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Sample records for glutathione systems differ

  1. Thioredoxin and glutathione systems differ in parasitic and free-living platyhelminths.

    PubMed

    Otero, Lucía; Bonilla, Mariana; Protasio, Anna V; Fernández, Cecilia; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Salinas, Gustavo

    2010-04-13

    The thioredoxin and/or glutathione pathways occur in all organisms. They provide electrons for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, function as antioxidant defenses, in detoxification, Fe/S biogenesis and participate in a variety of cellular processes. In contrast to their mammalian hosts, platyhelminth (flatworm) parasites studied so far, lack conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Instead, they possess a linked thioredoxin-glutathione system with the selenocysteine-containing enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) as the single redox hub that controls the overall redox homeostasis. TGR has been recently validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis and new drug leads targeting TGR have recently been identified for these platyhelminth infections that affect more than 200 million people and for which a single drug is currently available. Little is known regarding the genomic structure of flatworm TGRs, the expression of TGR variants and whether the absence of conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems is a signature of the entire platyhelminth phylum. We examine platyhelminth genomes and transcriptomes and find that all platyhelminth parasites (from classes Cestoda and Trematoda) conform to a biochemical scenario involving, exclusively, a selenium-dependent linked thioredoxin-glutathione system having TGR as a central redox hub. In contrast, the free-living platyhelminth Schmidtea mediterranea (Class Turbellaria) possesses conventional and linked thioredoxin and glutathione systems. We identify TGR variants in Schistosoma spp. derived from a single gene, and demonstrate their expression. We also provide experimental evidence that alternative initiation of transcription and alternative transcript processing contribute to the generation of TGR variants in platyhelminth parasites. Our results indicate that thioredoxin and glutathione pathways differ in parasitic and free-living flatworms and that canonical enzymes were specifically lost in the

  2. Thioredoxin and glutathione systems differ in parasitic and free-living platyhelminths

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The thioredoxin and/or glutathione pathways occur in all organisms. They provide electrons for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, function as antioxidant defenses, in detoxification, Fe/S biogenesis and participate in a variety of cellular processes. In contrast to their mammalian hosts, platyhelminth (flatworm) parasites studied so far, lack conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Instead, they possess a linked thioredoxin-glutathione system with the selenocysteine-containing enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) as the single redox hub that controls the overall redox homeostasis. TGR has been recently validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis and new drug leads targeting TGR have recently been identified for these platyhelminth infections that affect more than 200 million people and for which a single drug is currently available. Little is known regarding the genomic structure of flatworm TGRs, the expression of TGR variants and whether the absence of conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems is a signature of the entire platyhelminth phylum. Results We examine platyhelminth genomes and transcriptomes and find that all platyhelminth parasites (from classes Cestoda and Trematoda) conform to a biochemical scenario involving, exclusively, a selenium-dependent linked thioredoxin-glutathione system having TGR as a central redox hub. In contrast, the free-living platyhelminth Schmidtea mediterranea (Class Turbellaria) possesses conventional and linked thioredoxin and glutathione systems. We identify TGR variants in Schistosoma spp. derived from a single gene, and demonstrate their expression. We also provide experimental evidence that alternative initiation of transcription and alternative transcript processing contribute to the generation of TGR variants in platyhelminth parasites. Conclusions Our results indicate that thioredoxin and glutathione pathways differ in parasitic and free-living flatworms and that canonical enzymes

  3. Linked thioredoxin-glutathione systems in platyhelminths.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Gustavo; Selkirk, Murray E; Chalar, Cora; Maizels, Rick M; Fernández, Cecilia

    2004-07-01

    The thioredoxin and glutathione systems play a central role in thiol-disulfide redox homeostasis in many organisms by providing electrons to essential enzymes, and defence against oxidative stress. These systems have recently been characterized in platyhelminth parasites, and the emerging biochemical scenario is the existence of linked processes with the enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase supplying reducing equivalents to both pathways. In contrast to their hosts, conventional thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase enzymes appear to be absent. Analysis of published data and expressed-sequence tag databases indicates the presence of linked thioredoxin-glutathione systems in the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments of these parasites.

  4. Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Noctor, Graham; Queval, Guillaume; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione is a simple sulfur compound composed of three amino acids and the major non-protein thiol in many organisms, including plants. The functions of glutathione are manifold but notably include redox-homeostatic buffering. Glutathione status is modulated by oxidants as well as by nutritional and other factors, and can influence protein structure and activity through changes in thiol-disulfide balance. For these reasons, glutathione is a transducer that integrates environmental information into the cellular network. While the mechanistic details of this function remain to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence points to important roles for glutathione and glutathione-dependent proteins in phytohormone signaling and in defense against biotic stress. Work in Arabidopsis is beginning to identify the processes that govern glutathione status and that link it to signaling pathways. As well as providing an overview of the components that regulate glutathione homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover), the present discussion considers the roles of this metabolite in physiological processes such as light signaling, cell death, and defense against microbial pathogen and herbivores. PMID:22303267

  5. The Glutathione System of Aspergillus nidulans Involves a Fungus-specific Glutathione S-Transferase*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ikuo; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is involved in cellular defense mechanisms for xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species. This study investigated glutathione-dependent mechanisms in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans. A recombinant dimeric protein of A. nidulans glutathione reductase (GR) contained FAD and reduced oxidized glutathione (GSSG) using NADPH as an electron donor. A deletion strain of the GR gene (glrA) accumulated less intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), indicating that the fungal GR contributes to GSSG reduction in vivo. Growth of the deletion strain of glrA was temperature-sensitive, and this phenotype was suppressed by adding GSH to the medium. The strain subsequently accumulated more intracellular superoxide, and cell-free respiration activity was partly defective. Growth of the strain decreased in the presence of oxidants, which induced glrA expression 1.5-6-fold. These results indicated that the fungal glutathione system functions as an antioxidant mechanism in A. nidulans. Our findings further revealed an initial proteomic differential display on GR-depleted and wild type strains. Up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxins, catalases, and cytochrome c peroxidase in the glrA-deletion strain revealed interplay between the glutathione system and both the thioredoxin system and hydrogen peroxide defense mechanisms. We also identified a hypothetical, up-regulated protein in the GR-depleted strains as glutathione S-transferase, which is unique among Ascomycetes fungi. PMID:19171936

  6. Single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet tolerance and glutathione redox system significance assessment in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjum, Naser A.; Singh, Neetu; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Zahoor A.; Duarte, Armando C.; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2013-07-01

    Adsorbents based on single-bilayer graphene oxide sheet (hereafter termed "graphene oxide") are widely used in contaminated environments cleanup which may easily open the avenues for their entry to different environmental compartments, exposure to organisms and their subsequent transfer to human/animal food chain. Considering a common food crop—faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) germinating seedlings as a model plant system, this study assesses the V. faba-tolerance to different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg L-1) of graphene oxide (0.5-5 μm) and evaluates glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) redox system significance in this context. The results showed significantly increased V. faba sensitivity under three graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 1,600 > 200 > 100 mg graphene oxide L-1), which was accompanied by decreased glutathione redox (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione) ratio, reduced glutathione pool, as well as significant and equally elevated activities of glutathione-regenerating (glutathione reductase) and glutathione-metabolizing (glutathione peroxidase; glutathione sulfo-transferase) enzymes. Contrarily, the two graphene oxide concentrations (in order of impact: 800 > 400 graphene oxide mg L-1) yielded promising results; where, significant improvements in V. faba health status (measured as increased graphene oxide tolerance) were clearly perceptible with increased ratio of the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione pool and glutathione reductase activity but decreased activities of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes. It is inferred that V. faba seedlings-sensitivity and/or tolerance to graphene oxide concentrations depends on both the cellular redox state (reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione ratio) and the reduced glutathione pool which in turn are controlled by a finely tuned modulation of the coordination between glutathione-regenerating and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes.

  7. Glutathione Redox System in β-Thalassemia/Hb E Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tangjaidee, Thongchai; Hatairaktham, Suneerat; Charoensakdi, Ratiya; Panichkul, Narumol; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2013-01-01

    β-thalassemia/Hb E is known to cause oxidative stress induced by iron overload. The glutathione system is the major endogenous antioxidant that protects animal cells from oxidative damage. This study aimed to determine the effect of disease state and splenectomy on redox status expressed by whole blood glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and also to evaluate glutathione-related responses to oxidation in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Twenty-seven normal subjects and 25 β-thalassemia/Hb E patients were recruited and blood was collected. The GSH/GSSG ratio, activities of glutathione-related enzymes, hematological parameters, and serum ferritin levels were determined in individuals. Patients had high iron-induced oxidative stress, shown as significantly increased serum ferritin, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased activities of glutathione-related enzymes. Splenectomy increased serum ferritin levels and decreased GSH levels concomitant with unchanged glutathione-related enzyme activities. The redox ratio had a positive correlation with hemoglobin levels and negative correlation with levels of serum ferritin. The glutathione system may be the body's first-line defense used against oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis in thalassemic patients based on the significant correlations between the GSH/GSSH ratio and degree of anemia or body iron stores. PMID:24223032

  8. Sensitivity of cerebellar glutathione system to neonatal ionizing radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Di Toro, C G; Di Toro, P A; Zieher, L M; Guelman, L R

    2007-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are relevant components of living organisms that, besides their role in the regulation of different important physiological functions, when present in excess are capable to affect cell oxidative status, leading to damage of cellular molecules and disturbance of normal cell function. ROS accumulation has been associated with a variety of conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases and ionizing radiation exposure. Cell ability to counteract ROS overproduction depends on the capacity of the endogenous antioxidant defenses--which includes the glutathione (GSH) system--to cope with. Since developing central nervous system (CNS) is especially sensitive to ROS-induced damage, the aim of the present work was to evaluate ROS, reduced GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels in the cerebellum at different developmental ages after irradiation, in order to test if any changes were induced on these key oxidative stress-related cellular markers that might explain the high cerebellar vulnerability to radiation-induced injury. Since intracellular levels of GSH are maintained by glutathione reductase (GSHr), this enzymatic activity was also evaluated. Newborn Wistar rats were irradiated in their cephalic ends and the different parameters were measured, from 1h to 90 days post-irradiation. Results showed that an early transient increase in ROS levels followed by a decrease in cerebellar weight at 3-5 days post-irradiation were induced. An increase in cerebellar GSH levels was induced at 30 days after irradiation, together with a decrease in GSHr activity. These results support the hypothesis that ROS may represent a marker of damage prior to radiation-induced cell death. In contrast, it would be suggested that GSH system might play a role in the compensatory mechanisms triggered to counteract radiation-induced cerebellar damage.

  9. Effect of fish oil on glutathione redox system in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sorto-Gomez, Tania E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Pacheco-Moises, Fermín P; Torres-Sanchez, Erandis D; Ramirez-Ramirez, Viridiana; Macias-Islas, Miguel A; de la Rosa, Alfredo Celis; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are implicated in the induction and progression of MS. Evidence suggests that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of fish oil on the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), content of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and GSH/GSSG ratio in MS. 50 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled. The experimental group received orally 4 g/day of fish oil for 12 months. Fish oil supplementation resulted in a significant increase in n-3 fatty acids and a decrease n-6 fatty acids. No differences in glutathione reductase activity, content of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and GSH/GSSG ratio were found. Conclusion: Glutathione reductase activity was not significantly different between the groups; however, fish oil supplementation resulted in smaller increase in GR compared with control group, suggesting a possible effect on antioxidant defence mechanisms. PMID:27335704

  10. Effect of fish oil on glutathione redox system in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sorto-Gomez, Tania E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Pacheco-Moises, Fermín P; Torres-Sanchez, Erandis D; Ramirez-Ramirez, Viridiana; Macias-Islas, Miguel A; de la Rosa, Alfredo Celis; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are implicated in the induction and progression of MS. Evidence suggests that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of fish oil on the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), content of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and GSH/GSSG ratio in MS. 50 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled. The experimental group received orally 4 g/day of fish oil for 12 months. Fish oil supplementation resulted in a significant increase in n-3 fatty acids and a decrease n-6 fatty acids. No differences in glutathione reductase activity, content of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and GSH/GSSG ratio were found. Glutathione reductase activity was not significantly different between the groups; however, fish oil supplementation resulted in smaller increase in GR compared with control group, suggesting a possible effect on antioxidant defence mechanisms.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section 862.1365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section 862.1365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section 862.1365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section 862.1365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... measure glutathione (the tripeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid) in erythrocytes (red blood cells). Glutathione measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain drug-induced...

  16. The effects of exogenous glutathione on reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities of rats with different ages and gender after whole-body Γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Erden Inal, Mine; Akgün, Asiye; Kahraman, Ahmet

    2003-07-01

    Age-and gender-related changes on reduced glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of rat exposed to different dose of whole-body g-ray irradiation were determined. In addition, the effect of administration of exogenous GSH on endogenous GSH levels, GPx and GR activities was investigated. For this aim, male and female rats aged 1 and 5 moths were divided into two groups as g-ray and g-ray+GSH. Both groups were again divided into four groups as irradiated with 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy doses. GSH level and GPx activity did not change with age while GR activity was decreased with age. Gender-dependent changes in GPx and GR activities were observed, but GSH values were not affect by sex. GSH levels, GPx and GR activities were not observed dose-associated changes of g-irradiation. GSH level and GPx activity in the 8Gy group were increased by GSH. GR activities of old male rats were found to be increased by glutathione in the 6 and 8Gy groups. These results indicate that radiation and administration of exogenous GSH affect gender-and age-dependent GSH level, GPx and GR activities in the rats.

  17. [Glutathione system in erythrocytes and blood plasma in strokes and dyscirculatory encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Kolesnichenko, L S; Kulinski, V I; Shprakh, V V; Bardymov, V V; Verlan, N V; Gubina, L P; Pensionerova, G A; Sergeeva, M P; Stanevich, L M; Filippova, G T

    2007-01-01

    In dyscirculatory encephalopathy and moderate ischemic stroke there are single changes of components of glutathione metabolism. In moderate and severe ischemic stroke frequent and considerable changes have been revealed. Changes in hemorrhagic stroke are also expressed. An increase of activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase is the most typical, rarely the increase of glutathione reductase and GSH is observed. The increase of enzymes activity was absent at the delayed oneset of treatment (more than 3 days) and in severe cases patients who died later. Glutathione system is important in the tolerance to cerebral ischemia.

  18. Binding of glutathione and melatonin to pepsin occurs via different binding mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangrong; Ni, Tianjun

    2016-03-01

    Glutathione is a hydrophilic antioxidant and melatonin is a hydrophobic antioxidant, thus, the binding mechanism of the two antioxidants interacting with protease may be different. In this study, binding of glutathione and melatonin to pepsin has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), equilibrium microdialysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and molecular modeling. Thermodynamic investigations reveal that the binding of glutathione/melatonin to pepsin is driven by favorable enthalpy and unfavorable entropy, and the major driving forces are hydrogen bond and van der Waals force. ITC, equilibrium microdialysis, and molecular modeling reveal that the binding of glutathione to pepsin is characterized by a high number of binding sites. For melatonin, one molecule of melatonin combines with one molecule of pepsin. These results confirm that glutathione/melatonin interact with pepsin through two different binding mechanisms. In addition, the UV-Vis absorption and CD experiments indicate that glutathione and melatonin may induce conformational and microenvironmental changes of pepsin. The conformational changes of pepsin may affect its biological function as protease.

  19. The glutathione conjugate of ethacrynic acid can bind to human pi class glutathione transferase P1-1 in two different modes.

    PubMed

    Oakley, A J; Lo Bello, M; Mazzetti, A P; Federici, G; Parker, M W

    1997-12-08

    The diuretic drug ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of pi class glutathione S-transferase, has been tested in clinical trials as an adjuvant in chemotherapy. We recently solved the crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate. Here we present a new structure of the ethacrynic-glutathione conjugate complex. In this structure the ethacrynic moiety of the complex is shown to bind in a completely different orientation to that previously observed. Thus there are at least two binding modes possible, an observation of great importance to the design of second generation inhibitors of the enzyme.

  20. Glutathione and thioredoxin systems contribute to recombinant monoclonal antibody interchain disulfide bond reduction during bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Handlogten, Michael W; Zhu, Min; Ahuja, Sanjeev

    2017-03-06

    Antibody interchain disulfide bond reduction during biopharmaceutical manufacturing has received increased attention since it was first reported in 2010. Antibody reduction leads to loss of product and reduced product stability. It is therefore critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of reduction. To date, the thioredoxin system has been reported as the sole contributor to antibody reduction during bioprocessing. In this work, we show that the glutathione system, in addition to the thioredoxin system, is involved in reducing antibody molecules and the contributions of the two systems can vary depending upon the cell culture process. The roles of the glutathione and thioredoxin systems were evaluated for three molecules with different IgG subclass where reduction was observed during manufacturing: mAb A, mAb B, and mAb C representing an IgG1 , IgG2 , and IgG4, respectively. The expression of enzymes for both the thioredoxin and glutathione systems were confirmed in all three cell lines. Inhibitors were evaluated using purified mammalian reductases to evaluate their specificity. The optimized experimental conditions enabled both the determination of reductase activity contributed from as well as the amount of antibody reduced by each enzymatic system. Our results demonstrate that the underlying enzymatic mechanisms are different depending upon the cell culture process; one of the two systems may be the dominant mechanism, or both enzymatic systems may be involved. Specifically, the glutathione system was found to be the major contributor to mAb A reduction while the thioredoxin system was the major contributor to mAb C reduction. Intriguingly, mAb B experienced significant reduction from both enzymatic systems. In summary, we have demonstrated that in addition to the thioredoxin pathway, the glutathione system is a second major pathway contributing to antibody reduction and this knowledge can be leveraged to develop more specific antibody reduction

  1. [The activity of glutathione antioxidant system at melaksen and valdoxan action under experimental hyperthyroidism in rats].

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of glutathione antioxidant system activity and diene conjugates content in rats liver and blood serum at the influence of melaksen and valdoxan under experimental hyperthyroidism (EG) has been revealed. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione transferase (GT), growing at pathological conditions, change to the side of control value at these substunces introduction. Reduced glutathione content (GSH) at melaxen and valdoxan action increased compared with values under the pathology, that, obviously, could be associated with a reduction of its spending on the detoxication of free radical oxidation (FRO) toxic products. Diene conjugates level in rats liver and blood serum, increasing at experimental hyperthyroidism conditions, under introduction of melatonin level correcting drugs, also approached to the control meaning. Results of the study indicate on positive effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical homeostasis, that appears to be accompanied by decrease of load on the glutathione antioxidant system in comparison with the pathology.

  2. Effect of different hydrolysates of whey protein on hepatic glutathione content in mice.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Maria Teresa Bertoldo; Sgarbieri, Valdemiro Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of diets prepared with enzymatic hydrolysate of a whey protein concentrate (WPC) by pancreatin, protamex (Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark), and alcalase proteases on the hepatic glutathione content in mice. The undenatured WPC was produced in a pilot plant by membrane technology (microfiltration/diafiltration) after separation of the casein clot through a conventional process. All three hydrolysates with 20% degree of hydrolysis showed an amino acid profile similar to WPC. Male A/J mice were fed on diets containing 20% WPC or hydrolysates. Commercial casein was used as a reference protein in the biological assays. The glutathione content was determined after liver extraction through high-performance capillary electrophoresis. WPC and its pancreatin and protamex hydrolysates showed higher ability to stimulate liver glutathione synthesis than alcalase hydrolysate. This difference was probably related to an amino acid sequence in the peptides that were formed during hydrolysis of whey proteins. Commercial casein and WPC alcalase hydrolysate produced lower stimulation of liver glutathione synthesis (7.09 and 5.66 micromol/g of wet weight) compared with WPC and pancreatin and protamex hydrolysates (8.72, 8.71, and 8.45 micromol/g of wet weight, respectively). These results indicate that the hydrolysates obtained by treatment with pancreatin and protamex are good sources of peptides with activity to stimulate glutathione synthesis.

  3. Altered glutathione system is associated with the presence of distal symmetric peripheral polyneuropathy in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Mercedes Molina; Folgado, José; Tormo, Carmen; Artero, Ana; Ascaso, Maria; Martinez-Hervás, Sergio; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T

    2015-01-01

    Distal symmetric peripheral polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a highly prevalent complication of diabetes. However, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are multiple and not well understood. The aim of our study was to analyze the oxidative stress levels in circulating mononuclear cells by measuring the glutathione system, malondialdehyde and oxidized-LDL, in 60 type 2 diabetic patients from a well-characterized cohort of 196 type 2 diabetic patients. Using a nested case-control design, we studied 30 type 2 diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy and 30 diabetic controls without this complication, according to the Neuropathy Disability Score. We have found that diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy showed significantly lower values of reduced glutathione (GSH) and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. These data indicate an increased consumption of glutathione in mononuclear cells from patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy. No significant differences were found in malondialdehyde or in oxidized-LDL levels comparing both groups. These data show an altered glutathione response in circulating monocytes from diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effect of bemethyl on the glutathione system in the rat liver in acute hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Zarubina, I V; Mironova, O P

    2002-01-01

    The effect of bemithyl on the state of liver glutathione system was studied in rats under acute hypoxic hypoxia conditions modeled by "elevating" animals in a pressure chamber up to an altitude of 8000-11,000 m for 30 min. Bemithyl (25 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 30 min before the hypoxia onset, prevents a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione and SH groups and impedes a drop in the activity of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. By means of the inhibition analysis using actinomycin D (a protein synthesis inhibitor), it was established that the protective action of bemithyl is related to the ability of enhancing the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in the liver glutathione system.

  5. Naegleria fowleri: a free-living highly pathogenic amoeba contains trypanothione/trypanothione reductase and glutathione/glutathione reductase systems.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, Raúl N; Hurtado, Gerardo; Tamayo, Elsa; Iturbe, Angélica; Hernández, Eva

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents definitive data showing that the thiol-bimane compound isolated and purified by HPLC from Naegleria fowleri trophozoites unequivocally corresponds by matrix assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, to the characteristic monoprotonated ion of trypanothione-(bimane)(2) [M(+)H(+)] of m/z 1104.57 and to the trypanothione-(bimane) of m/z 914.46. The trypanothione disulfide T(S)(2) was also found to have a molecular ion of m/z 723.37. Additionally HPLC demonstrated that thiol-bimane compounds corresponding to cysteine and glutathione were present in Naegleria. The ion patterns of the thiol-bimane compounds prepared from commercial trypanothione standard, Entamoeba histolytica and Crithidia luciliae are identical to the Naegleria thiol-bimane compound. Partially purified extracts from N. fowleri showed the coexistence of glutathione and trypanothione reductases activities. There is not doubt that the thiol compound trypanothione, which was previously thought to occur only in Kinetoplastida, is also present in the human pathogens E. histolytica and N. fowleri, as well as in the non-pathogenic euglenozoan E. gracilis. The presence of the trypanothione/trypanothione reductase system in N. fowleri creates the possibility of using this enzyme as a new "drug target" for rationally designed drugs to eliminate the parasite, without affecting the human host.

  6. Effects of Oral Glutathione Supplementation on Systemic Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant free radical scavenger synthesized endogenously in humans. Increasing mechanistic, clinical, and epidemiological evidence demonstrates that GSH status is significant in acute and chronic diseases. Despite ease of delivery, little controlled clinical research data exist evaluating the effects of oral GSH supplementation. Objectives The study objectives were to determine the effect of oral GSH supplementation on biomarkers of systemic oxidative stress in human volunteers. Design This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting/location The study was conducted at Bastyr University Research Institute, Kenmore, WA and the Bastyr Center for Natural Health, Seattle, WA. Subjects Forty (40) adult volunteers without acute or chronic disease participated in this study. Intervention Oral GSH supplementation (500 mg twice daily) was given to the volunteers for 4 weeks. Outcome measures Primary outcome measures included change in creatinine-standardized, urinary F2-isoprostanes (F2-isoP) and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Changes in erythrocyte GSH concentrations, including total reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and their ratio (GSH:GSSG) were also measured by tandem liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between groups. Results There were no differences in oxidative stress biomarkers between treatment groups at baseline. Thirty-nine (39) participants completed the study per protocol. Changes in creatinine standardized F2-isoP (ng/mg creatinine) (0.0±0.1 versus 0.0±0.1, p=0.38) and 8-OHdG (μg/g creatinine) (-0.2±3.3 versus 1.0±3.2, p=0.27) were nonsignificant between groups at week 4. Total reduced, oxidized, and ratio measures of GSH status were also unchanged. Conclusions No significant changes were observed in biomarkers of oxidative stress, including glutathione status

  7. [Effect of nickel compounds on glutathione-dependent antioxidant system of pea and maize shoots].

    PubMed

    Syshchykov, D V; Hryshko, V M

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation of Ni ions in vegetative bodies of 6- and 10-days shoots of peas and maize, as well as the influence of Ni compounds on accumulation of the glutathione reduced form and activity of glutathione-dependent antioxidant enzymes were investigated. It was established, that Ni accumulation by the root system of plants is carried more efficiently, than by leaves. The increase of concentration of these toxic cations in cultivation medium results in the decrease of the glutathione reduced form in vegetative bodies of plants. A general tendency to the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity is shown under the action of Ni compounds.

  8. Preparation and comparison of chitosan nanoparticles with different degrees of glutathione thiolation

    PubMed Central

    Yousefpour, P.; Atyabi, F.; Dinarvand, R.; Vasheghani-Farahani, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Chitosan has gained considerable attentions as a biocompatible carrier to improve delivery of active agents. Application of this vehicle in the form of nanoparticle could profit advantages of nanotechnology to increase efficacy of active agents. The purpose of this study was to provide detailed information about chitosan–glutathione (Cht-GSH)nanoparticles which are gaining popularity because of their high mucoadhesive and extended drug release properties. Methods Depolymerization of chitosan was carried out using sodium nitrite method.Glutathione was covalently attached to chitosan and the solubility of the resulting conjugates was evaluated. Nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method and then the effect of glutathione immobilization on properties of nanoparticles was investigated. Results Thiolation efficiency was higher in lower molecular weight chitosan polymers compared to unmodified chitosan nanoparticles. Cht-GSH conjugates of the same molecular weight but with different degrees of thiolation had the same hydrodynamic diameter (995± nm) and surface charge (102± mV) as unmodified chitosan, but comprised of a denser network structure and lower concentration. Cht-GSH nanoparticles also exhibited greater mucoadhesive strength which was less affected by ionic strength and pH of the environment. Conclusion Thiolation improves the solubility of chitosan without any significant changes in size and charge of nanoparticles, but affects the nanogel structure. PMID:22615683

  9. Intracellular cysteine delivery system that protects against toxicity by promoting glutathione synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, J M; Boettcher, B; Meister, A

    1982-01-01

    Depletion of glutathione by inhibition of its synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine, an irreversible inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, leads to increased sensitivity to (i) irradiation and (ii) oxidative stress. In the present work, an intracellular cysteine delivery system was used to promote glutathione synthesis, and this was found to protect against toxicity. Thus, administration of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate protected against acetaminophen toxicity in mice; the thiazolidine, which is converted to L-cysteine by the enzyme 5-oxo-L-prolinase (present in many animal tissues and in plants) promotes the synthesis of glutathione, which is the actual protectant. The effect of this thiazolidine in increasing the level of glutathione is prevented by administration of buthionine sulfoximine. This thiazolidine may be useful in the treatment of other toxicities and in the treatment of certain diseases. It may also be valuable as a component of amino acid mixtures used in therapy and as a safener in agriculture. PMID:6959113

  10. [The blood glutathione system in cerebral vascular diseases and its treatment with alpha-lipoic acid].

    PubMed

    Kolesnichenko, L S; Kulinskiĭ, V I; Shprakh, V V; Bardymov, V V; Verlan, N V; Gubina, L P; Pensionerova, G A; Sergeeva, M P; Stanevich, L M; Filippova, G T

    2008-01-01

    The changes of glutathione metabolism are rare in dyscirculatory encephalopathy and ischemic stroke (IS) of mild severity. The frequent and considerable changes have been revealed in IS of moderate and high severity as well as in hemorrhagic stroke. An increase of activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase is the most typical. The increase of enzyme activity was not observed at the beginning of treatment after 3 days and in patients with severe degree of disease who died later. A standard therapy decreased the quantity and/or expression of changes of the glutathione metabolism in patients with IS of moderate and high severity while the addition of alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA) led to the complete normalization in IS of moderate severity and normalization of most parameters in IS of high severity. The increase of functional activity of the glutathione system at the early stage of treatment of IS and the favorable changes during the treatment, in particular after the addition of alpha-LA, were correlated with the improvement of neurological status assessed with the NIHSS. It has been confirmed that the glutathione system plays an important role in the tolerance to brain ischemia.

  11. Glutathione and thioredoxin systems of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: Partners in crime?

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Rahul; Sharma, Shobhona; Patankar, Swati

    2017-06-17

    In P. falciparum, antioxidant proteins of the glutathione and thioredoxin systems are compartmentalized. Some subcellular compartments have only a partial complement of these proteins. This lack of key anti-oxidant proteins in certain sub-cellular compartments might be compensated by functional complementation between these systems. By assessing the cross-talk between these systems, we show for the first time, that the glutathione system can reduce thioredoxins that are poor substrates for thioredoxin reductase (Thioredoxin-like protein 1 and Thioredoxin 2) and thioredoxins that lack access to thioredoxin reductase (Thioredoxin 2). Our data suggests that crosstalk between the glutathione and thioredoxin systems does exist; this could compensate for the absence of certain antioxidant proteins from key subcellular compartments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thiol-disulfide interchange in the tocinoic acid/glutathione system during freezing and drying.

    PubMed

    Thing, Mette; Zhang, Jun; Laurence, Jennifer; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2010-12-01

    Thiol-disulfide interchange ("disulfide scrambling") is a common mechanism of covalent aggregation for protein drugs. Using tocinoic acid (cyclo-S-Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-(S); TA(ox)) and glutathione (γGlu-Cys-Gly; GSH), our previous work demonstrated that thiol/disulfide interchange is affected by lyophilization in a manner consistent with irreversible and regioselective loss of TA(ox) (Zhang et al., 2009, J Pharm Sci 98/9: 3312-3318). Here, we explore the contributions of stages of the lyophilization cycle to perturbations in thiol/disulfide interchange in the TA/GSH system. TA(ox) and GSH were co-lyophilized from phosphate buffer in the presence or absence of various excipients, then analyzed for TA(ox) and mixed disulfide products by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (rp-HPLC). Perturbations were found to occur primarily during freezing, before significant amounts of ice were removed by sublimation. Addition of a lyoprotectant (sucrose), a cryoprotectant (Tween-20) and flash-freezing influenced the product distribution only while ice was still present. Decreasing the redox potential by the addition of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) affected the product distribution differently in lyophilized samples and solution controls, but in neither case led to increased conservation of TA(ox). © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  13. Determination of Glutathione, Selenium, and Malondialdehyde in Different Edible Mushroom Species.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Hacer; Coteli, Ebru; Karatas, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and selenium was determined by using the fluorescence spectrophotometer in eight different species of edible mushrooms. Brittlegill mushroom (Russula delica), meadow mushroom (Agaricus campestris), dryad's saddle mushroom (Polyporus squamosus), white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Pleurotus spp., ink mushroom (Coprinus atramentarius), ebekari mushroom (slimy) (Elazığ local) and çaşır mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) (Tunceli local) were used for analysis. The amounts of GSH, GSSG, Se, and MDA with GSH/GSSG ratio in the eight different species of edible mushrooms were observed in between 269.10 ± 16.94-1554.83 ± 58.12 μg/g; 23.55 ± 1.89-841.90 ± 20.03 μg/g; 15.06 ± 1.56-82.10 ± 3.84 μg/g; 5.46 ± 0.50-27.45 ± 2.58 μg/g wet weight and 0.32-41.35, respectively. There is a weak correlation (R (2) = 0.389) between MDA and Se, on the other hand, the correlation (R (2) = 0.831) between GSH/GSSG ratio and selenium in mushrooms are reasonable well. In a similar manner, there is a weak correlation (R (2) = 0551) between GSH/GSSG and MDA ratios in mushrooms. It was found that these edible mushroom species are good source of glutathione (GSH, GSSG), and selenium (Se) in terms of quantities obtained; therefore, it can be said that mushrooms are a rich source of antioxidants.

  14. The systems V(IV)O(2+)-glutathione and related ligands: a potentiometric and spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, João Costa; Tomaz, Isabel; Kiss, Tamás; Kiss, Erzsébet; Buglyó, Péter

    2002-03-01

    The equilibria in the system V(IV)O(2+)-glutathione in aqueous solution were studied in the pH range 2-11 by a combination of pH-potentiometry and spectroscopy (EPR, visible absorption and circular dichroism). The results of the various methods are consistent and the equilibrium model includes the species MLH(3), MLH(2), MLH, ML(2)H(2), MLH(-1), and MLH(-2) and several hydrolysis products (where H(4)L denotes totally protonated glutathione); individual formation constants and spectra are given. ML(2)H(2) is the predominant species at physiological pH. Plausible structures for each stoichiometry are discussed. The related V(IV)O(2+) systems of S-methylglutathione and gamma- L-glutamyl- L-cysteinyl ethyl ester were studied by means of the same spectroscopic techniques in order to support the established binding modes for the glutathione complexes. The importance of glutathione and oxidized glutathione in binding V(IV)O(2+) in cells is assessed.

  15. Glutathione system participation in thoracic aneurysms from patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra María; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Núñez-Garrido, Elías; Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Huesca-Gómez, Claudia; Gamboa-Ávila, Ricardo; Soto, María Elena

    2017-05-01

    Aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome (MFS) is progressive. It is associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction that contribute to the early acute dissection of the vessel and can result in rupture of the aorta and sudden death. We evaluated the participation of the glutathione (GSH) system, which could be involved in the mechanisms that promote the formation and progression of the aortic aneurysms in MFS patients. Aortic aneurysm tissue was obtained during chest surgery from eight control subjects and 14 MFS patients. Spectrophotometrical determination of activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), lipid peroxidation (LPO) index, carbonylation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and concentration of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG respectively), was performed in the homogenate from aortic aneurysm tissue. LPO index, carbonylation, TGF-β1, and GR activity were increased in MFS patients (p < 0.04), while TAC, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, and GST activity were significantly decreased (p < 0.04). The depletion of GSH, in spite of the elevated activity of GR, not only diminished the activity of GSH-depend GST and GPx, but increased LPO, carbonylation and decreased TAC. These changes could promote the structural and functional alterations in the thoracic aorta of MFS patients.

  16. [Glutathione redox system, immune status, antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides in hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Bekbosynova, R B; Bolysbekova, S M

    2015-01-01

    The immune status, components of the glutathione redox system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides have been investigated in animals with experimental hypothyroidism. On day 8 after an increase in the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-helpers and T-suppressors as well as increased number of B-lymphocytes was found in blood of thyroidectomized rats. This was accompanied by decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (AD), AMP-deaminase (AMPD), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) in blood, but the ratio of enzyme activity AD/AMPD increased. These changes in the activity of enzymes, involved in purine catabolism can be regarded as increased functional relationships between T and B lymphocytes in hypothyroidism. The functional changes of immune system cells were accompanied by increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and the ratio GH/GPx. Thyroidectomized rats had increased amounts of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but the ratio GSH/GSSG decerased as compared with control animals. In the liver, hypothyroidism resulted in activation of SOD, GPx, decreased activity of GR and decreased ratio GR/GPx. At the same time, the levels of total, oxidized, and reduced glutathione increased, but the ratio GSH/GSSG as well as activities of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism ratio (and their ratio 5'N/AD + AMPD) decreased. All these data suggest a functional relationship of the glutathione redox system not only with antioxidant enzymes, but also activity of enzymes involved purine nucleotide metabolism and immune status.

  17. High resolution imaging of subcellular glutathione concentrations by quantitative immunoelectron microscopy in different leaf areas of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Koffler, Barbara E.; Bloem, Elke; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione is an important antioxidant and redox buffer in plants. It fulfills many important roles during plant development, defense and is essential for plant metabolism. Even though the compartment specific roles of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress situations have been studied in detail there is still great lack of knowledge about subcellular glutathione concentrations within the different leaf areas at different stages of development. In this study a method is described that allows the calculation of compartment specific glutathione concentrations in all cell compartments simultaneously in one experiment by using quantitative immunogold electron microscopy combined with biochemical methods in different leaf areas of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 (center of the leaf, leaf apex, leaf base and leaf edge). The volume of subcellular compartments in the mesophyll of Arabidopsis was found to be similar to other plants. Vacuoles covered the largest volume within a mesophyll cell and increased with leaf age (up to 80% in the leaf apex of older leaves). Behind vacuoles, chloroplasts covered the second largest volume (up to 20% in the leaf edge of the younger leaves) followed by nuclei (up to 2.3% in the leaf edge of the younger leaves), mitochondria (up to 1.6% in the leaf apex of the younger leaves), and peroxisomes (up to 0.3% in the leaf apex of the younger leaves). These values together with volumes of the mesophyll determined by stereological methods from light and electron micrographs and global glutathione contents measured with biochemical methods enabled the determination of subcellular glutathione contents in mM. Even though biochemical investigations did not reveal differences in global glutathione contents, compartment specific differences could be observed in some cell compartments within the different leaf areas. Highest concentrations of glutathione were always found in mitochondria, where values in a range between 8.7 mM (in the apex of younger

  18. Martial art training enhances the glutathione antioxidant system in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Elokda, Ahmed S; Handrakis, John P; Principal, Suze; Rondo, Eleni; Bovell, Juan; Coughlin, William P; Mastroianni, Charles N; Wong, Michael J; Zimmerman, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity of physically active middle-aged martial artists to age-matched sedentary controls. Nine sedentary subjects (mean age 52.9 yr) and 9 martial artists (mean age 51.8 yr) who practice Soo Bahk Do, a Korean martial art and were age- and sex-matched performed a graded exercise test (GXT) using a modified Bruce protocol. Ages ranged from 41 to 58 years. A GXT has been shown to be an effective technique for inducing oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) is the body's most highly concentrated antioxidant, is the central component of the antioxidant system, and plays an essential role in protecting tissues against oxidative stress. Free radical oxidation leads to the transformation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Venous blood samples for GSH and GSSG were collected before and immediately after the GXT. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed on the resting baseline values and immediate post-GXT values of GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG to compare groups. The blood GSH, GSSG, and GSH:GSSG levels were significantly different (p < 0.001) between the 2 groups at rest and after the GXT. The Soo Bahk Do practitioners had higher resting levels of GSH and lower levels of GSSG and responded more effectively to acute oxidative stress than the age-matched sedentary controls. Soo Bahk Do appears to enhance the antioxidant defense system and may be an effective intervention for improving overall health by protecting against the adverse effects of oxidative stress that is associated with the free radical theory of aging. Health professionals should be aware of alternative methods of training, conditioning, and exercise that can improve the general adaptation response to oxidative stress.

  19. Synaptic NMDA receptor activity is coupled to the transcriptional control of the glutathione system

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Paul S.; Bell, Karen F.S.; Hasel, Philip; Kaindl, Angela M.; Fricker, Michael; Thomson, Derek; Cregan, Sean P.; Gillingwater, Thomas H.; Hardingham, Giles E.

    2015-01-01

    How the brain's antioxidant defenses adapt to changing demand is incompletely understood. Here we show that synaptic activity is coupled, via the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), to control of the glutathione antioxidant system. This tunes antioxidant capacity to reflect the elevated needs of an active neuron, guards against future increased demand and maintains redox balance in the brain. This control is mediated via a programme of gene expression changes that boosts the synthesis, recycling and utilization of glutathione, facilitating ROS detoxification and preventing Puma-dependent neuronal apoptosis. Of particular importance to the developing brain is the direct NMDAR-dependent transcriptional control of glutathione biosynthesis, disruption of which can lead to degeneration. Notably, these activity-dependent cell-autonomous mechanisms were found to cooperate with non-cell-autonomous Nrf2-driven support from astrocytes to maintain neuronal GSH levels in the face of oxidative insults. Thus, developmental NMDAR hypofunction and glutathione system deficits, separately implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders, are mechanistically linked. PMID:25854456

  20. Systems toxicology: modelling biomarkers of glutathione homeostasis and paracetamol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Simone H; Yates, James W; Nicholls, Andrew W; Kenna, J Gerry; Coen, Muireann; Ortega, Fernando; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Wilson, Ian D

    2015-08-01

    One aim of systems toxicology is to deliver mechanistic, mathematically rigorous, models integrating biochemical and pharmacological processes that result in toxicity to enhance the assessment of the risk posed to humans by drugs and other xenobiotics. The benefits of such 'in silico' models would be in enabling the rapid and robust prediction of the effects of compounds over a range of exposures, improving in vitro-in vivo correlations and the translation from preclinical species to humans. Systems toxicology models of organ toxicities that result in high attrition rates during drug discovery and development, or post-marketing withdrawals (e.g., drug-induced liver injury (DILI)) should facilitate the discovery of safe new drugs. Here, systems toxicology as applied to the effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen, N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP)) is used to exemplify the potential of the approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Yap1-regulated glutathione redox system curtails accumulation of formaldehyde and reactive oxygen species in methanol metabolism of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yano, Taisuke; Takigami, Emiko; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The glutathione redox system, including the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione regeneration reaction, has been found to play a critical role in the yeast Pichia pastoris during growth on methanol, and this regulation was at least partly executed by the transcription factor PpYap1. During adaptation to methanol medium, PpYap1 transiently localized to the nucleus and activated the expression of the glutathione redox system and upregulated glutathione reductase 1 (Glr1). Glr1 activates the regeneration of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH). Depletion of Glr1 caused a severe growth defect on methanol and hypersensitivity to formaldehyde (HCHO), which could be complemented by addition of GSH to the medium. Disruption of the genes for the HCHO-oxidizing enzymes PpFld1 and PpFgh1 caused a comparable phenotype, but disruption of the downstream gene PpFDH1 did not, demonstrating the importance of maintaining intracellular GSH levels. Absence of the peroxisomal glutathione peroxidase Pmp20 also triggered nuclear localization of PpYap1, and although cells were not sensitive to HCHO, growth on methanol was again severely impaired due to oxidative stress. Thus, the PpYap1-regulated glutathione redox system has two important roles, i.e., HCHO metabolism and detoxification of reactive oxygen species.

  2. Pyrene-induced changes of glutathione-S-transferase activities in different microalgal species.

    PubMed

    Lei, An-Ping; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2003-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18) activities in different freshwater microalgal species, namely, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus platydiscus and Selenastrum capricornutum under the control condition (without pyrene addition) and at different pyrene concentrations were compared. During 7-days incubation under the control condition (without pyrene addition), all microalgal species exhibited measurable GST activities but the activities varied significantly among species and the difference could be more than 100-fold. The addition of pyrene at concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mg l(-1) to microalgal cultures led to changes in GST activities but the patterns of changes varied from species to species. Among the four species, remarkably decreases in GST activities were found in S. quadricauda, a species most sensitive to pyrene toxicity, at high pyrene concentrations. On the contrary, GST activities in S. platydiscus and Se. capricornutum increased significantly as pyrene concentrations increased. These two species were found to be more resistant to pyrene and had higher efficiencies in metabolising pyrene than other species. C. vulgaris did not show any significant change in their GST activities with the addition of pyrene, and pyrene was not metabolised by this species. These results suggest that pyrene-induced changes of GST activities in microalgae might be related to their resistance and their ability to metabolise pyrene. In general, the pyrene-induced changes of GST activities were higher at 4-days than at 1- and 7-days incubation in all microalgae.

  3. Variations in the distribution of selenium between erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and hemoglobin in different human populations

    SciTech Connect

    Whanger, P.D.; Robinson, M.F.; Feldman, E.B.; Beilstein, M.A.; Butler, J.A.

    1986-03-01

    The majority of erythrocyte (RBC) selenium (Se) is associated with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in animals, but most of it is with hemoglobin (Hb) in human RBCs. Dietary forms of Se may influence this distribution since a rat study showed that selenite promoted the deposition of Se in GPx but selenomethionine (SeMet) resulted in greater amounts with Hb. Three different populations of people were chosen to investigate some possible reasons for the Se distribution in human RBC proteins. An average of 12% of the RBC Se (0.71 ng Se/mg Hb) was associated with GPx in people living in Oregon, but nearly 30% of the Se was associated with GPx in RBC (0.26 ng Se/mg Hb) from New Zealanders. Georgia residents with low RBC Se levels (0.35 ng Se/mg Hb) had 38% of the Se associated with GPx as compared to 29% for those with higher RBC levels (0.56 ng Se/mg Hb). In a third group of people the amount of Se tended to be higher in RBC GPx from non-vegetarian OSU students than from vegetarians. The predominant form of Se in meat appears to be selenocysteine, which is metabolized similarly to selenite, and presumably contributes to this difference since many plant foods contain Se as SeMet. These are examples of many possible factors affecting the relative distribution of Se in human RBC proteins.

  4. Dynamic compartment specific changes in glutathione and ascorbate levels in Arabidopsis plants exposed to different light intensities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excess light conditions induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly in the chloroplasts but also cause an accumulation and production of ROS in peroxisomes, cytosol and vacuoles. Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione occur in all cell compartments where they detoxify ROS. In this study compartment specific changes in antioxidant levels and related enzymes were monitored among Arabidopsis wildtype plants and ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants (vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively) exposed to different light intensities (50, 150 which was considered as control condition, 300, 700 and 1,500 μmol m-2 s-1) for 4 h and 14 d. Results The results revealed that wildtype plants reacted to short term exposure to excess light conditions with the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol and an increased activity of catalase in the leaves. Long term exposure led to an accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione mainly in chloroplasts. In wildtype plants an accumulation of ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could be observed in vacuoles when exposed to high light conditions. The pad2-1 mutant reacted to long term excess light exposure with an accumulation of ascorbate in peroxisomes whereas the vtc2-1 mutant reacted with an accumulation of glutathione in the chloroplasts (relative to the wildtype) and nuclei during long term high light conditions indicating an important role of these antioxidants in these cell compartments for the protection of the mutants against high light stress. Conclusion The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol is an important reaction of plants to short term high light stress. The accumulation of ascorbate and H2O2 along the tonoplast and in vacuoles during these conditions indicates an important route for H2O2 detoxification under these conditions. PMID

  5. Dynamic compartment specific changes in glutathione and ascorbate levels in Arabidopsis plants exposed to different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Heyneke, Elmien; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Krajcer, Iztok; Wolkinger, Volker; Müller, Maria; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-07-17

    Excess light conditions induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly in the chloroplasts but also cause an accumulation and production of ROS in peroxisomes, cytosol and vacuoles. Antioxidants such as ascorbate and glutathione occur in all cell compartments where they detoxify ROS. In this study compartment specific changes in antioxidant levels and related enzymes were monitored among Arabidopsis wildtype plants and ascorbate and glutathione deficient mutants (vtc2-1 and pad2-1, respectively) exposed to different light intensities (50, 150 which was considered as control condition, 300, 700 and 1,500 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for 4 h and 14 d. The results revealed that wildtype plants reacted to short term exposure to excess light conditions with the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol and an increased activity of catalase in the leaves. Long term exposure led to an accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione mainly in chloroplasts. In wildtype plants an accumulation of ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could be observed in vacuoles when exposed to high light conditions. The pad2-1 mutant reacted to long term excess light exposure with an accumulation of ascorbate in peroxisomes whereas the vtc2-1 mutant reacted with an accumulation of glutathione in the chloroplasts (relative to the wildtype) and nuclei during long term high light conditions indicating an important role of these antioxidants in these cell compartments for the protection of the mutants against high light stress. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the accumulation of ascorbate and glutathione in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and the cytosol is an important reaction of plants to short term high light stress. The accumulation of ascorbate and H2O2 along the tonoplast and in vacuoles during these conditions indicates an important route for H2O2 detoxification under these conditions.

  6. Antioxidant action of glutathione and the ascorbic acid/glutathione pair in a model white wine.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Francesca; Clark, Andrew C; Prenzler, Paul D; Riponi, Claudio; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2011-04-27

    Glutathione was assessed individually, and in combination with ascorbic acid, for its ability to act as an antioxidant with respect to color development in an oxidizing model white wine system. Glutathione was utilized at concentrations normally found in wine (30 mg/L), as well as at concentrations 20-fold higher (860 mg/L), the latter to afford ascorbic acid (500 mg/L) to glutathione ratios of 1:1. The model wine systems were stored at 45 °C without sulfur dioxide and at saturated oxygen levels, thereby in conditions highly conducive to oxidation. Under these conditions the results demonstrated the higher concentration of glutathione could initially provide protection against oxidative coloration, but eventually induced color formation. In the period during which glutathione offered a protective effect, the production of xanthylium cation pigment precursors and o-quinone-derived phenolic compounds was limited. When glutathione induced coloration, polymeric pigments were formed, but these were different from those found in model wine solutions without glutathione. In the presence of ascorbic acid, high concentrations of glutathione were able to delay the decay in ascorbic acid and inhibit the reaction of ascorbic acid degradation products with the wine flavanol compound (+)-catechin. However, on depletion, the glutathione again induced the production of a range of different polymeric pigments. These results highlight new mechanisms through which glutathione can offer both protection and spoilage during the oxidative coloration of a model wine.

  7. The biological importance of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin backup systems in bivalves during peroxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Rafael; Mello, Danielle Ferraz; Uliano-Silva, Marcela; Delapedra, Gabriel; Arl, Miriam; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2014-10-01

    Organic peroxide elimination in eukaryotes essentially depends on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes, which are supported by their respective electron donors, glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx). This system depends on the ancillary enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) to maintain GSH and Trx in their reduced state. This study discusses the biological importance of GR and TrxR in supporting GPx and Prx during cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) exposure in brown mussel Perna perna. ZnCl2 or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenze (CDNB) was used to decrease GR and TrxR activities in gills, as already reported with mammals and bivalves. ZnCl2 exposure lowered GR activity (28%), impaired the in vivo CHP decomposition and decreased the survival rates under CHP exposure. CDNB decreased GR (54%) and TrxR (73%) activities and induced glutathione depletion (99%), promoting diminished peroxide elimination and survival rates at a greater extent than ZnCl2. CDNB also increased the susceptibility of hemocytes to CHP toxicity. Despite being toxic and causing mortality at longer exposures, short (2 h) exposure to CHP promoted an up regulation of GSH (50 and 100 μM CHP) and protein-thiol (100 μM CHP) levels, which was blocked by ZnCl2 or CDNB pre-exposure. Results highlight the biological importance of GSH, GR and TrxR in supporting GPx and Prx activities, contributing to organic peroxides elimination and mussel survival under oxidative challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first work that demonstrates, albeit indirectly, the biological importance of GPx/GR/GSH and Prx/TrxR/Trx systems on in vivo organic peroxide elimination in bivalves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential effects of glucocorticoids and gonadal steroids on glutathione levels in neuronal and glial cell systems.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A J; Krieg, J -C; Vedder, H

    2002-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of glucocorticoids [corticosterone (CORT), dexamethasone (DEX), 6-methylprednisolone (6-MP)] and gonadal steroids [17beta-estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (PROG), testosterone (TEST)] on the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in different cell systems of the CNS (neuronal hippocampal HT22 cells, primary hippocampal and neocortical brain cells, and C(6) glioma cells). In HT22 cells, steroids exerted mainly long-term effects. Significant increases of GSH levels were detectable after a 24 hr treatment with 10(-7) M of DEX (122% +/- 5%), 6-MP (208% +/- 32%), E(2) (134% +/- 10%), and TEST (155% +/- 17%). A significant decrease occurred after incubation with PROG for 24 hr (79% +/- 9%). In primary hippocampal cultures, a 24 hr treatment with DEX (140% +/- 8%), E(2) (123% +/- 6%), and PROG (118% +/- 5%) led to significant increases of the GSH levels, whereas, in neocortical primary cultures, only an incubation with E(2) increased GSH (149% +/- 8%). In C(6) cells, hormone treatment led to both significant short-term (1 hr: CORT 114% +/- 5%, DEX 90% +/- 3%, E(2) 88% +/- 3%; 3 hr: DEX 115% +/- 5%, E(2) 122% +/- 6%, TEST 78% +/- 4%) and significant long-term (24 hr: CORT 74% +/- 4%, 6-MP 84% +/- 5%, E(2) 115% +/- 6%, PROG 91% +/- 4%, TEST 116% +/- 5%) effects. In summary, we were able to demonstrate differential effects of steroids on GSH levels in different cellular CNS models, showing an important influence of steroids and especially E(2) on antioxidative cellular functions in neuronal and glial cells.

  9. Preferential regeneration of thioredoxin from parasitic flatworm Fasciola gigantica using glutathione system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Pandey, Tripti; Kumar, Bijay; Tripathi, Timir

    2015-11-01

    The maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis is a crucial adaptive problem faced by parasites, and its disruption can shift the biochemical balance toward the host. The thioredoxin (Trx) system plays a key role in redox metabolism and defense against oxidative stress. In this study, biochemical experiments were performed on Fasciola gigantica Thioredoxin1 (FgTrx1). The recombinant FgTrx1 exists as a monomer and catalyzes the reduction of insulin. FgTrx1 is preferentially regenerated by the glutathione (GSH) system using glutathione reductase (GR). The regeneration of FgTrx1 by the conventional Trx system is much less as compared to the GSH system, suggesting that FgTrx1 could be acting as glutaredoxin (Grx). DNA nicking and hydroperoxide assay suggests that it protects the DNA from radical-induced oxidative damage. Thus, FgTrx1 might play a role in parasite survival as it can regenerate itself even in the absence of the canonical Trx system and also protect the cells from ROS induced damage. Further, we propose that the GR activity of FgTrx1 is not restricted to -CXXC- motif but is regulated by residues present in close proximity to the -CXXC- motif, through manipulation of the redox potential or the pKa of the active site Cys residues.

  10. Isolation and characterization of glutathione reductase from Physarum polycephalum and stage-specific expression of the enzyme in life-cycle stages with different oxidation-reduction levels.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yoshiko; Kohama, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Yu-Ji; Akasaka, Kenichi; Matsubara, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Physarum polycephalum has a life cycle with several distinct phases that have different oxidation-reduction requirements. To investigate the relationship between the life cycle and the oxidation-reduction state, we isolated glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) from Physarum microplasmodia. The enzyme was found to be a homodimer with a subunit M(r) of 49,000, and K(m) values for oxidized glutathione and NADPH of 40 and 28.6 microM, respectively. We then constructed a cDNA library from microplasmodium mRNA and cloned GR cDNA from the library. The isolated cDNA consisted of 1,475 bp encoding a polypeptide of 452 amino acids. The amino acid sequence similarity was about 50% with GRs of other organisms, and several conserved sequence motifs thought to be necessary for activity are evident in the Physarum enzyme. Escherichia coli transformed with an expression vector containing the cDNA synthesized the active GR. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that the GR gene is present as a single copy in the Physarum genome. Immunoblot analysis and RT-PCR analysis detected GR mRNA expression in the microplasmodium, plasmodium, and sclerotium, but not in the spore or flagellate. GR activity was low in the spore and flagellate. These results suggest that the glutathione oxidation-reduction system relates to the Physarum life cycle.

  11. Modular evolution of glutathione peroxidase genes in association with different biochemical properties of their encoded proteins in invertebrate animals

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-An; Cai, Guo-Bin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Zo, Young-Gun; Kong, Yoon

    2009-01-01

    Background Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPx), the most abundant isoforms of GPx families, interfere directly with hydroperoxidation of lipids. Biochemical properties of these proteins vary along with their donor organisms, which has complicated the phylogenetic classification of diverse PHGPx-like proteins. Despite efforts for comprehensive analyses, the evolutionary aspects of GPx genes in invertebrates remain largely unknown. Results We isolated GPx homologs via in silico screening of genomic and/or expressed sequence tag databases of eukaryotic organisms including protostomian species. Genes showing strong similarity to the mammalian PHGPx genes were commonly found in all genomes examined. GPx3- and GPx7-like genes were additionally detected from nematodes and platyhelminths, respectively. The overall distribution of the PHGPx-like proteins with different biochemical properties was biased across taxa; selenium- and glutathione (GSH)-dependent proteins were exclusively detected in platyhelminth and deuterostomian species, whereas selenium-independent and thioredoxin (Trx)-dependent enzymes were isolated in the other taxa. In comparison of genomic organization, the GSH-dependent PHGPx genes showed a conserved architectural pattern, while their Trx-dependent counterparts displayed complex exon-intron structures. A codon for the resolving Cys engaged in reductant binding was found to be substituted in a series of genes. Selection pressure to maintain the selenocysteine codon in GSH-dependent genes also appeared to be relaxed during their evolution. With the dichotomized fashion in genomic organizations, a highly polytomic topology of their phylogenetic trees implied that the GPx genes have multiple evolutionary intermediate forms. Conclusion Comparative analysis of invertebrate GPx genes provides informative evidence to support the modular pathways of GPx evolution, which have been accompanied with sporadic expansion/deletion and exon

  12. Effect of melatonin supplementation and cross-fostering on renal glutathione system and development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Siew-Keah, Lee; Sundaram, Arunkumar; Sirajudeen, K N S; Zakaria, Rahimah; Singh, H J

    2014-03-01

    Antenatal and postnatal environments are hypothesised to influence the development of hypertension. This study investigates the synergistic effect of cross-fostering and melatonin supplementation on the development of hypertension and renal glutathione system in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In one experiment, 1-day-old male SHR pups were fostered to either SHR (shr-SHR) or Wistar-Kyoto rats, (shr-WKY). In a concurrent experiment, SHR dams were given melatonin in drinking water (10 mg/kg body weight) from day 1 of pregnancy. Immediately following delivery, 1-day-old male pups were fostered either to SHR (Mel-shr-SHR) or WKY (Mel-shr-WKY) dams receiving melatonin supplementation until weaning on day 21. Upon weaning, melatonin supplementation was continued to these pups until the age of 16 weeks. Systolic blood pressures (SBP) were recorded at the age of 4, 6, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Renal antioxidant activities were measured. Mean SBP of shr-WKY, Mel-shr-SHR and Mel-shr-WKY was significantly lower than that in shr-SHR until the age of 8 weeks. At 12 and 16 weeks of age, mean SBP of Mel-shr-WKY was lower than those in non-treated shr-SHR and shr-WKY pups but was not significantly different from that in Mel-shr-SHR. Renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly higher in Mel-shr-SHR and Mel-shr-WKY at 16 weeks of age. It appears that combination of cross-fostering and melatonin supplementation exerts no synergistic effect on delaying the rise in blood pressure in SHR. The elevated GPx and GST activities are likely to be due to the effect of melatonin supplementation.

  13. A glutathione-based system for defense against carbonyl stress in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background adhC from Haemophilus influenzae encodes a glutathione-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase that has previously been shown to be required for protection against killing by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). This group of enzymes is known in other systems to be able to utilize substrates that form adducts with glutathione, such as aldehydes. Results Here, we show that expression of adhC is maximally induced under conditions of high oxygen tension as well as specifically with glucose as a carbon source. adhC could also be induced in response to formaldehyde but not GSNO. An adhC mutant was more susceptible than wild-type Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 to killing by various short chain aliphatic aldehydes, all of which can be generated endogenously during cell metabolism but are also produced by the host as part of the innate immune response. Conclusions These results indicate that AdhC plays a role in defense against endogenously generated reactive carbonyl electrophiles in Haemophilus influenzae and may also play a role in defense against the host innate immune system. PMID:22849540

  14. Activity of the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes in blood serum of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus after administration of melatonin-correcting drugs.

    PubMed

    Agarkov, A A; Popova, T N; Verevkin, A N; Matasova, L V

    2014-06-01

    We studied the effects of epifamin and melaxen on serum content of reduced glutathione and activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and NADPH-generating enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase) in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The concentration of reduced glutathione was decreased in rats with this disease (by 1.8 times), but increased after treatment with epifamin and melaxen (by 1.6 and 1.7 times, respectively). Activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and NADPH-generating enzymes returned to the control level. Correction of melatonin concentration after treatment with the test drugs was probably followed by inhibition of free radical processes. The observed changes were accompanied by normalization of activity of the glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-generating enzymes required for normal function of this system.

  15. Assessment of oxidative stress in patients with sickle cell disease: The glutathione system and the oxidant-antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Gizi, Anna; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Apostolakou, Filia; Lazaropoulou, Christina; Papastamataki, Maria; Kanavaki, Ino; Kalotychou, Vassiliki; Goussetis, Evgenios; Kattamis, Antonios; Rombos, Ioannis; Kanavakis, Emmanuel

    2011-03-15

    Continuous reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) may alter their overall redox status and cause tissue damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress in patients with SCD using two new assays, FORT (free oxygen radical test) and FORD (free oxygen radical defense) along with assessment of glutathione system including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, vitamins A, C and E, malondialdehyde (MDA), non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. A total of 40 patients with SCD and 25 apparently healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled in the study. Components of glutathione system, vitamins A, C, and E, and malondialdehyde were determined with reverse-phase HPLC, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) was assessed with atomic absorption spectroscopy using graphite furnace, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined spectrophotometrically in red cell lysates, nitric oxide (NO) was detected colorimetrically, while FORT and FORD using colorimetric assays, as two point-of-care tests. The findings revealed significant impairment of the glutathione system indicated by reduced GSH(total) (p<0.00001), GSH(reduced) (p<0.00001) and GSSG (p>0.056) values of SCD patients compared to the control group. ROS expressed as FORT were significantly increased (p<0.00001), while antioxidant defense expressed as FORD was significantly reduced (p<0.02) in SCD group compared to the control group. Age and genotype of the patients as well as therapy of their disease appeared to play no role in their oxidative status.

