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Sample records for glyceryl distearate glyceryl

  1. 21 CFR 582.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glyceryl monostearate. 582.1324 Section 582.1324 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1324 Glyceryl monostearate. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glyceryl monostearate. 582.1324 Section 582.1324 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1324 Glyceryl monostearate. (a)...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glyceryl monostearate. 582.1324 Section 582.1324 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1324 Glyceryl monostearate. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glyceryl monostearate. 582.1324 Section 582.1324 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1324 Glyceryl monostearate. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glyceryl monostearate. 582.1324 Section 582.1324 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1324 Glyceryl monostearate. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glyceryl monostearate. 184.1324 Section 184.1324 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1324 Glyceryl monostearate. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prepared by esterification of commerical oleic acid that is derived either from edible sources or from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862 of this chapter. It contains glyceryl monooleate (C21H40O4, CAS Reg. No. 25496-72-4) and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial oleic acid. (b...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prepared by esterification of commerical oleic acid that is derived either from edible sources or from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862 of this chapter. It contains glyceryl monooleate (C21H40O4, CAS Reg. No. 25496-72-4) and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial oleic acid. (b...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prepared by esterification of commerical oleic acid that is derived either from edible sources or from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862 of this chapter. It contains glyceryl monooleate (C21H40O4, CAS Reg. No. 25496-72-4) and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial oleic acid. (b...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids present in commercial stearic acid. Glyceryl monostearate is prepared by..., of stearic acid that is derived from edible sources. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... esterification of commerical oleic acid that is derived either from edible sources or from tall oil fatty acids.... No. 25496-72-4) and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial oleic acid. (b) The...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids present in commercial stearic acid. Glyceryl monostearate is prepared by..., of stearic acid that is derived from edible sources. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable...

  13. Chemical colostomy irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution.

    PubMed

    O'Bichere, A; Bossom, C; Gangoli, S; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2001-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation may improve patient quality of life, but is time consuming. This study tests the hypothesis that irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution, by inducing gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation, may accelerate expulsion of stool by passive emptying, thereby reducing irrigation time. Fifteen colostomy irrigators(with more than 3 years' experience) performed washout with tap water compared with water containing 0.025 mg/kg glyceryl trinitrate. Fluid inflow time, total washout time, and hemodynamic changes occurring during glyceryl trinitrate irrigation were documented by an independent observer. Subjects recorded episodes of fecal leakage and overall satisfaction on a visual analog scale. Cramps, headaches, and whether or not a stoma bag was used were expressed as a percentage of number of irrigations. Comparison of fluid inflow time, total washout time, leakage, and satisfaction was by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and headaches, cramps, and stoma bag use was by McNemar's test. Pulse rate (paired t-test), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (Wilcoxon's test) at 20 and 240 minutes after washout with glyceryl trinitrate solution were compared with baseline. Fifteen patients (9 female), with a mean age of 53 (31-73) years, provided 30 sessions (15 with water and 15 with glyceryl trinitrate). Medians (interquartile ranges) for water vs. glyceryl trinitrate were fluid inflow time 7 (4-10) vs. 4, (3-5; P = 0.001); total washout time 40 (30-55) vs. 21, (15-24; P < 0.001); leakage 0 (0-1) vs. 0, (0-0; P = 0.02), satisfaction 10 (8-10) vs. 10 (9-10; P = 0.31). The number (percentage) of stoma bags, cramps, and headaches with water vs. glyceryl trinitrate were 7 (47 percent) vs. 7 (47 percent), P = 1; 1 (7 percent) vs. 14 (93 percent), P < 0.001; and 0(0 percent) vs. 14 (93 percent), P < 0.001, respectively. Changes in pulse (increase) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (decrease) from baseline were maximal at 20 minutes (P < 0.001, P = 0

  14. 21 CFR 184.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glyceryl monostearate. 184.1324 Section 184.1324 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1324 - Glyceryl monostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glyceryl monostearate. 184.1324 Section 184.1324 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1323 - Glyceryl monooleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... commerical oleic acid that is derived either from edible sources or from tall oil fatty acids meeting the...) and glyceryl esters of fatty acids present in commercial oleic acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a... this chapter; nonalcoholic beverages and beverage bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1328 - Glyceryl behenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glyceryl esters of behenic acid made from glycerin and behenic acid (a saturated C22 fatty acid). The... not more than 2.5 percent free fatty acids. (2) Behenic acid. Between 80 and 90 percent of the total fatty acid content. (3) Acid value. Not more than 4. (4) Saponification value. Between 145 and 165. (5...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1328 - Glyceryl behenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glyceryl esters of behenic acid made from glycerin and behenic acid (a saturated C22 fatty acid). The... not more than 2.5 percent free fatty acids. (2) Behenic acid. Between 80 and 90 percent of the total fatty acid content. (3) Acid value. Not more than 4. (4) Saponification value. Between 145 and 165. (5...

  19. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid... conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid, and fatty acids conforming with § 172.860...

  20. Possible mechanism for drug retardation from glyceryl monostearate matrix system.

    PubMed

    Peh, K K; Wong, C F; Yuen, K H

    2000-04-01

    Lipophilicity was evaluated as a possible mechanism for drug retardation from a glyceryl monostearate matrix system. Lipophilicity of the glyceryl monostearate matrix system was studied using contact angle measurement of water droplets on the surface of compressed disks, extrudate ascension of water, and movement of water through a powder mixture packed in a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) column. Increase in glyceryl monostearate content resulted in an increase in water droplet contact angle, decrease in the rate of water ascending the extrudate, and increase in the pressure values as a function of flow rate of water moving through the powder mixture. These could be due to the increase in lipophilicity of the matrix, rendering the matrix less wettable. As a result, the rate of water penetration into the matrix decreased, and the drug release could be sustained.

  1. Synthesis of glyceryl ferulate by immobilized ferulic acid esterase.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kimura, Yukitaka; Tsuchiyama, Moriyasu; Oh, Tadanobu; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Adachi, Shuji

    2008-12-01

    Glyceryl ferulate was synthesized by the condensation of ferulic acid with glycerol using Pectinase PL "Amano" from Aspergillus niger, which contained ferulic acid esterase, to improve the water-solubility of ferulic acid. The optimum reaction medium was glycerol/0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 4.0, (98:2 v/v). The enzyme immobilized onto Chitopearl BCW3003 exhibited the highest activity among the those immobilized onto various kinds of Chitopearl BCW resins. The optimum temperature for the immobilized enzyme was 50 degrees C, and it could be reused at least five times without a significant loss in activity for the synthesis of glyceryl ferulate in batch reaction. Storage of the reaction mixture at 25 degrees C improved the molar fraction of glyceryl ferulate relative to the dissolved ferulic residues.

  2. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  3. Studies on paclitaxel-loaded glyceryl monostearate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vikram Subraya; Rajyaguru, Tushar Himmatlal; Gude, Rajiv Phondu; Murthy, Rayasa S Ramchandra

    2009-09-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of Paclitaxel were prepared by modified Hot homogenization method using Glyceryl monostearate (GMS). The SLNs were characterized for its physicochemical characteristics such as mean particle size, percentage entrapment efficiency and zeta potential, which were found to be 226 nm, 92.43% and -29.4 mV, respectively. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies showed that prepared SLNs were of spherical shape. The drug retarding efficiency of the lipid (GMS) was better in pH 7.4 compared to pH 3.5. The release profile showed a tendency to follow Higuchi diffusion pattern at pH 7.4 and Peppas-Korsenmeyer model at pH 3.5. Chemosensitivity assay carried out using B16F10 cell lines showed that anti-proliferative activity of Paclitaxel was not hindered due to encapsulation.

  4. Binary blend of glyceryl monooleate and glyceryl monostearate for magnetically induced thermo-responsive local drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mengesha, Abebe E; Wydra, Robert J; Hilt, J Zach; Bummer, Paul M

    2013-12-01

    To develop a novel monoglycerides-based thermal-sensitive drug delivery system, specifically for local intracavitary chemotherapy. Lipid matrices containing mixtures of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and glyceryl monostearate (GMS) were evaluated for their potential application as magnetically induced thermo-responsive local drug delivery systems using a poorly water-soluble model drug, nifedipine (NF). Oleic acid-modified iron oxide (OA-Fe3O4) nanoparticles were embedded into the GMO-GMS matrix for remote activation of the drug release using an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The crystallization behavior of binary blends of GMO and GMS as characterized by DSC did show temperature dependent phase transition. GMO-GMS (75:25 wt%) blend showed a melting (T m ) and crystallization (T c ) points at 42°C and 37°C, respectively indicating the potential of the matrix to act as an 'on-demand' drug release. The matrix released only 35% of the loaded drug slowly in 10 days at 37°C whereas 96% release was obtained at 42°C. A concentration of 0.5% OA-Fe3O4 heated the matrix to 42.3 and 45.5°C within 5 min and 10 min of AMF exposure, respectively. The in vitro NF release profiles form the monoglycerides matrix containing 0.5% OA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles after AMF activation confirmed the thermo-responsive nature of the matrix that could provide pulsatile drug release 'on-demand'.

  5. Preparation and optimization of glyceryl behenate-based highly porous pellets containing cilostazol.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyu-Mok; Byun, Woojin; Cho, Cheol-Hee; Park, Eun-Seok

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare a highly porous multiparticulate dosage form containing cilostazol for gastroretentive drug delivery. The floating pellets were prepared with glyceryl behenate as a matrix former and camphor as a sublimating agent by extrusion/spheronization and sublimation under vacuum. Granules prepared with sublimation at 60 °C displayed a slower dissolution rate and smoother surface morphology than those prepared at lower temperatures. This was unexpected as the reported melting point of glyceryl behenate is higher than 69 °C. The DSC study revealed that melting began at a lower temperature owing to the multicomponent property of glyceryl behenate, which led to a sintering effect. The prepared pellets were spherical with unimodal size distribution. They also had porous structures with increased porosity, which led to immediate buoyancy. As cilostazol is a hydrophobic drug that has an erosion-based release mechanism, drug release profile was highly correlated with the percentage of disintegrated pellets. Various excipients were added to the glyceryl behenate-based formulation to increase the floating duration. When hydroxyethyl cellulose was added to the glyceryl behenate-based pellets, acceptable dissolution rate and buoyancy were acquired. This system could potentially be used for gastroretentive delivery of various hydrophobic drugs, which was generally considered difficult.

  6. Determination of optimum processing temperature for transformation of glyceryl monostearate.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Toshio; Itai, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Hirofumi; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism of transformation from alpha-form to beta-form via beta'-form of glyceryl monostearate (GM) and to determine the optimum conditions of heat-treatment for physically stabilizing GM in a pharmaceutical formulation. Thermal analysis repeated twice using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were performed on mixtures of two crystal forms. In the first run (enthalpy of melting: DeltaH1), two endothermic peaks of alpha-form and beta-form were observed. However, in the second run (enthalpy of melting: DeltaH2), only the endothermic peak of the alpha-form was observed. From a strong correlation observed between the beta-form content in the mixture of alpha-form and beta-form and the enthalpy change, (DeltaH1-DeltaH2)/DeltaH2, beta-form content was expressed as a function of the enthalpy change. Using this relation, the stable beta-form content during the heat-treatment could be determined, and the maximum beta-form content was obtained when the heat-treatment was carried out at 50 degrees C. An inflection point existed in the time course of transformation of alpha-form to beta-form. It was assumed that almost all of alpha-form transformed to beta'-form at this point, and that subsequently only transformation from beta'-form to beta-form occurred. Based on this aspect, the transformation rate equations were derived as consecutive reaction. Experimental data coincided well with the theoretical curve. In conclusion, GM was transformed in the consecutive reaction, and 50 degrees C was the optimum heat-treatment temperature for transforming GM from the alpha-form to the stable beta-form.

  7. 21 CFR 178.3505 - Glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxy-stearate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting... calcium carbonate/glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxystearate) mixture is used as an adjuvant in polymers in contact with nonfatty foods at a level not to exceed 20 weight-percent of the polymer. [50 FR 1503, Jan. 11...

  8. Cardio-protective signalling by glyceryl trinitrate and cariporide in a model of donor heart preservation.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Jair C; Gao, Ling; Macdonald, Peter S; Hicks, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Storage of donor hearts in cardioplegic solutions supplemented with agents that mimic the ischaemic preconditioning response enhanced their post-reperfusion function. The present study examines the minimisation of cell death and activation of pro-survival signalling directed towards maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis in hearts arrested and stored in two such agents, glyceryl-trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor and cariporide, (a sodium-hydrogen exchange inhibitor). After baseline functional measurement, isolated working rat hearts were arrested and stored for 6h at 4°C in either Celsior(®), Celsior(®) containing 0.1mg/ml glyceryl-trinitrate, 10μM cariporide or both agents. After reperfusion, function was remeasured. Hearts were then processed for immunoblotting or histology. Necrotic and apoptotic markers present in the Celsior(®) group post-reperfusion were abolished by glyceryl-trinitrate, cariporide or both. Increased phosphorylation of ERK and Bcl2, after reperfusion in groups stored in glyceryl-trinitrate, cariporide or both along with increased phospho-STAT3 levels in the glyceryl-trinitrate/cariporide group correlated with functional recovery. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation blocked recovery. No phospho-Akt increase was seen in any treatment. Activation of signalling pathways that favour mitophagy activation (ERK and Bcl2 phosphorylation) and maintenance of mitochondrial transition pore closure after reperfusion (STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation) were crucial for functional recovery of the donor heart. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ESR study of aqueous dispersions of beta-lactoglobulin and spin-labelled glyceryl monostearate.

    PubMed

    Van Gorkom, M; Van der Molen, M H; Korver, O

    1975-05-05

    From the ESR spectra of aqueous dispersions of synthetic glyceryl monostearate (spin labelled at C-12) a critical micelle concentration of 30 mumol/l at room temperature was obtained, which agrees with that deduced from surface tension measurements. At monoglyceride concentrations smaller or larger than the critical micelle concentration, the monomers show increased motional restriction with increasing molar ratio of beta-lactoglobulin to monoglyceride up to a value of 10, as determined from calculated rotational correlation times; A similar progressive interaction was deduced from spectral changes observed on equimolar dispersions of beta-lactoglobulin and monoglyceride on raising the temperature to 55 degrees C at which the protein and monoglyceride coprecipitate. The relevance of these finding for non-labelled monoglyceride dispersions is indicated by the similarity of the pH-dependent flocculation behaviour of labelled and non-labelled monoglycerides, both in the absence and presence of beta-lactoglobulin; In addition, proton magnetic resonance and mechanical stability measurements suggest that spin-labelled glyceryl monosterate behaves analogously to non-labelled glyceryl monooleate.

  10. Biocompatible microemulsions for fabrication of glyceryl monostearate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kumar A; Joshi, Medha D; Patravale, Vandana B

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to fabricate glyceryl monostearate SLN by employing a biocompatible microemulsion as a template. Biocompatible excipients such as Tween 20 (as a surfactant) and Transcutol P (a cosourfactant) (at different K(m) ratios) were selected for the fabrication of microemulsions. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the area of the microemulsion existence. Glyceryl monostearate SLN were fabricated by dispersing the microemulsion (maintained at 65 degrees C) into cold water (maintained at 2-3 degrees C). The particle size of the SLN was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Tretinoin, a lipophilic anti-acne agent was incorporated into SLN as a model drug. The encapsulation efficiency of tretinoin in the SLN was determined by using Nanosep ultrafilteration device at different lipid loads viz. 1%, 1.5% and 2%. Glyceryl monostearate SLN fabricated from biocompatible microemulsion template exhibited average particle size of 175 nm and polydispersity index of 0.833. Tretinoin could be successfully incorporated into SLN and the encapsulation efficiency ranged from 37-48% at different lipid loads.

  11. Occurrence of 1-glyceryl-1-myo-inosityl phosphate in hyperthermophiles.

    PubMed

    Lamosa, Pedro; Gonçalves, Luís G; Rodrigues, Marta V; Martins, Lígia O; Raven, Neil D H; Santos, Helena

    2006-09-01

    The accumulation of compatible solutes was studied in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus as a function of the temperature and the NaCl concentration of the growth medium. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of cell extracts revealed the presence of alpha- and beta-glutamate, di-mannosyl-di-myo-inositol phosphate, di-myo-inositol phosphate, and an additional compound here identified as 1-glyceryl-1-myo-inosityl phosphate. All solutes accumulated by A. pyrophilus are negatively charged at physiological pH. The intracellular levels of di-myo-inositol phosphate increased in response to supraoptimal growth temperature, while alpha- and beta-glutamate accumulated in response to osmotic stress, especially at growth temperatures below the optimum. The newly discovered compound, 1-glyceryl-1-myo-inosityl phosphate, appears to play a double role in osmo- and thermoprotection, since its intracellular pool increased primarily in response to a combination of osmotic and heat stresses. This work also uncovered the nature of the unknown compound, previously detected in Archaeoglobus fulgidus (L. O. Martins et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:896-902, 1997). The curious structural relationship between diglycerol phosphate (found only in Archaeoglobus species), di-myo-inositol phosphate (a canonical solute of hyperthermophiles), and the newly identified solute is highlighted. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-glyceryl-1-myo-inosityl phosphate in living systems.

