E. coli it will become possible to study enzyme structure-function relationships ex planta. While a number of different GST proteins are present in maize tissue the GST III gene is present in single or low copy in the genome. Images PMID:3532034

  15. Expansion Mechanisms and Functional Divergence of the Glutathione S-Transferase Family in Sorghum and Other Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Yunhua; Cheng, Yansong; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Jiang, Shu-Ye

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) exist in various eukaryotes and function in detoxification of xenobiotics and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. We have carried out a genome-wide survey of this gene family in 10 plant genomes. Our data show that tandem duplication has been regarded as the major expansion mechanism and both monocot and dicot plants may have practiced different expansion and evolutionary history. Non-synonymous substitutions per site (Ka) and synonymous substitutions per site (Ks) analyses showed that N- and C-terminal functional domains of GSTs (GST_N and GST_C) seem to have evolved under a strong purifying selection (Ka/Ks < 1) under different selective pressures. Differential evolutionary rates between GST_N and GST_C and high degree of expression divergence have been regarded as the major drivers for the retention of duplicated genes and the adaptability to various stresses. Expression profiling also indicated that the gene family plays a role not only in stress-related biological processes but also in the sugar-signalling pathway. Our survey provides additional annotation of the plant GST gene family and advance the understanding of plant GSTs in lineage-specific expansion and species diversification. PMID:21169340

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Family in Capsella rubella: Identification, Expression, and Biochemical Functions

    PubMed Central

    He, Gang; Guan, Chao-Nan; Chen, Qiang-Xin; Gou, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Lan, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Extensive subfunctionalization might explain why so many genes have been maintained after gene duplication, which provides the engine for gene family expansion. However, it is still a particular challenge to trace the evolutionary dynamics and features of functional divergences in a supergene family over the course of evolution. In this study, we identified 49 Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes from the Capsella rubella, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana and a member of the mustard family. Capsella GSTs can be categorized into eight classes, with tau and phi GSTs being the most numerous. The expansion of the two classes mainly occurs through tandem gene duplication, which results in tandem-arrayed gene clusters on chromosomes. By integrating phylogenetic analysis, expression patterns, and biochemical functions of Capsella and Arabidopsis GSTs, functional divergence, both in gene expression and enzymatic properties, were clearly observed in paralogous gene pairs in Capsella (even the most recent duplicates), and orthologous GSTs in Arabidopsis/Capsella. This study provides functional evidence for the expansion and organization of a large gene family in closely related species. PMID:27630652

  17. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Positively Selected Sites of the Glutathione S-Transferase Family from Locusta migratoria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Qin, Guohua; Li, Daqi; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds and are related to insecticide resistance. The purpose of this study was to provide new information on the molecular characteristics and the positive selection of locust GSTs. Based on the transcriptome database, we sequenced 28 cytosolic GSTs and 4 microsomal GSTs from the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria). We assigned the 28 cytosolic GSTs into 6 classes—sigma, epsilon, delta, theta, omega and zeta, and the 4 microsomal GSTs into 2 subclasses—insect and MGST3. The tissue- and stage-expression patterns of the GSTs differed at the mRNA level. Further, the substrate specificities and kinetic constants of the cytosolic GSTs differed markedly at the protein level. The results of likelihood ratio tests provided strong evidence for positive selection in the delta class. The result of Bayes Empirical Bayes analysis identified 4 amino acid sites in the delta class as positive selection sites. These sites were located on the protein surface. Our findings will facilitate the elucidation of the molecular characteristics and evolutionary aspects of insect GST superfamily. PMID:25486043

  18. Computational QM/MM Study of the Reaction Mechanism of Human Glutathione S-Transferase A3-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Stenta, Marco; Altoè, Piero; Bottoni, Andrea; Garavelli, Marco; Spinelli, Domenico

    2007-12-01

    Human Glutathione S-Transferase A3-3(hGSTA3-3) is the most efficient human steroid double-bond isomerase enzyme. It catalyzes the double bond isomerization of Δ5-androstene-3,17-dione (Δ5-AD) and Δ5-pregnene-3,20-dione (Δ5-PD). The isomerization products are the precursors of the steroid hormones testosterone and progesterone. We have carried out a QM/MM study to elucidate some interesting aspects of the enzyme catalytic mechanism. In particular, we have analyzed either a concerted or a stepwise reaction path. Moreover, we have attempted to rationalize the electrostatic effects on the catalytic activity of the residues surrounding the active site. Specifically, we have performed a "finger print" analysis to determine the electrostatic contribution of each aminoacid residue to the global electrostatic term, thus ranking the effect of the various aminoacids in the course of the reaction. In this way, we have highlighted the most important terms affecting the stabilization-destabilization of the enzyme.

  19. Expression of glutathione S-transferases in poplar trees (Populus trichocarpa) exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT).

    PubMed

    Brentner, Laura B; Mukherji, Sachiyo T; Merchie, Kate M; Yoon, Jong Moon; Schnoor, Jerald L; Van Aken, Benoit

    2008-10-01

    Twelve Populus genes were identified from Arabidopsis thaliana sequences previously shown to be induced by exposure to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Using the resources of the Poplar Genome Project and National Center for Biotechnology Information databases, Populus conserved domains were identified and used to design gene specific primers. RNA extracted from root tissues of TNT-exposed hydroponic poplar plants was used to quantify the expression of genes by reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cyclophilin and 18S ribosomal DNA genes were used as internal standards. Exposure to TNT resulted in a significant increase of gene expression of two glutathione S-transferases (GST), peaking at levels of 25.0 +/- 13.1 and 10 +/- 0.7 fold the expression level of non-exposed plants after 24 h for each of the GST genes, respectively. This paper demonstrates the use of functional genomics information from the model plant species, Arabidopsis, to identify genes which may be important in detoxification of TNT in the model phytoremediation species, Populus trichocarpa.

  20. Circadian regulation of permethrin susceptibility by glutathione S-transferase (BgGSTD1) in the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Mei; Huang, Jia-Hsin; Lee, How-Jing

    2014-06-01

    The daily susceptibility rhythm to permethrin and the expression level of the delta class glutathione S-transferase (BgGSTD1) gene were investigated in Blattella germanica. Male cockroaches were exposed to the same concentration of permethrin at different times in a light-dark cycle, and results showed that the highest resistance occurred at night. Furthermore, the circadian rhythmicity of permethrin susceptibility was demonstrated by the highest resistance at subjective night under constant darkness. The mRNA level of the BgGSTD1 gene in the fat body of B. germanica peaked early in the day or subjective day under light-dark or constant dark conditions, whereas enzyme activity of cytosolic GSTs did not reflect the rhythmic pattern as well as BgGSTD1 expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to study the function of BgGSTD1 in the circadian rhythm of permethrin susceptibility in B. germanica. Both BgGSTD1 mRNA level and cytosolic GSTs activity were significantly decreased by dsGSTD1 injection. In addition, survival of B. germanica with silenced BgGSTD1 was significantly decreased at night but not in the day when the cockroaches were exposed to permethrin. Total cytosolic GSTs activity demonstrated that is not the only gene involved in the circadian regulation of the permethrin resistance, although it is one of the major regulators of permethrin resistance.

  1. Cloning, characterization and expression of two glutathione S-transferase cDNAs in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yufen; Krell, Peter J; Ladd, Tim; Feng, Qili; Zheng, Sichun

    2009-01-01

    Two Choristoneura fumiferana glutathione S-transferase cDNAs (CfGSTs4 and CfGSTd5) were cloned from a cDNA library constructed using mRNA from the midgut cell line, CF-203. These cDNAs encoded two structurally different proteins with a predicted molecular mass of 23 and 24 kDa, respectively. Amino acid sequence analysis indicates that CfGSTs4 and CfGSTd5 contained Sigma and Delta GST domain, respectively. CfGSTs4 cDNA was expressed as a recombinant protein with the same molecular mass as predicted. Semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analyses indicated that both of these genes were expressed in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut of the 6th instar larvae, as well as CF-203 cells. CfGSTs4 was highly and almost constantly expressed in all tissues during the 6th instar stage. There were higher levels of CfGSTs4 protein in the midgut and fat body than in the epidermis. CfGSTd5 was expressed in the fat body when the insects underwent pupal molting and was constantly expressed in the epidermis and midgut during 6th instar development. CfGSTs4 expression was not affected by ecdysone agonist tebufenozide (RH5992), whereas CfGSTd5 expression was slightly suppressed by the compound.

  2. Cloning and characterization of two glutathione S-transferase cDNAs in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sichun; Deng, Huimin; Ladd, Tim; Tomkins, Bill L; Krell, Peter J; Feng, Qili

    2007-11-01

    Two Choristoneura fumiferana glutathione S-transferase cDNAs were cloned from a cDNA library constructed using mRNA from the midgut cell line, CF-203. These cDNAs (CfGST2, CfGST3) encoded two structurally different proteins with a predicted molecular mass of 21 and 24 kDa, respectively, which was confirmed through protein expression in a bacterial system. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR analyses revealed that the transcripts of these two genes were present in the epidermis, fat body, and midgut of the 6th instar larvae. CfGST2 was expressed in the fat body when the insects were close to pupal molting, while it was constantly expressed in the other two tissues during the 6th instar stage. CfGST3 gene was expressed highly and constantly in all of the tissues throughout the 6th instar stage. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that CfGST2 and CfGST3 proteins were present mainly in the fat body and epidermis and no protein was detected in the midgut. CfGST2 and CfGST3 were different from CfGST reported before (Feng et al., 1999: Insect Biochem Mol Biol 29:779-793) in amino acid sequence, expression pattern, and responsiveness to tebufenozide.

  3. Identification of Putative Carboxylesterase and Glutathione S-transferase Genes from the Antennae of the Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Gong, Zhong-Jun; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-01-01

    In insects, rapid degradation of odorants in antennae is extremely important for the sensitivity of olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant degradation in insect antennae is mediated by multiple enzymes, especially the carboxylesterases (CXEs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). The Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis, is an economically important lepidopteran pest which causes great economic damage to cultivated rice crops in many Asian countries. In this study, we identified 19 putative CXE and 16 GST genes by analyzing previously constructed antennal transcriptomes of C. suppressalis. BLASTX best hit results showed that these genes are most homologous to their respective orthologs in other lepidopteran species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these CXE and GST genes were clustered into various clades. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays showed that three CXE genes (CsupCXE8, CsupCXE13, and CsupCXE18) are antennae-enriched. These genes are candidates for involvement in odorant degradation. Unexpectedly, none of the GST genes were found to be antennae-specific. Our results pave the way for future researches of the odorant degradation mechanism of C. suppressalis at the molecular level. PMID:26198868

  4. Rapid development of glutathione-S-transferase-dependent drug resistance in vitro and its prevention by ethacrynic acid.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, P B; Zhu, M; Zhang, Y; Chinen, N; Frenkel, G D

    1999-02-08

    Exposure of A2780 human ovarian tumor cells to a low concentration of melphalan in vitro for 7 days resulted in the development of melphalan resistance. This resistance was not a stable characteristic of the cells since it was lost after 2 weeks in culture in the absence of drug. The melphalan-resistant cells exhibited significant cross-resistance to cisplatin but only minor cross-resistance to doxorubicin. The resistant cells had elevated levels of glutathione-S-transferase activity and mRNA. Exposure of the cells to the ethacrynic acid resulted in a decrease in enzyme activity as well as a reversal of their drug-resistant phenotype, indicating that the enzyme is involved in the resistance. When ethacrynic acid was present during the 7-day exposure of the cells to melphalan, the development of drug resistance was prevented. This system may serve as a useful preliminary step in screening for agents which can prevent the development of chemotherapy-induced drug resistance in human cancer.

  5. Glutathione S-transferase iso-enzymes in perfusate from pumped kidneys are associated with delayed graft function.

    PubMed

    Hall, I E; Bhangoo, R S; Reese, P P; Doshi, M D; Weng, F L; Hong, K; Lin, H; Han, G; Hasz, R D; Goldstein, M J; Schröppel, B; Parikh, C R

    2014-04-01

    Accurate and reliable assessment tools are needed in transplantation. The objective of this prospective, multi-center study was to determine the associations of the alpha and pi iso-enzymes of glutathione S-transferase (GST), measured from perfusate solution at the start and end (base and post) of kidney allograft machine perfusion, with subsequent delayed graft function (DGF). We also compared GST iso-enzyme perfusate levels from discarded versus transplanted kidneys. A total of 428 kidneys were linked to outcomes as recorded by the United Network of Organ Sharing. DGF, defined as any dialysis in the first week of transplant, occurred in 141 recipients (32%). Alpha- and pi-GST levels significantly increased during machine perfusion. The adjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval) of DGF with each log-unit increase in base and post pi-GST were 1.14 (1.0-1.3) and 1.36 (1.1-1.8), respectively. Alpha-GST was not independently associated with DGF. There were no significant differences in GST values between discarded and transplanted kidneys, though renal resistance was significantly higher in discarded kidneys. We found pi-GST at the end of machine perfusion to be independently associated with DGF. Further studies should elucidate the utility of GST for identifying injured kidneys with regard to organ allocation, discard and recipient management decisions.

  6. Influence of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) inhibition on lung epithelial cell injury: role of oxidative stress and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Marianne E; Boshier, Piers R; Wakabayashi, Kenji; Keun, Hector C; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Kirkham, Paul A; Adcock, Ian M; Barton, Paul J; Takata, Masao; Marczin, Nandor

    2015-06-15

    Oxidant-mediated tissue injury is key to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are important detoxifying enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione with toxic oxidant compounds and are associated with acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We hypothesized that attenuation of cellular GST enzymes would augment intracellular oxidative and metabolic stress and induce lung cell injury. Treatment of murine lung epithelial cells with GST inhibitors, ethacrynic acid (EA), and caffeic acid compromised lung epithelial cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitors also potentiated cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), tert-butyl-hydroperoxide, and hypoxia and reoxygenation (HR). SiRNA-mediated attenuation of GST-π but not GST-μ expression reduced cell viability and significantly enhanced stress (H2O2/HR)-induced injury. GST inhibitors also induced intracellular oxidative stress (measured by dihydrorhodamine 123 and dichlorofluorescein fluorescence), caused alterations in overall intracellular redox status (as evidenced by NAD(+)/NADH ratios), and increased protein carbonyl formation. Furthermore, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine completely prevented EA-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. Whereas EA had no effect on mitochondrial energetics, it significantly altered cellular metabolic profile. To explore the physiological impact of these cellular events, we used an ex vivo mouse-isolated perfused lung model. Supplementation of perfusate with EA markedly affected lung mechanics and significantly increased lung permeability. The results of our combined genetic, pharmacological, and metabolic studies on multiple platforms suggest the importance of GST enzymes, specifically GST-π, in the cellular and whole lung response to acute oxidative and metabolic stress. These may have important clinical implications.

  7. Dual localization of glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and mitochondria: implications in oxidative stress, toxicity and disease.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider

    2011-11-01

    Glutathione (GSH) conjugating enzymes, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), are present in different subcellular compartments including cytosol, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and plasma membrane. The regulation and function of GSTs have implications in cell growth, oxidative stress as well as disease progression and prevention. Of the several mitochondria localized forms, GSTK (GST kappa) is mitochondria-specific since it contains N-terminal canonical and cleavable mitochondria targeting signals. Other forms like GST alpha, mu and pi purified from mitochondria are similar to the cytosolic molecular forms or 'echoproteins'. Altered GST expression has been implicated in hepatic, cardiac and neurological diseases. Mitochondria-specific GSTK has also been implicated in obesity, diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Studies have shown that silencing the GSTA4 (GST alpha) gene resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, as was also seen in GSTA4 null mice, which could contribute to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. This review highlights the significance of the mitochondrial GST pool, particularly the mechanism and significance of dual targeting of GSTA4-4 under in vitro and in vivo conditions. GSTA4-4 is targeted in the mitochondria by activation of the internal cryptic signal present at the C-terminus of the protein by protein-kinase-dependent phosphorylation and cytosolic heat shock protein (Hsp70) chaperone. Mitochondrial GST pi, on the other hand, has been shown to have two uncleaved cryptic signals rich in positively charged amino acids at the N-terminal region. Both physiological and pathophysiological implications of GST translocation to mitochondria are discussed in the review.

  8. Organ-Specific Expression of Glutathione S-Transferases and the Efficacy of Herbicide Safeners in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    DeRidder, Ben P.; Goldsbrough, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    The functions of plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) under normal growth conditions are poorly understood, but their activity as detoxification enzymes has been harnessed in agriculture for selective weed control. Herbicide safeners protect monocot crops from herbicide injury but have little effect on weedy monocot or dicot species. Protection by safeners is associated with expression of herbicide-metabolizing enzymes including GSTs, but the basis for selective action of safeners between monocots and dicots is not known. To address this question we have studied the response of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to various safeners. Benoxacor, fenclorim, and fluxofenim did not protect Arabidopsis from herbicide injury but did induce RNA expression of the glutathione-conjugate transporters encoded by AtMRP1, AtMRP2, AtMRP3, and AtMRP4. These safeners also induced the organ-specific expression of AtGSTU19 and AtGSTF2, two previously characterized Arabidopsis GSTs from different classes of this enzyme family. RNA hybridization, immunoblot, and reporter gene analyses indicated expression of AtGSTU19 induced by safeners predominated in roots. To test the hypothesis that increased expression of AtGSTU19 would be sufficient to provide tolerance to chloroacetamide herbicides, a chimeric gene was produced containing the open reading frame for this GST driven by a constitutive promoter. Plants containing this transgene had a modest increase in AtGSTU19 protein, predominantly in roots, but this had no effect on tolerance to chloroacetamide herbicides. The localized induction of GSTs by safeners in roots of Arabidopsis may explain why these compounds are unable to provide herbicide tolerance to dicot plant species. PMID:16361527

  9. Organ-specific expression of glutathione S-transferases and the efficacy of herbicide safeners in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    DeRidder, Ben P; Goldsbrough, Peter B

    2006-01-01

    The functions of plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) under normal growth conditions are poorly understood, but their activity as detoxification enzymes has been harnessed in agriculture for selective weed control. Herbicide safeners protect monocot crops from herbicide injury but have little effect on weedy monocot or dicot species. Protection by safeners is associated with expression of herbicide-metabolizing enzymes including GSTs, but the basis for selective action of safeners between monocots and dicots is not known. To address this question we have studied the response of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to various safeners. Benoxacor, fenclorim, and fluxofenim did not protect Arabidopsis from herbicide injury but did induce RNA expression of the glutathione-conjugate transporters encoded by AtMRP1, AtMRP2, AtMRP3, and AtMRP4. These safeners also induced the organ-specific expression of AtGSTU19 and AtGSTF2, two previously characterized Arabidopsis GSTs from different classes of this enzyme family. RNA hybridization, immunoblot, and reporter gene analyses indicated expression of AtGSTU19 induced by safeners predominated in roots. To test the hypothesis that increased expression of AtGSTU19 would be sufficient to provide tolerance to chloroacetamide herbicides, a chimeric gene was produced containing the open reading frame for this GST driven by a constitutive promoter. Plants containing this transgene had a modest increase in AtGSTU19 protein, predominantly in roots, but this had no effect on tolerance to chloroacetamide herbicides. The localized induction of GSTs by safeners in roots of Arabidopsis may explain why these compounds are unable to provide herbicide tolerance to dicot plant species.

  10. Dual protective role for glutathione S-transferase class pi against VCD-induced ovotoxicity in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Keating, Aileen F; Sen, Nivedita; Sipes, I Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2010-09-01

    The occupational chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) selectively destroys ovarian small pre-antral follicles in rats and mice via apoptosis. Detoxification of VCD can occur through glutathione conjugation, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes. Further, GST class pi (GSTp) can negatively regulate JNK activity through protein:protein interactions in extra-ovarian tissues. Dissociation of this protein complex in the face of chemical exposure releases the inhibition of pro-apoptotic JNK. Increased JNK activity during VCD-induced ovotoxicity has been shown in isolated ovarian small pre-antral follicles following in vivo dosing of rats (80mg/kg/day; 15days, i.p.). The present study investigated the pattern of ovarian GSTp expression during VCD exposure. Additionally, the effect of VCD on an ovarian GSTp:JNK protein complex was investigated. PND4 F344 rat ovaries were incubated in control medium+/-VCD (30muM) for 2-8days. VCD increased ovarian GSTp mRNA (P <0.05) relative to control on d4-d8; whereas GSTp protein was increased (P<0.05) on d6-d8. A GSTp:JNK protein complex was detected by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting in ovarian tissues. Relative to control, the amount of GSTp-bound JNK was increased (P=0.09), while unbound JNK was decreased (P<0.05) on d6 of VCD exposure. The VCD-induced decrease in unbound JNK was preceded by a decrease in phosphorylated c-Jun which occurred on d4. These findings are in support of a possible dual protective role for GSTp in the rat ovary, consisting of metabolism of VCD and inhibition of JNK-initiated apoptosis.

  11. Dual protective role for Glutathione S-transferase class pi against VCD-induced ovotoxicity in the rat ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Aileen F.; Sen, Nivedita; Sipes, I. Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B.

    2010-09-01

    The occupational chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) selectively destroys ovarian small pre-antral follicles in rats and mice via apoptosis. Detoxification of VCD can occur through glutathione conjugation, catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes. Further, GST class pi (GSTp) can negatively regulate JNK activity through protein:protein interactions in extra-ovarian tissues. Dissociation of this protein complex in the face of chemical exposure releases the inhibition of pro-apoptotic JNK. Increased JNK activity during VCD-induced ovotoxicity has been shown in isolated ovarian small pre-antral follicles following in vivo dosing of rats (80 mg/kg/day; 15 days, i.p.). The present study investigated the pattern of ovarian GSTp expression during VCD exposure. Additionally, the effect of VCD on an ovarian GSTp:JNK protein complex was investigated. PND4 F344 rat ovaries were incubated in control medium {+-} VCD (30 {mu}M) for 2-8 days. VCD increased ovarian GSTp mRNA (P < 0.05) relative to control on d4-d8; whereas GSTp protein was increased (P < 0.05) on d6-d8. A GSTp:JNK protein complex was detected by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting in ovarian tissues. Relative to control, the amount of GSTp-bound JNK was increased (P = 0.09), while unbound JNK was decreased (P < 0.05) on d6 of VCD exposure. The VCD-induced decrease in unbound JNK was preceded by a decrease in phosphorylated c-Jun which occurred on d4. These findings are in support of a possible dual protective role for GSTp in the rat ovary, consisting of metabolism of VCD and inhibition of JNK-initiated apoptosis.

  12. Enantioselective induction of a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ABC transporter in maize by Metolachlor and its (S)-isomer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Sen; Ran, Zhaojin; Liu, Zhiqian; Song, Xiaoyu; Duan, Liusheng; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Chengju

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of chiral herbicides in plants remains poorly understood. Glutathione conjugation reactions are one of the principal mechanisms that plants utilize to detoxify xenobiotics. The induction by rac- and S-metolachlor of the expression of three genes, ZmGST27, ZmGT1 and ZmMRP1, encoding respectively a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was studied in maize. The results demonstrate that the inducing effect of rac- and S-metolachlor on the expression of ZmGST27 and ZmGT1 is comparable. However, the inducing effect of rac-metolachlor on ZmMRP1 expression is more pronounced than that of S-metolachlor. Furthermore, vanadate, an ABC transporter inhibitor, could greatly reduce the difference in herbicidal activity between rac- and S-metolachlor. These results suggest that the ABC transporters may preferentially transport conjugates of rac-metolachlor, leading to a faster metabolism of the latter. Through comparing the expression of ZmGST27, ZmMRP1 and ZmGT1 after treatment by rac- and S-metolachlor, we provide novel insights into the metabolic processes of chiral herbicides in plants.

  13. Enantioselective Induction of a Glutathione-S-Transferase, a Glutathione Transporter and an ABC Transporter in Maize by Metolachlor and Its (S)-Isomer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqian; Song, Xiaoyu; Duan, Liusheng; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Chengju

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of chiral herbicides in plants remains poorly understood. Glutathione conjugation reactions are one of the principal mechanisms that plants utilize to detoxify xenobiotics. The induction by rac- and S-metolachlor of the expression of three genes, ZmGST27, ZmGT1 and ZmMRP1, encoding respectively a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was studied in maize. The results demonstrate that the inducing effect of rac- and S-metolachlor on the expression of ZmGST27 and ZmGT1 is comparable. However, the inducing effect of rac-metolachlor on ZmMRP1 expression is more pronounced than that of S-metolachlor. Furthermore, vanadate, an ABC transporter inhibitor, could greatly reduce the difference in herbicidal activity between rac- and S-metolachlor. These results suggest that the ABC transporters may preferentially transport conjugates of rac-metolachlor, leading to a faster metabolism of the latter. Through comparing the expression of ZmGST27, ZmMRP1 and ZmGT1 after treatment by rac- and S-metolachlor, we provide novel insights into the metabolic processes of chiral herbicides in plants. PMID:23144728

  14. Glutathione S-transferase conjugation of organophosphorus pesticides yields S-phospho-, S-aryl-, and S-alkylglutathione derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Casida, John E

    2007-08-01

    Pesticide detoxification is a central feature of selective toxicity and safety evaluation. Two of the principal enzymes involved are GSH S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s acting alone and together. More than 100 pesticides are organophosphorus (OP) compounds, but with few exceptions, their GSH conjugates have not been directly observed in vitro or in vivo. The major insecticides chlorpyrifos (CP) and diazinon are of particular interest as multifunctional substrates with diverse metabolites, while ClP(S)(OEt) 2 and the cotton defoliant tribufos are possible precursors of phosphorylated GSH conjugates. Formation of GSH conjugates by GST with GSH was studied in vitro with and without metabolic activation by human liver microsomes or P450 3A4 with NADPH. Metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Five GSH conjugates were identified from CP and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), i.e., GSCP and GSCPO in which the 6-chloro substituent of CP and CPO, respectively, is displaced by GSH; S-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl)glutathione; S-(3,5-dichloro-6-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)glutathione; and S-ethylglutathione. GST of a human liver microsomal preparation but not P450 3A4 with GSH metabolized CP to GSCP. With GST and GSH, diazinon and diazoxon gave S-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyrimidin-6-yl)glutathione and ClP(S)(OEt) 2 yielded GSP(S)(OEt) 2. With microsomes, NADPH, GST, and GSH tribufos gave GSP(O)(SBu) 2. The liver of intraperitoneally treated mice contained GSCP from CP, GSP(S)(OEt) 2 from ClP(S)(OEt) 2, and GSP(O)(SBu) 2 from tribufos. GSP(S)(OEt) 2 and GSP(O)(SBu) 2 are the first S-phosphoglutathione metabolites observed in vitro and in vivo directly by LC-ESI-MS. Nine other OP pesticides gave only O-dealkylation in the GST/GSH system. GST-catalyzed metabolism joins P450s and hydrolases as important contributors to OP detoxification.

  15. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water.

    PubMed

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  16. Expression level and DNA methylation status of Glutathione-S-transferase genes in normal murine prostate and TRAMP tumors

    PubMed Central

    Mavis, Cory K.; Kinney, Shannon R. Morey; Foster, Barbara A.; Karpf, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Glutathione-S-transferase (Gst) genes are down-regulated in human prostate cancer, and GSTP1 silencing is mediated by promoter DNA hypermethylation in this malignancy. We examined Gst gene expression and Gst promoter DNA methylation in normal murine prostates and Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) tumors. METHODS Primary and metastatic tumors were obtained from TRAMP mice, and normal prostates were obtained from strain-matched WT mice (n=15/group). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to measure GstA4, GstK1, GstM1, GstO1, and GstP1 mRNA expression, and Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining was used to measure GstM1 and GstP1 protein expression. MassARRAY Quantitative Methylation Analysis was used to measure DNA methylation of the 5’ CpG islands of GstA4, GstK1, GstM1, GstO1, and GstP1. TRAMP-C2 cells were treated with the epigenetic remodeling drugs decitabine and trichostatin A (TSA) alone and in combination, and Gst gene expression was measured. RESULTS Of the genes analyzed, GstM1 and GstP1 were expressed at highest levels in normal prostate. All five Gst genes showed greatly reduced expression in primary tumors compared to normal prostate, but not in tumor metastases. Gst promoter methylation was unchanged in TRAMP tumors compared to normal prostate. Combined decitabine + TSA treatment significantly enhanced the expression of 4/5 Gst genes in TRAMP-C2 cells. CONCLUSIONS Gst genes are extensively downregulated in primary but not metastatic TRAMP tumors. Promoter DNA hypermethylation does not appear to drive Gst gene repression in TRAMP primary tumors; however, pharmacological studies using TRAMP cells suggest the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in Gst gene repression. PMID:19444856

  17. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Minh, Tu Binh; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As(V) than the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA(V) in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As(V) to As(III). Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population.

  18. Sirtuin 3 enhanced drug sensitivity of human hepatoma cells through glutathione S-transferase pi 1/JNK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Wen-Lu; Ren, Ji-Hua; Zhou, Li; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Ke; Li, Wan-Yu; Liu, Bo; Yang, Qiu-Xia; Cheng, Sheng-Tao; Huang, Li-Xia; Huang, Ai-Long; Chen, Juan

    2016-01-01

    SIRT3, a class III histone deacetylase, has been implicated in various cancers as a novel therapeutic target. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we previously reported that SIRT3 induced cell apoptosis by regulating GSK-3β/Bax signaling pathway. Downregulation of SIRT3 in HCC cells facilitates tumor cell survival. In this study, we found that chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin, cisplatin and epirubicin) and sorafenib treatment downregulated SIRT3 mRNA and protein levels in three HCC cell lines. MTS assay found that SIRT3 overexpression sensitized liver cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and sorafenib in SMMC-7721, Huh-7 and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines. Moreover, SIRT3 overexpression promoted chemotherapeutic agents-induced or sorafenib-induced apoptosis as evidenced by flow cytometry, enhanced PARP cleavage and enhanced Caspase-9 cleavage in three HCC cells. In contrast, SIRT3 silencing increased drug resistance of HCC cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Mechanistic study found that SIRT3 downregulated the mRNA and protein levels of glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), which is a member of phase II detoxification enzymes families involved in metabolizing for chemotherapeutic agents. Moreover, SIRT3 decreased the amount of GSTP1 that was associated with JNK, which finally contributed the activation of JNK activity and activation of downstream target c-Jun and Bim. Importantly, GSTP1 overexpression or JNK inhibitor abolished SIRT3-induced apoptosis in HCC cells exposed to chemotherapeutic agents. Finally, there was a negative correlation between SIRT3 expression and GSTP1 expression in human HCC tissues. Together, our findings revealed SIRT3 could enhance the drug sensitivity of HCC cells to an array of chemotherapeutic agents. SIRT3 may serve as a potential target for improving the chemosensitivity of HCC patients. PMID:27367026

  19. A novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of pi-class glutathione S-transferase from Mytilus coruscus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; He, Jianyu; Zhao, Rongtao; Chi, Changfeng; Bao, Yongbo

    2015-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are the superfamily of phase II detoxification enzymes that play crucial roles in innate immunity. In this study, a pi-class GST homolog was identified from Mytilus coruscus (named as McGST1, KC525103). The full-length cDNA sequence of McGST1 was 621bp with a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 70bp and a 3'-UTR of 201bp. The deduced amino acid sequence was 206 residues in length with theoretical pI/MW of 5.60/23.72kDa, containing the conserved G-site and diversiform H-site. BLASTn analysis and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested that this cDNA sequence was a member of pi class GST family. The prediction of secondary structure displayed a preserved N-terminal and a C-terminal comprised with α-helixes. Quantitative real time RT-PCR showed that constitutive expression of McGST1 was occurred, with increasing order in mantle, muscle, gill, hemocyte, gonad and hepatopancreas. The stimulation of bacterial infection, heavy metals and 180CST could up-regulate McGST1 mRNA expression in hepatopancreas with time-dependent manners. The maximum expression appeared at 6h after pathogenic bacteria injected, with 10-fold in Vibrio alginolyticus and 16-fold in Vibrio harveyi higher than that of the control. The highest point of McGST1 mRNA appeared at different time for exposure to copper (10-fold at day 15), cadmium (9-fold at day10) and 180 CST (10-fold at day 15). These results suggested that McGST1 played a significant role in antioxidation and might potentially be used as indicators and biomarkers for detection of marine environmental pollution.

  20. Perfluorooctanoic acid induces gene promoter hypermethylation of glutathione-S-transferase Pi in human liver L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Meiping; Peng, Siyuan; Martin, Francis L; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Wang, Zhanlin; Dong, Sijun; Shen, Heqing

    2012-06-14

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of the most commonly used perfluorinated compounds. Being a persistent environmental pollutant, it can accumulate in human tissues via various exposure routes. PFOA may interfere in a toxic fashion on the immune system, liver, development, and endocrine systems. In utero human exposure had been associated with cord serum global DNA hypomethylation. In light of this, we investigated possible PFOA-induced DNA methylation alterations in L02 cells in order to shed light into its epigenetic-mediated mechanisms of toxicity in human liver. L02 cells were exposed to 5, 10, 25, 50 or 100 mg/L PFOA for 72h. Global DNA methylation levels were determined by LC/ESI-MS, glutathione-S-transferase Pi (GSTP) gene promoter DNA methylation was investigated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bisulfite sequencing, and consequent mRNA expression levels were measured with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. A dose-related increase of GSTP promoter methylation at the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) binding site was observed. However, PFOA did not significantly influence global DNA methylation; nor did it markedly alter the promoter gene methylation of p16 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A), ERα (estrogen receptor α) or PRB (progesterone receptor B). In addition, PFOA significantly elevated mRNA transcript levels of DNMT3A (which mediates de novo DNA methylation), Acox (lipid metabolism) and p16 (cell apoptosis). Considering the role of GSTP in detoxification, aberrant methylation may be pivotal in PFOA-mediated toxicity response via the inhibition of SP1 binding to GSTP promoter.

  1. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms, cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk among Chinese in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Nelson, Heather H.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Van den Berg, David; Jin, Aizhen; Wang, Renwei; Yu, Mimi C.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Putative colorectal procarcinogens in tobacco smoke include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines that are known substrates of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This study examined the influence of functional GST gene polymorphisms on the smoking–colorectal cancer association in a population known to be minimally exposed to dietary sources of these procarcinogens. Incident cases of colorectal cancer (n = 480) and matched controls (n = 1167) were selected from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort of 63 257 men and women who have been followed since 1993. We determined the deletion polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and the functional polymorphism at codon 105 of GSTP1 for each subject. A three level composite GST index was used to examine if GST profile affected a smoker’s risk of developing colorectal cancer. While there was no statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk among subjects absent of any at-risk GST genotypes, smokers possessing two to three at-risk GST genotypes exhibited a statistically significant increased risk of colorectal cancer compared with non-smokers (P = 0.0002). In this latter stratum, heavy smokers exhibited a >5-fold increased risk relative to never-smokers (odds ratio, 5.43; 95% confidence interval, 2.22–13.23). Subjects with one at-risk GST genotype displayed a statistically significant but weaker association with smoking. These findings suggest that GST gene polymorphisms influence interindividual susceptibility to smoking-associated colorectal cancer. Our data indicate an important role for GST enzymes in the detoxification of colorectal carcinogens in tobacco smoke. PMID:21803734

  2. Glutathione S-Transferases M1 and P1 Prevent Aggravation of Allergic Responses by Secondhand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Frank D.; Li, Yu-Fen; Gong, Henry; Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) and traffic-related air pollutants are associated with asthma and allergy. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and SHS can interact with allergens in exacerbating allergic airway diseases through generation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) metabolize reactive oxygen species and detoxify electrophilic xenobiotics present in SHS and DEPs. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that functional GSTM1-null genotype and GSTP1 codon 105 variants (Ile105 and Val105) are determinants of allergic responses to SHS, and that responses to SHS and DEPs are correlated. Methods and Measurements: In a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 19 ragweed allergen–sensitive subjects who had previously participated in a DEP trial were challenged intranasally with allergen after having been exposed to either clean air or SHS at separate visits. Nasal allergen–specific IgE, histamine, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels were measured before and after allergen challenge. Main Results: Individuals with GSTM1-null or GSTP1 Ile105 genotypes showed larger nasal responses to allergens with SHS compared with clean air. GSTM1-null subjects had a larger increase in IgE than GSTM1-present subjects (median, 173.3 vs. 46.7 U/ml; p = 0.03), and the Ile105 GSTP1 genotype subjects had increased histamine (median, 10.2 vs. 4.6 nM; p = 0.01) after SHS plus allergen challenge. Responses to SHS and DEPs were correlated. Enhancement of IgE and histamine was greatest in the subjects with both the GSTM1-null and GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotypes. Conclusions: GSTM1 and GSTP1 are important cytoprotective factors that reduce SHS and DEP exacerbation of allergic responses. PMID:17023730

  3. Growth hormone alters the glutathione S-transferase and mitochondrial thioredoxin systems in long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Rakoczy, Sharlene; Brown-Borg, Holly M

    2014-10-01

    Ames dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their wild-type (WT) siblings. The lack of GH is associated with stress resistance and increased longevity. However, the mechanism underlying GH's actions on cellular stress defense have yet to be elucidated. In this study, WT or Ames dwarf mice were treated with saline or GH (WT saline, Dwarf saline, and Dwarf GH) two times daily for 7 days. The body and liver weights of Ames dwarf mice were significantly increased after 7 days of GH administration. Mitochondrial protein levels of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, K1 and M4 (GSTK1 and GSTM4), were significantly higher in dwarf mice (Dwarf saline) when compared with WT mice (WT saline). GH administration downregulated the expression of GSTK1 proteins in dwarf mice. We further investigated GST activity from liver lysates using different substrates. Substrate-specific GST activity (bromosulfophthalein, dichloronitrobenzene, and 4-hydrox-ynonenal) was significantly reduced in GH-treated dwarf mice. In addition, GH treatment attenuated the activity of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in liver mitochondria of Ames mice. Importantly, GH treatment suppressed Trx2 and TrxR2 mRNA expression. These data indicate that GH has a role in stress resistance by altering the functional capacity of the GST system through the regulation of specific GST family members in long-living Ames dwarf mice. It also affects the regulation of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, factors that regulate posttranslational modification of proteins and redox balance, thereby further influencing stress resistance.

  4. Transcriptional profiles of glutathione-S-Transferase isoforms, Cyp, and AOE genes in atrazine-exposed zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Glisic, Branka; Hrubik, Jelena; Fa, Svetlana; Dopudj, Nela; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2016-02-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) superfamily consists of multiple members involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Expressional pattern of the GST isoforms in adult fish has been used as a biomarker of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, GST transcriptional responses vary across organs, thus requiring a cross-tissue examination of multiple mRNAs for GST profiling in an animal after chemical exposure. Zebrafish embryos express all GST isoforms as adult fish and could therefore represent an alternative model for identification of biomarkers of exposure. To evaluate such a possibility, we studied a set of cytosolic and microsomal GST isoform-specific expression profiles in the zebrafish embryos after exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide. Expression of the GST isoforms was compared with that of CYP genes involved in the phase I of xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant enzyme (AOE) genes. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we showed dynamic changes in the expressional pattern of twenty GST isoforms, cyp1a, cyp3a65, ahr2, and four AOEs in early development of zebrafish. Acute (48 and 72 h) exposure of 24 h-old embryos to atrazine, from environmentally relevant (0.005 mg/L) to high (40 mg/L) concentrations, caused a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in the GST isoforms, ahr2 and AOE genes response. However, expression of cyp1a and cyp3a65 mRNA was markedly and consistently induced by high doses of atrazine (5 and 40 mg/L). In summary, an analysis of the response of multiple systems in the zebrafish embryos provided a comprehensive understanding of atrazine toxicity and its potential impact on biological processes.

  5. Nuclear translocation of glutathione S-transferase {pi} is mediated by a non-classical localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakatsu, Miho; Goto, Shinji; Yoshida, Takako; Urata, Yoshishige; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is abrogated by the deletion of the last 16 amino acid residues in the carboxy-terminal region, indicating that residues 195-208 of GST{pi} are required for nuclear translocation. {yields} The lack of a contiguous stretch of positively charged amino acid residues within the carboxy-terminal region of GST{pi}, suggests that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is mediated by a non-classical nuclear localization signal. {yields} An in vitro transport assay shows that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is dependent on cytosolic factors and ATP. -- Abstract: Glutathione S-transferase {pi} (GST{pi}), a member of the GST family of multifunctional enzymes, is highly expressed in human placenta and involved in the protection of cellular components against electrophilic compounds or oxidative stress. We have recently found that GST{pi} is expressed in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus in some cancer cells, and that the nuclear expression of GST{pi} appears to correlate with resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Although the mitochondrial targeting signal of GST{pi} was previously identified in the amino-terminal region, the mechanism of nuclear translocation remains completely unknown. In this study, we find that the region of GST{pi}195-208 is critical for nuclear translocation, which is mediated by a novel and non-classical nuclear localization signal. In addition, using an in vitro transport assay, we demonstrate that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} depends on the cytosolic extract and ATP. Although further experiments are needed to understand in depth the precise mechanism of nuclear translocation of GST{pi}, our results may help to establish more efficient anti-cancer therapy, especially with respect to resistance to anti-cancer drugs.

  6. A sigma-class glutathione S-transferase from Solen grandis that responded to microorganism glycan and organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialong; Wei, Xiumei; Xu, Jie; Yang, Dinglong; Liu, Xiangquan; Yang, Jianmin; Fang, Jinghui; Hu, Xiaoke

    2012-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of antioxidant enzymes, which play crucial roles in detoxification and protection of tissues from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, a sigma-class GST was identified from razor clam Solen grandis (designated as SgGST-S1), and its expression patterns, both in tissues and toward microorganism glycan as well as organic contaminants stimulation, were then characterized. The full-length cDNA of SgGST-S1 was of 1291 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 27 bp, and a 3' UTR of 619 bp with a poly (A) tail. The open reading frame (ORF) was of 645 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 214 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 24.8 kDa, which shared 47% identity with GST from Ruditapes philippinarum. The analysis of conserved domain and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested that SgGST-S1 was a member of sigma-class GST. The mRNA of SgGST-S1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues of healthy razor clam, including mantle, gill, gonad, hemocytes, muscle, and hepatopancreas, and it was highly expressed in hepatopancreas. The mRNA expression of SgGST-S1 in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01) after razor clam was stimulated by peptidoglycan (PGN) or β-1, 3-glucan, but not LPS. In addition, the SgGST-S1 transcript level was also significantly (P < 0.01) induced by exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDE). All the results indicated that SgGST-S1 might serve as an antioxidant enzyme involving in the detoxification cause by both microorganism glycan and organic contaminants.

  7. Association of glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 genotypes with chronic liver diseases among Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Baclig, Michael O; Alvarez, May R; Lozada, Xerxes Morgan R; Mapua, Cynthia A; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky P; Dimamay, Mark Pierre S; Natividad, Filipinas F; Gopez-Cervantes, Juliet; Matias, Ronald R

    2012-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family is made up of four gene families responsible for the biotransformation of drugs and other xenobiotics. Genetic variations in this supergene family influence individual detoxification levels and may contribute to the development of cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association between GST polymorphism among Filipino patients positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA) and clinically diagnosed as either with chronic active hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as normal individuals negative for HBV infection. Multiplex PCR was used to detect the presence or absence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms in peripheral blood. DNA sequencing of the S gene region of the virus was used to determine the predominant genotype found among HBV-infected patients. Our results showed that the odds of having a chronic liver disease is only 0.95 (95% CI 0.58-1.57) among those with GSTT1 null genotype compared to those with GSTT1+ genotype. On the other hand, the odds of chronic liver disease is 17.85 times (95% CI 7.34-43.45) for those with GSTM1 null genotype compared to those with GSTM1+ genotype. Using the GSTT1+/GSTM1+ genotype as the reference, both GSTT1+/GSTM1- (OR 16.61; 95% CI 6.69-41.22) and GSTT1-/GSTM1- (OR 11.91; 95% CI 4.48-31.66) genotypes seem to be risk factors for chronic liver disease. From our observations, we conclude that polymorphism in GSTM1 null genotype (OR 17.85; 95% CI 7.34-43.45) seem to be associated with an increased risk of chronic liver disease among Filipinos.

  8. Association of glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 genotypes with chronic liver diseases among Filipinos

    PubMed Central

    Baclig, Michael O; Alvarez, May R; Lozada, Xerxes Morgan R; Mapua, Cynthia A; Lozano-Kühne, Jingky P; Dimamay, Mark Pierre S; Natividad, Filipinas F; Gopez-Cervantes, Juliet; Matias, Ronald R

    2012-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family is made up of four gene families responsible for the biotransformation of drugs and other xenobiotics. Genetic variations in this supergene family influence individual detoxification levels and may contribute to the development of cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the association between GST polymorphism among Filipino patients positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA) and clinically diagnosed as either with chronic active hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as normal individuals negative for HBV infection. Multiplex PCR was used to detect the presence or absence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms in peripheral blood. DNA sequencing of the S gene region of the virus was used to determine the predominant genotype found among HBV-infected patients. Our results showed that the odds of having a chronic liver disease is only 0.95 (95% CI 0.58-1.57) among those with GSTT1 null genotype compared to those with GSTT1+ genotype. On the other hand, the odds of chronic liver disease is 17.85 times (95% CI 7.34-43.45) for those with GSTM1 null genotype compared to those with GSTM1+ genotype. Using the GSTT1+/GSTM1+ genotype as the reference, both GSTT1+/GSTM1- (OR 16.61; 95% CI 6.69-41.22) and GSTT1-/GSTM1- (OR 11.91; 95% CI 4.48-31.66) genotypes seem to be risk factors for chronic liver disease. From our observations, we conclude that polymorphism in GSTM1 null genotype (OR 17.85; 95% CI 7.34-43.45) seem to be associated with an increased risk of chronic liver disease among Filipinos. PMID:22724052

  9. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus--Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C; Passamaneck, Yale; Christie, Andrew E; Lenz, Petra H

    2015-01-01

    Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival.