  16. Glutathione Production in Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachhawat, Anand K.; Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kasturia, Neha; Thakur, Anil; Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Akhilesh; Yadav, Amit

    Glutathione, γ -glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in almost all eukaryotic cells (and in some prokaryotes). The tripeptide, which is synthesized non-ribosomally by the consecutive action of two soluble enzymes, is needed for carrying out numerous functions in the cell, most important of which is the maintenance of the redox buffer. The cycle of glutathione biosynthesis and degradation forms part of the γ -glutamyl cycle in most organisms although the latter half of the pathway has not been demonstrated in yeasts. Our current understanding of how glutathione levels are controlled at different levels in the cell is described. Several different routes and processes have been attempted to increase commercial production of glutathione using both yeast and bacteria. In this article we discuss the history of glutathione production in yeast. The current bottlenecks for increased glutathione production are presented based on our current understanding of the regulation of glutathione homeostasis, and possible strategies for overcoming these limitations for further enhancing and improving glutathione production are discussed

  17. A novel persulfide detection method reveals protein persulfide- and polysulfide-reducing functions of thioredoxin and glutathione systems

    PubMed Central

    Dóka, Éva; Pader, Irina; Bíró, Adrienn; Johansson, Katarina; Cheng, Qing; Ballagó, Krisztina; Prigge, Justin R.; Pastor-Flores, Daniel; Dick, Tobias P.; Schmidt, Edward E.; Arnér, Elias S. J.; Nagy, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide signaling involves persulfide formation at specific protein Cys residues. However, overcoming current methodological challenges in persulfide detection and elucidation of Cys regeneration mechanisms from persulfides are prerequisites for constructing a bona fide signaling model. We here establish a novel, highly specific protein persulfide detection protocol, ProPerDP, with which we quantify 1.52 ± 0.6 and 11.6 ± 6.9 μg/mg protein steady-state protein persulfide concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and mouse liver, respectively. Upon treatment with polysulfides, HEK293 and A549 cells exhibited increased protein persulfidation. Deletion of the sulfide-producing cystathionine-γ-lyase or cystathionine-β-synthase enzymes in yeast diminished protein persulfide levels, thereby corroborating their involvement in protein persulfidation processes. We here establish that thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems can independently catalyze reductions of inorganic polysulfides and protein persulfides. Increased endogenous persulfide levels and protein persulfidation following polysulfide treatment in thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) or thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa (TRP14) knockdown HEK293 cells indicated that these enzymes constitute a potent regeneration system of Cys residues from persulfides in a cellular context. Furthermore, TrxR1-deficient cells were less viable upon treatment with toxic amounts of polysulfides compared to control cells. Emphasizing the dominant role of cytosolic disulfide reduction systems in maintaining sulfane sulfur homeostasis in vivo, protein persulfide levels were markedly elevated in mouse livers where hepatocytes lack both TrxR1 and glutathione reductase (TR/GR-null). The different persulfide patterns observed in wild-type, GR-null, and TR/GR-null livers suggest distinct roles for the Trx and GSH systems in regulating subsets of protein persulfides and thereby fine-tuning sulfide

  18. Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L.; Bohrer, Denise; Garcia, Solange C.; Dafre, Alcir L.; Milatovic, Dejan; Souza, Diogo O.; Rocha, Joao B.T.; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

    2008-02-15

    During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F{sub 2}-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F{sub 2}-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F{sub 2}-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of

  19. Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana KC; Franco, Jeferson L; Bohrer, Denise; Garcia, Solange C; Dafre, Alcir L; Milatovic, Dejan; Souza, Diogo O; Rocha, João BT; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/L, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PNDs) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F2-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F2-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F2-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F2-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at birth. Even

  20. Using LC-MSMS to assess glutathione levels in South African white grape juices and wines made with different levels of oxygen.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Wessel Johannes; Lisjak, Klemen; Stander, Maria; Prevoo, Desiree

    2007-04-18

    The effect of oxygen on the levels of glutathione, an important antioxidant, in must and wine was studied using a novel LC-MSMS method for the analysis of reduced and oxidized glutathione. This study found that the storage of grape juice at high SO2 and ascorbic acid levels at -20 degrees C did not lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione levels. The effect of varying the oxygen levels in South African white grape juices, which included a reductive treatment (less than 0.3 mg/L dissolved O2 added), a control treatment (between 1.0 and 1.5 mg/L dissolved O2 added), and an oxidative treatment (3.5-4 mg/ L dissolved O2 added, without SO2) on reduced glutathione levels in the juice and resulting wine was also investigated. A custom build press was used to press whole bunches of two different Sauvignon Blanc and Colombard grapes. Alcoholic fermentation and oxygen additions to the must led to lower reduced glutathione levels in the wine. Reduced glutathione levels were only significantly higher in the wine made from reductive juice that had the highest initial reduced glutathione levels in the grapes.

  1. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity in blood of ewes on farms in different scrapie categories in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsdóttir, Kristín B; Kristinsson, Jakob; Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; Eiríksson, Tryggvi; Jóhannesson, Torkell

    2008-06-23

    Preliminary studies indicated decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity in blood of ewes on scrapie-afflicted farms. Other studies have shown decreased GPX activity in brain of prion-infected mice and in prion-infected cells in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine the GPX activity in blood as well as the distribution of GPX-activity levels from ewes on farms in scrapie-afflicted areas in Iceland. Blood samples were collected from 635 ewes (non-pregnant [n = 297] and pregnant [n = 338]) on 40 farms in scrapie-afflicted areas during the years 2001-2005, for analysis of GPX activity. The farms were divided into three categories: 1. Scrapie-free farms (n = 14); 2. Scrapie-prone farms (earlier scrapie-afflicted, restocked farms) (n = 12); 3. Scrapie-afflicted farms (n = 14). For comparison, 121 blood samples were also collected from non-pregnant ewes on one farm (farm A) in a scrapie-free area (scrapie never registered). Chi-square test was used to test for normal distribution of GPX-results, and Kruskal-Wallis test to compare GPX-results between categories. The GPX-results appeared to be biphasically distributed in ewes in all three scrapie categories and on farm A. The presumptive breaking point was about 300 units g Hb-1. About 30-50% of the GPX-results from ewes in all three scrapie categories were below 300 units g Hb-1 but only about 13% of the GPX-results from ewes on farm A. The mean GPX activity was highest on farm A, and was significantly lower on scrapie-prone farms than on scrapie-free or scrapie-afflicted farms (non-pregnant and pregnant ewes: P < 0.005, respectively; non-pregnant and pregnant ewes combined: P < 0.0005). 1) the distribution of GPX-results in blood of Icelandic ewes apparently has a biphasic character; 2) the GPX-results were higher in ewes on one farm in a scrapie-free area than in ewes on farms in the scrapie-afflicted areas; 3) GPX-activity levels were significantly lowest on earlier scrapie-afflicted, restocked farms, which

  2. Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastids

    PubMed Central

    Zechmann, B.; Mauch, F.; Sticher, L.; Müller, M.

    2008-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis is restricted to the cytosol and the plastids and the product is distributed to the various organelles by unknown mechanisms. In the present study immunogold cytochemistry based on anti-glutathione antisera and transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the relative concentration of glutathione in different organelles of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and root cells. Glutathione-specific labelling was detected in all cellular compartments except the apoplast and the vacuole. The highest glutathione content was surprisingly not found in plastids, which have been described before as a major site of glutathione accumulation, but in mitochondria which lack the capacity for glutathione biosynthesis. Mitochondria of both leaf and root cells contained 7-fold and 4-fold, respectively, higher glutathione levels than plastids while the density of glutathione labelling in the cytosol, nuclei, and peroxisomes was intermediate. The accuracy of the glutathione labelling is supported by two observations. First, pre-adsorption of the anti-glutathione antisera with glutathione reduced the density of the gold particles in all organelles to background levels. Second, the overall glutathione-labelling density was reduced by about 90% in leaves of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis mutant pad2-1 and increased in transgenic plants with enhanced glutathione accumulation. Hence, there was a strong correlation between immunocytochemical and biochemical data of glutathione accumulation. Interestingly, the glutathione labelling of mitochondria in pad2-1 remained very similar to wild-type plants thus suggesting that the high mitochondrial glutathione content is maintained in a situation of permanent glutathione-deficiency at the expense of other glutathione pools. High and constant levels of glutathione in mitochondria appear to be particularly

  3. Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastids.

    PubMed

    Zechmann, B; Mauch, F; Sticher, L; Müller, M

    2008-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis is restricted to the cytosol and the plastids and the product is distributed to the various organelles by unknown mechanisms. In the present study immunogold cytochemistry based on anti-glutathione antisera and transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the relative concentration of glutathione in different organelles of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and root cells. Glutathione-specific labelling was detected in all cellular compartments except the apoplast and the vacuole. The highest glutathione content was surprisingly not found in plastids, which have been described before as a major site of glutathione accumulation, but in mitochondria which lack the capacity for glutathione biosynthesis. Mitochondria of both leaf and root cells contained 7-fold and 4-fold, respectively, higher glutathione levels than plastids while the density of glutathione labelling in the cytosol, nuclei, and peroxisomes was intermediate. The accuracy of the glutathione labelling is supported by two observations. First, pre-adsorption of the anti-glutathione antisera with glutathione reduced the density of the gold particles in all organelles to background levels. Second, the overall glutathione-labelling density was reduced by about 90% in leaves of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis mutant pad2-1 and increased in transgenic plants with enhanced glutathione accumulation. Hence, there was a strong correlation between immunocytochemical and biochemical data of glutathione accumulation. Interestingly, the glutathione labelling of mitochondria in pad2-1 remained very similar to wild-type plants thus suggesting that the high mitochondrial glutathione content is maintained in a situation of permanent glutathione-deficiency at the expense of other glutathione pools. High and constant levels of glutathione in mitochondria appear to be particularly

  4. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning.

  5. Control of oxidative reactions of hemoglobin in the design of blood substitutes: role of the ascorbate-glutathione antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Simoni, Jan; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Simoni, Grace; Moeller, John F; Wesson, Donald E

    2009-02-01

    Uncontrolled oxidative reactions of hemoglobin (Hb) are still the main unresolved problem for Hb-based blood substitute developers. Spontaneous oxidation of acellular ferrous Hb into a nonfunctional ferric Hb generates superoxide anion. Hydrogen peroxide, formed after superoxide anion dismutation, may react with ferrous/ferric Hb to produce toxic ferryl Hb, fluorescent heme degradation products, and/or protein-based free radicals. In the presence of free iron released from heme, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide might react via the Haber-Weiss and Fenton reactions to generate the hydroxyl radical. These highly reactive oxygen and heme species may not only be involved in shifting the cellular redox balance to the oxidized state that facilitates signal transduction and pro-inflammatory gene expression, but could also be involved in cellular and organ injury, and generation of vasoactive compounds such as isoprostanes and angiotensins. It is believed that these toxic species may be formed after administration of Hb-based blood substitutes, particularly in ischemic patients with a diminished ability to control oxidative reactions. Although varieties of antioxidant strategies have been suggested, this in vitro study examined the ability of the ascorbate-glutathione antioxidant system in preventing Hb oxidation and formation of its ferryl intermediate. The results suggest that although ascorbate is effective in reducing the formation of ferryl Hb, glutathione protects heme against excessive oxidation. Ascorbate without glutathione failed to protect the red blood cell membranes against Hb/hydrogen peroxide-mediated peroxidation. This study provides evidence that the ascorbate-glutathione antioxidant system is essential in attenuation of the pro-oxidant potential of redox active acellular Hbs, and superior to either ascorbate or glutathione alone.

  6. Experimental colitis and malnutrition differentially affect the metabolism of glutathione and related sulfhydryl metabolites in different tissues.

    PubMed

    Vassilyadi, Photios; Harding, Scott V; Nitschmann, Evan; Wykes, Linda J

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by severe inflammation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This inflammation is known to drive the catabolism of protein in the affected tissue and modulate systemic protein metabolism. Yet despite the established increase in oxidative stress and changes in protein catabolism, little is known as to the effects of IBD on metabolism of glutathione (GSH) and related metabolites. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the response of GSH and related sulfhydryl metabolites to malnutrition and GI inflammation. We hypothesized that the inflammatory stress of colitis would decrease the concentration and the synthesis of GSH in various tissues of well-nourished piglets. Additionally, the superimposition of malnutrition on colitis would further decrease glutathione status. Healthy, well-nourished piglets were compared to those receiving dextran sulphate sodium-induced, a macronutrient-restricted diet or both. The synthesis of GSH was determined by primed constant infusion of [(15)N,(13)C2]glycine and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Additionally, the concentrations of GSH and related sulfhydryl metabolites were also determined by UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry-a novel analytic technique. In healthy piglets, GSH synthesis was highest in the liver, along with the concentrations of both cysteine and γ-glutamylcysteine. Piglets with colitis had decreased synthesis of GSH and decreased concentrations of GSH, cysteine and γ-glutamylcysteine in the distal colon compared to healthy controls. Additionally, there was no change with superimposition of malnutrition on colitis in the distal colon. Synthesis and metabolism of GSH are uniquely regulated in each tissue. Colitis, independent of nutrition, compromises GSH status and the concentration of cysteine in the distal colon of piglets with GI inflammation. The techniques developed in this study have translational applications and can be scaled for

  7. Yap1-Regulated Glutathione Redox System Curtails Accumulation of Formaldehyde and Reactive Oxygen Species in Methanol Metabolism of Pichia pastoris▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Taisuke; Takigami, Emiko; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The glutathione redox system, including the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione regeneration reaction, has been found to play a critical role in the yeast Pichia pastoris during growth on methanol, and this regulation was at least partly executed by the transcription factor PpYap1. During adaptation to methanol medium, PpYap1 transiently localized to the nucleus and activated the expression of the glutathione redox system and upregulated glutathione reductase 1 (Glr1). Glr1 activates the regeneration of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH). Depletion of Glr1 caused a severe growth defect on methanol and hypersensitivity to formaldehyde (HCHO), which could be complemented by addition of GSH to the medium. Disruption of the genes for the HCHO-oxidizing enzymes PpFld1 and PpFgh1 caused a comparable phenotype, but disruption of the downstream gene PpFDH1 did not, demonstrating the importance of maintaining intracellular GSH levels. Absence of the peroxisomal glutathione peroxidase Pmp20 also triggered nuclear localization of PpYap1, and although cells were not sensitive to HCHO, growth on methanol was again severely impaired due to oxidative stress. Thus, the PpYap1-regulated glutathione redox system has two important roles, i.e., HCHO metabolism and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. PMID:19252120

  8. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  9. [Effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-producing enzymes in rat heart under experimental hyperthyroidism conditions].

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and some NADPH-producing enzymes have been studied under conditions of experimental hyperthyroidism in rat heart. Under the action of these drugs, reduced glutathione (GSH) content increased as compared to values observed under the conditions of pathology. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase (increased under pathological conditions) change toward the intact control values upon the introduction of both drugs. The influence of melaxen and valdoxan, capable of producing antioxidant effect, leads apparently to the inhibition of free-radical oxidation processes and, as a consequence, the reduction of mobilization degree of the glutathione antioxidant system.

  10. Mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion-related hepatotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Weihua; Mizukawa, Yumiko; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Minowa, Yosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro

    2010-09-15

    Chemical-induced glutathione depletion is thought to be caused by two types of toxicological mechanisms: PHO-type glutathione depletion [glutathione conjugated with chemicals such as phorone (PHO) or diethyl maleate (DEM)], and BSO-type glutathione depletion [i.e., glutathione synthesis inhibited by chemicals such as L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO)]. In order to identify mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion in rat liver, male SD rats were treated with various chemicals including PHO (40, 120 and 400 mg/kg), DEM (80, 240 and 800 mg/kg), BSO (150, 450 and 1500 mg/kg), and bromobenzene (BBZ, 10, 100 and 300 mg/kg). Liver samples were taken 3, 6, 9 and 24 h after administration and examined for hepatic glutathione content, physiological and pathological changes, and gene expression changes using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. To identify differentially expressed probe sets in response to glutathione depletion, we focused on the following two courses of events for the two types of mechanisms of glutathione depletion: a) gene expression changes occurring simultaneously in response to glutathione depletion, and b) gene expression changes after glutathione was depleted. The gene expression profiles of the identified probe sets for the two types of glutathione depletion differed markedly at times during and after glutathione depletion, whereas Srxn1 was markedly increased for both types as glutathione was depleted, suggesting that Srxn1 is a key molecule in oxidative stress related to glutathione. The extracted probe sets were refined and verified using various compounds including 13 additional positive or negative compounds, and they established two useful marker sets. One contained three probe sets (Akr7a3, Trib3 and Gstp1) that could detect conjugation-type glutathione depletors any time within 24 h after dosing, and the other contained 14 probe sets that could detect glutathione depletors by any mechanism. These two sets, with appropriate scoring

  11. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) and the Glutathione Peroxidase System; a Link between One-Carbon Metabolism and Antioxidation

    PubMed Central

    Dalto, Danyel Bueno; Matte, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (B6) has a central role in the metabolism of amino acids, which includes important interactions with endogenous redox reactions through its effects on the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) system. In fact, B6-dependent enzymes catalyse most reactions of the transsulfuration pathway, driving homocysteine to cysteine and further into GPX proteins. Considering that mammals metabolize sulfur- and seleno-amino acids similarly, B6 plays an important role in the fate of sulfur-homocysteine and its seleno counterpart between transsulfuration and one-carbon metabolism, especially under oxidative stress conditions. This is particularly important in reproduction because ovarian metabolism may generate an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the peri-estrus period, which may impair ovulatory functions and early embryo development. Later in gestation, placentation raises embryo oxygen tension and may induce a higher expression of ROS markers and eventually embryo losses. Interestingly, the metabolic accumulation of ROS up-regulates the flow of one-carbon units to transsulfuration and down-regulates remethylation. However, in embryos, the transsulfuration pathway is not functional, making the understanding of the interplay between these two pathways particularly crucial. In this review, the importance of the maternal metabolic status of B6 for the flow of one-carbon units towards both maternal and embryonic GPX systems is discussed. Additionally, B6 effects on GPX activity and gene expression in dams, as well as embryo development, are presented in a pig model under different oxidative stress conditions. PMID:28245568

  12. Glutathione-dependent induction of local and systemic defense against oxidative stress by exogenous melatonin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Xin; Luo, Dan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is involved in defending against oxidative stress caused by various environmental stresses in plants. In this study, the roles of exogenous melatonin in regulating local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and the involvement of redox signaling were examined. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin enhanced tolerance to photooxidative stress in both melatonin-treated leaves and untreated systemic leaves. Increased melatonin levels are capable of increasing glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH]) redox status. Application of H2 O2 and GSH also induced tolerance to photooxidative stress, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation and GSH synthesis compromised melatonin-induced local and systemic tolerance to photooxidative stress. H2 O2 treatment increased the GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation prevented a melatonin-induced increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio. Additionally, inhibition of GSH synthesis blocked H2 O2 -induced photooxidative stress tolerance, whereas scavenging or inhibition of H2 O2 production attenuated but did not abolish GSH-induced tolerance to photooxidative stress. These results strongly suggest that exogenous melatonin is capable of inducing both local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress and melatonin-enhanced GSH/GSSG ratio in a H2 O2 -dependent manner is critical in the induction of tolerance.

  13. Glutathione/thioredoxin systems modulate mitochondrial H2O2 emission: An experimental-computational study

    PubMed Central

    Aon, Miguel Antonio; Stanley, Brian Alan; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Kembro, Jackelyn Melissa; O'Rourke, Brian; Paolocci, Nazareno

    2012-01-01

    The net emission of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from mitochondria results from the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) continuously generated in the respiratory chain and ROS scavenging. The relative contribution of the two major antioxidant systems in the mitochondrial matrix, glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx), has not been assessed. In this paper, we examine this key question via combined experimental and theoretical approaches, using isolated heart mitochondria from mouse, rat, and guinea pig. As compared with untreated control mitochondria, selective inhibition of Trx reductase with auranofin along with depletion of GSH with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene led to a species-dependent increase in H2O2 emission flux of 17, 11, and 6 fold in state 4 and 15, 7, and 8 fold in state 3 for mouse, rat, and guinea pig mitochondria, respectively. The maximal H2O2 emission as a percentage of the total O2 consumption flux was 11%/2.3% for mouse in states 4 and 3 followed by 2%/0.25% and 0.74%/0.29% in the rat and guinea pig, respectively. A minimal computational model accounting for the kinetics of GSH/Trx systems was developed and was able to simulate increase in H2O2 emission fluxes when both scavenging systems were inhibited separately or together. Model simulations suggest that GSH/Trx systems act in concert. When the scavenging capacity of either one of them saturates during H2O2 overload, they relieve each other until complete saturation, when maximal ROS emission occurs. Quantitatively, these results converge on the idea that GSH/Trx scavenging systems in mitochondria are both essential for keeping minimal levels of H2O2 emission, especially during state 3 respiration, when the energetic output is maximal. This suggests that the very low levels of H2O2 emission observed during forward electron transport in the respiratory chain are a result of the well-orchestrated actions of the two antioxidant systems working continuously to offset ROS production. PMID

  14. The Thioredoxin-Thioredoxin Reductase System Can Function in Vivo as an Alternative System to Reduce Oxidized Glutathione in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shi-Xiong; Greetham, Darren; Raeth, Sebastian; Grant, Chris M.; Dawes, Ian W.; Perrone, Gabriel G.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms that maintain redox homeostasis are crucial, providing buffering against oxidative stress. Glutathione, the most abundant low molecular weight thiol, is considered the major cellular redox buffer in most cells. To better understand how cells maintain glutathione redox homeostasis, cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with extracellular oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the effect on intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSSG were monitored over time. Intriguingly cells lacking GLR1 encoding the GSSG reductase in S. cerevisiae accumulated increased levels of GSH via a mechanism independent of the GSH biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, residual NADPH-dependent GSSG reductase activity was found in lysate derived from glr1 cell. The cytosolic thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system and not the glutaredoxins (Grx1p, Grx2p, Grx6p, and Grx7p) contributes to the reduction of GSSG. Overexpression of the thioredoxins TRX1 or TRX2 in glr1 cells reduced GSSG accumulation, increased GSH levels, and reduced cellular glutathione Eh′. Conversely, deletion of TRX1 or TRX2 in the glr1 strain led to increased accumulation of GSSG, reduced GSH levels, and increased cellular Eh′. Furthermore, it was found that purified thioredoxins can reduce GSSG to GSH in the presence of thioredoxin reductase and NADPH in a reconstituted in vitro system. Collectively, these data indicate that the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system can function as an alternative system to reduce GSSG in S. cerevisiae in vivo. PMID:19951944

  15. Inhibiting the system xC(-)/glutathione axis selectively targets cancers with mutant-p53 accumulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, David S; Duong, Cuong P; Haupt, Sue; Montgomery, Karen G; House, Colin M; Azar, Walid J; Pearson, Helen B; Fisher, Oliver M; Read, Matthew; Guerra, Glen R; Haupt, Ygal; Cullinane, Carleen; Wiman, Klas G; Abrahmsen, Lars; Phillips, Wayne A; Clemons, Nicholas J

    2017-03-28

    TP53, a critical tumour suppressor gene, is mutated in over half of all cancers resulting in mutant-p53 protein accumulation and poor patient survival. Therapeutic strategies to target mutant-p53 cancers are urgently needed. We show that accumulated mutant-p53 protein suppresses the expression of SLC7A11, a component of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xC(-), through binding to the master antioxidant transcription factor NRF2. This diminishes glutathione synthesis, rendering mutant-p53 tumours susceptible to oxidative damage. System xC(-) inhibitors specifically exploit this vulnerability to preferentially kill cancer cells with stabilized mutant-p53 protein. Moreover, we demonstrate that SLC7A11 expression is a novel and robust predictive biomarker for APR-246, a first-in-class mutant-p53 reactivator that also binds and depletes glutathione in tumours, triggering lipid peroxidative cell death. Importantly, system xC(-) antagonism strongly synergizes with APR-246 to induce apoptosis in mutant-p53 tumours. We propose a new paradigm for targeting cancers that accumulate mutant-p53 protein by inhibiting the SLC7A11-glutathione axis.

  16. Inhibiting the system xC−/glutathione axis selectively targets cancers with mutant-p53 accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David S.; Duong, Cuong P.; Haupt, Sue; Montgomery, Karen G.; House, Colin M.; Azar, Walid J.; Pearson, Helen B.; Fisher, Oliver M.; Read, Matthew; Guerra, Glen R.; Haupt, Ygal; Cullinane, Carleen; Wiman, Klas G.; Abrahmsen, Lars; Phillips, Wayne A.; Clemons, Nicholas J.

    2017-01-01

    TP53, a critical tumour suppressor gene, is mutated in over half of all cancers resulting in mutant-p53 protein accumulation and poor patient survival. Therapeutic strategies to target mutant-p53 cancers are urgently needed. We show that accumulated mutant-p53 protein suppresses the expression of SLC7A11, a component of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xC−, through binding to the master antioxidant transcription factor NRF2. This diminishes glutathione synthesis, rendering mutant-p53 tumours susceptible to oxidative damage. System xC− inhibitors specifically exploit this vulnerability to preferentially kill cancer cells with stabilized mutant-p53 protein. Moreover, we demonstrate that SLC7A11 expression is a novel and robust predictive biomarker for APR-246, a first-in-class mutant-p53 reactivator that also binds and depletes glutathione in tumours, triggering lipid peroxidative cell death. Importantly, system xC− antagonism strongly synergizes with APR-246 to induce apoptosis in mutant-p53 tumours. We propose a new paradigm for targeting cancers that accumulate mutant-p53 protein by inhibiting the SLC7A11–glutathione axis. PMID:28348409

  17. Glutathione Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Shimabukuro, R. H.; Swanson, H. R.; Walsh, W. C.

    1970-01-01

    Glutathione conjugation (GS-atrazine) of the herbicide, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine) is another major detoxication mechanism in leaf tissue of corn (Zea mays, L.). The identification of GS-atrazine is the first example of glutathione conjugation as a biotransformation mechanism of a pesticide in plants. Recovery of atrazine-inhibited photosynthesis was accompanied by a rapid conversion of atrazine to GS-atrazine when the herbicide was introduced directly into leaf tissue. N-De-alkylation pathway is relatively inactive in both roots and shoots. The nonenzymatic detoxication of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine is negligible in leaf tissue. The hydroxylation pathway contributed significantly to the total detoxication of atrazine only when the herbicide was introduced into the plant through the roots. The metabolism of atrazine to GS-atrazine may be the primary factor in the resistance of corn to atrazine. PMID:16657398

  18. The role of glutathione reductase and related enzymes on cellular redox homoeostasis network.

    PubMed

    Couto, Narciso; Wood, Jennifer; Barber, Jill

    2016-06-01

    In this review article we examine the role of glutathione reductase in the regulation, modulation and maintenance of cellular redox homoeostasis. Glutathione reductase is responsible for maintaining the supply of reduced glutathione; one of the most abundant reducing thiols in the majority of cells. In its reduced form, glutathione plays key roles in the cellular control of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species act as intracellular and extracellular signalling molecules and complex cross talk between levels of reactive oxygen species, levels of oxidised and reduced glutathione and other thiols, and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase determine the most suitable conditions for redox control within a cell or for activation of programmed cell death. Additionally, we discuss the translation and expression of glutathione reductase in a number of organisms including yeast and humans. In yeast and human cells, a single gene expresses more than one form of glutathione reductase, destined for residence in the cytoplasm or for translocation to different organelles; in plants, however, two genes encoding this protein have been described. In general, insects and kinetoplastids (a group of protozoa, including Plasmodia and Trypanosoma) do not express glutathione reductase or glutathione biosynthetic enzymes. Instead, they express either the thioredoxin system or the trypanothione system. The thioredoxin system is also present in organisms that have the glutathione system and there may be overlapping functions with cross-talk between the two systems. Finally we evaluate therapeutic targets to overcome oxidative stress associated cellular disorders.

  19. Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P.; Edwards, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The 55 Arabidopsis glutathione transferases (GSTs) are, with one microsomal exception, a monophyletic group of soluble enzymes that can be divided into phi, tau, theta, zeta, lambda, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and TCHQD classes. The populous phi and tau classes are often highly stress inducible and regularly crop up in proteomic and transcriptomic studies. Despite much study on their xenobiotic-detoxifying activities their natural roles are unclear, although roles in defence-related secondary metabolism are likely. The smaller DHAR and lambda classes are likely glutathione-dependent reductases, the zeta class functions in tyrosine catabolism and the theta class has a putative role in detoxifying oxidised lipids. This review describes the evidence for the functional roles of GSTs and the potential for these enzymes to perform diverse functions that in many cases are not “glutathione transferase” activities. As well as biochemical data, expression data from proteomic and transcriptomic studies are included, along with subcellular localisation experiments and the results of functional genomic studies. PMID:22303257

  20. Influence of changes in glutathione concentration on body temperature and tolerance to cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kolesnichenko, L S; Kulinsky, V I; Sotnikova, G V; Kovtun, V Yu

    2003-05-01

    Two compounds that deplete glutathione (buthionine sulfoximine and diethyl maleate) with different mechanisms of action decrease body temperature and increase tolerance to complete global cerebral ischemia, both correlating closely with the glutathione concentration decrease. Glutathione apparently participates in the regulations of these functional parameters. GSH diethyl ester does not influence the latter, though it increases moderately the GSH concentration. Injection of GSH ester into the cerebral ventricles or subcutaneously selectively increases the GSH level in the brain and liver. An influence of the brain on the glutathione system in the liver was revealed. Diethyl maleate and GSH ester increase the activity of glutathione metabolizing enzymes under certain conditions.

  1. Subnormothermic Perfusion in the Isolated Rat Liver Preserves the Antioxidant Glutathione and Enhances the Function of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Alva, Norma; Sanchez-Nuño, Sergio; Dewey, Shannamar; Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of oxidative stress is suggested to be one of the main mechanisms to explain the benefits of subnormothermic perfusion against ischemic liver damage. In this study we investigated the early cellular mechanisms induced in isolated rat livers after 15 min perfusion at temperatures ranging from normothermia (37°C) to subnormothermia (26°C and 22°C). Subnormothermic perfusion was found to maintain hepatic viability. Perfusion at 22°C raised reduced glutathione levels and the activity of glutathione reductase; however, lipid and protein oxidation still occurred as determined by malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, and advanced oxidation protein products. In livers perfused at 22°C the lysosomal and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) were both activated. The 26S chymotrypsin-like (β5) proteasome activity was significantly increased in the 26°C (46%) and 22°C (42%) groups. The increased proteasome activity may be due to increased Rpt6 Ser120 phosphorylation, which is known to enhance 26S proteasome activity. Together, our results indicate that the early events produced by subnormothermic perfusion in the liver can induce oxidative stress concomitantly with antioxidant glutathione preservation and enhanced function of the lysosomal and UPS systems. Thus, a brief hypothermia could trigger antioxidant mechanisms and may be functioning as a preconditioning stimulus. PMID:27800122

  2. Proteomic profiling analysis reveals that glutathione system plays important roles responding to osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Zhang, Daijing; Gao, Xiaolong; Shao, Yun; Tong, Doudou

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in the world, and osmotic stress has become one of the main factors affecting wheat production. Understanding the mechanism of the response of wheat to osmotic stress would be greatly significant. In the present study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) was used to analyze the changes of protein expression in the wheat roots exposed to different osmotic stresses. A total of 2,228 expressed proteins, including 81 differentially expressed proteins, between osmotic stress and control, were found. The comprehensive analysis of these differentially expressed proteins revealed that osmotic stress increased the variety of expressed proteins and suppressed the quantity of expressed proteins in wheat roots. Furthermore, the proteins for detoxifying and reactive oxygen species scavenging, especially the glutathione system, played important roles in maintaining organism balance in response to osmotic stress in wheat roots. Thus, the present study comprehensively describes the protein expression changes in wheat roots in response to osmotic stress, providing firmer foundation to further study the mechanism of osmotic resistance in wheat. PMID:27602297

  3. Different mechanisms of formation of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides of diamide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide in rat blood.

    PubMed

    Di Simplicio, P; Lupis, E; Rossi, R

    1996-03-15

    The mechanisms of glutathione-protein mixed disulfide (GSSP) formation caused by diamide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide were studied in rat blood after in vitro treatment in the 0.3-4 mM dose range. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide formed GSSP, via GSSG, according to the reaction, GSSG + PSH --> GSSP + GSH, whereas diamide reacted first with protein SH groups, giving PS-diamide adducts and then, after reaction with GSH, GSSP. Moreover, after diamide treatment, GSSP patterns were characterized by a much slower or irreversible dose-related return to basal levels in comparison with those observed with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, always reversible. Experiments with purified hemoglobin revealed the existence of a large fraction of protein SH groups which formed GSSP and had a higher reactivity than GSH. Experiments on glucose consumption and role of various erythrocyte enzymes, carried out to explain the inertness of GSSP to reduction after treatment of blood with diamide, were substantially negative. Other tests carried out to confirm the efficiency of the enzymatic machinery of blood samples successively treated with diamide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, indicated that GSSP performed by diamide was difficult to reduce, whereas those generated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide were reversible as normal. Our results suggest that a fraction of GSSP generated by diamide is different and less susceptible to reduction than that obtained with tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

  4. Identification and characterization of high and low affinity transport systems for reduced glutathione in liver cell canalicular membranes.

    PubMed

    Ballatori, N; Dutczak, W J

    1994-08-05

    Driving forces and substrate specificity for transport of reduced glutathione (GSH) across rat liver cell canalicular membrane were examined in vesicles isolated from this plasma membrane domain. In contrast to previous studies indicating a single saturable component of canalicular GSH transport, the present results demonstrate the presence of both high and low affinity components with apparent Km values of 0.24 +/- 0.04 and 17.4 +/- 2.1 mM and Vmax values of 0.09 +/- 0.01 and 2.3 +/- 0.3 nmol.mg-1.20 s-1, respectively. The Km values in two previously published reports are discordant, 0.33 versus 16 mM, but are comparable with the two transport components identified in the present study. To further characterize these GSH transport mechanisms, [3H]GSH uptake by canalicular vesicles was measured at concentrations of 50 microM, where transport is expected to occur largely on the high affinity component, and at 5 mM, where the low affinity system should predominate. Neither component of GSH transport was affected by ATP or a Na+ gradient, but both were stimulated by a valinomycin-induced membrane potential, indicating electrogenic transport pathways. The high affinity component was cis-inhibited by glutathione S-conjugates (1 mM), other gamma-glutamyl compounds (5 mM), and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (0.1 mM), whereas these agents had no effect on the low affinity component at similar inhibitor concentrations. Sulfobromophthalein (BSP, 0.1 mM) inhibited both GSH transport components. However, neither component was affected by taurocholate (0.5 mM) or L-glutamate (10 mM). The inhibition by S-butylglutathione, the GSH analogue ophthalmic acid, and by BSP was competitive in nature, although BSP also produced a slight decrease in Vmax, suggesting a mixed type of inhibition. Ophthalmic acid and some glutathione S-conjugates were also able to trans-stimulate high affinity GSH uptake. These results indicate the presence of at least two ATP

  5. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water.

    PubMed

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  6. Transcriptional differences in gene families of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in wheat during mild water deficit.

    PubMed

    Secenji, Maria; Hideg, Eva; Bebes, Attila; Györgyey, János

    2010-01-01

    When comparing the responses of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes, the drought-tolerant Plainsman V and the drought-sensitive Cappelle Desprez, to reduced amounts of irrigation water, we found differences in ascorbate metabolism: both ascorbate oxidation and transcription levels of enzymes processing ascorbate were changed. Relative transcript levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) isoenzymes, predicted to localize in distinct subcellular organelles, showed different transcriptional changes in the two genotypes. Among APX coding mRNAs, expression levels of two cytosolic (cAPX I, II) and a thylakoid-bound (tAPX) variants increased significantly in Plainsman V while a cytosolic (cAPX I) and a stromal (sAPX II) APX coding transcripts were found to be higher in Cappelle Desprez after a 4-week-long water-deficit stress. Examining the MDARs, two cytosolic isoforms (cMDAR I, II) displayed significant up-regulation of mRNA levels in the sensitive genotype, whereas only one of them (cMDAR II) did in the tolerant cultivar. We found an up-regulated chloroplastic DHAR (chlDHAR) mRNA only in the sensitive Cappelle Desprez. However, increased expression levels of a cytosolic GR (cGR) and a chloroplastic GR (chlGR) were detected only in the tolerant Plainsman V. After 4 weeks of reduced irrigation, a significantly lower ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratio was detected in leaves of the sensitive Cappelle Desprez than in the tolerant Plainsman V. Our results indicate that more robust transcription of ascorbate-based detoxification machinery may prevent an adverse shift of the cellular redox balance.

  7. Modeling the acid-base properties of glutathione in different ionic media, with particular reference to natural waters and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Cigala, Rosalia Maria; Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio

    2012-08-01

    The acid-base properties of γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine (glutathione, GSH) were determined by potentiometry (ISE-H(+), glass electrode) in pure NaI((aq)) and in NaCl((aq))/MgCl(2(aq)), and NaCl((aq))/CaCl(2(aq)) mixtures, at T = 298.15 K and different ionic strengths (up to I(c) ~ 5.0 mol L(-1)). In addition, the activity coefficients of glutathione were also determined by the distribution method at the same temperature in various ionic media (LiCl((aq)), NaCl((aq)), KCl((aq)), CsCl((aq)), MgCl(2(aq)), CaCl(2(aq)), NaI((aq))). The results obtained were also used to calculate the Specific ion Interaction Theory (SIT) and Pitzer coefficients for the dependence on medium and ionic strength of glutathione species, as well as the formation constants of weak Mg(j)H( i )(GSH)((i+2j-3)) and Ca(j)H(i)(GSH)((i+2j-3)) complexes. Direct calorimetric titrations were also carried out in pure NaCl((aq)) and in NaCl((aq))/CaCl(2(aq)) mixtures at different ionic strengths (0.25 ≤ I (c )/mol L(-1) ≤ 5.0) in order to determine the enthalpy changes for the protonation and complex formation equilibria in these media at T = 298.15 K. Results obtained are useful for the definition of glutathione speciation in any aqueous media containing the main cations of natural waters and biological fluids, such as Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+). Finally, this kind of systematic studies, where a series of ionic media (e.g., all alkali metal chlorides) is taken into account in the determination of various thermodynamic parameters, is useful for the definition of some trends in the thermodynamic behavior of glutathione in aqueous solution.

  8. Ciprofloxacin-induced glutathione redox status alterations in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, Aylin; Hincal, Filiz

    2004-08-01

    The possible oxidative stress inducing effect of a fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), was investigated in rats measuring glutathione redox status. For this purpose, the drug was administered to rats as two different single doses (100 and 150 mg/kg, ip) or a repeated dose (500 mg/kg/d, ig, for 5d). Then, total and oxidized glutathione levels were determined in hepatic and cerebral tissues of the rats by an enzymatic cycling assay, and the glutathione redox status was calculated. The possible protective effects of vitamin E or allopurinol against CPFX-induced alterations on glutathione system have also been examined. Following both routes of administration of CPFX, the total glutathione content of the liver, but not of brain decreased significantly. The oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in the brain increased after single or repeated dose treatments, but only with repeated doses of CPFX in the liver. CPFX induced dose-dependent alterations in the glutathione redox status in both tissues. With single doses the effect was more pronounced in cerebral tissue, and with repeated ig doses it was significant in both tissues. Pretreatment of rats with vitamin E or allopurinol before the administration of CPFX provided marked protection against glutathione redox status alterations in both tissues. Our results, thus, indicate that CPFX treatment introduces an oxidative stress in cerebral and hepatic tissues of rat.

  9. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (-0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and [Formula: see text] in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and [Formula: see text] generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological

  10. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (−0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and O2⋅− in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and O2⋅− generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological features and drought

  11. Nickel sulphate and epoxy resin: differences in iron status and glutathione redox ration at the time of patch testing.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sirje; Zilmer, Mihkel; Eisen, Maigi; Rehema, Aune; Kullisaar, Tiiu; Vihalemm, Tiiu; Zilmer, Kersti

    2004-05-01

    The reactive patch test reaction is a useful model to characterize oxidative stress in acute allergic contact dermatitis. This model was used to study oxidative stress in the skin of individuals allergic to nickel and epoxy resin. The study included six and five patients, respectively, whose skin was simultaneously biopsied from a positive patch test site and from an apparently healthy area. The biopsies were homogenized and used for determination of iron content, unbound iron binding capacity, diene conjugate levels, and glutathione redox ratio. A positive test reaction to 5% nickel sulphate was accompanied by 2.5-fold increase in iron level as compared to apparently healthy skin (P<0.1). The percentage saturation of iron-binding capacity and the glutathione redox ratio were significantly increased (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Reactive patch test responses to 1% epoxy resin were not accompanied by clear alterations in iron status or glutathione redox ratio. Our investigation showed that apart from oxidative burst caused by accumulation of inflammatory cells, hapten properties might also influence the oxidative stress status of the skin. The high incidence of nickel allergy may be attributed, at least in part, to the influence of nickel ions on the glutathione redox ratio and iron status of the skin.

  12. Growth hormone alters the glutathione S-transferase and mitochondrial thioredoxin systems in long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    PubMed

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Rakoczy, Sharlene; Brown-Borg, Holly M

    2014-10-01

    Ames dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their wild-type (WT) siblings. The lack of GH is associated with stress resistance and increased longevity. However, the mechanism underlying GH's actions on cellular stress defense have yet to be elucidated. In this study, WT or Ames dwarf mice were treated with saline or GH (WT saline, Dwarf saline, and Dwarf GH) two times daily for 7 days. The body and liver weights of Ames dwarf mice were significantly increased after 7 days of GH administration. Mitochondrial protein levels of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, K1 and M4 (GSTK1 and GSTM4), were significantly higher in dwarf mice (Dwarf saline) when compared with WT mice (WT saline). GH administration downregulated the expression of GSTK1 proteins in dwarf mice. We further investigated GST activity from liver lysates using different substrates. Substrate-specific GST activity (bromosulfophthalein, dichloronitrobenzene, and 4-hydrox-ynonenal) was significantly reduced in GH-treated dwarf mice. In addition, GH treatment attenuated the activity of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in liver mitochondria of Ames mice. Importantly, GH treatment suppressed Trx2 and TrxR2 mRNA expression. These data indicate that GH has a role in stress resistance by altering the functional capacity of the GST system through the regulation of specific GST family members in long-living Ames dwarf mice. It also affects the regulation of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, factors that regulate posttranslational modification of proteins and redox balance, thereby further influencing stress resistance.

  13. Growth Hormone Alters the Glutathione S-Transferase and Mitochondrial Thioredoxin Systems in Long-Living Ames Dwarf Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    Ames dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their wild-type (WT) siblings. The lack of GH is associated with stress resistance and increased longevity. However, the mechanism underlying GH’s actions on cellular stress defense have yet to be elucidated. In this study, WT or Ames dwarf mice were treated with saline or GH (WT saline, Dwarf saline, and Dwarf GH) two times daily for 7 days. The body and liver weights of Ames dwarf mice were significantly increased after 7 days of GH administration. Mitochondrial protein levels of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, K1 and M4 (GSTK1 and GSTM4), were significantly higher in dwarf mice (Dwarf saline) when compared with WT mice (WT saline). GH administration downregulated the expression of GSTK1 proteins in dwarf mice. We further investigated GST activity from liver lysates using different substrates. Substrate-specific GST activity (bromosulfophthalein, dichloronitrobenzene, and 4-hydrox-ynonenal) was significantly reduced in GH-treated dwarf mice. In addition, GH treatment attenuated the activity of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in liver mitochondria of Ames mice. Importantly, GH treatment suppressed Trx2 and TrxR2 mRNA expression. These data indicate that GH has a role in stress resistance by altering the functional capacity of the GST system through the regulation of specific GST family members in long-living Ames dwarf mice. It also affects the regulation of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, factors that regulate posttranslational modification of proteins and redox balance, thereby further influencing stress resistance. PMID:24285747

  14. Sensorially important aldehyde production from amino acids in model wine systems: impact of ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, glutathione and sulphur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Fang, Hongjuan; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Clark, Andrew C

    2013-11-01

    The efficiency of different white wine antioxidant systems in preventing aldehyde production from amino acids by oxidative processes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of sulphur dioxide alone and in combination with either glutathione, ascorbic acid or its stereoisomer erythorbic acid, in preventing formation of the sensorially important compounds methional and phenylacetaldehyde from methionine and phenylalanine in model white wine. UHPLC, GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS, flow injection analysis and luminescence sensors determined both compositional changes during storage, and sulphur dioxide-aldehyde apparent equilibrium constants. Depending on temperature (25 or 45°C) or extent of oxygen supply, sulphur dioxide was equally or more efficient in impeding the production of methional compared to the other antioxidant systems. For phenylacetaldehyde, erythorbic acid or glutathione with sulphur dioxide provided improved inhibition compared to sulphur dioxide alone, in conditions of limited oxygen consumption. The results also demonstrate the extent to which sulphur dioxide addition can lower the free aldehyde concentrations to below their aroma thresholds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Experimental Evaluation of Radioprotective Efficacy of Synthetic Genistein on Criteria of Glutathione System and Lipid Peroxidation in Erythrocytes of Peripheral Blood in Irradiated Rats].

    PubMed

    Grebenyuk, A N; Tarumov, R A; Basharin, V A; Kovtun, V U

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate experimentally the radioprotective effectiveness of synthetic genistein in terms of the glutathione system and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of irradiated rats. The animals were exposed to single acute X-ray irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy. Genistein was administered intraperitoneally at 200 mg/kg 1 hour before radiation exposure. The irradiation caused the initiation of lipid peroxidation in the background depletion of reduced glutathione. Decrease by 25% in the number of malondialdehyde in the rats treated with genistein was registered 5 min after irradiation compared with the control. It is established thatl day after irradiation the level of reduced glutathione in the rats treated with genistein was 26% higher. However, intraperitoneal administration of genistein did not cause statistically significant changes in the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase during the whole period of observation. The results suggest that the radioprotective effect of synthetic genistein is implemented, along with other mechanisms, by stimulating the glutathione system and reducing the severity of lipid peroxidation.

  16. Glutathione transferases and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Anna Paola; Fiorile, Maria Carmela; Primavera, Alessandra; Lo Bello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    There is substantial agreement that the unbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species may affect the onset and/or the course of a number of common diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Many studies suggest a crucial role for oxidative stress in the first phase of aging, or in the pathogenesis of various diseases including neurological ones. Particularly, the role exerted by glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes (Glutathione Transferases) in the nervous system appears more relevant, this latter tissue being much more vulnerable to toxins and oxidative stress than other tissues such as liver, kidney or muscle. The present review addresses the question by focusing on the results obtained by specimens from patients or by in vitro studies using cells or animal models related to Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. In general, there is an association between glutathione depletion and Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. In addition, a significant decrease of glutathione transferase activity in selected areas of brain and in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid was found. For some glutathione transferase genes there is also a correlation between polymorphisms and onset/outcome of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, there is a general agreement about the protective effect exerted by glutathione and glutathione transferases but no clear answer about the mechanisms underlying this crucial role in the insurgence of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Effects of dietary methionine on performance, egg quality and glutathione redox system in egg-laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A M; Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T; Zhang, H X; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Li, Y

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 6 dietary DL-methionine (Met) levels (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 g/kg) were tested to estimate the dietary Met requirements of Longyan ducks from 19 to 46 weeks of age, and to investigate its effect on the glutathione redox system. In total, 1080 Longyan ducks aged 19 weeks were allocated randomly to the 6 dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised 6 replicate pens with 30 ducks per pen. Met had no effects on egg production, yolk weight, yolk colour or the glutathione redox system, but the egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved significantly by dietary Met supplementation. As the dietary Met concentration increased, the eggshell thickness and breaking strength decreased significantly, whereas the albumen weight increased significantly. According to broken-line regression analysis, the optimum Met requirements for egg weight, egg mass, FCR and albumen weight are 686, 661, 658 and 731 mg/bird/d, respectively, with a dietary crude protein level of 170 g/kg.

  18. Differences in response of glucuronide and glutathione conjugating enzymes to aflatoxin B/sub 1/ and N-acetylaminofluorene in underfed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rajpurohit, R.; Krishnaswamy, K.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the hepatic drug/xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in underfed rats exposed to aflatoxin B/sub 1/ and N-acetylaminofluorene were investigated. Neither carcinogen, fed at the level of 10 ..mu..g and 0.667 mg per 100 g body weight, respectively, over a period of 3 wk, had any significant influence on cytochrome P-450 and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in the undernourished rats. Significantly low activities of UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase were observed in food-restricted animals fed on aflatoxin B/sub 1/. N-acetylaminofluorene, on the other hand stimulated both the enzyme activities in the underfed group, to as much observed in the respective well-fed treated group. UDP-Glucuronyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase in undernutrition seem to respond differently to aflatoxin B/sub 1/ and N-acetylaminofluorene. Further studies are needed to assess the possible consequences of such alterations.

  19. Inhibition of Astrocytic Glutamine Synthetase by Lead is Associated with a Slowed Clearance of Hydrogen Peroxide by the Glutathione System.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stephen R; Lee, Alan; Bishop, Glenda M; Czerwinska, Hania; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Lead intoxication in humans is characterized by cognitive impairments, particularly in the domain of memory, where evidence indicates that glutamatergic neurotransmission may be impacted. Animal and cell culture studies have shown that lead decreases the expression and activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in astrocytes, yet the basis of this effect is uncertain. To investigate the mechanism responsible, the present study exposed primary astrocyte cultures to a range of concentrations of lead acetate (0-330 μM) for up to 24 h. GS activity was significantly reduced in cells following 24 h incubation with 100 or 330 μM lead acetate. However, no reduction in GS activity was detected when astrocytic lysates were co-incubated with lead acetate, suggesting that the mechanism is not due to a direct interaction and involves intact cells. Since GS is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, the capacity of lead to inhibit the clearance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. It was found that exposure to lead significantly diminished the capacity of astrocytes to degrade H2O2, and that this was due to a reduction in the effectiveness of the glutathione system, rather than to catalase. These results suggest that the inhibition of GS activity in lead poisoning is a consequence of slowed H2O2 clearance, and supports the glutathione pathway as a primary therapeutic target.

  20. Exogenous glutathione improves high root-zone temperature tolerance by modulating photosynthesis, antioxidant and osmolytes systems in cucumber seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Jizhu; Hui, Dafeng; Huang, Danfeng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the physiological responses of plants to high root-zone temperature (HT, 35 °C) stress mitigated by exogenous glutathione (GSH), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to HT with or without GSH treatment for 4 days and following with 4 days of recovery. Plant physiological variables, growth, and gene expression related to antioxidant enzymes and Calvin cycle were quantified. The results showed that HT significantly decreased GSH content, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and related gene expression, shoot height, stem diameter, as well as dry weight. The exogenous GSH treatment clearly lessened the HT stress by increasing the above variables. Meanwhile, HT significantly increased soluble protein content, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as well as O2•− production rate, the gene expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The GSH treatment remarkably improved soluble protein content, proline content, antioxidant enzymes activities, and antioxidant enzymes related gene expression, and reduced the MDA content and O2•− production rate compared to no GSH treatment in the HT condition. Our results suggest that exogenous GSH enhances cucumber seedling tolerance of HT stress by modulating the photosynthesis, antioxidant and osmolytes systems to improve physiological adaptation. PMID:27752105

  1. Inhibition of Astrocytic Glutamine Synthetase by Lead is Associated with a Slowed Clearance of Hydrogen Peroxide by the Glutathione System

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen R.; Lee, Alan; Bishop, Glenda M.; Czerwinska, Hania; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Lead intoxication in humans is characterized by cognitive impairments, particularly in the domain of memory, where evidence indicates that glutamatergic neurotransmission may be impacted. Animal and cell culture studies have shown that lead decreases the expression and activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in astrocytes, yet the basis of this effect is uncertain. To investigate the mechanism responsible, the present study exposed primary astrocyte cultures to a range of concentrations of lead acetate (0–330 μM) for up to 24 h. GS activity was significantly reduced in cells following 24 h incubation with 100 or 330 μM lead acetate. However, no reduction in GS activity was detected when astrocytic lysates were co-incubated with lead acetate, suggesting that the mechanism is not due to a direct interaction and involves intact cells. Since GS is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, the capacity of lead to inhibit the clearance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated. It was found that exposure to lead significantly diminished the capacity of astrocytes to degrade H2O2, and that this was due to a reduction in the effectiveness of the glutathione system, rather than to catalase. These results suggest that the inhibition of GS activity in lead poisoning is a consequence of slowed H2O2 clearance, and supports the glutathione pathway as a primary therapeutic target. PMID:26696846

  2. Heterogeneous Role of the Glutathione Antioxidant System in Modulating the Response of ESFT to Fenretinide in Normoxia and Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Magwere, Tapiwanashe; Burchill, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is implicated in drug resistance mechanisms of several cancers and is a key regulator of cell death pathways within cells. We studied Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT) cell lines and three mechanistically distinct anticancer agents (fenretinide, doxorubicin, and vincristine) to investigate whether the GSH antioxidant system is involved in the reduced sensitivity to these chemotherapeutic agents in hypoxia. Cell viability and death were assessed by the trypan blue exclusion assay and annexin V-PI staining, respectively. Hypoxia significantly decreased the sensitivity of all ESFT cell lines to fenretinide-induced death, whereas the effect of doxorubicin or vincristine was marginal and cell-line-specific. The response of the GSH antioxidant system in ESFT cell lines to hypoxia was variable and also cell-line-specific, although the level of GSH appeared to be most dependent on de novo biosynthesis rather than recycling. RNAi-mediated knockdown of key GSH regulatory enzymes γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase or glutathione disulfide reductase partially reversed the hypoxia-induced resistance to fenretinide, and increasing GSH levels using N-acetylcysteine augmented the hypoxia-induced resistance in a cell line-specific manner. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the role of the GSH antioxidant system in modulating the sensitivity of ESFT cells to fenretinide is heterogeneous depending on environment and cell type. This is likely to limit the value of targeting GSH as a therapeutic strategy to overcome hypoxia-induced drug resistance in ESFT. Whether targeting the GSH antioxidant system in conjunction with other therapeutics may benefit some patients with ESFT remains to be seen. PMID:22174837

  3. Heterogeneous role of the glutathione antioxidant system in modulating the response of ESFT to fenretinide in normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Magwere, Tapiwanashe; Burchill, Susan A

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is implicated in drug resistance mechanisms of several cancers and is a key regulator of cell death pathways within cells. We studied Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT) cell lines and three mechanistically distinct anticancer agents (fenretinide, doxorubicin, and vincristine) to investigate whether the GSH antioxidant system is involved in the reduced sensitivity to these chemotherapeutic agents in hypoxia. Cell viability and death were assessed by the trypan blue exclusion assay and annexin V-PI staining, respectively. Hypoxia significantly decreased the sensitivity of all ESFT cell lines to fenretinide-induced death, whereas the effect of doxorubicin or vincristine was marginal and cell-line-specific. The response of the GSH antioxidant system in ESFT cell lines to hypoxia was variable and also cell-line-specific, although the level of GSH appeared to be most dependent on de novo biosynthesis rather than recycling. RNAi-mediated knockdown of key GSH regulatory enzymes γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase or glutathione disulfide reductase partially reversed the hypoxia-induced resistance to fenretinide, and increasing GSH levels using N-acetylcysteine augmented the hypoxia-induced resistance in a cell line-specific manner. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the role of the GSH antioxidant system in modulating the sensitivity of ESFT cells to fenretinide is heterogeneous depending on environment and cell type. This is likely to limit the value of targeting GSH as a therapeutic strategy to overcome hypoxia-induced drug resistance in ESFT. Whether targeting the GSH antioxidant system in conjunction with other therapeutics may benefit some patients with ESFT remains to be seen.

  4. Differences in Redox Regulatory Systems in Human Lung and Liver Tumors Suggest Different Avenues for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Ryuta; Carlson, Bradley A.; Tsuji, Petra A.; Lee, Byeong Jae; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2015-01-01

    A common characteristic of many cancer cells is that they suffer from oxidative stress. They, therefore, require effective redox regulatory systems to combat the higher levels of reactive oxygen species that accompany accelerated growth compared to the normal cells of origin. An elevated dependence on these systems in cancers suggests that targeting these systems may provide an avenue for retarding the malignancy process. Herein, we examined the redox regulatory systems in human liver and lung cancers by comparing human lung adenocarcinoma and liver carcinoma to their respective surrounding normal tissues. Significant differences were found in the two major redox systems, the thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Thioredoxin reductase 1 levels were elevated in both malignancies, but thioredoxin was highly upregulated in lung tumor and only slightly upregulated in liver tumor, while peroxiredoxin 1 was highly elevated in lung tumor, but downregulated in liver tumor. There were also major differences within the glutathione system between the malignancies and their normal tissues. The data suggest a greater dependence of liver on either the thioredoxin or glutathione system to drive the malignancy, while lung cancer appeared to depend primarily on the thioredoxin system. PMID:26569310

  5. Influence of nitric oxide on the intracellular reduced glutathione pool: different cellular capacities and strategies to encounter nitric oxide-mediated stress.

    PubMed

    Berendji, D; Kolb-Bachofen, V; Meyer, K L; Kröncke, K D

    1999-10-01

    Different cell types exhibit huge differences towards the cytotoxic action of NO. In search for an explanation, we used subtoxic concentrations of the NO-donors S-nitrosocysteine (SNOC) for short-term challenge and of (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1- ium-1,2-diolate (DETA/NO) for longer periods of exposure, respectively, and subtoxic concentrations of the oxidant H2O2 to determine the impact on intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations. We find that GSH concentrations are always decreased, but that different cell types show different responses. Incubation of the relatively NO-sensitive murine lymphocytes with both NO-donors, but not with H2O2, resulted in a nearly complete loss of intracellular GSH. Short-term NO-treatment of P815 mastocytoma cells, also sensitive to NO-mediated cell death, decreased GSH to a similar extent only if either glutathione reductase (GSHR) activity or y-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gammaGCS) activity were inhibited concomitantly by specific inhibitors. Long-term NO-treatment of P815 cells, however, resulted in a significant decrease of GSH that could be further enhanced by inhibiting gammaGCS activity. In contrast, neither short-term nor long-term NO-exposure nor H2O2-treatment affected intracellular GSH levels of L929 fibroblasts, which were previously shown to be extremely resistant towards NO, whereas concomitant gammaGCS inhibition, but not GSHR inhibition, completely decreased GSH concentrations. These results show that different cell types use different pathways trying to maintain glutathione concentrations to cope with nitrosative stress, and the overall capability to maintain a critical amount of GSH correlates with susceptibility to NO-induced cell death.

  6. The detoxification of cumene hydroperoxide by the glutathione system of cultured astroglial cells hinges on hexose availability for the regeneration of NADPH.

    PubMed

    Kussmaul, L; Hamprecht, B; Dringen, R

    1999-09-01

    The ability of astroglia-rich primary cultures derived from the brains of newborn rats to detoxify exogenously applied cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) was analyzed as a model to study glutathione-mediated peroxide detoxification by astrocytes. Under the conditions used, 200 microM CHP disappeared from the incubation buffer with a half-time of approximately 10 min. The half-time of CHP in the incubation buffer was found strongly elevated (a) in cultures depleted of glutathione by a preincubation with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, (b) in the presence of mercaptosuccinate, an inhibitor of glutathione peroxidase, and (c) in the absence of glucose, a precursor for the regeneration of NADPH. The involvement of glutathione peroxidase in the clearance of CHP was confirmed by the rapid increase in the level of GSSG after application of CHP. The restoration of the initial high ratio of GSH to GSSG depended on the presence of glucose during the incubation. The high capacity of astroglial cells to clear CHP and to restore the initial ratio of GSH to GSSG was fully maintained when glucose was replaced by mannose. In addition, fructose and galactose at least partially substituted for glucose, whereas exogenous isocitrate and malate were at best marginally able to replace glucose during peroxide detoxification and regeneration of GSH. These results demonstrate that CHP is detoxified rapidly by astroglial cells via the glutathione system. This metabolic process strongly depends on the availability of glucose or mannose as hydride donors for the regeneration of the NADPH that is required for the reduction of GSSG by glutathione reductase.

  7. Metal-catalyzed oxidation and cleavage of octopus glutathione transferase by the Cu(II)-ascorbate system.

    PubMed

    Tang, S S; Lin, C C; Chang, G G

    1996-01-01

    Glutathione transferase (GST) from octopus hepatopancreas was rapidly inactivated by micromolar concentration of Cu(II) in the presence of ascorbate at neutral pH and 0 degree C. Omitting the metal ion or ascorbate, or replacing the Cu(II) with Fe(II) did not result in any inactivation. Glutathione or the conjugation product of glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene offered complete protection of the enzyme from Cu(II)-induced inactivation. 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, however, did not provide any protection. The inactivation was time and Cu(II) concentration dependent. The dependence of inactivation rate on Cu(II) concentration displayed saturation kinetics, which suggests that the inactivation occurs in two steps with Cu(II) binding with the enzyme first (KdCu = 260 microM), then the locally generated free radicals modify the essential amino acid residues in the active center, which results in enzyme inactivation. The Cu(II)-ascorbate system is, thus, an affinity reagent for the octopus GST. The enzyme inactivation was demonstrated to be followed by protein cleavage. Native octopus GST has a subunit M(r) of 24,000. The inactivated enzyme was cleaved at the C-terminal domain (domain II) of the enzyme molecule and resulted in the formation of peptide fragment of M(r) 15,300, which has the identical N-terminal amino acid sequence as the native enzyme. The other half of the peptide with M(r) approximately 7700 was visible in the gels only after silver staining, which also revealed a minor cleavage site, also located at the domain II, to produce peptide fragments of M(r) approximately 11,300 and 8300. The oxygen carrier molecule in the cephalopods' blood is the copper-containing hemocyanin, which during turnover will release Cu(II). Our results indicate that Cu(II) catalyzes a site-specific oxidation of the essential amino acid residues at the C-terminus of GST causing enzyme inactivation. The modified-enzyme is then affinity cleaved at the putative metal binding

  8. Effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) on fish glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, A; Dogan, Z; Kanak, E G; Atli, G; Canli, M

    2015-03-01

    The glutathione metabolism contains crucial antioxidant molecules to defend the organisms against oxidants. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the response of the glutathione metabolism in the liver of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn) in different periods. Fish were exposed to metals (as 1 μg/mL) individually for 1, 7, and 14 days and subsequently antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, GPX; glutathione reductase, GR and glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione levels (total glutathione, tGSH; reduced glutathione, rGSH; oxidized glutathione, GSSG and GSH/GSSG ratios) in the liver were measured. There was no fish mortality during the experiments, except Cu exposure. The antioxidant enzymes responded differently to metal exposures depending on metal types and exposure durations. GPX activity increased only after Cd exposure, while GST activity increased following 7 days of all metal exposures. However, GR activity did not alter in most cases. Total GSH and GSH/GSSG levels generally decreased, especially after 7 days. Data showed that metal exposures significantly altered the response of antioxidant system parameters, particularly at day 7 and some recovery occurred after 14 days. This study suggests that the response of antioxidant system could help to predict metal toxicity in the aquatic environments and be useful as an "early warning tool" in natural monitoring studies.