  12. Safety and efficacy of new glyceryl trinitrate suppository formula: first double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Emami, M H; Sayedyahossein, S; Aslani, A

    2008-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate suppository form in the healing of chronic anal fissure. Thirty-four patients with symptomatic chronic anal fissures were assigned to 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate suppository (n = 21) or placebo (n = 13) in a double blind design. Patient's symptom scores were registered at first visit. A validated daily chart was given to assess their symptoms on a daily basis. Both groups received psyllium from the beginning of the study. They were assessed at two-week intervals for six weeks. Then, they started a washout period of one month and after that were crossed over for another six weeks. Chi-squared, t-tests, and analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Complete healing at six weeks was achieved in 12 of 21 patients (57 percent) in the glyceryl trinitrate group and 5 of 13 patients (38 percent) in the placebo (P < 0.05). The overall healing rates at the end of study were 15 of 21 (71 percent) vs. 11 of 13 (84 percent) in the glyceryl trinitrate and placebo groups, respectively (P > 0.05). Application of 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate suppository form represents a new, promising, and effective treatment for chronic anal fissure.

  13. Application of the Flory-Huggins theory to the solubility of solids in glyceryl trioleate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, Cary T.; Manes, Milton

    1986-01-01

    The conventional thermodynamic deviation for ideal solid–liquid solubilities is modified by substituting the Flory–Huggins model for Raoult's law. A comparison of published data for eleven solides in glyceryl trioleate with the predictions of the conventional and modified equations shows that the significantly higher athermal solubilities from the modified equation are in much better agreement with the experimental data. This suggests that discrepancies between the data and the predictions of the conventional model for ideal systems result from the inappropriate use of Raoult's law for systems with significant solute–solvent size disparity rather than from specific interactions.

  14. Time-dependent inhibition by glyceryl trinitrate of platelet aggregation caused by U46619 (a thromboxane/endoperoxide receptor agonist).

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, G; Ritter, J M

    1994-01-01

    Glyceryl trinitrate is a weak inhibitor of platelet aggregation in vitro. Its effect on platelet aggregation in response to U46619 (a thromboxane/endoperoxide receptor agonist) was studied turbidometrically in platelet-rich plasma from healthy volunteers. The object was to determine whether inhibition was influenced by a period of preincubation between preparation of platelet-rich plasma and addition of glyceryl trinitrate. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Samples were removed at intervals and transferred to an aggregometer cuvette at 37 degrees C. Glyceryl trinitrate (100 microM) or an equal volume of distilled water was added 5 min before U46619 (2 microM), and aggregation recorded as change in light transmission. Inhibition by glyceryl trinitrate was markedly time and temperature dependent, with a progressive increase in inhibitory potency between 120 and 300 min preincubation at 37 degrees C but not at 22 degrees C. The explanation of this is unknown but the effect was not influenced by lipopolysaccharide or by cycloheximide, so it does not appear to be due to exposure to endotoxin or to enzyme induction in vitro. PMID:7946941

  15. Association of air pollution and use of glyceryl trinitrate against angina pectoris: a population-based case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ambient air pollution has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In Reykjavik, Iceland, air pollutant concentrations exceed official health limits several times every year. The aim was to study the association of concentrations of NO2, O3, PM10, and H2S in the Reykjavik capital area with the dispensing of anti-angina pectoris medication, glyceryl trinitrate to the inhabitants. Methods Data on daily dispensing of glyceryl trinitrate, were retrieved from the Icelandic Medicines Registry. Data on hourly concentrations of NO2, O3, PM10, and H2S were obtained from the Environment Agency of Iceland. A case-crossover design was used, based on the dispensing of glyceryl trinitrate to 5,246 individuals (≥18 years) between 2005 and 2009. Results For every 10 μg/m3 increase of NO2 and O3 3-day mean concentrations, the odds ratio (OR) for daily dispensing of glyceryl trinitrates was 1.136 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.069-1.207) and 1.094 (95% CI 1.029-1.163) at lag 0, and OR was 1.096 (95% CI 1.029-1.168) and 1.094 (95% CI 1.028-1.166) at lag 1, respectively. Conclusions These findings suggest that NO2 and O3 ambient air concentrations may adversely affect cardiovascular health, as measured by the dispensing of glyceryl trinitrates for angina pectoris. Further, the findings suggest that data on the dispensing of medication may be a valuable health indicator when studying the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:23631813

  16. 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether, an endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hanuš, Lumír; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Fride, Ester; Breuer, Aviva; Vogel, Zvi; Shalev, Deborah E.; Kustanovich, Irina; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2001-01-01

    Two types of endogenous cannabinoid-receptor agonists have been identified thus far. They are the ethanolamides of polyunsaturated fatty acids—arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) is the best known compound in the amide series—and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, the only known endocannabinoid in the ester series. We report now an example of a third, ether-type endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether (noladin ether), isolated from porcine brain. The structure of noladin ether was determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic sample. It binds to the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (Ki = 21.2 ± 0.5 nM) and causes sedation, hypothermia, intestinal immobility, and mild antinociception in mice. It binds weakly to the CB2 receptor (Ki > 3 μM). PMID:11259648

  17. [Effect of glyceryl triacetate on properties of PLA/PBAT blends].

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Wang, Xiyuan; Weng, Yunxuan; Jin, Yujuan; Zhang, Min

    2016-06-25

    Poly lactic acid (PLA)/Poly (butyleneadipate-co-terephthalate)(PBAT) and glyceryl triacetate (GTA) blend were prepared by torque rheometer, and the effect of GTA on thermodynamical performance, mechanical properties and microstructure of PLA/PBAT composites were studied using differential scanning calorimeter(DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis(DMA), universal testing machine, impact testing machine and scanning electron microscope(SEM). After adding GTA, Tg values of the two phases gradually became closer, blends cold crystallization temperature and melting temperature decreased. When with 3 phr GTA, the dispersed phase particle size of PLA/PBAT blend decreased. Mechanics performance test showed that the elongation at break and impact strength of the PLA/PBAT blend was greatly increased with 3 phr GTA, and the elongation at break increased 2.6 times, improved from 17.7% to 64.1%.

  18. Biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in isolated bovine pulmonary artery (BPA) and bovine pulmonary vein (BPV)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    A proposed mechanism of GTN-induced vasodilation requires biotransformation of GTN to glyceryl dinitrate (GDN). They have previously shown that GTN is metabolized to GDN during relaxation of isolated rabbit aorta. The authors have extended this study to include BPA and BPV and to determine if their sensitivity to GTN correlates with their ability to metabolize GTN. Strips of BPA and BPV were contracted submaximally with KCl and then incubated with 0.5 ..mu..M /sup 14/C-GTN for 2 min. GTN-induced relaxation of these vessels was monitored and tissue GTN and metabolite concentrations were measured. Data are presented which support the above hypothesismore » that GTN biotransformation and relaxation occur together in vascular smooth muscle; however, there appear to be factors other than extent of GTN biotransformation that account for the difference in sensitivity to GTN of the artery and vein.« less

  19. Biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate occurs concurrently with relaxation of rabbit aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Brien, J.F.; McLaughlin, B.E.; Breedon, T.H.

    1986-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that biotransformation of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is involved in GTN-induced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Isolated rabbit aortic strips (RAS) were contracted submaximally with phenylephrine (PE) and then were incubated with 0.5 microM (/sup 14/C)GTN in a time course study. GTN-induced relaxation (inhibition of PE-induced tone) of RAS was monitored and tissue GTN and glyceryl-1,2- and 1,3-dinitrate (GDN) concentrations were measured by thin-layer chromatography and liquid scintillation spectrometry at 0.5, 1, 2 and 20 min after incubation. Biotransformation of GTN to GDN occurred during GTN-induced relaxation of RAS. The tissue GDN concentrationmore » was dependent on the time duration of incubation with GTN and was related to the magnitude of GTN-induced tissue relaxation. At the 20-min interval, the GDN concentration in the incubation medium indicated appreciable efflux of GDN metabolites from the RAS. In the biotransformation of GTN by RAS, there was about 4-fold preferential formation of 1,2-GDN compared with 1,3-GDN. RAS were made tolerant to GTN in vitro by incubation with 500 microM GTN for 1 hr. After washing, GTN-tolerant and nontolerant (incubation with vehicle for 1 hr) RAS were contracted submaximally with PE, and then were incubated with 0.5 microM (/sup 14/C)GTN for 2 min. GTN-induced relaxation of RAS and tissue GDN concentration were significantly less for GTN-tolerant tissue compared with nontolerant tissue. Tissue GTN concentration was similar for both GTN-tolerant and nontolerant RAS, which indicated that the tissue uptake of GTN was similar and that GTN biotransformation was diminished in tolerant tissue.(ABST« less

  20. Synchronized and sustained release of multiple components in silymarin from erodible glyceryl monostearate matrix system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng; Lu, Yi; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Wentong; Wu, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Development of sustained delivery systems for herbal medicines was very difficult because of their complexity in composition. The concept of synchronized release from sustained release systems, which is characterized by release of multiple components in their original ratio that defines a herbal medicine, served as the basis for keeping the original pharmacological activity. In this study, erodible matrix systems based on glyceryl monostearate and polyethylene glycol 6000 or poloxamer 188 were prepared to perform strict control on synchronized release of the five active components of silymarin, i.e. taxifolin, silychrystin, silydianin, isosilybin and silybin. The matrix system was prepared by a melt fusion method. Synchronized release was achieved with high similarity factor f(2) values between each two of the five components. Erosion profiles of the matrix were in good correlation with release profiles of the five components, showing erosion-controlled release mechanisms. Through tuning some of the formulation variables, the system can be adjusted for synchronized and sustained release of silymarin for oral administration. In vitro hemolysis study indicated that the synchronized release samples showed a much better stabilizing effect on erythrocyte membrane.

  1. Effect of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate and anti-inflammatory gel in infusion phlebitis.

    PubMed

    Cökmez, Atilla; Gür, Serhat; Genç, Hüdai; Deniz, Sümer; Tarcan, Ercüment

    2003-10-01

    Phlebitis is the commonest complication of intravenous infusion. It has been suggested that it is initiated by venoconstriction at the infusion site, hence treatment with a vasodilator may reduce its incidence. A prospective controlled study was carried out on the effect of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and topical anti-inflammatory gel (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; NSAID) on the survival of peripheral intravenous infusion in 386 patients. A total of 34.9% (43 out of 123) of the infusions failed in the control group compared with 14.1% (18 out of 127) in the NSAID group (P < 0.05) and 30.8% (43 out of 136) in the GTN group (P < 0.05). In the control group 31 positive cultures were obtained. Twenty-one positive cultures were obtained in the GTN group and four cases of bacterial proliferation were observed in the NSAID group. Infusion phlebitis is a common problem in hospitalized patients and its incidence can be effectively reduced by NSAI gel and GTN but NSAI gel is more effective than GTN.

  2. Effects of glyceryl glucoside on AQP3 expression, barrier function and hydration of human skin.

    PubMed

    Schrader, A; Siefken, W; Kueper, T; Breitenbach, U; Gatermann, C; Sperling, G; Biernoth, T; Scherner, C; Stäb, F; Wenck, H; Wittern, K-P; Blatt, T

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) present in the epidermis are essential hydration-regulating elements controlling cellular water and glycerol transport. In this study, the potential of glyceryl glucoside [GG; alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-alpha-(1->2)-glycerol], an enhanced glycerol derivative, to increase the expression of AQP3 in vitro and ex vivo was evaluated. In vitro studies with real-time RT-PCR and FACS measurements were performed to test the induction by GG (3% w/v) of AQP3 mRNA and protein in cultured human keratinocytes. GG-containing formulations were applied topically to volunteer subjects and suction blister biopsies were analyzed to assess whether GG (5%) could penetrate the epidermis of intact skin, and subsequently upregulate AQP3 mRNA expression and improve barrier function. AQP3 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in cultured human keratinocytes. In the studies on volunteer subjects, GG significantly increased AQP3 mRNA levels in the skin and reduced transepidermal water loss compared with vehicle-controlled areas. GG promotes AQP3 mRNA and protein upregulation and improves skin barrier function, and may thus offer an effective treatment option for dehydrated skin. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles of Amphotericin B: Implication of Phytantriol and Glyceryl Monooleate on Bioavailability Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanyog; Yadav, Pooja; Swami, Rajan; Swarnakar, Nitin Kumar; Kushwah, Varun; Katiyar, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Implication of different dietary specific lipids such as phytantriol (PT) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) on enhancing the oral bioavailability of amphotericin B (AmB) was examined. Liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) were prepared using hydrotrope method, followed by in vitro characterization, Caco-2 cell monolayer uptake, and in vivo pharmacokinetic and toxicity evaluation. Optimized AmB-LCNPs displayed small particle size (< 210 nm) with a narrow distribution (~ 0.2), sustained drug release and high gastrointestinal stability, and reduced hemolytic toxicity. PLCNPs presented slower release, i.e., ~ 80% as compared to ~ 90% release in case of GLCNPs after 120 h. Significantly higher uptake in Caco-2 monolayer substantiated the role of LCNPs in increasing the intestinal permeability followed by increased drug titer in plasma. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated potential of PT in enhancing the bioavailability (approximately sixfold) w.r.t. of its native counterpart with reduced nephrotoxicity as presented by reduced nephrotoxicity biomarkers and histology studies. These studies established usefulness of PLCNPs over GLCNPs and plain drug. It can be concluded that acid-resistant lipid, PT, can be utilized efficiently as an alternate lipid for the preparation of LCNPs to enhance bioavailability and to reduce nephrotoxicity of the drug as compared to other frequently used lipid, i.e., GMO.

  4. Bioadhesive drug delivery system using glyceryl monooleate for the intravesical administration of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ju; Kim, Sae Woong; Chung, Hesson; Park, Yeong Taek; Choi, Young Wook; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Yoon, Moon Soo

    2005-10-01

    Many reports have shown that the efficacy of intravesical therapy for bladder cancer is in part limited by the poor penetration of drugs into the urothelium. The present study evaluated the effect of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) on the absorption of intravesically administered paclitaxel in a rabbit model of bladder cancer. Urine, plasma, and tissue pharmacokinetics were determined in rabbits treated for 120 min with paclitaxel (500 microg/20 ml) by intravesical instillation. Two formulations of GMO/paclitaxel were evaluated using different proportions of water, 15 and 30%, and Taxol was used as a control. Animals were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and necropsy was performed. 120 min after instillation, the bladder was emptied and excised. In the urine, paclitaxel concentration was decreased by 39.6 and 41.2% in the two experimental groups and by 25.2% in the control group. The paclitaxel concentrations in the urothelium were 53 and 56% of the urine concentration in both experimental groups, but 11% in the control group. The concentration then declined exponentially in the underlying capillary-perfused tissues, reaching equilibrium at a depth of 1,400-1,700 microm. The plasma concentrations were extremely low compared with concentrations in urine and bladder tissues and were not associated with clinical toxicity. We conclude that GMO has a significantly increased bioadhesiveness to bladder mucosa. Therefore, intravesical administration of GMO/paclitaxel/water provides a significant advantage for drugs targeting the bladder tissue, and paclitaxel represents a viable option for intravesical bladder cancer therapy. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Time-dependent interactions of the hypotensive effects of sildenafil citrate and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, James J; Kerr, Debra M; Webb, David J

    2009-01-01

    AIM To investigate the time course of the hypotensive interaction between sildenafil and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). METHODS Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover studies were performed. Subjects were challenged with sublingual GTN 400 µg at different times after oral sildenafil 100 mg. After each GTN challenge frequent measures of blood pressure (BP) were made. In the first study GTN was given 1–48 h after sildenafil/placebo to 33 healthy men. In the second study GTN was given 1–8 h after sildenafil/placebo to 20 men with stable angina. RESULTS In healthy men there was a greater mean maximum reduction in BP with sildenafil/GTN than with placebo/GTN only at 1 h. In angina patients, there was a greater mean maximum reduction in BP with sildenafil/GTN than with placebo/GTN for up to 8 h. The mean (95% confidence interval) differences in maximum systolic BP reduction (mmHg) at 1, 4, 6 and 8 h were −16 (−12, −21), −12 (−4, −20), −6 (1, −12) and −9 (−3, −15), all P < 0.05 except at 6 h (NS). At 6 and 8 h the interaction was not more than additive, and hypotensive symptoms did not occur. CONCLUSIONS In men with angina there is an interaction on BP reduction between sildenafil and GTN for ≥ 8 h after sildenafil administration, but this is no more than additive from 6 h. These data may be helpful to clinicians who are considering the use of GTN in patients presenting with angina who have received sildenafil within 24 h. PMID:19371313

  6. In Vitro Skin Penetration of Petrolatum and Soybean Oil and Effects of Glyceryl Monooleate.

    PubMed

    Intarakumhaeng, Rattikorn; Shi, Zhanquan; Wanasathop, Apipa; Stella, Q Ching; Wei, Karl S; Styczynski, P B; Li, Chuiying; Smith, Edward D; Li, S Kevin

    2018-06-06

    Petrolatum and soybean oil are common ingredients incorporated in topical skin formulations for skin protection and moisturization. However, the stratum corneum (SC) penetration kinetics of these two cosmetic ingredients has not been systematically studied. Glyceryl monooleate (GlyMOle) has been shown to enhance skin penetration of various compounds. It was hypothesized that GlyMOle could enhance skin penetration of petrolatum and soybean oil. The present study aimed to examine the in vitro skin penetration of petrolatum and soybean oil in the presence or absence of GlyMOle. Skin permeation experiments were conducted using the in vitro Franz diffusion cell model with split-thickness human skin and human epidermal membrane (HEM). The effect of permeant dose and the kinetics of permeant penetration were examined with and without GlyMOle in vitro. Petrolatum and soybean oil were found to permeate across HEM, and no effect of GlyMOle on skin permeation into the receptor chamber was observed. GlyMOle enhanced the penetration of petrolatum into the split-thickness skin at 50 μg dose (petrolatum:GlyMOle, 49:1, w/w). However, no effect of GlyMOle on petrolatum penetration was observed at 200 μg dose (petrolatum:GlyMOle, 49:1, w/w), indicating a dose-dependent effect. GlyMOle at the level used in the study did not enhance the penetration of soybean oil with 50 and 200 μg doses at any time points. GlyMOle was a skin penetration enhancer for petrolatum under the in vitro conditions identified in the present study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Systemic glyceryl trinitrate reduces anal sphincter tone: is there a therapeutic indication?