  10. Glutathione S-transferase omega-1 modifies age-at-onset of Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Ju; Oliveira, Sofia A; Xu, Puting; Martin, Eden R; Stenger, Judith E; Scherzer, Clemens R; Hauser, Michael A; Scott, William K; Small, Gary W; Nance, Martha A; Watts, Ray L; Hubble, Jean P; Koller, William C; Pahwa, Rajesh; Stern, Mathew B; Hiner, Bradley C; Jankovic, Joseph; Goetz, Christopher G; Mastaglia, Frank; Middleton, Lefkos T; Roses, Allen D; Saunders, Ann M; Schmechel, Donald E; Gullans, Steven R; Haines, Jonathan L; Gilbert, John R; Vance, Jeffery M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Hulette, Christine; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2003-12-15

    We previously reported genetic linkage of loci controlling age-at-onset in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) to a 15 cM region on chromosome 10q. Given the large number of genes in this initial starting region, we applied the process of 'genomic convergence' to prioritize and reduce the number of candidate genes for further analysis. As our second convergence factor we performed gene expression studies on hippocampus obtained from AD patients and controls. Analysis revealed that four of the genes [stearoyl-CoA desaturase; NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 1 beta subcomplex 8; protease, serine 11; and glutathione S-transferase, omega-1 (GSTO1)] were significantly different in their expression between AD and controls and mapped to the 10q age-at-onset linkage region, the first convergence factor. Using 2814 samples from our AD dataset (1773 AD patients) and 1362 samples from our PD dataset (635 PD patients), allelic association studies for age-at-onset effects in AD and PD revealed no association for three of the candidates, but a significant association was found for GSTO1 (P=0.007) and a second transcribed member of the GST omega class, GSTO2 (P=0.005), located next to GSTO1. The functions of GSTO1 and GSTO2 are not well understood, but recent data suggest that GSTO1 maybe involved in the post-translational modification of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta. This is provocative given reports of the possible role of inflammation in these two neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Dioxin receptor and C/EBP regulate the function of the glutathione S-transferase Ya gene xenobiotic response element.

    PubMed Central

    Pimental, R A; Liang, B; Yee, G K; Wilhelmsson, A; Poellinger, L; Paulson, K E

    1993-01-01

    The rat glutathione S-transferase Ya gene xenobiotic response element (XRE) has both constitutive and xenobiotic-inducible activity. We present evidence that the XRE is regulated by both the constitutive C/EBP transcription factor and the xenobiotic-activated dioxin receptor. A ligand-activated XRE-binding protein was shown to be dioxin receptor by specific antibody immunodepletion and binding of highly purified receptor. Identification of C/EBP alpha as the constitutive binding protein was demonstrated by competition with a C/EBP binding site, protein-DNA cross-linking to determine the molecular weight of the constitutive protein(s), specific antibody immunodepletion, and binding of purified bacterially expressed C/EBP alpha. Mutational analysis of the XRE revealed that the constitutive factor (C/EBP alpha) shares a nearly identical overlapping binding site with the dioxin receptor. In functional testing of the putative C/EBP-XRE interaction, cotransfected C/EBP alpha activated an XRE test promoter in the non-xenobiotic-responsive HeLa cell line. Unexpectedly, cotransfected C/EBP alpha had no effect on basal activity but significantly increased the xenobiotic response of the XRE test promoter in the xenobiotic-responsive, C/EBP-positive HepG2 cell line. Furthermore, inhibition of C/EBP-binding protein(s) in HepG2 cells by transfection of C/EBP oligonucleotides suppressed the xenobiotic response. These results suggest that C/EBP alpha and dioxin receptor recognize the same DNA sequence element and that transcriptional regulation can occur by cooperative interactions between these two transcription factors. Images PMID:8391636

  12. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus – Contributors to Cellular Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Passamaneck, Yale; Christie, Andrew E.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival. PMID:25945801

  13. Transcriptional effects on glutathione S-transferases in first feeding Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae exposed to crude oil.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, P A; Nordtug, T; Altin, D; Lie, K K; Overrein, I; Hansen, B H

    2010-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other oil compounds are known to induce stress and impact health of marine organisms. Water-soluble fractions of oil contain components known to induce glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), one of the major classes of phase II detoxifying enzymes present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms. In this study, the transcriptional responses of six GSTs (GST pi, GST mu, GST omega, GST theta, GSY zeta and GST kappa) were examined in early larvae of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua exposed to five concentrations of dispersed oil (containing oil droplets and water-soluble fraction) and water-soluble fractions (WSF) of oil. When Atlantic cod larvae were exposed to WSF (containing 1.31+/-0.31microg summation PAH/L for 4 days), expression of GSTM3 and GSTO1 was significantly increased, whereas no differences in GST expression were observed in larvae exposed to a corresponding 50% lower amount of dispersed oil (containing 0.36+/-0.10 microg summation PAH/L for 4 days). The study suggest that although the oil clearly had severe negative effects on the larvae (i.e. concentration-dependent lethality and growth reduction), only minor effects on GST transcription could be observed using RNA obtained from pooled whole-larvae homogenates. This result indicates that the expression of these important detoxification enzymes is only moderately inducible at such an early developmental stage either reflecting low tolerance of cod larvae to dispersed oil or alternatively that using whole-larvae homogenates may have masked tissue-specific mRNA induction.

  14. [A study on sex chromosome mosaicism--endocrinological and immunohistochemical findings with glutathion S-transferase in the gonads].

    PubMed

    Nonomura, K; Koyama, T; Toyota, K; Asano, Y; Gotoh, T; Togashi, M; Koyanagi, T; Adachi, Y; Fujieda, K

    1990-03-01

    In order to clarify the clinical aspects of sex chromosomal mosaicism, we evaluated the karyotypes, the anatomy of external genitalia and internal ductal system, the pituitary-gonadal function, and the histopathology of the gonads by immuno-staining for glutathion S-transferase (GST) in 5 patients who had been all raised as female. Three patients have the 45, X/46, XYq- karyotype in the initial lymphocyte culture or the subsequent culture of skin fibroblasts. Another two karyotypes were 45, X/46, XYq-/47, XYq-, Yq- and 45, X/46, XdicY. Thus, Y chromosome of all patients retained short arms in which the testis determining factor is encoded. Three prepubertal patients were referred to us for their ambigious external genitalia and two postpubertal patients were for the short statures. Although the vaginal orifice was separated from the urethral meatus in all of them, the phallic enlargement was noted in 4 patients and the posterior labial fusion in 2 patients. The oldest patient had a normal female appearance of external genitalia except the vaginal septum. Serum gonadotrophin (GnH) levels were basically high in the postopubertal patients and the responses of GnH to LH-RH were significantly increased in the prepubertal patients. Serum testosterone levels to hCG stimulation ranged from no response to low normal response. All patients underwent the exploratory laparotomy together with the feminizing genitoplasty. The gonads in 3 patients, diagnosed as mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD), consisted of a unilateral testis and a contralateral streak gonad. Two patients had variants, including one with bilateral dysgenetic testis and another with bilateral streak gonads.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Glutathione S-transferases in human renal cortex and neoplastic tissue: enzymatic activity, isoenzyme profile and immunohistochemical localization.

    PubMed

    Rodilla, V; Benzie, A A; Veitch, J M; Murray, G I; Rowe, J D; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-05-01

    1. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in the cytosol of renal cortex and tumours from eight men and eight women was measured using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as a substrate. GST activities ranged from 685 to 2192 nmol/min/mg protein in cortex (median 1213) and from non-detectable (minimum 45) to 2424 nmol/min/mg protein in tumours (median 469). The activities in the tumours were lower than those in the normal cortices (p < 0.05). 2. In men, the activity in the cortical cytosol was in all cases higher than that measured in the corresponding tumours (p < 0.05). In women, the difference in activity between cortices and tumours was not significantly different (p > 0.05). 3. The age of the patients ranged from 42 to 81 years (median 62) and was not found to play a role in the levels of GST activity observed in cortex or in renal tumours from either sex. 4. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies confirmed that GST-alpha was the predominant form expressed both in normal cortex and tumour and probably accounted for most of the GST activity present in these samples. GST-mu and GST-phi were expressed in both tumours and normal cortex and, while in some cases the level of expression in the cortices was higher than that found in the tumours, the reverse was also observed. Within the GST-mu class, GST M1/M2 was only detected in one sample (tumour), which showed the highest overall expression of GST-mu. GSTM3 was the predominant isoenzyme of the mu class in normal and tumour tissue, whereas GTM4 and GSTM5 were not detected. 5. These differences could have functional significance where xenobiotics or cytotoxic drugs are specific substrates for the different classes of GSTs.

  16. Cardiovascular Effects of Ozone in Healthy Subjects with and without Deletion of Glutathione-S-Transferase M1

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Mark W.; Pietropaoli, Anthony; Dentler, Michael; Chalupa, David; Little, Erika L.; Stewart, Judith; Frasier, Lauren; Oakes, David; Wiltshire, Jelani; Vora, Rathin; Utell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Context Exposure to ozone has acute respiratory effects, but few human clinical studies have evaluated cardiovascular effects. Objective We hypothesized that ozone exposure alters pulmonary and systemic vascular function, and cardiac function, with more pronounced effects in subjects with impaired antioxidant defense from deletion of the glutathione S-transferase M1 gene (GSTM1 null). Methods 24 young, healthy never-smoker subjects (12 GSTM1 null) inhaled filtered air, 100 ppb ozone, and 200 ppb ozone for 3 hours, with intermittent exercise, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover fashion. Exposures were separated by at least 2 weeks. Vital signs, spirometry, arterial and venous blood nitrite levels, impedance cardiography, peripheral arterial tonometry, estimation of pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), and blood microparticles and platelet activation were measured at baseline and during 4 hours after each exposure. Results Ozone inhalation decreased lung function immediately after exposure (mean±SE change in FEV1, air: −0.03±0.04 L; 200 ppb ozone: −0.30±0.07 L; p<0.001). The immediate post-exposure increase in blood pressure, caused by the final 15-minute exercise period, was blunted by 200 ppb ozone exposure (mean±SE change for air: 16.7±2.6 mm Hg; 100 ppb ozone: 14.5±2.4 mm Hg; 200 ppb ozone: 8.5±2.5 mm Hg; p=0.02). We found no consistent effects of ozone on any other measure of cardiac or vascular function. All results were independent of the GSTM1 genotype. Conclusions We did not find convincing evidence for early acute adverse cardiovascular consequences of ozone exposure in young healthy adults. The ozone-associated blunting of the blood-pressure response to exercise is of unclear clinical significance. PMID:25600221

  17. Serum glutathione S-transferase B1 activity as an index of liver function in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rattenbury, J M; Taylor, C J; Heath, P K; Howie, A F; Beckett, G J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate serum glutathione S-transferase B1 (GST B1), a highly sensitive test of hepatocellular function, as a means of identifying liver disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS--The presence of liver disease was sought over a three year period in 60 children with CF, using a combination of clinical assessment, ultrasound examination, conventional biochemical tests of liver function (LFTs), and measurement of GST B1. RESULTS--Reference ranges for serum GST B1 were established in a paediatric control population. The 95% value (4.55 micrograms/l) was similar to the upper limit of normal previously derived in adults. Mean (SE) serum GST B1 activities were higher in the CF population (9.0 (1.14) micrograms/l) than in age matched controls (2.4 (0.15) micrograms/l). Ten patients with CF showed clinical signs of liver dysfunction. All but one had a serum GST B1 > 4.55 micrograms/l. Twelve other patients had elevated LFTs without clinically evident liver dysfunction, six had abnormal ultrasound scans and two showed both of these anomalies. Thirty patients with CF had neither biochemical, ultrasonographic nor clinical signs of liver disease. On review three years later, clinically important liver disease was reaffirmed in eight of the 10 index cases and had become apparent in a further eight, all of whom had elevated GST B1 activities. Five (36%) of the patients with elevated LFTs and two (33%) with isolated ultrasound changes continued to show these abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS--The limitations of conventional LFTs and ultrasound scans were evident from this study. The results suggest that elevated GST B1 activities may be a better predictor of hepatic dysfunction in CF than conventional LFTs. PMID:7560208

  18. Human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 functions as an estrogen receptor α signaling modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiyuan; An, Byoung Ha; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Jong Hoon; Kang, Young Sook; Chang, Minsun

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • GSTP induces the classical ERα signaling event. • The functional GSTP is a prerequisite for GSTP-induced ERα transcription activity. • The expression of RIP140, a transcription cofactor, was inhibited by GSTP protein. • We propose the novel non-enzymatic role of GSTP. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor α (ERα) plays a crucial role in estrogen-mediated signaling pathways and exerts its action as a nuclear transcription factor. Binding of the ligand-activated ERα to the estrogen response element (ERE) is a central part of ERα-associated signal transduction pathways and its aberrant modulation is associated with many disease conditions. Human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP) functions as an enzyme in conjugation reactions in drug metabolism and as a regulator of kinase signaling pathways. It is overexpressed in tumors following chemotherapy and has been associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. In this study, a novel regulatory function of GSTP has been proposed in which GSTP modulates ERE-mediated ERα signaling events. Ectopic expression of GSTP was able to induce the ERα and ERE-mediated transcriptional activities in ERα-positive but GSTP-negative MCF7 human breast cancer cells. This inductive effect of GSTP on the ERE-transcription activity was diminished when the cells express a mutated form of the enzyme or are treated with a GSTP-specific chemical inhibitor. It was found that GSTP inhibited the expression of the receptor interacting protein 140 (RIP140), a negative regulator of ERα transcription, at both mRNA and protein levels. Our study suggests a novel non-enzymatic role of GSTP which plays a significant role in regulating the classical ERα signaling pathways via modification of transcription cofactors such as RIP140.

  19. Antibodies against glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) in patients with de novo immune hepatitis following liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, I; Wichmann, I; Sousa, J M; Bernardos, A; Franco, E; García-Lozano, J R; Núñez-Roldán, A

    2001-01-01

    Four patients of 283 liver-transplant recipients (1·4%) developed de novo immune-mediated hepatitis approximately 2 years after transplantation. Antibodies showing an unusual liver/kidney cytoplasmic staining pattern were detected in the sera of all four patients and one of them was used to screen a human liver cDNA expression library with the aim of identifying the antigenic target of these newly developed antibodies. After cloning and sequencing the gene, it was identified as the gene encoding the glutathion-S-transferase T1 (GSTT1), a 29-kD molecular weight protein, expressed abundantly in liver and kidney. Sera from the other three patients also contained anti-GSTT1 antibodies, two of them demonstrated by immunoblot analysis against the recombinant antigen and the other, which was negative by immunoblot, gave a positive reaction when used directly to screen the same library, suggesting it to be directed to a conformational epitope. The GSTT1 enzyme is the product of a single polymorphic gene that is absent from 20% of the Caucasian population. When we analysed the GSTT1 genotype of the four patients described above, we found that this gene is absent from all of them. Three donor paraffin embedded DNA samples were available and were shown to be positive for GSSTT1 genotype. In accordance with these results, we suggest that this form of post-transplant de novo immune hepatitis, that has been reported as autoimmune hepatitis by others, could be the result of an antigraft reaction in individuals lacking the GSTT1 phenotype, in which the immune system recognizes the GSTT1 protein as a non-self antigen, being the graft dysfunction not the result of an autoimmune reaction, but the consequence of an alo-reactive immune response. PMID:11737073

  20. Growth Hormone Alters the Glutathione S-Transferase and Mitochondrial Thioredoxin Systems in Long-Living Ames Dwarf Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    Ames dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their wild-type (WT) siblings. The lack of GH is associated with stress resistance and increased longevity. However, the mechanism underlying GH’s actions on cellular stress defense have yet to be elucidated. In this study, WT or Ames dwarf mice were treated with saline or GH (WT saline, Dwarf saline, and Dwarf GH) two times daily for 7 days. The body and liver weights of Ames dwarf mice were significantly increased after 7 days of GH administration. Mitochondrial protein levels of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, K1 and M4 (GSTK1 and GSTM4), were significantly higher in dwarf mice (Dwarf saline) when compared with WT mice (WT saline). GH administration downregulated the expression of GSTK1 proteins in dwarf mice. We further investigated GST activity from liver lysates using different substrates. Substrate-specific GST activity (bromosulfophthalein, dichloronitrobenzene, and 4-hydrox-ynonenal) was significantly reduced in GH-treated dwarf mice. In addition, GH treatment attenuated the activity of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in liver mitochondria of Ames mice. Importantly, GH treatment suppressed Trx2 and TrxR2 mRNA expression. These data indicate that GH has a role in stress resistance by altering the functional capacity of the GST system through the regulation of specific GST family members in long-living Ames dwarf mice. It also affects the regulation of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, factors that regulate posttranslational modification of proteins and redox balance, thereby further influencing stress resistance. PMID:24285747

  1. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) family in barley: identification of members, enzyme activity, and gene expression pattern.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad Kazem; Shobbar, Zahra-Sadat; Shahbazi, Maryam; Abedini, Raha; Zare, Sajjad

    2013-09-15

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the most important cereals in many developing countries where drought stress considerably diminishes agricultural production. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs EC 2.5.1.18) are multifunctional enzymes which play a crucial role in cellular detoxification and oxidative stress tolerance. In this study, 84 GST genes were identified in barley by a comprehensive in silico approach. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped these HvGST proteins in eight classes. The largest numbers of the HvGST genes (50) were included in the Tau class followed by 21 genes in Phi, five in Zeta, two in DHAR, two in EF1G, two in Lambda, and one each in TCHQD and Theta classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the putative GSTs from Arabidopsis, rice, and barley indicated that major functional diversification within the GST family predated the monocot/dicot divergence. However, intra-specious duplication seems to be common. Expression patterns of five GST genes from Phi and Tau classes were investigated in three barley genotypes (Yusof [drought-tolerant], Moroc9-75 [drought-sensitive], and HS1 [wild ecotype]) under control and drought-stressed conditions, during the vegetative stage. All investigated genes were up-regulated significantly under drought stress and/or showed a higher level of transcripts in the tolerant cultivar. Additionally, GST enzyme activity was superior in Yusof and induced in the extreme-drought-treated leaves, while it was not changed in Moroc9-75 under drought conditions. Moreover, the lowest and highest levels of lipid peroxidation were observed in the Yusof and Moroc9-75 cultivars, respectively. Based on the achieved results, detoxification and antioxidant activity of GSTs might be considered an important factor in the drought tolerance of barley genotypes for further investigations.

  2. Purification of Glutathione S-Transferase pi from Erythrocytes and Evaluation of the Inhibitory Effect of Hypericin.

    PubMed

    Turk, Seyhan; Kulaksiz Erkmen, Gulnihal; Dalmizrak, Ozlem; Ogus, I Hamdi; Ozer, Nazmi

    2015-12-01

    Hypericin is a photosensitizer compound used in the photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT is an alternative cancer treatment strategy whose function is dependent on the photosensitizers accumulating selectively in tumor cells and following visible or infra-red light induced activation lead to the apoptosis/necrosis of the tumor cells via the formation of reactive oxygen species. Thus, the cellular redox balance is essential for the efficacy of PDT. Among the protective enzyme systems glutathione S-transferases (GST, E.C.2.5.1.18) function in detoxification, protection against oxidative stress and intracellular transport of molecules. It is known that isoenzymes of GST and especially GST-pi is increased in cancer cells and it plays very important functions in the development of resistance to anticancer drugs. Since photosensitizers are used intravenously, it is important to elucidate the effects of photosensitizers on the erythrocyte enzymes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hypericin on human erythrocyte GST-pi (heGST-pi). Purification yield of 71% and purification fold of 2550 were achieved by using conventional chromatographic methods. The specific activity of the enzyme is found as 51 U/mg protein. Hypericin inhibited heGST-pi in a dose dependent manner and inhibition was biphasic. Noncompetitive type of inhibition was observed with both substrates, GSH and CDNB. The inhibitory constant (K i ) values obtained from Lineweaver-Burk, Dixon, secondary plots; slope and y-intercept versus 1/S (substrate) and from non-linear regression analysis were in good correlation: K i (GSH) was calculated as 0.19 ± 0.01 μM and K i (CDNB) as 0.26 ± 0.03 μM.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily and arsenic metabolism in residents of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Iwata, Hisato; Fujihara, Junko; Kunito, Takashi; Takeshita, Haruo; Tu Binh Minh; Pham Thi Kim Trang; Pham Hung Viet; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    To elucidate the role of genetic factors in arsenic metabolism, we investigated associations of genetic polymorphisms in the members of glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily with the arsenic concentrations in hair and urine, and urinary arsenic profile in residents in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Genotyping was conducted for GST omega1 (GSTO1) Ala140Asp, Glu155del, Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val, GST omega2 (GSTO2) Asn142Asp, GST pi1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val, GST mu1 (GSTM1) wild/null, and GST theta1 (GSTT1) wild/null. There were no mutation alleles for GSTO1 Glu208Lys, Thr217Asn, and Ala236Val in this population. GSTO1 Glu155del hetero type showed higher urinary concentration of As{sup V} than the wild homo type. Higher percentage of DMA{sup V} in urine of GSTM1 wild type was observed compared with that of the null type. Strong correlations between GSTP1 Ile105Val and arsenic exposure level and profile were observed in this study. Especially, heterozygote of GSTP1 Ile105Val had a higher metabolic capacity from inorganic arsenic to monomethyl arsenic, while the opposite trend was observed for ability of metabolism from As{sup V} to As{sup III}. Furthermore, other factors including sex, age, body mass index, arsenic level in drinking water, and genotypes of As (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) were also significantly co-associated with arsenic level and profile in the Vietnamese. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the associations of genetic factors of GST superfamily with arsenic metabolism in a Vietnamese population.

  4. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a glutathione S-transferase involved in both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation in Camelina sativa (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Tang, Y; Zhang, M; Cai, F; Qin, J; Wang, Q; Liu, C; Wang, G; Xu, L; Yang, L; Li, J; Wang, Z; Li, X

    2012-12-21

    Recently, we found that the Arabidopsis TT19 protein, a glutathione S-transferase, has two functional domains that influence both anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin accumulation. To further understand the function of this protein in the other species, we cloned a cDNA encoding a glutathione S-transferase (namely CMGSTF12) from Camelina sativa, an oil crop that has received renewed interest due to its biofuel value and high omega-3 levels. Southern blot analysis demonstrated one copy of CMGSTF12 in C. sativa. Transformation of the Arabidopsis loss-of-function tt19-1 mutant with CMGSTF12 cDNA complemented accumulation of anthocyanin in vegetative tissues and resulted in the wild-type level of proanthocyanidin (both extractable and unextractable) in seeds. No obvious flavonoid accumulation changes were detected in the transgenic seeds, indicating that CMGSTF12 may only involve the lower flavonoid pathway, further proving that the TT19 protein controls accumulation of unextractable proanthocyanidin.

  5. A Simple Colorimetric Assay for Specific Detection of Glutathione-S Transferase Activity Associated with DDT Resistance in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Rajatileka, Shavanti; Steven, Andrew; Hemingway, Janet; Ranson, Hilary; Paine, Mark; Vontas, John

    2010-01-01

    Background Insecticide-based methods represent the most effective means of blocking the transmission of vector borne diseases. However, insecticide resistance poses a serious threat and there is a need for tools, such as diagnostic tests for resistance detection, that will improve the sustainability of control interventions. The development of such tools for metabolism-based resistance in mosquito vectors lags behind those for target site resistance mutations. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed and validated a simple colorimetric assay for the detection of Epsilon class Glutathione transferases (GST)-based DDT resistance in mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue and yellow fever worldwide. The colorimetric assay is based on the specific alkyl transferase activity of Epsilon GSTs for the haloalkene substrate iodoethane, which produces a dark blue colour highly correlated with AaGSTE2-2-overexpression in individual mosquitoes. The colour can be measured visually and spectrophotometrically. Conclusions/Significance The novel assay is substantially more sensitive compared to the gold standard CDNB assay and allows the discrimination of moderate resistance phenotypes. We anticipate that it will have direct application in routine vector monitoring as a resistance indicator and possibly an important impact on disease vector control. PMID:20824165

  6. Susceptibility to endometrial cancer: influence of allelism at p53, glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) and cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A1) loci.

    PubMed Central

    Esteller, M.; García, A.; Martínez-Palones, J. M.; Xercavins, J.; Reventós, J.

    1997-01-01

    A case-control study was designed to identify associations between polymorphisms at p53, cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A1) and glutathione-S-transferases and endometrial cancer susceptibility. Among all polymorphisms analysed, an insertional variant in p53 (P53PIN3) and two polymorphisms in the 3'-end and exon 7 of CYP1A1 showed significant association with enhanced endometrial cancer risk. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9155064

  7. Glutathione S-transferases and UDP-glycosyltransferases Are Involved in Response to Aluminum Stress in Flax

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krasnov, George S.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Zyablitsin, Alexander V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Fedorova, Maria S.; Yurkevich, Olga Y.; Muravenko, Olga V.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Melnikova, Nataliya V.

    2016-01-01

    About 30% of the world's ice-free land area is occupied by acid soils. In soils with pH below 5, aluminum (Al) releases to the soil solution, and becomes highly toxic for plants. Therefore, breeding of varieties that are resistant to Al is needed. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is grown worldwide for fiber and seed production. Al toxicity in acid soils is a serious problem for flax cultivation. However, very little is known about mechanisms of flax resistance to Al and the genetics of this resistance. In the present work, we sequenced 16 transcriptomes of flax cultivars resistant (Hermes and TMP1919) and sensitive (Lira and Orshanskiy) to Al, which were exposed to control conditions and aluminum treatment for 4, 12, and 24 h. In total, 44.9–63.3 million paired-end 100-nucleotide reads were generated for each sequencing library. Based on the obtained high-throughput sequencing data, genes with differential expression under aluminum exposure were revealed in flax. The majority of the top 50 up-regulated genes were involved in transmembrane transport and transporter activity in both the Al-resistant and Al-sensitive cultivars. However, genes encoding proteins with glutathione transferase and UDP-glycosyltransferase activity were in the top 50 up-regulated genes only in the flax cultivars resistant to aluminum. For qPCR analysis in extended sampling, two UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were selected. The general trend of alterations in the expression of the examined genes was the up-regulation under Al stress, especially after 4 h of Al exposure. Moreover, in the flax cultivars resistant to aluminum, the increase in expression was more pronounced than that in the sensitive cultivars. We speculate that the defense against the Al toxicity via GST antioxidant activity is the probable mechanism of the response of flax plants to aluminum stress. We also suggest that UGTs could be involved in cell wall modification and protection

  8. Glutathione S-transferase pi modulates NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jane T.; Qian, Xi; van der Velden, Jos L.J.; Chia, Shi Biao; McMillan, David H.; Flemer, Stevenson; Hoffman, Sidra M.; Lahue, Karolyn G.; Schneider, Robert W.; Nolin, James D.; Anathy, Vikas; van der Vliet, Albert; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Tew, Kenneth D.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a transcription factor family critical in the activation of pro- inflammatory responses. The NF-κB pathway is regulated by oxidant-induced post-translational modifications. Protein S-glutathionylation, or the conjugation of the antioxidant molecule, glutathione to reactive cysteines inhibits the activity of inhibitory kappa B kinase beta (IKKβ), among other NF-κB proteins. Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP) is an enzyme that has been shown to catalyze protein S-glutathionylation (PSSG) under conditions of oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to determine whether GSTP regulates NF-κB signaling, S-glutathionylation of IKK, and subsequent pro-inflammatory signaling. We demonstrated that, in unstimulated cells, GSTP associated with the inhibitor of NF-κB, IκBα. However, exposure to LPS resulted in a rapid loss of association between IκBα and GSTP, and instead led to a protracted association between IKKβ and GSTP. LPS exposure also led to increases in the S-glutathionylation of IKKβ. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of GSTP decreased IKKβ-SSG, and enhanced NF-κB nuclear translocation, transcriptional activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TLK117, an isotype-selective inhibitor of GSTP, also enhanced LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, suggesting that the catalytic activity of GSTP is important in repressing NF-κB activation. Expression of both wild-type and catalytically-inactive Y7F mutant GSTP significantly attenuated LPS- or IKKβ-induced production of GM-CSF. These studies indicate a complex role for GSTP in modulating NF-κB, which may involve S-glutathionylation of IKK proteins, and interaction with NF-κB family members. Our findings suggest that targeting GSTP is a potential avenue for regulating the activity of this prominent pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory transcription factor. PMID:27058114

  9. Evaluation of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ mutagenesis: addition of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase to the Salmonella mutagenicity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, K.V.; Clayton, J.W.; Price, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of glutathione (GSH) and the combination of GSH and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) mutagenesis in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were tested. Ten concentrations of AFB/sub 1/ (0-1.0 ..mu..g/plate) were added to a liver microsomal homogenate (S9 mix) or to S9 mix containing GSH or S9 mix containing the combination of GSH + GST. One third of the samples were plated directly. Two-thirds were incubated for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C prior to plating, and of those, half included bacteria. The results show that the addition of GSH and GSH + GST affected AFB/sub 1/ mutagenesis by forming the AFB/sub 1/-GSH conjugate and decreasing the availability of AFB/sub 1/-8,9-epoxide. The effect of GST on GSH activity varied with the strain because of the different amounts of S9 mix used. The formation of the AFB/sub 1/-GSH conjugate was verified by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for quantitation of AFB/sub 1/ and detection of AFB/sub 1/-GSH.

  10. Two pear glutathione S-transferases genes are regulated during fruit development and involved in response to salicylic acid, auxin, and glucose signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Li, Zheng-Hong; Zhang, Yu-Xing; Chen, Liang; Xiang, Di-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Two genes encoding putative glutathione S-transferase proteins were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated PpGST1 and PpGST2. The deduced PpGST1 and PpGST2 proteins contain conserved Glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain (GST_N) and Glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain (GST_C). Using PCR amplification technique, the genomic clones corresponding to PpGST1 and PpGST2 were isolated and shown to contain two introns and a singal intron respectively with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that PpGST1 belonged to Phi class of GST superfamilies and had high homology with apple MdGST, while PpGST2 was classified into the Tau class of GST superfamilies. The expression of PpGST1 and PpGST2 genes was developmentally regulated in fruit. Further study demonstrated that PpGST1 and PpGST2 expression was remarkably induced by glucose, salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-aceticacid (IAA) treatments in pear fruit, and in diseased fruit. These data suggested that PpGST1 and PpGST2 might be involved in response to sugar, SA, and IAA signaling during fruit development of pear.

  11. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Zoran; Crawford, Dana; Egner, Patricia A.; Sell, Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were replaced with a neomycin cassette by homologous recombination. Southern blotting, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and measurement of AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adduct formation were used to evaluate the mGSTA3 KO mice. The KO mice have deletion of exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 gene, as expected, as well as a lack of mGSTA3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Three hours after injection of 5 mg/kg AFB1, mGSTA3 KO mice have more than 100-fold more AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adducts in their livers than do similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the mGSTA3 KO mice die of massive hepatic necrosis, at AFB1 doses that have minimal toxic effects in WT mice. We conclude that mGSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFB1, confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 subunit in protection of normal mice against AFB1 toxicity. We propose the mGSTA3 KO mouse as a useful model with which to study the interplay of risk factors leading to HCC development in humans, as well as for testing of additional possible functions of mGSTA3.

  12. Glutathione S-transferase L1 multiplex serology as a measure of cumulative infection with human papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several assays are used to measure type-specific serological responses to human papillomavirus (HPV), including the bead-based glutathione S-transferase (GST)-L1 multiplex serology assay and virus-like particle (VLP)-based ELISA. We evaluated the high-throughput GST-L1, which is increasingly used in epidemiologic research, as a measure of cumulative HPV infection and future immune protection among HPV-unvaccinated women. Methods We tested enrollment sera from participants in the control arm of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (n = 488) for HPV16 and HPV18 using GST-L1, VLP-ELISA, and two assays that measure neutralizing antibodies (cLIA and SEAP-NA). With statistical adjustment for sampling, we compared GST-L1 serostatus to established HPV seropositivity correlates and incident cervical HPV infection using odds ratios. We further compared GST-L1 to VLP-ELISA using pair-wise agreement statistics and by defining alternate assay cutoffs. Results Odds of HPV16 GST-L1 seropositivity increased with enrollment age (OR = 1.20 per year, 95%CI 1.03-1.40) and lifetime number of sexual partners (OR = 2.06 per partner, 95%CI 1.49-2.83), with similar results for HPV18. GST-L1 seropositivity did not indicate protection from incident infection over 4 years of follow-up (HPV16 adjusted OR = 1.72, 95%CI 0.95-3.13; HPV18 adjusted OR = 0.38, 95%CI 0.12-1.23). Seroprevalence by GST-L1 (HPV16 and HPV18, respectively) was 5.0% and 5.2%, compared to 19.4% and 23.8% by VLP-ELISA, giving positive agreement of 39.2% and 20.8%. Lowering GST-L1 seropositivity cutoffs improved GST-L1/VLP-ELISA positive agreement to 68.6% (HPV16) and 61.5% (HPV18). Conclusions Our data support GST-L1 as a marker of cumulative HPV infection, but not immune protection. At lower seropositivity cutoffs, GST-L1 better approximates VLP-ELISA. PMID:24588945

  13. [Transferring the Suaeda salsa glutathione S-transferase and catalase genes enhances low temperature stress resistance in transgenic rice seedlings].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng-Yun; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Zhao, Yan-Xiu; Zhang, Hui

    2006-04-01

    The GST (glutathione S-transferase) and GST+CAT1 (catalase 1) of Suaeda salsa were introduced into a low temperature-sensitive rice cultivar (Oryza sativa cv. Zhonghua No.11) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, and the transformed calli and plantlets were screened on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium supplemented with hygromycin 25 microg/mL and cefotaxime 300 microg/mL. The putative primary transformants (T(0) generation) were acclimatized at 26 degrees C /22 degrees C in a greenhouse for 7 d, and then transplanted to the field, where they grew up to maturity under outdoor conditions. 25 and 14 independent transgenic lines of T(1) generation carrying the GST and GST+CAT1 genes, respectively, were identified by PCR amplification. Transgene expression was monitored by RNA-blot hybridization using total RNA samples from leaf tissues. To investigate whether expressing the Suaeda salsa GST and GST+CAT1 in transgenic rice increased low temperature stress tolerance, the T(4) 14-day-old transgenic and non-transgenic rice seedlings were transferred to a low temperature (day 7 degrees C/night 4 degrees C) growth chamber for 3-6 d. The experimental data showed that expressing the Suaeda salsa GST and GST+CAT1 enhanced low temperature stress resistance in transgenic rice seedlings. When treated with low temperature, both GST and CAT activity increased in the transformants with the time of temperature treatment. These transgenic rice plant seedlings exhibited a higher level of photosynthetic capacity than those of the non-transgenic control seedlings under low temperature treatment. Whereas, there were lower H(2)O(2) and MDA (malondialdehyde) content, and relative electrolyte leakage through the plasma membrane was also lower in transgenic rice seedlings than in the parent line under low temperature condition. The results also indicated that GST+CAT1 co-expression conferred greater level of low

  14. The synergy of tobacco and alcohol and glutathione S-transferase θ 1 gene deletion and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    D’ Mello, Sarah; Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Paremala, K; Makarla, Soumya; Sudhakara, M; Bhatt, Madhura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the leading cancer among males in India. It is related to tobacco habits and alcohol consumption as well as the individual susceptibility for xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms. Glutathione S-transferase θ 1 (GSTT1) is a Phase II metabolic enzyme which is directly involved in catalyzing chemicals to mutagenic intermediates. This gene is characterized by genetic polymorphism resulting in complete gene deletion and subsequent absence of the enzyme, which ultimately dictates the risk of cancer development. Scraping buccal mucosa to obtain DNA from the cells is a simple, readily acceptable and rapid method to detect and assess the gene. Aim: To assess GSTT1 gene deletion in individuals giving a history of tobacco smoking and/or chewing and alcohol consumption and absence of clinically detectable lesions; and in OSCC cases to gauge if GSTT1 gene deletion confers protection to an individual and whether it can be used as a “single” marker to arrive at this conclusion. To validate the use of buccal scrape for determining the genotype of an individual by assessing the polymorphism at GSTT1 gene locus (22q11.2). Materials and Methods: Fifty-two cases were evaluated using buccal mucosal scrapes of tobacco habituates for 8 or more years, without clinically evident lesion (Group I) and from mucosa of tobacco habituates with clinically evident and histopathologically confirmed OSCC (Group II). DNA extraction and genotype at GSTT1 gene locus was determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: 90.66% of subjects had GSTT1 null genotype in Group I subjects. In Group II, subjects with both clinically and histopathologically diagnosed oral cancer, about 76.96% had GSTT1 null genotype. Conclusion: GSTT1 null genotype confers protection to individuals with tobacco habits and alcohol consumption, predominantly to those who used

  15. Immunogenicity assessment of HPV16/18 vaccine using the glutathione S-transferase L1 multiplex serology assay.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Hilary A; Waterboer, Tim; Porras, Carolina; Kemp, Troy J; Pawlita, Michael; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Esser, Mark; Matys, Katie; Poncelet, Sylviane; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST)-L1 multiplex serology assay has favorable properties for use in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, including low cost, high throughput capacity, and low serum volume requirement. Therefore, we evaluated the GST-L1 assay as a measure of HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity. Our study population included 65 women selected from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial who received the bivalent HPV16/18 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine at the recommended 0/1/6-month schedule. We tested replicate serum samples from months 0/1/12 (i.e., after 0/1/3 doses) by GST-L1 and 3 other commonly used serology assays, VLP-ELISA, SEAP-NA, and cLIA. We calculated the percentage of women seropositive by GST-L1 by time point and HPV type (14 HPV types), and compared GST-L1 to other assays using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. After 1 vaccine dose, seropositivity by GST-L1 was 40% each for HPV16 and HPV18, increasing to 100% and 98%, respectively, after 3 doses. Seropositivity after 3 doses ranged from 32% to 69% for HPV types 31/33/45, for which partial vaccine efficacy is reported, though increases also occurred for types with no evidence for cross-protection (e.g., HPV77). GST-L1 correlated best after 3 doses with VLP-ELISA (HPV16 and HPV18 each ρ = 0.72) and SEAP-NA (HPV16 ρ = 0.65, HPV18 ρ = 0.71) (all P < 0.001); correlation was lower with cLIA. The GST-L1 is suitable for evaluating HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity after 3 vaccine doses, although in contrast to other assays it may classify some samples as HPV16/18 seronegative. The assay's utility is limited for lower antibody levels such as after receipt of 1 dose.

  16. Protective role for ovarian glutathione S-transferase isoform pi during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced ovotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi Keating, Aileen F.

    2012-04-15

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) destroys ovarian follicles at all developmental stages. This study investigated a role for the glutathione S-transferase (Gst) isoforms alpha (a), mu (m) and pi (p) and the transcription factors, Ahr and Nrf2, during DMBA-induced ovotoxicity, and their regulation by phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling. Negative regulation of JNK by GSTP during DMBA exposure was also studied. Post-natal day (PND) 4 Fischer 344 rat ovaries were exposed to vehicle control (1% DMSO) ± DMBA (1 μM) or vehicle control (1% DMSO) ± LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor; 20 μM) for 1, 2, 4, or 6 days. Total RNA or protein was isolated, followed by RT-PCR or Western blotting to determine mRNA or protein level, respectively. Immunoprecipitation using an anti-GSTP antibody was performed to determine interaction between GSTP and JNK, followed by Western blotting to determine JNK and p-c-Jun protein level. DMBA had no impact on Gsta, Gstm or Nrf2 mRNA level, but increased Gstp mRNA and protein after 2 days. Ahr mRNA and protein increased after 2 and 4 days of DMBA exposure, respectively and DMBA increased NRF2 protein level after 4 days. JNK bound to GSTP was increased during DMBA exposure, with a concomitant decrease in unbound JNK and p-c-Jun. Ahr and Gstp mRNA were decreased (2 days) and increased (4 days) by PI3K inhibition, while Gstm mRNA increased (P < 0.05) after both time points, and there was no effect on Nrf2 mRNA. PI3K inhibition increased AHR, NRF2 and GSTP protein level. These findings support involvement of ovarian GSTP during DMBA exposure, and indicate a regulatory role for the PI3K signaling pathway on ovarian xenobiotic metabolism gene expression. -- Highlights: ► Ovarian GSTP is activated in response to DMBA exposure. ► AhR and Nrf2 transcription factors are up-regulated by DMBA. ► PI3K signaling regulates Ahr, Nrf2 and Gstp expression. ► GSTP negatively regulates ovarian JNK in response to DMBA exposure.

  17. Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.; Sheehy, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    A number of freshwater lakes and reclaimed agricultural sites in Central Florida have been the receiving waters for agrochemical and municipal runoff. One of these sites, Lake Apopka, is also a eutrophic system that has been the focus of several case studies reporting altered reproductive activity linked to bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine chemicals in aquatic species. The present study was initiated to determine if brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) from the north marsh of Lake Apopka (Lake Apopka Marsh) exhibit an altered capacity to detoxify environmental chemicals through hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated conjugation as compared with bullheads from a nearby reference site (Lake Woodruff). We also compared plasma sex hormone concentrations (testosterone, 17-?? estradiol, and 11 keto-testosterone) in bullheads from the two sites. Female bullheads from Lake Apopka had 40% lower initial rate GST conjugative activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 50% lower activity towards p-nitrobutyl chloride (NBC), 33% lower activity toward ethacrynic acid (ECA), and 43% lower activity toward ??5-androstene-3,17-dione (??5-ADI), as compared with female bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that female bullheads from Lake Apopka had lower GST-catalyzed CDNB clearance than did female Lake Woodruff bullheads. Western blotting studies of bullhead liver cytosolic proteins demonstrated that the reduced GST catalytic activities in female Lake Apopka bullheads were accompanied by lower expression of hepatic GST protein. No site differences were observed with respect to GST activities or GST protein expression in male bullheads. Female Lake Apopka bullheads also had elevated concentrations of plasma androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) as compared with females from Lake Woodruff. In contrast, male Lake Apopka bullheads had elevated levels of plasma estrogen but similar levels of androgens as compared with

  18. Structure-activity relationships for chemical and glutathione S-transferase-catalysed glutathione conjugation reactions of a series of 2-substituted 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzenes.

    PubMed Central

    Van der Aar, E M; Bouwman, T; Commandeur, J N; Vermeulen, N P

    1996-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute an important class of phase II (de)toxifying enzymes, catalysing the conjugation of glutathione (GSH) with electrophilic compounds. In the present study, Km, kcat and kcat/Km values for the rat GST 1-1-, 3-3-, 4-4- and 7-7-catalysed conjugation reactions between GSH and a series of 10 different 2-substituted 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzenes, and the second-order rate constants (ks) of the corresponding base-catalysed reactions, were correlated with nine classical physicochemical parameters (electronic, steric and lipophilic) of the substituents and with 16 computer-calculated molecular parameters of the substrates and of the corresponding Meisenheimer complexes with MeS- as a model nucleophile for GS- (charge distributions and several energy values), giving structure-activity relationships. On the basis of an identical dependence of the base-catalysed as well as the GST 1-1- and GST 7-7-catalysed reactions on electronic parameters (among others, Hammett substituent constant sigma p and charge on p-nitro substituents), and the finding that the corresponding reactions catalysed by GSTs 3-3 and 4-4 depend to a significantly lesser extent on these parameters, it was concluded that the Mu-class GST isoenzymes have a rate-determining transition state in the conjugation reaction between 2-substituted 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzenes and GSH which is different from that of the other two GSTs. Several alternative rate-limiting transition states for GST 3-3 and 4-4 are discussed. Furthermore, based on the obtained structure-activity relationships, it was possible to predict the kcat/Km values of the four GST isoenzymes and the ks of the base-catalysed GSH conjugation of 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene. PMID:8973562

  19. Retinoid X receptor alpha Regulates the expression of glutathione s-transferase genes and modulates acetaminophen-glutathione conjugation in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Dai, Guoli; Chou, Nathan; He, Lin; Gyamfi, Maxwell A; Mendy, Alphonse J; Slitt, Angela L; Klaassen, Curtis D; Wan, Yu-Jui Y

    2005-12-01

    Nuclear receptors, including constitutive androstane receptor, pregnane X receptor, and retinoid X receptor (RXR), modulate acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the expression of phase I cytochrome P450 (P450) genes. It has not been fully resolved, however, whether they regulate APAP detoxification at the phase II level. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of RXRalpha in phase II enzyme-mediated detoxification of APAP. Wild-type and hepatocyte-specific RXRalpha knockout mice were treated with a toxic dose of APAP (500 mg/kg i.p.). Mutant mice were protected from APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, even though basal liver glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower in mutant mice compared with those of wild-type mice. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of APAP metabolites revealed significantly greater levels of APAP-GSH conjugates in livers and bile of mutant mice compared with those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, hepatocyte RXRalpha deficiency altered the gene expression profile of the glutathione S-transferase (Gst) family. Basal expression of 13 of 15 Gst genes studied was altered in hepatocyte-specific RXRalpha-deficient mice. This probably led to enhanced APAP-GSH conjugation and reduced accumulation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a toxic electrophile that is produced by biotransformation of APAP by phase I P450 enzymes. In conclusion, the data presented in this study define an RXRalpha-Gst regulatory network that controls APAP-GSH conjugation. This report reveals a potential novel strategy to enhance the detoxification of APAP or other xenobiotics by manipulating Gst activity through RXRalpha-mediated pathways.

  20. Messenger RNA encoding a glutathione-S-transferase responsible for herbicide tolerance in maize is induced in response to safener treatment.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, R C; Shah, D M; Mozer, T J; Harding, E I; Diaz-Collier, J; Saunders, C; Jaworski, E G; Tiemeier, D C

    1986-07-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GST's) in maize represent a family of enzymes which conjugate glutathione to several major classes of pre-emergent, selective herbicides. Chemicals termed safeners have been demonstrated to increase the tolerance of maize toward such herbicides when the maize seed has been previously treated with safeners. It has subsequently been shown that corresponding increases in glutathione-S-transferase species occur. To determine whether these compounds act at a transcriptional level we have used synthetic oligonucleotide probes to isolate cDNA clones encoding the major GST polypeptide subunit, designated GST A. The identity of the clones has been confirmed by hybrid-selected mRNA translation and immunoprecipitation using antibodies made against this GST species as well as by production of active GST in yeast cells transformed with an expression vector containing the cloned DNA. GST A has been found to be encoded in a mRNA of 1.1 kb. Sequencing of cDNA products obtained by primer extension of maize mRNA using our oligonucleotide probes is consistent with this mRNA corresponding to the isolated cDNA clone. Using the clone as a probe for Northern analysis we have found a three to four-fold increase in the steady state level of this mRNA in maize tissue grown from safener-treated seeds. The level of safener which gives this induction is comparable to that required to obtain herbicide tolerance in the field.

  1. The role of glutathione S-transferases in the detoxification of some organophosphorus insecticides in larvae and pupae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Kostaropoulos, I; Papadopoulos, A I; Metaxakis, A; Boukouvala, E; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E

    2001-06-01

    The correlation between the natural levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the tolerance to the organophosphorus insecticides parathion-methyl and paraoxon-methyl, as well as the interaction of affinity-purified enzyme and the insecticides were investigated in order to collect further information on the role of the glutathione S-transferase system as a mechanism of defence against insecticides in insects. The studies were carried out on the larvae and pupae of the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor L, which exhibit varying natural levels of GST activity. Stage-dependent susceptibility of the insect against insecticides was observed during the first 24 h. However, 48 h after treatment, the KD50 value increased significantly due to the recovery of some individuals. Simultaneous injection of insecticide with compounds which inhibit GST activity in vitro caused an alteration in susceptibility of insects 24 or 48 h post-treatment, depending on stage and insecticide used. Inhibition studies combined with competitive fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the insecticides probably bind to the active site of the enzyme, thus inhibiting its activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in a competitive manner. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography revealed that T molitor GST catalyses the conjugation of the insecticides studied to a reduced form of glutathione (GSH). From the above experimental results, it is considered that GST offers a protection against the organophosphorus insecticides studied by active site binding and subsequent conjugation with GSH.