  9. Characterization of human platelet glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Moroff, G; Kosow, D P

    1978-12-08

    Glutathione reductase (NAD(P)h:oxidized glutathione oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.4.2) has been purified 1000-fold from the cytoplasmic fraction of human platelets. Salts, including the heretofore unreported effect of sodium citrate, activate the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione. Sodium citrate and monovalent salt activation appears to involve multiple sites having different binding affinities. At sub-saturating sodium phosphate, non-linear double reciprocal plots indicative of substrate activation by oxidized glutathione were observed. Initial velocity double reciprocal plots at sub-saturating and saturating concentrations of phosphate generate a family of converging lines. NADP+ is a partial inhibitor, indicating that the reduction of oxidized glutathione can proceed by more than one pathway. FMN, FAD, and riboflavin inhibit platelet glutathione reductase by influencing only the V while nitrofurantoin inhibition is associated with an increase Koxidized glutathione and a decreased V.

  10. Changes of the thioredoxin system, glutathione peroxidase activity and total antioxidant capacity in rat brain cortex during acute liver failure: modulation by L-histidine.

    PubMed

    Ruszkiewicz, Joanna; Albrecht, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione and thioredoxin are complementary antioxidants in the protection of mammalian tissues against oxidative-nitrosative stress (ONS), and ONS is a principal cause of symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) associated with acute liver failure (ALF). We compared the activities of the thioredoxin system components: thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the expression of the thioredoxin-interacting protein, and of the key glutathione metabolizing enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the cerebral cortex of rats with ALF induced by thioacetamide (TAA). ALF increased the Trx and TrxR activity without affecting Trip protein expression, but decreased GPx activity in the brains of TAA-treated rats. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the brain was increased by ALF suggesting that upregulation of the thioredoxin may act towards compensating impaired protection by the glutathione system. Intraperitoneal administration of L-histidine (His), an amino acid that was earlier reported to prevent acute liver failure-induced mitochondrial impairment and brain edema, abrogated most of the acute liver failure-induced changes of both antioxidant systems, and significantly increased TAC of both the control and ALF-affected brain. These observations provide further support for the concept of that His has a potential to serve as a therapeutic antioxidant in HE. Most of the enzyme activity changes evoked by His or ALF were not well correlated with alterations in their expression at the mRNA level, suggesting complex translational or posttranslational mechanisms of their modulation, which deserve further investigations.

  11. Activity of carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase in different life-stages of carabid beetle (Poecilus cupreus) exposed to toxic metal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Grazyna; Kramarz, Paulina; Babczyńska, Agnieszka

    2003-04-01

    Among the cytoplasmatic enzymes responsible for neutralization of organic xenobiotics, carboxylesterases (CarE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) play important roles. Our study tested to what extent dietary Zn or Cd could modify the activity of CarE and GST at different life-stages of the carabid beetle Poecilus cupreus. Treatment and stage effects generally were statistically significant. For CarE activity in the beetles exposed to cadmium, only treatment was a significant factor. In all cases, the interaction between studied factors was statistically significant, implying that the physiological condition of the animals may enhance or reduce enzyme activity. We also observed differences between animals treated with cadmium and zinc in the pattern of enzyme activity, and a difference in GST activity measured with two different substrates. Our results confirmed that in studying enzyme activity under metal stress one should consider the animal's life-stage and sex.

  12. Integration of pharmacokinetic and NRF2 system biology models to describe reactive oxygen species production and subsequent glutathione depletion in liver microfluidic biochips after flutamide exposure.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Eric; Hamon, Jeremy; Legendre, Audrey; Bois, Frederic Y

    2014-10-01

    We present a systems biology analysis of rat primary hepatocytes response after exposure to 10 μM and 100 μM flutamide in liver microfluidic biochips. We coupled an in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) model of flutamide to a system biology model of its reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging by the Nrf2 regulated glutathione production. The PK model was calibrated using data on flutamide kinetics, hydroxyflutamide and glutathione conjugates formation in microfluidic conditions. The parameters of Nrf2-related gene activities and the subsequent glutathione depletion were calibrated using microarray data from our microfluidic experiments and literature information. Following a 10 μM flutamide exposure, the model predicted a recovery time to baseline levels of glutathione (GSH) and ROS in agreement with our experimental observations. At 100 μM, the model predicted that metabolism saturation led to an important accumulation of flutamide in cells, a high ROS production and complete GSH depletion. The high levels of ROS predicted were consistent with the necrotic switch observed by transcriptomics, and the high cell mortality we had experimentally observed. The model predicted a transition between recoverable GSH depletion and deep GSH depletion at about 12.5 μM of flutamide (single perfusion exposure). Our work shows that in vitro biochip experiments can provide supporting information for complex in silico modeling including data from extra cellular and intra cellular levels. We believe that this approach can be an efficient strategy for a global integrated methodology in predictive toxicology.

  13. Marked differences in drug-induced methemoglobinemia in sheep are not due to RBC glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, or methemoglobin reductase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.G.; Guertler, A.T.; Lagutchik, M.S.; Woodard, C.L.; Leonard, D.A.

    1993-05-13

    Benzocaine is a commonly used topical anesthetic that is structurally similar to current candidates for cyanide prophylaxis. Benzocaine induces profound methemoglobinemia in some sheep but not others. After topical benzocaine administration certain sheep respond to form MHb (elevated MHb 16-50% after a 56-280 mg dose, a 2-10 second spray with benzocine), while other phenotypically similar sheep fail to significantly form MHb (less than a 2% increase from baseline). Deficiencies in Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and MHb reductase increase the susceptibility to methemoglobinemia in man and animals. Sheep are used as a model for G-6-PD deficiency in man, and differences in this enzyme level could cause the variable response seen in these sheep. Similarly, differences in GSH and MHb reductase could be responsible for the observed differences in MHb formation.

  14. Glutathione in plants: an integrated overview.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Graham; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Han, Yi; Neukermans, Jenny; Marquez-Garcia, Belen; Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine H

    2012-02-01

    Plants cannot survive without glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) or γ-glutamylcysteine-containing homologues. The reasons why this small molecule is indispensable are not fully understood, but it can be inferred that glutathione has functions in plant development that cannot be performed by other thiols or antioxidants. The known functions of glutathione include roles in biosynthetic pathways, detoxification, antioxidant biochemistry and redox homeostasis. Glutathione can interact in multiple ways with proteins through thiol-disulphide exchange and related processes. Its strategic position between oxidants such as reactive oxygen species and cellular reductants makes the glutathione system perfectly configured for signalling functions. Recent years have witnessed considerable progress in understanding glutathione synthesis, degradation and transport, particularly in relation to cellular redox homeostasis and related signalling under optimal and stress conditions. Here we outline the key recent advances and discuss how alterations in glutathione status, such as those observed during stress, may participate in signal transduction cascades. The discussion highlights some of the issues surrounding the regulation of glutathione contents, the control of glutathione redox potential, and how the functions of glutathione and other thiols are integrated to fine-tune photorespiratory and respiratory metabolism and to modulate phytohormone signalling pathways through appropriate modification of sensitive protein cysteine residues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Relevance of the glutathione system in temporal lobe epilepsy: evidence in human and experimental models.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Sampieri, Aristides; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is a state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, is induced by a wide variety of factors. This biochemical state is associated with diseases that are systemic as well as diseases that affect the central nervous system. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, and temporal lobe epilepsy represents an estimated 40% of all epilepsy cases. Currently, evidence from human and experimental models supports the involvement of oxidative stress during seizures and in the epileptogenesis process. Hence, the aim of this review was to provide information that facilitates the processing of this evidence and investigate the therapeutic impact of the biochemical status for this specific pathology.

  16. Comparison of the protective effect of self-emulsifying peptide drug delivery systems towards intestinal proteases and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Hetényi, Gergely; Griesser, Janine; Moser, Michael; Demarne, Frédéric; Jannin, Vincent; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) for therapeutic peptides towards intestinal proteases and reduced glutathione (GSH). Sodium docusate was applied as anionic surfactant for hydrophobic ion pairing with leuprorelin (LEU), insulin (INS) and desmopressin (DES). The complexes were loaded into SEDDS that were characterized regarding droplet size distribution and zeta potential. The release profile of the peptides was examined by dialysis membrane method. Enzymatic digestion studies were performed by applying α-chymotrypsin, trypsin and elastase. Furthermore, the protective effect of SEDDS towards degradation through thiol-disulfide exchange reactions was examined by addition of GSH. SEDDS showed a mean droplet size of 0.27-3.9μm and a zeta potential of -25 to -33mV. All formulations provided a sustained release of the peptides over 6h. Degradation of the model peptides by intestinal proteases and GSH could only be observed in the release medium. In the oily phase of SEDDS neither any of the proteases nor GSH was soluble (≤0.1%). Furthermore, no degradation of the model peptides by proteases and GSH took place in the oily phase of SEDDS. SEDDS can provide a 100% protective effect towards protease degradation and deactivation by GSH. According to this, SEDDS might be promising tools for oral delivery of peptide drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a non-antibody biomarker for systemic sclerosis, which correlates with severity and activity of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Fabrini, R; Rosato, E; Gigante, A; Bocedi, A; Cianci, R; Barbano, B; Del Grosso, E; Ricci, F; Zingaretti, V; Salsano, F; Ricci, G

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocyte glutathione transferase (e-GST) is a detoxifying enzyme hyper-expressed in nephropathic patients and used recently as a biomarker for blood toxicity. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Renal involvement is frequent in SSc patients. Here we show that e-GST is hyper-expressed in SSc patients (n=102) and correlates (R2=0.49, P<0.0001) with the Medsger DSS and DAI Valentini indices that quantify the severity and activity of this disease. Interestingly, e-GST does not correlate with the impairment of kidney or other specific organs taken separately. e-GST hyper-expression seems to be linked to the presence of a factor (i.e., toxin) that triggers the autoimmune disease, and not to the damage of specific organs or to oxidative stress. e-GST may be proposed as an innovative non-antibody biomarker for SSc useful to check the progress of this disease and the efficiency of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23887627

  18. Impaired cross-talk between the thioredoxin and glutathione systems is related to ASK-1 mediated apoptosis in neuronal cells exposed to mercury.

    PubMed

    Branco, Vasco; Coppo, Lucia; Solá, Susana; Lu, Jun; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Holmgren, Arne; Carvalho, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) compounds target both cysteine (Cys) and selenocysteine (Sec) residues in peptides and proteins. Thus, the components of the two major cellular antioxidant systems - glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx) systems - are likely targets for mercurials. Hg exposure results in GSH depletion and Trx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) are prime targets for mercury. These systems have a wide-range of common functions and interaction between their components has been reported. However, toxic effects over both systems are normally treated as isolated events. To study how the interaction between the glutathione and thioredoxin systems is affected by Hg, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells were exposed to 1 and 5μM of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), methylmercury (MeHg) or ethylmercury (EtHg) and examined for TrxR, GSH and Grx levels and activities, as well as for Trx redox state. Phosphorylation of apoptosis signalling kinase 1 (ASK1), caspase-3 activity and the number of apoptotic cells were evaluated to investigate the induction of Trx-mediated apoptotic cell death. Additionally, primary cerebellar neurons from mice depleted of mitochondrial Grx2 (mGrx2D) were used to examine the link between Grx activity and Trx function. Results showed that Trx was affected at higher exposure levels than TrxR, especially for EtHg. GSH levels were only significantly affected by exposure to a high concentration of EtHg. Depletion of GSH with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) severely increased Trx oxidation by Hg. Notably, EtHg-induced oxidation of Trx was significantly enhanced in primary neurons of mGrx2D mice. Our results suggest that GSH/Grx acts as backups for TrxR in neuronal cells to maintain Trx turnover during Hg exposure, thus linking different mechanisms of molecular and cellular toxicity. Finally, Trx oxidation by Hg compounds was associated to apoptotic hallmarks, including increased ASK-1 phosphorylation, caspase-3 activation and increased number of apoptotic cells

  19. Relevance of the Glutathione System in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Evidence in Human and Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Sampieri, Aristides; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is a state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, is induced by a wide variety of factors. This biochemical state is associated with diseases that are systemic as well as diseases that affect the central nervous system. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, and temporal lobe epilepsy represents an estimated 40% of all epilepsy cases. Currently, evidence from human and experimental models supports the involvement of oxidative stress during seizures and in the epileptogenesis process. Hence, the aim of this review was to provide information that facilitates the processing of this evidence and investigate the therapeutic impact of the biochemical status for this specific pathology. PMID:25538816

  20. A Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification System Is Required for Formaldehyde Resistance and Optimal Survival of Neisseria meningitidis in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nathan H.; Couñago, Rafael M.; Djoko, Karrera Y.; Jennings, Michael P.; Apicella, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The glutathione-dependent AdhC-EstD formaldehyde detoxification system is found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It is established that it confers protection against formaldehyde that is produced from environmental sources or methanol metabolism. Thus, its presence in the human host-adapted bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is intriguing. This work defined the biological function of this system in the meningococcus using phenotypic analyses of mutants linked to biochemical and structural characterization of purified enzymes. Results: We demonstrated that mutants in the adhC and/or estD were sensitive to killing by formaldehyde. Inactivation of adhC and/or estD also led to a loss of viability in biofilm communities, even in the absence of exogenous formaldehyde. Detailed biochemical and structural analyses of the esterase component demonstrated that S-formylglutathione was the only biologically relevant substrate for EstD. We further showed that an absolutely conserved cysteine residue was covalently modified by S-glutathionylation. This leads to inactivation of EstD. Innovation: The results provide several conceptual innovations. They provide a new insight into formaldehyde detoxification in bacteria that do not generate formaldehyde during the catabolism of methanol. Our results also indicate that the conserved cysteine, found in all EstD enzymes from humans to microbes, is a site of enzyme regulation, probably via S-glutathionylation. Conclusion: The adhc-estD system protects against formaldehyde produced during endogenous metabolism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 743–755. PMID:22937752

  1. Implicating the Glutathione-Gated Potassium Efflux System as a Cause of Electrophile-Induced Activated Sludge Deflocculation

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Charles B.; Love, Nancy G.

    2004-01-01

    The glutathione-gated K+ efflux (GGKE) system represents a protective microbial stress response that is activated by electrophilic or thiol-reactive stressors. It was hypothesized that efflux of cytoplasmic K+ occurs in activated sludge communities in response to shock loads of industrially relevant electrophilic chemicals and results in significant deflocculation. Novosphingobium capsulatum, a bacterium consistent with others found in activated sludge treatment systems, responded to electrophilic thiol reactants with rapid efflux of up to 80% of its cytoplasmic K+ pool. Furthermore, N. capsulatum and activated sludge cultures exhibited dynamic efflux-uptake-efflux responses very similar to those observed by others in Escherichia coli K-12 exposed to the electrophilic stressors N-ethylmaleimide and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Fluorescent LIVE/DEAD stains were used to show that cell lysis was not the cause of electrophile-induced K+ efflux. Nigericin was used to artificially stimulate K+ efflux from N. capsulatum and activated sludge cultures as a comparison to electrophile-induced K+ efflux and showed that cytoplasmic K+ efflux by both means corresponded with activated sludge deflocculation. These results parallel those of previous studies with pure cultures in which GGKE was shown to cause cytoplasmic K+ efflux and implicate the GGKE system as a probable causal mechanism for electrophile-induced, activated sludge deflocculation. Calculations support the notion that shock loads of electrophilic chemicals result in very high K+ concentrations within the activated sludge floc structure, and these K+ levels are comparable to that which caused deflocculation by external (nonphysiological) KCl addition. PMID:15345445

  2. Rhythms of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in brain of chick and their inhibition by light.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M I; Reiter, R J; Ortiz, G G; Guerrero, J M; Agapito, M T; Chuang, J I; Sewerynek, E

    1998-01-01

    Melatonin was recently shown to be a component of the antioxidative defense system of organisms due to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Pharmacologically, melatonin stimulates the activity of the peroxide detoxifying enzyme glutathione peroxidase in rat brain and in several tissues of chicks. In this report, we studied the endogenous rhythm of two antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in five regions (hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum) of chick brain and correlated them with physiological blood melatonin concentrations. Glutathione peroxidase exhibited a marked 24 h rhythm with peak activity in each brain region which had acrophases about 8 h after lights off and about 4 h after the serum melatonin peak was detected. Glutathione reductase activity exhibited similar robust rhythms with the peaks occurring roughly 2 h after those of glutathione peroxidase. We suggest that neural glutathione peroxidase increases due to the rise of nocturnal melatonin levels while glutathione reductase activity rises slightly later possibly due to an increase of its substrate, oxidized glutathione. The exposure of chicks to constant light for 6 days eliminated the melatonin rhythm as well as the peaks in both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. These findings suggest that the melatonin rhythm may be related to the nighttime increases in the enzyme activities, although other explanations cannot be excluded.

  3. Growth phase-dependent variations in transcript profiles for thioredoxin- and glutathione-dependent redox systems followed by budding and hyphal Candida albicans cultures.

    PubMed

    Michán, Carmen; Pueyo, Carmen

    2009-10-01

    We report the absolute transcription profiles of 24 genes coding for putative thioredoxin (Trx)- and glutathione (GSH)-dependent redox system components, accompanying the Candida albicans batch culture growth, under either yeast or hyphal conditions. All mRNAs investigated (plus the housekeeping ACT1) displayed significant alterations in their steady-state copy number. Collectively, these quantifications show that: (1) the most abundant mRNAs during active growth coded for putative thiol peroxidases (TSA1, PRX1, AHP11 and AHP12) and for donor thioredoxin Trx1p, i.e. those five mRNAs represented >74% of all transcript molecules quantified in a late exponential phase; (2) the transcripts under study differed between budding and hyphal cells not only in their abundance but also in their profiles throughout the growth stages; (3) mRNA amounts for four GSH-transferase putative genes (GTT12, GTT13, GTT14 and GST3) increased in the stationary phase in yeast but not under filamentous conditions. Hydrogen peroxide resistance, plus GSH, GSSG and reactive oxygen species contents, throughout yeast and hyphal growth, were also studied, and the differences observed were related to the transcript profiles.

  4. Subcellular compartmentation of glutathione in dicotyledonous plants

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the subcellular distribution of glutathione in roots and leaves of different plant species (Arabidopsis, Cucurbita, and Nicotiana). Glutathione is an important antioxidant and redox buffer which is involved in many metabolic processes including plant defense. Thus information on the subcellular distribution in these model plants especially during stress situations provides a deeper insight into compartment specific defense reactions and reflects the occurrence of compartment specific oxidative stress. With immunogold cytochemistry and computer-supported transmission electron microscopy glutathione could be localized in highest contents in mitochondria, followed by nuclei, peroxisomes, the cytosol, and plastids. Within chloroplasts and mitochondria, glutathione was restricted to the stroma and matrix, respectively, and did not occur in the lumen of cristae and thylakoids. Glutathione was also found at the membrane and in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. It was also associated with the trans and cis side of dictyosomes. None or only very little glutathione was detected in vacuoles and the apoplast of mesophyll and root cells. Additionally, glutathione was found in all cell compartments of phloem vessels, vascular parenchyma cells (including vacuoles) but was absent in xylem vessels. The specificity of this method was supported by the reduction of glutathione labeling in all cell compartments (up to 98%) of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana rml1 mutant. Additionally, we found a similar distribution of glutathione in samples after conventional fixation and rapid microwave-supported fixation. Thus, indicating that a redistribution of glutathione does not occur during sample preparation. Summing up, this study gives a detailed insight into the subcellular distribution of glutathione in plants and presents solid evidence for the accuracy and specificity of the applied method. PMID:20186447

  5. Protective effect of reduced glutathione and venous systemic oxygen persufflation on rat steatotic graft following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sheng; Dong, Jiahong; Han, Benli

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the protective effect of high-dose reduced glutathione (GSH) preconditioning and venous systemic oxygen persufflation (VSOP) on rat steatotic liver grafts following transplantation. Steatotic liver model was established by feeding rats a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, and infusing stomach with 50% alcohol (1 mL/100g body weight/d) for 6 wk. In the pretreated group, short-term and high-dose of GSH administration and VSOP were performed. In rat orthotopic liver transplantation model, the recipient survival, liver function, hepatic microcirculation blood flow, hepatic redox, hepatocytes apoptosis and necrosis, and hepatic ultrastructure alteration were observed. In the pretreated rat steatotic grafts, hepatic GSH (from 29.43 +/- 4.83 to 41.56 +/- 8.51mg/mgprot), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (from 48.32 +/- 6.27 to 67.74 +/- 7.68 NU/mgprot), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (from 1.61 +/- 0.20 to 2.28 +/- 0.09 micromoles/g) were significantly increased (P < 0.05), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly decreased (from 7.20 +/- 2.18 to 4.63 +/- 0.58 nmol/mgprot, P < 0.05). The hepatocyte necrosis of fatty liver graft was significantly reduced in the pretreated group when compared with non-treated fatty ones (37.71% +/- 9.69% versus 16.63% +/- 5.53%; t = 3.777, P = 0.014), and significantly improved liver function and hepatic ultrastructure were observed in the pretreated fatty liver group after operation. The animal survival after transplanted with fatty liver was significantly improved (chi(2) = 4.07, P = 0.0436). A short course pretreatment with high-dose GSH and oxygen persufflation during cold preservation effectively protect steatotic liver grafts from ischemic damage and significantly improve early survival rate in a rat fatty liver transplantation model.

  6. Glutathione and thioredoxin dependent systems in neurodegenerative disease: what can be learned from reverse genetics in mice.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Marcus; Schick, Joel; Angeli, Jose Pedro Friedmann

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a major common hallmark of many neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and stroke. Novel concepts in our understanding of oxidative stress indicate that a perturbed redox circuitry could be strongly linked with the onset of such diseases. In this respect, glutathione and thioredoxin dependent antioxidant enzymes play a central role as key regulators due to the fact that a slight dysfunction of any of these enzymes leads to sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Apart from their classical role as ROS scavengers, some of these enzymes are also able to control post-translational modifications. Therefore, efficient control of ROS production and reversibility of post-translational modifications are critical as improper control of such events may lead to the activation of pathological redox circuits that eventually culminate in neuronal cell death. To dissect the apparently opposing functions of ROS in cell physiology and pathophysiology, a proper working toolkit is mandatory. In vivo modeling is an absolute requirement due to the complexity of redox signaling systems that often contradict data obtained from in vitro approaches. Hence, inducible/conditional knockout mouse models for key redox enzymes are emerging as powerful tools to perturb redox circuitries in a temporal and spatial manner. In this review we address the basics of ROS generation, chemistry and detoxification as well as examples in where applications of mouse models of important enzymes have been successfully applied in the study of neurodegenerative processes. We also highlight the importance of new models to overcome present technical limitations in order to advance in the study of redox processes in the role of neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ground difference compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  8. Glutathione in cyanobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of light and O2 on glutathione production were determined. Results of light and dark studies under normal and reduced oxygen tensions were compared to determine the effect of reduction in oxygen tension on glutathione levels. The growth rate of Anacystis nidulans and concurrent production of glutathione is presented. The generation of time of Anacystis nidulans was approximately 12 hours. Results of light and dark incubation of Aphanothece halophytica dominated planktonic microbial community from Pond 4 and Anacystis nidulans under high and low oxygen tension is also presented. It appears that light grown Anacystis nidulans cells have equal amounts of glutathione while dark grown cells produce more glutathione in the presence of increased O2.

  9. Glutathione peroxidase in early and advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, P; Velander, G; Mai, J; Thorling, E B; Dupont, E

    1991-01-01

    A defective antioxidant scavenging system plays a major role in one of the theories of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a general difference in antioxidant activity between early and advanced cases of Parkinson's disease. Twenty five recently diagnosed patients, without any clinical fluctuations (group A), and 25 patients in a late phase of the disease with severe fluctuations in response to levodopa therapy (group B) were included in the study. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase was determined as a measure of antioxidant activity and significantly lower values were found in group B than in group A. Regression analyses in groups A and B showed significant correlation between glutathione peroxidase and duration of disease, but not between glutathione peroxidase and age of patients. Images PMID:1940936

  10. Feasible Relation between Glutathione Peroxidase and Febrile Seizure

    PubMed Central

    MAHYAR, Abolfazl; AYAZI, Parviz; DALIRANI, Reza; MOHAMMAD HOSEINI, Behzad; SAROOKHANI, Mohammad Reza; JAVADI, Amir; ESMAEILY, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the relationship between serum glutathione peroxidase and febrile seizure. Materials & Methods In this case-control study, 43 children with simple febrile seizure (case group) were compared with 43 febrile children without seizure (control group) in terms of serum glutathione peroxidase level, measured by ELISA method. This study was conducted in Qazvin Children Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Qazvin, Iran in 2012-2013. The results were analyzed and compared in two groups. Results From 43 children 24 (53%) were male and 19 (47%) were female in children with simple febrile seizure, and 26 (60%) were male and 17 (40%) were female in febrile children without seizure (control group) (P=0.827). Serum glutathione peroxidase level was 166 U/ml (SD=107) in the case group and 141 U/ml (SD=90.5) in the control group of no significant difference. Conclusion There was no significant relationship between serum glutathione peroxidase and simple febrile seizure. Thus, it seems that glutathione peroxidase, an essential component of antioxidant system, does not play any role in the pathogenesis of simple febrile seizure. PMID:28277558

  11. The antioxidant glutathione in the fish cell lines EPC and BCF-2: response to model pro-oxidants as measured by three different fluorescent dyes.

    PubMed

    Jos, A; Cameán, A M; Pflugmacher, S; Segner, H

    2009-04-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) protects cells against injury by oxidative stress and maintains a range of vital functions. In vitro cell cultures have been used as experimental models to study the role of GSH in chemical toxicity in mammals; however, this approach has been rarely used with fish cells to date. The present study aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of three fluorescent dyes for measuring pro-oxidant-induced changes of GSH contents in fish cell lines: monochlorobimane (mBCl), 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) and 7-amino-4-chloromethylcoumarin (CMAC-blue). Two cell lines were studied, the EPC line established from a skin tumour of carp Cyprinus carpio, and BF-2 cells established from fins of bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. The cells were exposed for 6 and 24 h to low cytotoxic concentrations of pro-oxidants including hydrogen peroxide, paraquat (PQ), copper and the GSH synthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine-SR-sulfoximine (BSO). The results indicate moderate differences in the GSH response between EPC and BF-2 cells, but distinct differences in the magnitude of the GSH response for the four pro-oxidants. Further, the choice of GSH dye can critically affect the results, with CMFDA appearing to be less specific for GSH than mBCl and CMAC-blue.

  12. Enzyme-catalysed conjugations of glutathione with unsaturated compounds

    PubMed Central

    Boyland, E.; Chasseaud, L. F.

    1967-01-01

    1. Rat-liver supernatant catalyses the reaction of diethyl maleate with glutathione. 2. Evidence is presented that the enzyme involved is different from the known glutathione-conjugating enzymes, glutathione S-alkyltransferase, S-aryltransferase and S-epoxidetransferase. 3. Rat-liver supernatant catalyses the reaction of a number of other αβ-unsaturated compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, lactones, nitriles and nitro compounds, with glutathione: separate enzymes may be responsible for these reactions. PMID:6035529

  13. Comparative Hepatotoxicity of Aflatoxin B1 among Workers Exposed to Different Organic Dust with Emphasis on Polymorphism Role of Glutathione S-Transferase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Saad-Hussein, Amal; Shahy, Eman M.; Shaheen, Weam; Taha, Mona M.; Mahdy-Abdallah, Heba; Ibrahim, Khadiga S.; Hafez, Salwa F.; Fadl, Nevein N.; El-Shamy, Karima A.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The study aimed to investigate effects of organic dust exposure from different sources on aflatoxin B1-albumin adducts (AFB1/Alb), and role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphism in hepatotoxicity of (AFB1) among exposed workers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Liver enzymes, AFB1/Alb, and GST polymorphism were estimated in 132 wheat flour dust and 87 woods sawmill workers, and 156 controls. RESULTS: Results revealed that AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes were significantly elevated in exposed workers compared to controls, and were significantly higher in sawmill workers compared to flour workers. AFB1/Alb in flour and sawmill workers with GSTT1 and GSTM1&GSTT1 null genotypes were significantly higher than controls, and in sawmill workers with GSTM1&GSTT1 null than flour workers. Liver enzymes (ALT and AST) in sawmill workers were significantly higher than flour workers and controls in all GST polymorphism; except in GSTT1 polymorphism, where these enzymes were significantly higher in the two exposed groups than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, organic dust exposure may cause elevation in AFB1/Alb and liver enzymes of exposed workers, and GST gene polymorphism plays an important role in susceptibility to hepatic parenchymal cell injury; except in workers with GSTT1&GSTM1 null genotype, gene susceptibility seemed to have little role and the main role was for environmental exposures. PMID:27335608

  14. Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    PubMed

    van de Mortel, Judith E; Schat, Henk; Moerland, Perry D; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; van der Ent, Sjoerd; Blankestijn, Hetty; Ghandilyan, Artak; Tsiatsiani, Styliani; Aarts, Mark G M

    2008-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd and zinc (Zn) are examined, with the main aim to determine the differences in gene expression between the Cd-tolerant Zn-hyperaccumulator T. caerulescens and the Cd-sensitive non-accumulator Arabidopsis. This comparative transcriptional analysis emphasized the role of genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism. Furthermore the transcription factors MYB72 and bHLH100 were studied for their involvement in metal homeostasis, as they showed an altered expression after exposure to Cd. The Arabidopsis myb72 knockout mutant was more sensitive to excess Zn or iron (Fe) deficiency than wild type, while Arabidopsis transformants overexpressing bHLH100 showed increased tolerance to high Zn and nickel (Ni) compared to wild-type plants, confirming their role in metal homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

  15. Mercury species, selenium, metallothioneins and glutathione in two dolphins from the southeastern Brazilian coast: Mercury detoxification and physiological differences in diving capacity.

    PubMed

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tercia G; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the concentration of trace elements, total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) and mercury forms (MeHg, Hginorg and HgSe) in the vulnerable coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis were appraised and compared, using metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH) as biomarkers for trace element exposure. The trace element concentrations varied between muscle and liver tissues, with liver of all dolphin specimens showing higher Hg and Se concentrations than those found in muscle. Hg, MeHg and Hginorg molar concentrations showed a clear increase with Se molar concentrations in the liver of both dolphins, and Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg on a molar basis. Se plays a relevant role in the detoxification of MeHg in the hepatic tissue of both dolphins, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals in liver. In contrast, MT were involved in the detoxification process of Hginorg in liver. GSH levels in P. blainvillei and S. guianensis muscle tissue suggest that these dolphins have different diving capacities. Muscle Hg concentrations were associated to this tripeptide, which protects dolphin cells against Hg stress.

  16. Urine α-Glutathione S-transferase, systemic inflammation and arterial function in juvenile type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Holmquist, Peter; Liuba, Petru

    2012-01-01

    Despite marked improvement in therapy and monitoring of patients with insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes, diabetic nephropathy remains a serious complication, with subsequent end-stage renal disease in about 20% of cases. To investigate in young patients with type 1 diabetes whether urine α-Glutathione S-transferase to creatinine ratio (α-GST:crea) relates to markers of systemic inflammation and subclinical vasculopathy. Children and adolescents (median age and diabetes duration 14 and 6 years, respectively) with type 1 diabetes screened in a previous study for proximal tubular (urine α-GST:crea ratio) and renal (plasma creatinine, cystatin C glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and timed urine albumin excretion rate (AER)) function were, within the same timeframe, also investigated for vascular (blood pressure, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and compliance (CAC), brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)) profiles. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was assessed through questionnaire (n=67 respondents). None of the patients (n=69) had overt renal insufficiency. AER correlated with age (p=0.01, r=0.3), diabetes duration (p=0.02, r=0.3), FMD (p=0.04, r=-0.3, n=52), CAC (p=0.03, r=-0.3, n=62) and cGMP (p=0.01, r=-0.3, n=59). α-GST:crea was lower (p=0.03) in patients than in controls. α-GST:crea appeared to be particularly lower in older patients (p=0.004, r=-0.34 vs age), in those with worse diabetic control (p=0.03, r=-0.26 vs HbA1c), and in those with lower carotid artery elasticity (p=0.017, r=0.3 vs CAC). Although ETS had no direct significant impact on α-GST:crea, α-GST:crea correlated with FMD only in patients with ETS (r=0.5, p=0.009, n=13). α-GST:crea showed positive association with TNF-α (p=0.01, r=0.3). In children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, lower levels of urine excretion of

  17. Modulation of exogenous glutathione in phytochelatins and photosynthetic performance against cd stress in the two rice genotypes differing in Cd tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yue; Cao, Fangbin; Cheng, Wangda; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2011-11-01

    Greenhouse hydroponic experiments were conducted using Cd-sensitive (Xiushui63) and tolerant (Bing97252) rice genotypes to evaluate genotypic differences in response of photosynthesis and phytochelatins to Cd toxicity in the presence of exogenous glutathione (GSH). Plant height, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and biomass decreased in 5 and 50 μM Cd treatments, and Cd-sensitive genotype showed more severe reduction than the tolerant one. Cadmium stress caused decrease in maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and effective PSII quantum yield [Y(II)] and increase in quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation [Y(NPQ)], with changes in Cd-sensitive genotype being more evident. Cadmium-induced phytochelatins (PCs), GSH, and cysteine accumulation was observed in roots of both genotypes, with markedly higher level in PCs and GSH on day 5 in Bing97252 compared with that measured in Xiushui63. Exogenous GSH significantly alleviated growth inhibition in Xiushui63 under 5 μM Cd and in both genotypes in 50 μM Cd. External GSH significantly increased chlorophyll content, Pn, Fv/Fm, and Y(II) of plants exposed to Cd, but decreased Y(NPQ) and the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (qN). GSH addition significantly increased root GSH content in plants under Cd exposure (except day 5 of 50 μM Cd) and induced up-regulation in PCs of 5 μM-Cd-treated Bing97252 throughout the 15-day and Xiushui63 of 5-day exposure. The results suggest that genotypic difference in the tolerance to Cd stress was positively linked to the capacity in elevation of GSH and PCs, and that alleviation of Cd toxicity by GSH is related to significant improvement in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic performance, and root GSH levels.

  18. Simulation of interindividual differences in inactivation of reactive para-benzoquinone imine metabolites of diclofenac by glutathione S-transferases in human liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    den Braver, Michiel W; Zhang, Yongjie; Venkataraman, Harini; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M

    2016-07-25

    Diclofenac is a widely prescribed NSAID that causes severe idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (IDILI) in a small part of the patient population. Formation of protein-reactive metabolites is considered to play a role in the development of diclofenac-induced IDILI. Therefore, a high hepatic activity of enzymes involved in bioactivation of diclofenac is expected to increase the risk for liver injury. However, the extent of covalent protein binding may also be determined by activity of protective enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This is supported by an association study in which a correlation was found between NSAID-induced IDILI and the combined null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1. In the present study, the activity of 10 different recombinant human GSTs in inactivation of protein-reactive quinoneimine (QI) metabolites of diclofenac was tested. Both at low and high GSH concentrations, high activities of GSTA1-1, A2-2, A3-3, M1-1, M3-3 and P1-1 in the inactivation of these QIs were found. By using the expression levels of GSTs in livers of 22 donors, a 6-fold variation in GST-dependent inactivation of reactive diclofenac metabolites was predicted. Moreover, it was shown in vitro that GSTs can strongly increase the efficiency of GSH to protect against the alkylation of the model thiol N-acetylcysteine by reactive diclofenac metabolites. The results of this study demonstrate that variability of GST expression may significantly contribute to the inter-individual differences in susceptibility to diclofenac-induced liver injury. In addition, expression levels of GSTs in in vitro models for hepatotoxicity may be important factors determining sensitivity to diclofenac cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Corneal endothelial glutathione after photodynamic change

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, D.S.; Riley, M.V.; Csukas, S.; Green, K.

    1982-03-01

    Rabbit corneal endothelial cells perfused with 5 X 10(-6)M rose bengal and exposed to incandescent light demonstrated no alteration of either total of or percent oxidized glutathione after 1 hr. Addition of 5400 U/ml catalase to the perfusing solution had no effect on total glutathione levels but caused a marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione in corneas exposed to light as well as in those not exposed to light. Substitution of sucrose for glucose in the perfusing solution had no effect on total or percent oxidized glutathione. Perfusion of rabbit corneal endothelium with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light resulted in no change in total glutathione content. A marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione occurred, however, in corneas perfused with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine both in the presence and absence of UV light. It is concluded that photodynamically induced swelling of corneas is not the result of a failure of the glutathione redox system.

  20. Selenium, glutathione peroxidase and other selenoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Selenium, as essential trace element, has long been associated with protein. The essentiality of selenium is partially understood as glutathione peroxidase contains an essential selenocysteine. Glutathione peroxidase has been purified from many tissues including rat liver. An estimated molecular weight of 105,000 was obtained for glutathione peroxidase by comparison to standards. A subunit size of 26,000 was obtained by SDS-gel electrophoresis. Glutathione peroxidase is not the only selenoprotein in the rat. In seven rat tissues examined, there were many different subunit sizes and change groups representing between 9 and 23 selenoproteins. Selenocysteine in glutathione peroxidase accounts for ca. 36% of the selenium in the rat. The mode of synthesis of glutathione peroxidase and the other selenoproteins is not understood. Glutathione peroxidase is strongly and reversibly inhibited by mercaptocarboxylic acids and other mercaptans, including some used as slow-acting drugs for the symtomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism and chemistry of this inhibition is discussed. This inhibition may provide a link between selenium and arthritis.

  1. Glutathione and mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Vicent; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C.

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the existence of specific carriers to import GSH from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, where it plays a key role in defense against respiration-induced reactive oxygen species and in the detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and electrophiles. Moreover, as mitochondria play a central strategic role in the activation and mode of cell death, mitochondrial GSH has been shown to critically regulate the level of sensitization to secondary hits that induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proteins confined in the intermembrane space that once in the cytosol engage the molecular machinery of cell death. In this review, we summarize recent data on the regulation of mitochondrial GSH and its role in cell death and prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, fatty liver disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25024695

  2. A pH/glutathione double responsive drug delivery system using molecular imprint technique for drug loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kelin; Guan, Xiujuan; Qiu, Yanxin; Wang, Dongdong; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-12-01

    A surface molecular imprinting polymer (SMIP) with doxorubicin (DOX) as the template was prepared on the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which were further used as DOX carriers. The loading amount of DOX was calculated as 10.5 ± 0.2 wt% with loading efficiency of 70 ± 8%. The DOX release was controlled because the monomer molecule used in polymerization of SMIP containing sulfur-sulfur bonding, which could be decomposed with an acidic pH and glutathione (GSH). Under an acidic pH and high concentration of GSH, there was greater release of DOX than under normal physiological conditions, which induced less damage to normal cells than to cancer cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy studies verified the invasion of the DOX within SMIP into TCA8113 cancer cells. These results indicate that the prepared SMIP was an effective nanocarrier.

  3. Systemic chromosome instability in Shugoshin-1 mice resulted in compromised glutathione pathway, activation of Wnt signaling and defects in immune system in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, H Y; Kumar, G; Zhang, Y; Rubin, E; Lightfoot, S; Dai, W; Rao, C V

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic error-mediated chromosome instability (CIN) can lead to aneuploidy, chromothripsis, DNA damage and/or whole chromosome gain/loss. CIN may prompt rapid accumulation of mutations and genomic alterations. Thus, CIN can promote carcinogenesis. This CIN process results from a mutation in certain genes or environmental challenge such as smoking, and is highly prevalent in various cancers, including lung cancer. A better understanding of the effects of CIN on carcinogenesis will lead to novel methods for cancer prevention and treatment. Previously Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1−/+) mice, a transgenic mouse model of CIN, showed mild proneness to spontaneous lung and liver cancers. In this study, adoptive (T/B-cell based) immunity-deficient RAG1−/− Sgo1−/+ double mutant mice developed lung adenocarcinomas more aggressively than did Sgo1−/+ or RAG1−/− mice, suggesting immune system involvement in CIN-mediated lung carcinogenesis. To identify molecular causes of the lung adenocarcinoma, we used systems biology approach, comparative RNAseq, to RAG1−/− and RAG1−/− Sgo1−/+. The comparative RNAseq data and follow-up analyses in the lungs of naive Sgo1−/+ mice demonstrate that, (i) glutathione is depleted, making the tissue vulnerable to oxidative stress, (ii) spontaneous DNA damage is increased, (iii) oncogenic Wnt signaling is activated, (iv) both major branches of the immune system are weakened through misregulations in signal mediators such as CD80 and calreticulin and (v) the actin cytoskeleton is misregulated. Overall, the results show multi-faceted roles of CIN in lung carcinoma development in Sgo1−/+ mice. Our model presents various effects of CIN and will help to identify potential targets to prevent CIN-driven carcinogenesis in the lung. PMID:27526110

  4. Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione transferase activities in the human artery, vein and heart.

    PubMed

    Mezzetti, A; Di Ilio, C; Calafiore, A M; Aceto, A; Marzio, L; Frederici, G; Cuccurullo, F

    1990-09-01

    The continuous exposure to blood components, including prooxidants, makes the blood vessel wall susceptible to oxidative stress and free radical mediated reactions (Henning and Chow, 1988; Stamm et al., 1989; Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1984). Free radicals can be produced extracellularly via the respiratory bursts of activated neutrophils, or intracellularly, via oxidation of hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidase (Henning and Chow, 1988; Stamm et al., 1989; Rubanyi, 1988). Microsomal enzymes such as lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase may also be a source of reactive species of oxygen (Henning and Chow, 1988; Stamm et al., 1989; Rubanyi, 1988; Mason et al., 1980). It has been proposed that free radicals are involved in the initiation and progression of various cardiovascular diseases including arteriosclerosis (Henning and Chow, 1988; Stamm et al., 1989; Yagi, 1988; Jürgens et al., 1987). Thus the adequacy of the defence systems against free radicals is critical for the susceptibility of blood vessel wall to oxidative damage. Among the enzymatic systems capable of protecting the cell against oxidative injury, selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-px), glutatione reductase (GSSG-rx) and glutathione transferase (GST) play a crucial role (Flohe' et al., 1976; Mannervik and Danielson, 1988). Using glutathione (GSH) as a cofactor, Se-GSH-px reduces H2O2 to water and organic hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols (Flohe' et al., 1976). This reaction leads to conversion of GSH into its oxidized form (GSSG). In the presence of NADPH, GSSG-rx is able to reduce the oxidized glutathione.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Glutathione reductase/glutathione is responsible for cytotoxic elemental sulfur tolerance via polysulfide shuttle in fungi.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ikuo; Shimatani, Kanami; Fujita, Kensaku; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2011-06-10

    Fungi that can reduce elemental sulfur to sulfide are widely distributed, but the mechanism and physiological significance of the reaction have been poorly characterized. Here, we purified elemental sulfur-reductase (SR) and cloned its gene from the elemental sulfur-reducing fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We found that NADPH-glutathione reductase (GR) reduces elemental sulfur via glutathione as an intermediate. A loss-of-function mutant of the SR/GR gene generated less sulfide from elemental sulfur than the wild-type strain. Its growth was hypersensitive to elemental sulfur, and it accumulated higher levels of oxidized glutathione, indicating that the GR/glutathione system confers tolerance to cytotoxic elemental sulfur by reducing it to less harmful sulfide. The SR/GR reduced polysulfide as efficiently as elemental sulfur, which implies that soluble polysulfide shuttles reducing equivalents to exocellular insoluble elemental sulfur and generates sulfide. The ubiquitous distribution of the GR/glutathione system together with our findings that GR-deficient mutants derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans reduced less sulfur and that their growth was hypersensitive to elemental sulfur indicated a wide distribution of the system among fungi. These results indicate a novel biological function of the GR/glutathione system in elemental sulfur reduction, which is distinguishable from bacterial and archaeal mechanisms of glutathione- independent sulfur reduction.

  6. [Effect of chloditan on the changes of activity of glutathione transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione content in the adrenal glands and liver in rats].

    PubMed

    Zorich, P A; Tronko, N D; Mikosha, A S

    1994-01-01

    The chloditan (o.p-DDD, mitotane), which causes the destruction of the human and dog adrenal cortex, on the most essential system of xenobiotic metabolism: glutathione-S-transferase--glutathione has been studied. The effect of o,p-DDD on GSH level and activity of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase which maintain the level of reduced glutathione was analyzed in the adrenal and liver tissue of rats. This species is resistant to adrenocorticolytic action of o,p-DDD. It was shown that feeding of rats weighting 200-240 g with oil solution of o,p-DDD (75 mg daily) for 3 days causes the decrease in activity of glutathione-S-transferase and content of oxidazed glutathione in the adrenals with simultaneous increase of the content of reduced glutathione. The glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activity in the liver rises under the effect of o,p-DDD, the decrease of the GSH level being observed. The revealed changes may explain the species sensitivity of animals to o,p-DDD.

  7. Role of glutathione in cisplatin resistance in osteosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Komiya, S; Gebhardt, M C; Mangham, D C; Inoue, A

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether and how glutathione and catalase increase the resistance of osteosarcoma cells to the toxicity of cisplatin. Eight osteosarcoma cell lines were exposed to varying concentrations of cisplatin, and a [3H]thymidine incorporation study then estimated their drug sensitivity. Cells were pretreated with aminotriazole and buthionine sulfoximine to depress catalase and glutathione activities and then entered into the same protocol to assess their sensitivity to cisplatin. Intracytoplasmic levels of catalase and glutathione were measured before and after the treatments. Cisplatin-glutathione conjugates were created to examine how glutathione might depress the toxicity of cisplatin. Although the cell lines differed in the magnitude of their response to cisplatin, there was a statistical correlation between intrinsic glutathione content and cisplatin resistance. Pretreatment with aminotriazole reduced catalase activity by 84% but did not change the sensitivity to cisplatin. Depletion of glutathione activity by 70% increased the sensitivity of the cells to the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. In addition, cisplatin was detoxified following conjugation with glutathione. The increased sensitization to cisplatin toxicity caused by the depletion of glutathione and cisplatin detoxification after the in vitro reaction of glutathione to cisplatin indicated that the formation of the glutathione-cisplatin conjugate was an important mechanism in the cellular resistance to cisplatin. These data also demonstrated that catalase activity did not contribute to resistance to cisplatin and suggested that H2O2-induced oxidative stress did not significantly contribute to the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in osteosarcoma cells.

  8. Roles of the glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent systems in the Escherichia coli responses to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Galina; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg

    2016-11-01

    Recently, it was proposed that some antibiotics stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to cell death. Later, other research groups have provided arguments against ROS-mediated killing of bacteria by antibiotics. At present, there remain a number of unanswered questions in understanding of the role of ROS in killing by antibiotics. Mutants of Escherichia coli in components of the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin redox pathways used in this study possess a great variability in antioxidant activity, and they therefore are a useful model for the investigation of the role of oxidative stress in bactericidal effect of antibiotics. Statistical analysis did not reveal a significant correlation between the susceptibility of the mutants to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin and their resistance to peroxide stress. However, we found strong reverse correlations between the bactericidal activity of antibiotics and the specific growth rate of these mutants at the moment of drug addition. Supplements changing the level of intra- and extracellular glutathione considerably affected E. coli susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The effect of GSH precursors on bactericidal activity of antibiotics was also observed in gshA mutants.

  9. Immunocal® and preservation of glutathione as a novel neuroprotective strategy for degenerative disorders of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ross, Erika K; Gray, Josie J; Winter, Aimee N; Linseman, Daniel A

    2012-12-01

    Oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) depletion are both recognized as significant contributors to the pathogenesis of many devastating neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to the aberrant production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are capable of oxidizing key cellular proteins, lipids, and DNA, ultimately triggering cell death. In addition to other roles that it plays in the cell, GSH functions as a critical scavenger of these ROS. Therefore, GSH depletion exacerbates cell damage due to free radical generation. Strategies that increase or preserve the levels of intracellular GSH have been shown to act in a neuroprotective manner, suggesting that augmentation of the available GSH pool may be a promising therapeutic target for neurodegeneration. This review discusses the capacity of a cystine-rich, whey protein supplement (Immunocal®) to enhance the de novo synthesis of GSH in neurons, and highlights its potential as a novel therapeutic approach to mitigate the oxidative damage that underlies the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, this review discusses various patents from 1993 to 2012 both with Immunocal® and other methods that modulate GSH in neurodegeneration.

  10. Systemic treatment with glutathione PEGylated liposomal methylprednisolone (2B3-201) improves therapeutic efficacy in a model of ocular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reijerkerk, Arie; Appeldoorn, Chantal C M; Rip, Jaap; de Boer, Marco; Gaillard, Pieter J

    2014-04-28

    Ocular inflammation is associated with the loss of visual acuity and subsequent blindness. Since their development, glucocorticoids have been the mainstay of therapy for ocular inflammatory diseases. However, the clinical benefit is limited by side effects due to the chronic use and generally high dosage that is required for effective treatment. We have developed the G-Technology to provide a means for sustained drug delivery, increased drug half-life, and reduced bodily drug exposure. Glutathione PEGylated liposomal methylprednisolone (2B3-201) has been developed as treatment for neuroinflammatory conditions and was evaluated in ocular inflammation. The efficacy of 2B3-201 was investigated in rats with experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Rats received 10 mg/kg of 2B3-201 intravenously at disease onset and at peak of the disease. The same dose of free methylprednisolone served as control treatment. Clinical signs of ocular inflammation were assessed by slit-lamp and immunohistochemistry. Whereas free methylprednisolone was ineffective, two doses of 2B3-201 almost completely abolished clinical signs of EAU. This was corroborated further by immunohistochemical analyses of isolated eyes. Treatment with 2B3-201 significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and subsequent destruction of the retina cell layers. In this study, we show that systemic treatment with 2B3-201, a glutathione PEGylated liposomal methylprednisolone formulation, resulted in a superior efficacy in rats with EAU. Altogether, our findings hold promise for the development of a safe and more convenient systemic treatment for uveitis.

  11. Glutathione: a key player in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Carlo; De Carolis, Caterina; Perricone, Roberto

    2009-07-01

    Increasing attention in the physiopathology of inflammatory/immunomediated diseases has been focused on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxygen-based molecules possessing high chemical reactivity and produced by activated neutrophils during the inflammatory response. During chronic inflammation, when sustained production of ROS occurs, antioxidant defences can weaken, resulting in a situation termed oxidative stress. Moreover, antioxidant defence systems have been demonstrated to be constitutively lacking in patients affected with chronic degenerative diseases, especially inflammatory/immunomediated. Glutathione, a tripeptide, is the principal component of the antioxidant defence system in the living cells. Glutathione has been demonstrated to have diverse effects on the immune system, either stimulating or inhibiting the immunological response in order to control inflammation. The study of interactions between glutathione and the immune system has attracted many investigators. Altered glutathione concentrations may play an important role in many autoimmune pathological conditions prevalently elicited, detrimed and maintained by inflammatory/immune response mediated by oxidative stress reactions. The role of glutathione in autoimmunity will be reviewed herein.

  12. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio.

  13. Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, Frederick T.; Hope, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness is increasing. The glutathione antioxidant and detoxification systems play a major role in the antioxidant function of cells. Exposure to mycotoxins in humans requires the production of glutathione on an “as needed” basis. Research suggests that mycotoxins can decrease the formation of glutathione due to decreased gene expression of the enzymes needed to form glutathione. Mycotoxin-related compromise of glutathione production can result in an excess of oxidative stress that leads to tissue damage and systemic illness. The review discusses the mechanisms by which mycotoxin-related deficiency of glutathione may lead to both acute and chronic illnesses. PMID:24517907

  14. The role of Nrf1 and Nrf2 in the regulation of glutathione and redox dynamics in the developing zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Sant, Karilyn E; Hansen, Jason M; Williams, Larissa M; Tran, Nancy L; Goldstone, Jared V; Stegeman, John J; Hahn, Mark E; Timme-Laragy, Alicia

    2017-10-01

    Redox signaling is important for embryogenesis, guiding pathways that govern processes crucial for embryo patterning, including cell polarization, proliferation, and apoptosis. Exposure to pro-oxidants during this period can be deleterious, resulting in altered physiology, teratogenesis, later-life diseases, or lethality. We previously reported that the glutathione antioxidant defense system becomes increasingly robust, including a doubling of total glutathione and dynamic shifts in the glutathione redox potential at specific stages during embryonic development in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear, as is the effectiveness of the glutathione system in ameliorating oxidative insults to the embryo at different stages. Here, we examine how the glutathione system responds to the model pro-oxidants tert-butylhydroperoxide and tert-butylhydroquinone at different developmental stages, and the role of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf) proteins in regulating developmental glutathione redox status. Embryos became increasingly sensitive to pro-oxidants after 72h post-fertilization (hpf), after which the duration of the recovery period for the glutathione redox potential was increased. To determine whether the doubling of glutathione or the dynamic changes in glutathione redox potential are mediated by zebrafish paralogs of Nrf transcription factors, morpholino oligonucleotides were used to knock down translation of Nrf1 and Nrf2 (nrf1a, nrf1b, nrf2a, nrf2b). Knockdown of Nrf1a or Nrf1b perturbed glutathione redox state until 72 hpf. Knockdown of Nrf2 paralogs also perturbed glutathione redox state but did not significantly affect the response of glutathione to pro-oxidants. Nrf1b morphants had decreased gene expression of glutathione synthesis enzymes, while hsp70 increased in Nrf2b morphants. This work demonstrates that despite having a more robust glutathione system, embryos become more sensitive to

  15. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate enhances key enzymatic activities of hepatic thioredoxin and glutathione systems in selenium-optimal mice but activates hepatic Nrf2 responses in selenium-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ruixia; Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Pingping; Yang, Chung S; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-12-01

    Selenium participates in the antioxidant defense mainly through a class of selenoproteins, including thioredoxin reductase. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active catechin in green tea. Depending upon the dose and biological systems, EGCG may function either as an antioxidant or as an inducer of antioxidant defense via its pro-oxidant action or other unidentified mechanisms. By manipulating the selenium status, the present study investigated the interactions of EGCG with antioxidant defense systems including the thioredoxin system comprising of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, the glutathione system comprising of glutathione and glutathione reductase coupled with glutaredoxin, and the Nrf2 system. In selenium-optimal mice, EGCG increased hepatic activities of thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and glutaredoxin. These effects of EGCG appeared to be not due to overt pro-oxidant action because melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, did not influence the increase. However, in selenium-deficient mice, with low basal levels of thioredoxin reductase 1, the same dose of EGCG did not elevate the above-mentioned enzymes; intriguingly EGCG in turn activated hepatic Nrf2 response, leading to increased heme oxygenase 1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 protein levels and thioredoxin activity. Overall, the present work reveals that EGCG is a robust inducer of the Nrf2 system only in selenium-deficient conditions. Under normal physiological conditions, in selenium-optimal mice, thioredoxin and glutathione systems serve as the first line defense systems against the stress induced by high doses of EGCG, sparing the activation of the Nrf2 system.

  16. Glutathione Levels in Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gamcsik, Michael P.; Kasibhatla, Mohit S.; Teeter, Stephanie D.; Colvin, O. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes clinical studies in which glutathione was measured in tumor tissue from patients with brain, breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, head and neck and lung cancer. Glutathione tends to be elevated in breast, ovarian, head and neck and lung cancer and lower in brain and liver tumors compared to disease-free tissue. Cervical, colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancers show both higher and lower levels of tumor glutathione. Some studies show an inverse relationship between patient survival and tumor glutathione. Based on this survey, we recommend approaches that may improve the clinical value of glutathione as a biomarker. PMID:22900535

  17. Expression of the laccase gene from a white rot fungus in Pichia pastoris can enhance the resistance of this yeast to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress by stimulating the glutathione-based antioxidative system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Fangfang; Zhuo, Rui; Ma, Fuying; Gong, Yangmin; Wan, Xia; Jiang, Mulan; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2012-08-01

    Laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase that has great potential in industrial and biotechnological applications. Previous research has suggested that fungal laccase may be involved in the defense against oxidative stress, but there is little direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, and the mechanism by which laccase protects cells from oxidative stress also remains unclear. Here, we report that the expression of the laccase gene from white rot fungus in Pichia pastoris can significantly enhance the resistance of yeast to H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidative stress. The expression of laccase in yeast was found to confer a strong ability to scavenge intracellular H(2)O(2) and to protect cells from lipid oxidative damage. The mechanism by which laccase gene expression increases resistance to oxidative stress was then investigated further. We found that laccase gene expression in Pichia pastoris could increase the level of glutathione-based antioxidative activity, including the intracellular glutathione levels and the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The transcription of the laccase gene in Pichia pastoris was found to be enhanced by the oxidative stress caused by exogenous H(2)O(2). The stimulation of laccase gene expression in response to exogenous H(2)O(2) stress further contributed to the transcriptional induction of the genes involved in the glutathione-dependent antioxidative system, including PpYAP1, PpGPX1, PpPMP20, PpGLR1, and PpGSH1. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of the laccase gene in Pichia pastoris can enhance the resistance of yeast to H(2)O(2)-mediated oxidative stress by stimulating the glutathione-based antioxidative system to protect the cell from oxidative damage.

  18. Expression of the Laccase Gene from a White Rot Fungus in Pichia pastoris Can Enhance the Resistance of This Yeast to H2O2-Mediated Oxidative Stress by Stimulating the Glutathione-Based Antioxidative System

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fangfang; Zhuo, Rui; Ma, Fuying; Gong, Yangmin; Wan, Xia; Jiang, Mulan

    2012-01-01

    Laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase that has great potential in industrial and biotechnological applications. Previous research has suggested that fungal laccase may be involved in the defense against oxidative stress, but there is little direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, and the mechanism by which laccase protects cells from oxidative stress also remains unclear. Here, we report that the expression of the laccase gene from white rot fungus in Pichia pastoris can significantly enhance the resistance of yeast to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. The expression of laccase in yeast was found to confer a strong ability to scavenge intracellular H2O2 and to protect cells from lipid oxidative damage. The mechanism by which laccase gene expression increases resistance to oxidative stress was then investigated further. We found that laccase gene expression in Pichia pastoris could increase the level of glutathione-based antioxidative activity, including the intracellular glutathione levels and the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The transcription of the laccase gene in Pichia pastoris was found to be enhanced by the oxidative stress caused by exogenous H2O2. The stimulation of laccase gene expression in response to exogenous H2O2 stress further contributed to the transcriptional induction of the genes involved in the glutathione-dependent antioxidative system, including PpYAP1, PpGPX1, PpPMP20, PpGLR1, and PpGSH1. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of the laccase gene in Pichia pastoris can enhance the resistance of yeast to H2O2-mediated oxidative stress by stimulating the glutathione-based antioxidative system to protect the cell from oxidative damage. PMID:22706050

  19. Virus-induced changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione precursors in Cucurbita pepo (L.).

    PubMed

    Zechmann, B; Zellnig, G; Müller, M

    2007-05-01

    Changes in glutathione contents occur in plants during environmental stress situations, such as pathogen attack, as the formation of reactive oxygen species leads to the activation of the antioxidative defence system. As glutathione is synthesized out of its constituents cysteine, glycine, and glutamate the availability of these components will limit glutathione synthesis in plants especially during stress situations and therefore the ability of the plant to fight oxidative stress. To gain a deeper insight into possible limitations of glutathione synthesis during pathogen attack the present investigations were aimed to study how the subcellular distribution of glutathione precursors correlates with the subcellular distribution of glutathione during virus attack in plants. Selective antibodies against cysteine, glutamate, and glycine were used to study the impact of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) infection on glutathione precursor contents within different cell compartments of cells from Cucurbita pepo (L.) plants with the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Generally, levels of cysteine and glutamate were found to be strongly decreased in most cell compartments of younger and older leaves including glutathione-producing cell compartments such as plastids and the cytosol. The strongest decrease of cysteine was found in plastids (- 54 %) and mitochondria (- 51 %) of younger leaves and in vacuoles (- 37 %) and plastids (- 29 %) of older leaves. The strongest decrease of glutamate in younger leaves occurred in peroxisomes (- 67 %) and nuclei (- 58 %) and in peroxisomes (- 64 %) and plastids (- 52 %) of the older ones. Glycine levels were found to be strongly decreased (- 63 % in mitochondria and - 53 % in plastids) in most cell compartments of older leaves and strongly increased (about 50 % in plastids and peroxisomes) in all cell compartments of the younger ones. These results indicate that low glycine contents in the older leaves were responsible for low

  20. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  1. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma.

    PubMed

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity.

  2. Time Difference Survey System (TDSS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    collection, grid Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED i Form COT F 1700.7 :2-7:3 leviodutto n’ for and...minicomputer (see figure 1-2). Processed data in the form of time differences, envelope data, receiver gain, and noise data is transmitted from the computer...or about 847 physical records) per tape cartridge. Language - The BASIC language as implemented on the System 458 Computer is an enhanced form of HP

  3. Clonorchis sinensis omega-class glutathione transferases play major roles in the protection of the reproductive system during maturation and the response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Geun; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Seon-Hee; Bae, Young-An; Kwon, Na-Young; Kang, Insug; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kong, Yoon

    2016-06-13

    Clonorchis sinensis causes a major food-borne helminthic infection. This species locates in mammalian hepatobiliary ducts, where oxidative stressors and hydrophobic substances are profuse. To adapt to the hostile micromilieu and to ensure its long-term survival, the parasite continuously produces a diverse repertoire of antioxidant enzymes including several species of glutathione transferases (GSTs). Helminth GSTs play pertinent roles during sequestration of harmful xenobiotics since most helminths lack the cytochrome P-450 detoxifying enzyme. We isolated and analyzed the biochemical properties of two omega-class GSTs of C. sinensis (CsGSTo1 and CsGSTo2). We observed spatiotemporal expression patterns in accordance with the maturation of the worm's reproductive system. Possible biological protective roles of CsGSTos in these organs under oxidative stress were investigated. The full-length cDNAs of CsGSTo1 and 2 constituted 965 bp and 1,061 bp with open reading frames of 737 bp (246 amino acids) and 669 bp (223 amino acids). They harbored characteristic N-terminal thioredoxin-like and C-terminal α-helical domains. A cysteine residue, which constituted omega-class specific active site, and the glutathione-binding amino acids, were recognized in appropriate positions. They shared 44 % sequence identity with each other and 14.8-44.8 % with orthologues/homologues from other organisms. Bacterially expressed recombinant proteins (rCsGSTo1 and 2) exhibited dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and thioltransferase activities. DHAR activity was higher than thioltransferase activity. They showed weak canonical GST activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. S-hexylglutathione potently and competitively inhibited the active-site at nanomolar concentrations (0.63 and 0.58 nM for rCsGSTo1 and 2). Interestingly, rCsGSTos exhibited high enzyme activity toward mu- and theta-class GST specific substrate, 4-nitrobenzyl chloride. Expression of CsGSTo transcripts and proteins

  4. Investigations into effects on performance and glutathione peroxidase activity in broilers when increasing selenium contents of complete diets appropriate to animals' selenium requirements by adding different selenium compounds (organic vs. inorganic).