    PubMed

    Connolly, C; Tierney, S; Grace, P

    2018-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has diverse roles as a biological messenger. [1] Topically applied nitrate donors cause relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and facilitate healing of anal fissures [2,3]. Systemic nitrates are commonly used for the treatment of ischaemic heart disease, yet the effects of systemically administered nitrates on the smooth muscle of the IAS are unknown. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that systemically administered nitrates at a normal dose, cause inhibition of anal sphincter activity. With fully informed consent, anal manometry was performed on nine volunteers. Maximum and mean anal resting pressure (representing the IAS), maximum squeeze pressure (representing the external anal sphincter), heart rate and blood pressure were measured, before and after administration of a normal 400 μg dose of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate spray. Data are expressed as mean (± standard error of the mean (SEM)). In four females and five males ranging from 19 to 50 years of age, administration of GTN resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure from 138 ± 5 to 127 ± 4 mmHg, P < 0.01. Mean resting pressure, over 5 min, was significantly reduced from 70 ± 10 to 62 ± 10 mmHg P < 0.05. The maximum resting pressure was also significantly reduced from 109 ± 12 to 86 ± 10 mmHg P = 0.04. Maximum squeeze pressure, heart rate and diastolic blood pressure were not significantly reduced. Systemic nitrates significantly inhibit internal anal sphincter function.

  8. Emulsified systems based on glyceryl monostearate and potassium cetyl phosphate: scale-up and characterization of physical properties.

    PubMed

    Baby, André Rolim; Santoro, Diego Monegatto; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Dos Reis Serra, Cristina Helena

    2008-09-01

    Introducing a pharmaceutical product on the market involves several stages of research. The scale-up stage comprises the integration of previous phases of development and their integration. This phase is extremely important since many process limitations which do not appear on the small scale become significant on the transposition to a large one. Since scientific literature presents only a few reports about the characterization of emulsified systems involving their scaling-up, this research work aimed at evaluating physical properties of non-ionic and anionic emulsions during their manufacturing phases: laboratory stage and scale-up. Prototype non-ionic (glyceryl monostearate) and anionic (potassium cetyl phosphate) emulsified systems had the physical properties by the determination of the droplet size (D[4,3], mum) and rheology profile. Transposition occurred from a batch of 500-50,000g. Semi-industrial manufacturing involved distinct conditions: intensity of agitation and homogenization. Comparing the non-ionic and anionic systems, it was observed that anionic emulsifiers generated systems with smaller droplet size and higher viscosity in laboratory scale. Besides that, for the concentrations tested, augmentation of the glyceryl monostearate emulsifier content provided formulations with better physical characteristics. For systems with potassium cetyl phosphate, droplet size increased with the elevation of the emulsifier concentration, suggesting inadequate stability. The scale-up provoked more significant alterations on the rheological profile and droplet size on the anionic systems than the non-ionic.

  9. Site-specific immunosuppression using a new formulation of topical cyclosporine A with polyethylene glycol-8 glyceryl caprylate/caprate.

    PubMed

    Tran, H S; Malli, D; Chrzanowski, F A; Puc, M M; Matthews, M S; Hewitt, C W

    1999-05-15

    Dermal application of immunosuppressants can be an effective means of achieving site-specific immunosuppression (SITE) on skin allografts in burn wound management and in the treatment of various immune skin disorders. We have previously reported success with topical cyclosporine A (tCsA) in the treatment of skin allograft rejection in rats. Using a new tCsA formulation with a penetration enhancer (PE), polyethylene glycol-8 (PEG-8) glyceryl caprylate/caprate (Labrasol, Gattefossé, St. Priest, France), in a trinary drug delivery system, we hypothesized that we would induce SITE and significantly delay rejection of dual skin allografts in rats. Dual rat skin allografts from Lewis x Brown-Norway (LBN) donors were grafted to Lewis (Lew) recipients. Experimental animals (EXP, n = 7) received a 10-day course of systemic cyclosporine (sCsA, 8 mg/kg/day) followed by topical application. One of the two allografts on each experimental animal received tCsA/PE application (5 mg/kg/day) until sacrifice (tCsA/PE-treated). The other allograft received vehicle only (vehicle-treated). Allogeneic controls (ALLO-CON, n = 9) received no sCsA or tCsA. First signs of rejection were determined based on the initial observation of erythema, hair loss, flakiness, and/or scabs. The mean time to rejection for ALLO-CON allografts was 6.3 +/- 0.7 days (t test, P = 0.0013); for vehicle-treated allografts, 12.3 +/- 3.8 days (paired t test, P = 0.0146); and for tCsA/PE-treated allografts, 25.6 +/- 5.4 days. The disparity of days to rejection between dual allografts in the ALLO-CON group was 0.0 +/- 0.0 day and that between the tCsA/PE- and vehicle-treated dual allografts was 13.3 +/- 3.9 days (t test, P = 0.0016). A new formulation of tCsA in a trinary drug delivery system is successful at delaying the onset of rejection in dual skin allografts in rats by SITE, and PEG-8 glyceryl caprylate/caprate may represent a potentially effective transdermal penetration enhancer. Copyright 1999 Academic

  10. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride-loaded glyceryl monostearate nanoparticle: factorial design of Lutrol F68 and Phospholipon 90G.

    PubMed

    Shah, Malay; Agrawal, Yadvendra

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to develop glyceryl monostearate (Geleol)-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of a hydrophilic drug ciprofloxacin HCl. Hansen's solubility parameter study was carried out in screening of a suitable carrier and solvent system. Subsequently, SLNs were prepared by solvent diffusion evaporation method and investigated for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug release behaviour. Variations in SLN composition resulted in particle sizes between 170 and 810 nm and ZPs between 8 and 14 mV. The maximum EE was found to be 26.3% with particle size of 188.8 nm. SLN can sustain the release of drug for up to 15 h and it shows Higuchi matrix model as the best-fitted model. SLNs were stable without aggregation of particles under storage conditions. The results of this study provide the framework for further study involving the SLN formulation for hydrophilic drug molecule.

  11. Evaluation of the lubricating effect of magnesium stearate and glyceryl behenate solid lipid nanoparticles in a direct compression process.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Acevedo, Lizbeth; Zambrano-Zaragoza, María de la Luz; Vidal-Romero, Gustavo; Mendoza-Elvira, Susana; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2018-05-02

    The aim of this study was to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and introduce them into a direct compression process to evaluate their lubricant properties. The study consisted of preparing glyceryl behenate SLN (Compritol® 888 ATO) by hot dispersion, and magnesium stearate SLN by a novel nanoprecipitation/ion exchange method. The ejection force was measured for nanosystems and raw materials in a formulation typically used for direct compression. The smallest particle sizes obtained were 456 nm for Compritol® 888 ATO and 330 nm for magnesium stearate. Results show that the NPs used as lubricants in a direct compression model formulation provided efficient lubrication by maintaining the lubricating properties of the system, thereby decreasing the amount of lubricant used compared to the raw material. The lubricating effect showed an increase of 15-30% for magnesium stearate and Compritol® 888 ATO, compared to the raw material at concentrations above 2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Glyceryl trinitrate and caprylic acid for the mitigation of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on C1018 carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, P; Cai, W; Rosenblatt, J S; Raad, I I; Xu, D; Gu, T

    2016-02-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), also known as biocorrosion, is caused by corrosive biofilms. MIC is a growing problem, especially in the oil and gas industry. Among various corrosive microbes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are often the leading culprit. Biofilm mitigation is the key to MIC mitigation. Biocide applications against biofilms promote resistance over time. Thus, it is imperative to develop new biodegradable and cost-effective biocides for large-scale field applications. Using the corrosive Desulfovibrio vulgaris (an SRB) biofilm as a model biofilm, this work demonstrated that a cocktail of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and caprylic acid (CA) was very effective for biofilm prevention and mitigation of established biofilms on C1018 carbon steel coupons. The most probable number sessile cell count data and confocal laser scanning microscope biofilm images proved that the biocide cocktail of 25 ppm (w/w) GTN + 0.1% (w/w) CA successfully prevented the D. vulgaris biofilm establishment on C1018 carbon steel coupons while 100 ppm GTN + 0.1% CA effectively mitigated pre-established D. vulgaris biofilms on C1018 carbon steel coupons. In both cases, the cocktails were able to reduce the sessile cell count from 10(6) cells/cm(2) to an undetectable level.

  13. Rectogesic (glyceryl trinitrate 0.2%) ointment relieves symptoms of haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures.

    PubMed

    Tjandra, J J; Tan, J J Y; Lim, J F; Murray-Green, C; Kennedy, M L; Lubowski, D Z

    2007-06-01

    Some haemorrhoids are associated with high resting anal canal pressures. The aim of this study was to assess if Rectogesic, a topical glyceryl trinitrate 0.2% ointment was effective in relieving symptoms of early grade haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures. This was a prospective, two-centre, open label study of 58 patients with persistent haemorrhoidal symptoms. Patients with first or second degree haemorrhoids and a maximum resting anal canal pressure > 70 mmHg were included. Rectogesic was applied three times a day for 14 days. Anorectal manometry was performed 30 min after the first application of Rectogesic. A 28-day diary was completed during 14 days of therapy and for 14 days after cessation of treatment. This recorded the incidence of rectal bleeding, and visual analogue scales for anal pain, throbbing, pruritus, irritation and difficulty in bowel movement. Maximum resting anal canal pressures were reduced after application of Rectogesic (115.0 +/- 40.4 mmHg vs 94.7 +/- 34.1 mmHg, P < 0.001). In the study period and at 14 days after cessation of Rectogesic, there was significant reduction in rectal bleeding (P = 0.0002), and significant improvement of anal pain (P = 0.0024), throbbing (P = 0.0355), pruritus (P = 0.0043), irritation (P = 0.0000) and difficulty in bowel movement (P = 0.001). The main adverse event was headache in 43.1% of patients. Rectogesic is a safe and feasible treatment for patients with early grade haemorrhoids associated with high resting anal canal pressures.

  14. Effect of lipoic acid and α-glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline on astroglial cell proliferation and differentiation in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Grasso, S; Bramanti, V; Tomassoni, D; Bronzi, D; Malfa, G; Traini, E; Napoli, M; Renis, M; Amenta, F; Avola, R

    2014-01-01

    Lipoic acid plays a crucial role as antioxidant and metabolic component of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism of different cell types. Choline alphoscerate (α-glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline [αGPC]) is a semisynthetic derivative of phosphatidylcholines representing, among acetilcholine precursors, a cholinergic drug. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of some proliferation and differentiation markers in 15 or 21 DIV astrocyte cultures treated with 50 μM (+)lipoic acid or (+/-)lipoic acid and/or 10 mM αGPC for 24 hr. In addition, we evaluated the possible genoprotective effect by analysis of DNA status detected by alkaline comet assay. The addition of single drugs [(+)lipoic acid, (+/-)lipoic acid, or αGPC] induced an "upward modulation" of the expression of biomarkers used in our study. On the contrary, the cotreatment with either (+)lipoic acid + αGPC or (+/-)lipoic + αGPC surprisingly showed no significant modification or even a downregulation of the above-mentioned biomarkers. This latter finding demonstrated no additional effect after the cotreatment with both drugs with respect to the single treatments alone. Further studies are necessary to clarify the specific mechanism evoked by the processing of these neuroprotective agents in our in vitro models. Finally, these preliminary findings may represent a good tool with which to clarify the antioxidant and metabolic roles played by lipoic acid in proliferating and differentiating astroglial cell cultures, during an interactive cross-talk between glial and neuronal cells, after brain lesions or damage correlated with oxidative stress that may occur in some degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and enhanced oral bioavailability in beagle dogs of cyclosporine A encapsulated in glyceryl monooleate/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jie; Lu, Yi; Yin, Zongning; Hu, Fuqiang; Wu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to improve the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine A (CyA) remains a challenge in the field of drug delivery. In this study, glyceryl monooleate (GMO)/poloxamer 407 cubic nanoparticles were evaluated as potential vehicles to improve the oral bioavailability of CyA. Cubic nanoparticles were prepared via the fragmentation of a bulk GMO/poloxamer 407 cubic phase gel by sonication and homogenization. The cubic inner structure formed was verified using Cryo-TEM. The mean diameters of the nanoparticles were about 180 nm, and the entrapment efficiency of these particles for CyA was over 85%. The in vitro release of CyA from these nanoparticles was less than 5% at 12 h. The results of a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed improved absorption of CyA from cubic nanoparticles as compared to microemulsion-based Neoral®; higher Cmax (1371.18 ± 37.34 vs 969.68 ± 176.3 ng mL−1), higher AUC0–t (7757.21 ± 1093.64 vs 4739.52 ± 806.30 ng h mL−1) and AUC0–∞ (9004.77 ± 1090.38 vs 5462.31 ± 930.76 ng h mL−1). The relative oral bioavailability of CyA cubic nanoparticles calculated on the basis of AUC0–∞ was about 178% as compared to Neoral®. The enhanced bioavailability of CyA is likely due to facilitated absorption by cubic nanoparticles rather than improved release. PMID:20161984

  16. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Steunebrink, Mirjam; Zwerver, Johannes; Brandsema, Ruben; Groenenboom, Petra; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Weir, Adam

    2013-01-01

    To assess if continuous topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) treatment improves outcome in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy when compared with eccentric training alone. Randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing a 12-week programme of using a GTN or placebo patch in combination with eccentric squats on a decline board. Measurements were performed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction and pain scores during sports. Generalised estimated equation was used to analyse the treatment, time and treatment×time effect. Analyses were performed following the intention-to-treat principle. VISA-P scores for both groups improved over the study period to 75.0±16.2 and 80.7±22.1 at 24 weeks. Results showed a significant effect for time (p<0.01) but no effect for treatment×time (p=0.80). Mean Visual Analogue Scores pain scores during sports for both groups increased over the study period to 6.6±3 and 7.8±3.1. Results showed a significant effect for time (p<0.01) but no effect for treatment×time (p=0.38). Patient satisfaction showed no difference between GTN and placebo groups (p=0.25) after 24 weeks, but did show a significant difference over time (p=0.01). Three patients in the GTN group reported some rash. It seems that continuous topical GTN treatment in addition to an eccentric exercise programme does not improve clinical outcome compared to placebo patches and an eccentric exercise programme in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy.