  2. Identification and clarification of the role of key active site residues in bacterial glutathione S-transferase zeta/maleylpyruvate isomerase

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ti; Li, De-Feng; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Application of site-directed mutagenesis to probe the active site residues of glutathione-dependent maleylpyruvate isomerase. {yields} Two conserved residues, Arg8 and Arg176, in zeta class glutathione S-transferases are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization. {yields} Arg109, found exclusively in NagL, participates in k{sub cat} regulation. {yields} The T11A mutant exhibited a significantly decreased K{sub m} value for glutathione with little impact on maleylpyruvate kinetics. {yields} The Thr11 residue appears to have significance in the evolution of glutathione S-transferase classes. -- Abstract: The maleylpyruvate isomerase NagL from Ralstonia sp. strain U2, which has been structurally characterized previously, catalyzes the isomerization of maleylpyruvate to fumarylpyruvate. It belongs to the class zeta glutathione S-transferases (GSTZs), part of the cytosolic GST family (cGSTs). In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was conducted to probe the functions of 13 putative active site residues. Steady-state kinetic information for mutants in the reduced glutathione (GSH) binding site, suggested that (a) Gln64 and Asp102 interact directly with the glutamyl moiety of glutathione, (b) Gln49 and Gln64 are involved in a potential electron-sharing network that influences the ionization of the GSH thiol. The information also suggests that (c) His38, Asn108 and Arg109 interact with the GSH glycine moiety, (d) His104 has a role in the ionization of the GSH sulfur and the stabilization of the maleyl terminal carboxyl group in the reaction intermediate and (e) Arg110 influences the electron distribution in the active site and therefore the ionization of the GSH thiolate. Kinetic data for mutants altered in the substrate-binding site imply that (a) Arg8 and Arg176 are critical for maleylpyruvate orientation and enolization, and (b) Arg109 (exclusive to NagL) participates in k{sub cat} regulation. Surprisingly, the T11A mutant had a

  3. Activity of glutathione S-transferase in the hepatopancreas is not influenced by the molting cycle in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator.

    PubMed

    Hotard, Sarah; Zou, Enmin

    2008-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the hepatopancreas of crustaceans has been suggested as a biomarker for organic pollution. However, much of crustacean physiology is known to exhibit a cyclic characteristic because of the periodic shedding of the confining exoskeleton. The goal of this study was to determine whether hepatopancreatic GST activity varies during the molting cycle using the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, as the model. Neither the molting cycle nor 20-hydroxyecdysone injection had a significant effect on hepatopancreatic GST activity, suggesting GST activity is not under control of the molting hormone in Uca pugilator.

  4. Reaction kinetics and targeting to cellular glutathione S-transferase of the glutathione peroxidase mimetic PhSeZnCl and its D,L-polylactide microparticle formulation.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, D; Piroddi, M; Tidei, C; Giovagnoli, S; Pietrella, D; Manevich, Y; Tew, K D; Giustarini, D; Rossi, R; Townsend, D M; Santi, C; Galli, F

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic properties and cellular effects of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-mimetic compound PhSeZnCl or its d,l-lactide polymer microencapsulation form (M-PhSeZnCl) were investigated and compared with the prototypical Se-organic compounds ebselen and diselenide (PhSe)2. PhSeZnCl was confirmed to catalyze the ping-pong reaction of GPx with higher Vmax than ebselen and (PhSe)2, but the catalytic efficiency calculated for the cosubstrates glutathione (GSH) and H2O2, and particularly the high reactivity against thiols (lowest KM for GSH in the series of test molecules), suggested poor biological applicability of PhSeZnCl as a GPx mimetic. Cytotoxicity of PhSeZnCl was demonstrated in various cancer cell lines via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, depletion of intracellular thiols, and induction of apoptosis. Experiments carried out in GSH S-transferase P (GSTP)-overexpressing K562 human erythroleukemia cells and in GSTP1-1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated that this cytosolic enzyme represents a preferential target of the redox disturbances produced by this Se-compound with a key role in controlling H2O2 generation and the perturbation of stress/survival kinase signaling. Microencapsulation was adopted as a strategy to control the thiol reactivity and oxidative stress effects of PhSeZnCl, then assessing applications alternative to anticancer. The uptake of this "depowered" GPx-mimetic formulation, which occurred through an endocytosis-like mechanism, resulted in a marked reduction of cytotoxicity. In MCF-7 cells transfected with different allelic variants of GSTP, M-PhSeZnCl lowered the burst of cellular ROS induced by the exposure to extracellular H2O2, and the extent of this effect changed between the GSTP variants. Microencapsulation is a straightforward strategy to mitigate the toxicity of thiol-reactive Se-organic drugs that enhanced the antioxidant and cellular protective effects of PhSeZnCl. A mechanistic linkage of

  5. Reaction kinetics and targeting to cellular glutathione S-transferase of the glutathione peroxidase mimetic PhSeZnCl and its d,l-polylactide microparticle formulation

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, D.; Piroddi, M.; Tidei, C.; Giovagnoli, S.; Pietrella, D.; Manevich, Y.; Tew, K.D.; Giustarini, D.; Rossi, R.; Townsend, D.M.; Santi, C.; Galli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic properties and cellular effects of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-mimetic compound PhSeZnCl or its d,l-lactide polymer microencapsulation form (M-PhSeZnCl) were investigated and compared with the prototypical Se-organic compounds ebselen and diselenide (PhSe)2. PhSeZnCl was confirmed to catalyze the ping-pong reaction of GPx with higher Vmax than ebselen and (PhSe)2, but the catalytic efficiency calculated for the cosubstrates glutathione (GSH) and H2O2, and particularly the high reactivity against thiols (lowest KM for GSH in the series of test molecules), suggested poor biological applicability of PhSeZnCl as a GPx mimetic. Cytotoxicity of PhSeZnCl was demonstrated in various cancer cell lines via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, depletion of intracellular thiols, and induction of apoptosis. Experiments carried out in GSH S-transferase P (GSTP)-overexpressing K562 human erythroleukemia cells and in GSTP1-1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated that this cytosolic enzyme represents a preferential target of the redox disturbances produced by this Se-compound with a key role in controlling H2O2 generation and the perturbation of stress/survival kinase signaling. Microencapsulation was adopted as a strategy to control the thiol reactivity and oxidative stress effects of PhSeZnCl, then assessing applications alternative to anticancer. The uptake of this “depowered” GPx-mimetic formulation, which occurred through an endocytosis-like mechanism, resulted in a marked reduction of cytotoxicity. In MCF-7 cells transfected with different allelic variants of GSTP, M-PhSeZnCl lowered the burst of cellular ROS induced by the exposure to extracellular H2O2, and the extent of this effect changed between the GSTP variants. Microencapsulation is a straightforward strategy to mitigate the toxicity of thiol-reactive Se-organic drugs that enhanced the antioxidant and cellular protective effects of PhSeZnCl. A mechanistic linkage

  6. Effect of ethacrynic acid, a glutathione-S-transferase inhibitor, on nitroglycerin-mediated cGMP elevation and vasorelaxation of rabbit aortic strips.

    PubMed

    Kenkare, S R; Benet, L Z

    1993-07-20

    The effects of ethacrynic acid (ECA), an inhibitor of glutathione-S-transferase, on both the pharmacologic and biochemical responses of aortic tissue to nitroglycerin (GTN) were evaluated. Using the rabbit aortic strip model, relaxation responses to 0.6 microM GTN were measured with and without ECA (0.2 mM) pretreatment. These same strips were frozen, and the concentrations of cGMP in the strips were measured using a 3H-labeled radioimmunoassay. Both the relaxation response and the increase in cGMP upon GTN treatment were reduced significantly by pretreatment of the strips with ECA. A correlation was observed between the decreases in the pharmacodynamic and biochemical responses upon ECA pretreatment. cGMP levels in strips treated with sodium nitroprusside, which generates nitric oxide by mechanisms distinct from that for organic nitrates, were not decreased by ECA pretreatment. These observations suggest that the mechanism of GTN action involves a glutathione-S-transferase-mediated metabolic step for GTN and that the isozyme(s) involved in this activation process may be inhibited by ECA.

  7. Molecular cloning and differential expression patterns of sigma and omega glutathione S-transferases from Venerupis philippinarum to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linbao; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Leilei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; You, Liping

    2012-05-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a class of enzymes that facilitate the detoxification of xenobiotics, and also play important roles in antioxidant defense. We identified two glutathione S-transferase isoforms (VpGSTS, sigma GST; VpGSTO, omega GST) from Venerupis philippinarum by RACE approaches. The open reading frames of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were of 612 bp and 729 bp, encoding 203 and 242 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.88 and 27.94 kDa, respectively. The expression profiles of VpGSTS and VpGSTO responded to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expression of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were both rapidly up-regulated, however, they showed differential expression patterns to different toxicants. Cd displayed stronger induction of VpGSTS expression with an approximately 12-fold increase than that of VpGSTO with a maximum 6.4-fold rise. Cu exposure resulted in similar expression patterns for both VpGSTS and VpGSTO. For B[a]P exposure, the maximum induction of VpGSTO was approximately two times higher than that of VpGSTS. Altogether, these findings implied the involvement of VpGSTS and VpGSTO in host antioxidant responses, and highlighted their potential as a biomarker to Cd and B[a]P exposure.

  8. Glutathione S-transferases M1-1 and T1-1 as risk modifiers for renal cell cancer associated with occupational exposure to chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Buzio, L; De Palma, G; Mozzoni, P; Tondel, M; Buzio, C; Franchini, I; Axelson, O; Mutti, A

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the possible interaction between occupational risk factors and genotype for glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in renal cell cancer (RCC). Methods: One hundred patients with RCC and 200 outpatient controls were enrolled at Parma University Hospital. The polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 (GSTM1) and T1-1 (GSTT1) were investigated by PCR; occupational history was collected by a structured questionnaire. Results: Subjects with GSTM1 present genotype showed higher risks for RCC, compared to GSTM1 null subjects, if exposed to metals (OR 2.73; 95% CI 0.91 to 8.22 v 1.14; 95% CI 0.46 to 2.82) or pesticides (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.12 to 10.74 v 1.59; 95% CI 0.48 to 5.34). The GSTT1 present genotype also enhanced the risk (about twofold) of RCC among subjects exposed to solvents and pesticides, compared with those GSTT1 null. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms can interact with several occupational exposures to significantly modify the risk of RCC among exposed subjects. PMID:14504370

  9. Tyrosine 8 contributes to catalysis but is not required for activity of rat liver glutathione S-transferase, 1-1.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J.; Barycki, J. J.; Colman, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Reaction of rat liver glutathione S-transferase, isozyme 1-1, with 4-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoic acid (4-FSB), a xenobiotic substrate analogue, results in a time-dependent inactivation of the enzyme to a final value of 35% of its original activity when assayed at pH 6.5 with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as substrate. The rate of inactivation exhibits a nonlinear dependence on the concentration of 4-FSB from 0.25 mM to 9 mM, characterized by a KI of 0.78 mM and kmax of 0.011 min-1. S-Hexylglutathione or the xenobiotic substrate analogue, 2,4-dinitrophenol, protects against inactivation of the enzyme by 4-FSB, whereas S-methylglutathione has little effect on the reaction. These experiments indicate that reaction occurs within the active site of the enzyme, probably in the binding site of the xenobiotic substrate, close to the glutathione binding site. Incorporation of [3,5-3H]-4-FSB into the enzyme in the absence and presence of S-hexylglutathione suggests that modification of one residue is responsible for the partial loss of enzyme activity. Tyr 8 and Cys 17 are shown to be the reaction targets of 4-FSB, but only Tyr 8 is protected against 4-FSB by S-hexylglutathione. DTT regenerates cysteine from the reaction product of cysteine and 4-FSB, but does not reactivate the enzyme. These results show that modification of Tyr 8 by 4-FSB causes the partial inactivation of the enzyme. The Michaelis constants for various substrates are not changed by the modification of the enzyme. The pH dependence of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction of glutathione with CDNB for the modified enzyme, as compared with the native enzyme, reveals an increase of about 0.9 in the apparent pKa, which has been interpreted as representing the ionization of enzyme-bound glutathione; however, this pKa of about 7.4 for modified enzyme remains far below the pK of 9.1 for the -SH of free glutathione. Previously, it was considered that Tyr 8 was essential for GST catalysis. In contrast, we conclude that

  10. Caribbean yellow band disease compromises the activity of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata exposed to anthracene.

    PubMed

    Montilla, Luis Miguel; Ramos, Ruth; García, Elia; Cróquer, Aldo

    2016-05-03

    Healthy and diseased corals are threatened by different anthropogenic sources, such as pollution, a problem expected to become more severe in the near future. Despite the fact that coastal pollution and coral diseases might represent a serious threat to coral reef health, there is a paucity of controlled experiments showing whether the response of diseased and healthy corals to xenobiotics differs. In this study, we exposed healthy and Caribbean yellow band disease (CYBD)-affected Orbicella faveolata colonies to 3 sublethal concentrations of anthracene to test if enzymatic responses to this hydrocarbon were compromised in CYBD-affected tissues. For this, a 2-factorial fully orthogonal design was used in a controlled laboratory bioassay, using tissue condition (2 levels: apparently healthy and diseased) and pollutant concentration (4 levels: experimental control, 10, 30 and 100 ppb concentration) as fixed factors. A permutation-based ANOVA (PERMANOVA) was used to test the effects of condition and concentration on the specific activity of 3 enzymatic biomarkers: catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase. We found a significant interaction between the concentration of anthracene and the colony condition for catalase (Pseudo-F = 3.84, df = 3, p < 0.05) and glutathione S-transferase (Pseudo-F = 3.29, df = 3, p < 0.05). Moreover, our results indicated that the enzymatic response to anthracene in CYBD-affected tissues was compromised, as the activity of these enzymes decreased 3- to 4-fold compared to healthy tissues. These results suggest that under a potential scenario of increasing hydrocarbon coastal pollution, colonies of O. faveolata affected with CYBD might become more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of chemical pollution.

  11. Activity of carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase in different life-stages of carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus) exposed to toxic metal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Grazyna; Kramarz, Paulina; Babczyńska, Agnieszka

    2003-04-01

    Among the cytoplasmatic enzymes responsible for neutralization of organic xenobiotics, carboxylesterases (CarE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) play important roles. Our study tested to what extent dietary Zn or Cd could modify the activity of CarE and GST at different life-stages of the carabid beetle Poecilus cupreus. Treatment and stage effects generally were statistically significant. For CarE activity in the beetles exposed to cadmium, only treatment was a significant factor. In all cases, the interaction between studied factors was statistically significant, implying that the physiological condition of the animals may enhance or reduce enzyme activity. We also observed differences between animals treated with cadmium and zinc in the pattern of enzyme activity, and a difference in GST activity measured with two different substrates. Our results confirmed that in studying enzyme activity under metal stress one should consider the animal's life-stage and sex.

  12. Glutathione S-transferase T1 and myeloperoxidase −463 G>A genotypes in lung cancer patients of Kumaun region

    PubMed Central

    Bag, Arundhati; Bag, Niladri; Jeena, Lalit Mohan; Jyala, Narayan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Null genetic polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) and -463 G>A promoter polymorphism of myeloperoxidase (MPO) were studied for association with lung cancer. Materials and Methods: In a case- control study 26 lung cancer patients and 33 healthy individuals from hilly Kumaun region of northern India were investigated. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. GSTT1 null polymorphism was detected by duplex PCR, and MPO polymorphism was detected by performing PCR-RFLP. Results: An increased but statistically non- significant risk for lung cancer was found for GSTT1 null genotype. No association for MPO -463G>A genotype was evident. Conclusion: Further study with large sample size may reveal such association in this population. PMID:25097401

  13. Effects of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt.) on cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activity and acid soluble sulfhydryl level in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Kumari, M V; Rao, A R

    1989-07-15

    The aril of plant Myristica fragrans Houtt. commonly known as mace, which is consumed as a spice as well as used as a folk-medicine, was screened for its effects on the levels of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acid-soluble sulfhydryl (SH) groups in the liver of young adult male and female Swiss albino mice. Animals were assorted into 4 groups comprised of either sex and received either normal diet (negative control), 1% 2,3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) diet (positive control), 1% mace diet or 2% mace diet for 10 days. There was a significant increase in the GST activity in the liver of mice exposed to BHA or mace. In addition, there was a significant increase in the SH content in the liver of mice fed on 1% BHA and 2% mace diets.

  14. Regulation of glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene expression: Identification of a unique xenobiotic-responsive element controlling inducible expression by planar aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rushmore, T.H.; King, R.G.; Pickett, C.B. ); Paulson, K.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors have identified a region in the 5{prime} flanking sequence of the glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene that contains a unique xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). The regulatory region spans nucleotides {minus}722 to {minus}682 of the 5{prime} flanking sequence and is responsible for part of the basal level as well as inducible expression of the Ya subunit gene by planar aromatic compounds such as {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF) and 3-methylcholanthrene. The DNA sequence of this region ({beta}-NF-responsive element) is distinct from the DNA sequence of the XRE found in the cytochrome P-450 IA1 gene. In addition to the region containing the {beta}-NF-responsive element, two other regulatory regions of the Ya subunit gene have been identified. The data suggest that regulation of gene expression by planar aromatic compounds can be mediated by a DNA sequence this is distinct from the XRE sequence.

  15. Enhanced glutathione S-transferase expression in 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-resistant IEC-18 cells.

    PubMed

    Teubner, W; Fuchs, J I; Steinberg, P

    2007-05-01

    In the present study we show that repeated exposure of the rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-18 to 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP), from a toxicological point of view the most relevant phase-1 metabolite of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, the main heterocyclic aromatic amine present in processed meat), led to the selection of N-OH-PhIP-resistant IEC-18 cells. This phenomenon was accompanied by a fivefold increase in total glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, measured with the broad-spectrum substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, in the N-OH-PhIP-resistant IEC-18 cells. Furthermore, a Western blotting analysis revealed that the expression of GST subunits A1, A3, A4, M1 and P1 was enhanced in the N-OH-PhIP-resistant IEC-18 cells.

  16. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  17. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of ethacrynic acid analogues on glutathione-s-transferase P1-1 activity inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guisen; Yu, Tao; Wang, Rui; Wang, Xiaobing; Jing, Yongkui

    2005-06-02

    Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a glutathione-s-transferase pi (GSTP1-1) inhibitor. Fifteen of EA analogues were designed and synthesized and their inhibition on GSTP1-1 activity was tested in lysate of human leukemia HL-60 cells. These compounds were synthesized using substituted phenol as precursors through reacting with 2-chlorocarboxylic acid and acylation. Structure-activity analysis indicates that replacements of chlorides of EA by methyl, bromide, and fluoride at 3' position remain the GSTP1-1 inhibitory effect. The compounds without any substitute at 3' position lose the activity on GSTP1-1 inhibition. These data suggest that the substitution of 3' position of EA is necessary for inhibiting GSTP1-1 activity.

  18. Fusarium moniliforme extract fed before a single dose of diethylnitrosamine increases the numbers of placental glutathione S-transferase positive hepatocytes in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lebepe, S.; Hendrich, S. )

    1991-03-11

    The carcinogenic potential of an alcohol:water (1:1) extract of Fusarium moniliforme (FUSX), containing 20 ppm fumonisin B{sub 1} was assayed. Groups of six 5-week-old female F344/N rats were fed a semipurified diet, with and without FUSX. A dose of initiating agent, diethylnitrosamine, was given orally. Placental glutathione S-transferase-positive (PGST(+)) hepatocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry and counted on 5 frozen hepatic sections/rat, as an endpoint to assess early stages of carcinogenesis. FUSX had significant co-initiating activity. Fusarium moniliforme infection of feed has been shown to promote hepatocarcinogenesis, and may pose a cocarcinogenic risk even during short-term, low-level exposure.

  19. Selective induction of glutathione S-transferases in round spermatids from the Brown-Norway rat by the chemotherapeutic regimen for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Delbès, Geraldine; Chan, Donovan; Hales, Barbara F; Trasler, Jacquetta M; Robaire, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    Chemotherapeutic drugs can affect DNA in male germ cells, thereby impacting on the integrity of the genome transmitted to offspring. Drug metabolizing enzymes can protect cells from xenobiotic insult. We analyzed the expression pattern of such enzymes in isolated round spermatids from rats exposed to drugs used to treat testicular cancer: bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). The number of isozymes expressed and the overall relative expression values were highest for the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Moreover, BEP treatment significantly increased the expression of 8 GSTs and 3 aldehyde dehydrogenases. Increased expression of GST isozymes was confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Although Gst genes can be targets for epigenetic modifications, promoter DNA methylation was not affected by BEP treatment. As GSTs are involved in drug resistance mechanisms, we hypothesize that BEP induction of GST expression may lead to the survival of damaged germ cells and the production of abnormal sperm.

  20. Involvement of cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, and epoxide hydrolase in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and relevance to risk of human liver cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F P; Johnson, W W; Ueng, Y F; Yamazaki, H; Shimada, T

    1996-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the effect of variations in activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on cancer incidence. This interest has accelerated with the development of methods for analyzing genetic polymorphisms. However, progress in epidemiology has been slow and the contributions of polymorphisms to risks from individual chemicals and mixtures are often controversial. A series of studies is presented to show the complexities encountered with a single chemical, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). AFB1 is oxidized by human cytochrome P450 enzymes to several products. Only one of these, the 8,9-exo-epoxide, appears to be mutagenic and the others are detoxication products. P450 3A4, which can both activate and detoxicate AFB1, is found in the liver and the small intestine. In the small intestine, the first contact after oral exposure, epoxidation would not lead to liver cancer. The (nonenzymatic) half-life of the epoxide has been determined to be approximately 1 sec at 23 degrees C and neutral pH. Although the half-life is short, AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide does react with DNA and glutathione S-transferase. Levels of these conjugates have been measured and combined with the rate of hydrolysis in a kinetic model to predict constants for binding of the epoxide with DNA and glutathione S-transferase. A role for epoxide hydrolase in alteration of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis has been proposed, although experimental evidence is lacking. Some inhibition of microsome-generated genotoxicity was observed with rat epoxide hydrolase; further information on the extent of contribution of this enzyme to AFB1 metabolism is not yet available. PMID:8781383

  1. Studies of the relationship between the catalytic activity and binding of non-substrate ligands by the glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, T D; Vessey, D A; Holcomb, C; Saley, N

    1984-01-01

    The dimeric enzyme glutathione S-transferase B is composed of two dissimilar subunits, referred to as Ya and Yc. Transferase B (YaYc) and two other transferases that are homodimers of the individual Ya and Yc subunits were purified from rat liver. Inhibition of these three enzymes by Indocyanine Green, biliverdin and several bile acids was investigated at different values of pH (range 6.0-8.0). Indocyanine Green, biliverdin and chenodeoxycholate were found to be effective inhibitors of transferases YaYc and YcYc at low (pH 6.0) but not high (pH 8.0) values of pH. Between these extremes of pH intermediate degrees of inhibition were observed. Cholate and taurochenodeoxycholate, however, were ineffective inhibitors of transferase YcYc at all values of pH. The observed differences in bile acids appeared to be due, in part, to differences in their state of ionization. In contrast with the above results, transferase YaYa was inhibited by at least 80% by the non-substrate ligands at all values of pH. These effects of pH on the three transferases could not be accounted for by pH-induced changes in the enzyme's affinity for the inhibitor. Thus those glutathione S-transferases that contain the Yc subunit are able to act simultaneously as both enzymes and binding proteins. In addition to enzyme structure, the state of ionization of the non-substrate ligands may also influence whether the transferases can perform both functions simultaneously. PMID:6696720

  2. Glutathione S-transferase expression in pollution-associated hepatic lesions of brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Henson, K L; Gallagher, E P

    2004-07-01

    In rodents, overexpression of glutathione S-transferase pi is a characteristic feature of foci of cellular alteration (FCA) and neoplastic liver lesions induced by genotoxic chemicals. Alterations of glutathione S-transferase (GST) expression in hepatic lesions have also been reported in fish exposed to environmental carcinogens, and cellular GST expression may be an important determinant of growth and progression of chemical-associated liver tumors in certain fish species. In the present study, GST expression was examined in hepatic lesions of brown bullheads (n = 44) from the Cuyahoga River, a highly industrialized site located in Cleveland, Ohio. GST proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry and polyclonal antibodies that recognize either two major bullhead GST proteins or a pi-like GST isoform. Hepatic lesions were present in 70% of the fish and included biliary hyperplasia and biliary fibrosis; eosinophilic, basophilic, clear cell, and vacuolated FCA; and biliary neoplasms. Eosinophilic FCA and biliary tumors were the most prevalent preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. GST expression in hyperplastic biliary tissue, FCA and tumors did not markedly differ from that of surrounding normal hepatocytes or biliary epithelium. Some hepatocytes within eosinophilic FCA had decreased GST expression. A complete absence of GST immunoreactive protein was not observed in any lesion, and there were no marked differences when comparing GST pi to overall GST expression. Our results indicate that GST expression in hepatic lesions of brown bullhead exposed to environmental carcinogens does not significantly differ from that in surrounding normal cells and is therefore not a useful predictor of environmental carcinogenesis in this species. Furthermore, the regulation and expression of GST pi in bullhead hepatocarcinogenesis appears to differ markedly from that during hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and some other fish species.

  3. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kap; Ho, Joseph X.; Keeling, Kim; Gilliland, Gary L.; Ji, Xinhua; Rueker, Florian; Carter, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(sub 3)2(sub 1)2 with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  4. A chloroplast-localized and auxin-induced glutathione S-transferase from phreatophyte Prosopis juliflora confer drought tolerance on tobacco.

    PubMed

    George, Suja; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2010-03-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Prosopis juliflora, a drought-tolerant tree species of Fabaceae, as a model plant system for mining genes functioning in abiotic stress tolerance. Large-scale random EST sequencing from a cDNA library obtained from drought-stressed leaves of 2-month-old P. juliflora plants resulted in identification of three different auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferases. In this paper, we report the cellular localization and the ability to confer drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco of one of these GSTs (PjGSTU1). PjGSTU1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and GST and GPX activities in total protein samples were assayed and compared with controls. The results indicated that PjGSTU1 protein forms a functional homo-dimer in recombinant bacteria with glutathione transferase as well as glutathione peroxidase activities. PjGSTU1 transgenic tobacco lines survived better under conditions of 15% PEG stress compared with control un-transformed plants. In vivo localization studies for PjGSTU1 using GFP fusion revealed protein localization in chloroplasts of transgenic plants. The peroxidase activity of PjGSTU1 and its localization in the chloroplast indicates a possible role for PjGSTU1 in ROS removal.

  5. Inactivation of mouse liver glutathione S-transferase YfYf (Pi class) by ethacrynic acid and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid).

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M F; Mantle, T J

    1993-01-01

    Mouse liver glutathione S-transferase YfYf (Pi class) reacts with [14C]ethacrynic acid to form a covalent adduct with a stoichiometry of 1 mol per mol of subunit. Proteolytic digestion of the enzyme-[14C]ethacrynic acid adduct with V8 protease produced an 11 kDa fragment containing radioactivity. Sequencing revealed this to be an N-terminal peptide (minus the first 15 residues, terminating at Glu-112) which contains only one cysteine residue (Cys-47). This is tentatively identified as the site of ethacrynic attachment. Kinetic studies reveal that glutathione S-conjugates protect against inactivation by ethacrynic acid, but the level of protection is not consistent with their potency as product inhibitors. A model is proposed in which glutathione S-conjugates and ethacrynic acid compete for the free enzyme, and a second molecule of ethacrynic acid reacts covalently with the enzyme-ethacrynic acid complex. The native protein contains one thiol reactive with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) at neutral pH. The resultant mixed disulphide, like the ethacrynic acid adduct, is inactive, but treatment with cyanide (which incorporates on a mol for mol basis) restores activity to 35% of that of the native enzyme. Images Figure 4 PMID:8363586

  6. Functional analysis of genetic polymorphism in Wuchereria bancrofti glutathione S-transferase antioxidant gene: impact on protein structure and enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Prabhu, Prince Rajaiah; Chowdhary, Swati; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti glutathione S-transferase (Wb-GST) is referred as a promising chemotherapeutic target for lymphatic filariasis. GST represents the major class of detoxifying enzymes of the tissue dwelling parasitic helminths. Though many inhibition studies were carried out for Wb-GST, understanding its genetic distribution in parasite population is necessary to develop ideal inhibitor. Our genetic polymorphic studies exposed the existence of three variant Wb-GST alleles in the four endemic regions of India. Moreover, it also revealed the variability in the distribution of Wb-GST alleles in the studied population. Therefore we cloned, expressed and purified the recombinant variant Wb-GST proteins to study the mutation impact on its structure and hence on its catalysis. Among the studied mutations, the I60F/G78S substitutions in the N-terminal domain and loop region connecting the two domains of Wb-GST lowered the affinity for glutathione and its analog, S-hexyl glutathione. Moreover, molecular modeling and docking studies revealed that the I60F/G78S mutations affected the proximity of Trp38 and Arg95 in glutathione binding site resulting in weaker interaction with S-hexyl glutathione. Besides, the variants also had lower affinity (Ki) and higher IC50 values for well-known GST inhibitors. Interestingly, the Wb-GST variant proteins showed enhanced catalytic efficiency for lipid peroxidation products which are produced due to oxidative stress. Thus, our study provides evidence for the functional impact of mutations on Wb-GST protein and also spotlights the mechanisms of parasite survival against the host oxidative stress environment.

  7. COMPARATIVE EXPRESSION OF TWO ALPHA CLASS GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASES IN HUMAN ADULT AND PRENATAL LIVER TISSUES. (R827441)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The ability of the fetus to detoxify transplacental drugs and chemicals can be a critical determinant of teratogenesis and developmental toxicity. Developmentally regulated expression of alpha class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is of particular int...

  8. Stress-responsive expression of a glutathione S-transferase (delta) gene in waterflea Daphnia magna challenged by microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Kai; Gu, Lei; Li, Bangping; Lu, Yichun; Wu, Changcan; Guan, Haoyong; Yang, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms resulting from eutrophication and global warming have emerged as a worldwide environmental concern. Some zooplankton populations, including Daphnia, have been shown to adapt locally to microcystin-producing Microcystis. Previous in vitro experiments indicate that glutathione-S-transferase (GST) may act as the first step of detoxification in Daphnia by conjugating microcystins (MCs) with glutathione. The GST family is categorized into many classes, and different classes present distinct responses to MC detoxification. To date, however, the molecular mechanism of single class GST participation in buffering the toxic effects of MCs in Daphnia remains poorly known. In this study, a full-length delta-GST cDNA of Daphnia magna (Dm-dGST) was isolated and characterized through bioinformatics. Differential gene expression studies revealed that short-term exposure to microcystin-producing (MP) Microcystis aeruginosa increased Dm-dGST transcript levels. By contrast, long-term exposure to MP or microcystin-free (MF) M. aeruginosa decreased Dm-dGST transcript levels. Together with changes in three other antioxidation biomarkers (catalase, CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase), it is concluded that Dm-dGST can potentially biotransform MCs to reduce their toxicity. The present study highlights the importance of Dm-dGST in response to MC toxicity and may thus facilitate future research on the molecular mechanisms of MC tolerance in zooplankton under an increasing eutrophic world.

  9. Glyceryl trinitrate metabolism in the quail embryo by the glutathione S-transferases leads to a perturbation in redox status and embryotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bardai, Ghalib K; Hales, Barbara F; Sunahara, Geoffrey I

    2013-07-01

    Exposure of stage 9 quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) induces malformations that were associated in previous studies with an increase in protein nitration. Increased nitration suggests metabolism of GTN by the embryo. The goals of this study were to characterize the enzymes and co-factors required for GTN metabolism by quail embryos, and to determine the effects of in ovo treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione (GSH), on GTN embryotoxicity. GTN treatment of quail embryos resulted in an increase in nitrite, a decrease in total GSH, and an increase in the ratio of NADP(+)/NADPH, indicating that redox balance may be compromised in exposed embryos. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) purified from the whole embryo (K(m) 0.84 mM; V(max) 36 μM/min) and the embryonic eye (K(m) 0.20 mM; V(max) 30 μM/min) had GTN-metabolizing activity (1436 and 34 nmol/min/mg, respectively); the addition of ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of GST activity, decreased GTN metabolism. Peptide sequencing of the GST isozymes indicated that alpha- or mu-type GSTs in the embryo and embryonic eye had GTN metabolizing activity. NAC co-treatment partially protected against the effects of GTN exposure. Thus, GTN denitration by quail embryo GSTs may represent a key initial step in the developmental toxicity of GTN.

  10. Purification, molecular cloning, and characterization of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from pigmented Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures as putative anthocyanin transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Conn, Simon; Curtin, Chris; Bézier, Annie; Franco, Chris; Zhang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The ligandin activity of specific glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is necessary for the transport of anthocyanins from the cytosol to the plant vacuole. Five GSTs were purified from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux cell suspension cultures by glutathione affinity chromatography. These proteins underwent Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry fingerprinting, with the resultant fragments aligned with predicted GSTs within public databases. The corresponding coding sequences were cloned, with heterologous expression in Escherichia coli used to confirm GST activity. Transcriptional profiling of these candidate GST genes and key anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (PAL, CHS, DFR, and UFGT) in cell suspensions and grape berries against anthocyanin accumulation demonstrated strong positive correlation with two sequences, VvGST1 and VvGST4, respectively. The ability of VvGST1 and VvGST4 to transport anthocyanins was confirmed in the heterologous maize bronze-2 complementation model, providing further evidence for their function as anthocyanin transport proteins in grape cells. Furthermore, the differential induction of VvGST1 and VvGST4 in suspension cells and grape berries suggests functional differences between these two proteins. Further investigation of these candidate ligandins may identify a mechanism for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation in planta and in vitro suspension cells.

  11. The identification and oxidative stress response of a zeta class glutathione S-transferase (GSTZ1) gene from Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiru; Meng, Fei; Jia, Haihong; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2012-06-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) play an important role in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, no information is available for GSTs in the Chinese honey bee (Apis cerana cerana). In this study, we isolated and characterized a zeta class GST gene (AccGSTZ1) from the Chinese honey bee. This gene is present in a single copy and harbors five exons. The deduced amino acid sequence of AccGSTZ1 shared high sequence identity with homologous proteins and contained the highly conserved features of this gene family. The temporal and spatial expression profiles of AccGSTZ1 showed that AccGSTZ1 was highly expressed in fourth instar larvae during development, and the mRNA level of AccGSTZ1 was higher in the epidermis than that in other tissues. The expression pattern under oxidative stress revealed that AccGSTZ1 transcription was significantly upregulated by external factors, such as temperature challenges and H(2)O(2) treatment. The characterization of the purified protein revealed that AccGSTZ1 had low glutathione-conjugating activity, but the recombinant AccGSTZ1 protein displayed high antioxidant activity under oxidative stress. These data suggest that AccGSTZ1 is an oxidative stress-inducible antioxidant enzyme that plays an important role in the protection against oxidative stress and may be of critical importance for the survival of the honey bees.

  12. Two epsilon glutathione S-transferase cDNAs from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura: characterization and developmental and induced expression by insecticides.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huimin; Huang, Yufen; Feng, Qili; Zheng, Sichun

    2009-12-01

    Two Spodoptera litura glutathione S-transferase cDNAs (Slgste2 and Slgste3) which were cloned from a midgut cDNA, encoded two structurally distinct proteins with a predicted molecular mass of 25 and 24kDa, respectively. Slgste2 and Slgste3 were single-copy genes in the S. litura genome and there was no intron within the genes. The transcripts and proteins of Slgste2 and Slgste3 were predominately present in the midgut of the 5th and 6th instar larvae. The apparent Vmax of the purified SlGSTE2 and SlGSTE3 recombinant proteins towards the substrates glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenezene (CDNB) were similar. Slgste2 expression was up-regulated by 1-naphthyl methylcarbamate (carbaryl), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), deltamethrin, tebufenozide (RH5992) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), but not affected by malathion, while Slgste3 expression was slightly up-regulated by carbaryl, Bt and DDT, but not affected by RH5992, malathion and deltamethrin. The results suggest that Slgste2 and Slgste3 may play roles in detoxifying various insecticides in S. litura.

  13. Efficient synthesis of α-fluoromethylhistidine di-hydrochloride and demonstration of its efficacy as a glutathione S-transferase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Considine, Kelly L; Stefanidis, Lazaros; Grozinger, Karl G; Audie, Joseph; Alper, Benjamin J

    2017-03-15

    Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) is an enzyme that converts histidine to histamine. Inhibition of HDC has several medical applications, and HDC inhibitors are of considerable interest for the study of histidine metabolism. (S)-α-Fluoromethylhistidine di-hydrochloride (α-FMH) is a potent HDC inhibitor that is commercially available at high cost in small amounts only. Here we report a novel, inexpensive, and efficient method for synthesis of α-FMH using methyl 2-aziridinyl-3-(N-triphenylmethyl-4-imidazolyl) propionate and HF/pyridine, with experimental yield of 57%. To identify novel targets for α-FMH, we developed a three step in silico work-flow for identifying physically plausible protein targets. The work-flow resulted in 21 protein target hits, including several enzymes involved in glutathione metabolism, and notably, two isozymes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily, which plays a central role in drug metabolism. In view of this predictive data, the efficacy of α-FMH as a GST inhibitor was investigated in vitro. α-FMH was demonstrated to be an effective inhibitor of GST at micromolar concentration, suggesting that off-target effects of α-FMH may limit physiological drug metabolism and elimination by GST-dependent mechanisms. The present study therefore provides new avenues for obtaining α-FMH and for studying its biochemical effects, with potential implications for drug development.

  14. A Chinese cabbage (Brassica campetris subsp. Chinensis) τ-type glutathione-S-transferase stimulates Arabidopsis development and primes against abiotic and biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chih-Wei; Bakshi, Madhunita; Sherameti, Irena; Dong, Sheqin; Reichelt, Michael; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-12-01

    The beneficial root-colonizing fungus Piriformospora indica stimulates root development of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. Chinensis) and this is accompanied by the up-regulation of a τ-class glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase gene (BcGSTU) (Lee et al. 2011) in the roots. BcGSTU expression is further promoted by osmotic (salt and PEG) and heat stress. Ectopic expression of BcGSTU in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter results in the promotion of root and shoot growth as well as better performance of the plants under abiotic (150 mM NaCl, PEG, 42 °C) and biotic (Alternaria brassicae infection) stresses. Higher levels of glutathione, auxin and stress-related (salicylic and jasmonic acid) phytohormones as well as changes in the gene expression profile result in better performance of the BcGSTU expressors upon exposure to stress. Simultaneously the plants are primed against upcoming stresses. We propose that BcGSTU is a target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage roots because the enzyme participates in balancing growth and stress responses, depending on the equilibrium of the symbiotic interaction. A comparable function of BcGST in transgenic Arabidopsis makes the enzyme a valuable tool for agricultural applications.

  15. Direct evidence for the covalent modification of glutathione-S-transferase P1-1 by electrophilic prostaglandins: implications for enzyme inactivation and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Gayarre, Javier; Avellano, M Isabel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2007-01-15

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) catalyze the conjugation of electrophilic compounds to glutathione, thus playing a key role in cell survival and tumor chemoresistance. Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPG) are electrophilic eicosanoids that display potent antiproliferative properties, through multiple mechanisms not completely elucidated. Here we show that the cyPG 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) binds to GSTP1-1 covalently, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry and by the use of biotinylated 15d-PGJ2. Moreover, cyPG inactivate GSTP1-1 irreversibly. The presence of the cyclopentenone moiety is important for these effects. Covalent interactions also occur in cells, in which 15d-PGJ2 binds to endogenous GSTP1-1, irreversibly reduces GST free-thiol content and inhibits GST activity. Protein delivery of GSTP1-1 improves cell survival upon serum deprivation whereas 15d-PGJ2-treated GSTP1-1 displays a reduced protective effect. These results show the first evidence for the formation of stable adducts between cyPG and GSTP1-1 and may offer new perspectives for the development of irreversible GST inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  16. A mu-class glutathione S-transferase from the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: molecular cloning and active-site structural modeling.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Harris-Valle, Citlalli; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    A cDNA clone coding for a mu-class glutathione S-transferase (GST) was isolated from a hepatopancreas cDNA library from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The deduced amino acid sequence (215 amino acids) has >50% identity to rodents and other mammals mu-class GSTs. Using RT-PCR, the shrimp GST transcript was detected in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, gills, and muscle, but not in pleopods. The shrimp GST sequence was computer modeled and found to fit the classical two-domain GST structure. Domain I, containing the glutathione (GSH) binding site, is more conserved compared to the flexible C-terminal domain II. Residue Q208 appears to be a key to substrate specificity by comparison with mammalian GST mutants. This position is commonly occupied by serine or threonine in mammalian mu-class GSTs, and shrimp Q208 may affect the affinity to substrates like aminochrome or 1,3-dimethyl-2-cyano-1-nitrosoguanidine. This is the first report of molecular cloning and structural modeling of a crustacean GST and provides new insights into the nature of the detoxification response on marine invertebrates.

  17. Comparison of epsilon- and delta-class glutathione S-transferases: the crystal structures of the glutathione S-transferases DmGSTE6 and DmGSTE7 from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Scian, Michele; Le Trong, Isolde; Mazari, Aslam M. A.; Mannervik, Bengt; Atkins, William M.; Stenkamp, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) comprise a large family of enzymes with canonical structures that diverge functionally and structurally among mammals, invertebrates and plants. Whereas mammalian GSTs have been characterized extensively with regard to their structure and function, invertebrate GSTs remain relatively unstudied. The invertebrate GSTs do, however, represent potentially important drug targets for infectious diseases and agricultural applications. In addition, it is essential to fully understand the structure and function of invertebrate GSTs, which play important roles in basic biological processes. Invertebrates harbor delta- and epsilon-class GSTs, which are not found in other organisms. Drosophila melanogaster GSTs (DmGSTs) are likely to contribute to detoxication or antioxidative stress during development, but they have not been fully characterized. Here, the structures of two epsilon-class GSTs from Drosophila, DmGSTE6 and DmGSTE7, are reported at 2.1 and 1.5 Å resolution, respectively, and are compared with other GSTs to identify structural features that might correlate with their biological functions. The structures of DmGSTE6 and DmGSTE7 are remarkably similar; the structures do not reveal obvious sources of the minor functional differences that have been observed. The main structural difference between the epsilon- and delta-class GSTs is the longer helix (A8) at the C-termini of the epsilon-class enzymes. PMID:26457432

  18. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Rüker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed. PMID:7538846

  19. Conversion of nitroglycerin to nitric oxide in microsomes of the bovine coronary artery smooth muscle is not primarily mediated by glutathione-S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Chung, S J; Chong, S; Seth, P; Jung, C Y; Fung, H L

    1992-02-01

    The pharmacological action of organic nitrate vasodilators [e.g., nitroglycerin (NTG)] is thought to be mediated through metabolic conversion to nitric oxide (NO); conversion leads to vasodilatation, whereas diminished conversion in chronic therapy may lead to pharmacological tolerance. The biochemical nature of this process, however, is poorly understood. Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) have been shown to metabolize organic nitrates in the liver, but it is not known whether these enzymes are involved in this pharmacologically relevant process. We, therefore, compared the activities of conversion of NTG to NO vs. those of GST in microsomal suspensions of bovine coronary artery smooth muscle tissue. A classical GST substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, inhibited NO production in microsomes, suggesting possible involvement of GST in organic nitrate activation. However, GST activity derived from microsomes exhibited a different heat lability profile compared to that of NO generation. Known inhibitors of GST (viz., indomethacin and bromosulfophthalein) did not alter the NO-generating activity in microsomes. Glutathione was a critical cofactor for GST, but not for NO generation from NTG, and thiols other than glutathione (e.g., N-acetyl-L-cysteine and thiosalicylic acid) also could facilitate NO production. Moreover, comparison to a commercially available purified liver GST preparation showed that, at the same GST activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, the microsomal incubation produced about 8 times more NO than the purified liver GST. Radiation inactivation analysis of the functional molecular sizes of GST and the NO-producing enzyme(s) suggested that the enzymes were of different molecular weights (54 kD and 160 kD, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Three-dimensional structure of Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase fused with a six-amino acid conserved neutralizing epitope of gp41 from HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Gilliland, G. L.; Ji, X.; Ruker, F.; Carter, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The 3-dimensional crystal structure of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj) fused with a conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 (glycoprotein, 41 kDa) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Muster T et al., 1993, J Virol 67:6642-6647) was determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure of the 3-3 isozyme rat GST of the mu gene class (Ji X, Zhang P, Armstrong RN, Gilliland GL, 1992, Biochemistry 31:10169-10184) was used as a molecular replacement model. The structure consists of a 4-stranded beta-sheet and 3 alpha-helices in domain 1 and 5 alpha-helices in domain 2. The space group of the Sj GST crystal is P4(3)2(1)2, with unit cell dimensions of a = b = 94.7 A, and c = 58.1 A. The crystal has 1 GST monomer per asymmetric unit, and 2 monomers that form an active dimer are related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry. In the binding site, the ordered structure of reduced glutathione is observed. The gp41 peptide (Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala) fused to the C-terminus of Sj GST forms a loop stabilized by symmetry-related GSTs. The Sj GST structure is compared with previously determined GST structures of mammalian gene classes mu, alpha, and pi. Conserved amino acid residues among the 4 GSTs that are important for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions for dimer association and glutathione binding are discussed.