    PubMed

    Salman, Mustafa; Muğlali, Omer Hakan; Selçuk, Zehra

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of inorganic and organic selenium compounds supplementations to diets containing adequate selenium in broilers on performance, carcass traits, plasma and tissue glutathione peroxidase activity. A total of 150 one-day-old broilers were randomized into one control and two treatment groups each containing 50 birds; each group was then divided into 3 replicate groups. The experiment lasted 42 days. All groups were fed with broiler starter diet from day 1 to 21 and finisher diet from day 22 to 42. The basal diet for control group included adequate selenium due to vitamin-mineral premix and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.2 mg/kg organic selenium (selenomethionine, treatment group 1) and 0.2 mg/kg inorganic selenium (sodium selenite, treatment group 2). Although no significant differences were determined between treatment group 1 and the control group for mean body weights, the differences between the group given inorganic selenium and the other groups were statistically significant (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between control and treatment groups with regard to mean feed intake and feed efficiency. The dressing percentages of the second treatment group were found to be lower than the first treatment group. Treatment groups were observed to have increased levels of glutathione peroxidase in plasma (p <0.01), kidney (p < 0.05), femoral muscle (p < 0.05), heart (p < 0.01) and liver tissue (p < 0.01) compared with the control group. Results of this study indicated that the supplementation of organic selenium to diets containing adequate selenium increased plasma, liver, femoral muscle, kidney and heart tissue glutathione peroxidase activity in broilers.

  5. Inevitable glutathione, then and now.

    PubMed

    Rana, S V S; Allen, Tanu; Singh, Rajul

    2002-06-01

    Glutathione a predominant tripeptide thiol compound of many prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is synthesized from its precursor amino acids eg. gamma-glutamate, cysteine and glycine. It is mainly involved in detoxication mechanisms through conjugation reactions. Other functions include thiol transfer, destruction of free radicals and metabolism of various exogenous and endogenous compounds. It becomes mandatory for a cell to manage high concentration of intracellular GSH to protect itself from chemical/dug abuse. Glutathione dependent enzymes viz: glutathione-S-transferases, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and gamma-glutamate transpeptidase facilitate protective manifestations. Liver serves as a glutathione-generating factor which supplies the kidney and intestine with other constituents of glutathione resynthesis. The principal mechanism of hepatocyte glutathione turnover appears to be cellular efflux. Kidney too plays an important role in organismic GSH homeostasis. Role of GSH in organs like lung, intestine and brain has recently been described. GSH involvement in programmed cell death has also been indicated. Immense interest makes the then "thee glutathione" as "inevitable glutathione". This article describes the role of this vital molecule in cell physiology and detoxication mechanisms in particular.

  6. Oxidized glutathione fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kiriyama, Kentaro; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    Glutathione is a valuable tripeptide that is widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Intracellular glutathione exists in two forms, reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Most of the glutathione produced by fermentation using yeast is in the GSH form because intracellular GSH concentration is higher than GSSG concentration. However, the stability of GSSG is higher than GSH, which makes GSSG more advantageous for industrial production and storage after extraction. In this study, an oxidized glutathione fermentation method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed by following three metabolic engineering steps. First, over-expression of the glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) gene increased the GSSG content better than over-expression of other identified peroxidase (GPX1 or GPX2) genes. Second, the increase in GSSG brought about by GPX3 over-expression was enhanced by the over-expression of the GSH1/GSH2 genes because of an increase in the total glutathione (GSH + GSSG) content. Finally, after deleting the glutathione reductase (GLR1) gene, the resulting GPX3/GSH1/GSH2 over-expressing ΔGLR1 strain yielded 7.3-fold more GSSG compared with the parental strain without a decrease in cell growth. Furthermore, use of this strain also resulted in an enhancement of up to 1.6-fold of the total glutathione content compared with the GSH1/GSH2 over-expressing strain. These results indicate that the increase in the oxidized glutathione content helps to improve the stability and total productivity of glutathione.

  7. Expression of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase pi in canine mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important agents of the antioxidant defense system of the cell because, in conjunction with the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione S transferase pi (GSTpi), it plays a central role in the detoxification and biotransformation of chemotherapeutic drugs. This study evaluated the expression of GSH and the GSH-Px and GSTpi enzymes by immunohistochemistry in 30 canine mammary tumors, relating the clinicopathological parameters, clinical outcome and survival of the bitches. In an in vitro study, the expression of the genes glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC) and glutathione synthetase (GSS) that synthesize GSH and GSH-Px gene were verified by qPCR and subjected to treatment with doxorubicin, to check the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Results The immunohistochemical expression of GSH, GSH-Px and GSTpi was compared with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the clinical outcome in the bitches, including metastasis and death. The results showed that high immunoexpression of GSH was correlated to the absence of tumor ulceration and was present in dogs without metastasis (P < 0.05). There was significant correlation of survival with the increase of GSH (P < 0.05). The expression of the GSH-Px and GSTpi enzymes showed no statistically significant correlation with the analyzed variables (p > 0.05). The analysis of the relative expression of genes responsible for the synthesis of GSH (GCLC and GSS) and GSH-Px by quantitative PCR was done with cultured cells of 10 tumor fragments from dogs with mammary tumors. The culture cells showed a decrease in GCLC and GSS expression when compared with no treated cells (P < 0.05). High GSH immunoexpression was associated with better clinical outcomes. Conclusion Therefore, high expression of the GSH seems to play an important role in the clinical outcome of patients with mammary tumors and suggest its use as prognostic marker. The in

  8. Mitochondrial Swelling Induced by Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Lehninger, Albert L.; Schneider, Marion

    1959-01-01

    Reduced glutathione, in concentrations approximating those occurring in intact rat liver, causes swelling of rat liver mitochondria in vitro which is different in kinetics and extent from that yielded by L-thyroxine. The effect is also given by cysteine, which is more active, and reduced coenzyme A, but not by L-ascorbate, cystine, or oxidized glutathione. The optimum pH is 6.5, whereas thyroxine-induced swelling is optimal at pH 7.5. The GSH-induced swelling is not inhibited by DNP or dicumarol, nor by high concentrations of sucrose, serum albumin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone, in contrast to thyroxine-induced swelling. ATP inhibits the GSH swelling, but ADP and AMP are ineffective. Mn-+ is a very potent inhibitor, but Mg++ is ineffective. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate is also an effective inhibitor of GSH-induced swelling. The respiratory inhibitors amytal and antimycin A do not inhibit the swelling action of GSH, but cyanide does; these findings are consistent with the view that the oxidation-reduction state of the respiratory chain between cytochrome c and oxygen is a determinant of GSH-induced swelling. Reversal of GSH-induced swelling by osmotic means or by ATP in KCl media could not be observed. Large losses of nucleotides and protein occur during the swelling by GSH, suggesting that the action is irreversible. The characteristically drastic swelling action of GSH could be prevented if L-thyroxine was also present in the medium. PMID:13630941

  9. Fisetin attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species and activating protective functions of cellular glutathione system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Cha, Ji Won; Zheng, Jian; Yao, Cheng Wen; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can induce cell damage by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA damage and cell death. The aim of this study is to elucidate the protective effects of fisetin (3,7,3',4',-tetrahydroxy flavone) against H2O2-induced cell damage. Fisetin reduced the level of superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical in cell free system, and intracellular ROS generated by H2O2. Moreover, fisetin protected against H2O2-induced membrane lipid peroxidation, cellular DNA damage, and protein carbonylation, which are the primary cellular outcomes of H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, fisetin increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, which is decreased by H2O2. Conversely, a GSH inhibitor abolished the cytoprotective effect of fisetin against H2O2-induced cells damage. Taken together, our results suggest that fisetin protects against H2O2-induced cell damage by inhibiting ROS generation, thereby maintaining the protective role of the cellular GSH system.

  10. [The glutathione system in the blood of rats and morphological changes of the pancreas under experimental acute and chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Makarchuk, V A; Ushakova, H O; Krylova, O O

    2013-01-01

    In experiment on laboratory rats the models of acute and chronic pancreatitis were developed to study the changes of lipoperoxidation-antioxidant protection system depending on morphological changes of the pancreas. The acute and chronic pancreatitis is accompanied with intensification of lipoperoxidation and gradual inhibition of antioxidant system due to development of subsequent chronization of the pathological process.

  11. Bacterial glutathione: a sacrificial defense against chlorine compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, J A; Eaton, J W; Mahoney, J R

    1996-01-01

    Aerobic organisms possess a number of often overlapping and well-characterized defenses against common oxidants such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. However, much less is known of mechanisms of defense against halogens such as chlorine compounds. Although chlorine-based oxidants may oxidize a number of cellular components, sulfhydrl groups are particularly reactive. We have, therefore, assessed the importance of intracellular glutathione in protection of Escherichia coli cells against hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and chloramines. Employing a glutathione-deficient E. coli strain (JTG10) and an otherwise isogenic glutathione-sufficient E. coli strain (AB1157), we find that glutathione-deficient organisms are approximately twice as sensitive to killing by both hydrogen peroxide and chlorine compounds. However, the mode of protection by glutathione in these two cases appears to differ: exogenous glutathione added to glutathione-deficient E. coli in amounts equal to those which would be present in a similar suspension of the wild-type bacteria fully restored resistance of glutathione-deficient bacteria to chlorine-based oxidants but did not change resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, in protection against chlorine compounds, oxidized glutathione is almost as effective as reduced glutathione, implying that the tripeptide and/or oxidized thiol undergo further reactions with chlorine compounds. Indeed, in vitro, 1 mol of reduced glutathione will react with approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mol of hypochlorous acid. We conclude that glutathione defends E. coli cells against attack by chlorine compounds and hydrogen peroxide but, in the case of the halogen compounds, does so nonenzymatically and sacrificially. PMID:8606194

  12. Glutathione conjugation and contaminant transformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Jennifer A.; Thurman, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent identification of a novel sulfonated metabolite of alachlor in groundwater and metolachlor in soil is likely the result of glutathione conjugation. Glutathione conjugation is an important biochemical reaction that leads, in the case of alachlor, to the formation of a rather difficult to detect, water-soluble, and therefore highly mobile, sulfonated metabolite. Research from weed science, toxicology, and biochemistry is discussed to support the hypothesis that glutathione conjugation is a potentially important detoxification pathway carried out by aquatic and terrestrial plants and soil microorganisms. A brief review of the biochemical basis for glutathione conjugation is presented. We recommend that multidisciplinary research focus on the occurrence and expression of glutathione and its attendant enzymes in plants and microorganisms, relationships between electrophilic substrate structure and enzyme activity, and the potential exploitation of plants and microorganisms that are competent in glutathione conjugation for phytoremediation and bioremediation.

  13. Plant glutathione transferases

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Lapthorn, Adrian; Edwards, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are encoded by a large and diverse gene family in plants, which can be divided on the basis of sequence identity into the phi, tau, theta, zeta and lambda classes. The theta and zeta GSTs have counterparts in animals but the other classes are plant-specific and form the focus of this article. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 48 GST genes, with the tau and phi classes being the most numerous. The GST proteins have evolved by gene duplication to perform a range of functional roles using the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) as a cosubstrate or coenzyme. GSTs are predominantly expressed in the cytosol, where their GSH-dependent catalytic functions include the conjugation and resulting detoxification of herbicides, the reduction of organic hydroperoxides formed during oxidative stress and the isomerization of maleylacetoacetate to fumarylacetoacetate, a key step in the catabolism of tyrosine. GSTs also have non-catalytic roles, binding flavonoid natural products in the cytosol prior to their deposition in the vacuole. Recent studies have also implicated GSTs as components of ultraviolet-inducible cell signaling pathways and as potential regulators of apoptosis. Although sequence diversification has produced GSTs with multiple functions, the structure of these proteins has been highly conserved. The GSTs thus represent an excellent example of how protein families can diversify to fulfill multiple functions while conserving form and structure. PMID:11897031

  14. Allocation of cysteine for glutathione production in caterpillars with different antioxidant defense strategies: a comparison of Lymantria dispar and Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Kochmanski, Joseph; Menachem, Brandon; Poirier, Lisa M

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur amino acids [cysteine (Cys) and methionine (Met)] play two major roles during animal development: protein synthesis for growth and glutathione synthesis for defense. For caterpillars, the levels of sulfur amino acids found in foliar protein can be especially low relative to their nutritional needs. Previous work has measured concentrations of glutathione (GSH; containing Cys) in specific animal tissues, but has not examined whole-body levels to ascertain the costliness of this defense in terms of Cys allocation. This study examined whether the production of GSH varies between species and within individuals in accordance with an insect's need for antioxidant defense. Secondly, we quantified the allocation of total Cys (peptide-bound plus free Cys) to GSH in caterpillars as an estimate of its cost. Two contrasting species were compared: Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae), a species that is highly defended, and Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae), a species that is less defended. As expected, GSH levels were significantly higher in L. dispar than in M. disstria. Consistent with the function of the midgut as a first line of defense against ingested toxins, GSH levels were significantly higher in these tissues than in the whole bodies of both species. A major finding in this study was that a large fraction of total Cys is used to produce GSH: GSH in the midguts of L. dispar and M. disstria contained 23 and 21%, respectively, of the total Cys in these tissues, and the GSH in their remaining body tissues contained 19 and 17% of the total Cys in these tissues. Levels of total Cys in caterpillar tissues followed the same pattern of distribution as did GSH, producing a strong association between GSH and total Cys (R(2) = 0.794). We conclude that GSH is a costly defense, especially in generalist tree-feeding species such as L. dispar. These results further suggest that the large allocation of Cys to GSH in highly defended species might produce a tradeoff by limiting the

  15. Effect of insulin, the glutathione system, and superoxide anion radical in modulation of lipolysis in adipocytes of rats with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Shakhristova, E V; Stepovaya, E A; Nosareva, O L; Fedorova, T S; Ryazantseva, N V; Novitsky, V V

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous lipolysis was found to be increased in adipocytes of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In addition, isoproterenol-stimulated hydrolysis of triacylglycerols was inhibited against the background of oxidative stress and decreased redox-status of cells. A decrease in the ability of insulin to inhibit isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in adipocytes that were isolated from adipose tissue of rats with experimental diabetes was found, which shows a disorder in regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes by the hormone in alloxan-induced diabetes. Based on these findings, we concluded that there is an influence of reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion radical in particular, and redox potential of the glutathione system on molecular mechanisms of change in lipolysis intensity in rat adipocytes in alloxan-induced oxidative stress. Activation of spontaneous lipolysis under conditions of oxidative stress might be a reason for the high concentration of free fatty acids in blood plasma in experimental diabetes, and this may play a significant role in development of insulin resistance and appearance of complications of diabetes.

  16. Glutathione synthesis against oxidant injury by peroxides in two alveolar epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Walther, Udo I; Mückter, Harald

    2009-03-01

    The D- and L-forms of N-acetylcysteine (NADC, NAC) were tested in antagonizing the toxicity mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in two lung cell lines to assess the effectivity of glutathione synthesis against peroxides. Toxicity was assessed by methionine incorporation, total glutathione content, and glutathione disulfide to glutathione ratio. NAC or NADC, at 2 mmol/L, increased cellular glutathione to about 1.5- or 3-fold (NAC) and 1.1- or 1.2-fold (NADC) in A549 or L2 cells, respectively, as compared to naive cells. H(2)O(2)-mediated toxicity was decreased by NADC (as compared to controls), but increased slightly with NAC, whereas tBHP-mediated toxicity was decreased both by NAC and NADC. However, when compared to controls, NADC was an effective antidote against tBHP in L2 cells only. Dexamethasone pretreatment increased toxicity of H(2)O(2) and tBHP in L2 cells, but did not affect the antioxidative efficacy of NAC/NADC. Antidotal properties of NAC/NADC were similar in both cell lines, despite significant differences of the glutathione redox system in both situations. Hence, it is concluded that direct antioxidative properties of NAC and NADC is a main antagonizing factor in H(2)O(2)-based toxicity but not in tBHP-mediated toxicity. Enhancement of glutathione biosynthesis decreased toxicity of tBHP, but not of H(2)O(2) in 2 pulmonary cell lines.

  17. Glutathione and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Circu, Magdalena L.; Yee Aw, Tak

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death represents a physiologically conserved mechanism of cell death that is pivotal in normal development and tissue homeostasis in all organisms. As a key modulator of cell functions, the most abundant non-protein thiol, glutathione (GSH), has important roles in cellular defense against oxidant aggression, redox regulation of proteins thiols and maintaining redox homeostasis that is critical for proper function of cellular processes, including apoptosis. Thus, a shift in the cellular GSH-to-GSSG redox balance in favour of the oxidized species, GSSG, constitutes an important signal that could decide the fate of a cell. The current review will focus on three main areas: (1) general description of cellular apoptotic pathways, (2) cellular compartmentation of GSH and the contribution of mitochondrial GSH and redox proteins to apoptotic signalling and (3) role of redox mechanisms in the initiation and execution phases of apoptosis. PMID:18671159

  18. Glutaredoxin catalysis requires two distinct glutathione interaction sites

    PubMed Central

    Begas, Patricia; Liedgens, Linda; Moseler, Anna; Meyer, Andreas J.; Deponte, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Glutaredoxins are key players in cellular redox homoeostasis and exert a variety of essential functions ranging from glutathione-dependent catalysis to iron metabolism. The exact structure–function relationships and mechanistic differences among glutaredoxins that are active or inactive in standard enzyme assays have so far remained elusive despite numerous kinetic and structural studies. Here, we elucidate the enzymatic mechanism showing that glutaredoxins require two distinct glutathione interaction sites for efficient redox catalysis. The first site interacts with the glutathione moiety of glutathionylated disulfide substrates. The second site activates glutathione as the reducing agent. We propose that the requirement of two distinct glutathione interaction sites for the efficient reduction of glutathionylated disulfide substrates explains the deviating structure–function relationships, activities and substrate preferences of different glutaredoxin subfamilies as well as thioredoxins. Our model also provides crucial insights for the design or optimization of artificial glutaredoxins, transition-state inhibitors and glutaredoxin-coupled redox sensors. PMID:28374771

  19. Rhizobacterial glutathione levels as affected by starvation and cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Hultberg, M

    1998-11-01

    The rhizosphere is a continuously fluctuating environment in which severe stresses are put on its inhabitants, and glutathione, a reducing tripeptide, and related compounds probably have important roles in cellular protection. In the present study the metabolism of glutathione was examined in rhizobacteria subjected to stress. The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens 5.014 and its mutant 5-2/4 were exposed to starvation, either by resuspension or exhaustion, and to cadmium. Glutathione levels, cell protein, and viable count were determined and compared in different conditions. Both starvation and cadmium exposure decreased the amount of glutathione in the cell. No changes of the glutathione concentration in the medium were observed with or without the presence of rhizobacteria, indicating that there was no transport over the cell membrane. The glutathione levels within the rhizobacteria may give valuable information on how different stresses affect the bacteria. In this study, the involvement of glutathione in the increased stress resistance earlier observed in nutrient-starved P. fluorescens was not supported. The concentration of bacterial glutathione is suggested as a possible marker for rhizosphere competence, which, however, needs to be further evaluated with several strains of rhizobacteria.

  20. Effects of cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides from microcystis on glutathione-based detoxification pathways in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo.

    PubMed

    Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Gantar, Miroslav; Mayer, Gregory D; Gibbs, Patrick D L; Berry, John P

    2012-06-01

    Cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae") are recognized producers of a diverse array of toxic secondary metabolites. Of these, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), produced by all cyanobacteria, remain to be well investigated. In the current study, we specifically employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo to investigate the effects of LPS from geographically diverse strains of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis, on several detoxifying enzymes/pathways, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)/glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and compared observed effects to those of heterotrophic bacterial (i.e., E. coli) LPS. In agreement with previous studies, cyanobacterial LPS significantly reduced GST in embryos exposed to LPS in all treatments. In contrast, GPx moderately increased in embryos exposed to LPS, with no effect on reciprocal GR activity. Interestingly, total glutathione levels were elevated in embryos exposed to Microcystis LPS, but the relative levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione (i.e., GSH/GSSG) were, likewise, elevated suggesting that oxidative stress is not involved in the observed effects as typical of heterotrophic bacterial LPS in mammalian systems. In further support of this, no effect was observed with respect to CAT or SOD activity. These findings demonstrate that Microcystis LPS affects glutathione-based detoxification pathways in the zebrafish embryo, and more generally, that this model is well suited for investigating the apparent toxicophore of cyanobacterial LPS, including possible differences in structure-activity relationships between heterotrophic and cyanobacterial LPS, and teleost fish versus mammalian systems.

  1. Effects of Cyanobacterial Lipopolysaccharides from Microcystis on Glutathione-Based Detoxification Pathways in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; Gantar, Miroslav; Mayer, Gregory D.; Gibbs, Patrick D. L.; Berry, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae”) are recognized producers of a diverse array of toxic secondary metabolites. Of these, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), produced by all cyanobacteria, remain to be well investigated. In the current study, we specifically employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo to investigate the effects of LPS from geographically diverse strains of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis, on several detoxifying enzymes/pathways, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)/glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and compared observed effects to those of heterotrophic bacterial (i.e., E. coli) LPS. In agreement with previous studies, cyanobacterial LPS significantly reduced GST in embryos exposed to LPS in all treatments. In contrast, GPx moderately increased in embryos exposed to LPS, with no effect on reciprocal GR activity. Interestingly, total glutathione levels were elevated in embryos exposed to Microcystis LPS, but the relative levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione (i.e., GSH/GSSG) were, likewise, elevated suggesting that oxidative stress is not involved in the observed effects as typical of heterotrophic bacterial LPS in mammalian systems. In further support of this, no effect was observed with respect to CAT or SOD activity. These findings demonstrate that Microcystis LPS affects glutathione-based detoxification pathways in the zebrafish embryo, and more generally, that this model is well suited for investigating the apparent toxicophore of cyanobacterial LPS, including possible differences in structure-activity relationships between heterotrophic and cyanobacterial LPS, and teleost fish versus mammalian systems. PMID:22822454

  2. Genetic variants in the glutathione S-transferase genes and survival in colorectal cancer patients after chemotherapy and differences according to treatment with oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Kap, Elisabeth J; Richter, Swantje; Rudolph, Anja; Jansen, Lina; Ulrich, Alexis; Hoffmeister, Michael; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Brenner, Hermann; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-07-01

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes are involved in the detoxification of a range of carcinogenic compounds as well as chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, genetic variants in the GST genes could influence survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Results from previous studies have been inconsistent and therefore we investigated the association between the GSTP1 ile105val polymorphism and the copy number variants of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and survival in CRC patients treated with adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy. We included 755 CRC patients with stage II-IV disease from two population-based studies carried out in Germany. Genotyping of the GSTP1 polymorphism was carried out using fluorescence-based melting curve analysis and copy number variants were determined using a multiplex PCR. Survival analysis was carried out using the Cox regression model, adjusting for age, sex, UICC stage, cancer site, and radiation therapy. Compared with noncarriers, CRC patients who were homozygote carriers of GSTM1 had significantly poorer survival after treatment with oxaliplatin [hazard ratio (HR) 2.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-5.44] than those not treated with oxaliplatin (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.30-1.34; P for heterogeneity=0.031). The association was significant in metastatic CRC patients treated with oxaliplatin (HR 3.59, 95% CI 1.29-10.03). Neither the GSTP1 105val allele nor the GSTT1 deletion was significantly associated with CRC survival. Our data suggest that GSTM1 may be a predictive marker for oxaliplatin therapy; however, independent large studies are warranted to confirm these results.

  3. Survival of Escherichia coli Cells on Solid Copper Surfaces Is Increased by Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Große, Cornelia; Schleuder, Grit; Schmole, Christin

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria are rapidly killed on solid copper surfaces, so this material could be useful to limit the spread of multiple-drug-resistant bacteria in hospitals. In Escherichia coli, the DNA-protecting Dps protein and the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase II Ndh were not involved in tolerance to copper ions or survival on solid copper surfaces. Decreased copper tolerance under anaerobic growth conditions in the presence of ascorbate and with melibiose as the carbon source indicated that sodium-dependent symport systems may provide an import route for CuI into the cytoplasm. Glutathione-free ΔcopA ΔgshA double mutants of E. coli were more rapidly inactivated on solid copper surfaces than glutathione-containing wild-type cells. Therefore, while DNA protection by Dps was not required, glutathione was needed to protect the cytoplasm and the DNA against damage mediated by solid copper surfaces, which may explain the differences in the molecular mechanisms of killing between glutathione-containing Gram-negative and glutathione-free Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25192999

  4. Stabilization of anthocyanins in blackberry juice by glutathione fortification.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, Nathan B; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L; Brownmiller, Cindi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

    2017-09-06

    Blackberry anthocyanins provide attractive color and antioxidant activity. However, anthocyanins degrade during juice processing and storage, so maintaining high anthocyanin concentrations in berry juices may lead to greater antioxidant and health benefits for the consumer. This study evaluated potential additives to stabilize anthocyanins during blackberry juice storage. The anthocyanin stabilizing agents used were: glutathione, galacturonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and tannic acid, which were added at a level of 500 mg L(-1). Juice anthocyanin, flavonol, and ellagitannin content and percent polymeric color were measured over five weeks of accelerated storage at 30 °C. Glutathione had the greatest protective effect on total anthocyanins and polymeric color. Therefore a second study was performed with glutathione in combination with lipoic and ascorbic acids in an effort to use antioxidant recycling to achieve a synergistic effect. However, the antioxidant recycling system had no protective effect relative to glutathione alone. Glutathione appears to be a promising blackberry juice additive to protect against anthocyanin degradation during storage.

  5. Serum Glutathione in Patients with Schizophrenia in Dynamics of Antipsychotic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, S A; Smirnova, L P; Shchigoreva, Yu G; Semke, A V; Bokhan, N A

    2015-12-01

    Serum concentrations of oxidized and reduced glutathione were measured in 73 patients with schizophrenia at admission and in dynamics of therapy with traditional and atypical antipsychotic drugs. The level of reduced glutathione in patients with schizophrenia with manifest clinical symptoms was lower than in normal subjects. Atypical neuroleptics produced virtually no effects on the glutathione system, while therapy with typical antipsychotics led to further decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, thus aggravating the imbalance of metabolic processes typical of schizophrenia.

  6. COMPARISON OF PLASMA MALONDIALDEHYDE, GLUTATHIONE, GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE, HYDROXYPROLINE AND SELENIUM LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH VITILIGO AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, I. Cetin; Batcioglu, Kadir; Karatas, Fikret; Hazneci, Ersoy; Genc, Metin

    2008-01-01

    Background: The etiology and pathophysiologic mechanism of vitiligo are still unclear. The relationship between increased oxidative stress due to the accumulation of radicals and reactive oxygen species and the associated changes in blood and epidermal component of vitiliginous skin have been reported many times. We investigated the possible changes of plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, selenium, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels in patients with vitiligo in order to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and etiopathogenesis of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: Plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels were measured by spectrophotometric methods, and HPLC was used for measurement of selenium concentrations. Results: Our results showed increased malondialdehyde, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels in plasma of vitiligo group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Support of antioxidant system via nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzymes may be useful to prevent of melanocyte degeneration which occur due to oxidative damage in vitiligo. PMID:19882005

  7. Investigation of acetaminophen toxicity in HepG2/C3a microscale cultures using a system biology model of glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Eric; Hamon, Jeremy; Claude, Isabelle; Jellali, Rachid; Naudot, Marie; Bois, Frederic

    2015-06-01

    We have integrated in vitro and in silico information to investigate acetaminophen (APAP) and its metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) toxicity in liver biochip. In previous works, we observed higher cytotoxicity of HepG2/C3a cultivated in biochips when exposed to 1 mM of APAP for 72 h as compared to Petri cultures. We complete our investigation with the present in silico approach to extend the mechanistic interpretation of the intracellular kinetics of the toxicity process. For that purpose, we propose a mathematical model based on the coupling of a drug pharmacokinetic model (PK) with a systemic biology model (SB) describing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NAPQI and the subsequent glutathione (GSH) depletion. The SB model was parameterized using (i) transcriptomic data, (ii) qualitative results of time lapses ROS fluorescent curves for both control and 1-mM APAP-treated experiments, and (iii) additional GSH literature data. The PK model was parameterized (i) using the in vitro kinetic data (at 160 μM, 1 mM, 10 mM), (ii) using the parameters resulting from a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) literature model for APAP, and (iii) by literature data describing NAPQI formation. The PK-SB model predicted a ROS increase and GSH depletion due to the NAPQI formation. The transition from a detoxification phase and NAPQI and ROS accumulation was predicted for a NAPQI concentration ranging between 0.025 and 0.25 μM in the cytosol. In parallel, we performed a dose response analysis in biochips that shows a reduction of the final hepatic cell number appeared in agreement with the time and doses associated with the switch of the NAPQI detoxification/accumulation. As a result, we were able to correlate in vitro extracellular APAP exposures with an intracellular in silico ROS accumulation using an integration of a coupled mathematical and experimental liver on chip approach.

  8. Effects of copper overload in P19 neurons: impairment of glutathione redox homeostasis and crosstalk between caspase and calpain protease systems in ROS-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Maja; Vlainić, Josipa; Radovanović, Vedrana; Erhardt, Julija; Oršolić, Nada

    2014-12-01

    Copper, a transition metal with essential biological functions, exerts neurotoxic effects when present in excess. The aim of the present study was to better elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms of CuSO4 toxicity in differentiated P19 neurons. Exposure to 0.5 mM CuSO4 for 24 h provoked moderate decrease in viability, accompanied with barely increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-3/7 activity. Glutathione (GSH) and ATP contents were depleted, lactate dehydrogenase inactivated, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase overexpressed. In severely damaged neurons exposed to only two times higher concentration, classical caspase-dependent apoptosis was triggered as evidenced by marked caspase-3/7 activation and chromatin condensation. Multifold increase in ROS, together with very pronounced ATP and GSH loss, strongly suggests impairment of redox homeostasis. At higher copper concentration protease calpains were also activated, and neuronal injury was prevented in the presence of calpain inhibitor leupeptin through the mechanism that affects caspase activation. MK-801 and nifedipine, inhibitors of calcium entry, and H-89 and UO126, inhibitors of PKA and ERK signaling respectively, exacerbated neuronal death only in severely damaged neurons, while ROS-scavenger quercetin and calcium chelator BAPTA attenuated toxicity only at lower concentration. In a dose-dependent manner copper also provoked transcriptional changes of genes involved in intracellular signaling and induction of apoptosis (p53, c-fos, Bcl-2 and Bax). The obtained results emphasize differences in triggered neuronal-death processes in a very narrow range of concentrations and give further insight into the molecular mechanisms of copper toxicity with the potential to improve current therapeutic approaches in curing copper-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Development of roGFP2-derived redox probes for measurement of the glutathione redox potential in the cytosol of severely glutathione-deficient rml1 seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Isabel; Rouhier, Nicolas; Meyer, Andreas J.

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione is important for detoxification, as a cofactor in biochemical reactions and as a thiol-redox buffer. The cytosolic glutathione buffer is normally highly reduced with glutathione redox potentials (EGSH) of more negative than −310 mV. Maintenance of such negative redox potential is achieved through continuous reduction of glutathione disulfide by glutathione reductase (GR). Deviations from steady state glutathione redox homeostasis have been discussed as a possible mean to alter the activity of redox-sensitive proteins through switching of critical thiol residues. To better understand such signaling mechanisms it is essential to be able to measure EGSH over a wide range from highly negative redox potentials down to potentials found in mutants that show already severe phenotypes. With the advent of redox-sensitive GFPs (roGFPs), understanding the in vivo dynamics of the thiol-based redox buffer system became within reach. The original roGFP versions, roGFP1 and roGFP2, however, have midpoint potentials between −280 and −290 mV rendering them fully oxidized in the ER and almost fully reduced in the cytosol, plastids, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. To extend the range of suitable probes we have engineered a roGFP2 derivative, roGFP2-iL, with a midpoint potential of about −238 mV. This value is within the range of redox potentials reported for homologous roGFP1-iX probes, albeit with different excitation properties. To allow rapid and specific equilibration with the glutathione pool, fusion constructs with human glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1) were generated and characterized in vitro. GRX1-roGFP2-iL proved to be suitable for in vivo redox potential measurements and extends the range of EGSH values that can be measured in vivo with roGFP2-based probes from about −320 mV for GRX1-roGFP2 down to about −210 mV for GRX1-roGFP2-iL. Using both probes in the cytosol of severely glutathione-deficient rml1 seedlings revealed an EGSH of about −260 mV in this mutant

  10. Dimethyl Fumarate Induces Glutathione Recycling by Upregulation of Glutathione Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Christina; Dietrich, Michael; Herrmann, Ann-Kathrin; Schacht, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis has been linked to oxidative stress. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an effective oral therapeutic option shown to reduce disease activity and progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DMF activates the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) leading to increased synthesis of the major cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and prominent neuroprotection in vitro. We previously demonstrated that DMF is capable of raising GSH levels even when glutathione synthesis is inhibited, suggesting enhanced GSH recycling. Here, we found that DMF indeed induces glutathione reductase (GSR), a homodimeric flavoprotein that catalyzes GSSG reduction to GSH by using NADPH as a reducing cofactor. Knockdown of GSR using a pool of E. coli RNase III-digested siRNAs or pharmacological inhibition of GSR, however, also induced the antioxidant response rendering it impossible to verify the suspected attenuation of DMF-mediated neuroprotection. However, in cystine-free medium, where GSH synthesis is abolished, pharmacological inhibition of GSR drastically reduced the effect of DMF on glutathione recycling. We conclude that DMF increases glutathione recycling through induction of glutathione reductase. PMID:28116039

  11. Comparison of inhibitory effects between acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate and reduced glutathione in human glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Nýdlová, Erika; Vrbová, Martina; Cesla, Petr; Jankovičová, Barbora; Ventura, Karel; Roušar, Tomáš

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver injury. The main mechanism of acetaminophen toxicity has been attributed to oxidation of acetaminophen. The oxidation product is very reactive and reacts with glutathione generating acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate (APAP-SG). Although this conjugate has been recognized to be generally nontoxic, we have found recently that APAP-SG could produce a toxic effect. Therefore, the aim of our study was to estimate the toxicity of purified APAP-SG by characterizing the inhibitory effect in human glutathione reductase (GR) and comparing that to the inhibitory effect of the natural inhibitor reduced glutathione. We used two types of human GR: recombinant and freshly purified from red blood cells. Our results show that GR was significantly inhibited in the presence of both APAP-SG and reduced glutathione. For example, the enzyme activity of recombinant and purified GR was reduced in the presence of 4 mm APAP-SG (with 0.5 mm glutathione disulfide) by 28% and 22%, respectively. The type of enzyme inhibition was observed to be competitive in the cases of both APAP-SG and glutathione. As glutathione inhibits GR activity in cells under physiological conditions, the rate of enzyme inhibition ought to be weaker in the case of glutathione depletion that is typical of acetaminophen overdose. Notably, however, enzyme activity likely remains inhibited due to the presence of APAP-SG, which might enhance the pro-oxidative status in the cell. We conclude that our finding could reflect some other pathological mechanism that may contribute to the toxicity of acetaminophen.

  12. The concentration of ascorbic acid and glutathione in 13 provenances of Acacia melanoxylon.

    PubMed

    Wujeska-Klause, Agnieszka; Bossinger, Gerd; Tausz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Climate change can negatively affect sensitive tree species, affecting their acclimation and adaptation strategies. A common garden experiment provides an opportunity to test whether responses of trees from different provenances are genetically driven and if this response is related to factors at the site of origin. We hypothesized that antioxidative defence systems and leaf mass area ofAcacia melanoxylonR. Br. samples collected from different provenances will vary depending on local rainfall. Thirteen provenances ofA. melanoxylonoriginating from different rainfall habitats (500-2000 mm) were grown for 5 years in a common garden. For 2 years, phyllode samples were collected during winter and summer, for measurements of leaf mass area and concentrations of glutathione and ascorbic acid. Leaf mass area varied between seasons, years and provenances ofA. melanoxylon, and an increase was associated with decreasing rainfall at the site of origin. Ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations varied between seasons, years (i.e., environmental factors) and among provenances ofA. melanoxylon In general, glutathione and ascorbic acid concentrations were higher in winter compared with summer. Ascorbic acid and glutathione were different among provenances, but this was not associated with rainfall at the site of origin.

  13. Neural Systems and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    Howard Garner's book Multiple Intelligences was important in psychology because it sought to relate a neuropsychological theory of common mental processes with a view of individual differences implicit in the term intelligences. New developments in imaging and genetics may make these connections more realistic.

  14. Analysis of glutathione, glutathione disulfide, cysteine, homocysteine, and other biological thiols by high-performance liquid chromatography following derivatization by n-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide.

    PubMed

    Winters, R A; Zukowski, J; Ercal, N; Matthews, R H; Spitz, D R

    1995-05-01

    The compound N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (NPM) reacts with free sulfhydryl groups to form fluorescent derivatives. A new method for measurement of glutathione and other biological thiols utilizing reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to separate and quantify these derivatives is described. Separation and quantification of glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine, cysteinylglycine, and gamma-glutamylcysteine derivatives are achieved. The method allows for the measurement of glutathione disulfide by masking free glutathione with 2-vinylpyridine, reducing glutathione disulfide with glutathione reductase, and measuring the resulting glutathione. Coefficient of variations for the various thiols measured by the NPM method range from 1.5 to 8.8%. The lower detection limit is around 50 fmol of glutathione. NPM derivatives are shown to be stable for 2 months at 4 degrees C. Between 94.2 and 97.2% of glutathione and/or glutathione disulfide added to a sample is recovered using the NPM method. The NPM method is compared to the monobromobimane high-performance liquid chromatography method and the Tietze assay by measuring glutathione in homogenates from five different cell lines. The newly developed method offers some advantages over the currently accepted techniques, including specificity, speed, sensitivity, and ease of use.

  15. Inhibition of glutathione conjugation in the rat in vivo by analogues of glutathione conjugates.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, S; Mulder, G J

    1998-04-24

    Glutathione (GSH) conjugation plays an important role in (de-)toxification of its substrates in vivo. We have developed inhibitors of GSH conjugation that are active in the rat in vivo which are derived from the structure of GSH conjugates: they contain a backbone of gamma-L-Glu-D-2-aminoadipic acid that is virtually isosteric with the gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys-Gly structure of GSH. In addition, a hydrophobic alkyl group is attached such that it may interact with the H-site of the enzyme. Finally, the carboxyl groups were esterified with alcohols of varying chain length. The results show that all these compounds preferentially inhibit alpha-GST's 1-1 and 2-2, have less effect on mu isoenzymes 3-3 and 4-4, and finally, have little effect on rat theta (G.J. Mulder, S. Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Modulation of glutathione conjugation in vivo: How to decrease glutathione conjugation in vivo or in intact cellular systems in vitro, Chem. Biol. Interact. 105 (1997) 17-34) and pi (S. Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, J.H. van Boom, M.C. Dreef-Tromp, J.H.T.M. Ploemen, D.J. Meyer, G.J. Mulder, Glutathione analogues as novel inhibitors of rat and human glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes, as well as of glutathione conjugation in isolated rat hepatocytes and the rat in vivo, Bioche. J., 308 (1995) 283-290). Several of the compounds inhibit the GSH conjugation of bromsulfophthalein and (S)-2-bromisovalerylurea in hepatocytes, in the situ recirculating rat liver perfusion and in the rat in vivo (after i.v. administration). The most effective compound contains a 2-heptylamine group linked as an amide to the 1-carboxyl group of the aminoadipic acid moiety at the H-site, and an ethyl ester at the 5-carboxylic acid group of aminoadipic acid.

  16. Effect of 4-week feeding of deoxynivalenol- or T-2-toxin-contaminated diet on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system in the hepatopancreas of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group. Glutathione S-transferase activity showed moderate decrease as effect of T-2 toxin, which suggests its effect on xenobiotic transformation. Reduced glutathione concentration showed moderate changes as effect of DON exposure, but T-2 toxin has no effect. Expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes showed different response to mycotoxin exposure. T-2 toxin caused dual response in the expression of gpx4a (early and late downregulation and mid-term upregulation), but continuous upregulation was found as effect of deoxynivalenol. Expression of the other gene, gpx4b, was upregulated by both trichothecenes during the whole period. The results suggested that trichothecenes have some effect on free radical formation and antioxidant defence, but the changes depend on the duration of exposure and the dose applied, and in case of glutathione peroxidase, there was no correlation between expression of genes and enzyme activity.

  17. Cytosolic Triosephosphate Isomerase from Arabidopsis thaliana Is Reversibly Modified by Glutathione on Cysteines 127 and 218

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Sébastien; Bykova, Natalia V.; Pelletier, Guillaume; Dorion, Sonia; Rivoal, Jean

    2016-01-01

    In plant cells, an increase in cellular oxidants can have multiple effects, including the promotion of mixed disulfide bonds between glutathione and some proteins (S-glutathionylation). The present study focuses on the cytosolic isoform of the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (cTPI) from Arabidopsis thaliana and its reversible modification by glutathione. We used purified recombinant cTPI to demonstrate the enzyme sensitivity to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide, hydrogen peroxide and diamide. Treatment of cTPI with diamide in the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH) led to a virtually complete inhibition of its enzymatic activity by S-glutathionylation. Recombinant cTPI was also sensitive to the oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) in the micromolar range. Activity of cTPI was restored after reversion of S-glutathionylation by two purified recombinant A. thaliana cytosolic glutaredoxins (GRXs). GRXs-mediated deglutathionylation of cTPI was dependent on a GSH-regenerating system. Analysis of cTPI by mass spectrometry after S-glutathionylation by GSSG revealed that two Cys residues (Cys127 and Cys218) were modified by glutathione. The role of these two residues was assessed using site-directed mutagenesis. Mutation of Cys127 and Cys218 to Ser separately or together caused different levels of decrease in enzyme activity, loss of stability, as well as alteration of intrinsic fluorescence, underlining the importance of these Cys residues in protein conformation. Comparison of wild-type and mutant proteins modified with biotinyl glutathione ethyl ester (BioGEE) showed partial binding with single mutants and total loss of binding with the double mutant, demonstrating that both Cys residues were significantly S-glutathionylated. cTPI modification with BioGEE was reversed using DTT. Our study provides the first identification of the amino acid residues involved in cTPI S-glutathionylation and supports the hypothesis that this reversible modification could be part

  18. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the spinal-cord glutathione system and nitric-oxide metabolites in rats with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Horst, Andréa; Kolberg, Carolina; Moraes, Maira S; Riffel, Ana Paula K; Finamor, Isabela A; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Pavanato, Maria Amália; Partata, Wania A

    2014-05-21

    Since N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a donor of cysteine, we studied the relationship between NAC and concentration of oxidized and reduced glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve that received NAC (150mg/kg/day, i.p.) or 0.9% saline solution for 3 or 10 days. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric-oxide (NO) metabolites were also measured. Von Frey hair and hot-plate tests showed hyperalgesia at day 1 in CCI rats. Hyperalgesia persisted at all other times in saline-treated CCI rats, but returned to pre-injury values in NAC-treated CCI rats after 3 postoperative days. GST activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio increased in saline-treated CCI rats, while the NAC treatment increased GST and GPx activities at day 10, with no significant change in the GSH/GSSG ratio. NAC treatment did not affect H2O2 levels, but it reduced NO metabolites in CCI rats 3 days after the surgery. Thus, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of NAC appears not to involve its action as a cysteine precursor for GSH synthesis, but involves a decrease in NO.

  19. Early response of glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent antioxidant defense systems to Tl(I)- and Tl(III)-mediated oxidative stress in adherent pheochromocytoma (PC12adh) cells.

    PubMed

    Puga Molina, Lis C; Salvatierra Fréchou, Damiana M; Verstraeten, Sandra V

    2017-09-02

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that causes oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we evaluated the production of oxygen (ROS)- and nitrogen (RNS)-reactive species in adherent PC12 (PC12adh) cells exposed for 0.5-6 h to Tl(I) or Tl(III) (10-100 µM). In this system, Tl(I) induced mostly H2O2 generation while Tl(III) induced H2O2 and ONOO(·-) generation. Both cations enhanced iNOS expression and activity, and decreased CuZnSOD expression but without affecting its activity. Tl(I) increased MnSOD expression and activity but Tl(III) decreased them. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity remained unaffected throughout the period assessed. Oxidant levels returned to baseline values after 6 h of incubation, suggesting a response of the antioxidant defense system to the oxidative insult imposed by the cations. Tl also affected the glutathione-dependent system: while Tl(III) increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression and activity, Tl(I) and Tl(III) decreased glutathione reductase (GR) expression. However, GR activity was mildly enhanced by Tl(III). Finally, thioredoxin-dependent system was evaluated. Only Tl(I) increased 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prx) expression, although both cations increased their activity. Tl(I) increased cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) and decreased mitochondrial (TrxR2) expression. Tl(III) had a biphasic effect on TrxR1 expression and slightly increased TrxR2 expression. Despite of this, both cations increased total TrxR activity. Obtained results suggest that in Tl(I)-exposed PC12adh cells, there is an early response to oxidative stress mainly by GSH-dependent system while in Tl(III)-treated cells both GSH- and Trx-dependent systems are involved.

  20. Hepatic glutathione and glutathione S-conjugate transport mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T. K.; Li, L.; Ballatori, N.

    1997-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays a critical role in many cellular processes, including the metabolism and detoxification of oxidants, metals, and other reactive electrophilic compounds of both endogenous and exogenous origin. Because the liver is a major site of GSH and glutathione S-conjugate biosynthesis and export, significant effort has been devoted to characterizing liver cell sinusoidal and canalicular membrane transporters for these compounds. Glutathione S-conjugates synthesized in the liver are secreted preferentially into bile, and recent studies in isolated canalicular membrane vesicles indicate that there are multiple transport mechanisms for these conjugates, including those that are energized by ATP hydrolysis and those that may be driven by the electrochemical gradient. Glutathione S-conjugates that are relatively hydrophobic or have a bulky S-substituent are good substrates for the canalicular ATP-dependent transporter mrp2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, also called cMOAT, the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, or cMrp, the canalicular isoform of mrp). In contrast with the glutathione S-conjugates, hepatic GSH is released into both blood and bile. GSH transport across both of these membrane domains is of low affinity and is energized by the electrochemical potential. Recent reports describe two candidate GSH transport proteins for the canalicular and sinusoidal membranes (RcGshT and RsGshT, respectively); however, some concerns have been raised regarding these studies. Additional work is needed to characterize GSH transporters at the functional and molecular level. PMID:9626749

  1. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  2. Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

  3. Differences Between Distributed and Parallel Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brightwell, R.; Maccabe, A.B.; Rissen, R.

    1998-10-01

    Distributed systems have been studied for twenty years and are now coming into wider use as fast networks and powerful workstations become more readily available. In many respects a massively parallel computer resembles a network of workstations and it is tempting to port a distributed operating system to such a machine. However, there are significant differences between these two environments and a parallel operating system is needed to get the best performance out of a massively parallel system. This report characterizes the differences between distributed systems, networks of workstations, and massively parallel systems and analyzes the impact of these differences on operating system design. In the second part of the report, we introduce Puma, an operating system specifically developed for massively parallel systems. We describe Puma portals, the basic building blocks for message passing paradigms implemented on top of Puma, and show how the differences observed in the first part of the report have influenced the design and implementation of Puma.

  4. The importance and regulation of hepatic glutathione.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplowitz, N.

    1981-01-01

    Glutathione plays a key role in the liver in detoxification reactions and in regulating the thiol-disulfide status of the cell. Glutathione synthesis is regulated mainly by the availability of precursor cysteine and the concentration of glutathione itself which feeds back to regulate its own synthesis. Degradation of hepatic glutathione is principally regulated by the efflux of reduced and oxidized glutathione into both sinusoidal plasma and bile. In addition, glutathione may be consumed in conjugation reactions. Under conditions of oxidative stress, the liver exports oxidized glutathione into bile in a concentrative fashion, whereas under basal conditions, mainly reduced glutathione is exported into bile and blood. The mechanism of export of reduced glutathione into bile and sinusoidal blood is poorly understood. PMID:7342494

  5. Glutathione metabolism and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Smeyne, Michelle; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2013-09-01

    It has been established that oxidative stress, defined as the condition in which the sum of free radicals in a cell exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the cell, contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. Glutathione is a ubiquitous thiol tripeptide that acts alone or in concert with enzymes within cells to reduce superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and peroxynitrites. In this review, we examine the synthesis, metabolism, and functional interactions of glutathione and discuss how these relate to the protection of dopaminergic neurons from oxidative damage and its therapeutic potential in Parkinson disease.

  6. Glutathione protects Candida albicans against horseradish volatile oil.

    PubMed

    Bertóti, Regina; Vasas, Gábor; Gonda, Sándor; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Szőke, Éva; Jakab, Ágnes; Pócsi, István; Emri, Tamás

    2016-10-01

    Horseradish essential oil (HREO; a natural mixture of different isothiocyanates) had strong fungicide effect against Candida albicans both in volatile and liquid phase. In liquid phase this antifungal effect was more significant than those of its main components allyl, and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. HREO, at sublethal concentration, induced oxidative stress which was characterized with elevated superoxide content and up-regulated specific glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Induction of specific glutathione S-transferase activities as marker of glutathione (GSH) dependent detoxification was also observed. At higher concentration, HREO depleted the GSH pool, increased heavily the superoxide production and killed the cells rapidly. HREO and the GSH pool depleting agent, 1-chlore-2,4-dinitrobenzene showed strong synergism when they were applied together to kill C. albicans cells. Based on all these, we assume that GSH metabolism protects fungi against isothiocyanates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A comparative study of glutathione and ascorbate metabolism during germination of Pinus pinea L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, F; Paciolla, C; de Pinto, M C; De Gara, L

    2001-08-01

    The ascorbate and glutathione systems have been studied during the first stages of germination in orthodox seeds of the gymnosperm Pinus pinea L. (pine). The results indicate that remarkable changes in the content and redox balance of these metabolites occur in both the embryo and endosperm; even if with different patterns for the two redox pairs. Dry seeds are devoid of the ascorbate reduced form (ASC) and contain only dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). By contrast, glutathione is present both in the reduced (GSH) and in the oxidized (GSSG) forms. During imbibition the increase in ASC seems to be mainly caused by the reactivation of its biosynthesis. On the other hand, the GSH rise occurring during the first 24 h seems to be largely due to GSSG reduction, even if GSH biosynthesis is still active in the seeds. The enzymes of the ascorbate--glutathione cycle also change during germination, but in different ways. ASC peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activities progressively rise both in the embryo and in endosperm. These changes are probably required for counteracting production of reactive oxygen species caused by recovery of oxidative metabolism. The two enzymes involved in the ascorbate recycling, ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductase (EC 1.6.5.4) and DHA reductase (EC 1.8.5.1), show different behaviour: the DHA reductase activity decreases, while that of AFR reductase remains unchanged. The relationship between ascorbate and glutathione metabolism and their relevance in the germination of orthodox seeds are also discussed.

  8. Amodiaquine failure associated with erythrocytic glutathione in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Zuluaga, Lina; Pabón, Adriana; López, Carlos; Ochoa, Aleida; Blair, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    Objective To establish the relationship between production of glutathione and the therapeutic response to amodiaquine (AQ) monotherapy in Plasmodium falciparum non-complicated malaria patients. Methodology Therapeutic response to AQ was evaluated in 32 patients with falciparum malaria in two townships of Antioquia, Colombia, and followed-up for 28 days. For every patient, total glutathione and enzymatic activity (glutathione reductase, GR, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, γ-GCS) were determined in parasitized erythrocytes, non-infected erythrocytes and free parasites, on the starting day (day zero, before ingestion of AQ) and on the day of failure (in case of occurrence). Results There was found an AQ failure of 31.25%. Independent of the therapeutic response, on the starting day and on the day of failure, lower total glutathione concentration and higher GR activities in parasitized erythrocytes were found, compared with non-infected erythrocytes (p < 0.003). In addition, only on the day of failure, γ-GCS activity of parasitized erythrocytes was higher, compared with that of healthy erythrocytes (p = 0.01). Parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes in therapeutic failure patients (TF) had higher total glutathione on the starting day compared with those of adequate clinical response (ACR) (p < 0.02). Parasitized erythrocytes of TF patients showed lower total glutathione on the failure day, compared with starting day (p = 0.017). No differences was seen in the GR and γ-GCS activities by compartment, neither between the two therapeutic response groups nor between the two treatment days. Conclusion This study is a first approach to explaining P. falciparum therapeutic failure in humans through differences in glutathione metabolism in TF and ACR patients. These results suggest a role for glutathione in the therapeutic failure to antimalarials. PMID:17451604

  9. Changes in Protein Expression and Lysine Acetylation Induced by Decreased Glutathione Levels in Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pehar, Mariana; Ball, Lauren E; Sharma, Deep R; Harlan, Benjamin A; Comte-Walters, Susana; Neely, Benjamin A; Vargas, Marcelo R

    2016-02-01

    Astrocytes and neurons form a highly specialized functional unit, and the loss or gain of astrocytic functions can influence the initiation and progression of different neurodegenerative diseases. Neurons depend on the antioxidant protection provided by neighboring astrocytes. Glutathione (γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine) is a major component of the antioxidant system that defends cells against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. A decline in glutathione levels has been observed in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and it aggravates the pathology in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-mouse model. Using a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach, we analyzed changes in global protein expression and lysine acetylation in primary astrocyte cultures obtained from wild-type mice or those deficient in the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM). GCLM knockout astrocytes display an ∼80% reduction in total glutathione levels. We identified potential molecular targets and novel sites of acetylation that are affected by the chronic decrease in glutathione levels and observed a response mediated by Nrf2 activation. In addition, sequence analysis of peptides displaying increased acetylation in GCLM knockout astrocytes revealed an enrichment of cysteine residues in the vicinity of the acetylation site, which suggests potential crosstalk between lysine-acetylation and cysteine modification. Regulation of several metabolic and antioxidant pathways was observed at the level of protein expression and lysine acetylation, revealing a coordinated response involving transcriptional and posttranslational regulation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Effect of different Thai traditional processing of various hot chili peppers on urethane-induced somatic mutation and recombination in Drosophila melanogaster: assessment of the role of glutathione transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Laohavechvanich, P; Kangsadalampai, K; Tirawanchai, N; Ketterman, A J

    2006-08-01

    Four different Thai traditional chili peppers, namely bird pepper (Capsicum frutescens), red chili spur peppers (Capsicum annuum), green bell peppers and sweet pepper (C. annuum) were investigated for their antimutagenic properties. Each chili was prepared in three formulations commonly used for chili food processing; raw paste (chili ground in water), pickled in vinegar or stir-fried in palm oil. Each sample was tested for its antimutagenic effect against urethane by using the somatic mutation and recombination of wing hair of Drosophila melanogaster as an indicator. Three-day-old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers, multiple wing hairs mwh and orrigon (ORR;flr3), were exposed to urethane alone or in combination with each chili formulation. The various processing methods for chilies differentially extracted the antimutagenic chili components. The specific chili as well as the method of processing influenced the observed antimutagenic properties against urethane. This suggested each chili contains a unique complex mixture of many antimutagens. Co-treatment and pre-treatment experiments showed that both direct and indirect protective mechanisms are involved in an 'activation' process to give antimutagenesis effects. An association between antigenotoxicity and glutathione transferase activity could not be established.

  11. Glutathione in the human brain: Review of its roles and measurement by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rae, Caroline D; Williams, Stephen R

    2017-07-15

    We review the transport, synthesis and catabolism of glutathione in the brain as well as its compartmentation and biochemistry in different brain cells. The major reactions involving glutathione are reviewed and the factors limiting its availability in brain cells are discussed. We also describe and critique current methods for measuring glutathione in the human brain using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and review the literature on glutathione measurements in healthy brains and in neurological, psychiatric, neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental conditions In summary: Healthy human brain glutathione concentration is ∼1-2 mM, but it varies by brain region, with evidence of gender differences and age effects; in neurological disease glutathione appears reduced in multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease and epilepsy, while being increased in meningiomas; in psychiatric disease the picture is complex and confounded by methodological differences, regional effects, length of disease and drug-treatment. Both increases and decreases in glutathione have been reported in depression and schizophrenia. In Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment there is evidence for a decrease in glutathione compared to age-matched healthy controls. Improved methods to measure glutathione in vivo will provide better precision in glutathione determination and help resolve the complex biochemistry of this molecule in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. -SH groups and glutathione in cancer patient's blood.

    PubMed

    della Rovere, F; Granata, A; Saija, A; Broccio, M; Tomaino, A; Zirilli, A; De Caridi, G; Broccio, G

    2000-01-01

    As reported in previous investigations, erythrocytes are the elements of peripheral blood most affected by free radical activity in the pathogenesis of cancer. In these studies, the level of sulphydrilic groups and reduced glutathione were assayed in the erythrocytes and plasma, while their successful scavenger activity against cell membrane oxidation and peroxidation has already been established. In subjects with cancer, the levels of -SH groups (p < 0.002) and reduced glutathione in both plasma and erythrocytes (p < 0.0001) were shown be a statistically significantly decreased compared to healthy controls. These differences were related to the defence of the hematic tissue against free radical activity. A similar pattern has also been reported when studying vitamin A and E content in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. The role of oxido-reduction phenomena in this disease is discussed, as well as the importance of reducing the oxido-peroxidation involvement of tissues and cell elements. The study of the GSH/GSSG ratio in order to determine the stage of the disease would be useful and might represent a systemic marker for cancerous lesions.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: glutathione synthetase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions glutathione synthetase deficiency glutathione synthetase ...

  14. Desired and side effects of the supplementation with l-glutamine and l-glutathione in enteric glia of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Panizzon, Cynthia Priscilla do Nascimento Bonato; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; Hermes-Uliana, Catchia; Trevizan, Aline Rosa; Sehaber, Camila Caviquioli; Pereira, Renata Virginia Fernandes; Linden, David Robert; Neto, Marcílio Hubner de Miranda

    2016-07-01

    Enteric neuropathy associated with Diabetes Mellitus causes dysfunction in the digestive system, such as: nausea, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, among others. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with 2% l-glutamine and 1% l-glutathione on neurons and enteric glial cells of ileum of diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats have been used according to these group distributions: Normoglycemic (N), Normoglycemic supplemented with l-glutamine (NG), Normoglycemic supplemented with l-glutathione (NGO), Diabetic (D), Diabetic supplemented with l-glutamine (DG) and Diabetic supplemented with l-glutathione (DGO). After 120days, the ileum was processed for immunohistochemistry of HuC/D and S100β. Quantitative and morphometric analysis have been performed. Diabetic rats presented a decrease in the number of neurons when compared to normoglycemic animals. However, diabetes was not associated with a change in glial density. l-Glutathione prevented the neuronal death in diabetic rats. l-Glutathione increased a glial proliferation in diabetic rats. The neuronal area in diabetic rats increased in relation to the normoglycemics. The diabetic rats supplemented with l-glutamine and l-glutathione showed a smaller neuronal area in comparison to diabetic group. The glial cell area was a decreased in the diabetics. The diabetic rats supplemented with l-glutamine and l-glutathione did not have significant difference in the glial cell body area when compared to diabetic rats. It is concluded that the usage of l-glutamine and l-glutathione as supplements presents both desired and side effects that are different for the same substance in considering normoglycemic or diabetic animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Making recombinant proteins in animals--different systems, different applications.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Michael K; Lacroix, Dan; Pothier, François; Sirard, Marc-André

    2003-09-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors represent a powerful tool to address the growing need for therapeutic recombinant proteins. The ability of transgenic animals to produce complex, biologically active recombinant proteins in an efficient and economic manner has stimulated a great deal of interest in this area. As a result, genetically modified animals of several species, expressing foreign proteins in various tissues, are currently being developed. However, the generation of transgenic animals is a cumbersome process and remains problematic in the application of this technology. The advantages and disadvantages of different transgenic systems in relation to other bioreactor systems are discussed.

  16. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  17. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Glutathione S-Transferase from Down Syndrome and Normal Children Erythrocytes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Ragaa R.; Maharem, Tahany M.; Abdel-Meguid, Nagwa; Sabry, Gilane M.; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem; Guneidy, Rasha A.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the phenotypic manifestation of trisomy 21. Our study was concerned with the characterization and purification of glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) from normal and Down syndrome (DS) erythrocytes to illustrate the difference in the role of this enzyme in the cell. Glutathione S-transferase and glutathione (GSH) was…

  18. Sex differences in the human visual system.

    PubMed

    Vanston, John E; Strother, Lars

    2017-01-02

    This Mini-Review summarizes a wide range of sex differences in the human visual system, with a primary focus on sex differences in visual perception and its neural basis. We highlight sex differences in both basic and high-level visual processing, with evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies. We argue that sex differences in human visual processing, no matter how small or subtle, support the view that females and males truly see the world differently. We acknowledge some of the controversy regarding sex differences in human vision and propose that such controversy should be interpreted as a source of motivation for continued efforts to assess the validity and reliability of published sex differences and for continued research on sex differences in human vision and the nervous system in general. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in female nulligravid and pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Martino, Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    Background The alterations of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme complex system occur in physiological conditions such as aging and oxidative stress consequent to strenuous exercise. Methods Authors optimize the spectrophotometric method to measure glutathione peroxidase activity in rat red blood cell membranes. Results The optimization, when applied to age paired rats, both nulligravid and pregnant, shows that pregnancy induces, at seventeen d of pregnancy, an increase of both reactive oxygen substance concentration in red blood cells and membrane glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion The glutathione peroxidase increase in erythrocyte membranes is induced by systemic oxidative stress long lasting rat pregnancy. PMID:19171040

  20. Glutathione--functions and metabolism in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Becker, Katja; Rahlfs, Stefan; Nickel, Christine; Schirmer, R Heiner

    2003-04-01

    When present as a trophozoite in human erythrocytes, the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits an intense glutathione metabolism. Glutathione plays a role not only in antioxidative defense and in maintaining the reducing environment of the cytosol. Many of the known glutathione-dependent processes are directly related to the specific lifestyle of the parasite. Reduced glutathione (GSH) supports rapid cell growth by providing electrons for deoxyribonucleotide synthesis and it takes part in detoxifying heme, a product of hemoglobin digestion. Free radicals generated in the parasite can be scavenged in reaction sequences involving the thiyl radical GS* as well as the thiolate GS-. As a substrate of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione is conjugated to non-degradable compounds including antimalarial drugs. Furthermore, it is the coenzyme of the glyoxalase system which detoxifies methylglyoxal, a byproduct of the intense glycolysis taking place in the trophozoite. Proteins involved in GSH-dependent processes include glutathione reductase, glutaredoxins, glyoxalase I and II, glutathione S-transferases, and thioredoxins. These proteins, as well as the ATP-dependent enzymes of glutathione synthesis, are studied as factors in the pathophysiology of malaria but also as potential drug targets. Methylene blue, an inhibitor of the structurally known P. falciparum glutathione reductase, appears to be a promising antimalarial medication when given in combination with chloroquine.