  17. Glyceryl monooleyl ether-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles as a transdermal delivery system of flurbiprofen: characterization and in vitro transport.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Tomonobu; Murata, Akiko; Miyazaki, Yasunori; Oka, Toshihiko; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs) were prepared using glyceryl monooleyl ether (GME) by the modified film rehydration method. Hydrogenated lecithin (HL), 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG), and Poloxamer 407 were used as additives. The prepared LCN formulations were evaluated based on particle size, small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) analysis, (1)H- and (19)F-NMR spectra, and in vitro skin permeation across Yucatan micropig skin. The composition (weight percent) of the LCN formulations were GME-HL-1,3-BG (4 : 1 : 15), 4% GME-based LCN and GME-HL-1,3-BG (8 : 1 : 15), 8% GME-based LCN and their mean particle sizes were 130-175 nm. Flurbiprofen 5 and 10 mg was loaded into 4% GME-based LCN and 8% GME-based LCN systems, respectively. The results of SAXS and NMR suggested that both flurbiprofen-loaded formulations consist of particles with reverse type hexagonal phase (formation of hexosome) and flurbiprofen molecules were localized in the lipid domain through interaction of flurbiprofen with the lipid components. Flurbiprofen transport from the LCN systems across the Yucatan micropig skin was increased compared to flurbiprofen in citric buffer (pH=3.0). The 8% GME-based LCN systems was superior to the 4% GME-based LCN for flurbiprofen transport. Since the internal hexagonal phase in the 8% GME-based LCN systems had a higher degree of order compared to the 4% GME-based LCN in SAXS patterns, the 8% GME-based LCN system had a larger surface area, which might influence flurbiprofen permeation. These results indicated that the GME-based LCN system is effective in improving the skin permeation of flurbiprofen across the skin.

  18. Ictal lack of binding to brain parenchyma suggests integrity of the blood-brain barrier for 11C-dihydroergotamine during glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine.

    PubMed

    Schankin, Christoph J; Maniyar, Farooq H; Seo, Youngho; Kori, Shashidar; Eller, Michael; Chou, Denise E; Blecha, Joseph; Murphy, Stephanie T; Hawkins, Randall A; Sprenger, Till; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    SEE DREIER DOI 101093/AWW112 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: For many decades a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier has been postulated to occur in migraine. Hypothetically this would facilitate access of medications, such as dihydroergotamine or triptans, to the brain despite physical properties otherwise restricting their entry. We studied the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in six migraineurs and six control subjects at rest and during acute glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks using positron emission tomography with the novel radioligand (11)C-dihydroergotamine, which is chemically identical to pharmacologically active dihydroergotamine. The influx rate constant Ki, average dynamic image and time activity curve were assessed using arterial blood sampling and served as measures for receptor binding and thus blood-brain barrier penetration. At rest, there was binding of (11)C-dihydroergotamine in the choroid plexus, pituitary gland, and venous sinuses as expected from the pharmacology of dihydroergotamine. However, there was no binding to the brain parenchyma, including the hippocampus, the area with the highest density of the highest-affinity dihydroergotamine receptors, and the raphe nuclei, a postulated brainstem site of action during migraine, suggesting that dihydroergotamine is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This binding pattern was identical in migraineurs during glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks as well as in matched control subjects. We conclude that (11)C-dihydroergotamine is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier interictally or ictally demonstrating that the blood-brain barrier remains tight for dihydroergotamine during acute glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved.

  19. The preparation by extrusion/spheronization and the properties of pellets containing drugs, microcrystalline cellulose and glyceryl monostearate.

    PubMed

    Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael

    2005-01-01

    Pellets have been prepared by extrusion and spheronization containing microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and four model drugs with decreasing order of solubility, paracetamol (P), diclofenac sodium (D), ibuprofen (IB) and indomethacin (IN) at a 10% level with and without the addition of a range of levels of glyceryl monostearate (GMS). The drugs differed in their response to extrusion in that all formulations containing the drug D had a 'steady state' extrusion profile whereas the other three drugs exhibited 'forced flow' indicating the possibility of water migration during the process of ram extrusion. The presence of GMS did not influence this effect. The drug D also required consistently less water to function than the other three drugs. In spite of these differences in extrusion performance, it was possible to prepare satisfactory pellets from formulations of all the drugs with 0, 30 and 60% GMS combined with 90, 60 or 30% of MCC at a range of water levels. It was also possible to prepare pellets containing the drug D with 70, 80 and 90% GMS, with corresponding quantities of 20, 10 and 0% of MCC. It was also possible to prepare the pellet formulations by dispersing the drugs in molten GMS, grinding and processing this with MCC and water. Such systems retained the processing characteristics of the composition made by the blending of the powder. The presence of GMS in all cases reduced the quantity of water required for the process to function. The steady state or the mean of the range of the forces observed during forced flow, were dependent on the composition and the quantity of water added. The surface of the extrudate appeared smooth and measurements of surface roughness established that the value of the rugosity R(a) for any of the extrudates did not exceed 6 microm. The extrudate diameter was found to increase with the quantity of GMS in the formulation. The pellets produced were all within a relatively narrow size range (three sieve fractions of a root two

  20. Efficacy and Safety of MED2005, a Topical Glyceryl Trinitrate Formulation, in the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Ralph, David J; Eardley, Ian; Taubel, Jorg; Terrill, Paul; Holland, Tim

    2018-02-01

    Current treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED) have some limitations. This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of MED2005, a 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate topical gel, formulated into an enhanced absorption topical delivery system (DermaSys), administered on demand, in the treatment of ED. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase II crossover trial involved 232 men with ED (231 treated, 230 assessed for efficacy) and their partners. After a 4-week run-in period, patients were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment sequences, MED2005-placebo or placebo-MED2005. Each treatment was given for 4 weeks, separated by a 1-week washout interval. Efficacy was assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), the Sexual Encounter Profile, a Global Assessment Questionnaire (GAQ), and specific questions about the onset and offset of action and treatment preferences (patients and partners). The primary outcome measure was the IIEF erectile function domain (IIEF-EF) score. Other efficacy assessments were secondary outcomes. The mean baseline IIEF-EF score was 17.1 (SD = 5.7), and this increased to 19.6 (SD = 7.5) after MED2005 treatment and 18.5 (SD = 6.7) after placebo (P = .0132). Overall, 23.1% of patients showed a clinically relevant (≥4-point) increase in IIEF-EF scores after treatment with MED2005 only compared with 14.5% who responded after MED2005 and placebo, 14.0% who responded after placebo only, and 48.4% who did not respond after either treatment (P = .0272). MED2005 also was associated with significant improvements compared with placebo in the other IIEF domains, and this was consistent with patients' and partners' responses to the GAQ. For all assessments, significant effects of MED2005 were seen primarily in patients with mild ED. The start of erection was noticed within 5 and 10 minutes in 44.2% and 69.5%, respectively, of all intercourse attempts with MED2005. Patients and partners showed significant preferences for MED2005

  1. Analysis of curing of a sustained release coating formulation by application of NIR spectroscopy to monitor changes associated with glyceryl monostearate.

    PubMed

    Howland, Harris; Fahmy, Raafat; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    For controlled release, latex or pseudolatex coatings to function as designed, it must be cured at temperatures at or slightly above the polymer's glass transition temperature. The focus of this study is to develop an understanding of the curing process and to develop near infrared spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring curing. Differential scanning calorimetry studies were used to determine how the thermal properties of glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and its polymorphic forms relate to the extent of Eudragit® polymer coat curing at different curing temperatures. The different GMS melting endotherms were used to monitor the extent of curing and as references for model development. The calculated melting peak areas for the GMS were plotted versus time and found to be dependent on time and temperature used for curing. Principal component analysis and parallel factor analysis were used to investigate the effect of curing on the films and showed that spectral changes could be could be directly related to the changes associated with the GMS during curing. Partial least square models developed could predict the extent of curing and the final state of GMS post curing.

  2. Liquid Crystalline Systems Based on Glyceryl Monooleate and Penetration Enhancers for Skin Delivery of Celecoxib: Characterization, In Vitro Drug Release, and In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Dante, Mariane de Cássia Lima; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; Fantini, Marcia Carvalho de Abreu; Praça, Fabíola Silva Garcia; Medina, Wanessa Silva Garcia; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2018-03-01

    Celecoxib (CXB) is a widely used anti-inflammatory drug that also acts as a chemopreventive agent against several types of cancer, including skin cancer. As the long-term oral administration of CXB has been associated with severe side effects, the skin delivery of this drug represents a promising alternative for the treatment of skin inflammatory conditions and chemoprevention of skin cancer. We prepared and characterized liquid crystalline systems based on glyceryl monooleate and water containing penetration enhancers which were primarily designed to promote skin delivery of CXB. Analysis of their phase behavior revealed the formation of cubic and hexagonal phases depending on the systems' composition. The systems' structure and composition markedly affected the in vitro CXB release profile. Oleic acid reduced CXB release rate, but association oleic acid/propylene glycol increased the drug release rate. The developed systems significantly reduced inflammation in an aerosil-induced rat paw edema model. The systems' composition and liquid crystalline structure influenced their anti-inflammatory potency. Cubic phase systems containing oleic acid/propylene glycol association reduced edema in a sustained manner, indicating that they modulate CXB release and permeation. Our findings demonstrate that the developed liquid crystalline systems are potential carriers for the skin delivery of CXB. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effects of riboflavin and selenium on brain microsomal Ca2+-ATPase and oxidative damage caused by glyceryl trinitrate in a rat headache model.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Uğuz, Abdulhadi Cihangir; Bütün, Ayşe

    2015-03-01

    Migraine headaches are considered to be associated with increased mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is also important in migraine headache pathophysiology although riboflavin and selenium (Se) induced a modulator role on mitochondrial oxidative stress in the brain. The current study aimed to determine the effects of Se with/without riboflavin on the microsomal membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (MMCA), lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, and electroencephalography (EEG) values in glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced brain injury rats. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was used as the control, and the second group was the GTN group. Se and Se plus oral riboflavin were administered to rats constituting the third and fourth groups for 10 days prior to GTN administration. The second, third, and fourth groups received GTN to induce headache. Ten hours after the administration of GTN, the EEG records and brain cortex samples were obtained for all groups. Brain cortex microsomes were obtained from the brain samples. The brain and microsomal lipid peroxidation levels were higher in the GTN group compared to the control group, whereas they were decreased by selenium and selenium + riboflavin treatments. Vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations of the brain and MMCA, GSH and glutathione peroxidase values of microsomes were decreased by the GTN administration, although the values and β-carotene concentrations were increased by Se and Se + riboflavin treatments. There was no significant change in EEG records of the four groups. In conclusion, Se with/without riboflavin administration protected against GTN-induced brain oxidative toxicity by inhibiting free radicals and the modulation of MMCA activity and supporting the antioxidant redox system.

  4. [Effectiveness of contemporary injection of botulinum toxin and topical application of glyceryl trinitrate against postoperative pain after Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy].

    PubMed

    Patti, Rosalia; Angileri, Mariangela; Migliore, Giovanni; Sammartano, Sergio; Termine, Stefania; Crivello, Floriana; Gioè, Franco Paolo; Di Vita, Gaetano

    2006-01-01

    After haemorrhoidectomy the maximum resting pressure (MRP) of the anal canal is significantly increased. This increase play an important role in the making of postoperative pain. Recently, both the topical application of glyceryl trinitrate (GT) and the intrasphincter injection of botulinum toxin (Tox), resulted effective, in reducing temporary the MRP although with different mechanism of action. In this study the effectiveness and safe of contemporary injection of Tox and topical application of 300 mg/die of GT after Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy, were evaluated. Ten patients, undergoing Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy for 3rd and 4th degree haemorrhoids are included in this study. In all subjects, preoperatively and after 5 and 40 day following surgery, an ano-rectal manometry was performed. At the end of surgery, in all patients, 0.4 ml of solution containing 20UI of Tox was injected and 100 mg of 0.2% of GT was applied in the anal canal and in the perianal wounds. Afterwards the patients has been instructed to apply 100 mg of GT three times daily, for seven days. Time of perianal wounds healing, of first defecation, to return to work, of duration of surgery, of hospital stay, the complications, postoperative pain either on resting or during defecation, the analgesic consumption and side effects were recordered. On the 5th and 40th postoperative day, the MRP resulted significantly reduced as compared to preoperative values. Postoperative pain either on resting or during defecation was higher on the 1st assessment, afterwards it progressively decreased. Anal incontinence was observed only in two patients, whereas headache only in one case. The contemporary intrasphincter injection of Tox and perianal application of 300 mg/die of GT is safe and effective, with an incidence of complications similar to those detected when this drugs are given alone.

  5. Endosonographic and manometric evaluation of internal anal sphincter in patients with chronic anal fissure and its correlation with clinical outcome after topical glyceryl trinitrate therapy.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Marta; Pera, Miguel; Courtier, Ricard; Gil, Mariá José; Parés, David; Puig, Sonia; Andreu, Montserrat; Grande, Luis

    2007-08-01

    Anorectal pressure studies have demonstrated internal anal sphincter (IAS) hypertonia in patients with chronic anal fissure. It is unknown however, if these changes in IAS function are associated with any abnormality in sphincter morphology. The first aim was to investigate the clinical characteristics and the manometric and endosonographic findings of the IAS in a cohort of patients with chronic anal fissure. The second aim was to investigate the association between these findings and the outcome with topical Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) therapy. All patients who presented with chronic anal fissure from November 1999 to May 2004 were included after failure of conservative therapy. Anorectal manometry and anal endosonography were performed before treatment with 0.2% GTN ointment twice daily was initiated. Patients were evaluated after 8 weeks. One hundred and twenty-four patients (66 women, mean age, 45.2 +/- 14.8 years) were included. Hypertonia of the IAS was found in 84 (68%) patients. The mean maximum IAS thickness was 3.6 +/- 0.76 mm (1.6-5.5). An abnormally thick IAS, adjusted by age, was observed in 113 (91.1%) patients. We found no correlation between resting pressure and IAS thickness (r = 0.074; p = 0.41). At 8 weeks, 52 patients (42%) had healed with complete symptoms resolution. No statistically significant differences were observed when clinical features and manometric and endosonographic findings were compared between healing and no-healing fissures. The majority of patients with chronic anal fissure present an abnormally thick IAS. Clinical, manometric and endosonographic features had no association with outcome after GTN treatment.

  6. Progress toward acetate supplementation therapy for Canavan disease: glyceryl triacetate administration increases acetate, but not N-acetylaspartate, levels in brain.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Raji; Arun, Peethambaran; Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, M A Aryan

    2005-10-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a fatal genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the gene for aspartoacylase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartate (NAA) into L-aspartate and acetate. Because aspartoacylase is localized in oligodendrocytes, and NAA-derived acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, we hypothesize that an acetate deficiency in oligodendrocytes is responsible for the pathology in CD, and we propose acetate supplementation as a possible therapy. In our preclinical efforts toward this goal, we studied the effectiveness of orally administered glyceryl triacetate (GTA) and calcium acetate for increasing acetate levels in the murine brain. The concentrations of brain acetate and NAA were determined simultaneously after intragastric administration of GTA. We found that the acetate levels in brain were increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with a 17-fold increase observed at 1 to 2 h in 20- to 21-day-old mice at a dose of 5.8 g/kg GTA. NAA levels in the brain were not significantly increased under these conditions. Studies using mice at varying stages of development showed that the dose of GTA required to maintain similarly elevated acetate levels in the brain increased with age. Also, GTA was significantly more effective as an acetate source than calcium acetate. Chronic administration of GTA up to 25 days of age did not result in any overt pathology in the mice. Based on these results and the current Food and Drug Administration-approved use of GTA as a food additive, we propose that it is a potential candidate for use in acetate supplementation therapy for CD.

  7. Glyceryl triacetate for Canavan disease: a low-dose trial in infants and evaluation of a higher dose for toxicity in the tremor rat model.

    PubMed

    Madhavarao, C N; Arun, P; Anikster, Y; Mog, S R; Staretz-Chacham, O; Moffett, J R; Grunberg, N E; Gahl, W A; Namboodiri, A M A

    2009-10-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a fatal dysmyelinating genetic disorder associated with aspartoacylase deficiency, resulting in decreased brain acetate levels and reduced myelin lipid synthesis in the developing brain. Here we tested tolerability of a potent acetate precursor, glyceryl triacetate (GTA), at low doses in two infants diagnosed with CD, aged 8 and 13 months. Much higher doses of GTA were evaluated for toxicity in the tremor rat model of CD. GTA was given orally to the infants for up to 4.5 and 6 months, starting at 25 mg/kg twice daily, doubling the dose weekly until a maximum of 250 mg/kg reached. Wild-type and tremor rat pups were given GTA orally twice daily, initially at a dose of 4.2 g/kg from postnatal days 7 through 14, and at 5.8 g/kg from day 15 through 23, and thereafter in food (7.5%) and water (5%). At the end of the trial (approximately 90 to 120 days) sera and tissues from rats were analysed for changes in blood chemistry and histopathology. GTA treatment caused no detectable toxicity and the patients showed no deterioration in clinical status. In the high-dose animal studies, no significant differences in the mean blood chemistry values occurred between treated and untreated groups, and no lesions indicating toxicity were detectable in any of the tissues examined. Lack of GTA toxicity in two CD patients in low-dose trials, as well as in high-dose animal studies, suggests that higher, effective dose studies in human CD patients are warranted.