  1. Role of Glutathione S-Transferase in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ritu; Singh, Balwant

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Glutathione S – transferase (GST) is an important enzyme in detoxification and helps in lowering oxidative stress. It is speculated that this enzyme is induced under conditions of oxidative stress as a protective mechanism. Aim To evaluate the status of Glutathione S–transferase in Coronary artery disease patients with and without type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in the Department of Biotechnology, Swami Satyanand College of Management and Technology in collaboration with Department of Biochemistry, Govt Medical College Amritsar. A total of 133 diagnosed cases of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) were selected from the OPD and Medicine Ward of a private hospital, Amritsar. CAD patients were segregated into two groups i.e., group-1 and group-2 on the basis if they had Type 2 Diabetes mellitus or not. A total of 110 ages and sex matched healthy individuals were taken as controls from the general population. Written informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. All the subjects were investigated for serum GST activity, Total antioxidant status, plasma GSH levels, serum MDA and lipid profile. Results Serum GST activity was significantly high (p<0.05) in CAD patients as compared to controls. CAD patients having Type 2 Diabetes had more raised serum GST activity, indicating marked oxidative stress in these patients. This was supported from the observation that serum MDA levels were also significantly (p<0.05) high in CAD patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Total antioxidant status was significantly depressed (p<0.05) in CAD patients whether diabetic or non-diabetic as compared to controls. No significant difference (p>0.05) in plasma GSH levels were observed between CAD patients and controls. Age and sex related variations in serum GST activity were insignificant (p>0.05) Conclusion Increased serum GST activity in CAD patients especially with Type 2 Diabetes is suggestive of a protective mechanism to combat

  2. Co-induction of glutathione-S-transferases and multidrug resistance associated protein by xenobiotics in wheat.

    PubMed

    Theodoulou, Frederica L; Clark, Ian M; He, Xiao-Li; Pallett, Kenneth E; Cole, David J; Hallahan, David L

    2003-02-01

    Herbicide safeners are known to protect monocotyledonous crops from herbicide injury by accelerating the metabolism of herbicides. We have investigated the effects of the safener cloquintocetmexyl, which protects small-grain cereals against the graminicidal herbicide, clodinafop-propargyl. Subtractive suppression hybridisation was used to identify wheat genes which are up-regulated by treatment not only with cloquintocet-mexyl but also with phenobarbital, which is known to stimulate xenobiotic metabolism in animals and plants. DNA sequences of five glutathione transferases (GSTs) belonging to three different classes and a multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) homologue were identified in the screen. The chemical inducibility of these clones was confirmed by Northern analysis. The MRP protein was shown to be induced by treatments with cloquintocet-mexyl and phenobarbital and to be localised to the tonoplast. Since clodinafop-propargyl is not known to be metabolised by glutathionylation, the significance of GST induction is interpreted in terms of a generalised response to chemical stress, particularly the generation of active oxygen species. This work establishes herbicide safeners as useful tools for the identification of genes encoding herbicide-metabolising enzymes.

  3. Site-specific Arylation of Rat Glutathione S-Transferase A1 and A2 by Bromobenzene Metabolites in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Yakov M.; Yue, Weimin; Galeva, Nadezhda A.; Williams, Todd D.; Hanzlik, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    The hepatotoxicity of bromobenzene (BB) derives from its reactive metabolites (epoxides and quinones) which arylate cellular proteins. Application of proteomic methods to liver proteins from rats treated with an hepatotoxic dose of [14C]-BB has identified more than 40 target proteins, but no adducted peptides have yet been observed. Because such proteins are known to contain bromophenyl- and bromodihydroxyphenyl derivatives of cysteine, histidine and lysine, the failure to observe modified peptides has been attributed to the low level of total covalent binding and to the “dilution” effect of multiple metabolites reacting at multiple sites on multiple proteins. In this work glutathione transferase, a well known and abundant BB-target protein, was isolated from liver cytosol of rats treated with 14C-BB using a GSH-agarose affinity column and further resolved by reverse phase HPLC into subunits M1, M2, A1, A2 and A3. The subunits were identified by a combination of SDS-PAGE, whole-molecule mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping and found to contain radioactivity corresponding to 0.01 - 0.05 adduct per molecule of protein. Examination of tryptic digests of these subunits by MALDI-TOF and ESI-MS again failed to reveal any apparent adducted peptides despite observed sequence coverages up to 87%. However, using HPLC-LTQ-FTMS to search for predicted modified tryptic peptides revealed peaks corresponding, with a high degree of mass accuracy, to a bromobenzoquinone adduct of peptide 89-119 in both GSTA1 and A2. The identity of these adducts and their location at Cys-111 was confirmed by MS-MS. No evidence for the presence of any putative BB-adducts in GST M1, M2 or A3 was obtained. This work highlights the challenges involved in the unambiguous identification of reactive metabolite adducts formed in vivo. PMID:17112229

  4. Ethanol-induced attenuation of oxidative stress is unable to alter mRNA expression pattern of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST1A), and superoxide dismutase (SOD3) enzymes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minghui; Shariat-Madar, Bahbak; Haron, Mona H; Wu, Mengmeng; Khan, Ikhlas A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2011-01-01

    Although the mechanism of ethanol toxicity during embryogenesis is unknown, our earlier studies on Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos indicated that the effects might be mediated through oxidative stress. In this study we have determined the oxidative stress and the mRNA content of four antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase) during Japanese rice fish embryogenesis (from 0 day post-fertilization to hatching) and after exposing the embryos to ethanol (100 and 300 mM) for 48 h at three stages (0-2, 1-3 and 4-6 days post-fertilization, dpf) of organogenesis. We observed that oxidative stress was minimal in blastula, gastrula or neurula stages, increased gradually with the advancement of morphogenesis and reached its maximum level in hatchlings. The antioxidant enzyme mRNAs were constitutively expressed throughout development; however, the expression pattern was not identical among the enzymes. Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNAs were minimal in the fertilized eggs, but increased significantly in 1 dpf and then either sharply dropped (SOD) or maintained a steady-state (catalase). Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was very high in fertilized eggs and sharply dropped 1 dpf and then gradually increased thereafter. Glutathione reductase (GR) maintained a steady-state throughout the development. Ethanol was able to attenuate oxidative stress in embryos exposed only to 300 mM 1-3 dpf; no significant difference with controls was observed in other ethanol-treated groups. The antioxidant enzyme mRNAs also remained unaltered after ethanol treatment. From these data we conclude that the attenuation of oxidative stress by ethanol is probably due to the inhibition of normal growth of the embryos rather than by inhibiting catalase, GST, GR or SOD-dependent activities.

  5. Over-expression of a rice tau class glutathione s-transferase gene improves tolerance to salinity and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raghvendra; Sahoo, Annapurna; Devendran, Ragunathan; Jain, Mukesh

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by large gene family in plants, which play important role in cellular detoxification of several endobiotic and xenobiotic compounds. Previously, we suggested the diverse roles of rice GST gene family members in plant development and various stress responses based on their differential expression. In this study, we report the functional characterization of a rice tau class GST gene, OsGSTU4. OsGSTU4 fusion protein was found to be localized in nucleus and cytoplasm. The over-expression of OsGSTU4 in E. coli resulted in better growth and higher GST activity under various stress conditions. Further, we raised over-expression transgenic Arabidopsis plants to reveal its in planta function. These transgenic lines showed reduced sensitivity towards plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid. Various analyses revealed improved tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants towards salinity and oxidative stresses, which may be attributed to the lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species and enhanced GST activity. In addition, microarray analysis revealed up-regulation of several genes involved in stress responses and cellular detoxification processes in the transgenic plants as compared to wild-type. These results suggest that OsGSTU4 can be used as a good candidate for the generation of stress-tolerant crop plants.

  6. Glutathione-s-transferase A 4 (GSTA4) suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang Jun; Yang, Jin Hui; Huang, Fei Zhou; Nie, Wan Pin; Liu, Chu Ping; Mao, Xian Hai; Yin, Xin Min; Shen, Xian Bo; Peng, Chuang; Chen, Mei Fu; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Xun Yang; Wu, Jin Shu

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies of cancers and its prognosis remains dismal due to the paucity of effective therapeutic targets. Up-regulation of glutathione-s-transferase A 4 (GSTA4) is associated with poor prognosis of HCC, but its functional mechanism in HCC remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the roles of GSTA4 in tumor growth and metastasis of HCC and found that GSTA4 was frequently up-regulated in HCC tissues. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies, GSTA4 was demonstrated to significantly regulate cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, GSTA4 overexpressing significantly promoted the tumorigenicity and metastasis of HCC cells in nude mice models bearing human HCC, whereas silencing endogenous GSTA4 caused an opposite outcome. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSTA4 enhanced HCC aggressiveness by activating protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. In multivariate analysis, our results GSTA4 overexpression promotes the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma and might represent a novel therapeutic target for its treatment.

  7. The schistosome glutathione S-transferase P28GST, a unique helminth protein, prevents intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis through a Th2-type response with mucosal eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Driss, V; El Nady, M; Delbeke, M; Rousseaux, C; Dubuquoy, C; Sarazin, A; Gatault, S; Dendooven, A; Riveau, G; Colombel, J F; Desreumaux, P; Dubuquoy, L; Capron, M

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal helminth parasites are potent inducers of T helper type 2 (Th2) response and have a regulatory role, notably on intestinal inflammation. As infection with schistosomes is unlikely to provide a reliable treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, we have investigated the beneficial effect of a schistosome enzymatic protein, the 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (P28GST), on the modulation of disease activity and immune responses in experimental colitis. Our results showed that immunization with recombinant P28GST is at least as efficient as established schistosome infection to reduce colitis lesions and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Considering underlying mechanisms, the decrease of inflammatory parameters was associated with the polarization of the immune system toward a Th2 profile, with local and systemic increases of interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5. Dense eosinophil infiltration was observed in the colons of P28GST-immunized rats and mice. Depletion of eosinophils by treatment with an anti-Siglec-F monoclonal antibody and use of IL-5-deficient mice led to the loss of therapeutic effect, suggesting the crucial role for eosinophils in colitis prevention by P28GST. These findings reveal that immunization with P28GST, a unique recombinant schistosome enzyme, ameliorates intestinal inflammation through eosinophil-dependent modulation of harmful type 1 responses, representing a new immuno-regulatory strategy against inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26174763

  8. Glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) in Egyptian pediatric patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Hala Fathy; El-Ghamrawy, Mona Kamal; Shaheen, Iman Abd El-Mohsen; Ali, Rasha Abd El-Ghani; Mousa, Somaia Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) complications are associated with oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a group of enzymes that protect against oxidative stress. The aims of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms among homozygous sickle cell anemia patients and to investigate the possible association between the presence of these polymorphisms and SCD severity and complications. Genotyping the polymorphisms in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was performed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The GSTP1 ILe105Val polymorphism was determined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with increased risk of severe vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) (odds ratio  =  1.52, 95% confidence interval  =  0.42-5.56, P  =  0.005). We found no significant association between GST genotypes and frequency of sickle cell-related pain, transfusion frequency, disease severity, or hydroxyurea treatment. GSTM1 gene polymorphism may be associated with risk of severe VOC among Egyptian SCD patients.

  9. A Halloween gene noppera-bo encodes a glutathione S-transferase essential for ecdysteroid biosynthesis via regulating the behaviour of cholesterol in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Enya, Sora; Ameku, Tomotsune; Igarashi, Fumihiko; Iga, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    In insects, the precise timing of moulting and metamorphosis is strictly guided by ecdysteroids that are synthesised from dietary cholesterol in the prothoracic gland (PG). In the past decade, several ecdysteroidogenic enzymes, some of which are encoded by the Halloween genes, have been identified and characterised. Here, we report a novel Halloween gene, noppera-bo (nobo), that encodes a member of the glutathione S-transferase family. nobo was identified as a gene that is predominantly expressed in the PG of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We generated a nobo knock-out mutant, which displayed embryonic lethality and a naked cuticle structure. These phenotypes are typical for Halloween mutants showing embryonic ecdysteroid deficiency. In addition, the PG-specific nobo knock-down larvae displayed an arrested phenotype and reduced 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) titres. Importantly, both embryonic and larval phenotypes were rescued by the administration of 20E or cholesterol. We also confirm that PG cells in nobo loss-of-function larvae abnormally accumulate cholesterol. Considering that cholesterol is the most upstream material for ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the PG, our results raise the possibility that nobo plays a crucial role in regulating the behaviour of cholesterol in steroid biosynthesis in insects. PMID:25300303

  10. Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum: Comparative Genomic Study and their Expression under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yating; Li, Cong; Zhang, Yi; He, Qiuling; Daud, Muhammad K.; Chen, Jinhong; Zhu, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play versatile functions in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. A comprehensive genome-wide survey of this gene family in the genomes of G. raimondii and G. arboreum was carried out in this study. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the GST gene family of both two diploid cotton species could be divided into eight classes, and approximately all the GST genes within the same subfamily shared similar gene structure. Additionally, the gene structures between the orthologs were highly conserved. The chromosomal localization analyses revealed that GST genes were unevenly distributed across the genome in both G. raimondii and G. arboreum. Tandem duplication could be the major driver for the expansion of GST gene families. Meanwhile, the expression analysis for the selected 40 GST genes showed that they exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns and their expression were induced or repressed by salt stress. Those findings shed lights on the function and evolution of the GST gene family in Gossypium species. PMID:26904090

  11. Induction of glutathione-S-transferases in primary cultured digestive gland acini from the mollusk bivalve Pecten maximus (L.): application of a new cellular model in biomonitoring studies.

    PubMed

    Le Pennec, Gaël; Le Pennec, Marcel

    2003-07-16

    In the last three decades, marine invertebrates have been used to monitor environmental health conditions and potential pollution, e.g. in the Mussel Watch Program. The whole animal or specific organs are used to determine contamination levels and disturbances. In the present study, a new in vitro cell culture model was validated for pollution monitoring. A commercial species, the scallop Pecten maximus, was tested for the presence and induction of phase II glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes. These activities were monitored for a year, and the results were found to be consistent with those in the literature. Tributyltin, ethylmethane sulfonate and the water-soluble fraction of crude oil were assayed in, in vitro induction studies. A rapid increase of GST activities was observed within 24 h with all compounds tested, and a time- as well as a dose-response was established. This in vitro cell culture model seems suitable for routine use to predict the effects of pollutants on whole organisms within an ecosystem and in fisheries.

  12. Comparative Hepatotoxicity of Aflatoxin B1 among Workers Exposed to Different Organic Dust with Emphasis on Polymorphism Role of Glutathione S-Transferase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Saad-Hussein, Amal; Shahy, Eman M.; Shaheen, Weam; Taha, Mona M.; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; Ibrahim, Khadiga S.; Hafez, Salwa F.; Fadl, Nevein N.; El-Shamy, Karima A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The study aimed to investigate effects of organic dust exposure from different sources on aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts (AFB1/Alb), and role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphism in hepatotoxicity of (AFB1) among exposed workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Liver enzymes, AFB1/Alb, and GST polymorphism were estimated in 132 wheat flour dust and 87 woods sawmill workers, and 156 controls. RESULTS: Results revealed that AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes were significantly elevated in exposed workers compared to controls, and were significantly higher in sawmill workers compared to flour workers. AFB1/Alb in flour and sawmill workers with GSTT1 and GSTM1&GSTT1 null genotypes were significantly higher than controls, and in sawmill workers with GSTM1&GSTT1 null than flour workers. Liver enzymes (ALT and AST) in sawmill workers were significantly higher than flour workers and controls in all GST polymorphism; except in GSTT1 polymorphism, where these enzymes were significantly higher in the two exposed groups than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, organic dust exposure may cause elevation in AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes of exposed workers, and GST gene polymorphism plays an important role in susceptibility to hepatic parenchymal cell injury; except in workers with GSTT1&GSTM1 null genotype, gene susceptibility seemed to have little role and the main role was for environmental exposures. PMID:27335608

  13. Influence of glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms on busulfan pharmacokinetics and outcome of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in thalassemia pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, M; Huezo-Diaz, P; Rezgui, M A; Marktel, S; Duval, M; Bittencourt, H; Cappelli, B; Krajinovic, M

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only curative therapeutic option for the treatment of thalassemia. In spite of the high cure rate, HSCT can lead to life-threatening adverse events in some patients. Busulfan (Bu) is a key component of the conditioning regimen prior to HSCT. Inter-individual differences in Bu pharmacokinetics (PK) are hypothesized to influence Bu efficacy and toxicity. Since Bu is mainly metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST), we investigated the relationship of GSTA1 and GSTM1 genotypes with first-dose PK and HSCT outcomes in 44 children with thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia major. All children received a myeloablative conditioning regimen with IV Bu. Association analysis revealed a relationship between GSTA169C>T (or haplotype *A/*B) and first Bu dose PK that was dependent on sex and Pesaro risk classification (PRC). Among female patients and patients with PRC I–II, homozygous individuals for the GSTA1T−69 allele defining haplotype *B, had higher Bu exposure and lower clearance (P⩽0.01). Association with HSCT outcomes showed that patients with the GSTM1 null genotypes had higher occurrence of regimen-related toxicity (P=0.01). These results suggest that GST genotypes could be useful to tailor the first Bu dose accordingly to improve HSCT outcome. PMID:26691424

  14. Over-Expression of a Rice Tau Class Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Improves Tolerance to Salinity and Oxidative Stresses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Raghvendra; Sahoo, Annapurna; Devendran, Ragunathan; Jain, Mukesh

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by large gene family in plants, which play important role in cellular detoxification of several endobiotic and xenobiotic compounds. Previously, we suggested the diverse roles of rice GST gene family members in plant development and various stress responses based on their differential expression. In this study, we report the functional characterization of a rice tau class GST gene, OsGSTU4. OsGSTU4 fusion protein was found to be localized in nucleus and cytoplasm. The over-expression of OsGSTU4 in E. coli resulted in better growth and higher GST activity under various stress conditions. Further, we raised over-expression transgenic Arabidopsis plants to reveal its in planta function. These transgenic lines showed reduced sensitivity towards plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid. Various analyses revealed improved tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants towards salinity and oxidative stresses, which may be attributed to the lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species and enhanced GST activity. In addition, microarray analysis revealed up-regulation of several genes involved in stress responses and cellular detoxification processes in the transgenic plants as compared to wild-type. These results suggest that OsGSTU4 can be used as a good candidate for the generation of stress-tolerant crop plants. PMID:24663444

  15. Analysis of the prevalence of polymorphisms in the glutathione S transferase gene (GST) in cataract patients from Goiânia.

    PubMed

    Costa, I R; Mascarenhas, R S; Corrêa, J F; Oliveira, F R B; Fernandes, S G; Souza, F O; Dos Reis, G M; de P R Júnior, A; Rodrigues, D A; Martins, J V M; E Silva, K S F; Moura, K K V O

    2016-08-26

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase genes GSTM1 and GSTT1 in patients with lens opacity (cataract). Peripheral blood samples were obtained from male and female patients (N = 23) with cataract. The GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphic regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the amplification products were electrophoresed on a 2% agarose gel. The obtained bands were by staining with ethidium bromide. The results were compared by a chi-square test using the BioEstat software (v.5.0). The frequencies of the GSTM1- and GSTT1-null genotypes were higher than those of the GSTM1- and GSTT1-present genotypes. The frequency of GSTT1-null genotypes was approximately 1.7 times higher than that of GSTM1, which was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0019). Although a consensus remains to be reached on the correlation between genetic polymorphisms in GSTs and cataract susceptibility, the observations from most scientific studies are similar to those reported in this study. Thus, we conclude that the absence of these genes, particularly GSTT1, is correlated with the development of lens opacity.

  16. Enhanced phytoremediation of mixed heavy metal (mercury)-organic pollutants (trichloroethylene) with transgenic alfalfa co-expressing glutathione S-transferase and human P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junhong; Zhou, Yuanming; Gong, Tingyun; Wang, Jing; Ge, Yinlin

    2013-09-15

    Soil contamination is a global environmental problem and many efforts have been made to find efficient remediation methods over the last decade. Moreover, remediation of mixed contaminated soils are more difficult. In the present study, transgenic alfalfa plants pKHCG co-expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and human P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) genes were used for phytoremediation of mixed mercury (Hg)-trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminants. Simultaneous expression of GST and CYP2E1 may produce a significant synergistic effect, and leads to improved resistance and accumulation to heavy metal-organic complex contaminants. Based on the tolerance and accumulation assays, pKHCG transgenic plants were more resistant to Hg/TCE complex pollutants and many folds higher in Hg/TCE-accumulation than the non-transgenic control plants in mixed contaminated soil. It is confirmed that GST and CYP2E1 co-expression may be a useful strategy to help achieve mixed heavy metal-organic pollutants phytoremediation.

  17. Interaction between mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) affects the activity of glutathione S-transferase in breast milk; possible relationship with fish and sellfish intake.

    PubMed

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Celis de la Rosa, Alfredo de Jesús; Acosta-Vargas, Baudilio; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía Celina; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk is regarded as an ideal source of nutrients for the growth and development of neonates, but it can also be a potential source of pollutants. Mothers can be exposed to different contaminants as a result of their lifestyle and environmental pollution. Mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) could adversely affect the development of fetal and neonatal nervous system. Some fish and shellfish are rich in selenium (Se), an essential trace element that forms part of several enzymes related to the detoxification process, including glutathione S-transferase (GST). The goal of this study was to determine the interaction between Hg, As and Se and analyze its effect on the activity of GST in breast milk. Milk samples were collected from women between day 7 and 10 postpartum. The GST activity was determined spectrophotometrically; total Hg, As and Se concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. To explain the possible association of Hg, As and Se concentrations with GST activity in breast milk, generalized linear models were constructed. The model explained 44% of the GST activity measured in breast milk. The GLM suggests that GST activity was positively correlated with Hg, As and Se concentrations. The activity of the enzyme was also explained by the frequency of consumption of marine fish and shellfish in the diet of the breastfeeding women.

  18. Functional divergence of the glutathione S-transferase supergene family in Physcomitrella patens reveals complex patterns of large gene family evolution in land plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jing; Han, Xue-Min; Ren, Lin-Ling; Yang, Hai-Ling; Zeng, Qing-Yin

    2013-02-01

    Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family that play major roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and oxidative stress metabolism. To date, studies on the GST gene family have focused mainly on vascular plants (particularly agricultural plants). In contrast, little information is available on the molecular characteristics of this large gene family in nonvascular plants. In addition, the evolutionary patterns of this family in land plants remain unclear. In this study, we identified 37 GST genes from the whole genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular representative of early land plants. The 37 P. patens GSTs were divided into 10 classes, including two new classes (hemerythrin and iota). However, no tau GSTs were identified, which represent the largest class among vascular plants. P. patens GST gene family members showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, gene expression responses to abiotic stressors, enzymatic characteristics, and the subcellular locations of the encoded proteins. A joint phylogenetic analysis of GSTs from P. patens and other higher vascular plants showed that different class GSTs had distinct duplication patterns during the evolution of land plants. By examining multiple characteristics, this study revealed complex patterns of evolutionary divergence among the GST gene family in land plants.

  19. The link between antioxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase and physiological condition of a control population of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber).

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Lešer, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in a control population of terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) are correlated with the physiological condition of the isopods. For this purpose, the activities of these enzymes were analysed in isopods from a stock population and in parallel, the physiological condition of the same specimens was assessed using a histological approach based on epithelial thickness and lipid droplets. We found a correlation between antioxidant enzymes and the physiological condition of the isopods. This implies that these enzymes could be used as predictive indicators of the physiological condition in a stock population before comprehensive toxicological studies are conducted and also in control group after the experiment. When a control group is found to be very heterogeneous in terms of physiological condition, the experiment should be repeated with a larger number of experimental animals. The findings of this study will contribute to more accurate experimental design of toxicity tests when using biomarkers. This should encourage other researchers to increase their effort to know the physiological state of their test organisms.

  20. Heterologous expression and characterization of a sigma glutathione S-transferase involved in carbaryl detoxification from oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen).

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Jia, Miao; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xueyao; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2012-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a major role in detoxification of xenobiotics and resistance to insecticides in insects. In the present study, a sigma-class GST gene (LmGSTs3) was identified from the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Its full-length cDNA sequence is 828 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 612 bp that encodes 204 amino acid residues. The predicted protein molecular mass and pI are 23.4 kDa and 7.62, respectively. Recombinant LmGSTs3 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble fusion protein. Its optimal activity was observed at pH 8.0. Incubation for 30 min at temperatures below 40 °C scarcely affected activity. The LmGSTs3 at pH values between 4.0 and 11.0 retained more than 80% of its original activity. Ethacrynic acid and cibacron blue were very effective inhibitors of LmGSTs3 with I50-values 1.7 and 3.7 μM, respectively. In response to heavy metal (CuSO4, CdCl2) exposure there was a concentration-dependent and time-dependent decrease in activity. The nymph mortalities after carbaryl treatment increased 38.7% after LmGSTs3 were silenced. These results suggest that LmGSTs3 may be involved in carbaryl detoxification in L. migratoria manilensis.

  1. A meta-analysis of the relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer including 31802 subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua-Fu; Feng, Xu; Zheng, Bao-Shi; Qian, Jun; He, Wei

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer from the published reports are still conflicting. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between GSTT1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer using meta-analysis method. The association studies were identified from PubMed, and Cochrane Library on July 1, 2012, and eligible investigations were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. 51 reports were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of null genotype of GSTT1 with lung cancer susceptibility, consisting of 15,140 patients with lung cancer and 16,662 controls. There was a marked association between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in overall populations (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.04-1.27, P = 0.007). Furthermore, GSTT1 null genotype was associated with the lung cancer risk in Asians (OR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.23-1.76, P < 0.0001). However, GSTT1 null genotype was not associated with the risk of lung cancer in Caucasians, Brazilian population and Africans. In conclusion, GSTT1 null genotype is associated with the lung cancer in overall populations and in Asians.

  2. Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene (AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Xiuling; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2013-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee (Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5'-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional assays of the recombinant AccGSTD protein revealed that AccGSTD has the capability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these data suggest that AccGSTD may be responsible for antioxidant defense in adult honey bees.

  3. Induction of wheat and maize glutathione S-transferase by some herbicide safeners and their effect on enzyme activity against butachlor and terbuthylazine.

    PubMed

    Scarponi, Luciano; Quagliarini, Elisa; Del Buono, Daniele

    2006-10-01

    The expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in wheat and maize shoots was investigated in response to treatments with the herbicide safeners benoxacor, cloquintocet-mexyl, fenchlorazole-ethyl, fenclorim, fluxofenim and oxabetrinil. These safeners significantly enhanced the GST activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as a 'standard' substrate, with the exception of oxabetrinil in maize. The enhancements of GST (CDNB) activity were found to be concomitant with increases in V(max) (the reaction rate when the enzyme is fully saturated by the substrate) in wheat following cloquintocet-mexyl and fenchlorazole-ethyl treatments, and in maize following fenchlorazole-ethyl treatment. Otherwise, decreases in V(max) were observed in wheat and maize following fenclorim and fluxofenim treatments. With the exception of oxabetrinil, all the safeners significantly reduced the apparent K(M) (the substrate concentration required for 50% of maximum GST activity) of both wheat and maize GST. The V(max) and K(M) variations following safener treatments are discussed in terms of an increased expression of GST enzymes and an increased affinity for the CDNB substrate. The activity of wheat and maize GST was also assayed towards butachlor and terbuthylazine respectively; the results indicate the ability of cloquintocet-mexyl, fenchlorazole-ethyl and fluxofenim to enhance the enzyme activity in wheat and of benoxacor and fenchlorazole-ethyl to do so in maize.

  4. Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323-mediated resistance in Brassica oleracea var. capitata to Rhizoctonia solani involves the novel expression of a glutathione S-transferase and a deoxycytidine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lin, Hong-Shin; Yang, Hsueh-Hui; Peng, Kou-Cheng

    2012-10-31

    Plant interactions with microbial biocontrol agents are used as experimental models to understand resistance-related molecular adaptations of plants. In a hydroponic three-way interaction study, a novel Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 mediated mechanism was found to induce resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection in Brassica oleracea var. capitata plantlets. The R. solani challenge on leaves initiate an increase in lipoxygenase activity and associated hypersensitive tissue damage with characteristic "programmed cell death" that facilitate the infection. However, B. oleracea plantlets whose roots were briefly (6 h) colonized by T. harzianum ETS 323 developed resistance to R. solani infection through a significant reduction of the host hypersensitive tissue damage. The resistance developed in the distal leaf tissue was associated with the expression of a H(2)O(2)-inducible glutathione S-transferase (BoGST), which scavenges cytotoxic reactive electrophiles, and of a deoxycytidine deaminase (BoDCD), which modulates the host molecular expression and potentially neutralizes the DNA adducts and maintains DNA integrity. The cDNAs of BoGST and BoDCD were cloned and sequenced; their expressions were verified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and were found to be transcriptionally activated during the three-way interaction.

  5. Effects of allyl sulfide, germanium and NaCl on the development of glutathion S-transferase P-positive rat hepatic foci initiated by diethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Jang, J J; Cho, K J; Kim, S H

    1989-01-01

    The modification potentials of allyl sulfide, germanium and NaCl on the development of preneoplastic hepatic enzyme altered foci were examined in an in vivo mid-term assay system. Rats were initially given a single dose (200 mg/kg), intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and, starting 2 weeks later, were treated with allyl sulfide, germanium and NaCl at a concentration of 0.5%, 0.05% and 5%, respectively, in the diet for 6 weeks and then killed. All rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy at week 3. The modifying potential was scored by comparing the number and area per cm2 of induced glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive (GST-P+) foci in the liver with those of the corresponding control group given DEN alone. Allyl sulfide exerted an obvious inhibition of the development of GST-P+ foci as regards both number and area. On the contrary, germanium showed a significant increase in the number of GST-P+ foci, although the data for area were not altered. NaCl had no modifying effect on their development.

  6. Galangin induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via regulation of ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 and glutathione S-transferase P.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deuk Ae; Jeon, Young Keul; Nam, Myeong Jin

    2012-03-01

    Galangin has been shown to have anti-cancer property against several types of cancer cells. Many studies have described the anti-oxidant and apoptotic effects of galangin. However, the mechanism of galangin-induced apoptosis has not yet been studied for human gastric cancer cells. We investigated galangin-induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer SNU-484 cells. Galangin inhibited proliferation of SNU-484 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The results showed that galangin significantly decreased the viability of SNU-484 cells at 50-200 μM for 24 h and 48 h. Galangin-induced cell death was characterized with the changes in cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle, activation of caspase-3/-9, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and expression of MAP kinase such as ERK1/2 and JNK. For identification of proteins potentially involved in apoptosis, a two-dimensional electrophoresis was employed. Proteomic analysis showed that several proteins were associated with anti-cancer properties of galangin. Of particular interest, these proteins included ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (Uch-L1) and glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), which are involved in apoptosis of SNU-484 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed up-regulation of Uch-L1 and down-regulation of GSTP following galangin treatment. Our results suggest that Uch-L1 and GSTP be involved in galangin-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SNU-484 cells.

  7. The schistosome glutathione S-transferase P28GST, a unique helminth protein, prevents intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis through a Th2-type response with mucosal eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Driss, V; El Nady, M; Delbeke, M; Rousseaux, C; Dubuquoy, C; Sarazin, A; Gatault, S; Dendooven, A; Riveau, G; Colombel, J F; Desreumaux, P; Dubuquoy, L; Capron, M

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal helminth parasites are potent inducers of T helper type 2 (Th2) response and have a regulatory role, notably on intestinal inflammation. As infection with schistosomes is unlikely to provide a reliable treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, we have investigated the beneficial effect of a schistosome enzymatic protein, the 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (P28GST), on the modulation of disease activity and immune responses in experimental colitis. Our results showed that immunization with recombinant P28GST is at least as efficient as established schistosome infection to reduce colitis lesions and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Considering underlying mechanisms, the decrease of inflammatory parameters was associated with the polarization of the immune system toward a Th2 profile, with local and systemic increases of interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5. Dense eosinophil infiltration was observed in the colons of P28GST-immunized rats and mice. Depletion of eosinophils by treatment with an anti-Siglec-F monoclonal antibody and use of IL-5-deficient mice led to the loss of therapeutic effect, suggesting the crucial role for eosinophils in colitis prevention by P28GST. These findings reveal that immunization with P28GST, a unique recombinant schistosome enzyme, ameliorates intestinal inflammation through eosinophil-dependent modulation of harmful type 1 responses, representing a new immuno-regulatory strategy against inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. Patterns of persistent DNA damage associated with sun exposure and the glutathione S-transferase M1 genotype in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Mark L; Hubbard, Karen; Utti, Charles; Clas, Brian; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Hill, Helene Z; Orlow, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Solar radiation can lead to changes affecting DNA metabolism resulting in loss of DNA integrity. Skin specimens obtained from melanoma patients treated at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were used to study patterns of DNA fragmentation using the comet assay and levels of deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using real-time PCR. Skin specimens were classified according to the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotype (either wild type [WT] or null) and patient sunburn history. GSTM1 null individuals with a sunburn history showed increased levels of both DNA fragmentation by comet assays and mtDNA deletions relative to GSTM1 WT patients with little or no sunburn history. Microarray analyses identified a number of genes whose expression was upregulated >or=5-fold in cells from GSTM1-null patients or from those reporting histories of sunburn. These genes encoded small molecule transporters, various growth factor/chemokine receptors, transcription factors and tumor suppressors. Of 17 genes directly involved in DNA repair, three DNA ligases were highly upregulated while the RAD23 UV excision repair gene and the Growth Arrest and DNA Damage gene (GADD45) were downregulated. These findings support the idea that exposure to solar radiation early in life may induce long-term cellular changes that lead to persistent DNA damage and altered patterns of gene expression.

  9. Induction of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase by carnosic acid in rat Clone 9 cells via the p38/Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yuan; Wu, Chi-Rei; Chang, Shu-Wei; Wang, Yu-Jung; Wu, Jia-Jiuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Induction of phase II enzymes is important in cancer chemoprevention. We compared the effect of rosemary diterpenes on the expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) in rat liver Clone 9 cells and the signaling pathways involved. Culturing cells with 1, 5, 10, or 20 μM carnosic acid (CA) or carnosol (CS) for 24 h in a dose-dependent manner increased the GSTP expression. CA was more potent than CS. The RNA level and the enzyme activity of GSTP were also enhanced by CA treatment. Treatment with 10 μM CA highly induced the reporter activity of the enhancer element GPEI. Furthermore, CA markedly increased the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) from the cytosol to the nucleus after 30 to 60 min. CA the stimulated the protein induction of p38, nuclear Nrf2, and GSTP was diminished in the presence of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor). In addition, SB203580 pretreatment or silencing of Nrf2 by siRNA suppressed the CA-induced GPEI-DNA binding activity and GSTP protein expression. Knockdown of p38 or Nrf2 by siRNA abolished the activation of p38 and Nrf2 as well as the protein induction and enzyme activity of GSTP by CA. These results suggest that CA up-regulates the expression and enzyme activity of GSTP via the p38/Nrf2/GPEI pathway.

  10. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase T1 deletion polymorphism on type 2 diabetes mellitus risk in Zoroastrian females in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeedhossein; Bashardoost, Nasrollah; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been much interest in the role of free radicals and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between genetic polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase-Theta (GSTT1) and the risk of the development of DM in Zoroastrian females in Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study in which GSTT1 polymorphism was genotyped in 51 randomly selected DM patients and 50 randomly selected healthy controls among Zoroastrian females whose ages ranged from 40 to 70. Results: The frequencies of GSTT1 null genotype and GSTT1 present were 72% and 28%, respectively, in control samples, while in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the frequencies of GSTT1 null genotype and GSTT1 present were 27.5% and 72.5%, respectively. There were higher levels of triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), Urea, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in cases of GSTT1 null genotype compared to the GSTT1 present genotype in controls. Conclusions: Our results indicated that healthy subjects had a higher frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype than patients with T2DM. However, we observed no significant association between the GSTT1 null genotype and T2DM in the current study. PMID:25593839

  11. Glutathione S-transferase ( GST) gene expression profiles in two marine bivalves exposed to BDE-47 and their potential molecular mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Qing; Li, Xuehua; Zhao, Jianmin

    2015-05-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are phase II enzymes that facilitate the detoxification of xenobiotics and play important roles in antioxidant defense. We investigated the expression patterns of seven Venerupis philippinarum GSTs ( VpGSTs) and four Mytilus galloprovincialis GSTs ( MgGSTs) following exposure to BDE-47. Differential expressions of the seven VpGSTs and four Mg GSTs transcripts were observed, with differences between the hepatopancreas and gills. Among these GSTs, the sigma classes ( VpGSTS1, VpGSTS2, VpGSTS3, MgGST1, and MgGST3) were highly expressed in response to BDE-47 exposure, demonstrating their potential as molecular biomarkers for environmental biomonitoring studies. We obtained the three-dimensional crystal structures of VpGSTs and MgGSTs by homologous modeling. A model to elucidate the binding interactions between the ligands and receptors was defined by molecular docking. Hydrophobic and π were the most often observed interactions between BDE-47 and the GSTs.

  12. Analyses of Genetic Variations of Glutathione S-Transferase Mu1 and Theta1 Genes in Bangladeshi Tannery Workers and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Akther, Jobaida; Ebihara, Akio; Nakagawa, Tsutomu; Islam, Laila N.; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Hosen, Md. Ismail; Hossain, Mahmud; Nabi, A. H. M. Nurun

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) belong to a group of multigene detoxification enzymes, which defend cells against oxidative stress. Tannery workers are at risk of oxidative damage that is usually detoxified by GSTs. This study investigated the genotypic frequencies of GST Mu1 (GSTM1) and GST Theta1 (GSTT1) in Bangladeshi tannery workers and healthy controls followed by their status of oxidative stress and total GST activity. Of the 188 individuals, 50.0% had both GSTM1 and GSTT1 (+/+), 12.2% had GSTM1 (+/−), 31.4% had GSTT1 (−/+) alleles, and 6.4% had null genotypes (−/−) with respect to both GSTM1 and GSTT1 alleles. Among 109 healthy controls, 54.1% were double positive, 9.2% had GSTM1 allele, 32.1% had GSTT1 allele, and 4.6% had null genotypes. Out of 79 tannery workers, 44.3% were +/+, 16.8% were +/−, 30.5% were −/+, and 8.4% were −/−. Though the polymorphic genotypes or allelic variants of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were distributed among the study subjects with different frequencies, the differences between the study groups were not statistically significant. GST activity did not vary significantly between the two groups and also among different genotypes while level of lipid peroxidation was significantly higher in tannery workers compared to controls irrespective of their GST genotypes. PMID:27294127

  13. Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene ( AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Xiuling; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2013-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee ( Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5'-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional assays of the recombinant AccGSTD protein revealed that AccGSTD has the capability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these data suggest that AccGSTD may be responsible for antioxidant defense in adult honey bees.

  14. Green tea catechins in chemoprevention of cancer: a molecular docking investigation into their interaction with glutathione S-transferase (GST P1-1).

    PubMed

    Artali, Roberto; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Meneghetti, Fiorella

    2009-02-01

    The anti- and pro-oxidant effects of green tea catechins have been implicated in the alterations of cellular functions determining their chemoprotective and therapeutic potentials in toxicity and diseases. The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC 2.5.1.18) family is a widely distributed phase-II detoxifying enzymes and the GST P1-1 isoenzyme has been shown to catalyze the conjugation of GSH with some alkylating anti-cancer agents, suggesting that over-expression of GST P1-1 would result in tumor cell resistance. Here we report the docking study of four green tea catechins and four alkylating anticancer drugs into the GST P1-1 model, as GSTs were found to be affected by tea catechins. The EGCG ligands exhibit higher docking potential with respect to the anticancer agents, with a ligand-receptor interaction pattern indicating an high conformational stability. Consequently, the competition mechanisms favourable for the green tea catechins could lead to enzyme(s) desensitisation with a reduction of the alkylating drugs metabolism. The results provide a useful theoretical contribution in understanding the biochemical mechanisms implicated in the chemotherapeutic use of green tea catechins in oxidative stress-related diseases.

  15. Chloroform inhibits the development of diethylnitrosamine-initiated, phenobarbital-promoted gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and placental form glutathione S-transferase-positive foci in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Reddy, T V; Daniel, F B; Lin, E L; Stober, J A; Olson, G R

    1992-08-01

    In this study we demonstrate that chloroform, a widely used industrial solvent, a medicinal chemical and a common drinking water contaminant, reduces the number of detectable preneoplastic enzyme-altered foci [gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-positive (GGT+) and placental form glutathione S-transferase-positive (GST-P+)] in the liver of male Fischer 344 rats. The animals were given a partial hepatectomy and 18 h later received a single oral dose of either 0.5 mmol/kg diethylnitrosamine (DENA) or saline. Two weeks later, groups of 12 animals were started on drinking water containing phenobarbital with varying concentrations (200-1800 mg/l) of chloroform fro 12 weeks. Treated and control animals were killed and the number and the volume of GGT+ and GST-P+ expressing hepatic foci were tabulated. The numbers of foci per unit volume (and per unit area), the percent focal volume and the focal liver were reduced by chloroform in a dose-dependent manner. The mean focal volume was not influenced by chloroform. A plausible explanation for these results could be that chloroform exerts its focal inhibitory effect either by selectively killing the putative initiated cells, by retarding the inherent growth rate of enzyme-altered cells or by reducing the effectiveness of the promoter, phenobarbital. The available evidence suggests that the first hypothesis is the most likely explanation for these observations. These results are consistent with earlier studies showing that chloroform inhibits tumorigenesis in rodents.

  16. The molecular basis of host adaptation in cactophilic Drosophila: molecular evolution of a glutathione S-transferase gene (GstD1) in Drosophila mojavensis.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Luciano M

    2008-02-01

    Drosophila mojavensis is a cactophilic fly endemic to the northwestern deserts of North America. This species includes four genetically isolated cactus host races each individually specializing on the necrotic tissues of a different cactus species. The necrosis of each cactus species provides the resident D. mojavensis populations with a distinct chemical environment. A previous investigation of the role of transcriptional variation in the adaptation of D. mojavensis to its hosts produced a set of candidate loci that are differentially expressed in response to host shifts, and among them was glutathione S-transferase D1 (GstD1). In both D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae, GstD1 has been implicated in the resistance of these species to the insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). The pattern of sequence variation of the GstD1 locus from all four D. mojavensis populations, D. arizonae (sister species), and D. navojoa (outgroup) has been examined. The data suggest that in two populations of D. mojavensis GstD1 has gone through a period of adaptive amino acid evolution. Further analyses indicate that of the seven amino acid fixations that occurred in the D. mojavensis lineage, two of them occur in the active site pocket, potentially having a significant effect on substrate specificity and in the adaptation to alternative cactus hosts.

  17. The Molecular Basis of Host Adaptation in Cactophilic Drosophila: Molecular Evolution of a Glutathione S-Transferase Gene (GstD1) in Drosophila mojavensis

    PubMed Central

    Matzkin, Luciano M.

    2008-01-01

    Drosophila mojavensis is a cactophilic fly endemic to the northwestern deserts of North America. This species includes four genetically isolated cactus host races each individually specializing on the necrotic tissues of a different cactus species. The necrosis of each cactus species provides the resident D. mojavensis populations with a distinct chemical environment. A previous investigation of the role of transcriptional variation in the adaptation of D. mojavensis to its hosts produced a set of candidate loci that are differentially expressed in response to host shifts, and among them was glutathione S-transferase D1 (GstD1). In both D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae, GstD1 has been implicated in the resistance of these species to the insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). The pattern of sequence variation of the GstD1 locus from all four D. mojavensis populations, D. arizonae (sister species), and D. navojoa (outgroup) has been examined. The data suggest that in two populations of D. mojavensis GstD1 has gone through a period of adaptive amino acid evolution. Further analyses indicate that of the seven amino acid fixations that occurred in the D. mojavensis lineage, two of them occur in the active site pocket, potentially having a significant effect on substrate specificity and in the adaptation to alternative cactus hosts. PMID:18245335

  18. Expression of ovarian microsomal epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase during onset of VCD-induced ovotoxicity in B6C3F{sub 1} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Aileen F.; Sipes, I. Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B.

    2008-07-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) specifically destroys small pre-antral follicles in the rodent ovary. VCD can be detoxified to an inactive tetrol by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), or by conjugation to glutathione (GSH) by glutathione S-transferase (GST). Formation of VCD-GSH adducts in the mouse ovary 4 h after VCD exposure (0.57 mmol/kg/day) has been demonstrated. Because the mouse ovary expresses both mEH and GST, expression of mEH and GST pi and mu during a time-course of VCD-induced ovotoxicity was evaluated in a neonatal mouse ovarian culture system. Ovaries from postnatal day 4 (PND4) B6C3F{sub 1} mice were incubated with VCD (15 {mu}M) for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 15 days. Following incubation, ovaries were histologically evaluated, or assessed for mRNA or protein expression. VCD did not cause follicle loss (p > 0.05) on days 2, 4, or 6 of culture. At days 8, 10, 12, and 15, VCD reduced (p < 0.05) both primordial and primary follicle numbers. Increased (p < 0.05) expression of mEH, GST pi and GST mu mRNA was detected after 4 days of VCD exposure. This expression was reduced on days 6 and 8, when follicle loss was underway, but increased (p < 0.05) after 10 days of exposure. mEH and GST pi proteins were elevated (p < 0.05) following 8 days of VCD-exposure however there was no increase in GST mu protein. These findings suggest that with continuous exposure to VCD, increased expression of detoxification enzymes may participate in retarding the onset of follicle loss, but that this loss cannot ultimately be prevented.

  19. Genetic susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Koreans: combined analysis of polymorphic genotypes for microsomal epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1

    PubMed Central

    Yim, J.; Park, G. Y.; Lee, C.; Kim, Y. W.; Han, S. K.; Shim, Y.; Yoo, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Although smoking is the major causal factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only 10-20% of chronic heavy cigarette smokers develop symptomatic COPD which suggests the presence of genetic susceptibility. This genetic susceptibility to COPD might depend on variations in enzyme activities that detoxify cigarette smoke products such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEPHX) and glutathione-S transferase (GST). As there is increasing evidence that several genes influence the development of COPD, multiple gene polymorphisms should be investigated to find out the genetic susceptibility to COPD.
METHODS—The genotypes of 83 patients with COPD and 76 healthy smoking control subjects were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the mEPHX gene, and multiplex PCR for GST M1 and GST T1 genes. The frequencies of polymorphic genotypes of mEPHX, GST M1, and GST T1 genes were compared both individually and in combination in patients with COPD and healthy smokers.
RESULTS—No differences were observed in the frequency of polymorphic genotypes in exons 3 and 4 of mEPHX, GST M1, and GST T1 genes between patients with COPD and healthy smokers. The frequencies of any combination of these genotypes also showed no differences between the COPD group and the control group.
CONCLUSIONS—Genetic polymorphisms in mEPHX, GST M1, and GST T1 genes are not associated with the development of COPD in Koreans.