  1. Effects of Combined Low Glutathione with Mild Oxidative and Low Phosphorus Stress on the Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Iwasa, Mami; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Makoto; Nishizawa, Tomoko; Okazaki, Yozo; Saito, Kazuki; Kusano, Miyako

    2017-01-01

    Plants possess highly sensitive mechanisms that monitor environmental stress levels for a dose-dependent fine-tuning of their growth and development. Differences in plant responses to severe and mild abiotic stresses have been recognized. Although many studies have revealed that glutathione can contribute to plant tolerance to various environmental stresses, little is known about the relationship between glutathione and mild abiotic stress, especially the effect of stress-induced altered glutathione levels on the metabolism. Here, we applied a systems biology approach to identify key pathways involved in the gene-to-metabolite networks perturbed by low glutathione content under mild abiotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. We used glutathione synthesis mutants (cad2-1 and pad2-1) and plants overexpressing the gene encoding γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the first enzyme of the glutathione biosynthetic pathway. The plants were exposed to two mild stress conditions-oxidative stress elicited by methyl viologen and stress induced by the limited availability of phosphate. We observed that the mutants and transgenic plants showed similar shoot growth as that of the wild-type plants under mild abiotic stress. We then selected the synthesis mutants and performed multi-platform metabolomics and microarray experiments to evaluate the possible effects on the overall metabolome and the transcriptome. As a common oxidative stress response, several flavonoids that we assessed showed overaccumulation, whereas the mild phosphate stress resulted in increased levels of specific kaempferol- and quercetin-glycosides. Remarkably, in addition to a significant increased level of sugar, osmolytes, and lipids as mild oxidative stress-responsive metabolites, short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates over-accumulated in the mutants, whereas the level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates and specific lipids decreased. Coordinated gene expressions related to glucosinolate and flavonoid

  2. Synchronization of chaotic systems with different orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Ling; Luan, Ling; Guo, Zhi-An

    2007-02-01

    A controller is designed to realize the synchronization between chaotic systems with different orders. The structure of the controller, the error equations and the Lyapunov functions are determined based on stability theory. Hyperchaotic Chen system and Rossler system are taken for example to demonstrate the method to be effective and feasible. Simulation results show that all the state variables of Rossler system can be synchronized with those of hyperchaotic Chen system by using only one controller, and the error signals approach zero smoothly and quickly.

  3. Subcellular distribution of glutathione and its dynamic changes under oxidative stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zechmann, Bernd; Liou, Liang-Chun; Koffler, Barbara E; Horvat, Lucija; Tomašić, Ana; Fulgosi, Hrvoje; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2011-12-01

    Glutathione is an important antioxidant in most prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It detoxifies reactive oxygen species and is also involved in the modulation of gene expression, in redox signaling, and in the regulation of enzymatic activities. In this study, the subcellular distribution of glutathione was studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by quantitative immunoelectron microscopy. Highest glutathione contents were detected in mitochondria and subsequently in the cytosol, nuclei, cell walls, and vacuoles. The induction of oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) led to changes in glutathione-specific labeling. Three cell types were identified. Cell types I and II contained more glutathione than control cells. Cell type II differed from cell type I in showing a decrease in glutathione-specific labeling solely in mitochondria. Cell type III contained much less glutathione contents than the control and showed the strongest decrease in mitochondria, suggesting that high and stable levels of glutathione in mitochondria are important for the protection and survival of the cells during oxidative stress. Additionally, large amounts of glutathione were relocated and stored in vacuoles in cell type III, suggesting the importance of the sequestration of glutathione in vacuoles under oxidative stress. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in glutathione redox cycle during diapause determination and termination in the bivoltine silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin-Chuan; Hou, Yi-Sheng; Sima, Yang-Hu

    2014-02-01

    To explore whether glutathione regulates diapause determination and termination in the bivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori, we monitored the changes in glutathione redox cycle in the ovary of both diapause- and nondiapause-egg producers, as well as those in diapause eggs incubated at different temperatures. The activity of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) was detected in ovaries but not in eggs, while neither ovaries nor eggs showed activity of glutathione peroxidase. A lower reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio was observed in the ovary of diapause-egg producers, due to weaker reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to the reduced glutathione (GSH) catalyzed by glutathione reductase (GR) and TrxR. This indicates an oxidative shift in the glutathione redox cycle during diapause determination. Compared with the 25°C-treated diapause eggs, the 5°C-treated diapause eggs showed lower GSH/GSSG ratio, a result of stronger oxidation of GSH catalyzed by thioredoxin peroxidase and weaker reduction of GSSG catalyzed by GR. Our study demonstrated the important regulatory role of glutathione in diapause determination and termination of the bivoltine silkworm.

  5. The glutaredoxin/glutathione system modulates NF-kappaB activity by glutathionylation of p65 in cinnamaldehyde-treated endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Being-Chyuan; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Lin, Yuan-Chun; Wung, Being-Sun

    2010-07-01

    Reversible protein glutathionylation is an important posttranslational modification that provides protection against oxidation. In endothelial cells (ECs), cinnamaldehyde is an electrophilic compound that can increase the intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels or reactive oxygen species (ROS) production depending on the treatment duration. ECs treated with GSH and H(2)O(2) show increased sulfhydryl modifications of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB), which are responsible for NF-kappaB inactivation, and also a block in TNF-alpha-induced p65 nuclear translocation and inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. In our current study, we find that cinnamaldehyde induces p65 glutathionylation and inhibits TNF-alpha-induced p65 nuclear translocation and ICAM-1 expression within 12 h of treatment. Our analyses also reveal that p65 glutathionylation is suppressed by a GSH synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and we further observed that the inhibitory effects of p65 nuclear translocation and ICAM-1 expression are also suppressed by BSO. NF-E2-related factor-2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules not only inhibit glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) induction and increases in GSH but also abolish cinnamaldehyde-induced p65 glutathionylation and its inhibitory effects. The gene expression and activity of glutaredoxin-1 (Grx-1), which catalyzes the formation of protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (protein-SSG), were also found to be increased after cinnamaldehyde treatment. A knock down of endogenous Grx-1 by siRNA or pretreatment with an inhibitor of Grx-1 activity, CdCl(2), abolishes p65-SSG formation. In addition, Grx-1 siRNA blocks the inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation and ICAM-1 expression, suggesting that this enzyme is involved in the cinnamaldehyde-mediated NF-kappaB inhibition. Our current results thus

  6. Brain oxidative stress: detection and mapping of anti-oxidant marker 'Glutathione' in different brain regions of healthy male/female, MCI and Alzheimer patients using non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pravat K; Tripathi, Manjari; Sugunan, Sreedevi

    2012-01-06

    Glutathione (GSH) serves as an important anti-oxidant in the brain by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species that are generated during different molecular processes. The GSH level in the brain provides indirect information on oxidative stress of the brain. We report in vivo detection of GSH non-invasively from various brain regions (frontal cortex, parietal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) in bilateral hemispheres of healthy male and female subjects and from bi-lateral frontal cortices in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AD patients who participated in this study were on medication with cholinesterase inhibitors. Healthy young male (age 26.4±3.0) and healthy young female (age 23.6±2.1) subjects have higher amount of GSH in the parietal cortical region and a specific GSH distribution pattern (parietal cortex>frontal cortex>hippocampus ~ cerebellum) has been found. Overall mean GSH content is higher in healthy young female compared to healthy young male subjects and GSH is distributed differently in two hemispheres among male and female subjects. In both young female and male subjects, statistically significant (p=0.02 for young female and p=0.001 for young male) difference in mean GSH content is found when compared between left frontal cortex (LFC) and right frontal cortex (RFC). In healthy young female subjects, we report statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content between RFC and LFC (r=0.641, p=0.004) as well as right parietal cortex (RPC) and left parietal cortex (LPC) (r=0.797, p=0.000) regions. In healthy young male subjects, statistically significant positive correlation of GSH content was observed between LFC and LPC (r=0.481, p=0.032) regions. This statistical analysis implicates that in case of a high GSH content in LPC of a young male, his LFC region would also contain high GSH and vice versa. The difference in mean of GSH content between healthy young female control and female AD

  7. Synchronization of chaotic systems with different order.

    PubMed

    Femat, Ricardo; Solís-Perales, Gualberto

    2002-03-01

    The chaotic synchronization of third-order systems and second-order driven oscillator is studied in this paper. Such a problem is related to synchronization of strictly different chaotic systems. We show that dynamical evolution of second-order driven oscillators can be synchronized with the canonical projection of a third-order chaotic system. In this sense, it is said that synchronization is achieved in reduced order. Duffing equation is chosen as slave system whereas Chua oscillator is defined as master system. The synchronization scheme has nonlinear feedback structure. The reduced-order synchronization is attained in a practical sense, i.e., the difference e=x(3)-x(1)(') is close to zero for all time t> or =t(0)> or =0, where t(0) denotes the time of the control activation.

  8. Isoenzymes of glutathione transferase in rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, M K; Ozer, N; Mannervik, B

    1988-01-01

    The major glutathione transferases in the rat small-intestine cytosol were isolated and characterized. The enzymes active with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as second substrate were almost quantitatively recovered after affinity chromatography on immobilized S-hexylglutathione. The different basic forms of glutathione transferase, which account for 90% of the activity, were resolved by chromatofocusing. Fractions containing enzymes with lower isoelectric points were not further resolved. The isolated fractions were characterized by their elution position in chromatofocusing, apparent subunit Mr, reactions with specific antibodies, substrate specificities and inhibition characteristics. The major basic forms identified were glutathione transferases 1-1, 4-4 and 7-7. In addition, evidence for the presence of a variant form of subunit 1, as well as trace amounts of subunits 2 and 3, was obtained. A significant amount of transferase 8-8 in the fraction of acidic enzyme forms was demonstrated by immunoblot and Ouchterlony double-diffusion analysis. In the comparison of the occurrence of the different forms of glutathione transferase in liver, lung, kidney and small intestine, it was found that the small intestine is the richest source of glutathione transferase 7-7. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3140787

  9. Role of copper and ceruloplasmin in oxidative mutagenesis induced by the glutathione-gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase system and by other thiols.

    PubMed

    Stark, A A; Glass, G A

    1997-01-01

    Glutathione is activated to a mutagen by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Other thiols, such as cysteine, penicillamine, cysteine ethylester, and cysteinylglycine, are direct mutagens in the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test. Thiol mutagenesis is oxidative in nature and involves H2O2 and possibly hydroxyl radicals. Transition metals are crucial for thiol autoxidation. The role of copper and ceruloplasmin (CP) in thiol-dependent mutagenesis was studied in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. Cu and CP at low concentrations enhanced thiol-dependent mutagenesis in the presence, but not in the absence, of added Fe. The degree of enhancement depended on the type of thiol. At high Cu or CP concentrations, thiol mutagenesis was inhibited. Cu also decreased the mutagenicity of H2O2. Cu- and CP-enhanced mutagenesis were inhibited by radical scavengers, catalase, and peroxidase but not by superoxide dismutase. The effects of Cu and CP on thiol-dependent mutagenesis were similar to their effects on thiol-driven lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that the role of Cu and CP in the enhancement of thiol mutagenesis is the facilitation of the transfer of electrons from a thiol to iron, rather than in catalysis of the Fenton reaction.

  10. Changes of reduced glutathion, glutathion reductase, and glutathione peroxidase after radiation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Erden, M; Bor, N M

    1984-04-01

    In this series of experiments the protective action of reduced glutathion due to ionizing radiation has been studied. In the experimental group 18 guinea pigs were exposed to successive radiations of 150 rad 3 or 4 days apart. Total dose given amounted to 750 rad which is the LD50 for guinea pigs. Blood samples were taken 30 min after each exposure. The control series were sham radiated but otherwise treated identically. The cells of the removed blood samples were separated by centrifugation and were subjected to the reduced glutathion stability test. GSSGR, GPer, and LDH enzyme activities were also measured of which the latter served as a marked enzyme. It was found that LDH did not show any alteration after radiation. The reduced glutathion stability test showed a consistent but minor reduction (P greater than 0.05), in the experimental group. GSSGR enzyme activity on the other hand was reduced significantly (from 176.48 +/- 11.32 to 41.34 +/- 1.17 IU/ml of packed erythrocytes, P less than 0.001) in the same group. GPer activity showed a consistent but minor elevation during the early phase of the experimental group. It was later increased significantly beginning after 600 rad total radiation on the fourth session (P less than 0.050).

  11. Color analysis of different ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Aladag, Akin; Gungor, Mehmet Ali; Artunc, Celal

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the color properties of three different ceramic systems. Three groups of 10 specimens each were prepared: Dental porcelain alloy was used as a framework for conventional and ProBOND metal-ceramic systems, while glass-ceramic ingots were used as a framework for 10 samples using an all-ceramic system. For the former, dentin porcelain was applied and a ceramic veneering material was applied to the ingot frameworks. Using a dental spectrophotometer, the pre- and post-glaze color compatibility between disc specimens and A3 shade was evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare color differences among groups in this study, while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to make bilateral comparisons among the three different ceramic systems. The values obtained during the dentin stage revealed a significant difference in the all-ceramic group (p < 0.05). After glazing, there was no significant difference between ProBOND samples and all-ceramic samples (p > 0.05). These results suggest that ProBOND can yield esthetically superior results in clinical applications compared to conventional ceramic systems.

  12. Transport of the glutathione-methylmercury complex across liver canalicular membranes on reduced glutathione carriers.

    PubMed

    Dutczak, W J; Ballatori, N

    1994-04-01

    Methylmercury transport across liver canalicular membranes into bile, a major route of excretion of this toxic compound, is dependent upon intracellular GSH, and a glutathione-methylmercury complex (CH3Hg.SG) has been detected in liver tissue and bile. To examine whether the CH3Hg.SG complex is itself transported across the canalicular membrane and to identify the transport system involved, studies were performed in isolated rat liver canalicular plasma membrane vesicles. Uptake of CH3(203)Hg.SG (10 microM) into an osmotically active space was temperature-sensitive and unaffected by either ATP (5 mM) or an inwardly directed Na+ gradient (100 mM); however, CH3Hg.SG uptake was enhanced by a valinomycin-induced K+ diffusion potential (inside-positive) indicating that its transport was electrogenic. Transport of CH3Hg.SG exhibited saturation kinetics with both high affinity (Km = 12 +/- 2 microM, Vmax = 0.23 +/- 0.02 nmol.mg-1.20 s-1) and low affinity (Km = 1.47 +/- 0.22 mM, Vmax = 1.23 +/- 0.14 nmol.mg-1.20 s-1) components. Uptake of this complex was inhibited by GSH, the GSH analog ophthalmic acid, S-methyl, S-ethyl, S-butyl, S-hexyl, S-octyl, and S-dinitrophenyl glutathione, but not by GSSG, bile acids, amino acids, and P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Furthermore, GSH competitively inhibited (Ki = 83 microM) and trans-stimulated CH3Hg.SG uptake into the canalicular vesicles. These studies provide the first kinetic characterization of a transport system for glutathione-mercaptides and indicate that CH3Hg.SG is not a substrate for the ATP-dependent, canalicular GSSG or glutathione S-conjugate carriers, but appears to be a substrate for canalicular carriers that also transport GSH. Because efflux systems for GSH are found in all mammalian cells, transport of glutathione-metal complexes by such carriers may be a common mechanism for the removal of methylmercury and possibly other metals from cells.

  13. Peroxidase-catalyzed-3-(glutathion-S-yl)-p,p'-biphenol formation.

    PubMed

    McGirr, L G; Subrahmanyam, V V; Moore, G A; O'Brien, P J

    1986-10-15

    Oxidation of p,p'-biphenol with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-hydrogen peroxide in the presence of bovine serum albumin or with bone marrow cell homogenate-hydrogen peroxide resulted in the formation of reactive products that conjugate with protein. Glutathione prevented the protein binding. Glutathione readily reacted with p,p'-biphenoquinone, the principal oxidation product of p,p'-biphenol in the HRP-hydrogen peroxide system and resulted in the formation of several glutathione conjugates, p,p'-biphenol and small amounts of oxidized glutathione. The major glutathione conjugate was identified as 3-(glutathion-S-yl)-p,p'-biphenol by high field nuclear magnetic resonance and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The same conjugate was formed in the bone marrow homogenate-hydrogen peroxide system. p,p'-Biphenoquinone reduction by glutathione to p,p'-biphenol without glutathione oxidation was explained by the rapid reduction of p,p'-biphenoquinone by 3-(glutathion-S-yl)-p,p'-biphenol.

  14. Empathizers and systemizers process social information differently.

    PubMed

    Riekki, Tapani; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2017-08-24

    Using the empathizing-systemizing theory as our framework, we investigated how people with high self-reported empathizing (having good social skills and being interested in people) and systemizing (being interested in physical things and processes) differ in the social information processing of emotionally negative photographs of people during "spontaneous watching" and emotional and cognitive empathy tasks. Empathizers evaluated the pictures as more emotionally touching and the reactions in the photographs more understandable than the systemizers. Compared to the empathizers, systemizers had stronger activations in the posterior cingulate cortex, an area related to cognitive empathy, as well as in the left superior temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus when watching emotional photographs spontaneously. During guided emotional and cognitive empathy tasks, these differences disappeared. However, during the emotional empathy task, higher systemizing was associated with weaker activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus /insula. Furthermore, during emotional and cognitive empathy tasks, empathizing was related to increased activations of the amygdala which were in turn related to higher behavioral ratings of emotional and cognitive empathy. The results suggest that empathizers and systemizers engage in social information processing differently: systemizers in more cognitive terms and empathizers with stronger automatic emotional reactions.

  15. Involvement of Antibiotic Efflux Machinery in Glutathione-Mediated Decreased Ciprofloxacin Activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Manish; Subramanian, Mahesh; Kumar, Ranjeet; Jass, Jana; Jawali, Narendra

    2016-07-01

    We have analyzed the contribution of different efflux components to glutathione-mediated abrogation of ciprofloxacin's activity in Escherichia coli and the underlying potential mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon. The results indicated that glutathione increased the total active efflux, thereby partially contributing to glutathione-mediated neutralization of ciprofloxacin's antibacterial action in E. coli However, the role of glutathione-mediated increased efflux becomes evident in the absence of a functional TolC-AcrAB efflux pump. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Sex differences in the vomeronasal system.

    PubMed

    Guillamón, A; Segovia, S

    1997-01-01

    In the early eighties we found sex differences in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and hypothesized that the vomeronasal system (VNS), a complex neural network involved in the control of reproductive behavior, might be sexually dimorphic. At that time sex differences had already been described for some structures that receive VNO input, such as the medial amygdala, the medial preoptic area, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and the ventral region of the premammillary nucleus. Since then, we have shown sex differences in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT), and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). When new VNS connections were found, all of them ended in nuclei that present sex differences. In general, sex differences in the olfactory system show two morphological patterns: one in which males present greater morphological measures than females, and just the opposite. To explain the morphometric measures of males in the latter, it has been hypothesized that androgens serve as inhibitors. Our work on the involvement of the GABA(A) receptor in the development of AOB and maternal behavior sex differences also suggests that neonatal changes in neuronal membrane permeability to the ion Cl- differences. This might be the first animal model to help us to understand the situation in which human genetic and gonadal sex do not agree with brain and behavioral sex. Finally, we stress that sex differences in the VNS constitute a neurofunctional model for understanding sex differences in reproductive behaviors.

  17. The Characterizations of Different Splicing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Fariba; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Heng, Fong Wan

    The concept of splicing system was first introduced by Head in 1987 to model the biological process of DNA recombination mathematically. This model was made on the basis of formal language theory which is a branch of applied discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science. In fact, splicing system treats DNA molecule and the recombinant behavior by restriction enzymes and ligases in the form of words and splicing rules respectively. The notion of splicing systems was taken into account from different points of view by many mathematicians. Several modified definitions have been introduced by many researchers. In this paper, some properties of different kinds of splicing systems are presented and their relationships are investigated. Furthermore, these results are illustrated by some examples.

  18. Different Synchronization Schemes for Chaotic Rikitake Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Ali

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the chaos synchronization by designing a different type of controllers. Firstly, we propose the synchronization of bi-directional coupled chaotic Rikitake systems via hybrid feedback control. Secondly, we study the synchronization of unidirectionally coupled Rikitake systems using hybrid feedback control. Lastly, we investigate the synchronization of unidirectionally coupled Rikitake chaotic systems using tracking control. Comparing all the results, finally, we conclude that tracking control is more effective than feedback control. Simulation results are presented to show the efficiency of synchronization schemes.

  19. Human eye color difference threshold measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Zhou, Taogeng

    2013-12-01

    The human eye has the ability to distinguish millions of colors, with this feature we can identify very subtle color differences, and the measurement of human eye color difference threshold can provide a visual function diagnosis for testee. In recent years, people begin to focus on studies on visual threshold diagnostic equipment. This paper proposes a human eye color difference threshold measurement system which is based on dual integrating sphere. The system includes two pairs of dual integrating sphere and color control module. Dual integrating sphere uses to mix and produce color, and palette unit which produces primary colors (red (R), green (G), blue (B)) is embedded in dual integrating sphere. At the same time, the embedded palette unit which produces cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y) expands color area that the system can generate. One optical path based on dual integrating sphere generates standard color, the other path produces the matching color which is similar to a standard color. In the high-precision closed-loop color control module, photoelectric switch records stepper motor's origin position and limits move displacement. Precision stepper motor pushes the light-blocking panel of the palette unit to a predetermined position, while real-time monitoring the position of the light-blocking panel and mixing the ideal controllable color. Two colors that the system generates are projected onto the same target area. Subjects make a judgment on color difference threshold by observing the target eventually.

  20. Systemic risk on different interbank network topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzu, Simone; Tedeschi, Gabriele

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we develop an interbank market with heterogeneous financial institutions that enter into lending agreements on different network structures. Credit relationships (links) evolve endogenously via a fitness mechanism based on agents' performance. By changing the agent's trust on its neighbor's performance, interbank linkages self-organize themselves into very different network architectures, ranging from random to scale-free topologies. We study which network architecture can make the financial system more resilient to random attacks and how systemic risk spreads over the network. To perturb the system, we generate a random attack via a liquidity shock. The hit bank is not automatically eliminated, but its failure is endogenously driven by its incapacity to raise liquidity in the interbank network. Our analysis shows that a random financial network can be more resilient than a scale free one in case of agents' heterogeneity.

  1. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) and ferroptosis: what's so special about it?

    PubMed

    Conrad, Marcus; Friedmann Angeli, José Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The system XC (-)/glutathione/glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) axis pivotally controls ferroptosis, a recently described form of regulated non-apoptotic cell death. Compelling evidence has established that this route of cell death is not only of high relevance for triggering cancer cell death, but also proves to be amenable for therapeutic intervention to halt ischemia/reperfusion-related diseases.

  2. Emerging regulatory paradigms in glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yilin; Hyde, Annastasia S; Simpson, Melanie A; Barycki, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is the ability to generate and withstand unusual levels of oxidative stress. In part, this property of tumor cells is conferred by elevation of the cellular redox buffer glutathione. Though enzymes of the glutathione synthesis and salvage pathways have been characterized for several decades, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of their independent and coordinate regulatory mechanisms. Recent studies have further revealed that overall central metabolic pathways are frequently altered in various tumor types, resulting in significant increases in biosynthetic capacity and feeding into glutathione synthesis. In this review, we will discuss the enzymes and pathways affecting glutathione flux in cancer and summarize current models for regulating cellular glutathione through both de novo synthesis and efficient salvage. In addition, we examine the integration of glutathione metabolism with other altered fates of intermediary metabolites and highlight remaining questions about molecular details of the accepted regulatory modes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromatofocusing of glutathione S-transferases from human kidney.

    PubMed

    Koskelo, K; Icén, A

    1984-04-01

    The glutathione S-transferase isoenzyme patterns of four human kidneys have been determined by chromatofocusing. The elution profiles were essentially similar in each tissue. Two major basic transferases and one acidic were partially characterized. All three were inhibited by bilirubin but considerable differences were found in the rate and extent of inactivation. The molecular weights, KM values and pH optima were similar to the values for transferases from other tissues. Chromatofocusing was found to be effective for the separation and purification of human glutathione transferases.

  4. Catechin metabolism: glutathione conjugate formation catalyzed by tyrosinase, peroxidase, and cytochrome p450.

    PubMed

    Moridani, M Y; Scobie, H; Salehi, P; O'Brien, P J

    2001-07-01

    The metabolic pathways of dietary flavonoids are still largely unknown. In the present work, mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy studies were used to show that the naturally occurring flavonoid catechin underwent enzymatic oxidation by tyrosinase in the presence of glutathione (GSH) to form mono-, bi-, and tri-glutathione conjugates of catechin and mono- and bi-glutathione conjugates of a catechin dimer. A hydroxylated catechin adduct was also detected. Using UV spectroscopy, it was shown that the catechol B-ring of catechin was oxidized by tyrosinase to form an o-quinone which could be reduced back to catechin with potassium borohydride or reacted with GSH to form glutathione conjugates. The catechin-glutathione conjugates formed had much lower distribution coefficient values than catechin itself. When peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide were used instead of tyrosinase, only mono-glutathione conjugates were formed but not bi-glutathione conjugates or hydroxylated adducts. (1)H NMR evidence showed that three different mono-glutathione conjugates on ring B of catechin were formed by peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. Rat liver microsomes and NADPH or cumene hydroperoxide also catalyzed catechin-glutathione conjugate formation which was prevented by benzylimidazole, a P450 2E1 inhibitor. Catechin cytotoxicity toward isolated hepatocytes was also markedly enhanced by hydrogen peroxide or cumene hydroperoxide and was prevented by benzylimidazole, suggesting that catechin could be metabolically activated by P450 peroxidase activity to form cytotoxic quinoid species.

  5. Effectiveness evaluation of different suction systems.

    PubMed

    Junevicius, Jonas; Surna, Algimantas; Surna, Rimas

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms of the patient's oral cavity and his/her blood and saliva may cause different air-borne and blood-borne infectious diseases among odontologists and their assistants who work with patients. Quantitative analysis and spatial distribution analysis of the environmental spread of oral liquid and cooling liquid mixture were performed during this study. Effectiveness of suction systems of four types was evaluated: without suction, using a small-size suction pump alone, using a small-size and large-size suction pumps, using a small-size suction pump together with an experimental extra-oral aspirator. Quantitative changes of the water aerosol, which enters the environment during the preparation of teeth, were determined in respect of the used suction systems. The small-size pump system together with an experimental extra-oral suction system eliminated best the aerosol formed during the preparation.

  6. Roles for glutathione transferases in antioxidant recycling

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, David P; Steel, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs. PMID:21778824

  7. Sex differences in the human olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Junque, Carme; Giménez, Mónica; Caldú, Xavier; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2006-10-20

    The olfactory system (accessory) implicated in reproductive physiology and behavior in mammals is sexually dimorphic. These brain sex differences present two main characteristics: they are seen in neural circuits related to sexual behavior and sexual physiology and they take one of two opposite morphological patterns (male>female or female>male). The present work reports sex differences in the olfactory system in a large homogeneous sample of men (40) and women (51) using of voxel-based morphology. Gray matter concentration showed sexual dimorphism in several olfactory regions. Women have a higher concentration in the orbitofrontal cortex involving Brodmann's areas 10, 11 and 25 and temporomedial cortex (bilateral hippocampus and right amygdala), as well as their left basal insular cortex. In contrast, men show a higher gray matter concentration in the left entorhinal cortex (Brodmann's area 28), right ventral pallidum, dorsal left insular cortex and a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 25). This study supports the hypothesis that the mammalian olfactory system is a sexually dimorphic network and provides a theoretical framework for the morphofunctional approach to sex differences in the human brain.

  8. Effect of aluminium metal on glutathione (GSH) level in plasma and cytosolic fraction of human blood.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haroon; Khan, M Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Ullah, Naseem

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium is being used in the medicines in the form of antacids. The Aluminium metal can be leached from our utensils and can harm the body for its side effects, if become available to the systemic circulation. So it is important to check the effect of Aluminum on the Glutathione in vivo condition. Ellman method was used to determine the effect of Aluminum on GSH level in whole blood spectrophotometerically. 5,5-Dithiobis, 2-Nitrobenzoic Acid, Glutathione, Aluminium sulphate, phosphate buffer, HCl (Hydrochloric acid) and other laboratory instruments were used to conduct the research work. Time dependent effect of Aluminum on Glutathione level in whole blood was also checked and decrease was observed. This study also shows the effect of Aluminum as helping agent for the Glutathione to enhance the antioxidant system of the body or a cause for depletion of reduced Glutathione.

  9. Dynamics of glutathione and ophthalmate traced with 2H-enriched body water in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Kombu, Rajan S.; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Abbas, Rime; Mieyal, John J.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kelleher, Joanne K.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Brunengraber, Henri

    2009-01-01

    We developed a LC-MS-MS assay of the 2H labeling of free glutathione (GSH) and bound glutathione [GSSR; which includes all DTT-reducible forms, primarily glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and mixed disulfides with proteins] and ophthalmate (an index of GSH depletion) labeled from 2H-enriched body water. In rats whose body water was 2.5% 2H enriched for up to 31 days, GSH labeling follows a complex pattern because of different rates of labeling of its constitutive amino acids. In rats infused with [13C2,15N-glycine]glutathione, the rate of appearance of plasma GSH was 2.1 μmol·min−1·kg−1, and the half-life of plasma GSH/GSSR was 6–8 min. In healthy humans whose body fluids were 0.5% 2H enriched, the 2H labeling of GSH/GSSR and ophthalmate can be precisely measured after 4 h, with GSH being more rapidly labeled than GSSR. Since plasma GSH/GSSR derives mostly from liver, this technique opens the way to 2) probe noninvasively the labeling pattern and redox status of the liver GSH system in humans and 2) assess the usefulness of ophthalmate as an index of GSH depletion. PMID:19401458

  10. Glutathione transferases are structural and functional outliers in the thioredoxin fold.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Holly J; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2009-11-24

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous scavengers of toxic compounds that fall, structurally and functionally, within the thioredoxin fold suprafamily. The fundamental catalytic capability of GSTs is catalysis of the nucleophilic addition or substitution of glutathione at electrophilic centers in a wide range of small electrophilic compounds. While specific GSTs have been studied in detail, little else is known about the structural and functional relationships between different groupings of GSTs. Through a global analysis of sequence and structural similarity, it was determined that variation in the binding of glutathione between the two major subgroups of cytosolic (soluble) GSTs results in a different mode of glutathione activation. Additionally, the convergent features of glutathione binding between cytosolic GSTs and mitochondrial GST kappa are described. The identification of these structural and functional themes helps to illuminate some of the fundamental contributions of the thioredoxin fold to catalysis in the GSTs and clarify how the thioredoxin fold can be modified to enable new functions.

  11. Balneotherapy and platelet glutathione metabolism in type II diabetic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yabunaka, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Ichiro; Noro, Hiroshi; Agishi, Yuko

    1996-09-01

    Effects of balneotherapy on platelet glutathione metabolism were investigated in 12 type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) on admission were well correlated with those of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; r=0.692, P<0.02). After 4 weeks of balneotherapy, the mean level of GSH showed no changes; however, in well-controlled patients (FPG <150 mg/dl), the level increased ( P<0.01) and in poorly controlled patients (FPG >150 mg/dl), the value decreased ( P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and the levels of FPG ( r=-0.430, P<0.05). After balneotherapy, the activity increased in 5 patients, decreased in 3 patients and showed no changes (alteration within ±3%) in all the other patients. From these findings in diabetic patients we concluded: (1) platelet GSH synthesis appeared to be induced in response to oxidative stress; (2) lowered GPX activities indicated that the antioxidative defense system was impaired; and (3) platelet glutathione metabolism was partially improved by 4 weeks balneotherapy, an effect thought to be dependent on the control status of plasma glucose levels. It is suggested that balneotherapy is beneficial for patients whose platelet antioxidative defense system is damaged, such as those with diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease.

  12. Quantitative real-time imaging of glutathione

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glutathione plays many important roles in biological processes; however, the dynamic changes of glutathione concentrations in living cells remain largely unknown. Here, we report a reversible reaction-based fluorescent probe—designated as RealThiol (RT)—that can quantitatively monitor the real-time ...

  13. Hepatitis viral load correlates to glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Several recent scientific articles have found a direct correlation between Glutathione levels and viral activity for hepatitis B and C. When viral load increases, Glutathione decreases. Researchers from Germany report that adding NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) to HBV producing cells lines can reduce hepatitis viral load 50 fold. Glutathione is used by the liver to help break down toxins. Patients who have chronic infection for more than 90 days should ask their physicians to check their Glutathione levels. A test kit is available from ImmunoSciences Labs; contact information is included. An amino acid, L-Glutamine, can be used with Alpha Lipoic Acid and NAC to increase Glutathione levels. Chlorophyll also offers benefits to people with hepatitis and other infections. Instructions on how to use a special retention enema containing chlorophyll, water, and apple cider vinegar are provided.

  14. Different approaches to contracting in health systems.

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Contracting is one of the tools increasingly being used to enhance the performance of health systems in both developed and developing countries; it takes different forms and cannot be limited to the mere purchase of services. Actors adopt contracting to formalize all kinds of relations established between them. A typology for this approach will demonstrate its diversity and provide a better understanding of the various issues raised by contracting. In recent years the way health systems are organized has changed significantly. To remedy the under-performance of their health systems, most countries have undertaken reforms that have resulted in major institutional overhaul, including decentralization of health and administrative services, autonomy for public service providers, separation of funding bodies and service providers, expansion of health financing options and the development of the profit or nonprofit private sector. These institutional reshuffles lead not only to multiplication and diversification of the actors involved, but also to greater separation of the service provision and administrative functions. Health systems are becoming more complex and can no longer operate in isolation. Actors are gradually realizing that they need to forge relations. The simplest way to do that is through dialogue, although some prefer a more formal commitment. Interaction between actors may take various forms and be on different scales. There are several types of contractual relations: some are based on the nature of the contract (public or private), others on the parties involved and yet others on the scope of the contract. Here they are classified into three categories according to the object of the contract: delegation of responsibility, act of purchase of services, or cooperation. PMID:17143459

  15. Glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in rats exposed to dimethoate and/or pyrantel.

    PubMed

    Spodniewska, A

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the effect of single and combined administration of dimethoate (an OP insecticide) and pyrantel embonate (an anthelmintic agent) on the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in rats. Dimethoate (Group I) was administered to rats at a dose of 1/10 LD50 for 5 consecutive days and pyrantel embonate (Group II) at a dose of 1/5 LD50 for 3 consecutive days. The animals of group III were given both of the mentioned above compounds in the same manner as group I and II, but pyrantel embonate was applied on day 3, 4, and 5 from the beginning of dimethoate intoxication. Material from 6 rats randomly selected from each group was obtained after 3, 6 and 12 hours and 2, 7 and 14 days following the last applied dose of the compounds under study. It was found that application of pyrantel embonate caused only slight changes in the analysed parameters i.e. GSH, GPx and GR. Dimethoate administration caused disturbances in the antioxidative system manifested as a decrease in GSH concentration in the liver (max.--37.7% after 6 hours) and an increase of GPx and GR activities in erythrocytes (max.--21.7% and 29.6% after 3 hours, respectively), compared to the control group. The profile of changes after combined intoxication was similar, but their intensity was higher compared to the group of animals exposed to dimethoate only. Based on current studies, it was concluded that both dimethoate and pyrantel embonate at the applied doses showed a pro-oxidative activity.

  16. Antioxidant enzyme systems and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as contributing factors to cadmium accumulation and tolerance in two oilseed rape cultivars (Brassica napus L.) under moderate cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhichao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Sun, Xuecheng; Tan, Qiling; Tang, Yafang; Nie, Zhaojun; Qu, Chanjuan; Chen, Zuoxin; Hu, Chengxiao

    2015-11-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) with high tolerance to cadmium (Cd) may be used in the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated fields. However, the mechanisms responsible for Cd accumulation and tolerance in oilseed rape are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the physiological and molecular processes involved in Cd tolerance of two oilseed rape cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities. The total Cd accumulation in cultivar L351 was higher than cultivar L338, particularly with increasing concentrations of Cd exposure. L338 was a more pronounced Cd-sensitive cultivar than L351, while higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX, GR, DHAR) as well as higher contents of GSH and AsA were all observed in L351 under Cd treatments, especially at high levels. No differences were found in SOD activities between the two cultivars under the same Cd treatments, suggesting that SOD was not the key factor in relation to the differences of Cd tolerance and accumulation between them. Gene expression levels of BnFe-SOD, BnCAT, BnAPX, BcGR and BoDHAR in roots of L351 were relatively higher than that in L338 under Cd exposure as well as BnCAT and BcGR in leaves. It is concluded that antioxidant enzymes and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle play important roles in oilseed rape Cd accumulation and tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes.

  18. Alcoholism: the role of different motivational systems.

    PubMed Central

    Pihl, R O; Peterson, J B

    1995-01-01

    Individuals use and misuse alcohol (and other drugs) because of the pharmacologically mediated effects these substances have on the operation of 4 psychobiological systems, mediating response to motivationally relevant unconditioned and conditioned stimuli. These 4 systems have unique neuroanatomical structure, biochemical modes of operation, association with affect, behavior and cognition, and responsiveness to drugs of abuse. Individual variation in the operation of these systems determines individual susceptibility to initiation and maintenance of drug use and abuse. Sources of such variation differ, in a vitally important fashion, in various specific populations of individuals at heightened risk for drug abuse. Nonalcoholic sons of male alcoholics, with multigenerational family histories of male alcoholism, appear to be at heightened risk for the development of alcohol abuse because alcohol eliminates their heightened response to threat, and because they are hypersensitive to ethanol's psychomotor stimulant effects. Anxiety-sensitive individuals also appear attracted to alcohol for its anxiolytic properties. Many other important sources of idiosyncratic variability exist. Detailed analysis of such sources may lead to the development of more effective prevention and treatment programs. Images Figure 7 PMID:8527424

  19. All glutathione forms are depleted in blood of obese and type 1 diabetic children.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Anna; Ciampalini, Paolo; Tozzi, Giulia; Pecorelli, Lia; Passarelli, Chiara; Bertini, Enrico; Piemonte, Fiorella

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D), where an increase in reactive oxygen species may contribute to the initial destruction of β-cells. Accumulating evidence also suggests a role for oxidative stress in obesity, where it may potentiate the development of complications. To analyze the in vivo homeostasis of glutathione in children with T1D at onset and in children who are obese, to evaluate the systemic content of all glutathione forms (total, reduced, oxidized, and protein-bound glutathione) and the balance among them. Moreover, since glutathione bound to hemoglobin is a clinical marker of oxidative stress in human blood, we analyzed glutathionyl-hemoglobin in T1D and in obese children. Children with T1D at onset (n = 30) or obesity (n = 30) at the first observation, and 30 healthy subjects chosen from the children who attended the outpatient clinic for minor problems. We assessed circulating levels of various glutathione forms by performing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Glutathionyl-hemoglobin analysis was carried out by cation-exchange chromatography. In children with T1D and in obese children, we found a significant decrease of all glutathione forms including, for the first time, the content of total glutathione and glutathionylated proteins. The comparison among forms shows no significant imbalance in T1D patients, whereas in obese children it seems to suggest an attempt to rebalance the glutathione system homeostasis. Our findings consistently show in vivo evidence of glutathione depletion upon early onset of T1D and in obese children, thus evidencing glutathione as an early marker in these two metabolic conditions. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione biosynthesis in postweaned northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2011-04-15

    Northern elephant seals experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting) while breeding, molting or weaning. The postweaning fast in elephant seals is characterized by increases in the renin-angiotensin system, expression of the oxidant-producing protein Nox4, and NADPH oxidase activity; however, these increases are not correlated with increased oxidative damage or inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) is a potent reductant and a cofactor for glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione-S transferases (GST) and 1-cys peroxiredoxin (PrxVI) and thus contributes to the removal of hydroperoxides, preventing oxidative damage. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on the GSH system are not well described in mammals. To test our hypothesis that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting in postweaned elephant seals, we measured circulating and muscle GSH content at the early and late phases of the postweaning fast in elephant seals along with the activity/protein content of glutamate-cysteine ligase [GCL; catalytic (GCLc) and modulatory (GCLm) subunits], γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione disulphide reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and PrxVI, as well as plasma changes in γ-glutamyl amino acids, glutamate and glutamine. GSH increased two- to four-fold with fasting along with a 40-50% increase in the content of GCLm and GCLc, a 75% increase in GGT activity, a two- to 2.5-fold increase in GR, G6PDH and GST activities and a 30% increase in PrxVI content. Plasma γ-glutamyl glutamine, γ-glutamyl isoleucine and γ-glutamyl methionine also increased with fasting whereas glutamate and glutamine decreased. Results indicate that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting and that GSH contributes to counteracting hydroperoxide production, preventing oxidative damage in fasting seals.

  1. Proteomic analysis reveals oxidative stress response as the main adaptative physiological mechanism in cows under different production systems.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Arroyo, Laura; Saco, Yolanda; García-Heredia, Anabel; Camps, Jordi; Fina, Marta; Piedrafita, Jesús; Bassols, Anna

    2012-07-19

    Three groups of cows representing three ranges of welfare in the production system were included in the study: two groups of Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle maintained under different management systems (good and semiferal conditions) and a group of Alberes cows, a breed that lives in the mountains (hardest conditions). In order to identify new stress/welfare biomarkers, serum from Bruna cows living in both environments was subjected to DIGE labelling, two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-MS or ion trap MS. Identification was achieved for 15 proteins, which mainly belonged to three biological functions, the oxidative stress pathway (glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and paraoxonase (PON-1)), the acute phase protein family (Heremans Schmid glycoprotein alpha2 (α2-HSG)) and the complement system. Biological validation included the Alberes breed. GPx and PON-1 were validated by an enzymatic assay and found to be higher and lower, respectively, in cows living in hard conditions. α2-HSG was validated by ELISA and found to be reduced in hard conditions. Other biomarkers of the redox status were also altered by living conditions: protein carbonyl content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Our results show that changes in the redox system are the main adaptation of cows living in challenging environmental conditions.

  2. A different role for hydrogen peroxide and the antioxidative system under short and long salt stress in Brassica oleracea roots.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Mercedes; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Olmos, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Salinity affects normal growth and development of plants depending on their capacity to overcome the induced stress. The present study was focused on the response and regulation of the antioxidant defence system in Brassica oleracea roots under short and long salt treatments. The function and the implications of hydrogen peroxide as a stressor or as a signalling molecule were also studied. Two different zones were analysed--the elongation and differentiation zone and the fully differentiated root zone--in order to broaden the knowledge of the different effects of salt stress in root. In general, an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was observed in both zones at the highest (80 mM NaCl) concentration. A higher accumulation of hydrogen peroxide was observed in the stele of salt-treated roots. At the subcellular level, mitochondria accumulated hydrogen peroxide in salt-treated roots. The results confirm a drastic decrease in the antioxidant enzymes catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidases under short salt treatments. However, catalase and peroxidase activities were recovered under long salt stress treatments. The two antioxidant molecules analysed, ascorbate and glutathione, showed a different trend during salt treatments. Ascorbate was progressively accumulated and its redox state maintained, but glutathione was highly accumulated at 24 h of salt treatment, but then its concentration and redox state progressively decreased. Concomitantly, the antioxidant enzymes involved in ascorbate and glutathione regeneration were modified under salt stress treatments. In conclusion, the increase in ascorbate levels and the maintenance of the redox state seem to be critical for root growth and development under salt stress.

  3. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-05-15

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The

  4. Forward masking in different cochlear implant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boëx, Colette; Kós, Maria-Izabel; Pelizzone, Marco

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate, from a psychophysical standpoint, the neural spread of excitation produced by the stimulation of different types of intracochlear electrode arrays: the Ineraid™, the Clarion™ S-Series on its own or with the Electrode Positioning System (EPS), and the Clarion™ HiFocus-I with the EPS. The EPS is an independent silicone part designed to bring the electrode array close to the modiolus. Forward masking was evaluated in 12 adult subjects (3 Ineraid™, 4 Clarion™ S-Series, 3 Clarion™ S-Series+EPS, 3 HiFocus-I+EPS) by psychophysical experiments conducted using trains of biphasic stimuli (813 pulses per second, 307.6 μs/phase). Masker signals (+8 dB re: threshold, 300 ms) were applied to the most apical electrode. Probe signals (30 ms, 10-ms postmasker) were delivered to more basal electrodes. Masked and unmasked detection thresholds of probe signals were measured. For both Clarion™ HiFocus-I subjects, measurements were conducted in both monopolar and bipolar stimulus configurations. No major differences were found in forward masking between the different intracochlear electrode arrays tested in the monopolar configuration at suprathreshold levels equivalent to those used in speech-coding strategies, but significant differences were found between subjects. A significant negative correlation also was found between the level of forward masking and the consonant identification performance. These measurements showed that the neural spread of excitation was more restricted in the bipolar configuration than in the monopolar configuration for HiFocus-I subjects. It was found that CIS strategies implemented without using apical electrodes, which showed high levels of masking, could improve consonant identification.

  5. Co-Induction of a Glutathione-S-transferase, a Glutathione Transporter and an ABC Transporter in Maize by Xenobiotics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqian; Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Chengju

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione conjugation reactions are one of the principal mechanisms that plants utilize to detoxify xenobiotics. The induction by four herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, metolachlor and primisulfuron) and a herbicide safener (dichlormid) on the expression of three genes, ZmGST27, ZmGT1 and ZmMRP1, encoding respectively a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was studied in maize. The results demonstrate that the inducing effect on gene expression varies with both chemicals and genes. The expression of ZmGST27 and ZmMRP1 was up-regulated by all five compounds, whereas that of ZmGT1 was increased by atrazine, metolachlor, primisulfuron and dichlormid, but not by 2,4-D. For all chemicals, the inducing effect was first detected on ZmGST27. The finding that ZmGT1 is activated alongside ZmGST27 and ZmMRP1 suggests that glutathione transporters are an important component in the xenobiotic detoxification system of plants. PMID:22792398

  6. Validation of high-performance liquid chromatography-boron-doped diamond detection for assessing hepatic glutathione redox status.

    PubMed

    Park, Hea Jin; Mah, Eunice; Bruno, Richard S

    2010-12-15

    Glutathione redox status is a commonly used oxidative stress biomarker. High-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and HPLC-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) have been used to assess glutathione status but have potential limitations due to challenging sample preparation procedures or electrochemical signal degradation. Thus, this study aimed to validate an HPLC-ECD approach using boron-doped diamond (BDD), a novel electrode material exhibiting excellent electrochemical stability. Liver homogenates from obese (ob/ob) mice and their lean littermates (n=4/genotype) as well as from rats fed high- or low-fat diets (n=8/treatment) were analyzed in parallel by HPLC-BDD and -UV. HPLC-BDD responses for reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were linear over more than four orders of magnitude at 1475 mV, the optimal oxidation potential. Within- and between-day precision values of GSH, GSSG, and GSH/GSSG were 2.1% to 7.9%, and accuracy values of GSH and GSSG were 96% and 105%, respectively. Electrochemical responses were stable up to 48 h of continuous system use. Using HPLC-BDD and -UV, hepatic GSH, GSSG, and GSH/GSSG from mice (r=0.64-0.94) and rats (r=0.79-0.92) were well correlated (P<0.05), and no significant differences in thiol levels were observed between detection methods. Collectively, our findings support HPLC-BDD as a relatively simple, accurate, and validated approach for evaluating hepatic glutathione redox status.

  7. Glutathione Efflux and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Glutathione (GSH) depletion is a central signaling event that regulates the activation of cell death pathways. GSH depletion is often taken as a marker of oxidative stress and thus, as a consequence of its antioxidant properties scavenging reactive species of both oxygen and nitrogen (ROS/RNS). Recent Advances: There is increasing evidence demonstrating that GSH loss is an active phenomenon regulating the redox signaling events modulating cell death activation and progression. Critical Issues: In this work, we review the role of GSH depletion by its efflux, as an important event regulating alterations in the cellular redox balance during cell death independent from oxidative stress and ROS/RNS formation. We discuss the mechanisms involved in GSH efflux during cell death progression and the redox signaling events by which GSH depletion regulates the activation of the cell death machinery. Future Directions: The evidence summarized here clearly places GSH transport as a central mechanism mediating redox signaling during cell death progression. Future studies should be directed toward identifying the molecular identity of GSH transporters mediating GSH extrusion during cell death, and addressing the lack of sensitive approaches to quantify GSH efflux. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1694–1713. PMID:22656858

  8. Platyhelminth mitochondrial and cytosolic redox homeostasis is controlled by a single thioredoxin glutathione reductase and dependent on selenium and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Mariana; Denicola, Ana; Novoselov, Sergey V; Turanov, Anton A; Protasio, Anna; Izmendi, Darwin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Salinas, Gustavo

    2008-06-27

    Platyhelminth parasites are a major health problem in developing countries. In contrast to their mammalian hosts, platyhelminth thiol-disulfide redox homeostasis relies on linked thioredoxin-glutathione systems, which are fully dependent on thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR), a promising drug target. TGR is a homodimeric enzyme comprising a glutaredoxin domain and thioredoxin reductase (TR) domains with a C-terminal redox center containing selenocysteine (Sec). In this study, we demonstrate the existence of functional linked thioredoxin-glutathione systems in the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments of Echinococcus granulosus, the platyhelminth responsible for hydatid disease. The glutathione reductase (GR) activity of TGR exhibited hysteretic behavior regulated by the [GSSG]/[GSH] ratio. This behavior was associated with glutathionylation by GSSG and abolished by deglutathionylation. The K(m) and k(cat) values for mitochondrial and cytosolic thioredoxins (9.5 microm and 131 s(-1), 34 microm and 197 s(-1), respectively) were higher than those reported for mammalian TRs. Analysis of TGR mutants revealed that the glutaredoxin domain is required for the GR activity but did not affect the TR activity. In contrast, both GR and TR activities were dependent on the Sec-containing redox center. The activity loss caused by the Sec-to-Cys mutation could be partially compensated by a Cys-to-Sec mutation of the neighboring residue, indicating that Sec can support catalysis at this alternative position. Consistent with the essential role of TGR in redox control, 2.5 microm auranofin, a known TGR inhibitor, killed larval worms in vitro. These studies establish the selenium- and glutathione-dependent regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox homeostasis through a single TGR enzyme in platyhelminths.

  9. Noise effects in two different biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, B.; Spezia, S.; Curcio, L.; Pizzolato, N.; Fiasconaro, A.; Valenti, D.; Lo Bue, P.; Peri, E.; Colazza, S.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the role of the colored noise in two biological systems: (i) adults of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and (ii) polymer translocation. In the first system we analyze, by directionality tests, the response of N. viridula individuals to subthreshold signals plus noise in their mating behaviour. The percentage of insects that react to the subthreshold signal shows a nonmonotonic behaviour, characterized by the presence of a maximum, as a function of the noise intensity. This is the signature of the non-dynamical stochastic resonance phenomenon. By using a “soft” threshold model we find that the maximum of the input-output cross correlation occurs in the same range of noise intensity values for which the behavioural activation of the insects has a maximum. Moreover this maximum value is lowered and shifted towards higher noise intensities, compared to the case of white noise. In the second biological system the noise driven translocation of short polymers in crowded solutions is analyzed. An improved version of the Rouse model for a flexible polymer is adopted to mimic the molecular dynamics by taking into account both the interactions between adjacent monomers and the effects of a Lennard-Jones potential between all beads. The polymer dynamics is simulated in a two-dimensional domain by numerically solving the Langevin equations of motion in the presence of thermal fluctuations and a colored noise source. At low temperatures or for strong colored noise intensities the translocation process of the polymer chain is delayed. At low noise intensity, as the polymer length increases, we find a nonmonotonic behaviour for the mean first translocation time of the polymer centre of inertia. We show how colored noise influences the motion of short polymers, by inducing two different regimes of translocation in the dynamics of molecule transport.

  10. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Vivek Kumar; Bains, Rhythm

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO), is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials. PMID:26604952

  11. Comparison of metabolism-mediated effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a HepG2/C3A cell-S9 co-incubation system and quantification of their glutathione conjugates.

    PubMed

    Tamta, Hemlata; Pawar, Rahul S; Wamer, Wayne G; Grundel, Erich; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-10-01

    1. Toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) largely depends on their metabolic activation by hepatic enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, to become chemically reactive pyrrolic derivatives. These then spontaneously release the esterifying acids to generate carbonium ions that form covalent adducts with cellular nucleophiles to exhibit toxicity. 2. In our investigation, metabolism-mediated toxicity of monocrotaline, retrorsine, lycopsamine, echimidine (retronecine-type PAs), heliotrine (a heliotridine-type PA) and senkirkine (an otonecine-type PA) was studied using an in vitro co-incubation assay. 3. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2/C3A) cells were incubated with PAs in the presence and absence of rat liver S9 fraction and the toxicity was assessed as lowered mitochondrial activity. 4. Bioactivation potential was measured by incubating PAs with rat liver S9 fraction, NADPH and GSH in a cell free system. Pyrrolic metabolites generated were entrapped as glutathione conjugates (7-GSH-DHP and 7,9-di-GSHDHP) which were quantified using LC-MS-MS analysis. 5. Our results indicated that PAs were metabolized by rat liver S9 fraction into reactive pyrrolic derivatives which were toxic to HepG2/C3A cells. This approach can be used to determine and compare bioactivation potential and metabolism-mediated toxicity of various PAs.

  12. Enzymatic product-mediated stabilization of CdS quantum dots produced in situ: application for detection of reduced glutathione, NADPH, and glutathione reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Garai-Ibabe, Gaizka; Saa, Laura; Pavlov, Valeri

    2013-06-04

    Glutathione is the most abundant nonprotein molecule in the cell and plays an important role in many biological processes, including the maintenance of intracellular redox states, detoxification, and metabolism. Furthermore, glutathione levels have been linked to several human diseases, such as AIDS, Alzheimer disease, alcoholic liver disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. A novel concept in bioanalysis is introduced and applied to the highly sensitive and inexpensive detection of reduced glutathione (GSH), over its oxidized form (GSSG), and glutathione reductase (GR) in human serum. This new fluorogenic bioanalytical system is based on the GSH-mediated stabilization of growing CdS nanoparticles. The sensitivity of this new assay is 5 pM of GR, which is 3 orders of magnitude better than other fluorogenic methods previously reported.

  13. [Effect of tobacco smoking on glutathione concentration in the blood].

    PubMed

    Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the influence of tobacco smoking and age on reduced glutathione concentration in the blood. The study was performed in the blood of 65 subjects. The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material was divided into groups of non-smokers and smokers. Malonylodialdehyde concentration in the plasma was measured by reaction with thiobarbituric acid. Concentration of cadmium was measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Reduced glutathione in the blood was measured using a previously developed method [11]. A significant increase of malonylodialdehyde concentration was observed in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Malonylodialdehyde level in the plasma of smokers <20 cigarettes per day did not differ with non-smokers. The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the whole blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day and it was about 4-fold higher compared to non-smoking people. Also smokers <20 cigarettes per day have higher cadmium concentration in the blood in comparison to non-smokers. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity on reduced glutathione concentration it was a statistically significant increase in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Non-smoking and smokers <20 cigarettes per day had comparable levels of this antioxidant in the blood. A significant elevation in reduced glutathione concentration was observed in the blood of smokers < 30 years of age in comparison to nonsmoking persons < 30 and > 30 years of age. Our study confirmed that the reduced glutathione concentration in the body affects tobacco smoking and aging.

  14. Different leachate phytotreatment systems using sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Garbo, Francesco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    The use of energy crops in the treatment of wastewaters is of increasing interest, particularly in view of the widespread scarcity of water in many countries and the possibility of obtaining renewable fuels of vegetable origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of landfill leachate phytotreatment using sunflowers, particularly as seeds from this crop are suitable for use in biodiesel production. Two different irrigation systems were tested: vertical flow and horizontal subsurface flow, with or without effluent recirculation. Plants were grown in 130L rectangular tanks placed in a special climatic chamber. Leachate irrigated units were submitted to increasing nitrogen concentrations up to 372mgN/L. Leachate was successfully tested as an alternative fertilizer for plants and was not found to inhibit biomass development. The experiment revealed good removal efficiencies for COD (η>50%) up until flowering, while phosphorous removal invariably exceeded 60%. Nitrogen removal rates decreased over time in all experimental units, particularly in vertical flow tanks. In general, horizontal flow units showed the best performances in terms of contaminant removal capacity; the effluent recirculation procedure did not improve performance. Significant evapo-transpiration was observed, particularly in vertical flow units, promoting removal of up to 80% of the inlet irrigation volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glutathione-stabilized magic-number silver cluster compounds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Bolan, Michael D; Bigioni, Terry P

    2010-09-29

    Magic-number theories, developed to explain the anomalous stability of clusters in the gas phase, are being successfully applied to explain the stability of families of condensed phase Au clusters. To test the generalizability of these theories, we have synthesized a family of magic-numbered Ag clusters. Silver clusters ligated with glutathione (GSH) were synthesized by reduction of silver glutathiolate in water and then separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The raw synthetic product consisted of a family of discrete Ag:SG clusters, each forming a band in the PAGE gel. Varying reaction conditions changed the relative abundance of the family members but not their positions and colors within the gel, indicating the molecular precision of magic-number clusters. Absorption onsets for the most abundant clusters monotonically decreased with increasing cluster size, and spectra contained a small number of peaks that corresponded to single electron transitions. Although these Ag:SG clusters are related to Au:SG clusters, the distribution of cluster sizes and the optical absorption spectra were markedly different for the two families. This suggests that the Ag:SG clusters are not a simple extension of the Au:SG system, possibly due to differences in Au and Ag chemistry. Alternatively, condensed-phase magic-number cluster theories may need to be more complex than currently believed.

  16. Changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during virus infection in Cucurbita pepo (L.).

    PubMed

    Zechmann, B; Zellnig, G; Müller, M

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the subcellular distribution and quantification of glutathione were studied with electron microscopic immunogold cytochemistry in Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV)-infected Styrian pumpkin plants (Cucurbita pepo L. ssp. pepo var. styriaca Greb.) two weeks after inoculation. The amount of gold particles bound to glutathione was statistically evaluated for different cell structures, including mitochondria, plastids, nuclei, peroxisomes, and cytosol. In general, ZYMV-infected plants showed higher gold labelling density in intact mesophyll cells of the 5th (older leaves) and the youngest fully developed leaves (younger leaves), and decreased levels of glutathione within root tip cells when compared to the control. In general, within older and younger leaves the highest amount of gold particles was found in mitochondria and the lowest amount in plastids. In ZYMV-infected older leaves, an increase in glutathione was found in peroxisomes (1.7-fold), the cytosol (1.6-fold), mitochondria (1.4-fold), and nuclei (1.2-fold), whereas glutathione levels in plastids did not differ significantly when compared to control cells. In ZYMV-infected younger leaves elevated glutathione contents were found in the cytosol (3-fold), nuclei (2.1-fold), peroxisomes (1.8-fold), and plastids (1.5-fold), whereas mitochondria showed an insignificant decrease in glutathione levels in comparison to the control. In root tip cells of ZYMV-infected plants the amount of gold particles bound to glutathione was decreased in all investigated cell structures by between 0.7- to 0.8-fold. Additionally, total glutathione contents were determined in older and younger leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which revealed no significant differences between control and ZYMV-infected leaves. The relevance of the results of both methods were compared and are discussed.

  17. Glutathione S-transferase class {pi} polymorphism in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Aivaliotis, M.J.; Cantu, T.; Gilligan, R.

    1995-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) comprises a family of isozymes with broad substrate specificities. One or more GST isozymes are present in most animal tissues and function in several detoxification pathways through the conjugation of reduced glutathione with various electrophiles, thereby reducing their potential toxicity. Four soluble GST isozymes encoded by genes on different chromosomes have been identified in humans. The acidic class pi GST, GSTP (previously designated GST-3), is widely distributed in adult tissues and appears to be the only GST isozyme present in leukocytes and placenta. Previously reported electrophoretic analyses of erythrocyte and leukocyte extracts revealed single bands of activity, which differed slightly in mobility between the two cell types, or under other conditions, a two-banded pattern. To our knowledge, no genetically determined polymorphisms have previously been reported in GSTP from any species. We now report a polymorphism of GSTP in baboon leukocytes, and present family data that verifies autosomal codominant inheritance. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Free amino acid and glutathione concentrations in muscle during short-term starvation and refeeding.

    PubMed

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Andersson, Kerstin; Luo, Jia-Li; Wernerman, Jan

    2005-04-01

    The effects of short-term starvation and refeeding on the free amino acids and glutathione in skeletal muscle in healthy man are not known. This is necessary baseline knowledge when studying the effects of nutrition, trauma and sepsis on protein, amino acid and glutathione metabolism. Concentrations of free amino acids and glutathione in muscle and plasma from young healthy male volunteers (n = 8) were measured before and after a 3-day fast and then again after 2 days refeeding. Nitrogen balance was determined during the study period. The cumulated nitrogen loss was 36.9+/-5.4 g during the fasting period indicating a condition of protein catabolism. During the fasting period decreases were seen in muscle glutamate by 48 +/- 20% and in glutamine by 38 +/- 12%. These changes were returned back to normal levels during the refeeding period. The changes seen in other muscle amino acids during the study period were reflected by similar changes in plasma amino acids, again with normalisation after the refeeding period. Muscle glutathione concentration and the redox status of glutathione remained unaffected of short-term starvation and refeeding. A short-term fasting followed by a refeeding period induced changes in the concentrations of concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, branched chained and basic amino acids in muscle and plasma. Despite this, no changes were seen regarding the glutathione levels in muscle and plasma or its redox status, indicating that the glutathione system is of priority.

  19. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Pre-column Derivatization for Determination of Oxidized Glutathione Level in Rats Exposed to Paraquat.