  8. A pragmatic group sequential, placebo-controlled, randomised trial to determine the effectiveness of glyceryl trinitrate for retained placenta (GOT-IT): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Norrie, John; Lawton, Julia; Norman, Jane E; Scotland, Graham; McPherson, Gladys C; McDonald, Alison; Forrest, Mark; Hudson, Jemma; Brewin, Jane; Peace, Mathilde; Clarkson, Cynthia; Brook-Smith, Sheonagh; Morrow, Susan; Hallowell, Nina; Hodges, Laura; Carruthers, Kathryn F

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A retained placenta is diagnosed when the placenta is not delivered following delivery of the baby. It is a major cause of postpartum haemorrhage and treated by the operative procedure of manual removal of placenta (MROP). Methods and analysis The aim of this pragmatic, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind UK-wide trial, with an internal pilot and nested qualitative research to adjust strategies to refine delivery of the main trial, is to determine whether sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is (or is not) clinically and cost-effective for (medical) management of retained placenta. The primary clinical outcome is need for MROP, defined as the placenta remaining undelivered 15 min poststudy treatment and/or being required within 15 min of treatment due to safety concerns. The primary safety outcome is measured blood loss between administration of treatment and transfer to the postnatal ward or other clinical area. The primary patient-sided outcome is satisfaction with treatment and a side effect profile. The primary economic outcome is net incremental costs (or cost savings) to the National Health Service of using GTN versus standard practice. Secondary outcomes are being measured over a range of clinical and economic domains. The primary outcomes will be analysed using linear models appropriate to the distribution of each outcome. Health service costs will be compared with multiple trial outcomes in a cost-consequence analysis of GTN versus standard practice. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the North-East Newcastle & North Tyneside 2 Research Ethics Committee (13/NE/0339). Dissemination plans for the trial include the Health Technology Assessment Monograph, presentation at international scientific meetings and publication in high-impact, peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ISCRTN88609453; Pre-results. PMID:28928192

  9. Stabilizing effect of cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate as co-emulsifiers on hydrocarbon-free O/W glyceride creams.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, C; Mueller, B W

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a stable O/W cream is characterized by a more or less pronounced mixed crystal bilayer. The addition of co-emulsifiers in order to achieve a soft formulation often leads to a mixed crystal bilayer network of high viscosity and even phase separation. In order to ovoid this components of different chemical identities are used which often are not inert or harmless if they are absorbed. For this reason it seems to be interesting to use only components from one chemical family, e.g. to use only glycerides and their derivatives because in the case of absorption they are metabolized. The disadvantages of glyceride creams are, however, their low viscosity. The aim of this investigation was to find the optimum amount of co-emulsifier as consistency excipient for the basic formulation of an O/W glyceride cream. This was achieved by using differential scanning calorimetry; thermogravimetry, oscillation rheology and various stress tests. The amount of co-emulsifier used should not be too high, as it would crystallize increasingly during storage which gives the preparation an optical inhomogenity and a lack in softness which is needed for a suitable cosmetic acceptance. A slightly higher concentration than is necessary for the mixed emulsifier system can be advantageous, as the formation of a separate crystalline lipophilic network in the preparation increases its viscosity which will lead to a higher physico-chemical stability of the formulation. These results were obtained with the co-emulsifiers glyceryl monostearate (Imwitor 900), cetylstearyl alcohol (Lanette O), and PEG-20-glycerolstearate (Tagat S2) as O/W emulsifier. As oil phase a mixture of Miglyol 812 (caprylic/capric triglyceride) and Avocado oil was used.

  10. A pragmatic group sequential, placebo-controlled, randomised trial to determine the effectiveness of glyceryl trinitrate for retained placenta (GOT-IT): a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Denison, Fiona C; Norrie, John; Lawton, Julia; Norman, Jane E; Scotland, Graham; McPherson, Gladys C; McDonald, Alison; Forrest, Mark; Hudson, Jemma; Brewin, Jane; Peace, Mathilde; Clarkson, Cynthia; Brook-Smith, Sheonagh; Morrow, Susan; Hallowell, Nina; Hodges, Laura; Carruthers, Kathryn F

    2017-09-18

    A retained placenta is diagnosed when the placenta is not delivered following delivery of the baby. It is a major cause of postpartum haemorrhage and treated by the operative procedure of manual removal of placenta (MROP). The aim of this pragmatic, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind UK-wide trial, with an internal pilot and nested qualitative research to adjust strategies to refine delivery of the main trial, is to determine whether sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is (or is not) clinically and cost-effective for (medical) management of retained placenta. The primary clinical outcome is need for MROP, defined as the placenta remaining undelivered 15 min poststudy treatment and/or being required within 15 min of treatment due to safety concerns. The primary safety outcome is measured blood loss between administration of treatment and transfer to the postnatal ward or other clinical area. The primary patient-sided outcome is satisfaction with treatment and a side effect profile. The primary economic outcome is net incremental costs (or cost savings) to the National Health Service of using GTN versus standard practice. Secondary outcomes are being measured over a range of clinical and economic domains. The primary outcomes will be analysed using linear models appropriate to the distribution of each outcome. Health service costs will be compared with multiple trial outcomes in a cost-consequence analysis of GTN versus standard practice. Ethical approval has been obtained from the North-East Newcastle & North Tyneside 2 Research Ethics Committee (13/NE/0339). Dissemination plans for the trial include the Health Technology Assessment Monograph, presentation at international scientific meetings and publication in high-impact, peer-reviewed journals. ISCRTN88609453; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  11. Randomized clinical trial assessing the side-effects of glyceryl trinitrate and diltiazem hydrochloride in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Kocher, H M; Steward, M; Leather, A J M; Cullen, P T

    2002-04-01

    Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment (0 small middle dot2 per cent) has an efficacy of up to 68 per cent in healing chronic anal fissure, but with headache as a major side-effect. Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ) cream (2 per cent) is expected to have fewer side-effects. A prospective double-blind randomized two-centre trial requiring at least 26 patients in each group (alpha = 0.05, beta = 0.9) was instituted after approval of the local ethics committee, to compare the incidence of side-effects (primary endpoint) with 0.2 per cent GTN ointment and 2 per cent DTZ cream in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Treatments were applied perianally, twice daily for 6-8 weeks. All patients gave written informed consent. Both groups were comparable in patient demographics and clinical characteristics. Twelve patients violated the protocol, withdrew or did not attend follow-up. There were more side-effects with GTN (21 of 29 patients) than with DTZ (13 of 31) (relative risk (RR) 1.84 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 1.11 to 3.04), P = 0.01). In particular, more headaches occurred with GTN (17 of 29 patients) than with DTZ (eight of 31) (RR 2.06 (95 per cent c.i. 1.18 to 3.59), P = 0.01). There were no significant differences in healing and symptomatic improvement rates between patients receiving GTN (25 of 29) and DTZ (24 of 31). DTZ cream caused substantially fewer headaches than GTN ointment. There was no significant difference in the healing or improvement of chronic anal fissure between the treatments. DTZ may be the preferred first-line treatment for chronic anal fissure.

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of release from glyceryl monostearate-based implants: evaluation of release in a gel simulating in vivo implantation.

    PubMed

    Allababidi, S; Shah, J C

    1998-06-01

    The overall objective of the study was to design an implantable delivery system based on glyceryl monostearate (GMS) for the site-specific delivery of antibiotics for the prevention of surgical wound infection. To design the implant, a release method had to be developed that simulate the in vivo implantation conditions to be able to predict the release characteristics from the implants when they are actually used in vivo. Also, identifying the release kinetics and mechanism and evaluating the factors that influence the release of drugs from the GMS-based matrix were necessary to allow further design of implants that could yield a desired release rate. The release of cefazolin was monitored from GMS matrixes implanted into agar gel, simulating subcutaneous tissues with respect to viscosity and water content. The gel method resulted in observation of spatial and temporal concentration profiles in the immediate vicinity of the implants, indicating the benefits of local drug delivery; however, there was no significant difference between the cumulative release profiles by the gel method or the vial release method. The release of cefazolin from the GMS-based matrix with the vial method followed Higuchi's square root of time kinetics. The release rate was found to be directly proportional to cefazolin load (A) and the surface area (SA) of the matrix as expressed by the following equation: = 0.24ASA. On the basis of this equation, one can design a variety of GMS matrixes that would result in a desired release rate or release duration. This also indicated that cefazolin release followed the release kinetics of a freely soluble drug from an insoluble matrix and hence it is a diffusion-controlled process. The effect of drug solubility on the release kinetics was determined by comparing the release kinetics of the poorly water soluble ciprofloxacin (0.16 mg/mL) to that of the highly water soluble cefazolin (325 mg/mL). The release duration of ciprofloxacin (80 h) was longer

  13. Neuroprotective effects of glyceryl nonivamide against microglia-like cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chin; Uang, Hao-Wei; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Ing-Jun; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2007-12-01

    Glyceryl nonivamide (GLNVA), a vanilloid receptor (VR) agonist, has been reported to have calcitonin gene-related peptide-associated vasodilatation and to prevent subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLNVA on activated microglia-like cell mediated- and proparkinsonian neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In coculture conditions, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells as a model of activated microglia. LPS-induced neuronal death was significantly inhibited by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. However, capsazepine, the selective VR1 antagonist, did not block the neuroprotective effects of GLNVA. GLNVA reduced LPS-activated microglia-mediated neuronal death, but it lacked protection in DPI-pretreated cultures. GLNVA also decreased LPS activated microglia induced overexpression of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) and glycoprotein 91 phagocyte oxidase (gp91(phox)) on SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of BV-2 cells with GLNVA diminished LPS-induced nitric oxide production, overexpression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), and gp91(phox) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS). GLNVA also reduced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB (IkappaB)alpha/IkappaBbeta degradation, NF-kappaB activation, and the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and prostaglandin E2 in BV-2 cells. However, GLNVA augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production on LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells, GLNVA rescued the changes in condensed nuclear and apoptotic bodies, prevented the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced cells death. GLNVA also suppressed accumulation of iROS and up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 expression. 6-OHDA-induced overexpression of nNOS, i

  14. The inhibitory effect of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole on relaxation induced by hydroxylamine and sodium azide but not hydrogen peroxide or glyceryl trinitrate in rat aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Mian, K. B.; Martin, W.

    1995-01-01

    1. In this study we investigated the role of catalase in relaxation induced by hydroxylamine, sodium azide, glyceryl trinitrate and hydrogen peroxide in isolated rings of rat aorta. 2. Hydrogen peroxide (1 microM-1 mM)-induced concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (PE)-induced tone in endothelium-containing rings. In endothelium-denuded rings, however, higher concentrations (30 microM-1 mM) of hydrogen peroxide were required to produce relaxation. The endothelium-dependent component of hydrogen peroxide-induced relaxation was abolished following pretreatment with N(O)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM). L-NAME (30 microM) had no effect, however, on hydrogen peroxide-induced relaxation in endothelium-denuded rings. 3. Pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with catalase (1000 u ml-1) blocked relaxation induced by hydrogen peroxide (10 microM-1 mM). The ability of catalase to inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced relaxation was partially blocked following incubation with 3-amino-1,2, 4-triazole (AT, 50 mM) for 30 min and completely blocked at 90 min. 4. Pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with methylene blue (MeB, 30 microM) inhibited relaxation induced by hydrogen peroxide (10 microM-1 mM), sodium azide (1-300 nM), hydroxylamine (1-300 nM) and glyceryl trinitrate (1-100 nM) suggesting that each acted by stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase. 5. Pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with AT (1-50 mM, 90 min) to inhibit endogenous catalase blocked relaxation induced by sodium azide (1-300 nM) and hydroxylamine (1-300 nM) but had no effect on relaxation induced by hydrogen peroxide (10 microM-1 mM) or glyceryl trinitrate (1-100 nM). 6. In a cell-free system, incubation of sodium azide (10 microM-3 mM) and hydroxylamine (10 microM-30 mM) but not glyceryl trinitrate (10 microM-1 mM) with catalase (1000 u ml-1) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM) led to production of nitrite, a major breakdown product of nitric oxide. AT (1

  15. Physicochemical Properties of α-Form Hydrated Crystalline Phase of 3-(10-Carboxydecyl)-1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyl Trisiloxane/Higher alcohol/Polyoxyethylene (5 mol) Glyceryl monostearate/Water System.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Makoto; Araki, Hidefumi; Fukuhara, Tadao; Watanabe, Kei

    2018-06-07

    The α-form hydrated crystalline phase (often called as an α-gel) is one of the hydrated crystalline phases which can be exhibited by surfactants and lipids. In this study, a novel system of an α-form hydrated crystal was developed, composed of 3-(10-carboxydecyl)-1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyl trisiloxane (CDTS), polyoxyethylene (5 mol) glyceryl monostearate (GMS-5), higher alcohol. This is the first report to indicate that a silicone surfactant can form an α-form hydrated crystal. The physicochemical properties of this system were characterized by small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) experiments. SWAXS and DSC measurements revealed that a plurality of crystalline phases coexist in the CDTS/higher alcohol/water ternary system. By adding GMS-5 to the ternary system, however, a wide region of a single α-form hydrated crystalline phase was obtained. The self-diffusion coefficients (D sel ) from the NMR measurements suggested that all of the CDTS, GMS-5, and higher alcohol molecules were incorporated into the same α-form hydrated crystals.

  16. Effect of Treatment Delay, Stroke Type, and Thrombolysis on the Effect of Glyceryl Trinitrate, a Nitric Oxide Donor, on Outcome after Acute Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient from Randomised Trials.

    PubMed

    Bath, Philip M; Woodhouse, Lisa; Krishnan, Kailash; Anderson, Craig; Berge, Eivind; Ford, Gary A; Robinson, Thompson G; Saver, Jeffrey L; Sprigg, Nikola; Wardlaw, Joanna M; In Acute Stroke Collaboration Basc, Blood Pressure

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nitric oxide (NO) donors are a candidate treatment for acute stroke and two trials have suggested that they might improve outcome if administered within 4-6 hours of stroke onset. We assessed the safety and efficacy of NO donors using individual patient data (IPD) from completed trials. Methods. Randomised controlled trials of NO donors in patients with acute or subacute stroke were identified and IPD sought from the trialists. The effect of NO donor versus control on functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) and death, by time to randomisation. Secondary outcomes included measures of disability, mood, and quality of life. Results. Five trials (4,197 participants) were identified, all involving glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Compared with control, GTN lowered blood pressure by 7.4/3.3 mmHg. At day 90, GTN did not alter any clinical measures. However, in 312 patients randomised within 6 hours of stroke onset, GTN was associated with beneficial shifts in the mRS (odds ratio (OR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.78) and reduced death (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.78). Conclusions. NO donors do not alter outcome in patients with recent stroke. However, when administered within 6 hours, NO donors might improve outcomes in both ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke.

  17. Development of curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles utilizing glyceryl monostearate as single lipid using QbD approach: Characterization and Evaluation of anticancer activity against human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Himanshu; Rompicharla, Sri Vishnu Kiran; Komanduri, Neeraja; Shah, Aashma; Paradkar, Sateja; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2018-05-03

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) represent an affordable, easily scalable, stable and biocompatible drug delivery system with a high drug to lipid ratio which also improves solubility of poorly soluble drugs. SLNs were developed by using glyceryl monostearate as the single lipid in presence of surfactant Poloxamer 188 and evaluated the efficiency of the SLNs to load the therapeutic cargo, curcumin (CUR). The nano-formulation was optimized by Quality by Design approach to understand the effect of various process parameters on various quality attributes, including drug loadability, particle size and polydispersity. The nanoparticles were characterized using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. These novel SLNs were evaluated for in-vitro anticancer activity using breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231). The optimized formulation had particle size of 226.802±3.92 nm with low polydispersity index of 0.244±0.018. The % encapsulation of CUR into SLNs was found to be 67.88±2.08 %. DSC, FT-IR and XRD confirmed that the CUR was encapsulated stably into the lipid matrix, thereby improving the solubility of the drug. CUR-SLN showed sustained drug release in comparison to the free CUR solution. CUR-SLNs exhibited higher cellular uptake in human breast adenocarcinoma cells compared to free CUR at both 1 and 4 h time points. CUR-SLNs demonstrated decreased cell viability (43.97±1.53%) compared to free CUR (59.33±0.95%) at a concentration of 50 μg/mL after 24 h treatment. Further, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with CUR-SLNs for 24 h induced significantly higher apoptosis (37.28±5.3%) in cells compared to the free CUR (21.06±0.97%). The results provide strong rationale for further exploration of the newly developed CUR-SLN to be utilized as a potent chemotherapeutic agent in cancer therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Oil recovery method utilizing glyceryl ether sulfonates

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, C.G.