 PMID:10639528

  20. A Glutathione S-Transferase Regulated by Light and Hormones Participates in the Modulation of Arabidopsis Seedling Development1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Han-Wei; Liu, Ming-Jung; Chen, Ing-Chien; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Chao, Li-Ya; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have been well documented to be involved in diverse aspects of biotic and abiotic stresses, especially detoxification processes. Whether they regulate plant development remains unclear. Here, we report on our isolation by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of a plant GST, AtGSTU17, from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and demonstrate that its expression is regulated by multiple photoreceptors, especially phytochrome A (phyA) under all light conditions. Further physiological studies indicated that AtGSTU17 participates in various aspects of seedling development, including hypocotyl elongation, anthocyanin accumulation, and far-red light-mediated inhibition of greening with a requirement of functional phyA. The loss-of-function mutant of AtGSTU17 (atgstu17) resulted in reduced biomass of seedlings and number of lateral roots in the presence of auxin, as well as insensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated inhibition of root elongation, with similarity to different phyA mutant alleles. Moreover, the root phenotype conferred by atgstu17 was reflected by histochemical β-glucuronidase staining of AtGSTU17 promoter activity with the addition of auxin or ABA. Further microarray analysis of wild-type Columbia and atgstu17 seedlings treated with far-red irradiation or ABA revealed that AtGSTU17 might modulate hypocotyl elongation by positively regulating some light-signaling components and negatively regulating a group of auxin-responsive genes and modulate root development by negatively controlling an auxin transport protein in the presence of ABA. Therefore, our data reveal that AtGSTU17 participates in light signaling and might modulate various aspects of Arabidopsis development by affecting glutathione pools via a coordinated regulation with phyA and phytohormones. PMID:20935176

  1. PARTICIPATION OF Y89 AND Y97 IN THE CONJUGATING ACTIVITY OF Drosophila melanogaster GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE D3 (DmGSTD3).

    PubMed

    Vignesvaran, Kithalakshmi; Alias, Zazali

    2016-07-01

    Drosophila melanogaster glutathione S-transferase D3 (DmGSTD3) has a shorter amino acid sequence as compared to other GSTs known in the fruit flies. This is due to the 15 amino acid N-terminal truncation in which normally active amino acid residue is located. The work has made use of homology modeling to visualize the arrangement of amino acid side chains in the glutathione (GSH) substrate cavity. The identified amino acids were then replaced with amino acids without functional groups in the side chains and the mutants were analyzed kinetically. Homology modeling revealed that the side chains of Y89 and Y97 were shown facing toward the substrate cavity proposing their possible role in catalyzing the conjugation. Y97A and Y89A GSH gave large changes in Km (twofold increase), Vmax (fivefold reduction), and Kcat /Km values for GSH suggesting their significant role in the conjugation reaction. The replacement at either positions has not affected the affinity of the enzyme toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as no significant change in values of Kmax was observed. The replacement, however, had significantly reduced the catalytic efficiency of both mutants with (Kcat /Km )(GSH) and (Kcat /Km )(CDNB) of eight- and twofold reduction. The recombinant DmGSTD3 has shown no activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, 2,4-hexadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, p-nitrobenzyl chloride, ethacrynic acid, and sulfobromophthalein. Therefore, it was evident that DmGSTD3 has made use of distal amino acids Y97 and Y89 for GSH conjugation.

  2. Expression of ovarian microsomal epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase during onset of VCD-induced ovotoxicity in B6C3F(1) mice.

    PubMed

    Keating, Aileen F; Sipes, I Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2008-07-01

    4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) specifically destroys small pre-antral follicles in the rodent ovary. VCD can be detoxified to an inactive tetrol by microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), or by conjugation to glutathione (GSH) by glutathione S-transferase (GST). Formation of VCD-GSH adducts in the mouse ovary 4 h after VCD exposure (0.57 mmol/kg/day) has been demonstrated. Because the mouse ovary expresses both mEH and GST, expression of mEH and GST pi and mu during a time-course of VCD-induced ovotoxicity was evaluated in a neonatal mouse ovarian culture system. Ovaries from postnatal day 4 (PND4) B6C3F(1) mice were incubated with VCD (15 microM) for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 15 days. Following incubation, ovaries were histologically evaluated, or assessed for mRNA or protein expression. VCD did not cause follicle loss (p>0.05) on days 2, 4, or 6 of culture. At days 8, 10, 12, and 15, VCD reduced (p<0.05) both primordial and primary follicle numbers. Increased (p<0.05) expression of mEH, GST pi and GST mu mRNA was detected after 4 days of VCD exposure. This expression was reduced on days 6 and 8, when follicle loss was underway, but increased (p<0.05) after 10 days of exposure. mEH and GST pi proteins were elevated (p<0.05) following 8 days of VCD-exposure however there was no increase in GST mu protein. These findings suggest that with continuous exposure to VCD, increased expression of detoxification enzymes may participate in retarding the onset of follicle loss, but that this loss cannot ultimately be prevented.

  3. Purification and partial characterization of glutathione S-transferase from insecticide-resistant field populations of Liposcelis paeta Pearman (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang; Dou, Wei; Wu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2009-02-01

    Enzymes that possess glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were purified to homogeneity by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography from three field populations of Liposcelis paeta (Pearman). These populations were collected from Nanyang city of Henan Province (NY), Wuzhou (WZ) and Hezhou (HZ) cities of Guangxi Province, China, and had different susceptibilities to dichlorvos [LC(50)s of the NY (281.48 mg/m(2)), the WZ (285.07 mg/m(2)), and the HZ (243.52 mg/m(2)), respectively]. The specific activities of purified enzymes from these three populations increased 32.24-, 99.81-, and 42.52-fold, respectively. Kinetic analyses showed that the catalytic activity of purified GST from NY population towards GSH was much higher than the others, while WZ population reached the highest in V(max) (CDNB). SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST had two subunits with a molecular mass of 23.31 and 20.43 kDa for NY, 53.14 and 20.13 kDa for WZ, and 50.79 and 19.42 kDa for HZ, respectively. The in vitro inhibition studies of GSTs indicated that three kinds of insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbosulfan, and cypermethrin) and five metallic ions (Zn(2+), Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Hg(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+)) all possessed inhibitory effects on purified GST, and ethacrynic acid (EA, a specific inhibitor of GST) expressed inhibitory effects. In the bioassay, three populations of L. paeta had different susceptibilities to different insecticides, even after they were reared on diets consisting of 25% EA. The GST activities of L. paeta from different areas also showed different temperature and pH stabilities. The differences in GST among the three populations may be attributed partially to the differences in control practices for psocids between Henan and Guangxi Provinces. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Modulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes by anticarcinogens -- focus on glutathione S-transferases and their role as targets of dietary chemoprevention in colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pool-Zobel, Beatrice; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Böhmer, Frank-D

    2005-12-11

    There is evidence that consumption of certain dietary ingredients may favourably modulate biotransformation of carcinogens. Associated with this is the hypothesis that the risk for developing colorectal cancer could be reduced, since its incidence is related to diet. Two main groups of biotransformation enzymes metabolize carcinogens, namely Phase I enzymes, which convert hydrophobic compounds to more water-soluble moieties, and Phase II enzymes (e.g. glutathione S-transferases [GST]), which primarily catalyze conjugation reactions. The conjugation of electrophilic Phase I intermediates with glutathione, for instance, frequently results in detoxification. Several possible colon carcinogens may serve as substrates for GST isoenzymes that can have marked substrate specificity. The conjugated products could be less toxic/genotoxic if GSTs are induced, thereby reducing exposure. Thus, numerous studies have shown that the induction of GSTs by antioxidants enables experimental animals to tolerate exposure to carcinogens. One important mechanism of GST induction involves an antioxidant-responsive response element (ARE) and the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is bound to the Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) in the cytoplasm. Antioxidants may disrupt the Keap-Nrf2 complex, allowing Nrf2 to translocate to the nucleus and mediate expression of Phase II genes via interaction with the ARE. GSTs are also induced by butyrate, a product of gut flora-derived fermentation of plant foods, which may act via different mechanisms, e.g. by increasing histone acetylation. GSTs are expressed with high inter-individual variability in human colonocytes, which points to large differences in cellular susceptibility to xenobiotics. Enhancing expression of GSTs in human colon tissue could therefore contribute to reducing cancer risks. However, it has not been demonstrated in humans that this mechanism is associated with cancer prevention. In the

  5. Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance of an Arabidopsis Glutathione S-Transferase U17 Knockout Mutant Are Attributed to the Combined Effect of Glutathione and Abscisic Acid1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jui-Hung; Jiang, Han-Wei; Hsieh, En-Jung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chien, Ching-Te; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2012-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are thought to play major roles in oxidative stress metabolism, little is known about the regulatory functions of GSTs. We have reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE U17 (AtGSTU17; At1g10370) participates in light signaling and might modulate various aspects of development by affecting glutathione (GSH) pools via a coordinated regulation with phytochrome A. Here, we provide further evidence to support a negative role of AtGSTU17 in drought and salt stress tolerance. When AtGSTU17 was mutated, plants were more tolerant to drought and salt stresses compared with wild-type plants. In addition, atgstu17 accumulated higher levels of GSH and abscisic acid (ABA) and exhibited hyposensitivity to ABA during seed germination, smaller stomatal apertures, a lower transpiration rate, better development of primary and lateral root systems, and longer vegetative growth. To explore how atgstu17 accumulated higher ABA content, we grew wild-type plants in the solution containing GSH and found that they accumulated ABA to a higher extent than plants grown in the absence of GSH, and they also exhibited the atgstu17 phenotypes. Wild-type plants treated with GSH also demonstrated more tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Furthermore, the effect of GSH on root patterning and drought tolerance was confirmed by growing the atgstu17 in solution containing l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis. In conclusion, the atgstu17 phenotype can be explained by the combined effect of GSH and ABA. We propose a role of AtGSTU17 in adaptive responses to drought and salt stresses by functioning as a negative component of stress-mediated signal transduction pathways. PMID:22095046

  6. Identifying and characterizing binding sites on the irreversible inhibition of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 by S-thiocarbamoylation.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Soriano, Indalecio; Primavera, Alessandra; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Téllez-Sanz, Ramiro; Barón, Carmen; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio; Lo Bello, Mario; García-Fuentes, Luís

    2012-07-23

    Human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (hGST P1-1) is involved in cell detoxification processes through the conjugation of its natural substrate, reduced glutathione (GSH), with xenobiotics. GSTs are known to be overexpressed in tumors, and naturally occurring isothiocyanates, such as benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), are effective cancer chemopreventive compounds. To identify and characterize the potential inhibitory mechanisms of GST P1-1 induced by isothiocyanate conjugates, we studied the binding of GST P1-1 and some cysteine mutants to the BITC-SG conjugate as well as to the synthetic S-(N-benzylcarbamoylmethyl)glutathione conjugate (BC-SG). We report here the inactivation of GST P1-1 through the covalent modification of two Cys47 residues per dimer and one Cys101. The evidence has been compiled by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). ITC experiments suggest that the BITC-SG conjugate generates adducts with Cys47 and Cys101 at physiological temperatures through a corresponding kinetic process, in which the BITC moiety is covalently bound to these enzyme cysteines through an S-thiocarbamoylation reaction. ESI-MS analysis of the BITC-SG incubated enzymes indicates that although the Cys47 in each subunit is covalently attached to the BITC ligand moiety, only one of the Cys101 residues in the dimer is so attached. A plausible mechanism is given for the emergence of inactivation through the kinetic processes with both cysteines. Likewise, our molecular docking simulations suggest that steric hindrance is the reason why only one Cys101 per dimer is covalently modified by BITC-SG. No covalent inactivation of GST P1-1 with the BC-SG inhibitor has been observed. The affinities and inhibitory potencies for both conjugates are high and very similar, but slightly lower for BC-SG. Thus, we conclude that the presence of the sulfur atom from the isothiocyanate moiety in BITC-SG is crucial for its irreversible inhibition of

  7. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and gluthatione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Hiragi, Cássia; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Rocha, Dulce Maria Sucena; de Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana; Hatagima, Ana; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) reduce the oxidation rates in the organism. Gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in phase 2 of biotransformation of many substances. Variation in the expression of these enzymes suggests individual differences for the degree of antioxidant protection and geographical differences in the distribution of these variants. We described the distribution frequency of CAT (21A/T), SOD2 (Ala9Val), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups: Kayabi Amerindians (n = 60), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 72), and an urban mixed population from Federal District (n = 162). Frequencies of the variants observed in Kalunga (18% to 58%) and Federal District (33% to 63%) were similar to those observed in Euro and Afro-descendants, while in Kayabi (3% to 68%), depending on the marker, frequencies were similar to the ones found in different ethnic groups. Except for SOD2 in all population groups studied here, and for GPX1 in Kalunga, the genotypic distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. These data can clarify the contribution of different ethnicities in the formation of mixed populations, such as that of Brazil. Moreover, outcomes will be valuable resources for future functional studies and for genetic studies in specific populations. If these studies are designed to comprehensively explore the role of these genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of human diseases they may help to prevent inconsistent genotype-phenotype associations in pharmacogenetic studies.

  8. A meta-analysis of association between glutathione S-transferase M1 gene polymorphism and Parkinson’s disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Weikang, Chen; Likang, Lan; Weiwen, Qiu; Liping, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate whether there was an association between glutathione S-transferase M1(GSTM1)gene polymorphism and Parkinson’s disease (PD) susceptibility by pooling published data. We performed comprehensive electronic database search for articles published between February12,2015 and April30 2016. The published case-control or cohort studies related to GSTM1 gene polymorphism and Parkinson’s disease susceptibility were screened, reviewed, and included in this meta-analysis. The correlation between GSTM1 gene polymorphism and PD susceptibility was expressed by odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Publication bias was evaluated by Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s line regression test. All analysis was done by stata11.0 software. After searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI databases, seventeen case-control studies with 3,538 PD and 5,180 controls were included in the final meta-analysis. The data was pooled by a fixed-effect model for lack of statistical heterogeneity across the studies; the results showed GSTM1 null expression can significant increase the susceptibility of PD (OR=1.11, 95% CI:1.01-1.21, P<0.05). Subgroup analysis indicated GSTM1 gene polymorphism was associated with PD susceptibility in the Caucasian ethnic group (OR=1.15, 95% CI:1.05-1.27, P<0.05) but not in the Asian ethnic group (OR=0.89, 95% CI:0.70-1.12, P>0.05). Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s line regression test showed no significant publication bias. Based on the present evidence, GSTM1 null expression can significant increase the susceptibility of PD in persons of Caucasian ethnicity. PMID:28352849

  9. A novel fluorescent turn-on biosensor based on QDs@GSH-GO fluorescence resonance energy transfer for sensitive glutathione S-transferase sensing and cellular imaging.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lifang; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2017-03-17

    A novel fluorescent turn-on biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from GSH functionalized Mn-doped ZnS QDs to graphene oxide (GO) was constructed to determine glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in live cells and human urine. The QDs@GSH is adsorbed on the GO surface via hydrogen bonding interaction between the GSH on the surface of QDs@GSH and GO, and as a result, fluorescence quenching of the QDs@GSH takes place because of FRET. The FRET efficiency from QDs@GSH to GO was calculated to be 86.3%. However, in the presence of GSTs, the FRET process could be inhibited by the specific interaction between the GSH on the surface of QDs@GSH and GSTs, which would keep the QDs@GSH far away from the GO surface, leading to the recovery of the fluorescence. The proposed sensor exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, and excellent specificity in the buffer, live cells and human urine for the detection of GSTs. Under the physiological conditions (pH 7.4), dissociation constants and the detection limit of GST and ATP6 V1F (a GST-tagged protein) were estimated to be 8.0 × 10(-9) M, 2.1 × 10(-10) M and 3.5 × 10(-9) M, 7.2 × 10(-11) M, respectively. The presented method has been successfully utilized for the determination of the GSTs in live cells and human urine without any complicated pretreatment and the recovery was in the range of 80%-90%.

  10. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element

    PubMed Central

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar ‘Daisy’ carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant ‘Daisy-VPR’ lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar ‘06-LA’ and a deep-colored cultivar ‘Spectrum’ produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the ‘Spectrum’ parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century. PMID:24399917

  11. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element.

    PubMed

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar 'Daisy' carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant 'Daisy-VPR' lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar '06-LA' and a deep-colored cultivar 'Spectrum' produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the 'Spectrum' parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century.

  12. Effect of a glutathione S-transferase inhibitor on oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion-induced apoptotic signalling of cultured cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Röth, E; Marczin, N; Balatonyi, B; Ghosh, S; Kovács, V; Alotti, N; Borsiczky, B; Gasz, B

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury are crucial in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The antioxidant glutathione S-transferase (GST) is responsible for the high-capacity metabolic inactivation of electrophilic compounds and toxic substrates. The main objective of the present study was to examine the effect of GST inhibition (with the administration of ethacrynic acid [EA]) on the viability and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes when these cells are exposed to various stress components of I/R and mitogen-activated protein kinase (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]) inhibitors. The primary culture of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was divided into six experimental groups: control group of cells (group 1), cells exposed to H2O2 (group 2), I/R (group 3), I/R and EA (group 4), H2O2 coupled with EA (group 5), and EA alone (group 6). The viability of cardiomyocytes was determined using a colorimetric MTT assay. The apoptosis ratio was evaluated via fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled annexin V and propidium iodide staining. c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, Akt/protein kinase B and ERK/p42-p44 transcription factors were monitored with flow cytometry. c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation increased due to GST inhibition during I/R. EA administration led to a significant increase in p38 activation following both H2O2 treatment and I/R. ERK phosphorylation increased when GST was exposed to I/R. A pronounced decrease in Akt phosphorylation was observed when cells were cotreated with EA and H2O2. GST plays an important role as a regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in I/R injury. PMID:22065940

  13. The Potato Aphid Salivary Effector Me47 Is a Glutathione-S-Transferase Involved in Modifying Plant Responses to Aphid Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kettles, Graeme J; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here, we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47) which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant-aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs), compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues.

  14. Association of glutathione S-transferase T1, M1, and P1 polymorphisms in the breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiwang; Shao, Chuan; Feng, Chan; Lu, Yonglin; Gao, Yong; Dong, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Background Several case–control studies investigating the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 (rs1695) and the risk of breast cancer have reported contradictory results. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to clarify this issue. Materials and methods An updated meta-analysis using PubMed and Web of Knowledge databases for the eligible case–control studies was performed. Random- or fixed-effects model was used. Results A total of 10,067 cancer cases and 12,276 controls in 41 independent case–control studies from 19 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Significant increase in risk of breast cancer for Asians was found in GSTM1-null genotype (P=0.012, odds ratio [OR] =1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.04–1.32) and GSTT1-null genotype (P=0.039, OR =1.19, 95% CI =1.01–1.41). In addition, our results showed that the GSTP1 (rs1695) polymorphisms can significantly increase the risk among Caucasians (P=0.042, OR =1.16, 95% CI =1.01–1.34). Sensitivity analysis and publication bias further confirmed the dependability of the results in this meta-analysis. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that both GSTM1- and GSTT1-null polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Asians and that GSTP1 Val105Ile (rs1695) polymorphism is associated with an increased breast cancer risk in Caucasians. PMID:27274261

  15. Host genetic variations in glutathione-S-transferases, superoxide dismutases and catalase genes influence susceptibility to malaria infection in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rayzel C; Hasan, Marriyah; Gupta, Himanshu; Geetha, K; Rai, Padmalatha S; Hande, Manjunath H; D'Souza, Sydney C; Adhikari, Prabha; Brand, Angela; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2015-06-01

    Antioxidant enzymes can contribute to disease susceptibility or determine response to therapy in individuals with malaria. Genetic variations due to polymorphisms in host genes encoding antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases-theta, mu, pi (GSTT, GSTM, GSTP), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT), may therefore, influence inter-individual response to malaria pathology and propensity of infection caused by Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Therefore, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing, we investigated the association of deletions of GSTT1 and GSTM1, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GSTP1 (rs1695), SOD1 (rs2234694), SOD2 (rs4880, rs1141718), SOD3 (rs2536512) and CAT (rs1001179) in individuals infected with Pf (n = 100) and Pv (n = 100) against healthy controls (n = 150). Our data suggest a significant role for GSTM1 deletions in complicated Pv (p = 0.0007) malaria with ODDs ratio 3.8 [with 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.9-7.4]. The results also indicated that polymorphisms present in GSTP1, SOD1 and CAT genes may be associated with malaria susceptibility (p < 0.05), whereas SOD3 polymorphism may play a role in malarial resistance (p < 0.05). In addition, we observed significant SNP-SNP interactions with synergistic genetic effects in SOD2, SOD3 and CAT genes for Pv and in SOD2 and SOD3 genes for Pf. In conclusion, our results provide convincing evidence for a relationship between polymorphisms in host antioxidant enzymes and susceptibility to malaria infection.

  16. Functional Characterization of the Tau Class Glutathione-S-Transferases Gene (SbGSTU) Promoter of Salicornia brachiata under Salinity and Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Patel, Manish Kumar; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are generated in the plant cell during the extreme stress condition, which produces toxic compounds after reacting with the organic molecules. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes play a significant role to detoxify these toxins and help in excretion or sequestration of them. In the present study, we have cloned 1023 bp long promoter region of tau class GST from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata and functionally characterized using the transgenic approach in tobacco. Computational analysis revealed the presence of abiotic stress responsive cis-elements like ABRE, MYB, MYC, GATA, GT1 etc., phytohormones, pathogen and wound responsive motifs. Three 5’-deletion constructs of 730 (GP2), 509 (GP3) and 348 bp (GP4) were made from 1023 (GP1) promoter fragment and used for tobacco transformation. The single event transgenic plants showed notable GUS reporter protein expression in the leaf tissues of control as well as treated plants. The expression level of the GUS gradually decreases from GP1 to GP4 in leaf tissues, whereas the highest level of expression was detected with the GP2 construct in root and stem under control condition. The GUS expression was found higher in leaves and stems of salinity or osmotic stress treated transgenic plants than that of the control plants, but, lower in roots. An efficient expression level of GUS in transgenic plants suggests that this promoter can be used for both constitutive as well as stress inducible expression of gene(s). And this property, make it as a potential candidate to be used as an alternative promoter for crop genetic engineering. PMID:26885663

  17. Functional Characterization of the Tau Class Glutathione-S-Transferases Gene (SbGSTU) Promoter of Salicornia brachiata under Salinity and Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Patel, Manish Kumar; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are generated in the plant cell during the extreme stress condition, which produces toxic compounds after reacting with the organic molecules. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes play a significant role to detoxify these toxins and help in excretion or sequestration of them. In the present study, we have cloned 1023 bp long promoter region of tau class GST from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata and functionally characterized using the transgenic approach in tobacco. Computational analysis revealed the presence of abiotic stress responsive cis-elements like ABRE, MYB, MYC, GATA, GT1 etc., phytohormones, pathogen and wound responsive motifs. Three 5'-deletion constructs of 730 (GP2), 509 (GP3) and 348 bp (GP4) were made from 1023 (GP1) promoter fragment and used for tobacco transformation. The single event transgenic plants showed notable GUS reporter protein expression in the leaf tissues of control as well as treated plants. The expression level of the GUS gradually decreases from GP1 to GP4 in leaf tissues, whereas the highest level of expression was detected with the GP2 construct in root and stem under control condition. The GUS expression was found higher in leaves and stems of salinity or osmotic stress treated transgenic plants than that of the control plants, but, lower in roots. An efficient expression level of GUS in transgenic plants suggests that this promoter can be used for both constitutive as well as stress inducible expression of gene(s). And this property, make it as a potential candidate to be used as an alternative promoter for crop genetic engineering.

  18. Cholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities of three mollusc species from the NW Portuguese coast in relation to the 'Prestige' oil spill.

    PubMed

    Tim-Tim, Ana L S; Morgado, Fernando; Moreira, Susana; Rangel, Rui; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2009-12-01

    In November 2002, the tanker 'Prestige' released about 19,000 tonnes of a heavy fuel oil (no. 6) before sinking with about 58,000 tonnes of its cargo, 135 miles from Cabo Finisterra (Spain). A considerable part of the released fuel oil reached the Galician coast, causing a heavy black tide and an ecological disaster. Although the black tide did not reach the NW coast of Portugal, it is possible that some of the fuel oil or its components also arrived to this area directly through the sea water and/or indirectly through the food chain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in two widely used biomarkers, the activity of the enzymes cholinesterases (ChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST), of three molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Nucella lapillus and Monodonta lineata) from wild populations of the NW Portuguese coast in relation to the 'Prestige' oil spill. Molluscs were collected seasonally before (autumn 2002) and after (winter 2002/2003), spring and summer 2003) the oil spill at several sites along the Portuguese NW coast. Enzymatic activities determined before the accident were compared with those determined at different times after the oil spill taking into consideration abiotic factors. Information from different parameters was integrated by Redundancy Analysis and Principal Response Curves (PRC). Results show that GST and ChE activities were influenced by abiotic factors. Despite this influence, the results of PRC analysis also suggest that some of the fuel oil reached the NW Portuguese coast changing the patterns of ChE and GST activities of local populations of rocky shore species. Furthermore, the present study highlights the need of long-term monitoring with wild populations to assess both historical and punctual effects of pollution in the marine environment.

  19. Prevalence of Null Genotypes of Glutathione S-Transferase T1 (GSTT1) and M1 (GSTM1) in Seven Iranian Populations

    PubMed Central

    NASSERI, Gholamreza; ZAHEDI, Tahereh; MOUSAVI-KAZEROONI, Fatemeh; SAADAT, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have revealed significant differences between populations for genotypic frequencies of glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) and M1 (GSTM1) polymorphisms. In order to find the frequency of the null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in Iranian populations, the present study was carried out. Methods: The total study subjects consisted of 1340 unrelated healthy Muslims/Iranian. From these 297, 200, 123, 168, 152, 200, and 200 individuals from Tabriz (East Azerbaijan Province; belong to Azaris), Yasuj (Kohgiluyeh-va-Boyerahmad Province; belong to Lurs), Abarku (Yazd Province; belong to Persians), Zahedan (Sistan-va-Balouchestan Province; belong to Balouchis), Zahedan (Sistan-va-Balouchestan Province; belong to Sistanis), Kermanshah (Kermanshah Province; belong to Kurds), and Gorgan (Golestan Province; belong to Turkmen) respectively. The genotypes were detected by multiplex PCR. Results: The frequency of GSTM1 null genotype among Azaris, Lurs, Persians, Balouchis, Sistanis, Kurds, and Turkmen was 43.8, 50.0, 52.0, 50.0, 51.3, 56.0, and 53.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference between these populations for the genotypic distribution of the GSTM1 polymorphism (χ2=8.47, df=6, P=0.206). The frequency of GSTT1 null genotype among Azaris, Lurs, Persians, Balouchis, Sistanis, Kurds, and Turkmen was 18.2, 17.0, 29.3, 20.8, 17.8, 18.5, and 23.0%, respectively. There was very similarity between Azaris, Kurds and Lurs for the frequency of GSTT1 genotypes (χ2=0.17, df=2, P=0.916). Conclusion: By comparing the frequency of GSTT1 genotypes among Iranian populations, Caucasians and Asians, it is concluded that Azaris, Kurds and Lurs were similar to each other. Taken together, it is suggested that although Azaris are Turkish speaking belong to Caucasians. PMID:26811816

  20. Xenobiotic-inducible expression of murine glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene is controlled by an electrophile-responsive element

    SciTech Connect

    Friling, R.S.; Bensimon, A.; Tichauer, Y.; Daniel, V. )

    1990-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) Ya subunit gene expression is induced in mammalian tissues by two types of chemical agents: (i) planar aromatic compounds (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and (ii) electrophiles (e.g., trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one and dimethyl fumarate) or compounds easily oxidized to electrophiles (e.g., tert-butylhydroquinone). To study the mechanism of this induction, the authors have introduced deletions in the 5{prime} flanking region of a mouse GST Ya subunit gene, fused it to the coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity, and transfected the Ya-CAT genes for expression into hepatoma cells. They show that a single cis-regulatory element, between nucleotides {minus}754 and {minus}713 from the start of transcription, is responsible for the induction by both planar aromatic and electrophilic compounds. Using murine hepatoma cell mutants defective in either the Ah-encoded aryl hydrocarbon receptor (BP{sup r}c1 mutant) or in cytochrome P{sub 1}-450 gene (c1 mutant), they show that induction by planar aromatic but not by electrophilic inducers requires a functional Ah receptor and cytochrome P{sub 1}-450 activity. From this it is concluded that Ya gene activation by planar aromatic compounds involves metabolism of these inducers by the phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P{sub 1}-450 system into electrophilic compounds. Therefore, the regulatory sequence of the Ya gene should be considered an electrophile-responsive element (EpRE) activated exclusively by inducers containing an electrophilic center.

  1. An investigation of cytochrome p450 (CYP) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme protein expression and related interactions with phototherapy in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Ayse S; Uzunçakmak, Tuğba K; Ozkanli, Seyma; Oguztuzun, Serpil; Moran, Busra; Akbulak, Ozge; Ozlu, Emin; Zemheri, Itir E; Bilgili, Serap G; Akdeniz, Necmettin

    2017-02-01

    Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) make up a group of antioxidant enzymes. Cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzymes can influence oxidation and reduction reactions. We investigated the potential effects of GST and CYP enzymes in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The study included 32 psoriasis patients and 22 healthy subjects. Psoriasis patients were administered 20 sessions of narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy. Expressions of GST and CYP enzymes were assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Expression levels of GSTK1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 were significantly higher in psoriasis than in control tissues (P = 0.022, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively). Pre- and post-treatment expression was similar. Expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 was significantly higher in pre- (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively) and post-treatment (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively) psoriatic tissues than in control tissues. No significant differences in CYP1B1 levels between the study and control groups were detected before treatment (P > 0.05). However, CYP1B1 levels were higher in post-treatment psoriatic tissue than in control tissue (P = 0.045). The significant increases in expression of GSTK1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 in psoriasis may reflect the increased activation of GST in response to excessive free radical formation from activated neutrophils or ultraviolet exposure to maintain antioxidant capacity in psoriasis. Furthermore, expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 represent important enzymatic systems in psoriasis. These findings suggest that psoriasis is an oxidative stress condition, although phototherapy does not affect these enzymatic systems. Further investigation is required.

  2. Placental biomarkers of PAH exposure and glutathione-S-transferase biotransformation enzymes in an obstetric population from Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dodd-Butera, Teresa; Quintana, Penelope J E; Ramirez-Zetina, Martha; Batista-Castro, Ana C; Sierra, Maria M; Shaputnic, Carolyn; Garcia-Castillo, Maura; Ingmanson, Sonja; Hull, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    Environmental exposures along the US-Mexico border have the potential to adversely affect the maternal-fetal environment. The purpose of this study was to assess placental biomarkers of environmental exposures in an obstetric population at the California-Baja California border in relation to detoxifying enzymes in the placenta and nutritional status. This study was conducted on consenting, full-term, obstetric patients (n=54), delivering in a hospital in Tijuana, Baja California (BC), Mexico. Placental polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were measured in addition to placental glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and genotype, maternal serum folate, and maternal and umbilical cord blood lead and cadmium levels. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers to determine maternal occupation in a maquiladora, other exposures, and obstetric indicators. In univariate analysis, maternal serum folate levels were inversely correlated with total PAH-DNA adducts (rho=-0.375, p=0.007); adduct #1 (rho=-0.388, p=0.005); and adduct #3 (rho =-0.430, p=0.002). Maternal lead levels were significantly positively correlated with cord blood lead levels (rho=0.512, p<0.001). Cadmium levels were generally very low but significantly higher in mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (either at work or at home, n=10). In multivariate analysis, only maternal serum folate levels remained as a significant negative predictor of total DNA-PAH adducts levels in placenta. These findings affirm that placental tissue is a valuable and readily available source of human tissue for biomonitoring; and indicate that further study of the role of nutrition in detoxification and mitigation of environmental exposures in pregnant women is warranted.

  3. Analysis of selected glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms in Malaysian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Etemad, A; Vasudevan, R; Aziz, A F A; Yusof, A K M; Khazaei, S; Fawzi, N; Jamalpour, S; Arkani, M; Mohammad, N A; Ismail, P

    2016-04-07

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms result in decreased or absent enzyme activity and altered oxidative stress, and have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study assessed the effect of GST polymorphisms on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals of Malaysian Malay ethnicity. A total of 287 subjects, consisting of 87 T2DM and 64 CVD/T2DM patients, as well as 136 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were genotyped for selected polymorphisms to evaluate associations with T2DM susceptibility. Genomic DNA was extracted using commercially available kits, and GSTM1, GSTT1, and α-globin sequences were amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Biochemical parameters were measured with a Hitachi autoanalyzer. The Fisher exact test, the chi-square statistic, and means ± standard deviations were calculated using the SPSS software. Overall, we observed no significant differences regarding genotype and allele frequencies between each group (P = 0.224 and 0.199, respectively). However, in the combined analysis of genotypes and blood measurements, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels, followed by age, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and history of T2DM significantly differed according to GST polymorphism (P ˂ 0.05). Genetically induced absence of the GSTT1 enzyme is an independent and powerful predictor of premature vascular morbidity and death in individuals with T2DM, and might be triggered by cigarette smoking's oxidative effects. These polymorphisms could be screened in other ethnicities within Malaysia to determine further possible risk factors.

  4. Tandemly Duplicated Safener-Induced Glutathione S-Transferase Genes from Triticum tauschii Contribute to Genome- and Organ-Specific Expression in Hexaploid Wheat1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fangxiu; Lagudah, Evans S.; Moose, Stephen P.; Riechers, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene expression was examined in several Triticum species, differing in genome constitution and ploidy level, to determine genome contribution to GST expression in cultivated, hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Two tandemly duplicated tau class GST genes (TtGSTU1 and TtGSTU2) were isolated from a single bacterial artificial chromosome clone in a library constructed from the diploid wheat and D genome progenitor to cultivated wheat, Triticum tauschii. The genes are very similar in genomic structure and their encoded proteins are 95% identical. Gene-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed differential transcript accumulation of TtGSTU1 and TtGSTU2 in roots and shoots. Expression of both genes was induced by herbicide safeners, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and abscisic acid, in the shoots of T. tauschii; however, expression of TtGSTU1 was always higher than TtGSTU2. In untreated seedlings, TtGSTU1 was expressed in both shoots and roots, whereas TtGSTU2 expression was only detected in roots. RNA gel-blot analysis of ditelosomic, aneuploid lines that are deficient for 6AS, 6BS, or 6DS chromosome arms of cultivated, hexaploid bread wheat showed differential genome contribution to safener-induced GST expression in shoots compared with roots. The GST genes from the D genome of hexaploid wheat contribute most to safener-induced expression in the shoots, whereas GSTs from the B and D genomes contribute to safener-induced expression in the roots. PMID:12226515

  5. Tandemly duplicated Safener-induced glutathione S-transferase genes from Triticum tauschii contribute to genome- and organ-specific expression in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fangxiu; Lagudah, Evans S; Moose, Stephen P; Riechers, Dean E

    2002-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene expression was examined in several Triticum species, differing in genome constitution and ploidy level, to determine genome contribution to GST expression in cultivated, hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Two tandemly duplicated tau class GST genes (TtGSTU1 and TtGSTU2) were isolated from a single bacterial artificial chromosome clone in a library constructed from the diploid wheat and D genome progenitor to cultivated wheat, Triticum tauschii. The genes are very similar in genomic structure and their encoded proteins are 95% identical. Gene-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed differential transcript accumulation of TtGSTU1 and TtGSTU2 in roots and shoots. Expression of both genes was induced by herbicide safeners, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and abscisic acid, in the shoots of T. tauschii; however, expression of TtGSTU1 was always higher than TtGSTU2. In untreated seedlings, TtGSTU1 was expressed in both shoots and roots, whereas TtGSTU2 expression was only detected in roots. RNA gel-blot analysis of ditelosomic, aneuploid lines that are deficient for 6AS, 6BS, or 6DS chromosome arms of cultivated, hexaploid bread wheat showed differential genome contribution to safener-induced GST expression in shoots compared with roots. The GST genes from the D genome of hexaploid wheat contribute most to safener-induced expression in the shoots, whereas GSTs from the B and D genomes contribute to safener-induced expression in the roots.

  6. The Potato Aphid Salivary Effector Me47 Is a Glutathione-S-Transferase Involved in Modifying Plant Responses to Aphid Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Kettles, Graeme J.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2016-01-01

    Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Here, we describe a novel aphid effector (Me47) which was identified from the potato aphid salivary secretome as a putative glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Expression of Me47 in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced reproductive performance of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Similarly, delivery of Me47 into leaves of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by Pseudomonas spp. enhanced potato aphid fecundity. In contrast, delivery of Me47 into Arabidopsis thaliana reduced GPA reproductive performance, indicating that Me47 impacts the outcome of plant–aphid interactions differently depending on the host species. Delivery of Me47 by the non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens revealed that Me47 protein or activity triggers defense gene transcriptional upregulation in tomato but not Arabidopsis. Recombinant Me47 was purified and demonstrated to have GST activity against two specific isothiocyanates (ITCs), compounds implicated in herbivore defense. Whilst GSTs have previously been associated with development of aphid resistance to synthetic insecticides, the findings described here highlight a novel function as both an elicitor and suppressor of plant defense when delivered into host tissues. PMID:27536306

  7. Aphicidal Activity of Illicium verum Fruit Extracts and Their Effects on the Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-transferases Activities in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ben-Guo; Wang, Sa; Dou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Su; Li, Mao-Ye; Hua, Ri-Mao; Li, Shi-Guang; Lin, Hua-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the aphicidal activity and underlying mechanism of Illicium verum Hook. f. that is used as both food and medicine. The contact toxicity of the extracts from I. verum fruit with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of M. persicae after contact treatment were tested. The results showed that MA, EA, and PE extracts of 1.000 mg/l caused, respectively, M. persicae mortalities of 68.93%, 89.95% and 74.46%, and the LC50 of MA, EA, and PE extracts were 0.31, 0.14 and 0.27 mg/l at 72 h after treatment, respectively; the activities of AChE and GSTs in M. persicae were obviously inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose and time-dependent effects, the inhibition rates on the whole reached more than 50.00% at the concentration of 1.000 mg/l at 72 h after treatment. The inhibition of the extracts on AChE and GSTs activities (EA extract > PE extract > MA extract) were correlated with theirs contact toxic effects, so it is inferred that the decline of the metabolic enzymes activities may be one of important reasons of M. persicae death. The study results suggested that I. verum extracts have potential as a eco-friendly biopesticide in integrated pest management against M. persicae. PMID:26826651

  8. Differential gene expression and subcellular targeting of Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase F8 is achieved through alternative transcription start sites.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Louise F; Carrie, Chris; Andersson, Carol R; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Whelan, James; Singh, Karam B

    2007-09-28

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play major roles in the protection of plants from biotic and abiotic stresses through the detoxification of xenobiotics and toxic endogenous products. This report describes additional complexity in the regulation of the well characterized stress-responsive Arabidopsis thaliana GSTF8 promoter. This complexity results from the use of multiple transcription start sites (TSS) to give rise to alternate GSTF8 transcripts with the potential to produce two in-frame proteins differing only in their N-terminal sequence. In addition to the originally mapped TSS (Chen, W., Chao, G., and Singh, K. B. (1996) Plant J. 10, 955-966), a further nine TSS have been identified, with the majority clustered into a distinct group. The most 3' TSS gives rise to the major message (GSTF8-S) and the shorter form of the protein, whereas those originating from upstream TSS (GSTF8-L) are more weakly expressed and encode for the larger form of the protein. Differential tissue-specific and stress-responsive expression patterns were observed (e.g. GSTF8-L is more highly expressed in leaves compared with roots, whereas GSTF8-S expression has the opposite pattern and is much more stress-responsive). Analysis of GSTF8-L and GSTF8-S proteins demonstrated that GSTF8-L is solely targeted to plastids, whereas GSTF8-S is cytoplasmic. In silico analysis revealed potential conservation of GSTF8-S across a wide range of plants; in contrast, conservation of GSTF8-L was confined to the Brassicaceae. These studies demonstrate that alternate TSS of the GSTF8 promoter are used to confer differential tissue-specific and stress-responsive expression patterns as well as to target the same protein to two different subcellular localizations.

  9. Simulation of interindividual differences in inactivation of reactive para-benzoquinone imine metabolites of diclofenac by glutathione S-transferases in human liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    den Braver, Michiel W; Zhang, Yongjie; Venkataraman, Harini; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M

    2016-07-25

    Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID that causes severe idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (IDILI) in a small part of the patient population. Formation of protein-reactive metabolites is considered to play a role in the development of diclofenac-induced IDILI. Therefore, a high hepatic activity of enzymes involved in bioactivation of diclofenac is expected to increase the risk for liver injury. However, the extent of covalent protein binding may also be determined by activity of protective enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This is supported by an association study in which a correlation was found between NSAID-induced IDILI and the combined null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1. In the present study, the activity of 10 different recombinant human GSTs in inactivation of protein-reactive quinoneimine (QI) metabolites of diclofenac was tested. Both at low and high GSH concentrations, high activities of GSTA1-1, A2-2, A3-3, M1-1, M3-3 and P1-1 in the inactivation of these QIs were found. By using the expression levels of GSTs in livers of 22 donors, a 6-fold variation in GST-dependent inactivation of reactive diclofenac metabolites was predicted. Moreover, it was shown in vitro that GSTs can strongly increase the efficiency of GSH to protect against the alkylation of the model thiol N-acetylcysteine by reactive diclofenac metabolites. The results of this study demonstrate that variability of GST expression may significantly contribute to the inter-individual differences in susceptibility to diclofenac-induced liver injury. In addition, expression levels of GSTs in in vitro models for hepatotoxicity may be important factors determining sensitivity to diclofenac cytotoxicity.

  10. The effect of glutathion S-transferase polymoprhisms and anti-GSTT1 antibodies on allograft functions in recipients of renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Akgul, S U; Oguz, F S; Çalişkan, Y; Kekik, C; Gürkan, H; Türkmen, A; Nane, I; Aydin, F

    2012-01-01

    The balance between oxidative stress and anti-oxidant defense systems after renal transplantation may explain the development and progression of allograft dysfunction. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreases the damage from oxidative stress. In contrast, recipient antibodies against GSTT1 expressed on the graft are believed to cause its dysfunction. The aim of our research was to study the probable relationship to rejection between GST gene polymorphisms and anti-GSTT1 antibodies. We included 122 patients transplantations from living donors and 51 healthy individuals as controls group in our study. The patient groups were comprised of 57 patients who did and 65 who did not experienced rejection episode. Polymerase chain reactions were used to detect GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms, whereas PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), for GSTP1 polymorphism. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was used for anti-GSTT1 antibody scans. There was no significant difference between the groups for allele and genotype frequencies of GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 polymorphisms of the recipients, donors, and controls. Within the rejection group the frequency of patients with the GSTM1 null genotype was higher among subjects prescribed cyclosporine A versus tacrolimus (P = .029). Among the entire patient group, 46 subjects with GSTT1 null genotype were scanned for anti-GSTT1 antibody which was detected in 5 of 8 patients with an acute rejection episode (P = .04). Anti-GSTT1 antibody was observed more frequently albeit not significantly, among the cyclosporine versus tacrolimus patient group (P = .16). This study suggested that GSTM1 genotype may be important for cyclosporine detoxification and for allograft outcomes due to drug nephrotoxicity. After transplantation, antigens distinct from the HLA system such as GSTT1 protein may also be targets for alloimmune responses.

  11. Characterization of the glutathione S-transferase gene family through ESTs and expression analyses within common and pigmented cultivars of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) represent a ubiquitous gene family encoding detoxification enzymes able to recognize reactive electrophilic xenobiotic molecules as well as compounds of endogenous origin. Anthocyanin pigments require GSTs for their transport into the vacuole since their cytoplasmic retention is toxic to the cell. Anthocyanin accumulation in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck fruit flesh determines different phenotypes affecting the typical pigmentation of Sicilian blood oranges. In this paper we describe: i) the characterization of the GST gene family in C. sinensis through a systematic EST analysis; ii) the validation of the EST assembly by exploiting the genome sequences of C. sinensis and C. clementina and their genome annotations; iii) GST gene expression profiling in six tissues/organs and in two different sweet orange cultivars, Cadenera (common) and Moro (pigmented). Results We identified 61 GST transcripts, described the full- or partial-length nature of the sequences and assigned to each sequence the GST class membership exploiting a comparative approach and the classification scheme proposed for plant species. A total of 23 full-length sequences were defined. Fifty-four of the 61 transcripts were successfully aligned to the C. sinensis and C. clementina genomes. Tissue specific expression profiling demonstrated that the expression of some GST transcripts was 'tissue-affected' and cultivar specific. A comparative analysis of C. sinensis GSTs with those from other plant species was also considered. Data from the current analysis are accessible at http://biosrv.cab.unina.it/citrusGST/, with the aim to provide a reference resource for C. sinensis GSTs. Conclusions This study aimed at the characterization of the GST gene family in C. sinensis. Based on expression patterns from two different cultivars and on sequence-comparative analyses, we also highlighted that two sequences, a Phi class GST and a Mapeg class GST, could be involved in

  12. Glutathione S-transferase class μ regulation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 protein during VCD-induced ovotoxicity in neonatal rat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Madden, Jill A; Sen, Nivedita; Hoyer, Patricia B; Keating, Aileen F

    2013-02-15

    4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian primordial and small primary follicles via apoptosis. In mice, VCD exposure induces ovarian mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members, including isoform mu (Gstm). Extra-ovarian GSTM negatively regulates pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) through protein complex formation, which dissociates during stress, thereby initiating ASK1-induced apoptosis. The present study investigated the ovarian response of Gstm mRNA and protein to VCD. Induction of Ask1 mRNA at VCD-induced follicle loss onset was determined. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was investigated and VCD exposure effects thereon evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) regulation of GSTM protein was also studied. Postnatal day (PND) 4 rat ovaries were cultured in control media ± 1) VCD (30 μM) for 2-8 days; 2) VCD (30 μM) for 2 days, followed by incubation in control media for 4 days (acute VCD exposure); or 3) LY294002 (20 μM) for 6 days. VCD exposure did not alter Gstm mRNA expression, however, GSTM protein increased (P<0.05) after 6 days of both the acute and chronic treatments. Ask1 mRNA increased (0.33-fold; P<0.05) relative to control after 6 days of VCD exposure. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was confirmed and, relative to control, the amount of GSTM bound to ASK1 increased 33% (P<0.05) by chronic but with no effect of acute VCD exposure. PI3K inhibition increased (P<0.05) GSTM protein by 40% and 71% on d4 and d6, respectively. These findings support involvement of GSTM in the ovarian response to VCD exposure, through regulation of pro-apoptotic ASK1.