    PubMed

    Hami, Zahra; Amini, Mohsen; Kiani, Amir; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important antioxidants that plays an essential role in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which oxidizes to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Paraquat (PQ), awidely used herbicide, causes pulmonary injury with the productionof ROS. Excessive ROS accumulation as a consequence of PQ exposure are frequently targeted by GSH thereby oxidative stress leads to depletion of cellular GSH by transforming of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). A precise method of measuring of GSSG concentration in plasma as indicator of oxidative stress is needed. Some analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis have been used for determination of GSSG concentration. In the present study, a new HPLC method with fluorescence detection based on derivatization of the amine group of glutathione with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) was developed. Male Wistar albino rats exposed to different doses of PQ (20-60 mg/kg) and control group were used and after protein precipitation, their plasma was subjected to derivatization with FMOC in the presence of borate buffer. The derivatized samples were injected to HPLC system with C18 column, mobile phase consisting of methanol and phosphate buffer, λem= 315 nm, λex= 260 nm. Among all experimental groups, the rats which received 60 mg/kg PQ, showed a significant increase in the amount of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared to the control group. In this study, the applied derivatization and HPLC method made it possible to measure small amounts of glutathione in plasma using a precise and sensitive technique.

  20. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Pre-column Derivatization for Determination of Oxidized Glutathione Level in Rats Exposed to Paraquat

    PubMed Central

    Hami, Zahra; Amini, Mohsen; Kiani, Amir; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important antioxidants that plays an essential role in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which oxidizes to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Paraquat (PQ), awidely used herbicide, causes pulmonary injury with the productionof ROS. Excessive ROS accumulation as a consequence of PQ exposure are frequently targeted by GSH thereby oxidative stress leads to depletion of cellular GSH by transforming of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). A precise method of measuring of GSSG concentration in plasma as indicator of oxidative stress is needed. Some analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis have been used for determination of GSSG concentration. In the present study, a new HPLC method with fluorescence detection based on derivatization of the amine group of glutathione with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) was developed. Male Wistar albino rats exposed to different doses of PQ (20-60 mg/kg) and control group were used and after protein precipitation, their plasma was subjected to derivatization with FMOC in the presence of borate buffer. The derivatized samples were injected to HPLC system with C18 column, mobile phase consisting of methanol and phosphate buffer, λem= 315 nm, λex= 260 nm. Among all experimental groups, the rats which received 60 mg/kg PQ, showed a significant increase in the amount of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared to the control group. In this study, the applied derivatization and HPLC method made it possible to measure small amounts of glutathione in plasma using a precise and sensitive technique. PMID:24523771

  1. Effect of enlarged glutathione on zinc-mediated toxicity in lung-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Walther, U I; Walther, S C; Temrück, O

    2007-04-01

    Zinc-mediated toxicity has been linked to cellular glutathione content in isolated cells. In addition, treatment of alveolar epithelial type II cells with glucocorticoids diminishes cellular glutathione content, and this is followed by an increase in zinc-mediated toxicity. The question arises whether an increase in glutathione synthesis might decrease zinc-mediated toxicity. For this purpose an administration of 200 micromol/l N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was given to the cells, while cysteine was used up to 100 micromol/l. Zinc-mediated toxicity was assessed by measuring protein synthesis inhibition and glutathione dependent parameters. De novo synthesis of glutathione was assessed as compared to controls by N-acetyl-D-cysteine (NADC) treatment. Comparing NAC and NADC treatment no differences in zinc-mediated toxicity were found. Furthermore only in one (of three) cell line tested a significant increase in GSH content by NAC as compared to NADC treatment was achieved. But even in this cell line no changes by zinc-mediated toxicity were found. It is concluded that the cell lines tested can use other sources of cys for glutathione synthesis. Furthermore the increased zinc-mediated toxicity due to hydrocortisone was abolished in the alveolar epithelial cell lines by the NADC/NAC treatment. It is therefore discussed that additionally to glutathione some other antioxidative defence mechanisms can influence zinc-mediated toxicity as well.

  2. Evaluation of the interaction of vanadium with glutathione in human blood components.

    PubMed

    Mukhtiar, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Khan, Haroon; Ullah, Naseem; Asim-ur-Rehman

    2012-07-01

    Metallo-elements including Vanadium (V) have strong affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in biological molecules including Glutathione (GSH) in tissues. Because of this fact it was of interest to further investigate the interaction of Ammonium Vanadate [NH(4)VO(3)] with Glutathione as a biomarker of toxicity and the role of Glutathione in the detoxification and conjugation pr(o)Cesses in whole blood components including plasma and cytosolic fraction. Effects of different concentrations of Ammonium Vanadate [NH(4)VO(3)] on the level of reduced Glutathione in whole blood components (Plasma and Cytosolic fraction) were examined. GSH depletion in plasma and cytosolic fraction was Ammonium Vanadate's concentration-dependent. Depleted GSH level was more pronounced with more incubation time period. These findings show that changes in the GSH status produced by Ammonium Vanadate could be due to either by adduct formation of Vanadium and glutathione i.e. (V-SG) or by increased production of oxidized Glutathione (2GSH +V(+5) → GSSG). This change in GSH metabolic status provides some information regarding the mechanism of toxicity by Ammonium Vanadate and the protective role of glutathione.

  3. Multiscale modelling approach combining a kinetic model of glutathione metabolism with PBPK models of paracetamol and the potential glutathione-depletion biomarkers ophthalmic acid and 5-oxoproline in humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Geenen, Suzanne; Yates, James W T; Kenna, J Gerry; Bois, Frederic Y; Wilson, Ian D; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2013-06-01

    A key role of the antioxidant glutathione is detoxification of chemically reactive electrophilic drug metabolites within the liver. Therefore glutathione depletion can have severe toxic consequences. Ophthalmic acid and 5-oxoproline are metabolites involved in glutathione metabolism, which can be measured readily in the blood and urine and have been proposed as candidate biomarkers of hepatic glutathione content. However, currently it is unclear whether their concentrations in plasma exhibit a robust correlation with hepatic glutathione content. To explore this important question, we have developed a novel approach which combines a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of metabolism and disposition of paracetamol (acetaminophen) with a previously developed mathematical systems model of hepatic glutathione homeostasis. Paracetamol is metabolised to reactive intermediates which deplete glutathione and cause toxicity when given at high doses. Our model correctly predicted that hepatic glutathione depletion following paracetamol administration resulted in elevated concentrations of 5-oxoproline and ophthalmic acid in blood and of 5-oxoproline in urine. However, we also found from the model that concentrations of both of the compounds were likely to be influenced by prolonged administration of paracetamol and by the concentrations of intracellular metabolites such as methionine. We conclude that care must be taken when extrapolating from concentrations of these biomarkers to hepatic glutathione status.

  4. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  5. Project Delivery Systems: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konchar, Mark; Sanvido, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Discusses project-delivery systems in school-construction management and why its important to both scheduling and budgeting to choose the right system. Examines design-build, construction management at-risk, and design-bid/build variations. Also discusses study data of quantitative costs, scheduling, and quality performance involving 351 building…

  6. The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Houseal, M. Trevor; Mulligan, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, massive multiscalar trait profiling across a large population of mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA2/J (D2)—the BXD family—was combined with linkage and bioinformatic analyses to characterize mechanisms controlling GST expression and to identify downstream consequences of this variation. Similar to humans, mice show a wide range in expression of GST family members. Variation in the expression of Gsta4, Gstt2, Gstz1, Gsto1, and Mgst3 is modulated by local expression QTLs (eQTLs) in several tissues. Higher expression of Gsto1 in brain and liver of BXD strains is strongly associated (P < 0.01) with inheritance of the B6 parental allele whereas higher expression of Gsta4 and Mgst3 in brain and liver, and Gstt2 and Gstz1 in brain is strongly associated with inheritance of the D2 parental allele. Allele-specific assays confirmed that expression of Gsto1, Gsta4, and Mgst3 are modulated by sequence variants within or near each gene locus. We exploited this endogenous variation to identify coexpression networks and downstream targets in mouse and human. Through a combined systems genetics approach, we provide new insight into the biological role of naturally occurring variants in GST genes. PMID:26829228

  7. Evaluation of cell responses toward adhesives with different photoinitiating systems.

    PubMed

    Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Krifka, Stephanie; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Bolay, Carola; Waha, Claudia; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Schmalz, Gottfried; Schweikl, Helmut

    2015-08-01

    The photoinitiator diphenyl-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO) is more reactive than a camphorquinone/amine (CQ) system, and TPO-based adhesives obtained a higher degree of conversion (DC) with fewer leached monomers. The hypothesis tested here is that a TPO-based adhesive is less toxic than a CQ-based adhesive. A CQ-based adhesive (SBU-CQ) (Scotchbond Universal, 3M ESPE) and its experimental counterpart with TPO (SBU-TPO) were tested for cytotoxicity in human pulp-derived cells (tHPC). Oxidative stress was analyzed by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by the expression of antioxidant enzymes. A dentin barrier test (DBT) was used to evaluate cell viability in simulated clinical circumstances. Unpolymerized SBU-TPO was significantly more toxic than SBU-CQ after a 24h exposure, and TPO alone (EC50=0.06mM) was more cytotoxic than CQ (EC50=0.88mM), EDMAB (EC50=0.68mM) or CQ/EDMAB (EC50=0.50mM). Cultures preincubated with BSO (l-buthionine sulfoximine), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, indicated a minor role of glutathione in cytotoxic responses toward the adhesives. Although the generation of ROS was not detected, a differential expression of enzymatic antioxidants revealed that cells exposed to unpolymerized SBU-TPO or SBU-CQ are subject to oxidative stress. Polymerized SBU-TPO was more cytotoxic than SBU-CQ under specific experimental conditions only, but no cytotoxicity was detected in a DBT with a 200μm dentin barrier. Not only DC and monomer-release determine the biocompatibility of adhesives, but also the cytotoxicity of the (photo-)initiator should be taken into account. Addition of TPO rendered a universal adhesive more toxic compared to CQ; however, this effect could be annulled by a thin dentin barrier. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bounous, G

    2000-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system is foremost among the cellular protective mechanisms. Depletion of this small molecule is a common consequence of increased formation of reactive oxygen species during increased cellular activities. This phenomenon can occur in the lymphocytes during the development of the immune response and in the muscular cells during strenuous exercise. It is not surprising that so much research has been done, and is still being done on this small tripeptide molecule. Whey protein concentrate has been shown to represent an effective and safe cysteine donor for GSH replenishment during GSH depletion in immune deficiency states. Cysteine is the crucial limiting amino acid for intracellular GSH synthesis. Animal experiments showed that the concentrates of whey proteins also exhibit anti-carcinogenesis and anticancer activity. They do this via their effect on increasing GSH concentration in relevant tissues, and may have anti-tumor effect on low volume of tumor via stimulation of immunity through the GSH pathway. It is considered that oxygen radical generation is frequently a critical step in carcinogenesis, hence the effect of GSH on free radicals as well as carcinogen detoxification, could be important in inhibiting carcinogenesis induced by a number of different mechanisms. Case reports are presented which strongly suggest an anti-tumor effect of a whey protein dietary supplement in some urogenital cancers. This non toxic dietary intervention, which is not based on the principles of current cancer chemotherapy, will hopefully attract the attention of laboratory and clinical oncologists.

  9. Transport of Glutathione Diethyl Ester Into Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ellen J.; Anderson, Mary E.; Meister, Alton

    1993-10-01

    Glutathione monoesters in which the carboxyl group of the glycine residue is esterified were previously found, in contrast to glutathione itself, to be effectively transported into various types of cells and to be converted intracellularly into glutathione. Glutathione monoesters are thus useful for prevention of oxidative stress, certain toxicities, and for treatment of glutathione deficiency. Glutathione diethyl ester is rapidly split to the glutathione monoethyl ester by mouse plasma glutathione diester α-esterase activity. Thus, as expected, glutathione mono- and diesters have similar effects on cellular glutathione levels in mice. However, human plasma lacks glutathione diester α-esterase thus, it became of interest to compare the transport properties of glutathione mono- and diesters in human cells. We found that human cells (erythrocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, fibroblasts, ovarian tumor cells, and purified T cells) transport glutathione diethyl ester much more effectively than the corresponding monoethyl (glycyl) ester. Human cells rapidly convert glutathione diethyl ester to the monoester, whose intracellular levels rise to levels that are significantly higher than levels found after application of the monoester to the cells. High levels of the monoester provide the cells with a means of producing glutathione over a period of time. We conclude that glutathione diethyl ester is highly effective as a delivery agent for glutathione monoester, and thus for glutathione, in human cells and therefore could serve to decrease oxidative stress and toxicity. Hamster (and certain other animals) also lack plasma glutathione diester α-esterase and therefore would be suitable animal models. Previously reported toxicity of certain glutathione ester preparations appears to reflect the presence of impurities rather than effects of the esters.

  10. Glutathione-S-transferase activity in malarial parasites.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Puri, S K; Kamboj, K K; Pandey, V C

    1999-04-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity has been detected in rodent (Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii), simian (P. knowlesi) and human (P. falciparum) malarial parasites, and in different intraerythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi (schizont > ring > trophozoite). In chloroquine-resistant strains of rodent and human malarial parasites GST activity significantly increases compared to sensitive strains. Further, the increase in enzyme activity is directly related to drug pressure of resistant P. berghei. Complete inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive and resistant P. berghei glutathione-S-transferase activities was observed at 2.5 and 5. micrometer concentration of hemin, respectively. An inverse relationship was found between the heme level and enzyme activity of chloroquine-resistant and sensitive P. berghei. Chloroquine, artemisinin, and primaquine noticeably inhibited GST activity in P. knowlesi.

  11. Effects of glutathione on the in vivo metabolism and oxidative stress of arsenic in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da; Lin, Lin; Li, Xin; Sun, Gui-Fan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of exogenous glutathione and buthionine sulfoximine on arsenic methylation and antioxidant capacity in mice exposed to arsenic via drinking water. Thirty-six female albino mice were randomly divided into six groups. All groups were given free access to drinking water that contained arsenic continuously except the control group. After ten days, mice were treated with different levels of glutathione or buthionine sulfoximine. The levels of the metabolites of arsenic were determined in the liver and urine. The levels of glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were determined in the whole blood and liver. Our results showed that the increase of arsenic species in the liver as well as the decrease of blood and hepatic glutathione and total antioxidant capacity, were all relieved by exogenous glutathione consistently. We also observed the involvement of glutathione in promoting arsenic methylation and urinary elimination in vivo. Increase of total arsenic in the urine was mainly due to the increase of dimethylated arsenic. Furthermore, administration of glutathione increased the first methylation ratio and secondary methylation ratio in the liver and urine, which resulted in the consequent increase of dimethylated arsenic percent and decrease of inorganic arsenic percent in the urine. Opposite effects appeared with the administration of buthionine sulfoximine, a scavenger of glutathione. Our study indicated that exogenous glutathione not only accelerated the methylation and the excretion of arsenic, but also relieve the arsenic-induced oxidative stress. This provides a potential useful chemopreventive dietary component for human populations being at risk of arsenic exposure.

  12. [Kinetic models for the effect of temperature on batch glutathione fermentation by Candida utilis].

    PubMed

    Wei, Gong-Yuan; Li, Yin; Du, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2003-05-01

    Glutathione (L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine), one of the major non-protein thiol compounds, is widely distributed in living cells and plays an important role in maintaining the normal redox environment of cells as an antioxidant. In the production of glutathione by fermentation, temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that affect the yield and the productivity of glutathione. Here the effect of temperature, varied from 24 degrees C to 32 degrees C, on the batch fermentation of glutathione in a 7 L stirred fermenter by Candida utilis WSH 02-08 was investigated. It was found that cell growth was hastened along with the increase of temperature. The maximum dry cell weight was achieved approximately 16 g/L under various temperatures, as soon as the glucose was exhausted. The effect of temperature on glutathione production was different from that on cell growth: the lower the temperature, the higher the glutathione production, i.e. the maximum glutathione concentration at 32 degrees C (235 mg/L) was only 75% and 64% of that at 30 degrees C and 26 degrees C, respectively. The maximum average specific growth rate (0.13 h(-1)) was achieved at 30 degrees C while the maximum glutathione concentration (366 mg x L(-1)) and the maximum intracellular glutathione content (2.3%) were obtained at 26 degrees C. Therefore, the optimum temperatures for cell growth and glutathione production are quite different in the batch fermentation. A modified Logistic equation was successfully applied to estimate the kinetics of cell growth. The maximum specific growth rate and the substrate inhibition constant, calculated from this equation, were both increased along with the temperature. In addition, the glutathione fermentation by C. utilis WSH 02-08 under various temperatures was proven to be a partial growth-associated process by estimating the process with the Luedeking-Piret equation. Based on the estimated parameon the estimated parameters, the effect of

  13. Study of Linkage between Glutathione Pathway and the Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Patients’ Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Kominkova, Marketa; Michalek, Petr; Cihalova, Kristyna; Guran, Roman; Cernei, Natalia; Nejdl, Lukas; Smerkova, Kristyna; Dostalova, Simona; Chudobova, Dagmar; Heger, Zbynek; Vesely, Radek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Kynicky, Jindrich; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we focused on the differences between bacterial cultures of E. coli obtained from swabs of infectious wounds of patients compared to laboratory E. coli. In addition, blocking of the protein responsible for the synthesis of glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteine synthase—GCL) using 10 mM buthionine sulfoximine was investigated. Each E. coli showed significant differences in resistance to antibiotics. According to the determined resistance, E. coli were divided into experimental groups based on a statistical evaluation of their properties as more resistant and more sensitive. These groups were also used for finding the differences in a dependence of the glutathione pathway on resistance to antibiotics. More sensitive E. coli showed the same kinetics of glutathione synthesis while blocking GCL (Km 0.1 µM), as compared to non-blocking. In addition, the most frequent mutations in genes of glutathione synthetase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were observed in this group compared to laboratory E.coli. The group of “more resistant” E. coli exhibited differences in Km between 0.3 and 0.8 µM. The number of mutations compared to the laboratory E. coli was substantially lower compared to the other group. PMID:25837469

  14. Study of linkage between glutathione pathway and the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from patients' swabs.

    PubMed

    Kominkova, Marketa; Michalek, Petr; Cihalova, Kristyna; Guran, Roman; Cernei, Natalia; Nejdl, Lukas; Smerkova, Kristyna; Dostalova, Simona; Chudobova, Dagmar; Heger, Zbynek; Vesely, Radek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Kynicky, Jindrich; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-03-31

    In this work, we focused on the differences between bacterial cultures of E. coli obtained from swabs of infectious wounds of patients compared to laboratory E. coli. In addition, blocking of the protein responsible for the synthesis of glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteine synthase-GCL) using 10 mM buthionine sulfoximine was investigated. Each E. coli showed significant differences in resistance to antibiotics. According to the determined resistance, E. coli were divided into experimental groups based on a statistical evaluation of their properties as more resistant and more sensitive. These groups were also used for finding the differences in a dependence of the glutathione pathway on resistance to antibiotics. More sensitive E. coli showed the same kinetics of glutathione synthesis while blocking GCL (Km 0.1 µM), as compared to non-blocking. In addition, the most frequent mutations in genes of glutathione synthetase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were observed in this group compared to laboratory E.coli. The group of "more resistant" E. coli exhibited differences in Km between 0.3 and 0.8 µM. The number of mutations compared to the laboratory E. coli was substantially lower compared to the other group.

  15. A multi-emissive fluorescent probe for the discrimination of glutathione and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Liang; Niu, Li-Ya; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Yang, Yunxu; Yang, Qing-Zheng

    2017-04-15

    Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) play different roles in biological systems, thus the discrimination between them is of great importance. Herein we report a multi-emissive fluorescent probe for the selective detection of GSH and Cys. The probe was composed of covalently linked BODIPY and coumarin fluorophores. The BODIPY fluorophore was designed to react with GSH and Cys and generate different products with distinct photophysical properties, and the coumarin fluorophore acted as an internal standard. The probe exhibited green emission in aqueous solution. Upon addition of Cys, it yielded nitrogen-substituted BODIPY with weak fluorescence and free coumarin with blue emission. In the presence of glutathione, it generated mono- and di-sulfur substituted BODIPY and coumarin, resulting in various emission colors at different concentrations of GSH. Interestingly, the solution exhibited white fluorescence at GSH concentration of 0.4mM. The probe was capable of detecting and imaging GSH and Cys in living HeLa cells, indicating its significant potential in biological applications.

  16. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, the public has begun to question the conditions under which intensively-managed livestock are housed. As a consequence of this concern, animal production practices, including egg production systems, have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny. Animal welfare issues lie at the he...

  17. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  18. Oral supplementation with whey proteins increases plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Micke, P; Beeh, K M; Schlaak, J F; Buhl, R

    2001-02-01

    HIV infection is characterized by an enhanced oxidant burden and a systemic deficiency of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant. The semi-essential amino acid cysteine is the main source of the free sulfhydryl group of GSH and limits its synthesis. Therefore, different strategies to supplement cysteine supply have been suggested to increase glutathione levels in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with two different cysteine-rich whey protein formulas on plasma GSH levels and parameters of oxidative stress and immune status in HIV-infected patients. In a prospective double blind clinical trial, 30 patients (25 male, 5 female; mean age (+/- SD) 42 +/- 9.8 years) with stable HIV infection (221 +/- 102 CD4 + lymphocytes L-1) were randomized to a supplemental diet with a daily dose of 45 g whey proteins of either Protectamin (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Hamburg, Germany) or Immunocal (Immunotec, Vandreuil, Canada) for two weeks. Plasma concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized GSH, superoxide anion (O2-) release by blood mononuclear cells, plasma levels of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and 12 were quantified with standard methods at baseline and after therapy. Pre-therapy, plasma GSH levels (Protectamin: 1.92 +/- 0.6 microM; Immunocal: 1.98 +/- 0.9 microM) were less than normal (2.64 +/- 0.7 microM, P = 0.03). Following two weeks of oral supplementation with whey proteins, plasma GSH levels increased in the Protectamin group by 44 +/- 56% (2.79 +/- 1.2 microM, P = 0.004) while the difference in the Immunocal group did not reach significance (+ 24.5 +/- 59%, 2.51 +/- 1.48 microM, P = 0.43). Spontaneous O2- release by blood mononuclear cells was stable (20.1 +/- 14.2 vs. 22.6 +/- 16.1 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.52) whereas PMA-induced O2- release decreased in the Protectamin group (53.7 +/- 19 vs. 39.8 +/- 18 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.04). Plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and

  19. Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase-Dependent Redox Networks in Platyhelminth Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Mariana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Platyhelminth parasites cause chronic infections that are a major cause of disability, mortality, and economic losses in developing countries. Maintaining redox homeostasis is a major adaptive problem faced by parasites and its disruption can shift the biochemical balance toward the host. Platyhelminth parasites possess a streamlined thiol-based redox system in which a single enzyme, thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), a fusion of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain to canonical thioredoxin reductase (TR) domains, supplies electrons to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thioredoxin (Trx). TGR has been validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis. Recent Advances: In addition to glutathione (GSH) and Trx reduction, TGR supports GSH-independent deglutathionylation conferring an additional advantage to the TGR redox array. Biochemical and structural studies have shown that the TR activity does not require the Grx domain, while the glutathione reductase and deglutathionylase activities depend on the Grx domain, which receives electrons from the TR domains. The search for TGR inhibitors has identified promising drug leads, notably oxadiazole N-oxides. Critical Issues: A conspicuous feature of platyhelminth TGRs is that their Grx-dependent activities are temporarily inhibited at high GSSG concentrations. The mechanism underlying the phenomenon and its biological relevance are not completely understood. Future Directions: The functional diversity of Trxs and Grxs encoded in platyhelminth genomes remains to be further assessed to thoroughly understand the TGR-dependent redox network. Optimization of TGR inhibitors and identification of compounds targeting other parasite redox enzymes are good options to clinically develop relevant drugs for these neglected, but important diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 735–745. PMID:22909029

  20. Glutathione regulation of redox-sensitive signals in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Chen, Jein-Wen; Chiang, Huai-Chih

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the regulatory role of glutathione in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by using vascular endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Since TNF-alpha induces various biological effects on vascular cells, TNF-alpha dosage could be a determinant factor directing vascular cells into different biological fates. Based on the adhesion molecule expression patterns responding to different TNF-alpha concentrations, we adopted the lower TNF-alpha (0.2 ng/ml) to rule out the possible involvement of other TNF-alpha-induced biological effects. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in down-regulations of the TNF-alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. BSO attenuated the TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, however, with no detectable effect on AP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Deletion of an AP-1 binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promoter totally abolished its constitutive promoter activity and its responsiveness to TNF-alpha. Inhibition of ERK, JNK, or NF-kappaB attenuates TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Our study indicates that TNF-alpha induces adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding mainly via activation of NF-kappaB in a glutathione-sensitive manner. We also demonstrated that intracellular glutathione does not modulate the activation of MAPKs and/or their downstream AP-1 induced by lower TNF-alpha. Although AP-1 activation by the lower TNF-alpha was not detected in our systems, we could not rule out the possible involvement of transiently activated MAPKs/AP-1 in the regulation of TNF-alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression.

  1. Glutathione regulation of redox-sensitive signals in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw; Yeh, S.C.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chen, J.-W.; Chiang, H.-C.

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the regulatory role of glutathione in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha})-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by using vascular endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Since TNF-{alpha} induces various biological effects on vascular cells, TNF-{alpha} dosage could be a determinant factor directing vascular cells into different biological fates. Based on the adhesion molecule expression patterns responding to different TNF-{alpha} concentrations, we adopted the lower TNF-{alpha} (0.2 ng/ml) to rule out the possible involvement of other TNF-{alpha}-induced biological effects. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in down-regulations of the TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. BSO attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) activation, however, with no detectable effect on AP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Deletion of an AP-1 binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promoter totally abolished its constitutive promoter activity and its responsiveness to TNF-{alpha}. Inhibition of ERK, JNK, or NF-{kappa}B attenuates TNF-{alpha}-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Our study indicates that TNF-{alpha} induces adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding mainly via activation of NF-{kappa}B in a glutathione-sensitive manner. We also demonstrated that intracellular glutathione does not modulate the activation of MAPKs and/or their downstream AP-1 induced by lower TNF-{alpha}. Although AP-1 activation by the lower TNF-{alpha} was not detected in our systems, we could not rule out the possible involvement of transiently activated MAPKs/AP-1 in the regulation of TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion molecule expression.

  2. Genetic and transcriptional study of glutathione metabolism in Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Margalef-Català, Mar; Araque, Isabel; Bordons, Albert; Reguant, Cristina

    2017-02-02

    Although Oenococcus oeni is the main species that is responsible for malolactic fermentation (MLF), harsh wine conditions can limit its performance. Although several mechanisms underlying the response to stress have been studied in this species, little is known regarding the cellular systems that protect against oxidative stress in other bacteria, such as glutathione (GSH). O. oeni cannot synthesize GSH but contains several genes related to its utilization. In this study, the relative expression (RE) of the seven genes involved in the GSH redox system found in O. oeni PSU-1 (gshR, gpo, three glutaredoxin-like genes and two subunits of an hypothetical transporter) has been measured. The study was performed using three strains, with each exhibiting a different GSH uptake capacity. The strains were grown in a stress-adaptation medium supplemented with 5mM GSH and under different adaptation stress conditions (pH4 and 6% ethanol). The RE showed that only some of these genes, including one for a possible glutaredoxin (OEOE_RS04215) and cydC for a subunit of a putative GSH transporter (OEOE_RS1995), responded to the addition of GSH. The presence of ethanol had a relevant effect on gene expression. Among the studied genes, the one for a NrdH-redoxin (OEOE_RS00645) showed a common response to ethanol in the strains, being over-expressed when grown with GSH. In most cases, the transcriptional changes were more evident for the strain with a higher capacity of GSH uptake. Malolactic performance of the three strains after pre-adaptation was evaluated in wine-like media (12% ethanol and pH3.4). It was observed that the addition of GSH during pre-adaptation growth had a protective role in the cells exposed to low pH and ethanol, resulting in a quicker MLF.

  3. The effect of quercetin and galangin on glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Paulíková, Helena; Berczeliová, Elena

    2005-12-01

    Quercetin and galangin can change the activity of glutathione reductase. Quercetin (a catechol structure in the B-ring) and galangin (any hydroxyl group in the B-ring) have different biological activities but, both possess high antioxidant abilities. Quercetin during the antioxidative action, is converted into an oxidized products (o-semiquinone and o-quinone), and subsequently glutathionyl adducts may be formed or SH-enzyme can be inhibited. We have tried to see whether inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) can be influenced by preincubation of enzyme with NADPH (a creation of reduced form of enzyme, GRH(2)) and whether diaphorase activity of the enzyme is decreased by these flavonoids. The results confirmed that quercetin inhibits GRH(2) and inhibition is reduced by addition of EDTA or N-acetylcysteine. Both of flavonoids have no effect on diaphorase activity of glutathione reductase and this enzyme could increase the production of free radicals by catalysis of reduction of o-quinone during action of quercetin in vivo.

  4. The role of glutathione transferases in cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Adamis, Paula D B; Gomes, Débora S; Pinto, Maria Lucia C C; Panek, Anita D; Eleutherio, Elis C A

    2004-12-01

    Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as experimental model, we observed that cells mutated in the GTT1 or GTT2 genes showed twice as much cadmium absorption than the control strain. We proposed that the formation of the cadmium-glutathione complex is dependent on that transferase, since it was previously demonstrated that the cytoplasmic levels of this complex affect cadmium uptake. The addition of glutathione monoethyl ester (GME), a drug that mimics glutathione (GSH), to gtt1Delta cells restored the levels of metal absorption to those of the control strain. However, with respect to gtt2Delta cells, addition of GME did not alter the capacity of removing cadmium from the medium. Taken together, these results suggest that Gtt1 and Gtt2 play different roles in the mechanism of cadmium detoxification. By analyzing the toxic effect of this metal, we verified that gtt2Delta and gsh1Delta cells showed, respectively, higher and lower tolerance to cadmium stress than control cells, suggesting that although GSH plays a relevant role in cell protection, formation of the GSH-Cd conjugate is deleterious to the mechanism of defense.

  5. Smartphone-based colorimetric detection of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Vobornikova, Irena; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2016-12-18

    Glutathione belongs to the family of small-molecular weight antioxidants like ascorbic acid, cysteine, α-tocopherol, uric acid, etc. These molecules play important role in the neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress may lead to ageing and the development of large scale of pathological states of organism. This low molecular weight antioxidant´s level can alter under pathological conditions from reduced (GSH, thiols) to oxidized (oxidized glutathione -GSSG, disulfides) form. A GSSG-to-GSH ratio is indicative marker of oxidative stress. There is a large scale of methods how to determine this biomarker. The trend of the analysis is to minimalize the instrument equipment, sample application volume and analysis cost. Reduced glutathione (GSH) solutions were prepared in water in the concentration 0-16 mmol/L. Other small-molecular weight antioxidants like 0.25 mmol/L ascorbic acid, 0.15 mmol/L TROLOX and 0.02 mmol/L N-acetyl-cysteine (NAcCys) were studied as possible interferents. The samples were mixed with 5,5´-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic) acid (DTNB) resulting in yellow colored drops forming. Coloration was assayed using camera integrated in a smartphone and color channels analysis. The total volume of 10 µl of sample was applied for one analysis. The smartphone-based data were compared with the reference Ellman assay. The calibration of glutathione was evaluated. The blue channel intensity data were decreasing according to the increasing glutathione concentration. Red and green channel intensities were stagnating during the whole concentration scale of glutathione. Limits of detection were 0.4 mmol/l for glutathione. Addition of 0.25 mmol/L of ascorbic acid, 0.15 mmol/L of TROLOX and 0.02mmol/L of N-acetylcysteine to GSH in final concentration 0-16 mmol/L had minimal influence on the assay. The results from smartphone-based analysis correlate with the standard Ellman method. The detection limit for GSH was 0.03 mmol

  6. Glutathione Metabolism and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smeyne, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that oxidative stress, defined as the condition when the sum of free radicals in a cell exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the cell, contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Glutathione is a ubiquitous thiol tripeptide that acts alone, or in concert with enzymes within cells to reduce superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrites. In this review, we examine the synthesis, metabolism and functional interactions of glutathione, and discuss how this relates to protection of dopaminergic neurons from oxidative damage and its therapeutic potential in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23665395

  7. Role of thiol compounds in mammalian melanin pigmentation: Part I. Reduced and oxidized glutathione.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, J P; Ortonne, J P; Voulot, C; Khatchadourian, C; Prota, G; Thivolet, J

    1981-11-01

    Evidence for the postulated role of glutathione reductase in melanin pigmentation has been obtained by determinations of the glutathione concentrations in Tortoiseshell guinea pig skin of different colors (black, yellow, red, and white). As expected, the lowest levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were found associated with eumelanin type pigmentation, whereas the highest ones were found in the skin with phaeomelanin producing melanocytes. On the other hand, white skin of guinea pig having no active melanocytes showed GSH levels which were intermediate between those of the black and yellow areas. These results are consistent with the view that the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase, though not primarily related to pigmentation, plays an important role in the regulation and control of the biosynthetic activity of melanocytes leading to various types of melanin pigments.

  8. A Glutathione-Nrf2-Thioredoxin Cross-Talk Ensures Keratinocyte Survival and Efficient Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Telorack, Michèle; Meyer, Michael; Ingold, Irina; Conrad, Marcus; Bloch, Wilhelm; Werner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is the most abundant cellular antioxidant with high medical relevance, and it is also required as a co-factor for various enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and toxic compounds. However, its cell-type specific functions and its interaction with other cytoprotective molecules are largely unknown. Using a combination of mouse genetics, functional cell biology and pharmacology, we unraveled the function of glutathione in keratinocytes and its cross-talk with other antioxidant defense systems. Mice with keratinocyte-specific deficiency in glutamate cysteine ligase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glutathione biosynthesis, showed a strong reduction in keratinocyte viability in vitro and in the skin in vivo. The cells died predominantly by apoptosis, but also showed features of ferroptosis and necroptosis. The increased cell death was associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which caused DNA and mitochondrial damage. However, epidermal architecture, and even healing of excisional skin wounds were only mildly affected in the mutant mice. The cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2 was strongly activated in glutathione-deficient keratinocytes, but additional loss of Nrf2 did not aggravate the phenotype, demonstrating that the cytoprotective effect of Nrf2 is glutathione dependent. However, we show that deficiency in glutathione biosynthesis is efficiently compensated in keratinocytes by the cysteine/cystine and thioredoxin systems. Therefore, our study highlights a remarkable antioxidant capacity of the epidermis that ensures skin integrity and efficient wound healing. PMID:26808544

  9. Characterization of glutathione transferases involved in the pathogenicity of Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Calmes, Benoit; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie; Bataillé-Simoneau, Nelly; Gelhaye, Eric; Guillemette, Thomas; Simoneau, Philippe

    2015-06-18

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) represent an extended family of multifunctional proteins involved in detoxification processes and tolerance to oxidative stress. We thus anticipated that some GSTs could play an essential role in the protection of fungal necrotrophs against plant-derived toxic metabolites and reactive oxygen species that accumulate at the host-pathogen interface during infection. Mining the genome of the necrotrophic Brassica pathogen Alternaria brassicicola for glutathione transferase revealed 23 sequences, 17 of which could be clustered into the main classes previously defined for fungal GSTs and six were 'orphans'. Five isothiocyanate-inducible GSTs from five different classes were more thoroughly investigated. Analysis of their catalytic properties revealed that two GSTs, belonging to the GSTFuA and GTT1 classes, exhibited GSH transferase activity with isothiocyanates (ITC) and peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide, respectively. Mutant deficient for these two GSTs were however neither more susceptible to ITC nor less aggressive than the wild-type parental strain. By contrast mutants deficient for two other GSTs, belonging to the Ure2pB and GSTO classes, were distinguished by their hyper-susceptibility to ITC and low aggressiveness against Brassica oleracea. In particular AbGSTO1 could participate in cell tolerance to ITC due to its glutathione-dependent thioltransferase activity. The fifth ITC-inducible GST belonged to the MAPEG class and although it was not possible to produce the soluble active form of this protein in a bacterial expression system, the corresponding deficient mutant failed to develop normal symptoms on host plant tissues. Among the five ITC-inducible GSTs analyzed in this study, three were found essential for full aggressiveness of A. brassicicola on host plant. This, to our knowledge is the first evidence that GSTs might be essential virulence factors for fungal necrotrophs.

  10. Plasma glutathione peroxidase in pediatric stroke families.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Göttl, U; Fiedler, B; Huge, A; Niederstadt, T; Thedieck, S; Seehafer, T; Stoll, M

    2011-01-01

    Promoter polymorphisms in the plasma glutathione peroxidase gene (GPX3), which encodes a major antioxidant enzyme implicated in post-translational modification of fibrinogen, have been implicated as risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) in young adults. However, the contribution of these polymorphisms could not be confirmed by other studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) in GPX3 in a large family-based study sample comprising 268 nuclear families with different pediatric AIS subtypes, i.e. arteriopathy stroke (AS) and thromboembolic stroke (TS). In addition, an independent study sample comprising 154 nuclear families of pediatric CSVT was investigated. Single-point and haplotype association was assessed with the transmission disequilibrium test implemented in haploview. Single-point analysis revealed that the G allele of htSNP rs8177412 was significantly overtransmitted to affected AS children (T/U = 25 : 11, χ(2) = 5.54, P = 0.019), but not to affected TS children (T/U = 49 : 40, χ(2) = 0.91, P = 0.34). The corresponding GG haplotype (H2: frequency 0.18) was also significantly overtransmitted to AS children (T/U = 23 : 11, χ(2) = 4.28, P= 0.03), but not to TS children or in children with CSVT. These results remained significant following 10,000 bootstrap permutations. Our findings indicate that genetic variants of GPX3 are risk factors for AS, but not for thromboembolic AIS or CSVT, in children. Our results further highlight the need to analyze the contribution of genetic variants to pediatric AS, TS or CSVT separately, as these subcategories probably result from different combinations of risk-conferring and protective genetic variations. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Glutathione transferase isoenzymes from human prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Di Ilio, C; Aceto, A; Bucciarelli, T; Angelucci, S; Felaco, M; Grilli, A; Federici, G

    1990-01-01

    By using affinity-chromatography and isoelectric-focusing techniques, several forms of glutathione transferase (GSTs) were resolved from human prostate cytosol. All the three major classes of GST, i.e. Alpha, Mu and Pi, are present in human prostate. However, large inter-individual variation in the qualitative and quantitative expression of different isoenzymes resulted in the samples investigated. The most abundant group of prostate isoenzymes showed acid (pI 4.3-4.7) behaviour and were classified as Pi class GSTs on the basis of their immunological and structural properties. Immunohistochemical staining of Pi class GSTs was prevalently distributed in the epithelial cells surrounding the alveolar lumen. Class Mu GSTs are also expressed, although in small amounts and in a limited number of samples, by human prostate. The major cationic isoenzyme purified from prostate, GST-9.6; (pI 9.6; apparent subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa), appears to be different from the cationic GST alpha-epsilon forms isolated from human liver and kidney as evidenced by its structural, kinetical and immunological properties. This enzyme, which accounts for about 20-30% (on protein basis) of total amount of GSTs, is expressed by only 40% of samples. GST-9.6 has the ability to cross-react in immunoblotting analysis with antisera raised against rat liver GST 2-2, rather than with antisera raised against members of human Alpha, Mu and Pi class GSTs. Although prostate GST-9.6 shows close relationship with the human skin GST pI 9.9, it does not correspond to any other known human GST. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2241927

  12. Calcium fortification systems differ in bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Rafferty, Karen; Dowell, M Susan; Bierman, June

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from two fortification systems used in orange juice. The design was randomized crossover, within-subject. The subjects were 25 healthy premenopausal women in an academic health sciences center. Two commercially marketed calcium-fortified orange juices, ingested in an amount providing 500 mg calcium, were taken at breakfast after an overnight fast. The two fortification systems tested were calcium citrate malate and a combination of tricalcium phosphate and calcium lactate (tricalcium phosphate/calcium lactate). The main outcome measure was the area under the curve (AUC) for the increase in serum calcium from 0 to 9 hours after ingesting the test calcium source. Statistical analyses performed were repeated measures analysis of variance, testing source, and sequence. AUC 9 was 48% greater for calcium citrate malate than for tricalcium phosphate/calcium lactate ( P < .001); absorbed calcium calculated from AUC 9 values (mean+/-standard error of the mean) was 148+/-9.0 mg and 100+/-8.9 mg for calcium citrate malate and tricalcium phosphate/calcium lactate, respectively. The results indicate that equivalent calcium contents on a nutritional label do not guarantee equivalent nutritional value. Nutritionists and dietetics professionals should encourage manufacturers of fortified products to provide information on bioavailability.

  13. Formation of S-[1-(N2-deoxyguanosinyl)methyl]glutathione between glutathione and DNA induced by formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun; Ye, Wenjie; Gold, Avram; Ball, Louise M; Swenberg, James A

    2009-03-18

    Formaldehyde is an essential metabolic intermediate in human cells and can also enter into the body through environmental exposures. It is classified as a human and animal carcinogen according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Previous research has demonstrated that formaldehyde is genotoxic, causing mutations in multiple genes. However, no exogenous formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts have been detected in animals after inhalation exposure, although formaldehyde can result in N(6)-deoxyadenosine, N(2)-deoxyguanosine, and N(4)-deoxycytidine adducts in vitro. This can be partially attributed to the rapid metabolism of formaldehyde by glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzyme systems. Among the intermediates in the pathway of formaldehyde detoxication, S-hydroxymethylglutathione is a reactive species and has the potential to further conjugate with DNA bases. Here, we have demonstrated the formation of S-[1-(N(2)-deoxyguanosinyl)methyl]glutathione between glutathione and DNA in the presence of formaldehyde. This adduct is unique because of the involvement of S-hydroxymethylglutathione which is a key player during the detoxication of formaldehyde.

  14. The Formation of S-[1-(N2-deoxyguanosinyl)methyl]glutathione between Glutathione and DNA Induced by Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kun; Ye, Wenjie; Gold, Avram; Ball, Louise M; Swenberg, James A

    2012-01-01

    Formaldehyde is an essential metabolic intermediate in human cells and can also enter into the body through environmental exposures. It is classified as a human and animal carcinogen according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Previous research has demonstrated that formaldehyde is genotoxic, causing mutations in multiple genes. However, no exogenous formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts have been detected in animals after inhalation exposure, although formaldehyde can result in N6-deoxyadenosine, N2-deoxyguanosine and N4-deoxycytidine adducts in vitro. This can be partially attributed to the rapid metabolism of formaldehyde by glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzyme systems. Among the intermediates in the pathway of formaldehyde detoxication, S-hydroxymethylglutathione is a reactive species and has the potential to further conjugate with DNA bases. Here, we have demonstrated the formation of S-[1-(N2-deoxyguanosinyl)methyl]glutathione between glutathione and DNA in the presence of formaldehyde. This adduct is unique because of the involvement of S-hydroxymethylglutathione which is a key player during the detoxication of formaldehyde. PMID:19239220

  15. [Ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes activity in Zea mays leaves under salinity and treatment by adaptogenic compounds].

    PubMed

    Konturs'ka, O O; Palladina, T O

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different salinity levels and synthetic compounds treatments on ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes activity in maize leaves has been investigated. One-day seedlings exposition with 0.05 M NaCl increased ascorbate peroxidase activity, whereas 10-day exposition did not affect it. However the exposition with 0.1 M NaCl, which is extreme for maize, decreased ascorbate peroxidase activity in leaves during 10 days. On the other hand glutathione reductase activity in leaves increased under both salt concentrations. Seeds treatments with Methyure and Ivine increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in the leaves of seedlings under 0.1 M NaCl, but did not affect glutathione reductase activity as compared to the salt control. The results obtained have shown differences of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes responses to salt exposition of seedlings and the effects of adaptogenic compounds on the ascorbate-glutathione cycle via ascorbate peroxidase activation.

  16. Glutathione-Binding Site of a Bombyx mori Theta-Class Glutathione Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. D. Tofazzal; Yamada, Naotaka; Yamamoto, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    The glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily plays key roles in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a silkworm protein belonging to a previously reported theta-class GST family. The enzyme (bmGSTT) catalyzes the reaction of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)-propane, and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Mutagenesis of highly conserved residues in the catalytic site revealed that Glu66 and Ser67 are important for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTT and into the metabolism of exogenous chemical agents. PMID:24848539

  17. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently

    PubMed Central

    Roe, R. Michael; Bacheler, Jack S.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011–2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches. PMID:26658677

  18. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sally V; Burrack, Hannah J; Roe, R Michael; Bacheler, Jack S; Sorenson, Clyde E

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011-2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches.

  19. Five Decades with Glutathione and the GSTome

    PubMed Central

    Mannervik, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Uncle Folke inspired me to become a biochemist by demonstrating electrophoresis experiments on butterfly hemolymph in his kitchen. Glutathione became the subject for my undergraduate project in 1964 and has remained a focal point in my research owing to its multifarious roles in the cell. Since the 1960s, the multiple forms of glutathione transferase (GST), the GSTome, were isolated and characterized, some of which were discovered in our laboratory. Products of oxidative processes were found to be natural GST substrates. Examples of toxic compounds against which particular GSTs provide protection include 4-hydroxynonenal and ortho-quinones, with possible links to the etiology of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and other degenerative conditions. The role of thioltransferase and glutathione reductase in the cellular reduction of disulfides and other oxidized forms of thiols was clarified. Glyoxalase I catalyzes still another glutathione-dependent detoxication reaction. The unusual steady-state kinetics of this zinc-containing enzyme initiated model discrimination by regression analysis. Functional properties of the enzymes have been altered by stochastic mutations based on DNA shuffling and rationally tailored by structure-based redesign. We found it useful to represent promiscuous enzymes by vectors or points in multidimensional substrate-activity space and visualize them by multivariate analysis. Adopting the concept “molecular quasi-species,” we describe clusters of functionally related enzyme variants that may emerge in natural as well as directed evolution. PMID:22247548

  20. Five decades with glutathione and the GSTome.

    PubMed

    Mannervik, Bengt

    2012-02-24

    Uncle Folke inspired me to become a biochemist by demonstrating electrophoresis experiments on butterfly hemolymph in his kitchen. Glutathione became the subject for my undergraduate project in 1964 and has remained a focal point in my research owing to its multifarious roles in the cell. Since the 1960s, the multiple forms of glutathione transferase (GST), the GSTome, were isolated and characterized, some of which were discovered in our laboratory. Products of oxidative processes were found to be natural GST substrates. Examples of toxic compounds against which particular GSTs provide protection include 4-hydroxynonenal and ortho-quinones, with possible links to the etiology of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and other degenerative conditions. The role of thioltransferase and glutathione reductase in the cellular reduction of disulfides and other oxidized forms of thiols was clarified. Glyoxalase I catalyzes still another glutathione-dependent detoxication reaction. The unusual steady-state kinetics of this zinc-containing enzyme initiated model discrimination by regression analysis. Functional properties of the enzymes have been altered by stochastic mutations based on DNA shuffling and rationally tailored by structure-based redesign. We found it useful to represent promiscuous enzymes by vectors or points in multidimensional substrate-activity space and visualize them by multivariate analysis. Adopting the concept "molecular quasi-species," we describe clusters of functionally related enzyme variants that may emerge in natural as well as directed evolution.

  1. Glutathione synthesis is essential for pollen germination in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The antioxidant glutathione fulfills many important roles during plant development, growth and defense in the sporophyte, however the role of this important molecule in the gametophyte generation is largely unclear. Bioinformatic data indicate that critical control enzymes are negligibly transcribed in pollen and sperm cells. Therefore, we decided to investigate the role of glutathione synthesis for pollen germination in vitro in Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 and in the glutathione deficient mutant pad2-1 and link it with glutathione status on the subcellular level. Results The depletion of glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, reduced pollen germination rates to 2-5% compared to 71% germination in wildtype controls. The application of reduced glutathione (GSH), together with BSO, restored pollen germination and glutathione contents to control values, demonstrating that inhibition of glutathione synthesis is responsible for the decrease of pollen germination in vitro. The addition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to media containing BSO restored pollen germination to control values, which demonstrated that glutathione depletion in pollen grains triggered disturbances in auxin metabolism which led to inhibition of pollen germination. Conclusions This study demonstrates that glutathione synthesis is essential for pollen germination in vitro and that glutathione depletion and auxin metabolism are linked in pollen germination and early elongation of the pollen tube, as IAA addition rescues glutathione deficient pollen. PMID:21439079

  2. Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil modulates glutathione redox enzymes in potassium bromate induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Karim, Roselina; Ahmed, Waqas; Kaka, Ubedullah; Ahmad, Shakeel; Dewanjee, Saikat; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Zia-Ul-Haq, M

    2015-09-18

    Nigella sativa is an important component of several traditional herbal preparations in various countries. It finds its applications in improving overall health and boosting immunity. The current study evaluated the role of fixed and essential oil of Nigella sativa against potassium bromate induced oxidative stress with special reference to modulation of glutathione redox enzymes and myeloperoxidase. Animals; 30 rats (Sprague Dawley) were divided in three groups and oxidative stress was induced using mild dose of potassium bromate. The groups were on their respective diets (iso-caloric diets for a period of 56 days) i.e. control and two experimental diets containing N. sativa fixed (4%) and essential (0.3%) oils. The activities of enzymes involved in glutathione redox system and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were analyzed. The experimental diets modulated the activities of enzymes i.e. glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) positively. Indices of antioxidant status like tocopherols and glutathione were in linear relationship with that of GPx, GR and GST (P<0.01). MPO activities were in negative correlation with GST (P<0.01) but positive correlation with some other parameters. Our results indicated that both Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil are effective in improving the antioxidant indices against potassium bromate induced oxidative stress.

  3. Downregulation of Glutathione Biosynthesis Contributes to Oxidative Stress and Liver Dysfunction in Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Siow, Yaw L.; Isaak, Cara K.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion is a common cause for acute kidney injury and can lead to distant organ dysfunction. Glutathione is a major endogenous antioxidant and its depletion directly correlates to ischemia-reperfusion injury. The liver has high capacity for producing glutathione and is a key organ in modulating local and systemic redox balance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which kidney ischemia-reperfusion led to glutathione depletion and oxidative stress. The left kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats was subjected to 45 min ischemia followed by 6 h reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion impaired kidney and liver function. This was accompanied by a decrease in glutathione levels in the liver and plasma and increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and plasma homocysteine levels. Ischemia-reperfusion caused a significant decrease in mRNA and protein levels of hepatic glutamate-cysteine ligase mediated through the inhibition of transcription factor Nrf2. Ischemia-reperfusion inhibited hepatic expression of cystathionine γ-lyase, an enzyme responsible for producing cysteine (an essential precursor for glutathione synthesis) through the transsulfuration pathway. These results suggest that inhibition of glutamate-cysteine ligase expression and downregulation of the transsulfuration pathway lead to reduced hepatic glutathione biosynthesis and elevation of plasma homocysteine levels, which, in turn, may contribute to oxidative stress and distant organ injury during renal ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:27872680

  4. Reduced Glutathione Is Required for Pertussis Toxin Secretion by Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Stenson, Trevor H.; Patton, Angela K.; Weiss, Alison A.

    2003-01-01

    The abilities of cysteine-containing compounds to support growth of Bordetella pertussis and influence pertussis toxin transcription, assembly, and secretion were examined. Cysteine is an essential amino acid for B. pertussis and must be present for protein synthesis and bacterial growth. However, cysteine can be metabolized to sulfate, and high concentrations of sulfate can selectively inhibit transcription of the virulence factors, including pertussis toxin, via the BvgAS two-component regulatory system in a process called modulation. In addition, pertussis toxin possesses several disulfide bonds, and the cysteine-containing compound glutathione can influence oxidation-reduction reactions and perhaps disulfide bond formation. Bacterial growth was not observed in the absence of a source of cysteine. Oxidized glutathione, as a sole source of cysteine, also did not support bacterial growth. Cysteine, cystine, and reduced glutathione did support bacterial growth, and none of these compounds caused modulation at the concentrations tested. Similar amounts of periplasmic pertussis toxin were detected regardless of the source of cysteine; however, in the absence of reduced glutathione, pertussis toxin was not efficiently secreted. Addition of the reducing agent dithiothreitol was unable to compensate for the lack of reduced glutathione and did not promote secretion of pertussis toxin. These results suggest that reduced glutathione does not affect the accumulation of assembled active pertussis toxin in the periplasm but plays a role in efficient pertussis toxin secretion by the bacterium. PMID:12595447

  5. Cysteamine restores glutathione redox status in cultured cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Martijn J; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; van der Velden, Thea J; Willems, Peter H; Scheffer, Peter G; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Monnens, Leo A; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2011-06-01

    Recent evidence implies that impaired metabolism of glutathione has a role in the pathogenesis of nephropathic cystinosis. This recessive inherited disorder is characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation and results in renal Fanconi syndrome progressing to end stage renal disease in the majority of patients. The most common treatment involves intracellular cystine depletion by cysteamine, delaying the development of end stage renal disease by a yet elusive mechanism. However, cystine depletion does not arrest the disease nor cures Fanconi syndrome in patients, indicating involvement of other yet unknown pathologic pathways. Using a newly developed proximal tubular epithelial cell model from cystinotic patients, we investigate the effect of cystine accumulation and cysteamine on both glutathione and ATP metabolism. In addition to the expected increase in cystine and defective sodium-dependent phosphate reabsorption, we observed less negative glutathione redox status and decreased intracellular ATP levels. No differences between control and cystinosis cell lines were observed with respect to protein turnover, albumin uptake, cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP production, total glutathione levels, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Cysteamine treatment increased total glutathione in both control and cystinotic cells and normalized cystine levels and glutathione redox status in cystinotic cells. However, cysteamine did not improve decreased sodium-dependent phosphate uptake. Our data implicate that cysteamine increases total glutathione and restores glutathione redox status in cystinosis, which is a positive side-effect of this agent next to cystine depletion. This beneficial effect points to a potential role of cysteamine as anti-oxidant for other renal disorders associated with enhanced oxidative stress.

  6. Mechanism of 3-(glutathion-S-yl)-benzidine formation.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, V M; Zenser, T V; Davis, B B

    1994-04-01

    The formation of thioether conjugates is an important mechanism for inactivation of carcinogens. 3-(Glutathion-S-yl)-benzidine (BZ-SG) formation prevents benzidinediimine and peroxidase-mediated benzidine binding to DNA. Benzidinediimine is the two-electron oxidized product of benzidine thought to be the reactive intermediate involved in peroxidase-mediated binding of benzidine to DNA. Diimine interacts with benzidine to form a dimeric complex known as the charge-transfer complex. The latter is in equilibrium with the cation radical. This study evaluated the mechanism by which BZ-SG forms. Benzidinediimine was synthesized and used to study the formation of BZ-SG. With 0.05 mM benzidinediimine, BZ-SG formation was optimum at pH 4.5 and with glutathione at 0.05 to 0.1 mM. By monitoring specific absorption spectra, the reduction of benzidinediimine at pH 4.5 was evaluated. The t1/2 for diimine decay (425 nm) and maximum absorbance of the charge-transfer complex (600 nm) were each at approximately 5 min. Within 10 min, the maximum amount of benzidine had formed from diimine. BZ-SG formation followed the decay of diimine. The relationship between benzidinediimine and benzidine, with respect to BZ-SG formation, was assessed at a fixed concentration of glutathione (0.05 mM) and a fixed total concentration of amine and diimine (0.05 mM). In three separate experiments, each of these three components was radiolabeled independent of the other two components. Experiments with [3H]glutathione indicated that conjugate formation was dependent upon diimine, and not benzidine. With [3H]benzidinediimine or [3H]benzidine, two different calculations were necessary to assess conjugate formation. For [3H]benzidinediimine, the calculation considered that only the radiolabeled diimine formed conjugate, while with [3H]benzidine, a specific activity calculation was necessary to demonstrate that conjugate formation was dependent upon diimine. With 0.05 mM [3H]benzidine, horseradish

  7. Enzyme activity of α-chymotrypsin: Deactivation by gold nano-cluster and reactivation by glutathione.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Catherine; Mondal, Tridib; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2017-05-15

    Effect of gold nanoclusters (Au-NCs) on the circular dichroism (CD) spectra and enzymatic activity of α-chymotrypsin (ChT) (towards hydrolysis of a substrate, N-succinyl-l-phenylalanine p-nitroanilide) are studied. The CD spectra indicate that on binding to Au-NC, ChT is completely unfolded, resulting in nearly zero ellipticity. α-chymotrypsin (ChT) coated gold nano-clusters exhibit almost no enzymatic activity. Addition of glutathione (GSH) or oxidized glutathione (GSSG) restore the enzyme activity of α-chymotrypsin by 30-45%. ChT coated Au-NC exhibits two emission maxima-one at 480nm (corresponding to Au10) and one at 640nm (Au25). On addition of glutathione (GSH) or oxidized glutathione (GSSG) the emission peak at 640nm vanishes and only one peak at 480nm (Au10) remains. MALDI mass spectrometry studies suggest addition of glutathione (GSH) to α-chymotrypsin capped Au-NCs results in the formation of glutathione-capped Au-NCs and α-chymotrypsin is released from Au-NCs. CD spectroscopy indicates that the conformation of the released α-chymotrypsin is different from that of the native α-chymotrypsin.

  8. [Change in glutathione content in rat thymocytes under apoptosis induced by H2O2 or irradiation].

    PubMed

    Koval', T V; Nazarova, O O; Matyshevs'ka, O P

    2008-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) content as well as GSH-peroxidase and GSH-reductase activity in isolated rat thymocytes X-irradiated in a dose of 4.5 Gy or treated with 0.1 mM H2O2 were studied in a period preceding the appearance of apoptosis morphological symptoms. The early adaptive response of thymocytes to radiation - increase of both GSH content and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity was revealed. On the contrary the rapid fall of GSH level in H2O2-treated thymocytes was observed simultaneousely with glutathione reductase inhibition and enhanced GSH consumption by glutathione peroxidase, this disbalance of GSH-dependent antioxidant system probably facilitates mitochondrial way of apoptosis.

  9. The Ascorbate-glutathione-α-tocopherol Triad in Abiotic Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Szarka, András; Tomasskovics, Bálint; Bánhegyi, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    The life of any living organism can be defined as a hurdle due to different kind of stresses. As with all living organisms, plants are exposed to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, extreme temperatures and chemical toxicity. These primary stresses are often interconnected, and lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants, which are highly reactive and toxic and cause damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA, which ultimately results in oxidative stress. Stress-induced ROS accumulation is counteracted by enzymatic antioxidant systems and non-enzymatic low molecular weight metabolites, such as ascorbate, glutathione and α-tocopherol. The above mentioned low molecular weight antioxidants are also capable of chelating metal ions, reducing thus their catalytic activity to form ROS and also scavenge them. Hence, in plant cells, this triad of low molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione and α-tocopherol) form an important part of abiotic stress response. In this work we are presenting a review of abiotic stress responses connected to these antioxidants. PMID:22605990

  10. Identification of a novel glutathione transferase in human skin homologous with class alpha glutathione transferase 2-2 in the rat.

    PubMed

    Del Boccio, G; Di Ilio, C; Alin, P; Jörnvall, H; Mannervik, B

    1987-05-15

    Six forms of glutathione transferase with pI values of 4.6, 5.9, 6.8, 7.1, 8.5 and 9.9 have been isolated from the cytosol fraction of normal skin from three human subjects. The three most abundant enzymes were an acidic Class Pi transferase (pI 4.6; apparent subunit Mr 23,000), a basic Class Alpha transferase (pI 8.5; apparent subunit Mr 24,000) and an even more basic glutathione transferase of Class Alpha (pI 9.9; apparent subunit Mr 26,500). The last enzyme, which was previously unknown, accounts for 10-20% of the glutathione transferase in human skin. The novel transferase showed greater similarities with rat glutathione transferase 2-2, another Class Alpha enzyme, than with any other known transferase irrespective of species. The most striking similarities included reactions with antibodies, amino acid compositions and identical N-terminal amino acid sequences (16 residues). The close relationship between the human most basic and the rat glutathione transferase 2-2 supports the classification of the transferases previously proposed and indicates that the similarities between enzymes isolated from different species are more extensive than had been assumed previously.

  11. Identification of a novel glutathione transferase in human skin homologous with class alpha glutathione transferase 2-2 in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Del Boccio, G; Di Ilio, C; Alin, P; Jörnvall, H; Mannervik, B

    1987-01-01

    Six forms of glutathione transferase with pI values of 4.6, 5.9, 6.8, 7.1, 8.5 and 9.9 have been isolated from the cytosol fraction of normal skin from three human subjects. The three most abundant enzymes were an acidic Class Pi transferase (pI 4.6; apparent subunit Mr 23,000), a basic Class Alpha transferase (pI 8.5; apparent subunit Mr 24,000) and an even more basic glutathione transferase of Class Alpha (pI 9.9; apparent subunit Mr 26,500). The last enzyme, which was previously unknown, accounts for 10-20% of the glutathione transferase in human skin. The novel transferase showed greater similarities with rat glutathione transferase 2-2, another Class Alpha enzyme, than with any other known transferase irrespective of species. The most striking similarities included reactions with antibodies, amino acid compositions and identical N-terminal amino acid sequences (16 residues). The close relationship between the human most basic and the rat glutathione transferase 2-2 supports the classification of the transferases previously proposed and indicates that the similarities between enzymes isolated from different species are more extensive than had been assumed previously. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3117035

  12. Responses of carp hepatopancreatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and glutathione-dependent enzymes to organic pollutants -- a field study

    SciTech Connect

    Machala, M.; Nezveda, K.; Ulrich, R.; Petrivalsky, M.; Dusek, L.; Placka, V.; Svobodova, Z.

    1997-07-01

    Modulations of hepatopancreatic activities of cytochrome P450IA (CYPIA) and glutathione-dependent enzymes were investigated in carp collected in five ponds with different levels of contamination. The CYPIA-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was markedly induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the sediment at a total concentration of 0.9 mg/kg. Even a low organic contamination increased some of the glutathione-dependent enzymatic activities, namely cytosolic glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, ethacrynic acid and 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane, and microsomal glutathione S-transferase. These parameters should be considered as potential tools for the biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals and/or impacts of exposure. An example of a multivariate cluster and discriminant analysis of the obtained analytical and biochemical data proved to be very effective tools for the characterization of the level of contamination.