    1984-03-13

    Petroleum may be recovered from petroleum containing formations having high salinity and/or high temperature by injecting into the formation an aqueous fluid containing an effective amount of a surface active agent characterized by the formula: R-O-(A-O)N-(CH2-CH(-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-SO3X)-O)M-H wherein R is an alkyl or alkylaryl radical, AO is an alkylene oxide radical, n is an integer of from 1 to 50, m is an integer from 1 to 10 and X is a sodium, potassium or ammonium cation.

  19. 21 CFR 172.811 - Glyceryl tristearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... crystallization accelerator in cocoa products, in imitation chocolate, and in compound coatings Not to exceed 1... product that complies with the limitations prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section. [53 FR 21632, June...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1329 - Glyceryl palmitostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... palmitostearate is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglyceryl esters of palmitic and stearic acids made from glycerin, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the following specifications: (1) The substance is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of palmitic acid and stearic acid. (2) Heavy metals...

  1. 21 CFR 172.811 - Glyceryl tristearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 555-43-1) is prepared by reacting stearic acid with glycerol in the presence of a suitable catalyst. (b) The food additive meets the following specifications: Acid number: Not to exceed 1.0. Iodine...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1329 - Glyceryl palmitostearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... palmitostearate is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglyceryl esters of palmitic and stearic acids made from glycerin, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the following specifications: (1) The substance is a mixture of mono-, di-, and triglycerides of palmitic acid and stearic acid. (2) Heavy metals...

  3. Treatment of Xerosis with a Topical Formulation Containing Glyceryl Glucoside, Natural Moisturizing Factors, and Ceramide

    PubMed Central

    Kausch, Martina; Rippke, Frank; Schoelermann, Andrea M.; Filbry, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of Light Formulation, an oil-in-water emulsion, and Rich Formulation, a water-in-oil emulsion, for the treatment of xerosis. Design: Two double-blind, vehicle-controlled trials (both formulations); a double-blind, randomized regression study (Rich Formulation); and a single-blind tolerability study (Light Formulation). The two formulations were applied twice daily for two weeks, for five days in the regression study, and twice daily for two weeks in the tolerability study. Setting: Studies were conducted during winter in Hamburg, Germany. Participants: A total of 169 subjects were enrolled and 154 completed the studies. The majority were between 50 and 80 years of age, women, all with very dry skin. One withdrew because of an incompatibility reaction that reoccurred with the subject's own body lotion after sun exposure. Measurements: Skin hydration and skin barrier function with both formulations over two weeks, long-term moisturization effect after discontinuation of Rich Formulation, and symptom improvement and skin tolerability with Light Formulation. Results: Vehicle-controlled studies of Light and Rich Formulations demonstrated significantly improved hydration at Weeks 1 and 2 versus the untreated site and vehicles, and significantly reduced transepidermal water loss versus untreated site and basic vehicle. Both products significantly decreased visible dryness and tactile roughness. In the regression study, Rich Formulation maintained significant moisturization six days after treatment discontinuation. Light Formulation reduced symptoms of itching, burning, tightness, tingling, and feeling of dryness. Conclusion: These formulations represent a new approach for the treatment of xerosis by addressing multiple key deficiencies in skin hydration. PMID:22916312

  4. A safety trial of high dose glyceryl triacetate for Canavan disease.

    PubMed

    Segel, Reeval; Anikster, Yair; Zevin, Shoshana; Steinberg, Avraham; Gahl, William A; Fisher, Drora; Staretz-Chacham, Orna; Zimran, Ari; Altarescu, Gheona

    2011-07-01

    Canavan disease (CD MIM#271900) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder presenting in early infancy. The course of the disease is variable, but it is always fatal. CD is caused by mutations in the ASPA gene, which codes for the enzyme aspartoacylase (ASPA), which breaks down N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to acetate and aspartic acid. The lack of NAA-degrading enzyme activity leads to excess accumulation of NAA in the brain and deficiency of acetate, which is necessary for myelin lipid synthesis. Glyceryltriacetate (GTA) is a short-chain triglyceride with three acetate moieties on a glycerol backbone and has proven an effective acetate precursor. Intragastric administration of GTA to tremor mice results in greatly increased brain acetate levels, and improved motor functions. GTA given to infants with CD at a low dose (up to 0.25 g/kg/d) resulted in no improvement in their clinical status, but also no detectable toxicity. We present for the first time the safety profile of high dose GTA (4.5 g/kg/d) in 2 patients with CD. We treated 2 infants with CD at ages 8 months and 1 year with high dose GTA, for 4.5 and 6 months respectively. No significant side effects and no toxicity were observed. Although the treatment resulted in no motor improvement, it was well tolerated. The lack of clinical improvement might be explained mainly by the late onset of treatment, when significant brain damage was already present. Further larger studies of CD patients below age 3 months are required in order to test the long-term efficacy of this drug. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glyceryl ether sulfonates for use in oil recovery fluids and processes

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.R.

    1984-08-21

    Petroleum may be recovered from petroleum containing formations having high salinity by injecting into the formation an aqueous fluid containing an effective amount of a surface active agent characterized by the formula: R/sub 1/(OCH/sub 2/CH(OH)CH/sub 2/) /SUB m/ (R/sub 2/) /SUB n/ OR/sub 3/SO/sub 3/X wherein R/sub 1/ is an alkyl or alkylaryl radical, m is an integer of from 1 to 10, R/sub 2/ is an ethoxy radical and/or 1,2-propoxy radical, n is an integer of from 0 to 10, R/sub 3/ is an ethylene or 1,3-propylene radical, X is a sodium, potassium or ammonium cation; and driving themore » fluid through the formation and thereby displacing and recovering petroleum from the formation.« less

  6. Glycerophosphocholine metabolism in higher plant cells. Evidence of a new glyceryl-phosphodiester phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    van der Rest, Benoît; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard; Douce, Roland

    2002-09-01

    Glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho) is a diester that accumulates in different physiological processes leading to phospholipid remodeling. However, very little is known about its metabolism in higher plant cells. (31)P-Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical analyses performed on carrot (Daucus carota) cells fed with GroPCho revealed the existence of an extracellular GroPCho phosphodiesterase. This enzymatic activity splits GroPCho into sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and free choline. In vivo, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate is further hydrolyzed into glycerol and inorganic phosphate by acid phosphatase. We visualized the incorporation and the compartmentation of choline and observed that the major choline pool was phosphorylated and accumulated in the cytosol, whereas a minor fraction was incorporated in the vacuole as free choline. Isolation of plasma membranes, culture medium, and cell wall proteins enabled us to localize this phosphodiesterase activity on the cell wall. We also report the existence of an intracellular glycerophosphodiesterase. This second activity is localized in the vacuole and hydrolyzes GroPCho in a similar fashion to the cell wall phosphodiesterase. Both extra- and intracellular phosphodiesterases are widespread among different plant species and are often enhanced during phosphate deprivation. Finally, competition experiments on the extracellular phosphodiesterase suggested a specificity for glycerophosphodiesters (apparent K(m) of 50 microM), which distinguishes it from other phosphodiesterases previously described in the literature.

  7. Kinetic Studies and Product Characterization during the Basic Hydrolysis of Glyceryl Nitrate Esters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    elaborate instrumentation, which was considered too time consuming and costly to construct for this study. 25 The quantitative estimation of the calcium...0.6 [ l-exp(- Kfc ) 1 Figure 21. Formation of N03~ during hydrolysis of 1-MNG in aqueous Ca(0H)2 solution at 25°C (See Tables 2 and 8) 6 5

  8. 21 CFR 178.3505 - Glyceryl tri-(12-acetoxy-stearate).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting... surface of calcium carbonate at a level not to exceed 1 weight-percent of the total mixture. (b) The... with nonfatty foods at a level not to exceed 20 weight-percent of the polymer. [50 FR 1503, Jan. 11...

  9. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid...

  10. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid...

  11. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid...

  12. First Attempt of Glycidol-to-Monoalkyl Glyceryl Ethers Conversion by Acid Heterogeneous Catalysis: Synthesis and Simplified Sustainability Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Maria; Passarini, Fabrizio; Capacchione, Carmine; Proto, Antonio; Barrault, Joel; Cucciniello, Raffaele; Cespi, Daniele

    2018-04-14

    The selective preparation of monoalkylglyceryl ethers (MAGEs) is a task for researchers owing to their broad range of applications. In this work, green feedstocks such as glycidol and alcohols were used to prepare MAGEs under mild reaction conditions (80 °C, 3 h, 0.5 mol % catalyst) in the presence of acid heterogeneous catalysts. Nafion shows the best performances in terms of conversion and selectivity to MAGES and also high stability. A comparison of the environmental performances with the most consolidated pathway from glycerol has shown that the usage of glycidol (recovered as a value-added product from Epicerol process) and Nafion leads to a lower impact on ecosystems. In addition, results achieved from a simplified socio-economic analysis show that the innovative route here proposed has potential (at the laboratory scale) of enhancing potential gains and of reducing the social implications resulting from externalities associated with environmental impacts (e.g., CO 2 equivalents). © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Enhanced topical delivery of finasteride using glyceryl monooleate-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles stabilized by cremophor surfactants.

    PubMed

    Madheswaran, Thiagarajan; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Yong, Chul Soon; Yoo, Bong Kyu

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of two surfactants, Cremophor RH 40 (RH) and Cremophor EL (EL), to prepare liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCN) and to study its influence on the topical delivery of finasteride (FNS). FNS-loaded LCN was formulated with the two surfactants and characterized for size distribution, morphology, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, and skin permeation/retention. Influence of FNS-loaded LCN on the conformational changes on porcine skin was also studied using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopical image confirmed the formation of LCN. The average particle size of formulations was in the range of 165.1-208.6 and 153.7-243.0 nm, respectively. The formulations prepared with higher surfactant concentrations showed faster release and significantly increased skin permeation. Specifically, LCN prepared with RH 2.5% presented higher permeation flux (0.100 ± 0.005 μgcm(-2)h(-1)) compared with lower concentration (0.029 ± 0.007 μgcm(-2)h(-1)). Typical spectral bands of lipid matrix of porcine skin were shifted to higher wavenumber, indicating increased degree of disorder of the lipid acyl chains which might cause fluidity increase of stratum corneum. Taken together, Cremophor surfactants exhibited a promising potential to stabilize the LCN and significantly augmented the skin permeation of FNS.

  14. 21 CFR 176.200 - Defoaming agents used in coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... paragraph (d)(3) and subject to such limitations as are provided: List of substances Limitations n-Butyl... only. Glyceryl mono-12-hydroxystearate Glyceryl monostearate Hexane Hexylene glycol (2-methyl-2,4...

  15. 21 CFR 176.200 - Defoaming agents used in coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... paragraph (d)(3) and subject to such limitations as are provided: List of substances Limitations n-Butyl... only. Glyceryl mono-12-hydroxystearate Glyceryl monostearate Hexane Hexylene glycol (2-methyl-2,4...

  16. Anti-glioma activity and the mechanism of cellular uptake of asiatic acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Garanti, Tanem; Stasik, Aneta; Burrow, Andrea Julie; Alhnan, Mohamed A; Wan, Ka-Wai

    2016-03-16

    Asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpene found in Centella Asiatica, has shown neuroprotective and anti-cancer activity against glioma. However, owing to its poor aqueous solubility, effective delivery and absorption across biological barriers, in particular the blood brain barrier (BBB), are challenging. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have shown a promising potential as a drug delivery system to carry lipophilic drugs across the BBB, a major obstacle in brain cancer therapy. Nevertheless, limited information is available about the cytotoxic mechanisms of nano-lipidic carriers with AA on normal and glioma cells. This study assessed the anti-cancer efficacy of AA-loaded SLNs against glioblastoma and their cellular uptake mechanism in comparison with SVG P12 (human foetal glial) cells. SLNs were systematically investigated for three different solid lipids; glyceryl monostearate (MS), glyceryl distearate (DS) and glyceryl tristearate (TS). The non-drug containing MS-SLNs (E-MS-SLNs) did not show any apparent toxicity towards normal SVG P12 cells, whilst the AA-loaded MS-SLNs (AA-MS-SLNs) displayed a more favourable drug release profile and higher cytotoxicity towards U87 MG cells. Therefore, MS-SLNs were chosen for further in vitro studies. Cytotoxicity studies of SLNs (± AA) were performed using MTT assay where AA-SLNs showed significantly higher cytotoxicity towards U87 MG cells than SVG P12 normal cells, as confirmed by flow cell cytometry. Cellular uptake of SLNs also appeared to be preferentially facilitated by energy-dependent endocytosis as evidenced by fluorescence imaging and flow cell cytometry. Using the Annexin V-PI double staining technique, it was found that these AA-MS-SLNs displayed concentration-dependent apoptotic activity on glioma cells, which further confirms the potential of exploiting these AA-loaded MS-SLNs for brain cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of Glycyrrhetinic Acid, Potassium Glycyrrhetinate, Disodium Succinoyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glyceryl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium Glycyrrhizate, Trisodium Glycyrrhizate, Methyl Glycyrrhizate, and Potassium Glycyrrhizinate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its salts and esters and Glycyrrhizic Acid and its salts and esters are cosmetic ingredients that function as flavoring agents or skin-conditioning agents - miscellaneous or both. These chemicals may be isolated from licorice plants. Glycyrrhetinc Acid is described as at least 98% pure, with 0.6% 24-OH-Glycyrrhetinic Acid, not more than 20 mu g/g of heavy metals and not more than 2 mu g/g of arsenic. Ammonium Glycyrrhizate has been found to be at least 98% pure and Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate has been found to be at least 95% pure. Glycyrrhetinic Acid is used in cosmetics at concentrations of up to 2%; Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, up to 1%; Glycyrrhizic Acid, up to 0.1%; Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, up to 5%; Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, up to 1%; and Potassium Glycyrretinate, up to 1%. Although Glycyrrhizic Acid is poorly absorbed by the intestinal tract, it may be hydrolyzed to Glycyrrhetinic Acid by a beta -glucuronidase produced by intestinal bacteria. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid bind to rat and human albumin, but do not absorb well into tissues. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid and metabolites are mostly excreted in the bile, with very little excreted in urine. Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate was undetectable in the receptor chamber when tested for transepidermal permeation through pig skin. Glycyrrhizic Acid increased the dermal penetration of diclofenac sodium in rat skin. Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate increased the intestinal absorption of calcitonin in rats. In humans, Glycyrrhetinic Acid potentiated the effects of hydrocortisone in the skin. Moderate chronic or high acute exposure to Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, and their metabolites have been demonstrated to cause transient systemic alterations, including increased potassium excretion, sodium and water retention, body weight gain, alkalosis, suppression of the renin-angiotensis-aldosterone system, hypertension, and muscular paralysis; possibly through inhibition of 11beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11beta -OHSD2) in the kidney. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its derivatives block gap junction intracellular communication in a dose-dependent manner in animal and human cells, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, hepatocytes, and astrocytes; at high concentrations, it is cytotoxic. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid protect liver tissue from carbon tetrachloride. Glycyrrhizic Acid has been used to treat chronic hepatitis, inhibiting the penetration of the hepatitis A virus into hepatocytes. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid have anti-inflammatory effects in rats and mice. The acute intraperitoneal LD(50) for Glycyrrhetinic Acid in mice was 308 mg/kg and the oral LD(50) was > 610 mg/kg. The oral LD(50) in rats was reported to be 610 mg/kg. Higher LD(50) values were generally reported for salts. Little short-term, subchronic, or chronic toxicity was seen in rats given ammonium, dipotassium, or disodium salts of Glycyrrhizic Acid. Glycyrrhetinic Acid was not irritating to shaved rabbit skin, but was considered slightly irritating in an in vitro test. Glycyrrhetinic Acid inhibited the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and inhibited tumor initiation and promotion by other agents in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid inhibited tumor initiation by another agent, but did not prevent tumor promotion in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid delayed mortality in mice injected with Erlich ascites tumor cells, but did not reduce the mortality rate. Ammonium Glycyrrhizate was not genotoxic in in vivo and in vitro cytogenetics assays, the dominant lethal assay, an Ames assay, and heritable translocation tests, except for possible increase in dominant lethal mutations in rats given 2000 mg/kg day(-1) in their diet. Disodium Glycyrrhizate was not carcinogenic in mice in a drinking water study at exposure levels up to 12.2 mg/kg day(-1) for 96 weeks. Glycyrrhizate salts produced no reproductive or developmental toxicity in rats, mice, golden hamsters, or Dutch-belted rabbits, except for a dose-dependent increase (at 238.8 and 679.9 mg/kg day(-1)) in sternebral variants in a study using rats. Sedation, hypnosis, hypothermia, and respiratory depression were seen in mice given 1250 mg/kg Glycyrrhetinic Acid intraperitoneally. Rats fed a powdered diet containing up to 4% Ammonium Glycyrrhizate had no treatment related effects in motor function tests, but active avoidance was facilitated at 4%, unaffected at 3%, and depressed at 2%. In a study of 39 healthy volunteers, a no effect level of 2 mg/kg/day was determined for Glycyrrhizic Acid given orally for 8 weeks. Clinical tests in seven normal individuals given oral Ammonium Glycyrrhizate at 6 g/day for 3 days revealed reduced renal and thermal sweat excretion of Na+ and K+, but carbohydrate and protein metabolism were not affected. Glycyrrhetinic Acid at concentrations up to 6% was not a skin irritant or a sensitizer in clinical tests. Neither Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, nor Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate at 5% were phototoxic agents or photosensitizers. Birth weight and maternal blood pressure were unrelated to the level of consumption of Glycyrrhizic Acid in 1049 Finnish women with infants, but babies whose mother consumed > 500 mg/wk were more likely to be born before 38 weeks. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel noted that the ingredients in this safety assessment are not plant extracts, powders, or juices, but rather are specific chemical species that may be isolated from the licorice plant. Because these chemicals may be isolated from plant sources, however, steps should be taken to assure that pesticide and toxic metal residues are below acceptable levels. The Panel advised the industry that total polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)/pesticide contamination should be limited to not more than 40 ppm, with not more than 10 ppm for any specific residue, and that toxic metal levels must not contain more than 3 mg/kg of arsenic (as As), not more than 0.002% heavy metals, and not more than 1 mg/kg of lead (as Pb). Although the Panel noted that Glycyrrhizic Acid is cytotoxic at high doses and ingestion can have physiological effects, there is little acute, short-term, subchronic, or chronic toxicity and it is expected that these ingredients would be poorly absorbed through the skin. These ingredients are not considered to be irritants, sensitizers, phototoxic agents, or photosensitizers at the current maximum concentration of use. Accordingly, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the current practices of use and concentration. The Panel recognizes that certain ingredients in this group are reportedly used in a given product category, but the concentration of use is not available. For other ingredients in this group, information regarding use concentration for specific product categories is provided, but the number of such products is not known. In still other cases, an ingredient is not in current use, but may be used in the future. Although there are gaps in knowledge about product use, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentration indicate a pattern of use. Within this overall pattern of use, the Expert Panel considers all ingredients in this group to be safe.