  13. Subunit diversity and tissue distribution of human glutathione S-transferases: interpretations based on electrospray ionization-MS and peptide sequence-specific antisera.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, J D; Nieves, E; Listowsky, I

    1997-01-01

    Uncertainties about the composition and identities of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in human tissue have impeded studies on their biological functions. A rigorous protocol has therefore been developed to characterize the human proteins. Cytosolic GST subunits were resolved by reverse-phase HPLC methods, individual components were assigned to Alpha, Mu and Pi classes on the basis of their immunoreactivities, and peptide-sequence-specific antisera were used to distinguish among five different Mu-class subunits (GSTM1-GSTM5). Each subunit type was characterized and identified unambiguously by electrospray ionization-MS. Acetylation of N-terminal residues in the GSTA1, GSTA2, GSTM3 and GSTM4 subunits were the only natural post-translational modifications detected. The unique structure of GSTM3, with N- and C-terminal peptide extensions predicted from cDNA sequences, was confirmed. Only testis and brain were rich sources of GSTM3 subunits. Subunit profiles were distinct and characteristic of the particular tissue type, and this tissue specificity in GST expression was evident even in organs from different individuals. For instance, livers had relatively simple GST compositions, consisting of a preponderance of Alpha-class subunits and GSTM1 (when present). By contrast, representation of most subunit types was a characteristic feature of testis, which had the highest levels of GSTs. GSTM4 and GSTM5 subunits, here identified for the first time in human tissue extracts, were minor components, with GSTM5 found only in brain, lung and testis. Specimens devoid of GSTM1 subunits, particularly those from null-genotype individuals, were readily discerned at the protein level. Liver was the only rich source of the GSTM1 subunit (although it also constituted a major fraction of adrenal GSTs), and so the functional consequences of the GSTM1 gene deletion are likely to vary in extrahepatic tissues. PMID:9230131

  14. Association between Glutathione S-Transferase GSTM1-T1 and P1 Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome in Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    AFRAND, Mohammadhosain; BASHARDOOST, Nasrollah; SHEIKHHA, Mohammad Hasan; AFKHAMI-ARDEKANI, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between genetic polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family and the risk of the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Zoroastrian females in Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, GSTM1, T1, and P1 polymorphisms were genotyped in 51 randomly selected MS patients and 50 randomly selected healthy controls on February 2014 among Zoroastrian females whose ages ranged from 40 to 70 yr. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Results: We observed a significant association of GSTP1-I/V (Isoleucine/Valine) allele and GSTP1-V/V (Valine / Valine) allele with MS (P = 0.047 and P = 0.044, respectively). The combined analysis of the two genotypes, the present genotype of GSTT1, I/V and V/V alleles of GSTP1 genotype demonstrated a decrease in the risk of acquiring MS (OR = 0.246, P = 0.031). The null genotype of GSTM1, I/V, and V/V alleles of the GSTP1 genotype showed a lower risk in double combinations (OR = 0.15, P = 0.028 and OR = 0.13, P = 0.013, respectively). The combinations of the GSTM1 null genotypes and GSTT1 present genotypes and the GSTP1 I/V and V/V alleles together were associated with decreased risk of having MS in triple combinations (OR = 0.071, P = 0.039 and OR = 0.065, P = 0.022, respectively). Conclusion: GSTP1-I/V and V/V alleles, alone or in association with GSTM1 null and GSTT1 present genotypes, are related with decreased susceptibility to the development of MS in Zoroastrian females. PMID:26284209

  15. Ethacrynic acid butyl-ester induces apoptosis in leukemia cells through a hydrogen peroxide mediated pathway independent of glutathione S-transferase P1-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Li, Chunmin; Song, Dandan; Zhao, Guisen; Zhao, Linxiang; Jing, Yongkui

    2007-08-15

    Ethacrynic acid (EA), a glutathione S-transferase inhibitor and diuretic agent, inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. To improve the activities, the structure of EA has been modified, and it has been shown that EA esters had an increased cell growth inhibitory ability compared with nonesterified analogue. EA butyl-ester (EABE) was synthesized, and its apoptosis induction ability was studied. The efficacy of EABE was compared with that of EA, and the mechanisms of action were studied in HL-60 leukemia cells. EABE exhibited greater cell growth inhibitory and apoptosis induction abilities than did EA. EABE-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells correlated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, the death receptor 5 (DR5), and caspase activation and decreased levels of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with antioxidants, either N-acetylcysteine or catalase, completely blocked EABE-induced apoptosis, H2O2 accumulation, and up-regulation of DR5 levels. RG19, a subclone of Raji cells stably transfected with a GSTpi expression vector, and K562 cells with high endogenous GSTP1-1 activity were less sensitive to EABE-induced apoptosis. EABE was more rapidly taken up than EA by HL-60 cells as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements of intracellular concentrations. These results suggest that (a) H2O2 production is a mediator of EABE and EA-induced apoptosis; (b) GSTP1-1 plays a negative role in EABE and EA-induced apoptosis; and (c) the activity of EABE is greater than EA due to its more rapid entry into cells.

  16. Identification of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes from a dark septate endophytic fungus (Exophiala pisciphila) and their expression patterns under varied metals stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mi; Zhao, Da-Ke; Qiao, Qin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs) were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50). Lead (Pb) exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Furthermore, although heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila.

  17. Evaluation of Glutathione-S-Transferase P1 Polymorphism and its Relation to Bone Mineral Density in Egyptian Children and Adolescents with Beta-Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Seham M.; Badr, Eman A.; Ibrahim, Ahmed S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a major complication of beta thalassemia major (TM). Increased oxidative stress and its controlling genes were linked to osteoporosis. Ile105 Val variant is a functional polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), with reduced anti-oxidative property. No data are available about this variant or its association with osteoporosis among thalassemia patients yet. Objectives To investigate Ile105Val polymorphism and its possible association with bone mineral density (BMD) values in a group of TM children. Methods Thirty five TM children and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. Liver and renal functions, serum ferritin, calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were assayed. BMD was determined by DXA with calculation of Z-scores at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). Height for age Z- score (HAZ) adjusted BMD Z-scores were calculated. GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism was studied by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results The relative frequency of 105 Val allele was significantly higher in TM patients than the controls (p<0.0001). Significant association between genotype subgroups and BMD parameters was detected. Compared to wild homozygotes, polymorphic homozygotes had lower LS-BMD (p =0.029), LS-BMD Z –score (p=0.008 ), LS- BMD haz - Z-score (p=0.011), FN- BMD (p= 0.001), FN- BMD Z –score (p=0.02) and FN-BMD haz - Z-score (p=0.001). They exhibited higher osteocalcin levels compared to heterozygotes and wild homozygotes (p=0.012, p=0.013, respectively). Conclusion Ile105Val polymorphism was frequent among TM patients and could increase their susceptibility to reduced BMD. Large sample studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26740865

  18. Benzene Uptake and Glutathione S-transferase T1 Status as Determinants of S-Phenylmercapturic Acid in Cigarette Smokers in the Multiethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Haiman, Christopher A.; Patel, Yesha M.; Stram, Daniel O.; Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Research from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) demonstrated that, for the same quantity of cigarette smoking, African Americans and Native Hawaiians have a higher lung cancer risk than Whites, while Latinos and Japanese Americans are less susceptible. We collected urine samples from 2,239 cigarette smokers from five different ethnic groups in the MEC and analyzed each sample for S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), a specific biomarker of benzene uptake. African Americans had significantly higher (geometric mean [SE] 3.69 [0.2], p<0.005) SPMA/ml urine than Whites (2.67 [0.13]) while Japanese Americans had significantly lower levels than Whites (1.65 [0.07], p<0.005). SPMA levels in Native Hawaiians and Latinos were not significantly different from those of Whites. We also conducted a genome-wide association study in search of genetic risk factors related to benzene exposure. The glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) deletion explained between 14.2–31.6% (p = 5.4x10-157) and the GSTM1 deletion explained between 0.2%-2.4% of the variance (p = 1.1x10-9) of SPMA levels in these populations. Ethnic differences in levels of SPMA remained strong even after controlling for the effects of these two deletions. These results demonstrate the powerful effect of GSTT1 status on SPMA levels in urine and show that uptake of benzene in African American, White, and Japanese American cigarette smokers is consistent with their lung cancer risk in the MEC. While benzene is not generally considered a cause of lung cancer, its metabolite SPMA could be a biomarker for other volatile lung carcinogens in cigarette smoke. PMID:26959369

  19. Practical agar-based disk potentiation test for detection of fosfomycin-nonsusceptible Escherichia coli clinical isolates producing glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Genki; Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Natsumi; Kimura, Kouji; Yamada, Keiko; Jin, Wanchun; Shibayama, Keigo; Yagi, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Kumiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2014-09-01

    The number of reports concerning Escherichia coli clinical isolates that produce glutathione S-transferases responsible for fosfomycin resistance (FR-GSTs) has been increasing. We have developed a disk-based potentiation test in which FR-GST producers expand the growth inhibition zone around a Kirby-Bauer disk containing fosfomycin in combination with sodium phosphonoformate (PPF). PPF, an analog of fosfomycin, is a transition-state inhibitor of FosA(PA), a type of FR-GST from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Considering its mechanism of action, PPF was expected to inhibit a variety of FR-GSTs. In the presence of PPF, zone enlargement around the disk containing fosfomycin was observed for FosA3-, FosA4-, and FosC2-producing E. coli clinical isolates. Moreover, the growth inhibition zone was remarkably enlarged when the Mueller-Hinton (MH) agar plate contained 25 μg/ml glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). When we retrospectively tested 12 fosfomycin-resistant (MIC, ≥256 μg/ml) E. coli clinical isolates from our hospital with the potentiation test, 6 FR-GST producers were positive phenotypically by potentiation disk and were positive for FR-GST genes: 5 harbored fosA3 and 1 harbored fosA4. To identify the production of FR-GSTs, we set the provisional cutoff value, 5-mm enlargement, by adding PPF to a fosfomycin disk on the MH agar plates containing G6P. Our disk-based potentiation test reliably identifies FR-GST producers and can be performed easily; therefore, it will be advantageous in epidemiological surveys and infection control of fosfomycin-resistant bacteria in clinical settings.

  20. Identification of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Genes from a Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus (Exophiala pisciphila) and Their Expression Patterns under Varied Metals Stress

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs) were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50). Lead (Pb) exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Furthermore, although heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila. PMID:25884726

  1. Changes in Glutathione S-Transferase Activity and Parental Care Patterns in a Catfish (Pisces, Ariidae) as a Biomarker of Anthropogenic Impact in a Brazilian Harbor.

    PubMed

    Fortes Carvalho Neta, Raimunda Nonata; Barbosa, Gleyciane Lobato; Torres, Hetty Salvino; Pinheiro Sousa, Débora Batista; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Santos, Débora Martins Silva; Tchaicka, Lígia; Almeida, Zafira da Silva de; Teixeira, Erivania Gomes; Torres, Audalio Rebelo

    2017-01-01

    Catfish have been used as a model system for studying biochemical mechanisms of biotransformation. The main goal of this study was to identify alterations in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and changes in the parental care pattern of a mouth-brooding catfish, Sciades herzbergii, as a biomarker of anthropogenic impact in a port area on the northeastern coast of Brazil. The fish were sampled from a natural reserve (A1 = reference site) and from an industrialized port area (A2 = impacted site). Two analyses were carried out: hepatic GST activity and mouth-brooding behavior of males. Catfish collected from the A1 site displayed all stages of gonadal maturation, and some of the adult males were mouth brooding 12-30 embryos. Not all gonadal maturation stages of the catfish were represented at the A2 site, and no mouth-brooding males were observed. GST activity in the liver of S. herzbergii was significantly higher in fish from the impacted site compared with fish from the reference site. Values for the enzymatic activity increased progressively in fish sampled from the reserve area as they became more reproductively mature (immature ≤ maturing ≤ mature ≤ spent). However, the greatest values for GST activity (2.84 ± 0.31 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1)) among fish sampled from the impacted area were found in (immature) juveniles. These data suggest that changes in hepatic GST activity and mouth-brooding behavior of S. herzbergii can be used as biomarkers of anthropogenic impact.

  2. Comparative RNA-sequencing profiling reveals novel Delta-class glutathione S-transferases relative genes expression patterns in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuhong; Xiong, Wenfeng; Li, Chengjun; Gao, Shanshan; Song, Xiaowen; Wu, Wei; Li, Bin

    2016-11-15

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large group of enzymes having both detoxification roles conferring insecticide resistance and specialist metabolic functions. Tribolium castaneum GST Delta 1 (TcGSTd1) has been found playing crucial role in insecticide resistance and biological processes in insect species. However, the regulatory system of TcGSTd1 has still rarely been known. Comparing the transcriptome profile of RNAi treated larvae (ds-TcGSTd1) and control larvae of T. canstaneum by using RNA-sequencing, we obtained 14,284,085 sequence reads aligned with 13,275 genes. And 512 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from ds-TcGSTd1 treated group. Est/CCE, CYP, MRPs were significantly down-regulated in ds-TcGSTd1 group when compared with control group, which illustrated that they cooperated with TcGSTd1 to reduce the activity of cellular metabolism system. While, SNO was up-regulated in ds-TcGSTd1 insects suggested it may also involve in detoxifying alkaloid of insect metabolism system. These results established that TcGSTd1 not only acts as a vital gene for phase II cellular detoxification but also participates in phase 0, I, and III cellular detoxification by cooperating with CSPs, OBPs, CYP9, ESTB1, CCE6, MRPs and other detoxification genes. Knockdown of TcGSTd1 also suppressed several genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, e.g. CuZnSOD, Duox, Prx, HPX, CPO, and MCORP. Suggested that they may modulate the function of TcGSTd1 on lifespan, immune, development and reproduction. All these results shed the new insights into the regulatory mechanism of TcGSTd1 involved in insect physiology and could further facilitate the research of suitable and sustainable managements for the pest control.

  3. Regulation of DM-20 mRNA expression and intracellular translocation of glutathione-S-transferase pi isoform during oligodendrocyte differentiation in the adult rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Masaaki; Takeda, Kazuya; Dezawa, Mari

    2016-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that NG2-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) do not express DM-20 mRNA and identified a distinct DM-20 mRNA-positive cell population expressing glutathione-S-transferase pi isoform (GST-pi) in the nucleus (GST-pi(Nuc)) of the adult rat spinal cord. As GST-pi intranuclear localization correlates with progenitor cell properties, we examined the differentiation status of this cell population under the intensive 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) administration method, consisting of intraperitoneal BrdU injections every 2 h for 48 h. We observed that a certain population of proliferating/proliferated cells expressed DM-20 mRNA, and sometimes two proliferating/proliferated cells were observed still attached to each other. We performed triple staining for BrdU, DM-20 mRNA, and NG2 and found pairs of neighboring BrdU-positive cells, which were considered to originate from the same progenitor cells and where both cells expressed DM-20 mRNA. Triple staining for BrdU, DM-20 mRNA, and GST-pi detected proliferating/proliferated cells exhibiting the GST-pi(Nuc)/DM-20 mRNA-positive expression pattern. These findings suggested the presence of a GST-pi(Nuc)/DM-20 mRNA-positive oligodendrocyte-lineage progenitor cell population in the adult rat spinal cord. However, we did not find any pair of neighboring BrdU-positive cells with this expression pattern. These observations collectively support the idea that GST-pi(Nuc)/DM-20 mRNA-expressing cells are the progeny of NG2-positive OPCs rather than a novel type of oligodendrocyte-lineage progenitor cells and that DM-20 mRNA expression is dynamically regulated during differentiation of OPCs into oligodendrocytes.

  4. Activation of the p38 signaling pathway by heat shock involves the dissociation of glutathione S-transferase Mu from Ask1.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Lambert, Herman; Landry, Jacques

    2002-08-23

    Despite the importance of the stress-activated protein kinase pathways in cell death and survival, it is unclear how stressful stimuli lead to their activation. In the case of heat shock, the existence of a specific mechanism of activation has been evidenced, but the molecular nature of this pathway is undefined. Here, we found that Ask1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1), an upstream activator of the stress-activated protein kinase p38 during exposure to oxidative stress and other stressful stimuli, was also activated by heat shock. Ask1 activity was required for p38 activation since overexpression of a kinase dead mutant of Ask1, Ask1(K709M), inhibited heat shock-induced p38 activation. The activation of Ask1 by oxidative stress involves the oxidation of thioredoxin, an endogenous inhibitor of Ask1. A different activation mechanism takes place during heat shock. In contrast to p38 induction by H(2)O(2), induction by heat shock was not antagonized by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine or by overexpressing thioredoxin and was not accompanied by the dissociation of thioredoxin from Ask1. Instead, heat shock caused the dissociation of glutathione S-transferase Mu1-1 (GSTM1-1) from Ask1 and overexpression of GSTM1-1-inhibited induction of p38 by heat shock. We concluded that because of an alternative regulation by the two distinct repressors thioredoxin and GSTM1-1, Ask1 constitutes the converging point of the heat shock and oxidative stress-sensing pathways that lead to p38 activation.

  5. Does the detoxification of penicillin side-chain precursors depend on microsomal monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferase in Penicillium chrysogenum?

    PubMed

    Emri, Tamás; Oláh, Brigitta; Sámi, László; Pócsi, István

    2003-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH) S-conjugation of 1,2-epoxy-3-(4'-nitrophenoxy)propane was catalysed predominantly by microsomal glutathione S-transferase (mGST) in Penicillium chrysogenum. The specific mGST activity unlike the cytosolic GST (cGST) activity increased substantially when the penicillin side-chain precursor phenoxyacetic acid (POA) was included in the culture medium. Therefore, a microsomal monooxygenase (causing possible release of epoxide intermediates) and mGST-dependent detoxification pathway may exist for the side-chain precursors as an alternative to microsomal activation to acyl-CoA and subsequent transfer to beta-lactam molecules. The P. chrysogenum pahA and Aspergillus nidulans phacA gene products, which are cytochrome p450 monooxygenases and are able to hydroxylate phenylacetic acid (PA) at position 2 on the aromatic ring, are unlikely to release toxic epoxide intermediates but epoxidation of PA and POA due to the action of other microsomal monooxygenases cannot be excluded. The GSH-dependent detoxification of POA was provoked by a well-controlled transient lowering of pH (down to 5.0) at the beginning of the production phase in a fed-batch fermentation system. Both the specific GST and gammaGT activities were increased but the intracellular GSH concentrations remained unaltered unless the pH of the feed was transiently lowered below 5.0. At pH 4.6, the GSH pool was depleted rapidly but no antibiotic production was observed. Although sucrose was taken up effectively by the cells, cell death and autolysis were progressing. Therefore, the industrial exploitation of the GSH-dependent detoxification of penicillin side-chain precursors to reduce intracellular GSH-levels in order to avoid the GSH inhibition of the beta-lactam biosynthetic enzymes seems to be rather unlikely. P. chrysogenum mGST and cGST were separated using GSH-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The purified cGST possessed a homodimer (alpha(2)) tertiary structure with M(r) (, alpha

  6. Environmental stress enhances biosynthesis of flavor precursors, S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-glutathione and S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-L-cysteine, in grapevine through glutathione S-transferase activation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hironori; Takase, Hideki; Suzuki, Yumiko; Tanzawa, Fumiko; Takata, Ryoji; Fujita, Keiko; Kohno, Minako; Mochizuki, Mai; Suzuki, Shunji; Konno, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    The biosynthesis of S-(3-hexan-1-ol)-glutathione (3MH-S-glut) and S-(3-hexan-l-ol)-L-cysteine (3MH-S-cys), which act as flavour precursors in wines, in Vitis vinifera grapes exposed to various environmental stress conditions is reported here. Ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation, water deficit, and biological stimulation up-regulated 3MH-S-glut and 3MH-S-cys biosynthesis in grape leaves. 3MH-S-glut and 3MH-S-cys contents in grape berries were increased by cold shock, heat shock, UV-C irradiation, and biological stimulation. The results suggest that environmental stress enhances the biosynthesis of both flavour precursors in grapevine. The transcription of VvGST1, VvGST3, VvGST4, and GGT in grapevine exposed to the stress conditions was increased markedly compared with that in control grapevine. Also, UV irradiation increased GST (glutathione S-transferase) and GGT (γ-glutamyl transferase) enzyme activities in grape berries. Recombinant VvGST3 and VvGST4, but not VvGST1, mediated the synthesis of 3MH-S-glut from reduced glutathione and trans-2-hexenal in vitro. The enzymatic mediation of flavour precursor production is a novel function of plant GSTs and may result in the detoxification of damaged grape cells under stress conditions. PMID:21115666

  7. Size effect of elemental selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se) at supranutritional levels on selenium accumulation and glutathione S-transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dungeng; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Qingliang; Taylor, Ethan Will

    2007-10-01

    It has been shown that 36 nm Nano-Se has lower toxicity than selenite or selenomethionine, but these forms of selenium (Se) all possess similar ability to increase selenoenzyme levels. The size of nanoparticles plays an important role in their biological activity: as expected, 5-200 nm Nano-Se can directly scavenge free radicals in vitro in a size-dependent fashion. However, in Se-deficient cells and Se-deficient mice, the size effect of Nano-Se on increasing selenoenzymes and liver Se disappears unexpectedly. We hypothesize that under conditions of Se deficiency, the avidity of Se uptake mechanisms may be increased to maintain the biosynthesis of selenoenzymes, which are fundamental for redox homeostasis. This increased avidity may override the potential advantage of small size Nano-Se seen under Se-replete conditions, thereby eliminating the size effect. Once selenoenzymes have been saturated, Se uptake mechanisms may downregulate; accordingly, the size effect of Nano-Se can then reappear. To test this hypothesis, Se-deficient mice were administered either 36 or 90 nm Nano-Se at supranutritional doses, in both a short-term model and a single-dose model. Under these conditions, Nano-Se showed a size effect on Se accumulation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. A size effect of Nano-Se was found in 15 out of 18 total comparisons between sizes at the same dose and time in the two models. Furthermore, the magnitude of the size effect was more prominent on Se accumulation than on GST activity. GST is strictly regulated by transcriptional and translational mechanisms, so its increase in activity normally does not exceed 3-fold. In contrast, the homeostasis of Se accumulation is not as tightly controlled. In the present experiments, GST activity had reached or was approaching saturation, but liver Se was far below saturation. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that the saturation profile of the tested biomarker has an impact on the size effect of Nano

  8. Quantification and visualization of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 in cells using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong; Jiang, Xin; Tang, Nannan; Yang, Limin; Chen, Haifeng; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-03-01

    We report a novel activity-based and Cu-free click chemistry (CC) mediated methodology for glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) quantification using species-unspecific isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SUID ICP-MS), in which dibenzylcyclooctyne-modified 2-chloroacetamide (DBCO-ChAcA) was designed and synthesized, meanwhile, as a navigator towards GSTO1 for subsequent N3-DOTA-Eu-tagging via Cu-free CC. Using (153)Eu-SUID ICP-MS coupled with size exclusion chromatography (SEC), the LOD (3σ) of GSTO1 reached 6.9 fmol with an RSD of 2.4% at the 0.1 μM level (n = 5) considering the recovery of GSTO1 on the SEC was 96.5 ± 2.4%. The GSTO1 contents in the cells of human hepatocellular carcinoma C7721 and breast carcinoma MCF-7 as well as normal hepatic C7701 without or with cis-platin administration were quantified to be from 1.2 μg/10,000 cells (n = 3, RSD = 4.5%) corresponding to 1.2 × 10(-2) ng per cell to 4.76 μg/10,000 cells (n = 3, RSD = 2.9%) corresponding to 4.76 × 10(-2) ng per cell. For a comparative study, DBCO-ChAcA-fluor 488-based fluorescence microscopy could not alone visualize GSTO1 in the cells but could together with those from the small SH-containing molecules such as GSH and that from extra N3-fluor 488 in the cells. This activity-based CC-mediated tagging/labeling strategy provided an opportunity for ICP-MS-based targeted protein quantification, and is very much expected to find its applications in biological mechanism study and the subsequent drug design.

  9. Optimization and revision of the production process of the Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1), the lead hookworm vaccine recombinant protein candidate.

    PubMed

    Curti, Elena; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa; Center, Lori; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Kwityn, Cliff; Hammond, Molly; Matsunami, Rise K; Engler, David A; Hotez, Peter J; Elena Bottazzi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Infection by the human hookworm Necator americanus is a leading cause of anemia and disability in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. In order to prevent childhood hookworm disease in resource poor settings, a recombinant vaccine is under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, a Product Development Partnership (PDP). Previously, we reported on the expression and purification of a highly promising hookworm vaccine candidate, Na-GST-1, an N. americanus glutathione s-transferase expressed in Pichia pastoris (yeast), which led to production of 1.5 g of 95% pure recombinant protein at a 20L scale. (1) (,) (2) (,) (3) This yield and purity of Na-GST-1 was sufficient for early pilot manufacturing and initial phase 1 clinical testing. However, based on the number of doses which would be required to allow mass vaccination and a potential goal to deliver a vaccine as inexpensively as possible, a higher yield of expression of the recombinant antigen at the lowest possible cost is highly desirable. Here we report on modifications to the fermentation (upstream process) of the antigen expressed in P. pastoris, and to the purification (downstream process) of the recombinant protein that allowed for a 2-3-fold improvement in the final yield of Na-GST-1 purified protein. The major improvements included upstream process changes such as the addition of a sorbitol pulse and co-feed during methanol induction as well as an extension of the induction stage to approximately 96 hours; downstream process changes included modifying the UFDF to flat sheet with a 10 kDa Molecular Weight cut-off (MWCO), adjusting the capacity of an ion-exchange chromatography step utilizing a gradient elution as opposed to the original step elution, and altering the hydrophobic interaction chromatography conditions. The full process, as well as the purity and stability profiles of the target Na-GST-1, and its formulation

  10. The Glutathione S-Transferase P1 341C>T Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 28 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Ma, Liang; Gao, Ke-feng; Li, Jian; Wu, Wen-juan; Huang, Shan; Yang, Qi; Liu, Ke; Zhao, Yin-nong; Li, Le-qun

    2013-01-01

    Background GSTP1, which is one major group of the glutathione S-transferase family, plays an important role in the metabolism of carcinogens and toxins, reducing damage of DNA as a suppressor of carcinogenesis. The 341C>T polymorphism of the GSTP1 has been implicated in cancer risk through cutting down its metabolic detoxification activities. However, results from previous studies remain conflicting rather than conclusive. To clarify the correlation and provide more statistical evidence for detecting the significance of 341C>T, a meta-analysis was conducted. Methodology/Principal Findings The relevant studies were identified through searching of PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge and China National Knowledge Infrastructure in August 2012, and selected based on the established inclusion criteria for publications, then a meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively summarize the association of GSTP1 341C>T polymorphism with cancer susceptibility. Stratified analyses were employed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated as well as sensitivity analysis. Based on 28 case-control studies with 13249 cases and 16798 controls, the pooled results indicated that the variant genotypes significantly increased the risk of cancer in homozygote comparison (TT versus CC: P = 0.012, OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81, Phet. = 0.575), and recessive model (TT versus CT/CC: P = 0.012, OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81, Phet. = 0.562). This was confirmed when stratified analyses were conducted according to ethnicity, source of control, matched control, quality score and cancer types. Moreover, significantly increased risk of cancer was also found in lung cancer (heterozygote comparison and dominant model). The stability of these observations was confirmed by a sensitivity analysis. Begger's funnel plot and Egger's test did not reveal any publication bias. Conclusions/Significance This meta-analysis suggests that the GSTP1 341C

  11. Identification and characteristics of the structural gene for the Drosophila eye colour mutant sepia, encoding PDA synthase, a member of the omega class glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaekwang; Suh, Hyunsuk; Kim, Songhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Ahn, Chiyoung; Yim, Jeongbin

    2006-09-15

    The eye colour mutant sepia (se1) is defective in PDA {6-acetyl-2-amino-3,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrimido[4,5-b]-[1,4]diazepin-4-one or pyrimidodiazepine} synthase involved in the conversion of 6-PTP (2-amino-4-oxo-6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine; also known as 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin) into PDA, a key intermediate in drosopterin biosynthesis. However, the identity of the gene encoding this enzyme, as well as its molecular properties, have not yet been established. Here, we identify and characterize the gene encoding PDA synthase and show that it is the structural gene for sepia. Based on previously reported information [Wiederrecht, Paton and Brown (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 2195-2200; Wiederrecht and Brown (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14121-14127; Andres (1945) Drosoph. Inf. Serv. 19, 45; Ingham, Pinchin, Howard and Ish-Horowicz (1985) Genetics 111, 463-486; Howard, Ingham and Rushlow (1988) Genes Dev. 2, 1037-1046], we isolated five candidate genes predicted to encode GSTs (glutathione S-transferases) from the presumed sepia locus (region 66D5 on chromosome 3L). All cloned and expressed candidates exhibited relatively high thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities and low activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, characteristic of Omega class GSTs, whereas only CG6781 catalysed the synthesis of PDA in vitro. The molecular mass of recombinant CG6781 was estimated to be 28 kDa by SDS/PAGE and 56 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that it is a homodimer under native conditions. Sequencing of the genomic region spanning CG6781 revealed that the se1 allele has a frameshift mutation from 'AAGAA' to 'GTG' at nt 190-194, and that this generates a premature stop codon. Expression of the CG6781 open reading frame in an se1 background rescued the eye colour defect as well as PDA synthase activity and drosopterins content. The extent of rescue was dependent on the dosage of transgenic CG6781. In conclusion, we have discovered a new catalytic

  12. Glutathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype could aggravate DEP-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. Given the critical role airway epithelial cells play in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, we established the GSTM1 deficiency condition in primary bronchial epithelial cells from human volunteers with GSTM1 sufficient genotype (GSTM1+) using GSTM1 shRNA to determine whether GSTM1 deficiency could exaggerate DEP-induced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-1β proteins. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying GSTM1 regulation of DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression were also investigated. Methods IL-8 and IL-1β protein levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GSTM1 deficiency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells was achieved using lentiviral GSTM1 shRNA particles and verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was detected using immunoblotting. Results Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (GSTM1+) to 25-100 μg/ml DEP for 24 h significantly increased IL-8 and IL-1β protein expression. Knockdown of GSTM1 in these cells further elevated DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression, implying that GSTM1 deficiency aggravated DEP-induced pro-inflammatory response. DEP stimulation induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, the downstream kinase of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in GSTM1+ bronchial epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK kinase and PI3K activity blocked DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression. DEP-induced ERK and Akt

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase P1 and M1 genes and overall survival of patients with ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma treated with chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    CONG, LAN-XIANG; ZHAI, XIANG-HONG; WU, FENG-XIA; ZHU, DONG-YI; WANG, AN-CONG

    2016-01-01

    The effects of platinum-based drugs are controlled by genes that are involved in DNA detoxification, including glutathione S-transferase (GST)P1 and GSTM1, which have been associated with increased benefits in the chemotherapeutic treatment of patients with ovarian cancer. The present study assessed the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in GST genes on the overall survival (OS) of patients with ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma that were treated with chemotherapy. A total of 95 patients received treatment with a carboplatin-based or alternative chemotherapy. Polymorphisms in the patients were genotyped using the following methods: Pyrosequencing, to identify GSTP1 Ile105Val; a relative quantification method, to identify the copy number variation in GSTM1; and polymerase chain reaction followed by gel electrophoresis, to identify the null vs. non-null genotypes of GSTM1. The association between genotypes and OS of patients was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. The OS of patients treated with paclitaxel + carboplatin-based chemotherapy was significantly increased, compared with patients treated with alternative forms of chemotherapy (P=0.035). The OS of patients did not differ significantly between different GSTP1 genotypes (log-rank test, P=0.17). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that, since the start of the treatment, there was not a significant association between the GSTP1 isoleucine allele and the OS for heterozygous carriers of the isoleucine allele [hazards ratio (HR), 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77–4.12; P=0.18] and no homozygous carriers of the valine allele had been detected (HR, 0.00). There was no significant difference between GSTM1 genotypes, according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (log-rank test, P=0.83). Patients that possessed ≤1 copy of GSTM1 exhibited no decrease in OS (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.37–2.51; P=0.94), compared with patients that

  14. Optimization and revision of the production process of the Necator americanus glutathione S-transferase 1 (Na-GST-1), the lead hookworm vaccine recombinant protein candidate

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Elena; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa; Center, Lori; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Kwityn, Cliff; Hammond, Molly; Matsunami, Rise K; Engler, David A; Hotez, Peter J; Elena Bottazzi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Infection by the human hookworm Necator americanus is a leading cause of anemia and disability in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. In order to prevent childhood hookworm disease in resource poor settings, a recombinant vaccine is under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, a Product Development Partnership (PDP). Previously, we reported on the expression and purification of a highly promising hookworm vaccine candidate, Na-GST-1, an N. americanus glutathione s-transferase expressed in Pichia pastoris (yeast), which led to production of 1.5 g of 95% pure recombinant protein at a 20L scale.1, 2, 3 This yield and purity of Na-GST-1 was sufficient for early pilot manufacturing and initial phase 1 clinical testing. However, based on the number of doses which would be required to allow mass vaccination and a potential goal to deliver a vaccine as inexpensively as possible, a higher yield of expression of the recombinant antigen at the lowest possible cost is highly desirable. Here we report on modifications to the fermentation (upstream process) of the antigen expressed in P. pastoris, and to the purification (downstream process) of the recombinant protein that allowed for a 2–3-fold improvement in the final yield of Na-GST-1 purified protein. The major improvements included upstream process changes such as the addition of a sorbitol pulse and co-feed during methanol induction as well as an extension of the induction stage to approximately 96 hours; downstream process changes included modifying the UFDF to flat sheet with a 10 kDa Molecular Weight cut-off (MWCO), adjusting the capacity of an ion-exchange chromatography step utilizing a gradient elution as opposed to the original step elution, and altering the hydrophobic interaction chromatography conditions. The full process, as well as the purity and stability profiles of the target Na-GST-1, and its formulation on

  15. Glutathione S-transferase class mu regulation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 protein during VCD-induced ovotoxicity in neonatal rat ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Madden, Jill A.; Sen, Nivedita; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2013-02-15

    4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian primordial and small primary follicles via apoptosis. In mice, VCD exposure induces ovarian mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) family members, including isoform mu (Gstm). Extra-ovarian GSTM negatively regulates pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) through protein complex formation, which dissociates during stress, thereby initiating ASK1-induced apoptosis. The present study investigated the ovarian response of Gstm mRNA and protein to VCD. Induction of Ask1 mRNA at VCD-induced follicle loss onset was determined. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was investigated and VCD exposure effects thereon evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) regulation of GSTM protein was also studied. Postnatal day (PND) 4 rat ovaries were cultured in control media ± 1) VCD (30 μM) for 2–8 days; 2) VCD (30 μM) for 2 days, followed by incubation in control media for 4 days (acute VCD exposure); or 3) LY294002 (20 μM) for 6 days. VCD exposure did not alter Gstm mRNA expression, however, GSTM protein increased (P < 0.05) after 6 days of both the acute and chronic treatments. Ask1 mRNA increased (0.33-fold; P < 0.05) relative to control after 6 days of VCD exposure. Ovarian GSTM:ASK1 protein complex formation was confirmed and, relative to control, the amount of GSTM bound to ASK1 increased 33% (P < 0.05) by chronic but with no effect of acute VCD exposure. PI3K inhibition increased (P < 0.05) GSTM protein by 40% and 71% on d4 and d6, respectively. These findings support involvement of GSTM in the ovarian response to VCD exposure, through regulation of pro-apoptotic ASK1. - Highlights: ► GSTM protein increases in response to ovarian VCD exposure. ► VCD increases Ask1 mRNA at the onset of follicle loss. ► Ovarian GSTM binds more ASK1 protein during VCD-induced ovotoxicity. ► PI3K regulates ovarian GSTM protein.

  16. Molecular cloning and expression study of pi-class glutathione S-transferase (pi-GST) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx) transcripts in the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Doyen, Périne; Bigot, Aurélie; Vasseur, Paule; Rodius, François

    2008-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPx) are essential components of cellular detoxification systems. We identified GST and GPx transcripts in the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha, their full-length coding sequences were obtained by reverse-transcription PCR using degenerated primers followed by 5' and 3' RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR). The cDNA identified encoded proteins of 205 and 243 amino acids corresponding respectively to a pi-class GST and a selenium-dependent GPx. The comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with GST and GPx from other species showed that the residues essential to the enzymatic function of these two proteins are highly conserved. We studied their expression pattern in the digestive gland, the gills and the excretory system of D. polymorpha. The results showed that pi-GST mRNA expression is higher in the digestive gland than in the gills or the excretory system. Se-GPx transcripts are expressed at high, medium and very low levels in the digestive gland, the excretory system and the gills, respectively.

  17. JS-K, a glutathione/glutathione S-transferase-activated nitric oxide donor of the diazeniumdiolate class with potent antineoplastic activity.

    PubMed

    Shami, Paul J; Saavedra, Joseph E; Wang, Lai Y; Bonifant, Challice L; Diwan, Bhalchandra A; Singh, Shivendra V; Gu, Yijun; Fox, Stephen D; Buzard, Gregory S; Citro, Michael L; Waterhouse, David J; Davies, Keith M; Ji, Xinhua; Keefer, Larry K

    2003-04-01

    We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits growth and induces differentiation and apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells, with the HL-60 human myeloid leukemia line being particularly sensitive to NO-mediated cytolysis. With the goal of identifying a prodrug that can target NO to the leukemia cells without inducing NO-mediated systemic hypotension, we have screened a series of O(2)-aryl diazeniumdiolates designed to be stable at physiological pH but to release NO upon reaction with glutathione. O(2)-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K) proved to be the most active antiproliferative agent among those tested in HL-60 cells, with an IC(50) of 0.2-0.5 microM. After 5 days of exposure to 0.5 micro M JS-K, HL-60 cells had differentiated and acquired some of the phenotypic features of normal monocytes. One- to 2-day treatment with JS-K at concentrations of 0.5-1 microM resulted in apoptosis induction in a concentration- and caspase-dependent manner. JS-K also inhibited the growth of solid tumor cell lines but to a lesser extent than HL-60 cells. JS-K was administered i.v. to nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient mice at doses of up to 4 micromol/kg without inducing significant hypotension. The growth of s.c. implanted HL-60 cells was reduced by approximately 50% when the mice received i.v. injections three times/week with 4 micromol/kg boluses of JS-K. Histological examination of tumor explants from JS-K-treated animals revealed extensive necrosis. Similar results were seen with s.c. human prostate cancer (PPC-1) xenografts. Our data indicate that JS-K is a promising lead compound for the possible development of a novel class of antineoplastic agents.

  18. Enhanced glutathione depletion, protein adduct formation, and cytotoxicity following exposure to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) in cells expressing human multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1) together with human glutathione S-transferase-M1 (GSTM1)

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Lisa P.; Kabler, Sandra L.; Morrow, Charles S.; Townsend, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is one of the most reactive products of lipid peroxidation and has both cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in cells. Several enzymatic pathways have been reported to detoxify HNE, including conjugation by glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs). Removal of the resulting HNE-glutathione conjugate (HNE-SG) by an efflux transporter may required for complete detoxification. We investigated the effect of expression of GSTM1 and/or the ABC efflux transporter protein, multidrug-resistance protein-1 (MRP1), on HNE-induced cellular toxicity. Stably transfected MCF7 cell lines were used to examine the effect of GSTM1 and/or MRP1 expression on HNE-induced cytotoxicity, GSH depletion, and HNE-protein adduct formation. Co-expression in the MCF7 cell line of GSTM1 with MRP1 resulted in a 2.3-fold sensitization to HNE cytotoxicity (0.44-fold IC50 value relative to control) rather than the expected protection. Expression of either GSTM1 or MRP1 alone also resulted in slight sensitization to HNE cytotoxicity (0.79-fold and 0.71-fold decreases in IC50 values, respectively). Co-expression of GSTM1 and MRP1 strongly enhanced the formation of HNE-protein adducts relative to the non-expressing control cell line, whereas expression of either MRP1 alone or GSTM1 alone yielded similarly low levels of HNE-protein adducts to that of the control cell line. Glutathione (GSH) levels were reduced by 10–20% in either the control cell line or the MCF7/GSTM1 cell line with the same HNE exposure for 60 minutes. However, HNE induced > 80% depletion of GSH in cells expressing MRP1 alone. Co-expression of both MRP1 and GSTM1 caused slightly greater GSH depletion, consistent with the greater protein adduct formation and cytotoxicity in this cell line. Since expression of GSTM1 or MRP1 alone did not strongly sensitize cells to HNE, or result in greater HNE-protein adducts than in the control cell line, these results indicate that MRP1 and GSTM1 collaborate to enhance HNE-protein adduct

  19. [Adaptation of methods for quantification of the effect of esterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-S-transferase in Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)].

    PubMed

    Diaz, Cristina; Alvarez, Yudelmis; de Armas, Yaxier; Bisset, Juan A

    2006-01-01

    The resistance mechanisms of Blatella germanica, one of the most important urban plagues worldwide since it is a mechanical vector that houses a number of highly harmful viruses, fungi, helmints and bacteria were studied. There are different control methods used against Blattella germnanica, with insecticides playing the leading role. Their uncontrolled application has caused the development of insecticice resistance in this species. This paper adapted biochemical methods to detect the enzymes esterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathine-S-transferase as posible resistance mechanisms. To this end, all the parameters that allow finding out if a strain is susceptible or resistant to each mechanism were set.

  20. Use of acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 1A1 in Capoeta umbla as biomarkers for monitoring of pollution in Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Nuran Cikcikoglu; Yildirim, Numan; Danabas, Durali; Danabas, Seval

    2014-05-01

    Uzuncayir Dam Lake is one of the most important water bodies in Tunceli. It is polluted by domestic wastewaters together with natural contamination and pesticides, which have had cumulatively negative effects. This study analyzes the effects of pollution by using the fish species, Capoeta umbla as a sentinel species, with a biomarker approach. The approach comprehends a general biomarker of individual fish health, the condition factor and specific biomarkers of contaminant exposure such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The general water physico-chemical parameters were measured at each sampling sites during each fish-sampling period. Strong seasonal and locational variations were observed among selected markers. In conclusion, the multibiomarker approach used in the present study clearly revealed differences in the fish health among reference and potentially contaminated sites. The study shows that changes of biomarkers such as acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 1A1 might be useful for the assessment of environmental contamination in the Uzuncayir Dam Lake (Tunceli, Turkey).

  1. Rat glutathione S-transferase M4-4: an isoenzyme with unique structural features including a redox-reactive cysteine-115 residue that forms mixed disulphides with glutathione.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, H; Tchaikovskaya, T; Tu, Y S; Chapman, J; Qian, B; Ching, W M; Tien, M; Rowe, J D; Patskovsky, Y V; Listowsky, I; Tu, C P

    2001-01-01

    Although the existence of the rat glutathione S-transferase (GST) M4 (rGSTM4) gene has been known for some time, the corresponding protein has not as yet been purified from tissue. A recombinant rGSTM4-4 was thus expressed in Escherichia coli from a chemically synthesized rGSTM4 gene. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of rGSTM4-4 for the 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) conjugation reaction was 50-180-fold less than that of the well-characterized homologous rGSTM1-1, and the pH optimum for the same reaction was 8.5 for rGSTM4-4 as opposed to 6.5 for rGSTM1-1. Molecular-modelling studies predict that key substitutions in the helix alpha4 region of rGSTM4-4 account for this pK(a) difference. A notable structural feature of rGSTM4-4 is the Cys-115 residue in place of the Tyr-115 of other Mu-class GSTs. The thiol group of Cys-115 is redox-reactive and readily forms a mixed disulphide even with GSH; the S-glutathiolated form of the enzyme is catalytically active. A mutated rGSTM4-4 (C115Y) had 6-10-fold greater catalytic efficiency than the wild-type rGSTM4-4. Trp-45, a conserved residue among Mu-class GSTs, is essential in rGSTM4-4 for both enzyme activity and binding to glutathione affinity matrices. Antibodies directed against either the unique C-terminal undecapeptide or tridecapeptide of rGSTM4 reacted with rat and mouse liver GSTs to reveal an orthologous mouse GSTM4-4 present at low basal levels but which is inducible in mouse liver. This subclass of rodent Mu GSTs with redox-active Cys-115 residues could have specialized physiological functions in response to oxidative stress. PMID:11368767

  2. Impacts on silkworm larvae midgut proteomics by transgenic Trichoderma strain and analysis of glutathione S-transferase sigma 2 gene essential for anti-stress response of silkworm larvae.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingying; Dou, Kai; Gao, Shigang; Sun, Jianan; Wang, Meng; Fu, Kehe; Yu, Chuanjin; Wu, Qiong; Li, Yaqian; Chen, Jie

    2015-08-03

    Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that have major impacts on humans as agriculture pests. The midgut is considered an important target for insect control. In the present study, 10 up-regulated, 18 down-regulated, and one newly emerged protein were identified in the transgenic Trichoderma-treated midgut proteome. Proteins related to stress response, biosynthetic process, and metabolism process were further characterized through quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Of all the identified proteins, the glutathione S-transferase sigma 2 (GSTs2) gene displayed enhanced expression when larvae were fed with Trichoderma wild-type or transgenic strains. Down regulation of GSTs2 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in inhibition of silkworm growth when larvae were fed with mulberry leaves treated with the transgenic Trichoderma strain. Weight per larva decreased by 18.2%, 11.9%, and 10.7% in the untreated control, ddH2O, and GFP dsRNA groups, respectively, at 24h, while the weight decrease was higher at 42.4%, 28.8% and 32.4% at 72 h after treatment. Expression of glutathione S-transferase omega 2 (GSTo2) was also enhanced when larvae were fed with mulberry leaves treated with the transgenic Trichoderma strain. These results indicated that there was indeed correlation between enhanced expression of GSTs2 and the anti-stress response of silkworm larvae against Trichoderma. This study represents the first attempt at understanding the effects of transgenic organisms on the midgut proteomic changes in silkworm larvae. Our findings could not only broaden the biological control targets of insect at the molecular level, but also provide a theoretical foundation for biological safety evaluation of the transgenic Trichoderma strain.

  3. Indigofera suffruticosa Mill extracts up-regulate the expression of the π class of glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 in rat Clone 9 liver cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Liu, Chin-San; Li, Chien-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Liu, Te-Chung; Chen, Haw-Wen; Chen, Pei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Ling; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Liu, Kai-Li

    2013-09-01

    Because induction of phase II detoxification enzyme is important for chemoprevention, we study the effects of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill, a medicinal herb, on the expression of π class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in rat Clone 9 liver cells. Both water and ethanolic extracts of I. suffruticosa significantly increased the expression and enzyme activities of GSTP and NQO1. I. suffruticosa extracts up-regulated GSTP promoter activity and the binding affinity of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) with the GSTP enhancer I oligonucleotide. Moreover, I. suffruticosa extracts increased nuclear Nrf2 accumulation as well as ARE transcriptional activity. The level of phospho-ERK was augmented by I. suffruticosa extracts, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059 abolished the I. suffruticosa extract-induced ERK activation and GSTP and NQO-1 expression. Moreover, I. suffruticosa extracts, especially the ethanolic extract increased the glutathione level in mouse liver and red blood cells as well as Clone 9 liver cells. The efficacy of I. suffruticosa extracts in induction of phase II detoxification enzymes and glutathione content implies that I. suffruticosa could be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent.