  13. Protective effect of sesamol against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced cognitive dysfunction and altered glutathione redox balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Puneet; Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Anil

    2010-07-01

    Sesamol (SML) (Sesamum indicum, Linn, Pedaliaceae) has been used traditionally as a health supplement in India and other countries for a long time. It is a well-known antioxidant, currently being tried against several neurological disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential of sesamol treatment against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative damage in striatal, cortex and hippocampal regions of the rat. The memory performance was assessed by Morris water maze and elevated plus maze paradigms. The oxidative damage was assessed by estimating the total glutathione, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione levels and glutathione redox ratio. Glutathione-S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes were also measured in different brain areas. 3-NP significantly impaired memory performance as assessed in Morris water maze and elevated plus maze, which was significantly attenuated by sesamol (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) pre-treatment. On the other hand, 3-NP significantly induced oxidative stress and depleted total glutathione, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase enzyme levels and redox ratio in the striatum, cortex and hippocampal regions as compared to the vehicle-treated group. Sesamol pre-treatment restored oxidative defence possibly by its free radical scavenging activity as compared to the 3NP-treated group. The present study suggests that sesamol could be used as an effective agent in the management of Huntington's disease.

  14. Effects of mercury on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas).

    PubMed

    Linšak, Željko; Linšak, Dijana Tomić; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Glad, Marin; Milin, Čedomila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate risks of long-term exposure to mercury in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas), with a chemical-analytical approach evaluating median mass fraction of toxic mercury in the hares organs (liver, kidney, muscle and brain). To obtain better insight into possible effects of mercury, the study included screening of the oxidative status after long term exposure to low concentrations of mercury. Hares organs were analyzed for total mercury concentration by AAS. Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes status was also investigated. The median mercury concentrations (wet weight) in the liver, kidney, muscle and brain of the hares ranged from 0.058-0.189, 0.138-0.406, 0.013-0.046 and 0.022-0.102 μg/g respectively. Concentration of the glutathione (GSH), glutathione-peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-reductase (GR) activity increased with the mercury concentration. However, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity decreased with the mercury concentration. The results of this study show the impact of environmentally absorbed mercury on the antioxidant status of the examined hares. Further research on long-term exposure to low concentrations of mercury is needed.

  15. Separation of glutathione transferase subunits from Proteus vulgaris by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Giaming; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2003-10-01

    Cytosolic glutathione transferases of Proteus vulgaris were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Four different subunits were identified, and each subunit contained a different molecular mass, ranging from 26.2 kDa to 28.5 kDa; a different pI value, ranging from 8.2 to 9.4; and a different amount of protein fraction, ranging from 10% to 56%. All four subunits existed as basic proteins (pI > 7.0). From these results, we concluded that multiple forms of glutathione transferase enzymes existed in Proteus vulgaris, and four different glutathione transferase subunits were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis.

  16. Subcellular Distribution of Glutathione Precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Koffler, Barbara Eva; Maier, Romana; Zechmann, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Glutathione is an important antioxidant and has many important functions in plant development, growth and defense. Glutathione synthesis and degradation is highly compartment-specific and relies on the subcellular availability of its precursors, cysteine, glutamate, glycine and γ-glutamylcysteine especially in plastids and the cytosol which are considered as the main centers for glutathione synthesis. The availability of glutathione precursors within these cell compartments is therefore of great importance for successful plant development and defense. The aim of this study was to investigate the compartment-specific importance of glutathione precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana. The subcellular distribution was compared between wild type plants (Col-0), plants with impaired glutathione synthesis (glutathione deficient pad2-1 mutant, wild type plants treated with buthionine sulfoximine), and one complemented line (OE3) with restored glutathione synthesis. Immunocytohistochemistry revealed that the inhibition of glutathione synthesis induced the accumulation of the glutathione precursors cysteine, glutamate and glycine in most cell compartments including plastids and the cytosol. A strong decrease could be observed in γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-EC) contents in these cell compartments. These experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GSH1) – the first enzyme of glutathione synthesis – causes a reduction of γ-EC levels and an accumulation of all other glutathione precursors within the cells. PMID:22050910

  17. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  18. Redox regulation of ascorbate and glutathione by a chloroplastic dehydroascorbate reductase is required for high-light stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Noshi, Masahiro; Hatanaka, Risa; Tanabe, Noriaki; Terai, Yusuke; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Chloroplasts are a significant site for reactive oxygen species production under illumination and, thus, possess a well-organized antioxidant system involving ascorbate. Ascorbate recycling occurs in different manners in this system, including a dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) reaction. We herein investigated the physiological significance of DHAR3 in photo-oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. GFP-fused DHAR3 protein was targeted to chloroplasts in Arabidopsis leaves. A DHAR3 knockout mutant exhibited sensitivity to high light (HL). Under HL, the ascorbate redox states were similar in mutant and wild-type plants, while total ascorbate content was significantly lower in the mutant, suggesting that DHAR3 contributes, at least to some extent, to ascorbate recycling. Activation of monodehydroascorbate reductase occurred in dhar3 mutant, which might compensate for the lack of DHAR3. Interestingly, glutathione oxidation was consistently inhibited in dhar3 mutant. These findings indicate that DHAR3 regulates both ascorbate and glutathione redox states to acclimate to HL.

  19. Permanence and global attractivity for Lotka-Volterra difference systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Wang, W

    1999-09-01

    The permanence and global attractivity for two-species difference systems of Lotka-Volterra type are considered. It is proved that a cooperative system cannot be permanent. For a permanent competitive system, the explicit expression of the permanent set E is obtained and sufficient conditions are given to guarantee the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium of the system.

  20. Glutathione conjugation: atrazine detoxication mechanism in corn.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, R H; Swanson, H R; Walsh, W C

    1970-07-01

    Glutathione conjugation (GS-atrazine) of the herbicide, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine) is another major detoxication mechanism in leaf tissue of corn (Zea mays, L.). The identification of GS-atrazine is the first example of glutathione conjugation as a biotransformation mechanism of a pesticide in plants. Recovery of atrazine-inhibited photosynthesis was accompanied by a rapid conversion of atrazine to GS-atrazine when the herbicide was introduced directly into leaf tissue. N-De-alkylation pathway is relatively inactive in both roots and shoots. The nonenzymatic detoxication of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine is negligible in leaf tissue. The hydroxylation pathway contributed significantly to the total detoxication of atrazine only when the herbicide was introduced into the plant through the roots. The metabolism of atrazine to GS-atrazine may be the primary factor in the resistance of corn to atrazine.

  1. Glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and contributes to radiation sensitivity of A549 and H460 lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Daniel R; Siegel, Eric R; Hiatt, Gloria; Desai, Abhishek; Penney, Rosalind B; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Griffin, Robert J; Boysen, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    Increased glutamine uptake is known to drive cancer cell proliferation, making tumor cells glutamine-dependent. Glutamine provides additional carbon and nitrogen sources for cell growth. The first step in glutamine utilization is its conversion to glutamate by glutaminase (GLS). Glutamate is a precursor for glutathione synthesis, and we investigated the hypothesis that glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and thereby contributes to cellular defense systems. The importance of glutamine for glutathione synthesis was studied in H460 and A549 lung cancer cell lines using glutamine-free medium and bis-2-(5-phenyl-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) a GLS inhibitor. Metabolic activities were determined by targeted mass spectrometry. A significant correlation between glutamine consumption and glutathione excretion was demonstrated in H460 and A549 tumor cells. Culturing in the presence of [(13)C5]glutamine demonstrated that by 12h >50% of excreted glutathione was derived from glutamine. Culturing in glutamine-free medium or treatment with BPTES, a GLS-specific inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and viability and abolished glutathione excretion. Treatment with glutathione-ester prevented BPTES-induced cytotoxicity. Inhibition of GLS markedly radiosensitized the lung tumor cell lines, suggesting an important role of glutamine-derived glutathione in determining radiation sensitivity. We demonstrate here for the first time that a significant amount of extracellular glutathione is directly derived from glutamine. This finding adds yet another important function to the already known glutamine dependence of tumor cells and probably tumors as well. Glutamine is essential for synthesis and excretion of glutathione to promote cell growth and viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Systemic antioxidant properties of L-carnitine in two different models of arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mate, Alfonso; Miguel-Carrasco, José L; Monserrat, María T; Vázquez, Carmen M

    2010-06-01

    In spite of a wide range of drugs being available in the market, treatment of arterial hypertension still remains a challenge, and new therapeutic strategies could be developed in order to improve the rate of success in controlling this disease. Since oxidative stress has gained importance in the last few years as one of the mechanisms involved in the origin and development of hypertension, and considering that L-carnitine (LC) is a useful compound in different pathologies characterized by increased oxidative status, the aim of the present study was to investigate the systemic antioxidant effect of LC and its correlation to blood pressure in two experimental models of hypertension: (1) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and (2) rats with hypertension induced by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Treatment with captopril was also performed in SHR in order to compare the antioxidant and antihypertensive effects of LC and captopril. The antioxidant defense capacity, in terms of antioxidant enzyme activity, glutathione system availability and plasma total antioxidant capacity, was measured in both animal models with or without an oral, chronic treatment with LC. All the antioxidant parameters studied were diminished in SHR and in L-NAME-treated animals, an alteration that was in general reversed after treatments with LC and captopril. In addition, LC produced a significant but not complete reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in these two models of hypertension, whereas captopril was able to normalize blood pressure. Both LC and captopril prevented the reduction in nitric oxide (NO) levels observed in hypertensive animals. This suggests a decrease in the systemic oxidative stress and a higher availability of NO induced by LC in a similar way to captopril's effects, which could be relevant in the management of arterial hypertension eventually.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of glutathione- and PEG-glutathione-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for nitric oxide delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M. C.; Seabra, A. B.; Pelegrino, M. T.; Haddad, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), with appropriate surface coatings, are commonly used for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery. For the successful application of SPIONs, it is necessary that the nanoparticles have well-defined morphological, structural and magnetic characteristics, in addition to high stability and biocompatibility in biological environments. The present work is focused on the synthesis and characterization of SPIONs, which were prepared using the co-precipitation method and have great potential for drug delivery. The surfaces of the SPIONs were functionalized with the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form GSH-SPIONs and PEG-GSH-SPIONs. The structural, morphological, magnetic properties and the cytotoxicity of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized using different techniques. The results showed that the nanoparticles have a mean diameter of 10 nm in the solid state and are superparamagnetic at room temperature. No cytotoxicity was observed for either nanoparticle (up to 500 μg L-1) on mouse normal fibroblasts (3T3 cell line) or acute T cell leukemia (Jurkat cell line) after 24 h of incubation. Free thiol groups (SH) on the surfaces of GSH-SPIONs and PEG-GSH-SPIONs were nitrosated, leading to the formation of S-nitrosated SPIONs, which act as a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The amounts of NO released from GSNO-SPIONs and PEG-GSNO-SPIONs were (124.0 ± 1.0) μmol and (33.2 ± 5.1) μmol of NO per gram, respectively. This study highlights the successful capping of the SPION surfaces with antioxidant GSH and biocompatible PEG, which improved the dispersion and biocompatibility of the NPs in aqueous/biological environments, thereby enhancing the potential uses of SPIONs as drug delivery systems, such as a NO donor vehicle, in biomedical applications.

  4. Artificial elevation of glutathione affects symptom development in ZYMV-infected Cucurbita pepo L. plants.

    PubMed

    Zechmann, B; Zellnig, G; Urbanek-Krajnc, A; Müller, M

    2007-01-01

    Styrian oil pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: .) were treated for 48 h with 1 mM OTC (L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) in order to artificially increase cellular glutathione content. They were inoculated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) 10 days later. The effects of OTC treatment and ZYMV infection on glutathione levels were examined at the subcellular level by immunogold labeling of glutathione using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). These effects were further tested at the whole-tissue level by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Such tests were carried out a) on roots, cotyledons and the first true leaves immediately after OTC treatment in order to analyze to which extent OTC increases glutathione levels in different cell compartments as well as in the whole organ; and b) in older and younger leaves and in roots three weeks after ZYMV inoculation in order to study how possible effects of OTC on symptom development would correlate with glutathione levels at the subcellular level and in the whole organ. Immunocytological and biochemical investigations revealed that, 48 h after OTC treatment, glutathione content had increased in all investigated organs, up to 144% in peroxisomes of cotyledons. Three weeks after ZYMV inoculation, glutathione labeling density had significantly increased within intact cells of infected leaves, up to 124% in the cytosol of younger leaves. Roots showed decreased amounts of glutathione in the TEM. Biochemical studies revealed that OTC treatment resulted in 41 and 51% higher glutathione content in older and younger ZYMV-infected leaves, respectively, in comparison to untreated and ZYMV-infected plants. Evaluation of symptom development at this point revealed that all untreated ZYMV-infected plants had symptoms, whereas only 42% of OTC-treated ZYMV-infected plants showed signs of symptoms. Quantification of ZYMV particles revealed that all organs of OTC-treated and ZYMV

  5. The Roles of Glutathione Peroxidases during Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Ufer, Christoph; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Embryo development relies on the complex interplay of the basic cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptotic cell death. Precise regulation of these events is the basis for the establishment of embryonic structures and the organ development. Beginning with fertilization of the oocyte until delivery the developing embryo encounters changing environmental conditions such as varying levels of oxygen, which can give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These challenges are met by the embryo with metabolic adaptations and by an array of anti-oxidative mechanisms. ROS can be deleterious by modifying biological molecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and may induce abnormal development or even embryonic lethality. On the other hand ROS are vital players of various signaling cascades that affect the balance between cell growth, differentiation, and death. An imbalance or dysregulation of these biological processes may generate cells with abnormal growth and is therefore potentially teratogenic and tumorigenic. Thus, a precise balance between processes generating ROS and those decomposing ROS is critical for normal embryo development. One tier of the cellular protective system against ROS constitutes the family of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx). These enzymes reduce hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols at the expense of reduced glutathione. Of special interest within this protein family is the moonlighting enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4). This enzyme is a scavenger of lipophilic hydroperoxides on one hand, but on the other hand can be transformed into an enzymatically inactive cellular structural component. GPx4 deficiency - in contrast to all other GPx family members - leads to abnormal embryo development and finally produces a lethal phenotype in mice. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge on GPx isoforms during embryo development and tumor development with an emphasis on

  6. The Roles of Glutathione Peroxidases during Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Ufer, Christoph; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Embryo development relies on the complex interplay of the basic cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptotic cell death. Precise regulation of these events is the basis for the establishment of embryonic structures and the organ development. Beginning with fertilization of the oocyte until delivery the developing embryo encounters changing environmental conditions such as varying levels of oxygen, which can give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These challenges are met by the embryo with metabolic adaptations and by an array of anti-oxidative mechanisms. ROS can be deleterious by modifying biological molecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and may induce abnormal development or even embryonic lethality. On the other hand ROS are vital players of various signaling cascades that affect the balance between cell growth, differentiation, and death. An imbalance or dysregulation of these biological processes may generate cells with abnormal growth and is therefore potentially teratogenic and tumorigenic. Thus, a precise balance between processes generating ROS and those decomposing ROS is critical for normal embryo development. One tier of the cellular protective system against ROS constitutes the family of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx). These enzymes reduce hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols at the expense of reduced glutathione. Of special interest within this protein family is the moonlighting enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4). This enzyme is a scavenger of lipophilic hydroperoxides on one hand, but on the other hand can be transformed into an enzymatically inactive cellular structural component. GPx4 deficiency – in contrast to all other GPx family members – leads to abnormal embryo development and finally produces a lethal phenotype in mice. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge on GPx isoforms during embryo development and tumor development with an emphasis

  7. A role for glutathione transferases functioning as glutathione peroxidases in resistance to multiple herbicides in black-grass.

    PubMed

    Cummins, I; Cole, D J; Edwards, R

    1999-05-01

    Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides) is a major weed of wheat in Europe, with several populations having acquired resistance to multiple herbicides of differing modes of action. As compared with herbicide-susceptible black-grass, populations showing herbicide cross-resistance contained greatly elevated levels of a specific type I glutathione transferase (GST), termed AmGST2, but similar levels of a type III GST termed AmGST1. Following cloning and expression of the respective cDNAs, AmGST2 differed from AmGST1 in showing limited activity in detoxifying herbicides but high activities as a glutathione peroxidase (GPOX) capable of reducing organic hydroperoxides. In contrast to AmGST2, other GPOXs were not enhanced in the herbicide-resistant populations. Treatment with a range of herbicides used to control grass weeds in wheat resulted in increased levels of hydroperoxides in herbicide-susceptible populations but not in herbicide-resistant plants, consistent with AmGST2 functioning to prevent oxidative injury caused as a primary or secondary effect of herbicide action. Increased AmGST2 expression in black-grass was associated with partial tolerance to the peroxidizing herbicide paraquat. The selective enhancement of AmGST2 expression resulted from a constitutively high expression of the respective gene, which was activated in herbicide-susceptible black-grass in response to herbicide safeners, dehydration and chemical treatments imposing oxidative stress. Our results provide strong evidence that GSTs can contribute to resistance to multiple herbicides by playing a role in oxidative stress tolerance in addition to detoxifying herbicides by catalysing their conjugation with glutathione.

  8. Fasciola gigantica thioredoxin glutathione reductase: Biochemical properties and structural modeling.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Kesherwani, Manish; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Tripathi, Timir

    2016-08-01

    Platyhelminth thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is a multifunctional enzyme that crosstalk between the conventional thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) system. It has been validated as a potential drug target in blood flukes. In the present study, we have performed a biochemical study on Fasciola gigantica TGR with substrates DTNB and GSSG. The Michaelis constant (Km) with DTNB was found to be 4.34±0.12μM while it was 61.15±1.50μM with GSSG. The kinetic results were compared with the TGR activities of other helminths. FgTGR showed typical hysteretic behavior with GSSG as other TGRs. We also described a homology-based structure of FgTGR. The cofactors (NADPH and FAD) and substrates (GSSG and DTNB) were docked, and two possible binding sites for substrates were identified in a single chain. The substrates were found to bind more favorably in the second site of TrxR domains. We also presented the first report on binding interaction of DTNB with a TGR. DTNB forms H-bond with His204 and Arg450 of chain A, Sec597, and Gly598 from chain B, salt-bridge with Lys124, and numerous other hydrophobic interactions. Helminth TGR represents an important enzyme in the redox and antioxidant system; hence, its inhibition can be used as an effective strategy against liver flukes.

  9. Distinct functional roles of peroxiredoxin isozymes and glutathione peroxidase from fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Sun; Bang, Mi-Ae; Lee, Songmi; Chae, Ho Zoon; Kim, Kanghwa

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the differences in the functional roles of peroxiredoxins (Prxs) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we examined the peroxidase and molecular chaperone properties of the recombinant proteins. TPx (thioredoxin peroxidase) exhibited a capacity for peroxide reduction with the thioredoxin system. GPx also showed thioreoxin-dependent peroxidase activity rather than GPx activity. The peroxidase activity of BCP (bacterioferritin comigratory protein) was similar to that of TPx. However, peroxidase activity was not observed for PMP20 (peroxisomal membrane protein 20). TPx, PMP20, and GPx inhibited thermal aggregation of citrate synthase at 43(o)C, but BCP failed to inhibit the aggregation. The chaperone activities of PMP20 and GPx were weaker than that of TPx. The peroxidase and chaperone properties of TPx, BCP, and GPx of the fission yeast are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fission yeast PMP20 without thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity may act as a molecular chaperone.

  10. Inactivation of glutathione reductase by 4-hydroxynonenal and other endogenous aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Vander Jagt, D L; Hunsaker, L A; Vander Jagt, T J; Gomez, M S; Gonzales, D M; Deck, L M; Royer, R E

    1997-04-25

    4-Hydroxynonenal, a product of oxidative degradation of unsaturated lipids, is an endogenous reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde with numerous biological activities. 4-Hydroxynonenal rapidly inactivated glutathione reductase in an NADPH-dependent reaction. Inactivation appears to involve the initial formation of an enzyme-inactivator complex, K(D) = 0.5 microM, followed by the inactivation reaction, k = 1.3 x 10(-2) min(-1). alpha,beta-Unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and cinnamaldehyde also inactivated glutathione reductase, although rates varied widely. Inactivation of glutathione reductase by alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes was followed by slower NADPH-independent reactions that led to formation of nonfluorescent cross-linked products, accompanied by loss of lysine and histidine residues. Other reactive endogenous aldehydes such as methylglyoxal, 3-deoxyglucosone, and xylosone inactivated glutathione reductase by an NADPH-independent mechanism, with methylglyoxal being the most reactive. However, 2-oxoaldehydes were much less effective than 4-hydroxynonenal. Inactivation of glutathione reductase by these 2-oxoaldehydes was followed by slower reactions that led to the formation of fluorescent cross-linked products over a period of several weeks. These changes were accompanied by loss of arginine residues. Thus, the sequence of events is different for inactivation and modification of glutathione reductase by alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes compared with 2-oxoaldehydes with respect to kinetics, NADPH requirements, fluorescence changes, and loss of amino acid residues. The ability of 4-hydroxynonenal at low concentrations to inactivate glutathione reductase, a central antioxidant enzyme, suggests that oxidative degradation of unsaturated lipids may initiate a positive feedback loop that enhances the potential for oxidative damage.

  11. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis distinctly alters mitochondrial and cytosolic redox poise

    PubMed Central

    Hanafin, William P; Beaudoin, Jessica N; Bica, Denisa E; DiLiberto, Stephen J; Kenis, Paul JA; Gaskins, H Rex

    2014-01-01

    The glutathione couple GSH/GSSG is the most abundant cellular redox buffer and is not at equilibrium among intracellular compartments. Perturbation of glutathione poise has been associated with tumorigenesis; however, due to analytical limitations, the underlying mechanisms behind this relationship are poorly understood. In this regard, we have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real-time glutathione redox potentials in the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. First, we demonstrated that recovery time in both compartments depended upon the length of exposure to oxidative challenge with diamide, a thiol-oxidizing agent. We then monitored changes in glutathione poise in cytosolic and mitochondrial matrices following inhibition of glutathione (GSH) synthesis with L-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO). The mitochondrial matrix showed higher oxidation in the BSO-treated cells indicating distinct compartmental alterations in redox poise. Finally, the contributory role of the p53 protein in supporting cytosolic redox poise was demonstrated. Inactivation of the p53 pathway by expression of a dominant-negative p53 protein sensitized the cytosol to oxidation in BSO-treated tumor cells. As a result, both compartments of PF161-T + 53DD cells were equally oxidized ≈20 mV by inhibition of GSH synthesis. Conversely, mitochondrial oxidation was independent of p53 status in GSH-deficient tumor cells. Taken together, these findings indicate different redox requirements for the glutathione thiol/disulfide redox couple within the cytosol and mitochondria of resting cells and reveal distinct regulation of their redox poise in response to inhibition of glutathione biosynthesis. PMID:24586100

  12. Active synchronization between two different chaotic dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheri, M.; Arifin, N. Md; Ismail, F.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we investigate on the synchronization problem between two different chaotic dynamical system based on the Lyapunov stability theorem by using nonlinear control functions. Active control schemes are used for synchronization Liu system as drive and Rossler system as response. Numerical simulation by using Maple software are used to show effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  13. Synchronization of two different systems by using generalized active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ming-Chung; Hung, Yao-Chen

    2002-09-01

    We have already generalized the techniques from active control theory, and applied them to synchronize two different systems. In this Letter, we demonstrate these techniques by period-system, Lorenz and Rossler systems. Moreover, the effect of external noise is also included in our discussion.

  14. Active synchronization between two different chaotic dynamical system

    SciTech Connect

    Maheri, M.; Arifin, N. Md; Ismail, F.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper we investigate on the synchronization problem between two different chaotic dynamical system based on the Lyapunov stability theorem by using nonlinear control functions. Active control schemes are used for synchronization Liu system as drive and Rossler system as response. Numerical simulation by using Maple software are used to show effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  15. Dual synchronization based on two different chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Di; Lu, Jun-An; Han, Xiuping

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we improve and extend the works of Liu and Davids [Dual synchronization of chaos, Phys. Rev. E 61 (2000) 2176-2179] which only introduce the dual synchronization of 1-D discrete chaotic systems. The dual synchronization of two different 3-D continuous chaotic systems, Lorenz systems and Rossler systems, is discussed. And a sufficient condition of dual synchronization about the two different chaotic systems is obtained. Theories and numerical simulations show the possibility of dual synchronization and the effectiveness of the method.

  16. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  17. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  18. Comparing Different Fault Identification Algorithms in Distributed Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkaabi, Salim

    A power system is a huge complex system that delivers the electrical power from the generation units to the consumers. As the demand for electrical power increases, distributed power generation was introduced to the power system. Faults may occur in the power system at any time in different locations. These faults cause a huge damage to the system as they might lead to full failure of the power system. Using distributed generation in the power system made it even harder to identify the location of the faults in the system. The main objective of this work is to test the different fault location identification algorithms while tested on a power system with the different amount of power injected using distributed generators. As faults may lead the system to full failure, this is an important area for research. In this thesis different fault location identification algorithms have been tested and compared while the different amount of power is injected from distributed generators. The algorithms were tested on IEEE 34 node test feeder using MATLAB and the results were compared to find when these algorithms might fail and the reliability of these methods.

  19. Efficacy of glutathione mesotherapy in burns: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Buz, A; Görgülü, T; Olgun, A; Kargi, E

    2016-12-01

    -carnitine and taurine groups was better than in the control and sham groups, the differences were not statistically significant. Thus, glutathione mesotherapy was effective when used to treat partial-thickness thermal burns and may be a useful treatment option for various human burns.

  20. Refolding of laccase from Trametes versicolor using aqueous two phase systems: Effect of different additives.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Trasviña, Calef; Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; González-Valdez, José; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2017-07-21

    Protein refolding is a strategy used to obtain active forms of proteins from inclusion bodies. On its part, laccase is an enzyme with potential for different biotechnological applications but there are few reports regarding its refolding which in many cases is considered inefficient due to the poor obtained refolding yields. Aqueous Two-Phase Systems (ATPS) have been used for the refolding of proteins getting acceptable recovery percentages since PEG presents capacity to avoid protein aggregation. In this work, 48 PEG-phosphate ATPS were analyzed to study the impact of different parameters (i.e. tie line length (TLL), volume ratio (VR) and PEG molecular weight) upon the recovery and refolding of laccase. Additionally, since laccase is a metalloprotein, the use of additives (individually and in mixture) was studied with the aim of favoring refolding. Results showed that laccase presents a high affinity for the PEG-rich phase obtaining recovery values of up to 90%. Such affinity increases with increasing TLL and decreases when PEG molecular weight and VR increase. In denatured state, this PEG-rich phase affinity decreases drastically. However, the use of additives such as l-cysteine, glutathione oxidized, cysteamine and Cu(+2) was critical in improving refolding yield values up to 100%. The best conditions for the refolding of laccase were obtained using the PEG 400gmol(-1), TLL 45% w/w, VR 3 ATPS and a mixture of 2.5mM cysteamine with 1mM Cu(+2). To our knowledge, this is the first time that the use of additives and the behavior of the mixture of such additives to enhance refolding performance in ATPS is reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Racial Differences in Intelligence: The Importance of the Executive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borkowski, John G.; Krause, Audrey

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that racial differences in IQ stem from differences in components of executive systems including knowledge base, control processes, and metacognition was investigated. Group differences in metamemory, strategy use, and general knowledge, but not perceptual efficiency, were observed. Metamemory predicted crystallized but not fluid…

  2. Racial Differences in Intelligence: The Importance of the Executive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borkowski, John G.; Krause, Audrey

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that racial differences in IQ stem from differences in components of executive systems including knowledge base, control processes, and metacognition was investigated. Group differences in metamemory, strategy use, and general knowledge, but not perceptual efficiency, were observed. Metamemory predicted crystallized but not fluid…

  3. A Chaotic System with Different Families of Hidden Attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Viet-Thanh; Volos, Christos; Jafari, Sajad; Vaidyanathan, Sundarapandian; Kapitaniak, Tomasz; Wang, Xiong

    The presence of hidden attractors in dynamical systems has received considerable attention recently both in theory and applications. A novel three-dimensional autonomous chaotic system with hidden attractors is introduced in this paper. It is exciting that this chaotic system can exhibit two different families of hidden attractors: hidden attractors with an infinite number of equilibrium points and hidden attractors without equilibrium. Dynamical behaviors of such system are discovered through mathematical analysis, numerical simulations and circuit implementation.

  4. The significance of glutathione for photoprotection at contrasting temperatures in the alpine plant species Soldanella alpina and Ranunculus glacialis.

    PubMed

    Laureau, Constance; Bligny, Richard; Streb, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The significance of total glutathione content was investigated in two alpine plant species with highly differing antioxidative scavenging capacity. Leaves of Soldanella alpina and Ranunculus glacialis incubated for 48 h in the presence of buthionine-sulfoximine had 50% lower glutathione contents when compared with leaves incubated in water. The low leaf glutathione content was not compensated for by activation of other components involved in antioxidative protection or electron consumption. However, leaves with normal but not with low glutathione content increased their ascorbate content during high light (HL) treatment (S. alpina) or catalase activity at low temperature (LT) (R. glacialis), suggesting that the mere decline of the leaf glutathione content does not act as a signal to ameliorate antioxidative protection by alternative mechanisms. CO(2)-saturated oxygen evolution was not affected in glutathione-depleted leaves at various temperatures, except at 35°C, thereby increasing the high temperature (HT) sensitivity of both alpine species. Leaves with low and normal glutathione content were similarly resistant to photoinhibition and photodamage during HL treatment at ambient temperature in the presence and absence of paraquat or at LT. However, HL- and HT-induced photoinhibition increased in leaves with low compared to leaves with normal glutathione content, mainly because the recovery after heat inactivation was retarded in glutathione-depleted leaves. Differences in the response of photosystem II (PSII) activity and CO(2)-saturated photosynthesis suggest that PSII is not the primary target during HL inactivation at HT. The results are discussed with respect to the role of antioxidative protection as a safety valve for temperature extremes to which plants are not acclimated.

  5. Glutathione reductase gsr-1 is an essential gene required for Caenorhabditis elegans early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Mora-Lorca, José Antonio; Sáenz-Narciso, Beatriz; Gaffney, Christopher J; Naranjo-Galindo, Francisco José; Pedrajas, José Rafael; Guerrero-Gómez, David; Dobrzynska, Agnieszka; Askjaer, Peter; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J; Cabello, Juan; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Glutathione is the most abundant thiol in the vast majority of organisms and is maintained in its reduced form by the flavoenzyme glutathione reductase. In this work, we describe the genetic and functional analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans gsr-1 gene that encodes the only glutathione reductase protein in this model organism. By using green fluorescent protein reporters we demonstrate that gsr-1 produces two GSR-1 isoforms, one located in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. gsr-1 loss of function mutants display a fully penetrant embryonic lethal phenotype characterized by a progressive and robust cell division delay accompanied by an aberrant distribution of interphasic chromatin in the periphery of the cell nucleus. Maternally expressed GSR-1 is sufficient to support embryonic development but these animals are short-lived, sensitized to chemical stress, have increased mitochondrial fragmentation and lower mitochondrial DNA content. Furthermore, the embryonic lethality of gsr-1 worms is prevented by restoring GSR-1 activity in the cytoplasm but not in mitochondria. Given the fact that the thioredoxin redox systems are dispensable in C. elegans, our data support a prominent role of the glutathione reductase/glutathione pathway in maintaining redox homeostasis in the nematode.

  6. Reassessing cellular glutathione homoeostasis: novel insights revealed by genetically encoded redox probes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bruce

    2014-08-01

    Glutathione is the most abundant small molecule thiol in nearly all eukaryotes. Whole-cell levels of oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione are variable and responsive to genetic and chemical manipulations, which has led to their relative levels being widely used as a marker of the 'cellular redox state' and to indicate the level of 'oxidative stress' experienced by cells, tissues and organisms. However, the applicability of glutathione as a marker for a generalized 'cellular redox state' is questionable, especially in the light of recent observations in yeast cells. In yeast, whole-cell GSSG changes are almost completely dependent upon the activity of an ABC-C (ATP-binding cassette-C) transporter, Ycf1 (yeast cadmium factor 1), which mediates sequestration of GSSG to the vacuole. In the absence of Ycf1 whole-cell GSSG content is strongly decreased and extremely robust to perturbation. These observations are consistent with highly specific redox-sensitive GFP probe-based measurements of the cytosolic glutathione pool and indicate that cytosolic GSSG reductive systems are easily able to reduce nearly all GSSG formed, even following treatment with large concentrations of oxidant. In the present paper, I discuss the consequences of these new findings for our understanding of glutathione homoeostasis in the eukaryotic cell.

  7. Reactivity of 9-aminoacridine drug quinacrine with glutathione limits its antiprion activity.

    PubMed

    Šafařík, Martin; Moško, Tibor; Zawada, Zbigniew; Šafaříková, Eva; Dračínský, Martin; Holada, Karel; Šebestík, Jaroslav

    2016-12-09

    Quinacrine-the drug based on 9-aminoacridine-failed in clinical trials for prion diseases, whereas it was active in in vitro studies. We hypothesize that aromatic nucleophilic substitution at C9 could be contributing factor responsible for this failure because of the transfer of acridine moiety from quinacrine to abundant glutathione. Here, we described the semi-large-scale synthesis of the acridinylated glutathione and the consequences of its formation on biological and biophysical activities. The acridinylated glutathione is one order of magnitude weaker prion protein binder than the parent quinacrine. Moreover, according to log DpH 7.4 , the glutathione conjugate is two orders of magnitude more hydrophilic than quinacrine. Its higher hydrophilicity and higher dsDNA binding potency will significantly decrease its bioavailability in membrane-like environment. The glutathione deactivates quinacrine not only directly but also decreases its bioavailability. Furthermore, the conjugate can spontaneously decompose to practically insoluble acridone, which is precipitated out from the living systems.

  8. Maximum collectible solar energy by different solar tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helwa, N.H.; Bahgat, A.B.G.; El Shafee, A.M.R.; El Shenawy, E.T.

    2000-01-01

    The output energy from any solar energy system depends on the solar energy input to that system. Using different ways to track the solar energy system to follow the sun can increase solar energy input according to the type of the tracker. A practical study was carried out on difference solar tract systems. The layout of these systems are a fixed system facing south and tilted 40{degree}, a vertical-axis tracker, a 6{degree} tilted-axis tracker, and a two-axis tracker. All the trackers are microprocessor controlled systems, and all systems have photovoltaic arrays for electric energy production. The evaluation of the different systems is based on a complete year of measurements for solar radiation input to the systems and the electric power output from them. The study also includes the effect of some operating parameters on the tracker operation. These studies showed that the collected solar energy as well as the electrical output energy of the tracking solar system are more than that of the stationary system. These gains are higher in the case of the two-axis tracker and decrease gradually from the vertical-axis tracker to the tilted-axis tracker.

  9. Value of glutathion-S transferase pi as a prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saip, P; Tuzlali, S; Demir, K; Sakar, B; Yavuz, E; Berkman, S; Bengisu, E; Topuz, E

    2005-01-01

    The association between glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) and other clinicopathological parameters, response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome were investigated in chemotherapy naive epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Paraffin-embedded material from 55 patients were used for immunohistochemical analysis. All patients had received six cycles of cisplatinum-based chemotherapy and 41 of them were revalued by laparotomy. Pre- and post-chemotherapy GSTpi staining were detected in the cancer tissues of 18/55 (32.7%) and 5/14 (35.7%) patients, respectively. GSTpi expression was not associated with other clinicopathologic parameters. Of 17 patients with postoperative measurable residual disease clinical response was observed in 4/7 of GSTpi positive and in 9/10 GSTpi negative patients (p = 0.25). Pathologic complete response (pCR) was achieved in 5/8 of GSTpi positive and 11/22 of GSTpi negative cases (p = 0.69). There was no significant difference in overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) according to initial GSTpi status. However the PFS of the five patients (median 22 +/- 5.9 months) who had postchemotherapy positive GSTpi was significantly shorter than the nine patients (10.0 +/- 2.19 months) who had negative GSTpi (p = 0.006). This difference was not observed in overall survival. These results suggest that initial immunohistochemical staining of GSTpi does not aid in the prediction of pCR and clinical outcome in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Nonetheless investigation of GSTpi expression after chemotherapy needs further evaluation.

  10. Bioavailability Study of an Innovative Orobuccal Formulation of Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Daniela; Grosini, Matteo; Giardina, Silvana; Michelotti, Angela; Carrabetta, Mariaelena; Seneci, Antonio; Verri, Manuela; Dossena, Maurizia; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of the ubiquitous thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is involved in oxidative stress, which plays a role in ageing; consequently, GSH is closely related to this process characterized by progressive decline in the efficiency of physiological function and increased susceptibility to disease. When circulating GSH decreases, oral administration might be considered a therapeutic benefit. Unfortunately, due to the hydrolysis of the tripeptide by intestinal γ-glutamyltransferase, dietary glutathione is not a major determinant for its increase. Aim of this work was to evaluate improvement of GSH systemic availability testing, in vitro and in vivo, an optimized orobuccal fast-slow release formulation tablet containing pure stabilized GSH. In vitro evaluation of the penetration capability of the innovative GSH-release formulation showed that GSH was well absorbed by the reconstructed oral epithelium and its absorption has features of time-dependence. In addition, in vivo results, obtained from 15 healthy volunteers, were in favor of GSH level improvement in blood showing fast (after 30 and 60 minutes) absorption through oral mucosa. In conclusion, the intake of GSH formulated through optimized orobuccal fast-slow release tablets gave positive results in raising GSH blood concentration. PMID:26649136

  11. Diversification in substrate usage by glutathione synthetases from soya bean (Glycine max), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Unlike animals which accumulate glutathione (γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) alone as their major thiol antioxidant, several crops synthesize alternative forms of glutathione by varying the carboxy residue. The molecular basis of this variation is not well understood, but the substrate specificity of the respective GSs (glutathione synthetases) has been implicated. To investigate their substrate tolerance, five GS-like cDNAs have been cloned from plants that can accumulate alternative forms of glutathione, notably soya bean [hGSH (homoglutathione or γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-β-alanine)], wheat (hydroxymethylglutathione or γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-serine) and maize (γ-Glu-Cys-Glu). The respective recombinant GSs were then assayed for the incorporation of differing C-termini into γ-Glu-Cys. The soya bean enzyme primarily incorporated β-alanine to form hGSH, whereas the GS enzymes from cereals preferentially catalysed the formation of glutathione. However, when assayed with other substrates, several GSs and one wheat enzyme in particular were able to synthesize a diverse range of glutathione variants by incorporating unusual C-terminal moieties including D-serine, non-natural amino acids and α-amino alcohols. Our results suggest that plant GSs are capable of producing a diverse range of glutathione homologues depending on the availability of the acyl acceptor. PMID:16008521

  12. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Lactate and Glutathione Levels in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder: 1H-MRS Study.

    PubMed

    Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Pastorello, Bruno F; Leite, Cláudia da Costa; Henning, Anke; Moreno, Ricardo A; Garcia Otaduy, Maria Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are 2 closely integrated processes implicated in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques enable the measurement of levels of lactate, the main marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, and glutathione, the predominant brain antioxidant. The objective of this study was to measure brain lactate and glutathione levels in bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Eighty-eight individuals (50 bipolar disorder and 38 healthy controls) underwent 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (2x2x4.5cm(3)) using a 2-D JPRESS sequence. Lactate and glutathione were quantified using the ProFit software program. Bipolar disorder patients had higher dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lactate levels compared with controls. Glutathione levels did not differ between euthymic bipolar disorder and controls. There was a positive correlation between lactate and glutathione levels specific to bipolar disorder. No influence of medications on metabolites was observed. This is the most extensive magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of lactate and glutathione in bipolar disorder to date, and results indicated that euthymic bipolar disorder patients had higher levels of lactate, which might be an indication of altered mitochondrial function. Moreover, lactate levels correlated with glutathione levels, indicating a compensatory mechanism regardless of bipolar disorder diagnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  13. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Lactate and Glutathione Levels in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder: 1H-MRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Pastorello, Bruno F.; Leite, Cláudia da Costa; Henning, Anke; Moreno, Ricardo A.; Garcia Otaduy, Maria Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are 2 closely integrated processes implicated in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques enable the measurement of levels of lactate, the main marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, and glutathione, the predominant brain antioxidant. The objective of this study was to measure brain lactate and glutathione levels in bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Methods: Eighty-eight individuals (50 bipolar disorder and 38 healthy controls) underwent 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (2x2x4.5cm3) using a 2-D JPRESS sequence. Lactate and glutathione were quantified using the ProFit software program. Results: Bipolar disorder patients had higher dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lactate levels compared with controls. Glutathione levels did not differ between euthymic bipolar disorder and controls. There was a positive correlation between lactate and glutathione levels specific to bipolar disorder. No influence of medications on metabolites was observed. Conclusion: This is the most extensive magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of lactate and glutathione in bipolar disorder to date, and results indicated that euthymic bipolar disorder patients had higher levels of lactate, which might be an indication of altered mitochondrial function. Moreover, lactate levels correlated with glutathione levels, indicating a compensatory mechanism regardless of bipolar disorder diagnosis. PMID:27207914

  14. Selenium proteins in ovine tissues: III. Distribution of selenium and glutathione peroxidases in tissue cytosols.

    PubMed

    Black, R S; Tripp, M J; Whanger, P D; Weswig, P H

    1978-01-01

    Three 6 week-old lambs were injected with carrier-free selenium-75 as sodium selenite initially and again after 6 days. One lamb received no further injections whereas the other two received injections of either vitamin E or unlabeled Na2SeO3 when the first selenium-75 injection was given. Selected tissues were removed at autopsy 10 days after the first injection. The cytosol from homogenates of these tissues was subjected to gel chromatography, and the elution profiles determined for radioactivity, protein content, and glutathione peroxidase activity using either hydrogen peroxide or cumene hydroperoxide as substrates. The selenium-75 was found to be distributed mainly between 2 different MW peaks. The larger MW seleno-peak (90,000) possessed both glutathione:hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase, and glutathione:cumene hydroperoxide oxidoreductase activities, but the smaller MW seleno-peak (about 10,000) possessed no glutathione peroxidase activity. A peak of about 60,000 daltons containing only glutathione:cumene hydroperoxide oxidoreductase activity and no selenium-75 was found primarily in the liver and kidney. Vitamin E had no effect on the elution profiles. Selenium status of the animal had only a minor effect on the selenium-75 distribution in the cytosol, but had a marked effect on the absolute amount of the label taken up by tissues.

  15. Change in metabolic status of glutathione by palladium nitrate in blood components.

    PubMed

    Mukhtiar, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Khan, Haroon; Ullah, Naseem; Badshah, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This piece of research work present the toxicological impact of varied concentrations of palladium nitrate [Pd (NO3)2] by changing the chemical status of glutathione and the way how glutathione plays its role in detoxification and conjugation processes of [Pd (NO(3))(2))] in whole blood components (plasma and cytosolic fraction). The impact of different concentration of [Pd (NO3)2] on reduced glutathione level in whole blood component (plasma and cytosolic fraction) were measured spectrophotometrically following Standard Ellman's method. Compared with control sample, significant decrease in the GSH content in whole blood components (plasma and cytosolic fraction) was obtained with various concentrations (100µM-1000µM) of palladium nitrate. Depleted GSH level was more pronounced with time incubation period (0-90) minutes. These finding shows that changes in the GSH status produced by palladium nitrate could either be due to palladium nitrate and glutathione( Pd-SG) complex formation or by conversion of reduce glutathione (2GSH + Pd(+2) - GSSG). This change in the GSH metabolic status provides information regarding the mechanism of palladium, in blood components.

  16. Comparison of oxidized and reduced glutathione in the bread-making qualities of rice batter.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hiroyuki

    2012-02-01

    The demand for gluten-free bread is growing as the recognition of celiac disease and wheat allergy has increased worldwide. In our previous study, reduced glutathione (GSH) was found to improve the gas-retaining properties of rice batter used for gluten-free bread. In this article, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was shown to have the same effect. Moreover, sensory tests revealed that GSSG bread had a significantly reduced sulfurous odor. Analyses by a gas chromatography-flame photometric detector demonstrated the presence of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan in the headspace of GSH bread, and also their significant reduction in GSSG bread. The viscoelastic properties and microstructures of GSSG and GSH bread did not noticeably differ. These observations suggest the usefulness of GSSG in making gluten-free rice bread and extend our knowledge of the use of glutathione in food processing. Practical Application: Glutathione, a widely-distributed peptide in cells, improves the bread-making quality of gluten-free rice batter. While both the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione are effective, GSSG-bread has significantly reduced sulfurous odor compared to GSH-bread. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Airway glutathione homeostasis is altered in children with severe asthma: evidence for oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Teague, W Gerald; Holguin, Fernando; Yeh, Mary; Brown, Lou Ann S

    2009-01-01

    Severe asthma is characterized by persistent airway inflammation and increased formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF). We hypothesized that airway GSH homeostasis was altered in children with severe asthma and was characterized by decreased GSH and increased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) concentrations. Bronchoalveolar lavage was obtained from 65 children with severe asthma, including 35 children with baseline airway obstruction evidenced by FEV(1) <80%. Control data were obtained from 6 children with psychogenic (habit) cough or vocal cord dysfunction undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy and 35 healthy adult controls. GSH, GSSG, and other determinants of airway oxidative stress including glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostane, and H(2)O(2) were measured in the ELF. The ELF redox potential was calculated from GSH and GSSG by using the Nernst equation. Compared with controls, subjects with severe asthma had lower airway GSH with increased GSSG despite no differences in GST, GR, and GPx activities between groups. This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostane, and H(2)O(2) concentrations in the ELF. GSH oxidation was most apparent in subjects with severe asthma with airway obstruction and was supported by an upward shift in the ELF GSH redox potential. Children with severe asthma have increased biomarkers of oxidant stress in the ELF that are associated with increased formation of GSSG and a shift in the GSH redox potential toward the more oxidized state.

  18. Effect of transport on blood selenium and glutathione status in feeder lambs.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Bobe, G; Nixon, B K; Vorachek, W R; Hugejiletu; Nichols, T; Mosher, W D; Pirelli, G J

    2014-09-01

    Stress from transport may be linked to increased generation of reactive oxygen species, the removal of which requires reduced glutathione and selenium. The aim of this experiment was to examine the effect of transport on glutathione and Se status of feeder lambs. Recently weaned lambs (n = 40) were blocked by gender and BW on d 0 of the experiment and randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: group 1, no transport and full access to feed and water (control), and group 2, 8-h road transport followed by another 16 h of feed deprivation (transport). After 24 h, both treatment groups were treated the same. All lambs were weighed, and blood samples were collected at 0, 8, 24, and 72 h and analyzed for whole-blood (WB) and serum Se concentrations, serum NEFA concentrations, and erythrocyte concentrations of glutathione. Transport of feeder lambs for 8 h followed by another 16 h of feed deprivation transiently (significant at 24 h but no longer different at 72 h) decreased BW and erythrocyte glutathione concentrations and increased serum NEFA and blood Se concentrations compared with control lambs. Our results suggest that 8 h of transport followed by another 16 h of feed deprivation results in fatty acid and Se mobilization from tissue stores with a coincident decrease in erythrocyte glutathione concentrations.

  19. Catabolism of Glutathione Conjugates in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Brazier-Hicks, Melissa; Evans, Kathryn M.; Cunningham, Oliver D.; Hodgson, David R. W.; Steel, Patrick G.; Edwards, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The safener fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenylpyrimidine) increases tolerance to chloroacetanilide herbicides in rice by enhancing the expression of detoxifying glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Fenclorim also enhances GSTs in Arabidopsis thaliana, and while investigating the functional significance of this induction in suspension cultures, we determined that these enzymes glutathionylated the safener. The resulting S-(fenclorim)-glutathione conjugate was sequentially processed to S-(fenclorim)-γ-glutamyl-cysteine and S-(fenclorim)-cysteine (FC), the latter accumulating in both the cells and the medium. FC was then either catabolized to 4-chloro-6-(methylthio)-phenylpyrimidine (CMTP) or N-acylated with malonic acid. These cysteine derivatives had distinct fates, with the enzymes responsible for their formation being induced by fenclorim and FC. Fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine was formed from FC by the action of a malonyl-CoA-dependent N-malonyltransferase. A small proportion of the fenclorim-N-malonylcysteine then underwent decarboxylation to yield a putative S-fenclorim-N-acetylcysteine intermediate, which underwent a second round of GST-mediated S-glutathionylation and subsequent proteolytic processing. The formation of CMTP was catalyzed by the concerted action of a cysteine conjugate β-lyase and an S-methyltransferase, with the two activities being coordinately regulated. Although the fenclorim conjugates tested showed little GST-inducing activity in Arabidopsis, the formation of CMTP resulted in metabolic reactivation, with the product showing good enhancing activity. In addition, CMTP induced GSTs and herbicide-safening activity in rice. The bioactivated CMTP was in turn glutathione-conjugated and processed to a malonyl cysteine derivative. These results reveal the surprisingly complex set of competing catabolic reactions acting on xenobiotics entering the S-glutathionylation pathway in plants, which can result in both detoxification and bioactivation. PMID

  20. Thermodynamics of systems with different geometric constraints and intermolecular correlations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Kilburg, R R; Donohue, M D

    2009-09-17

    Four types of systems with different degrees of geometric constraint and intermolecular correlations were studied to determine the differences in their thermodynamics. The average configurational internal energies of these systems were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared at the same temperatures and constant average bulk density. From the energy profiles for the four systems, the effects of geometry and intermolecular correlations on the systems' phase behavior are discussed. It was observed that indirect intermolecular correlations, rather than geometric constraints, are the key to achieving a first-order phase transition.

  1. A Selective Glutathione Probe based on AIE Fluorogen and its Application in Enzymatic Activity Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Xiaoding; Hong, Yuning; Chen, Sijie; Leung, Chris Wai Tung; Zhao, Na; Situ, Bo; Lam, Jacky Wing Yip; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we design and synthesize a malonitrile-functionalized TPE derivative (TPE-DCV), which can react with thiol group through thiol-ene click reaction, leading to the fluorescence change of the system. Combined with the unique AIE property, TPE-DCV can selectively detect glutathione (GSH) but not cysteine or homocysteine. As the cleavage of GSSG with the aid of glutathione reductase produces GSH, which turns on the fluorescence of TPE-DCV, the ensemble of TPE-DCV and GSSG can thus serve as a label-free sensor for enzymatic activity assay of glutathione reductase. We also apply TPE-DCV for the detection of intracellular GSH in living cells.

  2. Crystal and solution structural studies of mouse phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase 4

    PubMed Central

    Janowski, Robert; Scanu, Sandra; Niessing, Dierk; Madl, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family is a key component of the cellular antioxidative defence system. Within this family, GPx4 has unique features as it accepts a large class of hydroperoxy lipid substrates and has a plethora of biological functions, including sperm maturation, regulation of apoptosis and cerebral embryogenesis. In this paper, the structure of the cytoplasmic isoform of mouse phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (O70325-2 GPx4) with selenocysteine 46 mutated to cysteine is reported solved at 1.8 Å resolution using X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, solution data of an isotope-labelled GPx protein are presented. PMID:27710939

  3. Covalent interaction of dehydroretronecine, a carcinogenic metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline, with cysteine and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K A; Seymour, J L; Hsia, M T; Allen, J R

    1977-09-01

    The covalent interaction of dehydroretronecine, a carcinogenic metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline, with cysteine and glutathione, has been investigated. Dehydroretronecine was allowed to react with cysteine and glutathione in an in vitro system of phosphate buffer solutions. The reaction products were identified structurally by chromatographic, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, ultraviolet, and mass-spectral analysis. These data indicate that the reaction products are the sulfhydryl-linked 7-thiocysteine-dehydroretronecine and 7-thioglutathione-dehydroretronecine. Active alkylation of sulfhydryl groups is a possible mechanism by which these alkaloids interact with cellular components.

  4. Probing the binding of trypsin to glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongke; Liu, Xingbing; Yan, Changling; Bai, Guangyue; Lu, Yan

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the interaction of trypsin with glutathione-stabilized Au nanoparticles (NPs) using fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. We find that trypsin binds strongly to the Au NPs with a static quenching mechanism, and that the interaction is characteristic of positive cooperative binding. Furthermore, we determine the binding constants and the thermodynamic parameters, which suggest that the main binding forces between the glutathione-stabilized Au NPs and trypsin are electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Analysis of UV-vis absorption spectra suggests that aggregation of the Au NPs occurs in the trypsin/Au NPs system, which significantly alters the conformation of the protein.

  5. Glutathione oxidation in response to intracellular H2O2: key but overlapping roles for dehydroascorbate reductases.

    PubMed

    Rahantaniaina, Marie-Sylviane; Li, Shengchun; Chatel-Innocenti, Gilles; Tuzet, Andrée; Mhamdi, Amna; Vanacker, Hélène; Noctor, Graham

    2017-08-07

    Glutathione is a pivotal molecule in oxidative stress, during which it is potentially oxidized by several pathways linked to H2O2 detoxification. We have investigated the response and functional importance of three potential routes for glutathione oxidation pathways mediated by glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutaredoxin-dependent peroxiredoxins (PRXII), and dehydroascorbate reductases (DHAR) in Arabidopsis during oxidative stress. Loss-of-function gstU8, gstU24, gstF8, prxIIE and prxIIF mutants as well as double gstU8 gstU24, gstU8 gstF8, gstU24 gstF8, prxIIE prxIIF mutants were obtained. No mutant lines showed marked changes in their phenotype and glutathione profiles in comparison to the wild-type plants in either optimal or oxidative stress triggered by catalase inhibition. By contrast, multiple loss of DHAR functions markedly decreased glutathione oxidation triggered by catalase deficiency. To assess whether this effect was mediated directly by loss of DHAR enzyme activity, or more indirectly by up-regulation of other enzymes involved in glutathione and ascorbate recycling, we measured expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and expression and activity of monodehydroascorbate reductases (MDHAR). No evidence was obtained that either GRs or MDHARs were up-regulated in plants lacking DHAR function. Hence, interplay between different DHARs appears to be necessary to couple ascorbate and glutathione pools and to allow glutathione-related signaling during enhanced H2O2 metabolism.

  6. Detoxication of the 2',3'-epoxide metabolites of allylbenzene and estragole. Conjugation with glutathione.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Guenthner, T M

    1994-01-01

    The enzymatic detoxication in vitro of the 2',3'-epoxide derivatives of allylbenzene and estragole was examined, and the relative rates of enzymatic glutathione conjugation and epoxide hydrolysis were compared with those for styrene 1',2'-oxide. HPLC was used to determine the amounts of dihydrodiol and glutathione conjugate metabolites formed by cell extracts from several sources. Although some differences among species were observed, in general, the rates of epoxide inactivation by both pathways are similar. We conclude that one explanation for the apparent lack of genotoxicity of these allylic epoxides in vivo may be their rapid metabolic inactivation by both glutathione S-transferases and epoxide hydrolases, which occur to approximately equal degrees in vitro.

  7. Appraisal of Collection Techniques and Storage Temperatures on Turkey Plasma Cholinesterase Levels and Blood Glutathione Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T. K.; Fuller, G. W.; Friars, G. W.

    1969-01-01

    The effects of different blood collection procedures, various storage temperatures and durations of storage on the levels of plasma cholinesterase and whole blood glutathione in turkeys were investigated. Collection of blood through vacutainers yielded satisfactory results. Whereas the plasma cholinesterase activity remained unchanged even after three weeks of storage at -17.8°C., blood glutathione concentration was unaffected only when the samples were stored at -28.9°C for the three weeks. The range of mean activity was from 4.64 to 4.71 ΔpH/hour x 10 for cholinesterase and from 44.85 to 47.91 mgm/100 ml for glutathione. PMID:4242775

  8. Functions and Cellular Compartmentation of the Thioredoxin and Glutathione Pathways in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès; Outten, Caryn E.; Igbaria, Aeid

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The thioredoxin (TRX) and glutathione (GSH) pathways are universally conserved thiol-reductase systems that drive an array of cellular functions involving reversible disulfide formation. Here we consider these pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, focusing on their cell compartment-specific functions, as well as the mechanisms that explain extreme differences of redox states between compartments. Recent Advances: Recent work leads to a model in which the yeast TRX and GSH pathways are not redundant, in contrast to Escherichia coli. The cytosol possesses full sets of both pathways, of which the TRX pathway is dominant, while the GSH pathway acts as back up of the former. The mitochondrial matrix also possesses entire sets of both pathways, in which the GSH pathway has major role in redox control. In both compartments, GSH has also nonredox functions in iron metabolism, essential for viability. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) are sites of intense thiol oxidation, but except GSH lack thiol-reductase pathways. Critical Issues: What are the thiol-redox links between compartments? Mitochondria are totally independent, and insulated from the other compartments. The cytosol is also totally independent, but also provides reducing power to the ER and IMS, possibly by ways of reduced and oxidized GSH entering and exiting these compartments. Future Directions: Identifying the mechanisms regulating fluxes of GSH and oxidized glutathione between cytosol and ER, IMS, and possibly also peroxisomes, vacuole is needed to establish the proposed model of eukaryotic thiol-redox homeostasis, which should facilitate exploration of this system in mammals and plants. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1699–1711. PMID:23198979

  9. The role of skeletal muscle in liver glutathione metabolism during acetaminophen overdose.

    PubMed

    Bilinsky, L M; Reed, M C; Nijhout, H F

    2015-07-07

    Marked alterations in systemic glutamate-glutamine metabolism characterize the catabolic state, in which there is an increased breakdown and decreased synthesis of skeletal muscle protein. Among these alterations are a greatly increased net release of glutamine (Gln) from skeletal muscle into blood plasma and a dramatic depletion of intramuscular Gln. Understanding the catabolic state is important because a number of pathological conditions with very different etiologies are characterized by its presence; these include major surgery, sepsis, trauma, and some cancers. Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is also accompanied by dramatic changes in systemic glutamate-glutamine metabolism including large drops in liver glutathione (for which glutamate is a precursor) and plasma Gln. We have constructed a mathematical model of glutamate and glutamine metabolism in rat which includes liver, blood plasma and skeletal muscle. We show that for the normal rat, the model solutions fit experimental data including the diurnal variation in liver glutathione (GSH). We show that for the rat chronically dosed with dexamethasone (an artificial glucocorticoid which induces a catabolic state) the model can be used to explain empirically observed facts such as the linear decline in intramuscular Gln and the drop in plasma glutamine. We show that for the Wistar rat undergoing APAP overdose the model reproduces the experimentally observed rebound of liver GSH to normal levels by the 24-h mark. We show that this rebound is achieved in part by the action of the cystine-glutamate antiporter, an amino acid transporter not normally expressed in liver but induced under conditions of oxidative stress. Finally, we explain why supplementation with Gln, a Glu precursor, assists in the preservation of liver GSH during APAP overdose despite the fact that under normal conditions only Cys is rate-limiting for GSH formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping of amino acid substitutions conferring herbicide resistance in wheat glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; Mannervik, Bengt; Silverman, Joshua A; Wright, Kathy; Regitsky, Drew; Hegazy, Usama; Purcell, Thomas J; Welch, Mark; Minshull, Jeremy; Gustafsson, Claes

    2015-03-20

    We have used design of experiments (DOE) and systematic variance to efficiently explore glutathione transferase substrate specificities caused by amino acid substitutions. Amino acid substitutions selected using phylogenetic analysis were synthetically combined using a DOE design to create an information-rich set of gene variants, termed infologs. We used machine learning to identify and quantify protein sequence-function relationships against 14 different substrates. The resulting models were quantitative and predictive, serving as a guide for engineering of glutathione transferase activity toward a diverse set of herbicides. Predictive quantitative models like those presented here have broad applicability for bioengineering.

  11. Variable association of reactive intermediate genes with systemic lupus erythematosus in populations with different African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paula S; Oates, James C; Kamen, Diane L; Williams, Adrienne H; Gaffney, Patrick M; Kelly, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Kimberly, Robert P; Niewold, Timothy B; Jacob, Chaim O; Tsao, Betty P; Alarcón, Graciela S; Brown, Elizabeth E; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Petri, Michelle A; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Reveille, John D; Vilá, Luis M; James, Judith A; Guthridge, Joel M; Merrill, Joan T; Boackle, Susan A; Freedman, Barry I; Scofield, R Hal; Stevens, Anne M; Vyse, Timothy J; Criswell, Lindsey A; Moser, Kathy L; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Langefeld, Carl D; Harley, John B; Gilkeson, Gary S

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the genetic etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in individuals of African ancestry, despite its higher prevalence and greater disease severity. Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species are implicated in the pathogenesis and severity of SLE, making NO synthases and other reactive intermediate-related genes biological candidates for disease susceptibility. We analyzed variation in reactive intermediate genes for association with SLE in 2 populations with African ancestry. A total of 244 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 53 regions were analyzed in non-Gullah African Americans (AA; 1432 cases and 1687 controls) and the genetically more homogeneous Gullah of the Sea Islands of South Carolina (133 cases and 112 controls). Single-marker, haplotype, and 2-locus interaction tests were computed for these populations. The glutathione reductase gene GSR (rs2253409; p = 0.0014, OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.44) was the most significant single SNP association in AA. In the Gullah, the NADH dehydrogenase NDUFS4 (rs381575; p = 0.0065, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.23-3.59) and NO synthase gene NOS1 (rs561712; p = 0.0072, OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88) were most strongly associated with SLE. When both populations were analyzed together, GSR remained the most significant effect (rs2253409; p = 0.00072, OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.10-1.44). Haplotype and 2-locus interaction analyses also uncovered different loci in each population. These results suggest distinct patterns of association with SLE in African-derived populations; specific loci may be more strongly associated within select population groups.

  12. Induction of glutathione S-transferases in Arabidopsis by herbicide safeners.

    PubMed

    DeRidder, Ben P; Dixon, David P; Beussman, Douglas J; Edwards, Robert; Goldsbrough, Peter B

    2002-11-01

    Herbicide safeners increase herbicide tolerance in cereals but not in dicotyledenous crops. The reason(s) for this difference in safening is unknown. However, safener-induced protection in cereals is associated with increased expression of herbicide detoxifying enzymes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium with various safeners similarly resulted in enhanced GST activities toward a range of xenobiotics with benoxacor, fenclorim, and fluxofenim being the most effective. Safeners also increased the tripeptide glutathione content of Arabidopsis seedlings. However, treatment of Arabidopsis plants with safeners had no effect on the tolerance of seedlings to chloroacetanilide herbicides. Each safener produced a distinct profile of enhanced GST activity toward different substrates suggesting a differential induction of distinct isoenzymes. This was confirmed by analysis of affinity-purified GST subunits by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. AtGSTU19, a tau class GST, was identified as a dominant polypeptide in all samples. When AtGSTU19 was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme was highly active toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as chloroacetanilide herbicides. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that AtGSTU19 was induced in response to several safeners. Differential induction of tau GSTs, as well as members of the phi and theta classes by safeners, was demonstrated by RNA-blot analysis. These results indicate that, although Arabidopsis may not be protected from herbicide injury by safeners, at least one component of their detoxification systems is responsive to these compounds.