  18. The impact of particle preparation methods and polymorphic stability of lipid excipients on protein distribution in microparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingying; Christophersen, Philip C; Yang, Mingshi; Nielsen, Hanne M; Mu, Huiling

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating the influence of polymorphic stability of lipid excipients on the physicochemical characters of different solid lipid microparticles (SLM), with the focus on the alteration of protein distribution in SLM. Labeled lysozyme was incorporated into SLM prepared with different excipients, i.e. trimyristin (TG14), glyceryl distearate (GDS), and glyceryl monostearate (GMS), by water-oil-water (w/o/w) or solid-oil-water (s/o/w) method. The distribution of lysozyme in SLM and the release of the protein from SLM were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The storage stability of SLM was characterized by HPLC, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Lysozyme was displayed as small scattered domains inside GDS and GMS SLM, whereas it was incorporated in the core of TG14 SLM formulated by the w/o/w method or evenly distributed in TG14 SLM prepared by the s/o/w method. Stability study at 37 °C revealed that only TG14 SLM made by the w/o/w method was able to maintain the lysozyme amount both on the particle surface and released from the SLM. Elevated storage temperature induced polymorphic transition of lipids in GDS and GMS SLM, which was, however, not remarkable for the TG14 SLM. Lipid excipients and particle preparation methods were found to differently affect the lysozyme distribution in SLM, owning to varied storage stabilities of the lipids. The present study provides updated knowledge for rational development of lipid-based formulations for oral delivery of peptide or protein drugs.

  19. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glyceryl monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with citric acid under controlled conditions may be safely used as a synergist and solubilizer for... food additive meets the following specifications: Acid number, 70-100. Total citric acid (free and...

  20. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glyceryl monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with citric acid under controlled conditions may be safely used as a synergist and solubilizer for... food additive meets the following specifications: Acid number, 70-100. Total citric acid (free and...

  1. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glyceryl monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with citric acid under controlled conditions may be safely used as a synergist and solubilizer for... food additive meets the following specifications: Acid number, 70-100. Total citric acid (free and...

  2. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Monoglyceride citrate. A food additive that is a mixture of glyceryl monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with citric acid under controlled conditions may be safely..., 70-100. Total citric acid (free and combined), 14 percent-17 percent. (b) It is used, or intended for...

  3. Tolterodine Tartrate Proniosomal Gel Transdermal Delivery for Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Rajabalaya, Rajan; Leen, Guok; Chellian, Jestin; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; David, Sheba R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to formulate and evaluate side effects of transdermal delivery of proniosomal gel compared to oral tolterodine tartrate (TT) for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Proniosomal gels are surfactants, lipids and soy lecithin, prepared by coacervation phase separation. Formulations were analyzed for drug entrapment efficiency (EE), vesicle size, surface morphology, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, in vitro skin permeation, and in vivo effects. The EE was 44.87%–91.68% and vesicle size was 253–845 nm for Span formulations and morphology showed a loose structure. The stability and skin irritancy test were also carried out for the optimized formulations. Span formulations with cholesterol-containing formulation S1 and glyceryl distearate as well as lecithin containing S3 formulation showed higher cumulative percent of permeation such as 42% and 35%, respectively. In the in vivo salivary secretion model, S1 proniosomal gel had faster recovery, less cholinergic side effect on the salivary gland compared with that of oral TT. Histologically, bladder of rats treated with the proniosomal gel formulation S1 showed morphological improvements greater than those treated with S3. This study demonstrates the potential of proniosomal vesicles for transdermal delivery of TT to treat OAB. PMID:27589789

  4. Monoglycerides and fatty acids from Ibervillea sonorae root: isolation and hypoglycemic activity.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Galicia, Erica; Calzada, Fernando; Roman-Ramos, Rubén; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J

    2007-03-01

    Eleven monoglycerides (MG), 1-monopalmitin (1), glyceryl 1-monomargarate (2), 1-monostearin (3), glyceryl 1-monononadecylate ( 4), glyceryl 1-monoarachidate (5), glyceryl 1-monobehenate (6), glyceryl 1-monotricosanoate (7), glyceryl 1-monotetracosanoate (8), glyceryl 1-monopentacosanoate (9), glyceryl 1-monohexacosanoate (10) and glyceryl 1-monooctacosanoate (11), together with five fatty acids (FA), lauric acid (12), myristic acid (13), pentadecanoic acid (14), palmitic acid (15) and stearic acid (16) were isolated of the root of IBERVILLEA SONORAE Greene (Cucurbitaceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as well as GC-MS analysis. The hypoglycemic activity of the dichloromethane (DCM) extract, of fractions (F1-F10 and SF1-SF5), of monoglycerides (MG) and of fatty acids (FA) mixtures obtained of the root from I. SONORAE was evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that by intraperitoneal administration the DCM extract (300 mg/kg), F9 (300 mg/kg) and SF1 (150 mg/kg) significantly reduced glucose levels in both models. For fraction SF1, the hypoglycemic activity was more pronounced than that of tolbutamide (150 mg/kg) used as control. However, neither MG (75 mg/kg) nor FA (75 mg/kg) mixtures isolated from SF1 exhibited a significant hypoglycemic effect. However, when MG and FA were combined in equal proportions (75 mg: 75 mg/kg), their effect was comparable to that of SF1. The observed activity for the DCM extract, F9, SF1 and the MG-FA mixture provides additional support for the popular use of this plant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Mexican traditional medicine.

  5. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is a high molecular weight polysaccharide gum produced..., sodium, calcium, and magnesium salt. The polysaccharide may contain acyl (glyceryl and acetyl) groups as...

  6. 21 CFR 176.200 - Defoaming agents used in coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... are provided: List of substances Limitations n-Butyl alcohol tert-Butyl alcohol Butyl stearate Castor... Glyceryl monostearate Hexane Hexylene glycol (2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol) Isobutyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol...

  7. 21 CFR 172.832 - Monoglyceride citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... monooleate and its citric acid monoester manufactured by the reaction of glyceryl monooleate with citric acid... additive meets the following specifications: Acid number, 70-100. Total citric acid (free and combined), 14...

  8. Lipstick dermatitis due to C18 aliphatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, R; Matsunaga, K; Suzuki, M; Arima, Y; Ohkido, Y

    1987-04-01

    An 18-year-old girl developed cheilitis. She had a past history of lip cream dermatitis, but the cause was not found. Patch tests with 2 lipsticks were strongly positive. Tests with the ingredients were positive to 2 aliphatic compounds, glyceryl diisostearate and diisostearyl malate. Impurities in the materials were suspected as the cause. Analysis by gas chromatography detected 3 chemicals in glyceryl diisostearate and 1 in diisostearyl malate as impurities. Patch testing with the impurities and glyceryl monoisostearate 0.01% pet in glyceryl diisostearate and isostearyl alcohol 0.25% pet in diisostearyl malate were strongly positive. The characteristics common to the 2 chemicals were liquidity at room temperature, branched C18 aliphatic compound and primary alcohol. Chemicals lacking any of the above 3 features did not react.

  9. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... [dinitropentano nitrile]. Dynamite. E EDDN [ethylene diamine dinitrate]. EDNA [ethylenedinitramine]. Ednatol. EDNP [ethyl 4,4-dinitropentanoate]. EGDN [ethylene glycol dinitrate]. Erythritol tetranitrate explosives..., RNG, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate, trinitroglycerine]. Nitroglycide. Nitroglycol [ethylene glycol...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1903 - Tributyrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... known as butyrin or glyceryl tributyrate, is the triester of glycerin and butyric acid. It is prepared by esterification of glycerin with excess butyric acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specification of...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1903 - Tributyrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... known as butyrin or glyceryl tributyrate, is the triester of glycerin and butyric acid. It is prepared by esterification of glycerin with excess butyric acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specification of...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1903 - Tributyrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... known as butyrin or glyceryl tributyrate, is the triester of glycerin and butyric acid. It is prepared by esterification of glycerin with excess butyric acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specification of...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1903 - Tributyrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... known as butyrin or glyceryl tributyrate, is the triester of glycerin and butyric acid. It is prepared by esterification of glycerin with excess butyric acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specification of...

  14. Dissolution of solid lipid extrudates in biorelevant media.

    PubMed

    Witzleb, R; Müllertz, A; Kanikanti, V-R; Hamann, H-J; Kleinebudde, P

    2012-01-17

    Solid lipid extrudates with the model drug praziquantel were produced with chemically diverse lipids and investigated regarding their dissolution behaviour in different media. The lipids used in this study were glyceryl tripalmitate, glyceryl dibehenate, glyceryl monostearate, cetyl palmitate and solid paraffin. Thermoanalytical and dissolution behaviour was investigated directly after extrusion and after 3 and 6 months open storage at 40°C/75% RH. Dissolution studies were conducted in hydrochloric acid (HCl) pH 1.2 with different levels of polysorbate 20 and with a biorelevant medium containing pancreatic lipase, bile salts and phospholipids. Furthermore, the impact of lipid digestion on drug release was studied using in vitro lipolysis. The release of praziquantel from cetyl palmitate and glyceryl monostearate in the biorelevant medium was much faster than in HCl, whereas there was hardly any difference for the other lipids. It was shown that drug release from glyceryl monostearate matrices is driven by both solubilisation and enzymatic degradation of the lipid, whereas dissolution from cetyl palmitate extrudates is dependent only on solubilisation by surfactants in the medium. Moreover, storage influenced the appearance of the extrudate surface and the dissolution rate for all lipids except solid paraffin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Separation and characterization of potato lipid acylhydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Hasson, E.P.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-02-01

    Three distinct potato (Solanum tuberosum) lipid acyl-hydrolases have been isolated and characterized. Nonfluorescent esters of the fluorescent alcohols, N-methylindoxyl and N-methylumbelliferone, have been used as convenient substrates for lipid acyl-hydrolase estimation. Enzyme I has been shown to be a neutral lipase which favors glyceryl triolein over the di- and monoolein, which shows no activity with phospho- and galactolipids and which favors long chain fatty acid esters of N-methylindoxyl over the butyrate ester. Enzyme II, while attacking glyceryl mono- and diolein, as well as favoring the butyrate ester of N-methylindoxyl over the myristate ester, is basically a phospholipid and galactolipid acyl-hydrolase.more » Enzyme III may reasonably be considered an esterase, since it hydrolyzes glyceryl monoolein exclusively among the neutral lipids, shows minimal activity on phospho- and galactolipids, and hydrolyzes N-methylindoxylbutyrate exclusively compared with N-methylindoxylmyristate.« less

  16. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release antibiotic biodegradable implants for post operative site delivery.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Vijay; Mudnaik, Rajesh; Barde, Laxmikant; Roy, Arghya; Shivhare, Umesh; Bhusari, Kishore

    2010-03-01

    Biodegradable implants of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride for post operative site delivery were prepared using glyceryl monostearate and different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), glycerol and Tween 80 as erosion enhancers by compression and molding technique. Formulations were subjected to in vitro drug release by the USP dissolution method, while promising formulations were subjected to in vitro drug release by the agar gel method and also to stability studies. It was observed that glyceryl monostearate formed hydrophobic matrix and delayed the drug delivery. Antibiotic release profile was controlled by using different combinations of erosion enhancers. The formulation prepared by the compression method showed more delayed release compared to formulations prepared by the molding method.

  17. Controlled-Release Personal Use Arthropod Repellent Formulation. Phase 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-26

    Polyethylene Glycol (200) Glyceryl Monotallowate (Varonic L1420) 54.2 lbs. Glyceryl Stearate/ Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (Lexemul AS) 129.3 lbs. Propylene... Sulfate 6-0 Xr ________ (Le.ernul AS) - 0.65__ * 13W00 Cetyl Palmitate (W,xenol 816) 2,600 Xg. Ci Zq! 167 2.2___ 10026 Poyproplen Gycol (15) Stenryl...1 Stearate7Sodium lAu 1l Sulfate T- 4fIa- TW _ - ________ Lex emul AS)__________ ____ _______ 2.41 11315 /Prop lene Glycol D1 cap" lateDf~caerate

  18. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to molded virgin fiber and heat-cured to an insoluble... application of the emulsion may include substances named in this paragraph, in an amount not to exceed that... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl cellulose...

  19. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to molded virgin fiber and heat-cured to an insoluble... application of the emulsion may include substances named in this paragraph, in an amount not to exceed that... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl cellulose...

  20. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to molded virgin fiber and heat-cured to an insoluble... application of the emulsion may include substances named in this paragraph, in an amount not to exceed that... emulsion defoamer. Disodium hydrogen phosphate Do. Formaldehyde Glyceryl monostearate Methyl cellulose...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as 1,2,3,-propanetriol triacetate or glyceryl triacetate, is the triester of glycerin and acetic acid... mixture of allyl acetate and acetic acid using a bromide salt as a catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets the...; nonalcoholic beverages and beverage bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter; chewing gum as defined...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as 1,2,3,-propanetriol triacetate or glyceryl triacetate, is the triester of glycerin and acetic acid... mixture of allyl acetate and acetic acid using a bromide salt as a catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets the...; nonalcoholic beverages and beverage bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter; chewing gum as defined...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as 1,2,3,-propanetriol triacetate or glyceryl triacetate, is the triester of glycerin and acetic acid... mixture of allyl acetate and acetic acid using a bromide salt as a catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets the...; nonalcoholic beverages and beverage bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter; chewing gum as defined...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... triacetate or glyceryl triacetate, is the triester of glycerin and acetic acid. Triacetin can be prepared by... and acetic acid using a bromide salt as a catalyst. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the... and beverage bases as defined in § 170.3(n)(3) of this chapter; chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6...