  4. Combined expression of multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1) in MCF7 cells and high level resistance to the cytotoxicities of ethacrynic acid but not oxazaphosphorines or cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Morrow, C S; Smitherman, P K; Townsend, A J

    1998-10-15

    We tested the hypothesis that combined increased expression of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1), an enzyme that catalyzes the conjugation with glutathione of several toxic electrophiles, and the glutathione-conjugate efflux pump, multidrug resistance protein (MRP), confers high level resistance to the cytotoxicities of anticancer and other drugs. To accomplish this, we developed MCF7 breast carcinoma cell derivatives that express high levels of GSTP1-1 and MRP, alone and in combination. Parental MCF7 cells, which express no GSTP1-1 and negligible MRP, served as control cells. We found that either MRP or GSTP1-1 alone conferred significant resistance to ethacrynic acid cytotoxicity. Moreover, combined expression of GSTP1-1 and MRP conferred a high level of resistance to ethacrynic acid that was greater than resistance conferred by either protein alone. Increased MRP was also associated with modest resistance to the oxazaphosphorine compounds mafosfamide, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. However, coordinated expression of GSTP1-1 with MRP failed to augment this modest resistance. Similarly, GSTP1-1 had no effect on the sensitivities to cisplatin of MCF7 cells regardless of MRP expression. These results establish that coordinated expression of MRP and GSTP1-1 can confer high level resistance to the cytotoxicities of some drugs, including ethacrynic acid, but that such resistance is variable and does not apply to all toxic drugs that can potentially form glutathione conjugates in either spontaneous or GSTP1-1-catalyzed reactions.

  5. Inhibition of glutathione S-transferase activity in human melanoma cells by alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl derivatives. Effects of acrolein, cinnamaldehyde, citral, crotonaldehyde, curcumin, ethacrynic acid, and trans-2-hexenal.

    PubMed

    Iersel, M L; Ploemen, J P; Struik, I; van Amersfoort, C; Keyzer, A E; Schefferlie, J G; van Bladeren, P J

    1996-10-21

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in intact human IGR-39 melanoma cells was determined by the quantification by HPLC-analysis of the excreted glutathione (GSH) conjugate (S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione; DNPSG). The major GST subunit expressed in these melanoma cells is the pi-class GST subunit P1. Using this system, the effect of exposure for 1 h to a series of alpha, beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds at non-toxic concentrations was studied. Curcumin was the most potent inhibitor (96% inhibition at 25 microM), while 67 and 61% inhibition at 25 microM was observed for ethacrynic acid and trans-2-hexenal, respectively. Moderate inhibition was observed for cinnamaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, while no inhibition was found for citral. The reactive acrolein did not inhibit the DNPSG-excretion at 2.5 microM, the highest non-toxic concentration. Up to about 50% GSH-depletion was found after treatment with crotonaldehyde, curcumin and ethacrynic acid, however the consequences for GST conjugation are presumably small. Reversible inhibition of GST was the major mechanism of inhibition of DNPSG-excretion in melanoma cells, except in the cases of curcumin and ethacrynic acid, which compounds also inactivated GSTP1-1 by covalent modification. This was clear from the fact that depending on the dose between 30 and 80% inhibition was still observed after lysis of the cells, under which conditions reversible inhibition was is absent. Intracellular levels of DNPSG remained relatively high in the case of ethacrynic acid. It is possible that ethacrynic acid also inhibits the transport of DNPSG by inhibition of the multidrug resistance-associated protein gene encoding glutathione conjugate export pump (MRP/GS-X pump) in some way.

  6. Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of one Epsilon-class (GST-3) and ten Delta-class (GST-1) glutathione S-transferases from Drosophila melanogaster, and identification of additional nine members of the Epsilon class.

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Rafał; Singh, Sharda P; Mondal, Ashis K; Benes, Helen; Zimniak, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    From the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, ten members of the cluster of Delta-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; formerly denoted as Class I GSTs) and one member of the Epsilon-class cluster (formerly GST-3) have been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and their catalytic properties have been determined. In addition, nine more members of the Epsilon cluster have been identified through bioinformatic analysis but not further characterized. Of the 11 expressed enzymes, seven accepted the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal as substrate, and nine were active in glutathione conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Since the enzymically active proteins included the gene products of DmGSTD3 and DmGSTD7 which were previously deemed to be pseudogenes, we investigated them further and determined that both genes are transcribed in Drosophila. Thus our present results indicate that DmGSTD3 and DmGSTD7 are probably functional genes. The existence and multiplicity of insect GSTs capable of conjugating 4-hydroxynonenal, in some cases with catalytic efficiencies approaching those of mammalian GSTs highly specialized for this function, indicates that metabolism of products of lipid peroxidation is a highly conserved biochemical pathway with probable detoxification as well as regulatory functions. PMID:12443531

  7. Glutathione S-transferase can be used as a C-terminal, enzymatically active dimerization module for a recombinant protease inhibitor, and functionally secreted into the periplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Tudyka, T.; Skerra, A.

    1997-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum, which is widely used for the production of fusion proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, was employed as a functional fusion module that effects dimer formation of a recombinant protein and confers enzymatic reporter activity at the same time. For this purpose GST was linked via a flexible spacer to the C-terminus of the thiol-protease inhibitor cystatin, whose binding properties for papain were to be studied. The fusion protein was secreted into the bacterial periplasm by means of the OmpA signal peptide to ensure formation of the two disulfide bonds in cystatin. The formation of wrong crosslinks in the oxidizing milieu was prevented by replacing three of the four exposed cysteine residues in GST. Using the tetracycline promoter for tightly controlled gene expression the soluble fusion protein could be isolated from the periplasmic protein fraction. Purification to homogeneity was achieved in one step by means of an affinity column with glutathione agarose. Alternatively, the protein was isolated via streptavidin affinity chromatography after the Strep-tag had been appended to its C terminus. The GST moiety of the fusion protein was enzymatically active and the kinetic parameters were determined using glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrates. Furthermore, strong binding activity for papain was detected in an ELISA. The signal with the cystatin-GST fusion protein was much higher than with cystatin itself, demonstrating an avidity effect due to the dimer formation of GST. The quaternary structure was further confirmed by chemical crosslinking, which resulted in a specific reaction product with twice the molecular size. Thus, engineered GST is suitable as a moderately sized, secretion-competent fusion partner that can confer bivalency to a protein of interest and promote detection of binding interactions even in cases of low affinity. PMID:9336840

  8. Endothelial glutathione-S-transferase A4-4 protects against oxidative stress and modulates iNOS expression through NF-{kappa}B translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yongzhen; Yang Yusong; Xu Ya; Lick, Scott D.; Awasthi, Yogesh C.; Boor, Paul J.

    2008-07-15

    Our recent work in endothelial cells and human atherosclerotic plaque showed that overexpression of glutathione-S-tranferases (GSTs) in endothelium protects against oxidative damage from aldehydes such as 4-HNE. Nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B plays a crucial role during inflammation and immune responses by regulating the expression of inducible genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). 4-HNE induces apoptosis and affects NF-{kappa}B mediated gene expression, but conflicting results on 4-HNE's effect on NF-{kappa}B have been reported. We compared the effect of 4-HNE on iNOS and the NF-{kappa}B pathway in control mouse pancreatic islet endothelial (MS1) cells and those transfected with mGSTA4, a {alpha}-class GST with highest activity toward 4-HNE. When treated with 4-HNE, mGSTA4-transfected cells showed significant upregulation of iNOS and nitric oxide (NO) through (NF)-{kappa}B (p65) translocation in comparison with wild-type or vector-transfected cells. Immunohistochemical studies of early human plaques showed lower 4-HNE content and upregulation of iNOS, which we take to indicate that GSTA4-4 induction acts as an enzymatic defense against high levels of 4-HNE, since 4-HNE accumulated in more advanced plaques, when detoxification and exocytotic mechanisms are likely to be overwhelmed. These studies suggest that GSTA4-4 may play an important defensive role against atherogenesis through detoxification of 4-HNE and upregulation of iNOS.

  9. The C-Terminus of Glutathione S-Transferase A1-1 Is Required for Entropically-Driven Ligand Binding†

    PubMed Central

    Nieslanik, Brenda S.; Ibarra, Catherine; Atkins, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Binding of a hydrophobic glutathione product conjugate to rGST A1-1 proceeds via a two-step mechanism, including rapid ligand docking, followed by a slow isomerization to the final [GST·ligand] complex, which involves the localization of the flexible C-terminal helix. These kinetically resolved steps have been observed previously by stopped-flow fluorescence with the wild-type rGST A1-1, which contains a native Trp-21 approximately 20 Å from the ligand binding site at the intrasubunit domain–domain interface. To confirm this binding mechanism, as well as elucidate the effects of truncation of the C-terminus, we have further characterized the binding and dissociation of the glutathione–ethacrynic acid product conjugate (GS-EA) to wild-type, F222W:W21F, and Δ209–222 rGST A1-1 and wild-type hGST A1-1. Although modest kinetic differences were observed between the hGST A1-1 and rGST A1-1, stopped-flow binding studies with GS-EA verified that the two-step mechanism of ligand binding is not unique to the GST A1-1 isoform from rat. An F222W:W21F rGST A1-1 double mutant provides a direct fluorescence probe of changes in the environment of the C-terminal residue. The observation of two relaxation times during ligand binding and dissociation to F222W:W21F suggests that the C-terminus has an intermediate conformation following ligand docking, which is distinct from its conformation in the apoenzyme or localized helical state. For the wild-type, Δ209–222, and F222W:W21F proteins, variable-temperature stopped-flow experiments were performed and activation parameters calculated for the individual steps of the binding reaction. Activation parameters for the binding reaction coordinate illustrate that the C-terminus provides a significant entropic contribution to ligand binding, which is completely realized within the initial docking step of the binding mechanism. In contrast, the slow isomerization step is enthalpically driven. The partitioning of entropic and

  10. Biochemical effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content on teleostean fishes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-09-01

    Effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 at a dose of 17.20mg/l on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content were measured in different tissues of two Indian air-breathing teleosts, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) during an exposure period of 30 days under laboratory condition. AChE activity was significantly increased in all the investigated tissues of both fish species and maximum elevation was observed in brain of H. fossilis, while spinal cord of A. testudineus showed minimum increment. Fishes showed significant increase LPO levels in all the tissues; highest was observed in gill of A. testudineus but lowest LPO level was observed in muscle of H. fossilis. CAT was also enhanced in both the fishes, while GST activity in liver diminished substantially and minimum was observed in liver of A. testudineus. Total protein content showed decreased value in all the tissues, maximum reduction was observed in liver and minimum in brain of A. testudineus and H. fossilis respectively. The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused serious alterations in the enzyme activities resulting into severe deterioration of fish health; so, AChE, LPO, CAT and GST can be used as suitable indicators of herbicidal toxicity.

  11. Effects of Dietary Pb and Cd and Their Combination on Glutathion-S-Transferase and Catalase Enzyme Activities in Digestive Gland and Foot of the Green Garden Snail, Cantareus apertus (Born, 1778).

    PubMed

    Mleiki, Anwar; Marigómez, Ionan; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

    2015-06-01

    The present study was focused on the assessment of glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in the digestive gland and foot of the land snail, Cantareus apertus (Born, 1778), exposed to different nominal dietary concentrations of Pb (25 and 2500 mg Pb/Kg), Cd (5 and 100 mg Cd/Kg) and their combination (25 mg Pb + 5 mg Cd/Kg and 2500 mg Pb + 100 mg Cd/Kg) for 7 and 60 days. GST activity was significantly increased after 7 and 60 days exposure to the highest concentration of Pb, Cd and their combination. The levels of CAT activity were different in the two studied organs but in both cases it resulted increased after 7 and 60 days of exposure, which varied significantly between metals and dietary concentrations. Therefore, it can be concluded that GST and CAT enzymes in digestive gland and foot of C. apertus are responsive to Cd, Pb and their combination, whereby they are suitable to be included in a battery of biomarkers for ecosystem health assessment in metal polluted soils using this species as sentinel.

  12. Crystal structure of a class-mu glutathione S-transferase from whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: structural changes in the xenobiotic binding H-site may alter the spectra of molecules bound.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Martínez, Ariadna B; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are dimeric proteins that play a key role in phase II cellular detoxification. Here, the first crystal structure of a GST class-mu from marine crustacean shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is reported at a resolution of 2.0 Å. The coordinates reported here have the lowest sequence identity with previously reported GSTs class-mu deposited at the Protein Data Bank (PDB), although they have subtle conformational differences. One key feature of GST class-mu from L. vannamei is the active site crevice markedly reduced when it is compared with other GSTs class-mu. This finding together with the chemical change of residues into the cavity (F112 and Y210) points to a particular specialization in which smallest xenobiotics with nonstandard chemical characteristics can be bound to the H-site. This suggests that marine organisms have evolved structural strategies to provide efficient selectivity toward xenobiotics to be disposed of by the phase II detoxification process.

  13. Novel oxadiazole analogues derived from ethacrynic acid: design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships in inhibiting the activity of glutathione S-transferase P1-1 and cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmei; Liu, Guyue; Li, Hongcai; Zhang, Yun; Song, Dandan; Li, Chunmin; Wang, Rui; Liu, Bo; Liang, Wen; Jing, Yongkui; Zhao, Guisen

    2010-02-11

    Ethacrynic acid (EA) is a glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GST P1-1) inhibitor with weak antiproliferative ability in tumor cells. By use of the principle of bioisosterism, a series of novel EA oxadiazole analogues were designed and synthesized. The structure-activity relationships of inhibiting GST P1-1 activity and cell proliferation of those EA analogues were investigated in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Our data revealed that those EA oxadiazole analogues had improved antiproliferative activity and most of them had similar or better inhibitory effects on GST P1-1 activity than EA. Compound 6u was one of the potent antiproliferative agents without inhibition of GST P1-1 activity. Compounds 6r and 6s were two potent cell growth inhibitors in several solid tumor cell lines with the concentrations inhibiting half of cell growth of less than 5 microM. Our data suggest that these EA oxadiazole analogues are promising antitumor agents that may act through GST P1-1 inhibition-dependent and/or -independent pathways.

  14. Effects of neem flowers, Thai and Chinese bitter gourd fruits and sweet basil leaves on hepatic monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferase activities, and in vitro metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens in rats.

    PubMed

    Kusamran, W R; Ratanavila, A; Tepsuwan, A

    1998-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding of four vegetables commonly consumed in Thailand, namely, flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica var. siamensis), fruits of Thai and the Chinese bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) and leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn) on the levels of phase I enzymes, which include cytochrome P450 (P450), aniline hydroxylase (ANH) and aminopyrine-N-demethylase (AMD) as well as the capacity to activate the mutagenicities of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and to induce the phase II enzymes [i.e. glutathione S-transferase (GST)] in rat liver. It was found that feeding of the diets containing 12.5% neem flowers and Thai bitter gourd fruits for 2 weeks strongly enhanced GST activity, 2.7- and 1.6- fold of the pair-fed control values, respectively, while resulting in a marked reduction of the levels of most phase I reactions. Fruits of the Chinese bitter gourd, which is in the same species as Thai bitter gourd, had no effect on GST activity but decreased AMD activity and the in vitro metabolic activation of AFB1 and BaP. On the other hand, however, dietary sweet basil leaves caused a significant increase in the levels of both GST and all phase I enzymes. Results in the present study clearly demonstrate that neem flowers and Thai bitter gourd fruits contain monofunctional phase II enzyme inducers and compounds capable of repressing some monooxygenases, especially those involved in the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens, while sweet basil leaves contain compounds, probably bifunctional inducers, capable of inducing both phase I and phase II enzymes and Chinese bitter gourd fruits contain only compounds capable of repressing some monooxygenases. These results therefore suggest that neem flowers and Thai bitter gourd fruits may possess chemopreventive potential, while those of Chinese bitter gourd fruits and sweet basil leaves are uncertain.

  15. Hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P-450, glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase are affected by six types of dietary fiber in rats inoculated with human whole fecal flora.

    PubMed

    Roland, N; Nugon-Baudon, L; Flinois, J P; Beaune, P

    1994-09-01

    The effects of six different sources of dietary fiber (inulin, wheat brain, carrot, cocoa, pea and oat fiber) on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P-450 (EC 1.14.14.1), glutathione-S-transferase (GSH-T, EC 2.5.1.18) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPG-T, EC 2.4.1.17) were studied using germ-free F344 rats subsequently inoculated with a human whole fecal flora. In the liver, the total concentration of P-450 was significantly lower in the wheat bran-fed group than in the carrot-fed group. The 2E1 form of P-450, involved in nitrosamine metabolism, was enhanced in the carrot-fed group compared with those fed most other types of fiber. Compared with the pea-fed group, rats fed cocoa had a lower constitutive 2C11 form and a higher 1A2 form. A very high concentration of small intestinal 1A1 form--involved in "toxication" reactions--was observed in rats fed cocoa. The specific activity of hepatic GSH-T was significantly higher in rats fed inulin than in all other groups, except the carrot-fed group. In the colon, GSH-T specific activity was twice as high in the oat-fed group as in the wheat bran-fed counterpart. Small intestinal GSH-T activity and hepatic and intestinal UDPG-T activities were unaffected by diet. Results are discussed in relation to potential health benefits.

  16. Increased N7-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts after occupational exposure to pesticides and influence of genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonase-1 and glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martín, Antonio; Altakroni, Bashar; Lozano-Paniagua, David; Margison, Geoffrey P; de Vocht, Frank; Povey, Andrew C; Hernández, Antonio F

    2015-06-01

    There are concerns about genetic risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides as these compounds may damage DNA, resulting in mutations that eventually lead to cancer, neurological, and reproductive adverse health effects. This study assessed DNA damage in intensive agricultural workers exposed to pesticides by determining the levels of N7-methyldeoxyguanosine (N7-MedG), an adduct known to be a robust biomarker of recent exposure to chemical methylating agents. A cohort of 39 plastic greenhouse workers was assessed for changes in lymphocyte DNA N7-MedG levels between low level and high level exposures during the course of a spraying season. The contributions of genetic polymorphisms of the pesticide-metabolizing enzymes paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTM1 and GSTT1, on N7-MedG levels and other potential confounders were also assessed. N7-MedG increased in the period of high pesticide exposure as compared to the low exposure period (0.23 and 0.18 µmol N7-MedG/mol dG for the unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed models, P = 0.02 and 0.08, respectively). Significant decreased levels of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase were observed in the high versus low exposure period in both the unadjusted (2.85 U/g hemoglobin and 213.13 U/L, respectively) and adjusted linear mixed models (2.99 U/g hemoglobin and 230.77 U/L, respectively), indicating pesticide intake. In intensive agriculture workers, higher pesticide exposure increased DNA alkylation levels, further demonstrating the genotoxicity of pesticides in man. In addition, pesticide-exposed individuals with inherited susceptible metabolic genotypes (particularly, null genotype for GSTM1 and the PON1 192R allele) appear to have an increased risk of genotoxic DNA damage. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:437-445, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Protective effect of copy number polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase T1 gene on melanoma risk in presence of CDKN2A mutations, MC1R variants and host-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Chaudru, Valérie; Lo, M T; Lesueur, F; Marian, C; Mohamdi, H; Laud, K; Barrois, M; Chompret, A; Avril, M F; Demenais, F; Bressac-de Paillerets, B

    2009-01-01

    The effect of CDKN2A, the major high-risk melanoma susceptibility gene, has been shown to be modified by host-related phenotypes and variants of MC1R gene. The glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) genes, implicated in detoxification of metabolites after UV exposure, are candidates for modulating CDKN2A penetrance. Few case-control studies have investigated the effect of GSTs on melanoma risk, and have led to controversial results while these genes have not yet been studied in CDKN2A melanoma-prone families. We examined the effect of GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes on melanoma risk in 25 multi-generational melanoma-prone families with CDKN2A mutations, in presence of MC1R gene variants, sun exposure, and host-related phenotypes. These data included 195 genotyped subjects for all studied genes. We applied the GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations) approach to test for the effect of GSTs while adjusting for age, sex and CDKN2A mutation status and including successively MC1R, sun exposure and host factors in the model. No significant effect of null GSTM1 allele and GSTP1 variants (p.I105V, p.A114V) on melanoma risk was found. However, a significant protective effect of carrying >or=1 null GSTT1 allele was shown: OR(adjusted for age,sex,CDKN2A ) = 0.41 (0.18-0.94) and OR(adjusted for age,sex,CDKN2A,MC1R ) = 0.24 (0.15-0.58). Altogether, the factors modifying significantly the melanoma risk associated with CDKN2A mutations (stepwise procedure) were: MC1R and dysplastic nevi (increasing the risk) and GSTT1 (decreasing the risk). This study shows that even when a high-risk gene (CDKN2A) has been identified, multiple genetic modifiers influence melanoma risk.

  18. Genomic Insights into the Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Family of Two Rice Planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Wu; Liang, Qing-Mei; Xu, Yi; Gurr, Geoff M.; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Cheng, Jiaan; Zhu, Zeng-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes control crucial traits for the metabolism of various toxins encountered by insects in host plants and the wider environment, including insecticides. The planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are serious specialist pests of rice throughout eastern Asia. Their capacity to rapidly adapt to resistant rice varieties and to develop resistance to various insecticides has led to severe outbreaks over the last decade. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the genome sequence of N. lugens, we identified for the first time the complete GST gene family of a delphacid insect whilst nine GST gene orthologs were identified from the closely related species S. furcifera. Nilaparvata lugens has 11 GST genes belonging to six cytosolic subclasses and a microsomal class, many fewer than seen in other insects with known genomes. Sigma is the largest GST subclass, and the intron–exon pattern deviates significantly from that of other species. Higher GST gene expression in the N. lugens adult migratory form reflects the higher risk of this life stage in encountering the toxins of non-host plants. After exposure to a sub-lethal dose of four insecticides, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, buprofezin or beta-cypermethrin, more GST genes were upregulated in S. furcifera than in N. lugens. RNA interference targeting two N. lugens GST genes, NlGSTe1 and NlGSTm2, significantly increased the sensitivity of fourth instar nymphs to chlorpyrifos but not to beta-cypermethrin. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first elucidation of the nature of the GST gene family in a delphacid species, offering new insights into the evolution of metabolic enzyme genes in insects. Further, the use of RNA interference to identify the GST genes induced by insecticides illustrates likely mechanisms for the tolerance of these insects. PMID:23457591

  19. Intervention with polyphenol-rich fruit juices results in an elevation of glutathione S-transferase P1 (hGSTP1) protein expression in human leucocytes of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; Liegibel, Ute; Winterhalter, Peter; Bub, Achim; Rechkemmer, Gerhard; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice Louise

    2006-12-01

    Polyphenols are probably antigenotoxic on account of their antioxidant activities and might alter phase I and II enzymes in a way that results in chemoprotection. We investigated the hypothesis that polyphenols enhance expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which increases carcinogen detoxification and thereby provides protection against oxidative stress. HGSTP1 protein expression and GST polymorphisms were determined in leucocytes obtained during an intervention study with healthy subjects consuming two fruit juices in an 8 wk trial (polyphenol-free run in phase, juice intervention phase, washout phase, second juice intervention phase, each treatment regime lasted for 2 wk). The study had originally shown that juice intervention significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage in leucocytes at week 8 (Bub, A., Watzl, B., Blockhaus, M., Briviba, K. et al., J. Nutr. Biochem. 2003, 14, 90-98). We reanalysed the levels of DNA damage based on GST genotypes. We also treated leucocytes in vitro with mixtures of polyphenols and determined cytotoxicity and expression of 96 genes related to drug metabolism. Key results with leucocytes of the intervention study were that the initial content of hGSTP1 protein was first suppressed at weeks 4 and 6. At week 8, however, hGSTP1 protein expression was significantly increased. HGSTP1 protein levels and DNA damage were inversely correlated (p = 0.005), but there was no difference for cells obtained from subjects with hGSTM1*1 and hGSTM1*0 genotypes, nor was there any difference between cells from subjects consuming the two different juices. The treatment of leucocytes with polyphenol mixtures in vitro did not result in modulated GST gene expression or total GST activity, but in an up-regulation of other biotransformation enzymes (e. g., members of the cytochrome P450 and the sulphotransferase family). In conclusion, in vitro treatment of leucocytes led to a modulated mRNA expression of selected genes, not directly related to

  20. Progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to cervical cancer: interactions of cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 EM and glutathione s-transferase GSTM1 null genotypes and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, A. P.; Redman, C. W.; Jones, P. W.; Fryer, A. A.; Gilford, J.; Alldersea, J.; Strange, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The factors that determine progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are unknown. Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for cervical neoplasia, suggesting that polymorphism at detoxicating enzyme loci such as cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 and glutathione S-transferase GSTM1 may determine susceptibility to these cancers. We have studied the frequencies of genotypes at these loci in women suffering low-grade CIN, high-grade CIN and SCC. A non-cancer control group was provided by women with normal cervical histology suffering menorrhagia. Comparison of the frequency distributions of the CYP2D6 PM, HET and EM genotypes (G-->A transition at intron 3/exon 4 and base pair deletion in exon 5) revealed no significant differences between the menorrhagia and SCC groups. Frequency distributions in the menorrhagia group, however, were significantly different (P < 0.04) from those in the low- and high-grade CIN groups. Thus, the proportion of EM was significantly larger (P < 0.03) and of HET generally lower. We found that the frequency of GSTM1 null in the menorrhagia and case groups was not significantly different. Interactive effects of enzyme genotypes with cigarette smoking were studied by comparing the multinomial frequency distributions of CYP2D6 EM/GSTM1 null/smoking over mutually exclusive categories. These showed no significant differences between the menorrhagia group and SCC or low-grade CIN groups. The frequency distribution in high-grade CIN, however, was significantly different to that in the menorrhagia group and in both SCC and low-grade CIN groups. This study was identified, for the first time, an inherited characteristic in women with high-grade CIN who appear to be at reduced risk of SCC. Thus, women with CYP2D6 EM who smoke have increased susceptibility to high-grade CIN but are less likely to progress to SCC, possibly because they effectively detoxify an unidentified chemical involved in mediating disease

  1. Copy number polymorphism of glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 & GSTT1) in susceptibility to lung cancer in a high-risk population from north-east India

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Rakhshan; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, L.C.; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Zomawia, Eric; Verma, Yogesh; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) have been studied intensively for their potential role in lung cancer susceptibility. However, most of the studies on association between the polymorphisms and lung cancer do not distinguish between genotypes with one or two copies of the genes. The present study investigates the gene dosage effects of GSTT1 and GSTM1 copy number and their environmental interactions to examine the association of lung cancer risk with trimodular genotypes of the GSTs in a high-risk population from north-east India. Methods: A total of 154 lung cancer cases and 154 age and sex matched controls from the high risk region of north-east India were analyzed by multiplex real-time PCR to determine the trimodal genotypes (+/+, +/- and -/-) in both the genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1). Results: No significant association and gene dosage effect of GSTM1 gene copy number with lung cancer risk (Ptrend=0.13) were found. However, absence of GSTT1 conferred 68 per cent (OR=0.32;95%CI=0.15-0.71; P=0.005) reduced risk compared to the two copy number of the gene. There was evidence of gene dosage effect of GSTT1 gene (Ptrend=0.006). Tobacco smoking was a major environmental risk factor to lung cancer (OR=3.03;95%CI=1.73-5.31; P<0.001). However, its interaction with null genotype of GSTT1 conferred significant reduced risk to lung cancer (OR=0.30;95%CI=0.10-0.91; P=0.03). Further in only tobacco smokers, null genotype was associated with increased reduced risk [0.03(0.001-0.78)0.03; Ptrend=0.006]. No effect modification of GSTM1 was observed with lung cancer risk by environmental risk factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that absence of GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer and the effect remains unchanged after interaction with smoking. PMID:25027082

  2. Evidence that human class Theta glutathione S-transferase T1-1 can catalyse the activation of dichloromethane, a liver and lung carcinogen in the mouse. Comparison of the tissue distribution of GST T1-1 with that of classes Alpha, Mu and Pi GST in human.

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, P J; Pulford, D J; Harrison, D J; Green, T; Hayes, J D

    1997-01-01

    The cDNA encoding human glutathione S-transferase (GST) T1 has been expressed as two recombinant forms in Escherichia coli that could be purified by affinity chromatography on either IgG-Sepharose or nickel-agarose; one form of the transferase was synthesized from the pALP 1 expression vector as a Staphylococcus aureus protein A fusion, whereas the other form was synthesized from the pET-20b expression vector as a C-terminal polyhistidine-tagged recombinant. The yields of the two purified recombinant proteins from E. coli cultures were approx. 15 mg/l for the protein A fusion and 25 mg/l for the C-terminal polyhistidine-tagged GST T1-1. The purified recombinant proteins were catalytically active, although the protein A fusion was typically only 5-30% as active as the histidine-tagged GST. Both recombinant forms could catalyse the conjugation of glutathione with the model substrates 1,2-epoxy-3-(4'-nitrophenoxy)propane,4-nitrobenzyl chloride and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide but were inactive towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, ethacrynic acid and 1-menaphthyl sulphate. Recombinant human GST T1-1 was found to exhibit glutathione peroxidase activity and could catalyse the reduction of cumene hydroperoxide. In addition, recombinant human GST T1-1 was found to conjugate glutathione with dichloromethane, a pulmonary and hepatic carcinogen in the mouse. Immunoblotting with antibodies raised against different transferase isoenzymes showed that GST T1-1 is expressed in a large number of human organs in a tissue-specific fashion that differs from the pattern of expression of classes Alpha, Mu and Pi GST. Most significantly, GST T1-1 was found in only low levels in human pulmonary soluble extract of cells, suggesting that in man the lung has little capacity to activate the volatile dichloromethane. PMID:9307035

  3. Associations of common copy number variants in glutathione S-transferase mu 1 and D-dopachrome tautomerase-like protein genes with risk of schizophrenia in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Ohnuma, Tohru; Hanzawa, Ryo; Takebayashi, Yuto; Takeda, Mayu; Nishimon, Shohei; Sannohe, Takahiro; Katsuta, Narimasa; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Shibata, Nobuto; Arai, Heii

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative-stress, genetic regions of interest (1p13 and 22q11), and common copy number variations (CNVs) may play roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we confirmed associations between schizophrenia and the common CNVs in the glutathione (GSH)-related genes GSTT1, DDTL, and GSTM1 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of 620 patients with schizophrenia and in 622 controls. No significant differences in GSTT1 copy number distributions were found between patient groups. However, frequencies of characterized CNVs and assumed gain alleles of DDTL and GSTM1 were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia. In agreement with a previous report, the present data indicate that gains in the CNV alleles DDTL and GSTM1 are genetic risk factors in Japanese patients with schizophrenia, and suggest involvement of micro-inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  4. Glycogen debranching enzyme 6 (AGL), enolase 1 (ENOSF1), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase 2 (ENPP2_1), glutathione S-transferase 3 (GSTM3_3) and mannosidase (MAN2B2) metabolism computational network analysis between chimpanzee and human left cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingjun; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Minghu; Huang, Juxiang; Lin, Hong

    2011-12-01

    We identified significantly higher expression of the genes glycogen debranching enzyme 6 (AGL), enolase 1 (ENOSF1), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase 2 (ENPP2_1), glutathione S-transferase 3 (GSTM3_3) and mannosidase (MAN2B2) from human left cerebrums versus chimpanzees. Yet the distinct low- and high-expression AGL, ENOSF1, ENPP2_1, GSTM3_3 and MAN2B2 metabolism networks between chimpanzee and human left cerebrum remain to be elucidated. Here, we constructed low- and high-expression activated and inhibited upstream and downstream AGL, ENOSF1, ENPP2_1, GSTM3_3 and MAN2B2 metabolism network between chimpanzee and human left cerebrum in GEO data set by gene regulatory network inference method based on linear programming and decomposition procedure, under covering AGL, ENOSF1, ENPP2_1, GSTM3_3 and MAN2B2 pathway and matching metabolism enrichment analysis by CapitalBio MAS 3.0 integration of public databases, including Gene Ontology, KEGG, BioCarta, GenMapp, Intact, UniGene, OMIM, etc. Our results show that the AGL, ENOSF1, ENPP2_1, GSTM3_3 and MAN2B2 metabolism network has more activated and less inhibited molecules in chimpanzee, but less activated and more inhibited in the human left cerebrum. We inferred stronger carbohydrate, glutathione and proteoglycan metabolism, ATPase activity, but weaker base excision repair, arachidonic acid and drug metabolism as a result of inducing cell growth in low-expression AGL, ENOSF1, ENPP2_1, GSTM3_3 and MAN2B2 metabolism network of chimpanzee left cerebrum; whereas stronger lipid metabolism, amino acid catabolism, DNA repair but weaker inflammatory response, cell proliferation, glutathione and carbohydrate metabolism as a result of inducing cell differentiation in high-expression AGL, ENOSF1, ENPP2_1, GSTM3_3 and MAN2B2 metabolism network of human left cerebrum. Our inferences are consistent with recent reports and computational activation and inhibition gene number patterns, respectively.

  5. Modification of glutathione S-transferase 3-3 mutants with 2-(S-glutathionyl)-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone. Identification of the C-terminal tryptic fragment as part of the H-site and evidence that 2-(S-glutathionyl)-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone is not specific for cysteine labelling.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J L; Liu, L F; Wang, L Y; Tsai, S P; Hsieh, C H; Hsiao, C D; Tam, M F

    1994-01-01

    A triple mutant of rat liver glutathione S-transferase 3-3 that has all three cysteine residues replaced with serine (CallS) and a quadruple mutant with a Tyr-115 to phenylalanine substitution on CallS (CallSY115F) were reacted with 2-(S-glutathionyl)-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (GS-1,4-TCBQ). The modified proteins were analysed on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source. At an enzyme: GS-1,4-TCBQ ratio of 1:10, the enzymes were modified at multiple sites. Covalent attachment of a single inhibitor on to the protein was achieved by lowering the enzyme: GS-1,4-TCBQ ratio to 1:1. Results from m.s. analyses suggest that the inhibitor on the CallSY115F mutant exists as a glutathionyl dichlorobenzoquinone derivative. The modifiers of the CallS mutants are glutathionyl monochlorobenzoquinone derivatives. Therefore, GS-1,4-TCBQ reacts at a single site on CallSY115F, but probably cross-links two regions on wild-type and CallS mutant. To confirm our observation, CallS was modified with 1-chloro2,4-dinitrobenzene, which specifically labels Tyr-115, before reacting with GS-1,4-TCBQ. The inhibitor formed a glutathionyl dichlorobenzoquinone adduct on the dinitrophenyl-CallS mutant. In addition, the benzoquinone derivative on the protein can be partially removed by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Peptide mapping and sequencing analysis of the GS-1,4-TCBQ-modified CallS mutant revealed that the C-terminal 16-amino-acid fragment is labelled. Molecular modelling suggests the C(5) and C(6) on the benzoquinone ring of the inhibitor interact with the oxygen atoms of Tyr-115 and Ser-209 respectively. PMID:7818487

  6. Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Noctor, Graham; Queval, Guillaume; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione is a simple sulfur compound composed of three amino acids and the major non-protein thiol in many organisms, including plants. The functions of glutathione are manifold but notably include redox-homeostatic buffering. Glutathione status is modulated by oxidants as well as by nutritional and other factors, and can influence protein structure and activity through changes in thiol-disulfide balance. For these reasons, glutathione is a transducer that integrates environmental information into the cellular network. While the mechanistic details of this function remain to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence points to important roles for glutathione and glutathione-dependent proteins in phytohormone signaling and in defense against biotic stress. Work in Arabidopsis is beginning to identify the processes that govern glutathione status and that link it to signaling pathways. As well as providing an overview of the components that regulate glutathione homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover), the present discussion considers the roles of this metabolite in physiological processes such as light signaling, cell death, and defense against microbial pathogen and herbivores. PMID:22303267

  7. [Effect of chloditan on the changes of activity of glutathione transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione content in the adrenal glands and liver in rats].

    PubMed

    Zorich, P A; Tronko, N D; Mikosha, A S

    1994-01-01

    The chloditan (o.p-DDD, mitotane), which causes the destruction of the human and dog adrenal cortex, on the most essential system of xenobiotic metabolism: glutathione-S-transferase--glutathione has been studied. The effect of o,p-DDD on GSH level and activity of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase which maintain the level of reduced glutathione was analyzed in the adrenal and liver tissue of rats. This species is resistant to adrenocorticolytic action of o,p-DDD. It was shown that feeding of rats weighting 200-240 g with oil solution of o,p-DDD (75 mg daily) for 3 days causes the decrease in activity of glutathione-S-transferase and content of oxidazed glutathione in the adrenals with simultaneous increase of the content of reduced glutathione. The glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activity in the liver rises under the effect of o,p-DDD, the decrease of the GSH level being observed. The revealed changes may explain the species sensitivity of animals to o,p-DDD.

  8. Haplotype-environment interactions that regulate the human glutathione S-transferase P1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Cauchi, Stephane; Han, Weiguo; Kumar, Shalini V; Spivack, Simon D

    2006-06-15

    Phase II detoxification of carcinogens is reported to mediate some of the anticarcinogenesis effects of candidate chemopreventive agents. We explored the interaction between sequence variation in the GSTP1 gene promoter and candidate chemopreventive exposure in regulating human GSTP1 expression. Polymorphisms along 1.8 kb of the GSTP1 promoter were identified in leukocytes [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)] from 40 Caucasian subjects. Ten promoter polymorphisms (9 previously unreported) displayed strong linkage disequilibrium, yielding identification of three frequently observed haplotypes [HAP1 (43%), HAP2 (36%), and HAP3 (8%)]. Each haplotype was cloned into luciferase reporter constructs and transfected into normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Basal HAP3 reporter activity was significantly elevated (1.8-fold) but decreased to the same levels as HAP2 and HAP1 with increasing concentrations of sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). To confirm native HAP3 functionality, we quantitated mRNA expression in uncultured PBMCs and in laser microdissected normal lung epithelial cells (MNLEC) from the same patients. Basal mRNA expression was higher in HAP3 individuals [1.8-fold (PBMC) and 4-fold (MNLEC) for HAP3 heterozygotes and 2.3-fold (PBMC), and 15-fold (MNLEC) for the HAP3 homozygote] than in the other genotypes. PBMC GSTP1 mRNA expression correlated to MNLEC expression (R2 = 0.77). After culture and in vitro exposure to sulforaphane, BITC, or EGCG, the elevated GSTP1 mRNA expression of PBMCs from HAP3 individuals decreased to common expression levels. Elevated HAP3 function was confirmed at the protein level in PBMCs (5-fold higher for HAP3 heterozygotes and 7.6-fold for the HAP3 homozygote). These data suggest a potentially protective GSTP1 promoter haplotype and unpredicted inhibitory chemopreventive agent-haplotype interactions.

  9. Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Polymorphisms: Modulator of Genetic Damage in Gasoline Pump Workers.

    PubMed

    Priya, Kanu; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Gulati, Sachin; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Gupta, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated genetic damage in gasoline pump workers using the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Blood and urine samples were collected from 50 gasoline pump workers and 50 control participants matched with respect to age and other confounding factors except for exposure to benzene through gasoline vapors. To determine the benzene exposure, phenol was analyzed in urinary samples of exposed and control participants. Urinary mean phenol level was found to be significantly high (P < 0.05) in exposed workers. The CBMN frequency was found to be significantly higher in gasoline pump workers (6.70 ± 1.78) when compared to control individuals (2.20 ± 0.63; P < 0.05). We also investigated influence of polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genes on CBMN frequency. The individuals having GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes had significantly higher frequency of CBMN (P < 0.05). Our study indicates that chronic and long-term exposure of gasoline vapors can increase genotoxic risk in gasoline pump workers.

  10. [Polymorphism of glutathion-S-transferase genes in patients with prostatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Davydova, N A; Dmitrieva, A I; Selivanov, S P; Tkachenko, S B; Kovalik, T A; Kolomiets, S A; Sevast'ianova, N V; Novitskiĭ, V V

    2008-01-01

    The study of polymorphic variants of GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 genes from 61 patients with prostatic cancer (PC) has shown that incidence of 0/0 genotype GSTT1 and GSTM1 in PC patients was significantly higher of that in healthy men (n = 100) (34.4 and 15% in p = 0.007 and 60.7 and 43% in p = 0.04, respectively). PC risk in carriers of a GSTT1 deletion form was 2.97, CI95%--1.3-6.84, GSTM1--2.04 in CI95% 1.02-4.1. The analysis of combinations of pathological genotypes of xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes has demonstrated that 89.8% PC patients have a mutation in one of the genes GSTT1, GSTM1 or GSTP1.

  11. Induction of glutathione S-Transferase in Helicoverpa zea fed cashew flour.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. zea and other insects have evolved strategies to counteract the plant protective proteins and defensive compounds they may encounter during feeding. We sought to take advantage of this phenomenon by identifying proteins upregulated in H. zea in response to the inclusion of cashew nut flour in th...

  12. Cruciferous vegetables, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer among Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Cai, Quiyin; Wu, Qi-Jun; Xie, Li; Li, Guo-Liang; Yang, Gong; Waterbor, John W.; Levitan, Emily B.; Zhang, Bin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the associations between cruciferous vegetable (CV) intake, GST gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) in a population of Chinese men. Methods Using incidence density sampling, CRC cases (N = 340) diagnosed prior to December 31, 2010 within the Shanghai Men’s Health Study were matched to non-cases (N = 673). CV intake was assessed from a food frequency questionnaire and by isothiocyanate (ITC) levels from spot urine samples. GSTM1 and GSTT1 were categorized as null (0 copies) versus non-null (1 or 2 copies). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between CV intake and GST gene variants with CRC and statistical interactions were evaluated. Results CRC risk was not associated with CV intake, whether measured by self-report or by urinary ITC, nor with GST gene variants. No statistical interactions were detected between CV intake and GST gene variants on the odds of CRC. Stratifying by timing of urine sample collection and excluding CRC cases diagnosed in the first two years did not materially alter the results. Conclusions This study provides no evidence supporting the involvement of CV intake in the development of CRC in Chinese men. PMID:24238877

  13. Increase of gluthatione S-transferase, carboxyl esterase and carbonyl reductase in Fasciola hepatica recovered from triclabendazole treated sheep.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, S; Solana, M V; Fernandez, V; Lamenza, P; Ceballos, L; Solana, H

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and its control is mainly based on the use of triclabendazole (TCBZ). Parasite resistance to different anthelmintics is growing worldwide, including the resistance of F. hepatica to TCBZ. In the present work we evaluate "in vivo" the activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes of phase I (carboxyl esterases) and phase II (glutathione S-transferases and carbonyl reductases) recovered of flukes from sheep treated with TCBZ. All three enzymes showed increased activity in TCBZ flukes returning 60h post-treatment at similar to baseline unexposed flukes. TCBZ action may induce secondary oxidative stress, which may explain the observed increment in activities of the analyzed enzymes as a defensive mechanism. The enzymes analyzed are candidates to participate actively in the development of resistance at TCBZ in F. hepatica.

  14. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes.

  15. Enzymatic conjugation of hexachloro-1,3-butadiene with glutathione. Formation of 1-(glutathion-S-yl)-1,2,3,4,4-pentachlorobuta-1,3-diene and 1,4-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobuta-1,3-diene.

    PubMed

    Dekant, W; Vamvakas, S; Henschler, D; Anders, M W

    1988-01-01

    The glutathione-dependent metabolism of the nephrotoxin and nephrocarcinogen hexachloro-1,3-butadiene (HCBD) was investigated in subcellular fractions from rat liver and kidney. HCBD was metabolized by hepatic glutathione S-transferases to (E)- and (Z)-1-(glutathion-S-yl)-pentachlorobuta-1,3-diene (GPCB) in a ratio of 20:1, which were identified by secondary ion MS and by GC-MS after acid hydrolysis. The formation of GPCB was dependent on time and on protein and glutathione concentrations. Microsomal glutathione S-transferases from rat liver catalyzed GPCB formation more efficiently than did cytosolic glutathione S-transferases; very low rates of GPCB formation were observed in kidney subcellular fractions. GPCB is also a substrate for glutathione S-transferases and is metabolized to a diglutathione conjugate, which was identified by secondary ion MS and 13C NMR spectrometry as 1,4-bis(glutathion-S-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobuta-1,3-diene (BTCB). BTCB formation from GPCB was dependent on time and on protein, glutathione, and GPCB concentrations. Hepatic cytosol catalyzed BTCB formation more efficiently than did hepatic microsomes; significant amounts of BTCB were also formed in kidney cytosol. Hepatic formation of glutathione S-conjugates, translocation of the S-conjugates to the kidney, and renal processing to form reactive intermediates may be the cause of HCBD-induced nephrotoxicity and, perhaps, nephrocarcinogenicity.

  16. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio.

  17. Glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk in Egyptians.

    PubMed

    Saad, A A; O'Connor, P J; Mostafa, M H; Metwalli, N E; Cooper, D P; Povey, A C; Margison, G P

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that bladder cancer risk may vary with GST genotype but these results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore whether GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP polymorphisms were associated with increased bladder cancer risk in an Egyptian population. GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotype frequencies were determined in bladder cancer cases (n=72) and healthy controls with no history of malignancies (n=82) using PCR-based techniques. The GSTT1*2 genotype was particularly associated with increased risk (OR 2.71, 95%CI 1.27-5.73) and the GSTM1*2 genotype to a lesser extent (OR 1.63, 95%CI 0.85-3.10). 18.1% of cases but only 7.3% of controls were GSTP1*B*B homozygotes (OR 2.38, 95%CI 0.83-6.87). The presence of two or more a priori at-risk genotypes was associated with increased bladder cancer risk (OR 2.42; 95%CI 1.47-3.97). These results suggest that polymorphisms in the GST genes are associated with increased risk of bladder cancer among Egyptians.

  18. [The effects of cysteines on the function of human glutathion S-transferase pi(GSTp) under cell oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Sima, Jian; He, Lan; Zhu, Jian; Xue, Bin; Tai, Yi Lin; Zhang, Shuang Quan; Yin, Zhi Min

    2004-06-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate three cysteine mutants of GSTp, C(47/101), C(14/47/101) and C(14/47/101/169). GSTp, C(47/101), C(14/47/101) and C(14/47/101/169) were transfected into 293 cells separately and GST activity was determined by using CDNB as substrate. Data showed that each cysteine mutant inhibited endogenous GST catalyzatic activity and had remarkable dominant negative effect. The expression vectors of wide type GSTp and its cysteine mutants were co-transfected with c-Jun, NF-kappaB, or p21 luciferase reporting vector, into 293 cells separately, luciferase activity showed that C(14/47/101) and C(14/47/101/169) can dramatically activate c-Jun and p21 transcriptional activity. Each cysteine mutant can increase endogenous p21 level, and also increased mortality rate of 293 cells when exposed to H2O2. These results suggest that cysteine residues of GSTp play an important role in protecting cells against oxitative stress.