  13. Induction of Glutathione S-Transferases in Arabidopsis by Herbicide Safeners1

    PubMed Central

    DeRidder, Ben P.; Dixon, David P.; Beussman, Douglas J.; Edwards, Robert; Goldsbrough, Peter B.

    2002-01-01

    Herbicide safeners increase herbicide tolerance in cereals but not in dicotyledenous crops. The reason(s) for this difference in safening is unknown. However, safener-induced protection in cereals is associated with increased expression of herbicide detoxifying enzymes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings growing in liquid medium with various safeners similarly resulted in enhanced GST activities toward a range of xenobiotics with benoxacor, fenclorim, and fluxofenim being the most effective. Safeners also increased the tripeptide glutathione content of Arabidopsis seedlings. However, treatment of Arabidopsis plants with safeners had no effect on the tolerance of seedlings to chloroacetanilide herbicides. Each safener produced a distinct profile of enhanced GST activity toward different substrates suggesting a differential induction of distinct isoenzymes. This was confirmed by analysis of affinity-purified GST subunits by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. AtGSTU19, a tau class GST, was identified as a dominant polypeptide in all samples. When AtGSTU19 was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme was highly active toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, as well as chloroacetanilide herbicides. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that AtGSTU19 was induced in response to several safeners. Differential induction of tau GSTs, as well as members of the phi and theta classes by safeners, was demonstrated by RNA-blot analysis. These results indicate that, although Arabidopsis may not be protected from herbicide injury by safeners, at least one component of their detoxification systems is responsive to these compounds. PMID:12428014

  14. The role of nuclear factor E2-Related factor 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in glutathione metabolism: Evidence from an in vivo gene knockout study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yanyan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Hongzhi; Fu, Jingqi; Hou, Yongyong; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Qiang; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Pi, Jingbo

    2016-09-09

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are indicated to protect from oxidative stress. They also play roles in the homeostasis of glutathione. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we found Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis and reduced expression of various genes involved in GSH biosynthesis, regeneration, utilization and transport in the liver. Ucp2-knockout (Ucp2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis in the liver, spleen and blood, as well as increased transcript of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the liver, a protein capable of mediating glutathione efflux. Nrf2-Ucp2-double knockout (DKO) mice showed characteristics of both Nrf2-KO and Ucp2-KO mice. But no significant difference was observed in DKO mice when compared with Nrf2-KO or Ucp2-KO mice, except in blood glutathione levels. These data suggest that ablation of Nrf2 and Ucp2 leads to disrupted GSH balance, which could result from altered expression of genes involved in GSH metabolism. DKO may not evoke more severe oxidative stress than the single gene knockout. - Highlights: • Nrf2/Ucp2 deficiency leads to alteration of glutathione homeostasis. • Nrf2 regulates expression of genes in glutathione generation and utilization. • Ucp2 affects glutathione metabolism by regulating hepatic efflux of glutathione. • Nrf2 deficiency may not aggravate oxidative stress in Ucp2-deficient mice.

  15. Contextualizing Learning Scenarios According to Different Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drira, R.; Laroussi, M.; Le Pallec, X.; Warin, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first demonstrate that an instructional design process of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) systems based on a Model Driven Approach (MDA) addresses the limits of Learning Technology Standards (LTS), such as SCORM and IMS-LD. Although these standards ensure the interoperability of TEL systems across different Learning Management…

  16. Contextualizing Learning Scenarios According to Different Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drira, R.; Laroussi, M.; Le Pallec, X.; Warin, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first demonstrate that an instructional design process of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) systems based on a Model Driven Approach (MDA) addresses the limits of Learning Technology Standards (LTS), such as SCORM and IMS-LD. Although these standards ensure the interoperability of TEL systems across different Learning Management…

  17. Assessing System Thinking through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstadter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Grossschedl, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular…

  18. Assessing System Thinking through Different Concept-Mapping Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandstadter, Kristina; Harms, Ute; Grossschedl, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    System thinking is usually investigated by using questionnaires, video analysis, or interviews. Recently, concept-mapping (CM) was suggested as an adequate instrument for analysing students' system thinking. However, there are different ways with which to use this method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether particular…

  19. Anti-synchronization of two different chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlin; Chen, Xiuqin; Zhiping, Shen

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, the anti-synchronization of two different chaotic systems is investigated. On the basis of a nonlinear control scheme and Lyapunov theory, sufficient conditions for the stability of the error dynamics are derived, where the controllers are designed by using the sum of the relevant variables in chaotic systems. Numerical simulations are performed for the Genesio-Rossler system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  20. Diallyl disulphide depletes glutathione in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lemar, Katey M.; Aon, Miguel A.; Cortassa, Sonia; O’Rourke, Brian; T. Müller, Carsten; Lloyd, David

    2008-01-01

    Using two-photon scanning laser microscopy, we investigated the effect of an Allium sativum (garlic) constituent, diallyl disulphide (DADS), on key physiological functions of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. A short 30 min exposure to 0.5 mm DADS followed by removal induced 70% cell death (50% necrotic, 20% apoptotic) within 2 h, increasing to 75% after 4 h. The early intracellular events associated with DADS-induced cell death were monitored with two-photon fluorescence microscopy to track mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADH or reduced glutathione (GSH) under aerobic conditions. DADS treatment decreased intracellular GSH and elevated intracellular ROS levels. Additionally, DADS induced a marked decrease of ΔΨm and lowered respiration in cell suspensions and isolated mitochondria. In vitro kinetic experiments in cell-free extracts suggest that glutathione-S-transferase (GST) is one of the intracellular targets of DADS. Additional targets were also identified, including inhibition of a site or sites between complexes II-IV in the electron transport chain, as well as the mitochondrial ATP-synthase. The results indicate that DADS is an effective antifungal agent able to trigger cell death in Candida, most probably by eliciting oxidative stress as a consequence of thiol depletion and impaired mitochondrial function. PMID:17534841

  1. Cell Proliferation, Reactive Oxygen and Cellular Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Day, Regina M.; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of cellular activities, including metabolism, growth, and death, are regulated and modulated by the redox status of the environment. A biphasic effect has been demonstrated on cellular proliferation with reactive oxygen species (ROS)—especially hydrogen peroxide and superoxide—in which low levels (usually submicromolar concentrations) induce growth but higher concentrations (usually >10–30 micromolar) induce apoptosis or necrosis. This phenomenon has been demonstrated for primary, immortalized and transformed cell types. However, the mechanism of the proliferative response to low levels of ROS is not well understood. Much of the work examining the signal transduction by ROS, including H2O2, has been performed using doses in the lethal range. Although use of higher ROS doses have allowed the identification of important signal transduction pathways, these pathways may be activated by cells only in association with ROS-induced apoptosis and necrosis, and may not utilize the same pathways activated by lower doses of ROS associated with increased cell growth. Recent data has shown that low levels of exogenous H2O2 up-regulate intracellular glutathione and activate the DNA binding activity toward antioxidant response element. The modulation of the cellular redox environment, through the regulation of cellular glutathione levels, may be a part of the hormetic effect shown by ROS on cell growth. PMID:18648617

  2. Performance analysis of different database in new internet mapping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xing; Su, Wei; Gao, Shuai

    2017-03-01

    In the Mapping System of New Internet, Massive mapping entries between AID and RID need to be stored, added, updated, and deleted. In order to better deal with the problem when facing a large number of mapping entries update and query request, the Mapping System of New Internet must use high-performance database. In this paper, we focus on the performance of Redis, SQLite, and MySQL these three typical databases, and the results show that the Mapping System based on different databases can adapt to different needs according to the actual situation.

  3. Alcohol-induced deterioration in primary antioxidant and glutathione family enzymes reversed by exercise training in the liver of old rats.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjuna, K; Shanmugam, K R; Nishanth, K; Wu, Ming-Chieh; Hou, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Reddy, K Sathyavelu

    2010-09-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes severe hepatic oxidative damage, particularly to old subjects by decreasing various antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we test the hypothesis that exercise training can protect the aging liver against alcohol-induced oxidative damage. Two different age groups of Wistar albino rats (3 months young, n=24; 18 months old, n=24) were evenly divided into four groups: control (Con), exercise trained (Tr, 23 m/min 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 2 months), ethanol drinking/treated (Et, 2.0 g/kg b.w. orally), and exercise training plus ethanol drinking/treated (Tr+Et). We found significantly (P<.001) lowered hepatic antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, selenium (Se)-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), Se-non-dependent glutathione peroxidase (non-Se-GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase activities in aged rats compared with young. Age-related decrease in antioxidant enzyme status was further exacerbated with ethanol drinking, which indicates liver in aged rats is more susceptible to oxidative damage because of decreased free radical scavenging system in aged/old ethanol-drinking rats. However, the decrease in liver antioxidant enzymes status with ethanol consumption was ameliorated by 2 months exercise training in old and young rats. These results demonstrate that age-associated decrease in hepatic free radical scavenging system exacerbated by ethanol drinking. For the first time, we found that this deterioration was significantly reversed by exercise training in aging liver, thus protects against alcohol-induced oxidative damage.

  4. [Quality evaluation of red ginseng in different transplating systems].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Juan; Ye, Zheng-Liang; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Lu, Zheng-Min

    2013-01-01

    To compare the quality of red ginseng in different transplanting systems, and thus provide the basis for ginseng cultivation and processing. Based on the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and literature relating to red ginseng, the ten ginsenosides, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, volatile oil, ether extract and total protein of red ginseng in different transplanting systems were studied or determined. The content of total ash and acid-insoluble ash in red ginseng was less than 5.0%, 0.3%, respectively. The content of three ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1) was in accordance with the requirements of Chinese Pharmacopoeia version 2010, and the content of ten ginsenosides was significant different.

  5. [Methodologic and clinical comparison of four different ergospirometry systems].

    PubMed

    Winter, U J; Fritsch, J; Gitt, A K; Pothoff, G; Berge, P G; Hilger, H H

    1994-01-01

    The clinician who uses cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPX) systems relies on the technical informations from the device producers. In this paper, the practicability, the accuracy and the safety of four different, available CPX systems are compared in the clinical area, using clinically orientated criteria. The exercise tests were performed in healthy subjects, in patients with cardiac and/or pulmonary disease as well as in young or old people. The comparison study showed, that there were partially large differences in device design and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, our investigation demonstrated that beneath repetitive calibrations of the CPX systems a frequent validation of the devices by means of a metabolic simulator is necessary. Problems in calibration can be caused by an inadequate performance or by unclean calibration gases. Problems in validation can be due to incompatibility of the CPX device and the validator. The comparison study of the four different systems showed that in the future standards for CPX testing should be defined.

  6. Sex Differences in Circadian Timing Systems: Implications for Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Matthew; Silver, Rae

    2014-01-01

    Virtually every eukaryotic cell has an endogenous circadian clock and a biological sex. These cell-based clocks have been conceptualized as oscillators whose phase can be reset by internal signals such as hormones, and external cues such as light. The present review highlights the inter-relationship between circadian clocks and sex differences. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as a master clock synchronizing the phase of clocks throughout the body. Gonadal steroid receptors are expressed in almost every site that receives direct SCN input. Here we review sex differences in the circadian timing system in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG), the hypothalamicadrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis, and sleep-arousal systems. We also point to ways in which disruption of circadian rhythms within these systems differs in the sexes and is associated with dysfunction and disease. Understanding sex differentiated circadian timing systems can lead to improved treatment strategies for these conditions. PMID:24287074

  7. A comparative study of two different clear aligner systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to compare the ‘Nuvola®’ system with ‘Fantasmino®’ system, examine their material properties, and define the indications for use of the aligners. Methods Two groups of patients were selected and were respectively treated with Nuvola® aligner and Fantasmino® system. Results The goal of treatment has been achieved with the two systems. Conclusions The two types of aligners have shown differences during the treatment. Fantasmino® system has elastic properties of high performance, but its size does not encourage compliance throughout the day. Nuvola® system determines good tooth movement and its size facilitates the patient’s collaboration. In both aligner systems, difficulties were found in the correction of torque information and rotations. PMID:24934094

  8. Numerical Simulation of Tubular Pumping Systems with Different Regulation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Honggeng; Zhang, Rentian; Deng, Dongsheng; Feng, Xusong; Yao, Linbi

    2010-06-01

    Since the flow in tubular pumping systems is basically along axial direction and passes symmetrically through the impeller, most satisfying the basic hypotheses in the design of impeller and having higher pumping system efficiency in comparison with vertical pumping system, they are being widely applied to low-head pumping engineering. In a pumping station, the fluctuation of water levels in the sump and discharge pool is most common and at most time the pumping system runs under off-design conditions. Hence, the operation of pump has to be flexibly regulated to meet the needs of flow rates, and the selection of regulation method is as important as that of pump to reduce operation cost and achieve economic operation. In this paper, the three dimensional time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are closed by RNG κ-ɛ turbulent model, and two tubular pumping systems with different regulation methods, equipped with the same pump model but with different designed system structures, are numerically simulated respectively to predict the pumping system performances and analyze the influence of regulation device and help designers make final decision in the selection of design schemes. The computed results indicate that the pumping system with blade-adjusting device needs longer suction box, and the increased hydraulic loss will lower the pumping system efficiency in the order of 1.5%. The pumping system with permanent magnet motor, by means of variable speed regulation, obtains higher system efficiency partly for shorter suction box and partly for different structure design. Nowadays, the varied speed regulation is realized by varied frequency device, the energy consumption of which is about 3˜4% of output power of the motor. Hence, when the efficiency of variable frequency device is considered, the total pumping system efficiency will probably be lower.

  9. Difference between Chitosan Hydrogels via Alkaline and Acidic Solvent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jingyi; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CS) has generated considerable interest for its desirable properties and wide applications. Hydrogel has been proven to be a major and vital form in the applications of CS materials. Among various types of CS hydrogels, physical cross-linked CS hydrogels are popular, because they avoided the potential toxicity and sacrifice of intrinsic properties caused by cross-linking or reinforcements. Alkaline solvent system and acidic solvent system are two important solvent systems for the preparation of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, and also lay the foundations of CS hydrogel-based materials in many aspects. As members of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, gel material via alkaline solvent system showed significant differences from that via acidic solvent system, but the reasons behind are still unexplored. In the present work, we studied the difference between CS hydrogel via alkaline system and acidic system, in terms of gelation process, hydrogel structure and mechanical property. In-situ/pseudo in-situ studies were carried out, including fluorescent imaging of gelation process, which provided dynamic visualization. Finally, the reasons behind the differences were explained, accompanied by the discussion about design strategy based on gelation behavior of the two systems. PMID:27786262

  10. Difference between Chitosan Hydrogels via Alkaline and Acidic Solvent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Jingyi; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2016-10-01

    Chitosan (CS) has generated considerable interest for its desirable properties and wide applications. Hydrogel has been proven to be a major and vital form in the applications of CS materials. Among various types of CS hydrogels, physical cross-linked CS hydrogels are popular, because they avoided the potential toxicity and sacrifice of intrinsic properties caused by cross-linking or reinforcements. Alkaline solvent system and acidic solvent system are two important solvent systems for the preparation of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, and also lay the foundations of CS hydrogel-based materials in many aspects. As members of physical cross-linked CS hydrogels, gel material via alkaline solvent system showed significant differences from that via acidic solvent system, but the reasons behind are still unexplored. In the present work, we studied the difference between CS hydrogel via alkaline system and acidic system, in terms of gelation process, hydrogel structure and mechanical property. In-situ/pseudo in-situ studies were carried out, including fluorescent imaging of gelation process, which provided dynamic visualization. Finally, the reasons behind the differences were explained, accompanied by the discussion about design strategy based on gelation behavior of the two systems.

  11. Spectrophotometric analysis of color differences between porcelain systems.

    PubMed

    Seghi, R R; Johnston, W M; O'Brien, W J

    1986-07-01

    Spectrophotometric measuring techniques were used to determine the color of four corresponding shades of three brands of metal-fusing porcelain systems. The color was expressed in terms of CIE L*a*b* color coordinates. The relationship of these values to the more commonly used attributes of Hue, lightness (Value), and saturation (Chroma) respectively were discussed. The location of the porcelain shades in the color space and the direction of the color differences found between the different brands of porcelain were evaluated. Color differences for each paired comparison within each shade group were determined from the color data. These values represent the magnitude of color differences found between brands and have a direct relationship to visual perceptibility. For the brands and shades measured, the following conclusions can be made: The CIELAB color system provides an objective technique for evaluating the color of dental porcelains. Corresponding shades of different brands of porcelain can produce perceivably different colors. The perceived color differences between the brands were mostly a result of differences in all three color directions. Greater color differences were found to exist between the corresponding opaque porcelains than between the corresponding layered samples. The addition of 1 mm of body porcelain to the opaque compensated to a large extent for the greater color differences found between the corresponding opaques. The results of this study have significant clinical ramifications. Variations in optical characteristics of porcelains produced by different manufacturers add to the problem of color control in ceramic crown fabrication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Evaluation of different systems for clinical quantification of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Cornu-Thénard, A; De Vincenzi, I; Maraval, M

    1991-04-01

    One hundred twenty-five lower limbs with varicose veins were studied clinically, essentially by palpation. Two specialists in venous pathology scored the severity of the varicose veins from 0 to 20. Comparison between the different clinical parameters and the scores of the specialists showed that two systems of clinical quantification gave good results and were easy to use. One system is the maximum diameter of the largest varicose vein; the other system is the sum of maximum diameters over 7 sections (3 for thigh, 3 for leg, 1 for foot). This latter system gives a more precise evaluation of the clinical severity of the varicose veins.

  13. Targeting brain cells with glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes: in vitro and in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Heba F; Ahmed, Sayed M; Hassaballah, Ashraf E; Omar, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    Background The blood–brain barrier prevents many drug moieties from reaching the central nervous system. Therefore, glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes have been engineered to enhance the targeting of flucytosine to the brain. Methods Glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration technique and evaluated in the primary brain cells of rats. Lecithin, cholesterol, and span 65 were mixed at 1:1:1 molar ratio. The molar percentage of PEGylated glutathione varied from 0 mol% to 0.75 mol%. The cellular binding and the uptake of the targeted liposomes were both monitored by epifluorescent microscope and flow cytometry techniques. A biodistribution and a pharmacokinetic study of flucytosine and flucytosine-loaded glutathione–modulated liposomes was carried out to evaluate the in vivo brain-targeting efficiency. Results The size of glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes was <100 nm and the zeta potential was more than −65 mV. The cumulative release reached 70% for certain formulations. The cellular uptake increased as molar percent of glutathione increased to reach the maximum at 0.75 mol%. The uptake of the targeted liposomes by brain cells of the rats was three times greater than that of the nontargeted liposomes. An in vivo study showed that the relative efficiency was 2.632±0.089 and the concentration efficiency was 1.590±0.049, and also, the drug-targeting index was 3.670±0.824. Conclusion Overall, these results revealed that glutathione-PEGylated nanoliposomes enhance the effective delivery of flucytosine to brain and could become a promising new therapeutic option for the treatment of the brain infections. PMID:26229435

  14. Glutathione as a skin whitening agent: Facts, myths, evidence and controversies.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Sidharth; Daulatabad, Deepashree; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol-tripeptide that plays a prominent role in maintaining intracellular redox balance. In addition to its remarkable antioxidant properties, the discovery of its antimelanogenic properties has led to its promotion as a skin-lightening agent. It is widely used for this indication in some ethnic populations. However, there is a dichotomy between evidence to support its efficacy and safety. The hype around its depigmentary properties may be a marketing gimmick of pharma-cosmeceutical companies. This review focuses on the various aspects of glutathione: its metabolism, mechanism of action and the scientific evidence to evaluate its efficacy as a systemic skin-lightening agent. Glutathione is present intracellularly in its reduced form and plays an important role in various physiological functions. Its skin-lightening effects result from direct as well as indirect inhibition of the tyrosinase enzyme and switching from eumelanin to phaeomelanin production. It is available in oral, parenteral and topical forms. Although the use of intravenous glutathione injections is popular, there is no evidence to prove its efficacy. In fact, the adverse effects caused by intravenous glutathione have led the Food and Drug Administration of Philippines to issue a public warning condemning its use for off-label indications such as skin lightening. Currently, there are three randomized controlled trials that support the skin-lightening effect and good safety profile of topical and oral glutathione. However, key questions such as the duration of treatment, longevity of skin-lightening effect and maintenance protocols remain unanswered. More randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size, long-term follow-up and well-defined efficacy outcomes are warranted to establish the relevance of this molecule in disorders of hyperpigmentation and skin lightening.

  15. Glutathione, cysteine, and ascorbate concentrations in clinically ill dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Viviano, K R; Lavergne, S N; Goodman, L; Vanderwielen, B; Grundahl, L; Padilla, M; Trepanier, L A

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of many systemic diseases. Hospitalized human patients are glutathione, cysteine, and ascorbate deficient, and antioxidant depletion has been correlated with poor clinical outcome. To date little is known about antioxidant concentrations in hospitalized veterinary patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ascorbate, cysteine, or glutathione depletion is present in ill dogs and cats compared with healthy controls. Clinically ill dogs and cats would be antioxidant depleted, and depletion would correlate with illness severity and clinical outcome. Clinically ill client-owned dogs (n = 61) and cats (n = 37), healthy control dogs (n = 37) and cats (n = 33). Prospective, observational, case control study. Erythrocyte reduced glutathione, plasma cysteine, and plasma ascorbate were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Clinically ill dogs had significantly lower erythrocyte glutathione concentrations (1.22 mM, range 0.55-3.61) compared with controls (1.91 mM, range 0.87-3.51; P = .0004), and glutathione depletion correlated with both illness severity (P = .038) and mortality (P = .010). Cats had higher ascorbate concentrations when ill (10.65 microM, range 1.13-25.26) compared with controls (3.68 microM, range 0.36-13.57; P = .0009). Clinically ill dogs had decreased erythrocyte glutathione concentrations, which could be a marker of illness severity and prognostic of a poor outcome. Clinically ill cats had an unexpectedly high plasma ascorbate, which could represent a unique species response to oxidative stress.

  16. Biotin and glutathione targeting of solid nanoparticles to cross human brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Veszelka, Szilvia; Mészáros, Mária; Kiss, Lóránd; Kóta, Zoltán; Páli, Tibor; Hoyk, Zsófia; Bozsó, Zsolt; Fülöp, Lívia; Tóth, András; Rákhely, Gábor; Deli, Mária A

    2017-07-27

    Background The blood-brain barrier restricts drug penetration to the central nervous system. Targeted nanocarriers are new potential tools to increase the brain entry of drugs. Ligands of endogenous transporters of the blood-brain barrier can be used as targeting vectors for brain delivery of nanoparticles. Objective We tested biotin-labeled solid nanoparticles for the first time and compared to biotinylated glutathione-labeled nanoparticles in brain endothelial cells. Method Neutravidin coated fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles were derivatized with biotin and biotinylated glutathione. As a human in vitro blood-brain barrier model hCMEC/D3 brain endothelial cells were used. Cell viability by MTT test, uptake and transfer of the nanoparticles across the endothelial monolayers were measured. The uptake of the nanoparticles was visualized by confocal microscopy. Results The tested nanoparticles caused no change in cell viability. The uptake of biotin- and glutathione-labeled nanoparticles by brain endothelial cells was time-dependent and significantly higher compared to non-labeled nanoparticles. The penetration of the glutathione-labeled nanoparticles across the endothelial monolayer was higher than the biotin-targeted ones. Biotin- and glutathione-targeted nanoparticles were visualized in hCMEC/D3 cells. We verified that hCMEC/D3 express mRNA for sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT/SLC5A6) responsible for the blood-brain barrier transport of biotin. Conclusion Biotin as a ligand increased the uptake and the transfer of nanoparticles across brain endothelial cells. Biotinylated glutathione could further increase nanoparticle permeability through endothelial monolayers supporting its use as a brain targeting vector. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. [Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase in umbilical cord blood of newborns from mothers smoking during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa; Leibschang, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    In pregancy complicated by cigarette smoking prooxidant-antioxidant imbalance may have a pathomorphological and pathophysiological effect in fetus. Efficient enzymatic antioxidant systems are natural factors protecting cells from damaging by free oxygen species. Therefore the aim of the study was to estimate the effect of tobacco smoking during pregnancy on activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase in umbilical cord blood of newborns. Healthy matched-maternal cord pairs (65) were divided into non-smoking (n = 35) and smoking group (n = 30) according to the concentration of cotinine in serum and urine. We observed that, in umbilical cord blood from newborns of smoking women activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase were lower by 30%, 15% and 37% respectively than in non-smoking. The differences were statistically significant (p < 0.0001; p < 0.01; p < 0.0001). Activity of superoxide dismutase was similar in both studied group. In erythrocytes of newborns from smoking mothers activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly correlated with concentration of cotinine (r = 0.61; p < 0.01). The similar correlation was not observed in red blood cells of non-smoking ones. Our results indicate that tobacco smoking during pregnancy may have a negative effect on enzymatic antioxidant systems in umbilical cord blood.

  18. Glutathione and multidrug resistance protein transporter mediate a self-propelled disposal of bismuth in human cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yifan; Lai, Yau-Tsz; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung; Sun, Hongzhe

    2015-03-17

    Glutathione and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) play an important role on the metabolism of a variety of drugs. Bismuth drugs have been used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and Helicobacter pylori infection for decades without exerting acute toxicity. They were found to interact with a wide variety of biomolecules, but the major metabolic pathway remains unknown. For the first time (to our knowledge), we systematically and quantitatively studied the metabolism of bismuth in human cells. Our data demonstrated that over 90% of bismuth was passively absorbed, conjugated to glutathione, and transported into vesicles by MRP transporter. Mathematical modeling of the system reveals an interesting phenomenon. Passively absorbed bismuth consumes intracellular glutathione, which therefore activates de novo biosynthesis of glutathione. Reciprocally, sequestration by glutathione facilitates the passive uptake of bismuth and thus completes a self-sustaining positive feedback circle. This mechanism robustly removes bismuth from both intra- and extracellular space, protecting critical systems of human body from acute toxicity. It elucidates the selectivity of bismuth drugs between human and pathogens that lack of glutathione, such as Helicobacter pylori, opening new horizons for further drug development.

  19. Glutathione and multidrug resistance protein transporter mediate a self-propelled disposal of bismuth in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yifan; Lai, Yau-Tsz; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung; Sun, Hongzhe

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) play an important role on the metabolism of a variety of drugs. Bismuth drugs have been used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and Helicobacter pylori infection for decades without exerting acute toxicity. They were found to interact with a wide variety of biomolecules, but the major metabolic pathway remains unknown. For the first time (to our knowledge), we systematically and quantitatively studied the metabolism of bismuth in human cells. Our data demonstrated that over 90% of bismuth was passively absorbed, conjugated to glutathione, and transported into vesicles by MRP transporter. Mathematical modeling of the system reveals an interesting phenomenon. Passively absorbed bismuth consumes intracellular glutathione, which therefore activates de novo biosynthesis of glutathione. Reciprocally, sequestration by glutathione facilitates the passive uptake of bismuth and thus completes a self-sustaining positive feedback circle. This mechanism robustly removes bismuth from both intra- and extracellular space, protecting critical systems of human body from acute toxicity. It elucidates the selectivity of bismuth drugs between human and pathogens that lack of glutathione, such as Helicobacter pylori, opening new horizons for further drug development. PMID:25737551

  20. Structure-activity relationships of 4-hydroxyalkenals in the conjugation catalysed by mammalian glutathione transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, U H; Esterbauer, H; Mannervik, B

    1987-01-01

    The substrate specificities of 15 cytosolic glutathione transferases from rat, mouse and man have been explored by use of a homologous series of 4-hydroxyalkenals, extending from 4-hydroxypentenal to 4-hydroxypentadecenal. Rat glutathione transferase 8-8 is exceptionally active with the whole range of 4-hydroxyalkenals, from C5 to C15. Rat transferase 1-1, although more than 10-fold less efficient than transferase 8-8, is the second most active transferase with the longest chain length substrates. Other enzyme forms showing high activities with these substrates are rat transferase 4-4 and human transferase mu. The specificity constants, kcat./Km, for the various enzymes have been determined with the 4-hydroxyalkenals. From these constants the incremental Gibbs free energy of binding to the enzyme has been calculated for the homologous substrates. The enzymes responded differently to changes in the length of the hydrocarbon side chain and could be divided into three groups. All glutathione transferases displayed increased binding energy in response to increased hydrophobicity of the substrate. For some of the enzymes, steric limitations of the active site appear to counteract the increase in binding strength afforded by increased chain length of the substrate. Comparison of the activities with 4-hydroxyalkenals and other activated alkenes provides information about the active-site properties of certain glutathione transferases. The results show that the ensemble of glutathione transferases in a given species may serve an important physiological role in the conjugation of the whole range of 4-hydroxyalkenals. In view of its high catalytic efficiency with all the homologues, rat glutathione transferase 8-8 appears to have evolved specifically to serve in the detoxication of these reactive compounds of oxidative metabolism. PMID:3426557

  1. Investigation of electroacupuncture and manual acupuncture on carnitine and glutathione in muscle.

    PubMed

    Toda, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) and manual acupuncture (MA) have therapeutic effects on muscle fatigue in muscle disease. The deficiencies of carnitine and glutathione induce muscle fatigue. This report investigated the effects of EA and MA on carnitine and glutathione in muscle. After the mice of EA group were fixed in the animal cage, right Zusanli (ST36) and Jiexi (ST41) were acupunctured and stimulated with uniform reinforcing and reducing method by twirling the acupuncture needle for 15 min. And then, the needle handles were connected to an electric stimulator for stimulating the acupoint with dense-sparse waves. After the mice of MA group were fixed in an animal cage, right ST36 and ST41 were acupunctured and allowed for 15 min. The mice of normal control group were not acupunctured and stimulated for 15 min. The mice of all groups were killed for collecting muscle tissue 1 h after the final treatment. Carnitine and glutathione in homogenate of muscle tissue were determined with carnitine (Kainos Laboratories Co., Tokyo, Japan) and glutathione assay kit (Dojin Chemicals Co., Kumamoto, Japan). Carnitine level in muscle tissue of MA group was significantly higher than those of EA group and normal control group. Carnitine level in muscle tissue of EA group was not significantly different from that of normal control group. Glutathione levels in muscle tissue of EA group and MA group were significantly higher than that of normal control group. This report presented that carnitine in muscle is increased by MA, and not increased by EA, and that glutathione in muscle is increased by EA and MA.

  2. [Differences among chronic restrained eaters: the influence of motivational systems].

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaime R; Livacic-Rojas, Pablo; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2006-06-01

    Restrained eaters (RE) are individuals who restrain their food intake on a regular basis as they are frightened to gain weight. However, they tend to overeat under conditions of anxiety. It has been shown that RE possess a behavioral inhibition system that is more active in tonic terms, which would partially explain their affective vulnerability. Even so, the influence of variations in the activation levels of the emotional systems on the eating behavior of a RE is still unknown. Our hypothesis is that variations of such systems will give place to two types of RE: a successful or a non-successful one. To assess the influence of variations on the activation of motivational systems in food intake of RE. As part of a factorial experimental design, 105 undergraduate university students were part of an experimental test for inducting food intake. Then they reported their levels of dietary restraint and their emotional behavioral preferences. Differences in the activation of motivational systems were significantly related to differences in food intake (F= 7.210; p= 0.001). Additionally, food intake for those RE with a predominant inhibition system tended to be higher than for those with a more active approach system, though the latter did not reach a significant difference (F=0.718; p=0.399). Although more investigations are required, our data suggest that the success of retaining the diet among the RE would depend on their profile of affective reactivity (affective style). There are putative implications for research on anorexia and obesity.

  3. Proteomic profiling of cytosolic glutathione transferases from three bivalve species: Corbicula fluminea, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anodonta cygnea.

    PubMed

    Martins, José Carlos; Campos, Alexandre; Osório, Hugo; da Fonseca, Rute; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2014-01-27

    Suspension-feeding bivalves are considered efficient toxin vectors with a relative insensitivity to toxicants compared to other aquatic organisms. This fact highlights the potential role of detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs), in this bivalve resistance. Nevertheless, the GST system has not been extensively described in these organisms. In the present study, cytosolic GSTs isoforms (cGST) were surveyed in three bivalves with different habitats and life strategies: Corbicula fluminea, Anodonta cygnea and Mytilus galloprovincialis. GSTs were purified by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography, and the collection of expressed cGST classes of each bivalve were identified using a proteomic approach. All the purified extracts were also characterized kinetically. Results reveal variations in cGST subunits collection (diversity and properties) between the three tested bivalves. Using proteomics, four pi-class and two sigma-class GST subunits were identified in M. galloprovincialis. C. fluminea also yielded four pi-class and one sigma-class GST subunits. For A. cygnea, two mu-class and one pi-class GST subunits were identified, these being the first record of GSTs from these freshwater mussels. The affinity purified extracts also show differences regarding enzymatic behavior among species. The variations found in cGST collection and kinetics might justify diverse selective advantages for each bivalve organism.

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Cytosolic Glutathione Transferases from Three Bivalve Species: Corbicula fluminea, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anodonta cygnea

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José Carlos; Campos, Alexandre; Osório, Hugo; da Fonseca, Rute; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2014-01-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalves are considered efficient toxin vectors with a relative insensitivity to toxicants compared to other aquatic organisms. This fact highlights the potential role of detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs), in this bivalve resistance. Nevertheless, the GST system has not been extensively described in these organisms. In the present study, cytosolic GSTs isoforms (cGST) were surveyed in three bivalves with different habitats and life strategies: Corbicula fluminea, Anodonta cygnea and Mytilus galloprovincialis. GSTs were purified by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography, and the collection of expressed cGST classes of each bivalve were identified using a proteomic approach. All the purified extracts were also characterized kinetically. Results reveal variations in cGST subunits collection (diversity and properties) between the three tested bivalves. Using proteomics, four pi-class and two sigma-class GST subunits were identified in M. galloprovincialis. C. fluminea also yielded four pi-class and one sigma-class GST subunits. For A. cygnea, two mu-class and one pi-class GST subunits were identified, these being the first record of GSTs from these freshwater mussels. The affinity purified extracts also show differences regarding enzymatic behavior among species. The variations found in cGST collection and kinetics might justify diverse selective advantages for each bivalve organism. PMID:24473139

  5. Mathematical modeling of the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a major environmental toxin that is detoxified in the liver by biochemical mechanisms that are still under study. In the traditional metabolic pathway, arsenic undergoes two methylation reactions, each followed by a reduction, after which it is exported and released in the urine. Recent experiments show that glutathione plays an important role in arsenic detoxification and an alternative biochemical pathway has been proposed in which arsenic is first conjugated by glutathione after which the conjugates are methylated. In addition, in rats arsenic-glutathione conjugates can be exported into the plasma and removed by the liver in the bile. Methods We have developed a mathematical model for arsenic biochemistry that includes three mechanisms by which glutathione affects arsenic methylation: glutathione increases the speed of the reduction steps; glutathione affects the activity of arsenic methyltranferase; glutathione sequesters inorganic arsenic and its methylated downstream products. The model is based as much as possible on the known biochemistry of arsenic methylation derived from cellular and experimental studies. Results We show that the model predicts and helps explain recent experimental data on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation. We explain why the experimental data imply that monomethyl arsonic acid inhibits the second methylation step. The model predicts time course data from recent experimental studies. We explain why increasing glutathione when it is low increases arsenic methylation and that at very high concentrations increasing glutathione decreases methylation. We explain why the possible temporal variation of the glutathione concentration affects the interpretation of experimental studies that last hours. Conclusions The mathematical model aids in the interpretation of data from recent experimental studies and shows that the Challenger pathway of arsenic methylation, supplemented by the glutathione effects

  6. Atrazine Resistance in a Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) Biotype Due to Enhanced Glutathione S-Transferase Activity 1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michael P.; Gronwald, John W.

    1991-01-01

    We previously reported that a velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic) biotype found in Maryland was resistant to atrazine because of an enhanced capacity to detoxify the herbicide via glutathione conjugation (JW Gronwald, Andersen RN, Yee C [1989] Pestic Biochem Physiol 34: 149-163). The biochemical basis for the enhanced atrazine conjugation capacity in this biotype was examined. Glutathione levels and glutathione S-transferase activity were determined in extracts from the atrazine-resistant biotype and an atrazine-susceptible or “wild-type” velvetleaf biotype. In both biotypes, the highest concentration of glutathione (approximately 500 nanomoles per gram fresh weight) was found in leaf tissue. However, no significant differences were found in glutathione levels in roots, stems, or leaves of either biotype. In both biotypes, the highest concentration of glutathione S-transferase activity measured with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene or atrazine as substrate was in leaf tissue. Glutathione S-transferase measured with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate was 40 and 25% greater in leaf and stem tissue, respectively, of the susceptible biotype compared to the resistant biotype. In contrast, glutathione S-transferase activity measured with atrazine as substrate was 4.4- and 3.6-fold greater in leaf and stem tissue, respectively, of the resistant biotype. Kinetic analyses of glutathione S-transferase activity in leaf extracts from the resistant and susceptible biotypes were performed with the substrates glutathione, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and atrazine. There was little or no change in apparent Km values for glutathione, atrazine, or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. However, the Vmax for glutathione and atrazine were approximately 3-fold higher in the resistant biotype than in the susceptible biotype. In contrast, the Vmax for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was 30% lower in the resistant biotype. Leaf glutathione S-transferase isozymes that exhibit activity with

  7. Neuroendocrine underpinnings of sex differences in circadian timing systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lily; Silver, Rae

    2015-01-01

    There are compelling reasons to study the role of steroids and sex differences in the circadian timing system. A solid history of research demonstrates the ubiquity of circadian changes that impact virtually all behavioral and biological responses. Furthermore, steroid hormones can modulate every attribute of circadian responses including the period, amplitude and phase. Finally, desynchronization of circadian rhythmicity, and either enhancing or damping amplitude of various circadian responses can produce different effects in the sexes. Studies of the neuroendocrine underpinnings of circadian timing systems and underlying sex differences have paralleled the overall development of the field as a whole. Early experimental studies established the ubiquity of circadian rhythms by cataloging daily and seasonal changes in whole organism responses. The next generation of experiments demonstrated that daily changes are not a result of environmental synchronizing cues, and are internally orchestrated, and that these differ in the sexes. This work was followed by the revelation of molecular circadian rhythms within individual cells. At present, there is a proliferation of work on the consequences of these daily oscillations in health and in disease, and awareness that these may differ in the sexes. In the present discourse we describe the paradigms used to examine circadian oscillation, to characterize how these internal timing signals are synchronized to local environmental conditions, and how hormones of gonadal and/or adrenal origin modulate circadian responses. Evidence pointing to endocrinologically and genetically mediated sex differences in circadian timing systems can be seen at many levels of the neuroendocrine and endocrine systems, from the cell, the gland and organ, and to whole animal behavior, including sleep/wake or rest/activity cycles, responses to external stimuli, and responses to drugs. We review evidence indicating that the analysis of the circadian

  8. Neuroendocrine underpinnings of sex differences in circadian timing systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lily; Silver, Rae

    2016-06-01

    There are compelling reasons to study the role of steroids and sex differences in the circadian timing system. A solid history of research demonstrates the ubiquity of circadian changes that impact virtually all behavioral and biological responses. Furthermore, steroid hormones can modulate every attribute of circadian responses including the period, amplitude and phase. Finally, desynchronization of circadian rhythmicity, and either enhancing or damping amplitude of various circadian responses can produce different effects in the sexes. Studies of the neuroendocrine underpinnings of circadian timing systems and underlying sex differences have paralleled the overall development of the field as a whole. Early experimental studies established the ubiquity of circadian rhythms by cataloging daily and seasonal changes in whole organism responses. The next generation of experiments demonstrated that daily changes are not a result of environmental synchronizing cues, and are internally orchestrated, and that these differ in the sexes. This work was followed by the revelation of molecular circadian rhythms within individual cells. At present, there is a proliferation of work on the consequences of these daily oscillations in health and in disease, and awareness that these may differ in the sexes. In the present discourse we describe the paradigms used to examine circadian oscillation, to characterize how these internal timing signals are synchronized to local environmental conditions, and how hormones of gonadal and/or adrenal origin modulate circadian responses. Evidence pointing to endocrinologically and genetically mediated sex differences in circadian timing systems can be seen at many levels of the neuroendocrine and endocrine systems, from the cell, the gland and organ, and to whole animal behavior, including sleep/wake or rest/activity cycles, responses to external stimuli, and responses to drugs. We review evidence indicating that the analysis of the circadian

  9. Potential role of glutathione in evolution of thiol-based redox signaling sites in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mohanasundaram, Kaavya A.; Haworth, Naomi L.; Grover, Mani P.; Crowley, Tamsyn M.; Goscinski, Andrzej; Wouters, Merridee A.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine is susceptible to a variety of modifications by reactive oxygen and nitrogen oxide species, including glutathionylation; and when two cysteines are involved, disulfide formation. Glutathione-cysteine adducts may be removed from proteins by glutaredoxin, whereas disulfides may be reduced by thioredoxin. Glutaredoxin is homologous to the disulfide-reducing thioredoxin and shares similar binding modes of the protein substrate. The evolution of these systems is not well characterized. When a single Cys is present in a protein, conjugation of the redox buffer glutathione may induce conformational changes, resulting in a simple redox switch that effects a signaling cascade. If a second cysteine is introduced into the sequence, the potential for disulfide formation exists. In favorable protein contexts, a bistable redox switch may be formed. Because of glutaredoxin's similarities to thioredoxin, the mutated protein may be immediately exapted into the thioredoxin-dependent redox cycle upon addition of the second cysteine. Here we searched for examples of protein substrates where the number of redox-active cysteine residues has changed throughout evolution. We focused on cross-strand disulfides (CSDs), the most common type of forbidden disulfide. We searched for proteins where the CSD is present, absent and also found as a single cysteine in protein orthologs. Three different proteins were selected for detailed study—CD4, ERO1, and AKT. We created phylogenetic trees, examining when the CSD residues were mutated during protein evolution. We posit that the primordial cysteine is likely to be the cysteine of the CSD which undergoes nucleophilic attack by thioredoxin. Thus, a redox-active disulfide may be introduced into a protein structure by stepwise mutation of two residues in the native sequence to Cys. By extension, evolutionary acquisition of structural disulfides in proteins can potentially occur via transition through a redox-active disulfide state. PMID

  10. Bond strength of adhesive resin cement with different adhesive systems

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzoni e Silva, Fabrizio; Pamato, Saulo; Kuga, Milton-Carlos; Só, Marcus-Vinicius-Reis

    2017-01-01

    Background To assess the immediate bond strength of a dual-cure adhesive resin cement to the hybridized dentin with different bonding systems. Material and Methods Fifty-six healthy human molars were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=8). After 3 longitudinal sections, the central cuts were included in PVC matrix and were submitted to dentin hybridization according to the groups: G1 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Apder™ Scotchbond™ Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE), G2 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Optibond™ FL, Kerr), G3 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (All-Bond 3®, Bisco), G4 - etch & rinse simplified system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE), G5 - self-etching system with one step (Bond Force, Tokuyama), G6 - universal system in moist dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE), G7 - universal system in dry dentin (Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE). Then all groups received the cementing of a self-adhesive resin cement cylinder (Duo-link, Bisco) made from a polypropylene matrix. In the evaluation of bond strength, the samples were subjected to the microshear test and evaluated according to the fracture pattern by optical microscopy. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test suggests a statistically significant difference between groups (p=0,039), and Tukey for multiple comparisons, indicating a statistically significant difference between G3 and G4 (p<0.05). It was verified high prevalence of adhesive failures, followed by mixed failure and cohesive in dentin. Conclusions The technique and the system used to dentin hybridization are able to affect the immediate bond strength of resin cement dual adhesive. Key words:Adhesion, adhesive resin cement, adhesive systems, microshear. PMID:28149471

  11. The lymphoid system: a review of species differences.

    PubMed

    Haley, Patrick J

    2017-04-01

    While an understanding of the structure and function of a generically described immune system is essential in contemporary biomedicine, it is clear that a one-size-fits-all approach applied across multiple species is fraught with contradictions and inconsistencies. Nevertheless, the breakthroughs achieved in immunology following the application of observations in murine systems to that of man have been pivotal in the advancement of biology and human medicine. However, as additional species have been used to further address biologic and safety assessment questions relative to the structure and function of the immune system, it has become clear that there are differences across species, gender, age and strain that must be considered. The meaningfulness of these differences must be determined on a case-by-case basis. This review article attempts to collect, consolidate and discuss some of these species differences thereby aiding in the accurate placement of new observations in a proper immunobiological and immunopathological perspective.

  12. The lymphoid system: a review of species differences

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    While an understanding of the structure and function of a generically described immune system is essential in contemporary biomedicine, it is clear that a one-size-fits-all approach applied across multiple species is fraught with contradictions and inconsistencies. Nevertheless, the breakthroughs achieved in immunology following the application of observations in murine systems to that of man have been pivotal in the advancement of biology and human medicine. However, as additional species have been used to further address biologic and safety assessment questions relative to the structure and function of the immune system, it has become clear that there are differences across species, gender, age and strain that must be considered. The meaningfulness of these differences must be determined on a case-by-case basis. This review article attempts to collect, consolidate and discuss some of these species differences thereby aiding in the accurate placement of new observations in a proper immunobiological and immunopathological perspective. PMID:28458449

  13. A chloroplast-localized and auxin-induced glutathione S-transferase from phreatophyte Prosopis juliflora confer drought tolerance on tobacco.

    PubMed

    George, Suja; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2010-03-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Prosopis juliflora, a drought-tolerant tree species of Fabaceae, as a model plant system for mining genes functioning in abiotic stress tolerance. Large-scale random EST sequencing from a cDNA library obtained from drought-stressed leaves of 2-month-old P. juliflora plants resulted in identification of three different auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferases. In this paper, we report the cellular localization and the ability to confer drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco of one of these GSTs (PjGSTU1). PjGSTU1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and GST and GPX activities in total protein samples were assayed and compared with controls. The results indicated that PjGSTU1 protein forms a functional homo-dimer in recombinant bacteria with glutathione transferase as well as glutathione peroxidase activities. PjGSTU1 transgenic tobacco lines survived better under conditions of 15% PEG stress compared with control un-transformed plants. In vivo localization studies for PjGSTU1 using GFP fusion revealed protein localization in chloroplasts of transgenic plants. The peroxidase activity of PjGSTU1 and its localization in the chloroplast indicates a possible role for PjGSTU1 in ROS removal.

  14. Maintenance of glutathione content is isolated hepatocyctes.

    PubMed Central

    Nińa, J; Hems, R; Krebs, H A

    1978-01-01

    1. During the standard procedure for the preparation of rat hepatocytes, about half of the cellular GSH (reduced glutathione) is lost. 2. This loss is prevented by the addition of 0.1 mM-EGTA (but no EDTA) to the perfusion medium. 3. On incubation with and without EGTA, isolated hepatocytes prepared in the presence of EGTA lose GSH. This loss is prevented by near-physiological concentrations of methionine or homocysteine, but not of cysteine. 4. Cysteine, at concentrations above 0.2 mM, causes a loss of GSH probably by non-enzymic formation of a mixed disulphide. 5. Serine together with methionine or homocystein increases GSH above the value in cells from starved rats in vivo. This is taken to suggest that cystathionine may be a cysteine donor in the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine, the precursor of GSH. PMID:646804

  15. Misonidazole-glutathione conjugates in CHO cells

    SciTech Connect

    Varghese, A.J.; Whitmore, G.F.

    1984-08-01

    Misonidazole, after reduction to the hydroxylamine derivative, reacts with glutathione (GSH) under physiological conditions. The reaction product has been identified as a mixture of two isomeric conjugates. When water soluble extracts of CHO cells exposed to misonidazole under hypoxic conditions are subjected to HPLC analysis, misonidazole derivatives, having the same chromatographic properties as the GSH-MISO conjugates, were detected. When CHO cells were incubated with misonidazole in the presence of added GSH, a substantial increase in the amount of the conjugate was detected. When extracts of CHO cells exposed to misonidazole under hypoxia were subsequently exposed to GSH, an increased formation of the conjugate was observed. A rearrangement product of the hydroxylamine derivative of misonidazole is postulated as the reactive intermediate responsible for the formation of the conjugate.

  16. Withanolide A prevents neurodegeneration by modulating hippocampal glutathione biosynthesis during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Baitharu, Iswar; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satya Narayan; Shroff, Sabita; Sahu, Jayanta Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone dependenet manner.

  17. Withanolide A Prevents Neurodegeneration by Modulating Hippocampal Glutathione Biosynthesis during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Baitharu, Iswar; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satya Narayan; Shroff, Sabita; Sahu, Jayanta Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)–related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone dependenet manner

  18. Age-dependent variations in mitochondrial and cytosolic antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in different regions of central nervous system of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Vohra, B P; Sharma, S P; Kansal, V K

    2001-10-01

    The age-related changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes of mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions were measured in different regions of the central nervous system (CNS) in 10 and 32 months old guinea pigs. In old animals, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were reduced (p < 0.05) in all the regions of CNS studied but catalase (CAT) declined significantly only in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum. Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity declined in cerebral cortex and hypothalamus in the cytosolic fractions and only in cerebellum in the mitochondrial fraction. It is concluded that age-related decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes is both region and enzyme specific. The endogenous lipid peroxide was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the 32 month old animals whereas, lipid peroxidation after incubating the tissue homogenate in air was found to be lower (p < 0.05). The in vitro mitochondrial lipid peroxidation decreased with age. The results indicate that accumulation of lipid peroxides takes place with ageing but the susceptibility of lipid peroxidation decreases in the older animals.

  19. Shear bond strengths of different adhesive systems to biodentine.

    PubMed

    Odabaş, Mesut Enes; Bani, Mehmet; Tirali, Resmiye Ebru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the shear bond strength of different adhesive systems to Biodentine with different time intervals. Eighty specimens of Biodentine were prepared and divided into 8 groups. After 12 minutes, 40 samples were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups of 10 each: group 1: (etch-and-rinse adhesive system) Prime & Bond NT; group 2: (2-step self-etch adhesive system) Clearfil SE Bond; group 3: (1-step self-etch adhesive systems) Clearfil S(3) Bond; group 4: control (no adhesive). After the application of adhesive systems, composite resin was applied over Biodentine. This procedure was repeated 24 hours after mixing additional 40 samples, respectively. Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine, and the data were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance and Scheffé post hoc test. No significant differences were found between all of the adhesive groups at the same time intervals (12 minutes and 24 hours) (P > .05). Among the two time intervals, the lowest value was obtained for group 1 (etch-and-rinse adhesive) at a 12-minute period, and the highest was obtained for group 2 (two-step self-etch adhesive) at a 24-hour period. The placement of composite resin used with self-etch adhesive systems over Biodentine showed better shear bond strength.

  20. Shear Bond Strengths of Different Adhesive Systems to Biodentine

    PubMed Central

    Odabaş, Mesut Enes; Bani, Mehmet; Tirali, Resmiye Ebru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the shear bond strength of different adhesive systems to Biodentine with different time intervals. Eighty specimens of Biodentine were prepared and divided into 8 groups. After 12 minutes, 40 samples were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups of 10 each: group 1: (etch-and-rinse adhesive system) Prime & Bond NT; group 2: (2-step self-etch adhesive system) Clearfil SE Bond; group 3: (1-step self-etch adhesive systems) Clearfil S3 Bond; group 4: control (no adhesive). After the application of adhesive systems, composite resin was applied over Biodentine. This procedure was repeated 24 hours after mixing additional 40 samples, respectively. Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine, and the data were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance and Scheffé post hoc test. No significant differences were found between all of the adhesive groups at the same time intervals (12 minutes and 24 hours) (P > .05). Among the two time intervals, the lowest value was obtained for group 1 (etch-and-rinse adhesive) at a 12-minute period, and the highest was obtained for group 2 (two-step self-etch adhesive) at a 24-hour period. The placement of composite resin used with self-etch adhesive systems over Biodentine showed better shear bond strength. PMID:24222742

  1. Formation of A Novel Purine Metabolite through CYP3A4 Bioactivation and Glutathione Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Apuy, Julius L.; Xiang, Cathie; Franc, Sarah; Hegde, Sayee G.; Hubbard, Robert; Zhao, Jingjing; Moghaddam, Mehran F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study of novel sites of metabolism is important in understanding new mechanisms of biotransformation of a particular moiety by metabolic enzymes. This information is valuable in designing metabolically-stable compounds with drug-like properties. It may also provide insights into the existence of active and reactive metabolites. Methods: We utilized small scale incubations to generate adequate amounts of the metabolite of interest. After purification, LC-MS/MS and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) were utilized to unequivocally assign the novel site of glutathione conjugation on the purine ring system. Results: A proposed novel site of glutathione conjugation was investigated on a diaminopurine-containing molecule. It was demonstrated that the formation of the glutathione conjugate at the C-6 position of the purine ring system was due to the bioactivation of the compound to a di-imine intermediate by CYP3A4, followed by the nucleophilic addition of glutathione. Conclusion: S-glutathionylation at C-6 position of a purine was proven unequivocally. This previously unreported mechanism constitutes a novel biotransformation for purines. PMID:27165340

  2. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  6. 2-Aminobutyric acid modulates glutathione homeostasis in the myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Irino, Yasuhiro; Toh, Ryuji; Nagao, Manabu; Mori, Takeshige; Honjo, Tomoyuki; Shinohara, Masakazu; Tsuda, Shigeyasu; Nakajima, Hideto; Satomi-Kobayashi, Seimi; Shinke, Toshiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Ishida, Tatsuro; Miyata, Okiko; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    A previous report showed that the consumption of glutathione through oxidative stress activates the glutathione synthetic pathway, which is accompanied by production of ophthalmic acid from 2-aminobutyric acid (2-AB). We conducted a comprehensive quantification of serum metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in patients with atrial septal defect to find clues for understanding myocardial metabolic regulation, and demonstrated that circulating 2-AB levels reflect hemodynamic changes. However, the metabolism and pathophysiological role of 2-AB remains unclear. We revealed that 2-AB is generated by an amino group transfer reaction to 2-oxobutyric acid, a byproduct of cysteine biosynthesis from cystathionine. Because cysteine is a rate-limiting substrate for glutathione synthesis, we hypothesized that 2-AB reflects glutathione compensation against oxidative stress. A murine cardiomyopathy model induced by doxorubicin supported our hypothesis, i.e., increased reactive oxygen species are accompanied by 2-AB accumulation and compensatory maintenance of myocardial glutathione levels. Intriguingly, we also found that 2-AB increases intracellular glutathione levels by activating AMPK and exerts protective effects against oxidative stress. Finally, we demonstrated that oral administration of 2-AB efficiently raises both circulating and myocardial glutathione levels and protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in mice. This is the first study to demonstrate that 2-AB modulates glutathione homeostasis in the myocardium. PMID:27827456

  7. Differences between the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Lamberger, P.H.; Colvin, C.M.; Gibbs, G.E.; Adams, F.S.; Bowser, R.P.; Kissner, T.J.; Morgan, F.E.; Schmidt, M.J.; Van Patten, J.F.; Wieneke, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    The TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems are alike in that they both use the ``oxidize and dry`` principle to remove tritium from gases, but they differ significantly in engineering details. The newer TERF system benefited in many ways from experience with the ERS. The TERF is expected to: (1) operate at a higher pressure, leading to greater throughput, (2) have redesigned reactors with better efficiency to process tritiated organic compounds, (3) have better energy conservation, (4) use an advanced process control system to provide more versatility in operation of the system, to account for the amount of tritium in the system at all times, and to more completely log operating results, (5) utilize more corrosion resistant materials to minimize maintenance, and (6) provide double containment of all pressurized tritium containing equipment to reduce tritium losses and increase operating safety. 6 refs.

  8. Differences between the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Lamberger, P.H.; Colvin, C.M.; Gibbs, G.E.; Adams, F.S.; Bowser, R.P.; Kissner, T.J.; Morgan, F.E.; Schmidt, M.J.; Van Patten, J.F.; Wieneke, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems are alike in that they both use the oxidize and dry'' principle to remove tritium from gases, but they differ significantly in engineering details. The newer TERF system benefited in many ways from experience with the ERS. The TERF is expected to: (1) operate at a higher pressure, leading to greater throughput, (2) have redesigned reactors with better efficiency to process tritiated organic compounds, (3) have better energy conservation, (4) use an advanced process control system to provide more versatility in operation of the system, to account for the amount of tritium in the system at all times, and to more completely log operating results, (5) utilize more corrosion resistant materials to minimize maintenance, and (6) provide double containment of all pressurized tritium containing equipment to reduce tritium losses and increase operating safety. 6 refs.

  9. Evidence for the Presence of the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Mitochondria and Peroxisomes of Pea Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, A.; Hernandez, J. A.; Del Rio, L. A.; Sevilla, F.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle was investigated in mitochondria and peroxisomes purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves. All four enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), monodehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.6.5.4), dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1), and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), were present in mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as in the antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione. The activity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes was higher in mitochondria than in peroxisomes, except for APX, which was more active in peroxisomes than in mitochondria. Intact mitochondria and peroxisomes had no latent APX activity, and this remained in the membrane fraction after solubilization assays with 0.2 M KCl. Monodehydroascorbate reductase was highly latent in intact mitochondria and peroxisomes and was membrane-bound, suggesting that the electron acceptor and donor sites of this redox protein are not on the external side of the mitochondrial and peroxisomal membranes. Dehydroascorbate reductase was found mainly in the soluble peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Glutathione reductase had a high latency in mitochondria and peroxisomes and was present in the soluble fractions of both organelles. In intact peroxisomes and mitochondria, the presence of reduced ascorbate and glutathione and the oxidized forms of ascorbate and glutathione were demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The ascorbate-glutathione cycle of mitochondria and peroxisomes could represent an important antioxidant protection system against H2O2 generated in both plant organelles. PMID:12223704

  10. Differences in evaluation methods of trunk sway using different MoCap systems.

    PubMed

    Kutilek, Patrik; Socha, Vladimir; Cakrt, Ondrej; Svoboda, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    The position of the trunk can be negatively influenced by many diseases. Several methods can be used for identifying defects in balance and coordination as a result of pathology of the musculoskeletal or nervous system. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between the three methods used for analysis of trunk sway and compare two fundamentally different MoCap systems. We used a camera system and a 3DOF orientation tracker placed on subject's trunk, and measured inclination (roll) and flexion (pitch) during quiet stance. Ten healthy participants in the study were measured with eyes open and closed. The pitch versus roll plots of trunk were formed, and the area of the convex hull, area of confidence ellipse and total length of the trajectory of the pitch versus roll plot were calculated. The statistical analysis was performed and strong correlation between the area of the convex hull and area of the confidence ellipse was found. Also, the results show moderate correlation between the area of the confidence ellipse and total length of the trace, and moderate correlation between the area of the convex hull and total length of the trace. In general, the different MoCap systems show different areas and lengths but lead to the same conclusions. Statistical analysis of the participants with eyes open and eye closed did not show significant difference in the areas and total lengths of the pitch versus roll plots.

  11. Glutathione redox potential in the mitochondrial intermembrane space is linked to the cytosol and impacts the Mia40 redox state

    PubMed Central

    Kojer, Kerstin; Bien, Melanie; Gangel, Heike; Morgan, Bruce; Dick, Tobias P; Riemer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione is an important mediator and regulator of cellular redox processes. Detailed knowledge of local glutathione redox potential (EGSH) dynamics is critical to understand the network of redox processes and their influence on cellular function. Using dynamic oxidant recovery assays together with EGSH-specific fluorescent reporters, we investigate the glutathione pools of the cytosol, mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space (IMS). We demonstrate that the glutathione pools of IMS and cytosol are dynamically interconnected via porins. In contrast, no appreciable communication was observed between the glutathione pools of the IMS and matrix. By modulating redox pathways in the cytosol and IMS, we find that the cytosolic glutathione reductase system is the major determinant of EGSH in the IMS, thus explaining a steady-state EGSH in the IMS which is similar to the cytosol. Moreover, we show that the local EGSH contributes to the partially reduced redox state of the IMS oxidoreductase Mia40 in vivo. Taken together, we provide a comprehensive mechanistic picture of the IMS redox milieu and define the redox influences on Mia40 in living cells. PMID:22705944

  12. Schisandrin B protects against carbon tetrachloride toxicity by enhancing the mitochondrial glutathione redox status in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Ip, S P; Poon, M K; Che, C T; Ng, K H; Kong, Y C; Ko, K M

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated the effect of Schisandrin B (Sch B),an active ingredient of the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, on enhancing the hepatic glutathione antioxidant system in mice, as evidenced by the hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) toxicity. In the present study, the mechanism involved in the hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B treatment was investigated. Treating female Balb/c mice with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, an inhibitor of glutathione reductase (GRD), at a dose of 2 mmol/kg (i.p.) did not abrogate the hepatoprotective action of Sch B in CCl4-treated mice. The result indicates that the increased activity of hepatic GRD is not ascribable to the hepatoprotective action of Sch B. In control mice, the same Sch B treatment regimen caused an enhancement in hepatic mitochondrial glutathione redox status, as indicated by the significant increase and decrease in reduced and oxidized glutathione levels, respectively. While the CCl4 intoxication greatly impaired mitochondrial glutathione redox status, the beneficial effect of Sch B treatment became more evident after CCl4 challenge. Our results strongly suggest that the mechanism of hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B treatment may involve the enhancement of mitochondrial glutathione redox status.

  13. Antioxidative response of ascorbate-glutathione pathway enzymes and metabolites to desiccation of recalcitrant Acer saccharinum seeds.

    PubMed

    Pukacka, Stanisława; Ratajczak, Ewelina

    2006-12-01

    Ascorbate-glutathione systems were studied during desiccation of recalcitrant seeds of the silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.). The desiccated seeds gradually lost their germination capacity and this was strongly correlated with an increase in electrolyte leakage from seeds. Simultaneously the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (superoxide radical - O(2)(-*) and hydrogen peroxide - H(2)O(2)) production was observed. The results indicate that remarkable changes in the concentrations and redox status of ascorbate and glutathio