  19. Human glutathion S-transferase A1 polymorphism and susceptibility to urothelial cancer in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Yasuhiro; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Kuroda, Yoshiki; Imai, Hirohisa; Katoh, Takahiko

    2005-04-18

    GSTA1 has been reported to be most efficient in detoxifying N-acetoxy PhIP. In this study, 341 Japanese urothelial cancer patients and 457 healthy controls were compared for frequencies of GSTA1 genotype. We present the first evidence of an association between GSTA1*B (-567G, -69T, -52A) and urothelial cancer among never smokers. The frequency of GSTA1 *A/*B or *B/*B genotype was 24.3% in urothelial cancer cases, compared with 21.2% in the control groups (OR=1.22; 95%CI 0.87-1.72) after adjustment for age, gender and smoking status. But among never smokers, the GSTA1 *A/*B or *B/*B genotype was significantly higher in urothelial cancer cases (31.2%) compared with the controls (19.9%) (OR=1.73; 95%CI 1.01-2.97). This study suggests that exposure to food-derived PhIP could be one of the risk factors in the incidence of urothelial cancer in never smokers.

  20. Multivariate analysis of maize disease resistances suggests a pleiotropic genetic basis and implicates a glutathione S-transferase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants are attacked by pathogens representing diverse taxonomic groups, such that genes providing multiple disease resistance (MDR) would likely be under positive selection pressure. We examined the novel proposition that naturally occurring allelic variants may confer MDR. To do so, we applied a ...

  1. Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

  2. The biochemical adaptations of spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to fresh fruits reduced fructose concentrations and glutathione-S transferase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive and economically damaging pest in Europe and North America, because the females have a serrated ovipositor enabling them to infest ripening almost all small fruits before harvest. Also flies are strongly attracted to fresh fruits rath...

  3. Responses of carp hepatopancreatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and glutathione-dependent enzymes to organic pollutants -- a field study

    SciTech Connect

    Machala, M.; Nezveda, K.; Ulrich, R.; Petrivalsky, M.; Dusek, L.; Placka, V.; Svobodova, Z.

    1997-07-01

    Modulations of hepatopancreatic activities of cytochrome P450IA (CYPIA) and glutathione-dependent enzymes were investigated in carp collected in five ponds with different levels of contamination. The CYPIA-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was markedly induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the sediment at a total concentration of 0.9 mg/kg. Even a low organic contamination increased some of the glutathione-dependent enzymatic activities, namely cytosolic glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, ethacrynic acid and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane, and microsomal glutathione S-transferase. These parameters should be considered as potential tools for the biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals and/or impacts of exposure. An example of a multivariate cluster and discriminant analysis of the obtained analytical and biochemical data proved to be very effective tools for the characterization of the level of contamination.

  4. The glutathione conjugate of ethacrynic acid can bind to human pi class glutathione transferase P1-1 in two different modes.

    PubMed

    Oakley, A J; Lo Bello, M; Mazzetti, A P; Federici, G; Parker, M W

    1997-12-08

    The diuretic drug ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of pi class glutathione S-transferase, has been tested in clinical trials as an adjuvant in chemotherapy. We recently solved the crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate. Here we present a new structure of the ethacrynic-glutathione conjugate complex. In this structure the ethacrynic moiety of the complex is shown to bind in a completely different orientation to that previously observed. Thus there are at least two binding modes possible, an observation of great importance to the design of second generation inhibitors of the enzyme.

  5. Effects of mercury on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas).

    PubMed

    Linšak, Željko; Linšak, Dijana Tomić; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Glad, Marin; Milin, Čedomila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate risks of long-term exposure to mercury in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas), with a chemical-analytical approach evaluating median mass fraction of toxic mercury in the hares organs (liver, kidney, muscle and brain). To obtain better insight into possible effects of mercury, the study included screening of the oxidative status after long term exposure to low concentrations of mercury. Hares organs were analyzed for total mercury concentration by AAS. Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes status was also investigated. The median mercury concentrations (wet weight) in the liver, kidney, muscle and brain of the hares ranged from 0.058-0.189, 0.138-0.406, 0.013-0.046 and 0.022-0.102 μg/g respectively. Concentration of the glutathione (GSH), glutathione-peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-reductase (GR) activity increased with the mercury concentration. However, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity decreased with the mercury concentration. The results of this study show the impact of environmentally absorbed mercury on the antioxidant status of the examined hares. Further research on long-term exposure to low concentrations of mercury is needed.

  6. Dietary selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity, and toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, M.Q.; Stohs, S.J.; Murray, W.J.; Birt, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    TCDD has been shown to inhibit selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity. The role of selenium in TCDD toxicity is not known. The authors have therefore examined the effect of TCDD administration on hepatic glutathione peroxidase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxlase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase activities, glutathione content, and lipid peroxidation in rats fed 0, 0.10, and 2.0 ppm dietary selenium. TCDD treatment significantly inhibited selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase in animals on diets containing 0.10 and 2.0 ppm selenium. The selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities in rats on 0.10 and 2.0 ppm dietary selenium were 8.3- and 4.7-fold greater than in animals fed a diet containing 0 ppm selenium. TCDD administration enhanced hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation by factors of 4.0, 4.9, and 9.8 in animals fed diets containing 0, 0.10, and 2.0 ppm selenium, respectively. The administration of a lethal dose of TCDD to rats fed diets containing 0, 0.10, and 2.0 ppm selenium, respectively. The administration of a lethal dose of TCDD to rats fed diets containing 0, 0.10, and 2.0 ppm selenium resulted in 0, 46, and 7% survival, respectively, after 66 d. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase activities were induced by TCDD. The results indicate that optimum dietary selenium provides partial protection from the toxic effects of TCDD.

  7. Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P.; Edwards, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The 55 Arabidopsis glutathione transferases (GSTs) are, with one microsomal exception, a monophyletic group of soluble enzymes that can be divided into phi, tau, theta, zeta, lambda, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and TCHQD classes. The populous phi and tau classes are often highly stress inducible and regularly crop up in proteomic and transcriptomic studies. Despite much study on their xenobiotic-detoxifying activities their natural roles are unclear, although roles in defence-related secondary metabolism are likely. The smaller DHAR and lambda classes are likely glutathione-dependent reductases, the zeta class functions in tyrosine catabolism and the theta class has a putative role in detoxifying oxidised lipids. This review describes the evidence for the functional roles of GSTs and the potential for these enzymes to perform diverse functions that in many cases are not “glutathione transferase” activities. As well as biochemical data, expression data from proteomic and transcriptomic studies are included, along with subcellular localisation experiments and the results of functional genomic studies. PMID:22303257

  8. Structural basis of jasmonate-amido synthetase FIN219 in complex with glutathione S-transferase FIP1 during the JA signal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Ho, Sih-Syun; Kuo, Tzu-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Far-red (FR) light-coupled jasmonate (JA) signaling is necessary for plant defense and development. FR insensitive 219 (FIN219) is a member of the Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) family of proteins in Arabidopsis and belongs to the adenylate-forming family of enzymes. It directly controls biosynthesis of jasmonoyl-isoleucine in JA-mediated defense responses and interacts with FIN219-interacting protein 1 (FIP1) under FR light conditions. FIN219 and FIP1 are involved in FR light signaling and are regulators of the interplay between light and JA signaling. However, how their interactions affect plant physiological functions remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the crystal structures of FIN219–FIP1 while binding with substrates at atomic resolution. Our results show an unexpected FIN219 conformation and demonstrate various differences between this protein and other members of the GH3 family. We show that the rotated C-terminal domain of FIN219 alters ATP binding and the core structure of the active site. We further demonstrate that this unique FIN219–FIP1 structure is crucial for increasing FIN219 activity and determines the priority of substrate binding. We suggest that the increased FIN219 activity resulting from the complex form, a conformation for domain switching, allows FIN219 to switch to its high-affinity mode and thereby enhances JA signaling under continuous FR light conditions. PMID:28223489

  9. Variation of acephate susceptibility and correlation with Esterase and Glutathione S-transferase activities in field populations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tarnished plant bug (TPB) has increasingly become an economically important pest of cotton. Heavy dependence on insecticides, particularly organophosphates and pyrethroids, for TPB control facilitated resistance development to multiple classes of insecticides. To better understand resistance and...

  10. The effect of cigarette smoke and arsenic exposure on urothelial carcinoma risk is modified by glutathione S-transferase M1 gene null genotype

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Su, Chien-Tien; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-15

    Inter-individual variation in the metabolism of xenobiotics, caused by factors such as cigarette smoking or inorganic arsenic exposure, is hypothesized to be a susceptibility factor for urothelial carcinoma (UC). Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the role of gene–environment interaction in the carcinogenesis of UC. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Information about cigarette smoking exposure was acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to estimate the UC risk associated with certain risk factors. We found that UC patients had higher urinary levels of total arsenic, higher percentages of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA%) and lower percentages of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) compared to controls. Subjects carrying the GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. However, no association was observed between gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1, EPHX1, SULT1A1 and GSTT1 and UC risk after adjustment for age and sex. Significant gene–environment interactions among urinary arsenic profile, cigarette smoking, and GSTM1 wild/null polymorphism and UC risk were observed after adjustment for potential risk factors. Overall, gene–environment interactions simultaneously played an important role in UC carcinogenesis. In the future, large-scale studies should be conducted using tag-SNPs of xenobiotic-metabolism-related enzymes for gene determination. -- Highlights: ► Subjects with GSTM1 null genotype had significantly increased UC risk. ► UC patients had poor arsenic metabolic ability compared to controls. ► GSTM1 null genotype may modify arsenic related UC risk.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s (CYPs), tobacco smoking, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Lan, Qing; Han, Xuesong; Qin, Qin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Holford, Theodore; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-01-01

    We investigated variation in GSTs and CYPs and smoking in a population-based case-control study of NHL including 1,115 women. Although risk of NHL was not altered by variant polymorphisms in GSTs or CYPs, it was significantly changed for DLBCL when considered in conjunction with smoking behavior, though only in non-smokers. An increased risk of DLBCL in non-smokers was associated with the variant G allele for GSTP1 (OR=1.6, 95%CI: 1.0–2.3) and CYP1A1 (OR=2.4; 95%CI: 1.0–5.7), but a decreased risk for the variant G allele for CYP1B1 (OR=0.6, 95%CI: 0.4–1.0). Our results confer support investigation of the gene-environment interaction in a larger study population of DLBCL. PMID:19338043

  12. Protective Effects of Membrane-Anchored and Secreted DNA Vaccines Encoding Fatty Acid-Binding Protein and Glutathione S-Transferase against Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yaqin; Hu, Yang; Fan, Guorun; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Lin; Man, Dandan; Liu, Shuojie; Tang, Chengwu; Zhang, Yin; Dai, Wuxing

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the high performance bivalent DNA-based vaccine against schistosomes, SjFABP and Sj26GST were selected and used to construct a vaccine. Two strategies were used to construct the bivalent DNA vaccine. In the first strategy, a plasmid encoding antigen in the secreted form was used, while in the other, a plasmid encoding a truncated form of SjFABP and Sj26GST targeted to the cell surface was used. Various parameters, including antibody and cytokine response, proliferation, histopathological examination, and characterization of T cell subsets were used to evaluate the type of immune response and the level of protection against challenge infection. Injection with secreted pIRES-sjFABP-sj26GST significantly increased the levels of antibody, splenocyte proliferation, and production of IFN-γ, compared with membrane-anchored groups. Analysis of splenic T cell subsets showed that the secreted vaccine significantly increased the percentage of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells. Liver immunopathology (size of liver granulomas) was significantly reduced in the secreted group compared with the membrane-anchored groups. Moreover, challenge experiments showed that the worm and egg burdens were significantly reduced in animals immunized with recombinant vaccines. Most importantly, secreted Sj26GST-SjFABP markedly enhanced protection, by reducing worm and egg burdens by 31.8% and 24.78%, respectively, while the membrane-anchored group decreased worm and egg burdens by 24.80% and 18.80%, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that the secretory vaccine is more promising than the membrane-anchored vaccine, and provides support for the development and application of this vaccine. PMID:24466157

  13. Response of two rice cultivars differing in their sensitivity towards arsenic, differs in their expression of glutaredoxin and glutathione S transferase genes and antioxidant usage.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Navin; Sahu, Nayan; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Ranjan, Ruma; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Behera, Soumit K; Mallick, Shekhar

    2016-02-01

    Embodied study investigates the role of GRX and associated antioxidant enzymes in the detoxification mechanism between arsenic (As) sensitive (Usar-3) and tolerant cultivar (Pant Dhan 11) of Oryza sativa against As(III) and As(V), under GSH enriched, and GSH deprived conditions. The overall growth and physiological parameters in sensitive cultivar were lower than the tolerant cultivar, against various treatments of As(III) and As(V). The As accumulation in sensitive cv. against both As(III) and As(V) was lower than the corresponding treatments in tolerant cv. However, the As translocation against As(V) was lower (35% and 64%, resp.) than that of As(III), in both the cultivars. In sensitive cv. translocation of Zn and Cu was influenced by both As(V) and As(III) whereas, in tolerant cv. the translocation of Cu, Mn and Zn was influenced only by As(III). Translocation of Fe was negatively influenced by translocation of As in sensitive cv. and positively in tolerant cv. Strong correlation between H2O2, SOD, GRX, GR, GST and GSH/GSSG in sensitive cv. and between DHAR, APX, MDHAR and AsA in tolerant cv. demonstrates the underlying preference of GSH as electron donor for detoxification of H2O2 in sensitive cv. and AsA in tolerant cv. Higher expression of the four GRX and two GST genes in the sensitive cv. than tolerant cv, suggests that under As stress, GRX are synthesized more in the sensitive cv. than tolerant cv. Also, the expression of four GRX genes were higher against As(V) than As(III). The higher As accumulation in the tolerant cv. is due to lower GST expression, is attributed to the absence of thiolation and sequestration of As in roots, the translocation of As to shoots is higher.

  14. The glutathione-S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) null genotype and increased neutrophil response to low-level ozone (0.06 ppm).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure of healthy young adults to 03 modulates immune cell biology in the airways and causes a significant increase in neutrophilic inflammation which can vary considerably in magnitude across individuals. The GSTM1null genotype modulates Oj-induced inflammation, bu...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A PEPTIDE ANTIBODY AGAINST HUMAN GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE 4-4 (HGSTA4-4) REVEALS MITOCHONDRIAL LOCALIZATION. (R827441)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Role of Glutathione S Transferase Polymorphism in COPD with Special Reference to Peoples Living in the Vicinity of the Open Cast Coal Mine of Assam

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Tapan; Gogoi, Kabita; Unni, Bala Gopalan; Kalita, Munmi; Bharadwaz, Moonmee; Bhattacharjee, Minakshi; Boruah, Pranab Kumar; Bora, Thaneswar; Ozah, Dibyajyoti; Kalita, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Background COPD may develop due to variation in the functioning of antioxidants along with smoking and environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Since there are different views about the antioxidants responsible for detoxifying xenobiotic compound in the human body whose functional variation may lead to obstructive disease, this associative study has been taken up between GST gene polymorphism and COPD in populations exposed to coal dusts. Methods Genotypes of the 70 COPD patients and 85 non COPD patients were determined by PCR based methods followed by multiplex PCR of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes taking albumin gene as a control. Suspended particulate analyses were determined through the Respirable Dust sampler along with the FTIR analysis of the dust samples from the glass microfiber filters. Results Dust sampling analysis reveals higher level of respirable suspended particulate matter, non respirable particulate matter, SO2 and NO2 present in air of the study site. FTIR analysis also suggests a higher concentration of organic silicone and aliphatic C-F compounds present in air of the study site and when spirometry was done, low lung function was observed among most of the subjects. GSTM1 null type was significantly associated with low lung function in smoker groups and the presence of at least one active allele (either GSTM1/GSTT1) seemed to have a protective role in the development of COPD. Conclusions GSTM1 (null genotype) appeared to be a risk factor for lower lung function in smokers living in the vicinity of coal mines. Apart from polluted environment and genetic susceptibility, mixed coal dust exposure rich in organic silicone and aliphatic C-F compounds also appears to be a factor for the low lung function. PMID:24809844

  17. Improving risk stratification of patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Glutathione-S-Transferases polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of relapse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Daiana B; Abbate, Mercedes; Riccheri, María C; Nuñez, Myriam; Alfonso, Graciela; Gueron, Geraldine; De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba; Cotignola, Javier

    2017-01-03

    The inclusion of genotype at Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) diagnosis as a genetic predictor of disease outcome is under constant study. However, results are inconclusive and seem to be population specific. We analyzed the predictive value of germline polymorphisms for childhood ALL relapse and survival. We retrospectively recruited 140 Argentine patients with de novo ALL. Genotypes were analyzed using PCR-RFLP (GSTP1 c.313A > G, MDR1 c.3435T > C, and MTHFR c.665C > T) and multiplex PCR (GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null). Patients with the GSTP1 c.313GG genotype had an increased risk for relapse in univariate (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.03-6.82, p = 0.04) and multivariate (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.17-8.83, p = 0.02) models. The combined genotype slightly increased risk for relapse in the univariate (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.09-7.32, p = 0.03) and multivariate (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14-7.79, p = 0.03) models for patients with 2/3-risk-genotypes (GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null, GSTP1 c.313GG). The Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS) was shorter for GSTP1 c.313GG (p = 0.025) and 2/3-risk-genotypes (p = 0.021). GST polymorphisms increased the risk of relapse and RFS of patients with childhood ALL. The inclusion of these genetic markers in ALL treatment protocols might improve risk stratification and reduce the number of relapses and deaths.

  18. Improving risk stratification of patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Glutathione-S-Transferases polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of relapse

    PubMed Central

    Riccheri, María C.; Nuñez, Myriam; Alfonso, Graciela; Gueron, Geraldine; De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba; Cotignola, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The inclusion of genotype at Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) diagnosis as a genetic predictor of disease outcome is under constant study. However, results are inconclusive and seem to be population specific. We analyzed the predictive value of germline polymorphisms for childhood ALL relapse and survival. We retrospectively recruited 140 Argentine patients with de novo ALL. Genotypes were analyzed using PCR-RFLP (GSTP1 c.313A > G, MDR1 c.3435T > C, and MTHFR c.665C > T) and multiplex PCR (GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null). Patients with the GSTP1 c.313GG genotype had an increased risk for relapse in univariate (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.03–6.82, p = 0.04) and multivariate (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.17–8.83, p = 0.02) models. The combined genotype slightly increased risk for relapse in the univariate (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.09–7.32, p = 0.03) and multivariate (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14–7.79, p = 0.03) models for patients with 2/3-risk-genotypes (GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null, GSTP1 c.313GG). The Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS) was shorter for GSTP1 c.313GG (p = 0.025) and 2/3-risk-genotypes (p = 0.021). GST polymorphisms increased the risk of relapse and RFS of patients with childhood ALL. The inclusion of these genetic markers in ALL treatment protocols might improve risk stratification and reduce the number of relapses and deaths. PMID:27058755

  19. Downregulation of glutathione S-transferase M1 protein in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine-induced mouse bladder carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Jing-Jing; Dai, Yuan-Chang; Lin, Yung-Lun; Chen, Yang-Yi; Lin, Wei-Han; Chan, Hong-Lin; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Bladder cancer is highly recurrent following specific transurethral resection and intravesical chemotherapy, which has prompted continuing efforts to develop novel therapeutic agents and early-stage diagnostic tools. Specific changes in protein expression can provide a diagnostic marker. In our present study, we investigated changes in protein expression during urothelial carcinogenesis. The carcinogen BBN was used to induce mouse bladder tumor formation. Mouse bladder mucosa proteins were collected and analyzed by 2D electrophoresis from 6 to 20 weeks after commencing continuous BBN treatment. By histological examination, the connective layer of the submucosa showed gradual thickening and the number of submucosal capillaries gradually increased after BBN treatment. At 12-weeks after the start of BBN treatment, the urothelia became moderately dysplastic and tumors arose after 20-weeks of treatment. These induced bladder lesions included carcinoma in situ and connective tissue invasive cancer. In protein 2D analysis, the sequentially downregulated proteins from 6 to 20 weeks included GSTM1, L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain, keratin 8, keratin 18 and major urinary proteins 2 and 11/8. In contrast, the sequentially upregulated proteins identified were GSTO1, keratin 15 and myosin light polypeptide 6. Western blotting confirmed that GSTM1 and NQO-1 were decreased, while GSTO1 and Sp1 were increased, after BBN treatment. In human bladder cancer cells, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased the GSTM1 mRNA and protein expression. These data suggest that the downregulation of GSTM1 in the urothelia is a biomarker of bladder carcinogenesis and that this may be mediated by DNA CpG methylation. - Highlights: • GSTM1 and NQO-1 proteins decreased in the mouse bladder mucosa after BBN treatment. • BBN induced GSTO1 and Sp1 protein expression in the mouse bladder mucosa. • 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine increased GSTM1 mRNA and protein in human bladder cancer cell. • GSTM1 downregulation in the urothelia may be a biomarker of bladder carcinogenesis.

  20. Expression profile of eight glutathione S-transferase genes in Crassostrea ariakensis after exposure to DSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Wei, Xiao-Meng; Weng, Hui-Wen; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, changes in eight GSTs mRNA level including GST-α, GST-σ, GST-ω, GST-π, GST-μ, GST-ρ, GST-θ and microsomal GST (mGST) in the oyster Crassostrea ariakensis after exposure to Prorocentrum lima have been evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, the contents of five GST isoforms were detected by ELISA. After exposure to P. lima at density of 2 × 10(5) cells/L, mGST mRNA significantly increased in gill, while GST-σ was induced in digestive gland. After exposure to P. lima at density of 2 × 10(6) cells/L, GST-ω and mGST expressions increased in gill, whereas GST-α and GST-σ were induced in digestive gland. The GST content and activity in oysters exposed to P. lima also showed a different pattern when the different isoforms and organs were compared. After exposure to P. lima (2 × 10(6) cell/L), GST-π increased in gill but decreased in digestive gland. The total GST enzyme activity increased in gill, while remained unchanged in digestive gland. These various regulation of GST gene expressions indicated that the GSTs isoenzymes might play divergent physiological roles in the detoxification of DSP toxins in C. ariakensis.

  1. Expression levels of pituitary tumor transforming 1 and glutathione-S-transferase theta 3 are associated with the individual susceptibility to D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Chae-Wook; Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Young-Ho; Chung, Jin-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Although drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is frequently observed, individual variation in the susceptibility to DILI is hard to predict. Intrinsic genetic variation is considered a key element for this variation but little is known about the identity of the genes associated with DILI. In this study, pre-biopsy method was applied to uncover the key genes for D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury and a cause and effect study was conducted to elucidate the correlation between the expression of uncovered genes and GalN-induced hepatotoxicity. To identify the genes determining the susceptibility to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity, we compared the innate gene expression profiles in the liver tissue pre-biopsied before GalN treatment of the SD rats susceptible and resistant to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity, using microarray. Eight genes including Pttg1, Ifit1 and Gstt3 were lower or higher in the susceptible animals than the resistant and RT-PCR analysis confirmed it. To determine if these genes are associated with the susceptibility to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity indeed, expression levels were measured using real-time PCR in a new set of animals and the correlation with GalN-induced hepatotoxicity were analyzed. Notably, the expression of Pttg1 was significantly correlated with the severity of GalN-induced hepatotoxicity (p < 0.01) and the animals with lowest and highest level of Gstt3 turned out to be the most susceptible and resistant, respectively, demonstrating that the expression of Pttg1 and Gstt3 could predict inter-individual susceptibility to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity. More importantly, this study showed the utility of pre-biopsy method in the identification of the gene for the chemical-induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Identification, characterization and expression profiles of Chironomus riparius glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in response to cadmium and silver nanoparticles exposure.

    PubMed

    Nair, Prakash M Gopalakrishnan; Choi, Jinhee

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we report the identification and characterization of 13 cytosolic GST genes in Chironomus riparius from Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) database generated using pyrosequencing. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken with Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae GSTs and 3 Delta, 4 Sigma, 1 each in Omega, Epsilon, Theta, Zeta and 2 unclassified classes of GSTs were identified and characterized. The relative mRNA expression levels of all of the C. riparius GSTs (CrGSTs) genes under different developmental stages were varied with low expression in the larval stage. The antioxidant role of CrGSTs was studied by exposing fourth instar larvae to a known oxidative stress inducer Paraquat and the relative mRNA expression to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for various time intervals were also studied. All the CrGSTs showed up- or down regulation to varying levels based upon the concentration, and duration of exposure. The highest mRNA expression was noticed in Delta3, Sigma4 and Epsilon1 GST class in all treatments. These results show the role of CrGST genes in defense against oxidative stress and its potential as a biomarker to Cd and AgNPs exposure.

  3. Glutathione-S-transferase-omega [MMA(V) reductase] knockout mice: Enzyme and arsenic species concentrations in tissues after arsenate administration

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Uttam K.; Zakharyan, Robert A.; Hernandez, Alba; Avram, Mihaela D.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Aposhian, H. Vasken . E-mail: aposhian@u.arizona.edu

    2006-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen to which millions of people are exposed via their naturally contaminated drinking water. Its molecular mechanisms of carcinogenicity have remained an enigma, perhaps because arsenate is biochemically transformed to at least five other arsenic-containing metabolites. In the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic, GSTO1 catalyzes the reduction of arsenate, MMA(V), and DMA(V) to the more toxic + 3 arsenic species. MMA(V) reductase and human (hGSTO1-1) are identical proteins. The hypothesis that GST-Omega knockout mice biotransformed inorganic arsenic differently than wild-type mice has been tested. The livers of male knockout (KO) mice, in which 222 bp of Exon 3 of the GSTO1 gene were eliminated, were analyzed by PCR for mRNA. The level of transcripts of the GSTO1 gene in KO mice was 3.3-fold less than in DBA/1lacJ wild-type (WT) mice. The GSTO2 transcripts were about two-fold less in the KO mouse. When KO and WT mice were injected intramuscularly with Na arsenate (4.16 mg As/kg body weight); tissues removed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after arsenate injection; and the arsenic species measured by HPLC-ICP-MS, the results indicated that the highest concentration of the recently discovered and very toxic MMA(III), a key biotransformant, was in the kidneys of both KO and WT mice. The highest concentration of DMA(III) was in the urinary bladder tissue for both the KO and WT mice. The MMA(V) reducing activity of the liver cytosol of KO mice was only 20% of that found in wild-type mice. There appears to be another enzyme(s) other than GST-O able to reduce arsenic(V) species but to a lesser extent. This and other studies suggest that each step of the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic has an alternative enzyme to biotransform the arsenic substrate.

  4. Interaction of Leukotriene C4 and Chinese Hamster Lung Fibroblasts (V79A03 Cells). 2. Subcellular Distribution of Binding and Unlikely Role of Glutathione-s-Transferase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-aidbenzoate. The call - bound radioactivity migrated during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGK) with...without a demonstrable biological role for the leukotriene, has been reported for several cells. OCTOBER 1990 VOL. 40 NO. 4 431 PROSTAGLANDINS( call lines...absence of antiserum. CST AssaG. CST activity was determined using homogenates of V79 calls prepared by sonication, and using plasma membranes that

  5. Inhibition of glutathione conjugation in the rat in vivo by analogues of glutathione conjugates.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, S; Mulder, G J

    1998-04-24

    Glutathione (GSH) conjugation plays an important role in (de-)toxification of its substrates in vivo. We have developed inhibitors of GSH conjugation that are active in the rat in vivo which are derived from the structure of GSH conjugates: they contain a backbone of gamma-L-Glu-D-2-aminoadipic acid that is virtually isosteric with the gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys-Gly structure of GSH. In addition, a hydrophobic alkyl group is attached such that it may interact with the H-site of the enzyme. Finally, the carboxyl groups were esterified with alcohols of varying chain length. The results show that all these compounds preferentially inhibit alpha-GST's 1-1 and 2-2, have less effect on mu isoenzymes 3-3 and 4-4, and finally, have little effect on rat theta (G.J. Mulder, S. Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Modulation of glutathione conjugation in vivo: How to decrease glutathione conjugation in vivo or in intact cellular systems in vitro, Chem. Biol. Interact. 105 (1997) 17-34) and pi (S. Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, J.H. van Boom, M.C. Dreef-Tromp, J.H.T.M. Ploemen, D.J. Meyer, G.J. Mulder, Glutathione analogues as novel inhibitors of rat and human glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes, as well as of glutathione conjugation in isolated rat hepatocytes and the rat in vivo, Bioche. J., 308 (1995) 283-290). Several of the compounds inhibit the GSH conjugation of bromsulfophthalein and (S)-2-bromisovalerylurea in hepatocytes, in the situ recirculating rat liver perfusion and in the rat in vivo (after i.v. administration). The most effective compound contains a 2-heptylamine group linked as an amide to the 1-carboxyl group of the aminoadipic acid moiety at the H-site, and an ethyl ester at the 5-carboxylic acid group of aminoadipic acid.

  6. The role of glutathion conjugation in the regulation of early toad embryos' tolerance to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Anguiano, O L; Caballero de Castro, A; Pechen de D'Angelo, A M

    2001-01-01

    Reduced glutathion (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GSH S-transferase) activity were investigated in developing toad embryos exposed to parathion, malathion, lindane and dieldrin. The embryonic GSH content was reduced after 96 h of incubation with 20.00 ppm malathion and 2.00 ppm lindane. Parathion and dieldrin did not produce any change. A similar effect was obtained in advanced stages of development (6-days larvae), but only with malathion. No correlation between the decrease in GSH level and mortality or morphologic abnormalities was observed. The four pesticides increased the activity of GSH S-transferase indicating that the enzyme is susceptible to induction during early development. The higher effect depicted by malathion may be related with an enhanced conjugation of the pesticide. Both GSH decrease and GSHS-transferase induction modifies the cell redox status and may indirectly influence transcription and translation. The early expression of GST genes provides the embryo with a useful mechanism for the regulation of tolerance against chemical stress.

  7. Effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) on fish glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, A; Dogan, Z; Kanak, E G; Atli, G; Canli, M

    2015-03-01

    The glutathione metabolism contains crucial antioxidant molecules to defend the organisms against oxidants. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the response of the glutathione metabolism in the liver of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn) in different periods. Fish were exposed to metals (as 1 μg/mL) individually for 1, 7, and 14 days and subsequently antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, GPX; glutathione reductase, GR and glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione levels (total glutathione, tGSH; reduced glutathione, rGSH; oxidized glutathione, GSSG and GSH/GSSG ratios) in the liver were measured. There was no fish mortality during the experiments, except Cu exposure. The antioxidant enzymes responded differently to metal exposures depending on metal types and exposure durations. GPX activity increased only after Cd exposure, while GST activity increased following 7 days of all metal exposures. However, GR activity did not alter in most cases. Total GSH and GSH/GSSG levels generally decreased, especially after 7 days. Data showed that metal exposures significantly altered the response of antioxidant system parameters, particularly at day 7 and some recovery occurred after 14 days. This study suggests that the response of antioxidant system could help to predict metal toxicity in the aquatic environments and be useful as an "early warning tool" in natural monitoring studies.

  8. Characterization of Affinity-Purified Isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Chin-Soon; Tan, Irene Kit-Ping; Alias, Zazali

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GST) were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW) of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5) and GST2 (pI 6.2) with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase) and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively. PMID:24892084

  9. Catabolism of Glutathione Conjugates in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Brazier-Hicks, Melissa; Evans, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Oliver D.; Hodgson, David R. W.; Steel, Patrick G.; Edwards, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The safener fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine) increases tolerance to chloroacetanilide herbicides in rice by enhancing the expression of detoxifying glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Fenclorim also enhances GSTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, and while investigating the functional significance of this induction in suspension cultures, we determined that these enzymes glutathionylated the safener. The resulting S-(fenclorim)-glutathione conjugate was sequentially processed to S-(fenclorim)-γ-glutamyl-cysteine and S-(fenclorim)-cysteine (FC), the latter accumulating in both the cells and the medium. FC was then either catabolized to 4-chloro-6-(methylthio)-phenylpyrimidine (CMTP) or N-acylated with malonic acid. These cysteine derivatives had distinct fates, with the enzymes responsible for their formation being induced by fenclorim and FC. Fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine was formed from FC by the action of a malonyl-CoA-dependent N-malonyltransferase. A small proportion of the fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine then underwent decarboxylation to yield a putative S-fenclorim-N-acetylcysteine intermediate, which underwent a second round of GST-mediated S-glutathionylation and subsequent proteolytic processing. The formation of CMTP was catalyzed by the concerted action of a cysteine conjugate β-lyase and an S-methyltransferase, with the two activities being coordinately regulated. Although the fenclorim conjugates tested showed little GST-inducing activity in Arabidopsis, the formation of CMTP resulted in metabolic reactivation, with the product showing good enhancing activity. In addition, CMTP induced GSTs and herbicide-safening activity in rice. The bioactivated CMTP was in turn glutathione-conjugated and processed to a malonyl cysteine derivative. These results reveal the surprisingly complex set of competing catabolic reactions acting on xenobiotics entering the S-glutathionylation pathway in plants, which can result in both detoxification and bioactivation. PMID

  10. Increase in Blood Glutathione and Erythrocyte Proteins Related to Glutathione Generation, Reduction and Utilization in African-American Old Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guang; Yang, Fang; Zhou, LiChun; Tang, Tian; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Yang, Hong; Guo, ZhongMao

    2015-01-01

    Data from this report demonstrate that the plasma and erythrocyte levels of total glutathione (TGSH) are significantly lower in nondiabetic old women than in their young counterparts, and significantly higher in diabetic patients than in age-matched nondiabetic controls. The ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) declines with age and diabetes, and shows an order as follows: nondiabetic young > nondiabetic old > diabetic old women. In addition, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulates in RBCs obtained from diabetic patients but not in those from young and old nondiabetic controls. The erythrocyte levels of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1), glutathione S-transferase-ρ1 (GST-ρ1) and glyoxalase I (Glo1) are comparable in nondiabetic young and old women, but significantly higher in diabetic patients than in age-matched nondiabetic controls. Oxidative stress has been suggested to upregulate the expression of these proteins. It is possible that increase in oxidative stress in diabetes, reflected by reduced GSH/GSSG ratio and accumulation of AGEs, upregulates the expression of proteins involved in glutathione synthesis, reduction and utilization in erythrocyte precursor cells, and that overexpression of GCLC is, at least partially, responsible for the increased TGSH in diabetes. PMID:26770888

  11. Detoxication of the 2',3'-epoxide metabolites of allylbenzene and estragole. Conjugation with glutathione.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Guenthner, T M

    1994-01-01

    The enzymatic detoxication in vitro of the 2',3'-epoxide derivatives of allylbenzene and estragole was examined, and the relative rates of enzymatic glutathione conjugation and epoxide hydrolysis were compared with those for styrene 1',2'-oxide. HPLC was used to determine the amounts of dihydrodiol and glutathione conjugate metabolites formed by cell extracts from several sources. Although some differences among species were observed, in general, the rates of epoxide inactivation by both pathways are similar. We conclude that one explanation for the apparent lack of genotoxicity of these allylic epoxides in vivo may be their rapid metabolic inactivation by both glutathione S-transferases and epoxide hydrolases, which occur to approximately equal degrees in vitro.

  12. Differences in response of glucuronide and glutathione conjugating enzymes to aflatoxin B/sub 1/ and N-acetylaminofluorene in underfed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rajpurohit, R.; Krishnaswamy, K.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the hepatic drug/xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in underfed rats exposed to aflatoxin B/sub 1/ and N-acetylaminofluorene were investigated. Neither carcinogen, fed at the level of 10 ..mu..g and 0.667 mg per 100 g body weight, respectively, over a period of 3 wk, had any significant influence on cytochrome P-450 and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in the undernourished rats. Significantly low activities of UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in food-restricted animals fed on aflatoxin B/sub 1/. N-acetylaminofluorene, on the other hand stimulated both the enzyme activities in the underfed group, to as much observed in the respective well-fed treated group. UDP-Glucuronyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase in undernutrition seem to respond differently to aflatoxin B/sub 1/ and N-acetylaminofluorene. Further studies are needed to assess the possible consequences of such alterations.

  13. The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Houseal, M. Trevor; Mulligan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, massive multiscalar trait profiling across a large population of mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA2/J (D2)—the BXD family—was combined with linkage and bioinformatic analyses to characterize mechanisms controlling GST expression and to identify downstream consequences of this variation. Similar to humans, mice show a wide range in expression of GST family members. Variation in the expression of Gsta4, Gstt2, Gstz1, Gsto1, and Mgst3 is modulated by local expression QTLs (eQTLs) in several tissues. Higher expression of Gsto1 in brain and liver of BXD strains is strongly associated (P < 0.01) with inheritance of the B6 parental allele whereas higher expression of Gsta4 and Mgst3 in brain and liver, and Gstt2 and Gstz1 in brain is strongly associated with inheritance of the D2 parental allele. Allele-specific assays confirmed that expression of Gsto1, Gsta4, and Mgst3 are modulated by sequence variants within or near each gene locus. We exploited this endogenous variation to identify coexpression networks and downstream targets in mouse and human. Through a combined systems genetics approach, we provide new insight into the biological role of naturally occurring variants in GST genes. PMID:26829228

  14. Dynamics of glutathione regulation in Schistosoma mansoni: correlations with the acute effects of oltipraz

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Glutathione is present in adult Schistosoma mansoni (0.336 +/- 0.012 nmol/mg protein) at significantly lower levels than uninfected host tissues (1.051 +/- 0.013 nmol/mg protein, liver; 0.627 +/- 0.013 nmol/mg protein, kidney). Host hepatic glutathione levels decline significantly during the course of infection, while renal cortical glutathione levels are unaffected. Of the enzymes regulating glutathione utilization, glutathione reductase in the male parasite exhibits a specific activity of 10.3 +/- 4.2 nmol/mg protein, 15% of hepatic values. The apparent glutathione S-transferase activity was 26 +/- 7 ..mu..mol conjugate formed/min/mg protein with p-nitrobenzyl chloride as substrate (13% of hepatic values) and 526 +/- 18 ..mu..mol conjugate formed/min/mg protein with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate (43% of hepatic values). Male schistosomes exhibited negligible glutathione peroxidase activity. Oltipraz, an antischistosomal compound, effected a significant depletion of parasite and host glutathione levels within 1 h of exposure in vivo and in vitro (at 250 mg/kg and 10 ..mu..M, respectively). Host tissue glutathionine levels returned to, or above, control levels by 6 h after oltipraz administration, while parasite glutathione levels remained significantly depressed. Uptake of (/sup 35/S) cysteine or (/sup 35/S) cystine by schistosomes was inhibited by oltipraz. However, the drug did not alter the relative distribution of label once incorporated into the parasite, indicating that the enzymes of glutathione synthesis were not directly inhibited.

  15. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione biosynthesis in postweaned northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2011-04-15

    Northern elephant seals experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting) while breeding, molting or weaning. The postweaning fast in elephant seals is characterized by increases in the renin-angiotensin system, expression of the oxidant-producing protein Nox4, and NADPH oxidase activity; however, these increases are not correlated with increased oxidative damage or inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) is a potent reductant and a cofactor for glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione-S transferases (GST) and 1-cys peroxiredoxin (PrxVI) and thus contributes to the removal of hydroperoxides, preventing oxidative damage. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on the GSH system are not well described in mammals. To test our hypothesis that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting in postweaned elephant seals, we measured circulating and muscle GSH content at the early and late phases of the postweaning fast in elephant seals along with the activity/protein content of glutamate-cysteine ligase [GCL; catalytic (GCLc) and modulatory (GCLm) subunits], γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione disulphide reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and PrxVI, as well as plasma changes in γ-glutamyl amino acids, glutamate and glutamine. GSH increased two- to four-fold with fasting along with a 40-50% increase in the content of GCLm and GCLc, a 75% increase in GGT activity, a two- to 2.5-fold increase in GR, G6PDH and GST activities and a 30% increase in PrxVI content. Plasma γ-glutamyl glutamine, γ-glutamyl isoleucine and γ-glutamyl methionine also increased with fasting whereas glutamate and glutamine decreased. Results indicate that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting and that GSH contributes to counteracting hydroperoxide production, preventing oxidative damage in fasting seals.

  16. Glutathione in cyanobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of light and O2 on glutathione production were determined. Results of light and dark studies under normal and reduced oxygen tensions were compared to determine the effect of reduction in oxygen tension on glutathione levels. The growth rate of Anacystis nidulans and concurrent production of glutathione is presented. The generation of time of Anacystis nidulans was approximately 12 hours. Results of light and dark incubation of Aphanothece halophytica dominated planktonic microbial community from Pond 4 and Anacystis nidulans under high and low oxygen tension is also presented. It appears that light grown Anacystis nidulans cells have equal amounts of glutathione while dark grown cells produce more glutathione in the presence of increased O2.

  17. Overexpression of the Gene Encoding the Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein Results in Increased ATP-Dependent Glutathione S-Conjugate Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Michael; Meijer, Coby; Zaman, Guido J. R.; Borst, Piet; Scheper, Rik J.; Mulder, Nanno H.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Jansen, Peter L. M.

    1994-12-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) is a 180- to 195-kDa glycoprotein associated with multidrug resistance of human tumor cells. MRP is mainly located in the plasma membrane and it confers resistance by exporting natural product drugs out of the cell. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of the MRP gene in human cancer cells increases the ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate carrier activity in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from these cells. The glutathione S-conjugate export carrier is known to mediate excretion of bivalent anionic conjugates from mammalian cells and is thought to play a role in the elimination of conjugated xenobiotics. Our results suggest that MRP can cause multidrug resistance by promoting the export of drug modification products from cells and they shed light on the reported link between drug resistance and cellular glutathione and glutathione S-transferase levels.

  18. Gluthathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione-S-transfera...

  19. Effects of cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides from microcystis on glutathione-based detoxification pathways in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo.

    PubMed

    Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Gantar, Miroslav; Mayer, Gregory D; Gibbs, Patrick D L; Berry, John P

    2012-06-01

    Cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae") are recognized producers of a diverse array of toxic secondary metabolites. Of these, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), produced by all cyanobacteria, remain to be well investigated. In the current study, we specifically employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo to investigate the effects of LPS from geographically diverse strains of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis, on several detoxifying enzymes/pathways, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)/glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and compared observed effects to those of heterotrophic bacterial (i.e., E. coli) LPS. In agreement with previous studies, cyanobacterial LPS significantly reduced GST in embryos exposed to LPS in all treatments. In contrast, GPx moderately increased in embryos exposed to LPS, with no effect on reciprocal GR activity. Interestingly, total glutathione levels were elevated in embryos exposed to Microcystis LPS, but the relative levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione (i.e., GSH/GSSG) were, likewise, elevated suggesting that oxidative stress is not involved in the observed effects as typical of heterotrophic bacterial LPS in mammalian systems. In further support of this, no effect was observed with respect to CAT or SOD activity. These findings demonstrate that Microcystis LPS affects glutathione-based detoxification pathways in the zebrafish embryo, and more generally, that this model is well suited for investigating the apparent toxicophore of cyanobacterial LPS, including possible differences in structure-activity relationships between heterotrophic and cyanobacterial LPS, and teleost fish versus mammalian systems.

  20. Formation of 3-(glutathion-S-YL)-N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene and inhibition of aminoazo dye-nucleic acid binding in vitro by reaction of glutathione with metabolically-generated N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene-N-sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kadlubar, F F; Ketterer, B; Flammang, T J; Christodoulides, L

    1980-09-01

    The reaction of glutathione (GSH) with metabolically-formed N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene-N-sulfate (MAB-N-sulfate), a presumed ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of N,N-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (DAB), was investigated using a hepatic sulfotransferase incubation mixture containing GSH and the proximate carcinogen, N-hydroxy-N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene (N-HO-MAB). Under these conditions, 6--16% of the MAB-N-sulfate formed could be trapped as an aminoazo dye-GSH adduct. Upon subsequent purification, the adduct was shown to be chromatographically and spectrally identical to 3-(glutathion-S-yl)-N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene (3-GS-MAB), a known biliary metabolite of DAB and a product of the reaction of the synthetic ultimate carcinogen, N-benzoyloxy-N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene(N-BzO-MAB), with GSH. Neither 2'- nor 4'-GS-MAB, both products of the latter reaction, were detected in the sulfotransferase incubation mixture. GSH-S-transferases did not appear to be involved in the reaction of MAB-N-sulfate of N-BzO-MAB with GSH. The addition of triethyltin, a potent GSH-S-transferase inhibitor, had no effect on the yield of 3-GS-MAB in (N-HO-MAB sulfotransferase)-GSH incubations; and the addition of cytosol or purified GSH transferases A and B to a (N-BzO-MAB)-GSH reaction mixture did not increase the amount of 3-GS-MAB formed.

  1. Piperaquine and Lumefantrine resistance in Plasmodium berghei ANKA associated with increased expression of Ca2+/H+ antiporter and glutathione associated enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kiboi, Daniel; Irungu, Beatrice; Orwa, Jennifer; Kamau, Luna; Ochola-Oyier, Lynette Isabella; Ngángá, Joseph; Nzila, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of resistance of two antimalarial drugs piperaquine (PQ) and lumefantrine (LM) using the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei as a surrogate of the human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. We analyzed the whole coding sequence of Plasmodium berghei chloroquine resistance transporter (Pbcrt) and Plasmodium berghei multidrug resistance gene 1(Pbmdr-1) for polymorphisms. These genes are associated with quinoline resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. No polymorphic changes were detected in the coding sequences of Pbcrt and Pbmdr1 or in the mRNA transcript levels of Pbmdr1. However, our data demonstrated that PQ and LM resistance is achieved by multiple mechanisms that include elevated mRNA transcript levels of V-type H(+) pumping pyrophosphatase (vp2), Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (vcx1), gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase (ggcs) and glutathione-S-transferase (gst) genes, mechanisms also known to contribute to chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum and rodent malaria parasites. The increase in ggcs and gst transcript levels was accompanied by high glutathione (GSH) levels and elevated activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzyme. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Pbcrt and Pbmdr1 are not associated with PQ and LM resistance in P. berghei ANKA, while vp2, vcx1, ggcs and gst may mediate resistance directly or modulate functional mutations in other unknown genes.

  2. [The flavonoids effect against vinblastine, cyclophosphamide and paracetamol toxicity by inhibition of lipid-peroxydation and increasing liver glutathione concentration].

    PubMed

    Lahouel, M; Boulkour, S; Segueni, N; Fillastre, J P

    2004-07-01

    The paracetamol and cyclophosphamid are metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450. The formed reactive intermediates are responsible of a hepatocyte depletion of the glutathion and a lipoperoxydation. the vinblast