  5. Viscous lubricant composition comprising mixed esters and a silicone oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, P.J.

    1981-03-03

    A viscous composition capable of substantially retaining its viscosity within a temperature range of from 5*-30* C. Comprising as its components diisopropyl adipate, a mixture of cetyl and stearyl octanoates, glyceryl tribehenate, silicone oil and a surfactant is described.

  6. Assessing the Toxicity and Bioavailability of 2,4-Dinitroanisole in Acute and Sub-Chronic Exposures Using the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    different methods, 2nd method chosen for final study: ► Coelomocytes collected in 2 ml Guaiacol Glyceryl Ether ( GGE ) solution, centrifuged, decanted...worm to GGE t= 2mins collect coelomocyte solution 1 row per worm/treatment, obtain measurements through spectrophotometer NRRT analysis 1) 2) BUILDING

  7. 21 CFR 582.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Triacetin. 582.1901 Section 582.1901 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1901 Triacetin. (a) Product. Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Triacetin. 582.1901 Section 582.1901 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1901 Triacetin. (a) Product. Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Triacetin. 582.1901 Section 582.1901 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1901 Triacetin. (a) Product. Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Triacetin. 582.1901 Section 582.1901 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1901 Triacetin. (a) Product. Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1901 - Triacetin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Triacetin. 582.1901 Section 582.1901 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1901 Triacetin. (a) Product. Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  13. [Optimization of Glycyrrhiza flavonoid and ferulic acid cream by reflect-line orthogonal simplex method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Xie, Jun; Chen, Xiangqing; Yang, Liqiang; Su, Dan; Fang, Yan; Yu, Na; Fang, Wei

    2010-02-01

    To optimize the formula of Glycyrrhiza flavonoid and ferulic acid cream and set up its quality control parameters. Reflect-line orthogonal simplex method was used to optimize the main factors such as amount of Myrj52-glyceryl monostearate and dimethicone, based on the appearance, spreadability and stability of the cream. 9.0% Myrj52-glyceryl monostearate (3:2) and 2.5% dimethicone were chosen in prescription. The prepared cream presented a good stability after being placed 24 h at 5 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C respectively,and its spreadability suited with the property of semi-fluid cream. [corrected] The formula of Glycyrrhiza flavonoid and ferulic acid cream is suitable, and its quality is stable. The reflect-line orthogonal simplex method is suitable for the formula optimization of cream.

  14. Scent gland constituents of the Middle American burrowing python, Loxocemus bicolor (Serpentes: Loxocemidae).

    PubMed

    Schulze, Thies; Weldon, Paul J; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-07-14

    Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the scent gland secretions of male and female Middle American burrowing pythons (Loxocemus bicolor) revealed the presence of over 300 components including cholesterol, fatty acids, glyceryl monoalkyl ethers, and alcohols. The fatty acids, over 100 of which were identified, constitute most of the compounds in the secretions and show the greatest structural diversity. They include saturated and unsaturated, unbranched and mono-, di-, and trimethyl-branched compounds ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. The glyceryl monoethers possess saturated or unsaturated, straight or methyl-branched alkyl chains ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. Alcohols, which have not previously been reported from the scent glands, possess straight, chiefly saturated carbon chains ranging in length from 13 to 24. Sex or individual differences in secretion composition were not observed. Compounds in the scent gland secretions of L. bicolor may deter offending arthropods, such as ants.

  15. The control of ice crystal growth and effect on porous structure of konjac glucomannan-based aerogels.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xuewen; Ke, Fan; Xiao, Man; Wu, Kao; Kuang, Ying; Corke, Harold; Jiang, Fatang

    2016-11-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM)-based aerogels were prepared using a combination of sol-gel and freeze-drying methods. Preparation conditions were chosen to control ice crystal growth and aerogel structure formation. The ice crystals formed during pre-freezing were observed by low temperature polarizing microscopy, and images of aerogel pores were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The size of ice crystals were calculated and size distribution maps were drawn, and similarly for aerogel pores. Results showed that ice crystal growth and aerogel pore sizes may be controlled by varying pre-freezing temperatures, KGM concentration and glyceryl monostearate concentration. The impact of pre-freezing temperatures on ice crystal growth was explained as combining ice crystal growth rate with nucleation rate, while the impacts of KGM and glyceryl monostearate concentration on ice crystal growth were interpreted based on their influences on sol network structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Discovery of endocannabinoids and some random thoughts on their possible roles in neuroprotection and aggression.

    PubMed

    Mechoulam, R

    2002-01-01

    A short history of the discovery of the main plant cannabinoid, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and of the endogenous cannabinoids anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and 2-arachidonyl glyceryl ether (noladin ether) is presented. The role of the cannabinoids in neuroprotection, with emphasis on the endocannabinoids, is described. The unexpected production of aggression by Cannabis and cannabinoids under stressful conditions, published mainly in the past, is summarized. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Index to FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine Reports: 1961 through 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    of ephedrnes and norephedrnes, 05-8 …fatgue, and use , 63-12, 75-14 …fluoxetne ( Prozac ), dstrbuton n postmortem samples, 07-15 …glyceryl trn...How to Use tHe Index Organization The Index s organzed n three sectons: 1. Chronologcal Index: a cumulatve lst of all research reports from...Government Prntng Office. The reports are ether prnted or n mcroform for publc use . These lbrares provde reference servces and nterlbrary loans

  18. Controlled-Release Personal Use Arthropod Repellent Formulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-25

    proteins such as the skin. The optimal partition coefficient for dermal v penetration, 1.0, is representative of substances such P DEET which are...BASE #2968-19A CTFA/UPS/NF Designation Vendor Name % w/w Part A Cholesterol NF Croda 0.5 Cetyl Alcohol NF Sherex Adol 52 NF 0.5 Glyceryl Stearate CTFA...consisting of Polysorbate 80, Cetyl Acetate and Acetylated Lanolin Alcohol. - Crodamol PTC is Croda , Inc., name for Pentaerythritol Tetra Caprate

  19. Lipid-coated mannitol core microparticles for sustained release of protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bifeng; Friess, Wolfgang

    2018-07-01

    Parenteral sustained release systems for proteins which provide therapeutic levels over a longer period avoiding frequent administration, which preserve protein stability during manufacturing, storage and application and which are biodegradable and highly biocompatible in the body are intensively sought after. The aim of this study was to generate and study mannitol core microparticles loaded with a monoclonal antibody IgG1 and coated with lipid either hard fat or glyceryl stearate at different coating levels. The protein was stabilized with 22.5 mg/mL sucrose, 0.1% PS 80, 10 mM methionine in 10 mM His buffer pH 7.2 during the spray loading process. 30 g protein-loaded mannitol carrier microparticles were coated with 5 g, 10 g, 20 g and 30 g of lipid, respectively. Placing more lipid onto the protein-loaded microparticles reduced both burst and release rate, and the particles maintained their geometric form during the release test. The IgG1 release from microparticles covered with a hard fat layer extended up to 6 weeks. The IgG1 was released in its monomeric form and maintained its secondary structure as shown by FTIR. Incomplete release of IgG1 from glyceryl stearate-coated microparticles was observed, which may be due to the small pore sizes of the glyceryl stearate layer or a detrimental surfactant character of glyceryl stearate to protein. Hence, these hard fat-coated mannitol core microparticles have high potential for protein delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct synthesis of ESBO derivatives-¹⁸O labelled with dioxirane.

    PubMed

    La Tegola, Stefano; Annese, Cosimo; Suman, Michele; Tommasi, Immacolata; Fusco, Caterina; D'Accolti, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses a new approach developed in our laboratory, consisting in the application of isolated dimethyldioxirane (DDO, 1a) labelled with ¹⁸O for synthesis of epoxidized glyceryl linoleate (Gly-LLL, 2). We expect that this work could contribute in improving analytical methods for the determination of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) in complex food matrices by adopting an ¹⁸O-labelled-epoxidized triacylglycerol as an internal standard.

  1. Electrochemical characterization of bilayer lipid membrane-semiconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiao Kang; Baral, S.; Fendler, J.H.

    Three different systems of glyceryl monooleate (GMO), bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) supported semiconductor particles have been prepared and characterized. A single composition of particulate semiconductor deposited only on one side of the BLM constituted system A, two different compositions of particulate semiconductors sequentially deposited on the same side of the BLM represented system B, and two different compositions of particulate semiconductors deposited on the opposite sides of the BLM made up system C.

  2. Formulation and Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Ramipril

    PubMed Central

    Ekambaram, P; Abdul, Hasan Sathali A

    2011-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles are typically spherical with an average diameter between 1 and 1000 nm. It is an alternative carrier system to tradition colloidal carriers, such as, emulsions, liposomes, and polymeric micro and nanoparticles. Ramipril is an antihypertensive agent used in the treatment of hypertension. Its oral bioavailability is 28% and it is rapidly excreted through the renal route. This drug has many side effects such as, postural hypotension, hyperkalemia, and angioedema, when given as an immediate dosage form. To overcome the side effects and to increase the bioavailability of ramipril, solid lipid nanoparticles of ramipril are prepared by using lipids (glyceryl monostearate and glyceryl monooleate) with stabilizers (tween 80, poloxamer 188, and span 20). The prepared formulations have been evaluated for entrapment efficiency, drug content, in-vitro drug release, particle size analysis, scanning electron spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared studies, and stability. A formulation containing glyceryl monooleate, stabilized with span 20 as surfactant showed prolonged drug release, smaller particle size, and narrow particle size distribution, as compared to other formulations with different surfactants and lipids. PMID:21897661

  3. Characterization of semi-solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) of atorvastatin calcium by Raman image spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Breitkreitz, Márcia C; Sabin, Guilherme P; Polla, Griselda; Poppi, Ronei J

    2013-01-25

    A methodology based on Raman image spectroscopy and chemometrics for homogeneity evaluation of formulations containing atorvastatin calcium in Gelucire(®) 44/14 is presented. In the first part of the work, formulations with high amounts of Gelucire(®) 44/14 (80%) and solvents of different polarities (diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, propyleneglycol, propylene glycol monocaprylate and glyceryl mono/dicaprylate/caprate) were prepared for miscibility screening evaluation by classical least squares (CLS). It was observed that Gelucire(®) 44/14 presented higher affinity for the lipophilic solvents glyceryl mono/dicaprylate/caprate and propylene glycol monocaprylate, whose samples were observed to be homogeneous, and lower affinity for the hydrophilic solvents diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and propyleneglycol, whose samples were heterogeneous. In the second part of the work, the ratio of glyceryl mono/dicaprylate/caprate and Gelucire(®) 44/14 was determined based on studies in water and allowed the selection of the proportions of these two excipients in the preconcentrate that provided supersaturation of atorvastatin upon dilution. The preconcentrate was then evaluated for homogeneity by partial least squares (PLS) and an excellent miscibility was observed in this proportion as well. Therefore, it was possible to select a formulation that presented simultaneously homogeneous preconcentrate and solubility enhancement in water by Raman image spectroscopy and chemometrics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by fatty acids and monoglycerides.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L L; Johnson, E A

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acids and monoglycerides were evaluated in brain heart infusion broth and in milk for antimicrobial activity against the Scott A strain of Listeria monocytogenes. C12:0, C18:3, and glyceryl monolaurate (monolaurin) had the strongest activity in brain heart infusion broth and were bactericidal at 10 to 20 micrograms/ml, whereas potassium (K)-conjugated linoleic acids and C18:2 were bactericidal at 50 to 200 micrograms/ml. C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, glyceryl monomyristate, and glyceryl monopalmitate were not inhibitory at 200 micrograms/ml. The bactericidal activity in brain heart infusion broth was higher at pH 5 than at pH 6. In whole milk and skim milk, K-conjugated linoleic acid was bacteriostatic and prolonged the lag phase especially at 4 degrees C. Monolaurin inactivated L. monocytogenes in skim milk at 4 degrees C, but was less inhibitory at 23 degrees C. Monolaurin did not inhibit L. monocytogenes in whole milk because of the higher fat content. Other fatty acids tested were not effective in whole or skim milk. Our results suggest that K-conjugated linoleic acids or monolaurin could be used as an inhibitory agent against L. monocytogenes in dairy foods. Images PMID:1610184

  5. Structural and mechanical properties of organogels: Role of oil and gelator molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Miguel A; Fasolin, Luiz H; Picone, Carolina S F; Pastrana, Lorenzo M; Cunha, Rosiane L; Vicente, António A

    2017-06-01

    This work aims at evaluating the influence of oil and gelator structure on organogels' properties through rheological measurements, polarized microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four different food-grade gelators (glyceryl tristearate - GT; sorbitan tristearate - ST; sorbitan monostearate - SM and glyceryl monostearate - GM) were tested in medium-chain triglyceride and high oleic sunflower (MCT and LCT, respectively) oil phases. Organogels were prepared by mixing the oil phase and gelator at different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) at 80°C during 30min. All organogels presented birefringence confirming the formation of a crystalline structure that changed with the increase of the gelator concentration. Through the evaluation of SAXS peaks it has been confirmed that all structures were organized as lamellas but with different d-spacing values. These particularities at micro- and nanoscale level lead to differences in rheological properties of organogels. Results showed that the oil type (i.e. medium- and long-chain triglyceride) and hydrophilic head of gelators (i.e. sorbitan versus glyceryl) exert influence on the organogels physical properties, but the presence of monostearate leads to the formation of stronger organogels. Moreover, gels produced with LCT were stronger and gelled at lower organogelator concentration than MCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute Lipotoxicity Regulates Severity of Biliary Acute Pancreatitis without Affecting Its Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Cline, Rachel; Trivedi, Ram N.; DeLany, James P.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Lee, Kenneth; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Navina, Sarah; Murad, Faris; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Obese patients have worse outcomes during acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous animal models of AP have found worse outcomes in obese rodents who may have a baseline proinflammatory state. Our aim was to study the role of acute lipolytic generation of fatty acids on local severity and systemic complications of AP. Human postpancreatitis necrotic collections were analyzed for unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and saturated fatty acids. A model of biliary AP was designed to replicate the human variables by intraductal injection of the triglyceride glyceryl trilinoleate alone or with the chemically distinct lipase inhibitors orlistat or cetilistat. Parameters of AP etiology and outcomes of local and systemic severity were measured. Patients with postpancreatitis necrotic collections were obese, and 13 of 15 had biliary AP. Postpancreatitis necrotic collections were enriched in UFAs. Intraductal glyceryl trilinoleate with or without the lipase inhibitors resulted in oil red O–positive areas, resembling intrapancreatic fat. Both lipase inhibitors reduced the glyceryl trilinoleate–induced increase in serum lipase, UFAs, pancreatic necrosis, serum inflammatory markers, systemic injury, and mortality but not serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, or amylase. We conclude that UFAs are enriched in human necrotic collections and acute UFA generation via lipolysis worsens pancreatic necrosis, systemic inflammation, and injury associated with severe AP. Inhibition of lipolysis reduces UFA generation and improves these outcomes of AP without interfering with its induction. PMID:24854864

  7. Improved anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rosuvastatin Calcium via lipid nanoparticles: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dudhipala, Narendar; Veerabrahma, Kishan

    2017-01-01

    The intent of this investigation was to improve pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of Rosuvastatin calcium (RC) by solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). RC is anti-hyperlipidemic drug with low oral bioavailability (20%) due to first-pass metabolism. Hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication method was used to prepare RC-SLNs with stearic acid, glyceryl behenate and glyceryl trilaurate as lipid matrices, egg lecithin and poloxamer 188 as surfactants. The prepared SLNs were tested for particle size, PDI, zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug content and in vitro release. Further, PK and PD studies were conducted on selected SLNs. No changes in physical stability of the optimized SLN were observed at refrigerated and room temperature for 90days. SLNs prepared with glyceryl trilaurate having average size of 67.21±1.71nm, PDI of 0.25±0.01, ZP of -28.93±0.84mV with 93.51±0.34% EE was considered as optimized. DSC and XRD studies revealed that no interaction occurred between the drug and lipid. SEM and TEM studies revealed that SLNs were nearly spherical in shape. PK studies showed improvement in the oral bioavailability (extent of absorption) of SLNs by 4.6-fold when compared to that of suspension. PD study of SLNs in hyperlipidemic rats exhibited a decrease in lipid profile for 36h, while a suspension exhibited for 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SciTech Connect

    Su, Cathy; Allum, Allison J.; Aizawa, Yasushi

    Glyceryl glucoside (GG, α-D-glucosyglycerol) is a natural glycerol derivative found in alcoholic drinks. Recently GG has been used as an alternative for glycerol in cosmetic products. However, the safety of using GG is still unclear. Currently, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol are wildly used in cryopreservation. Despite GG being a derivative of glycerol, the ability of GG in cryopreservation is still unknown. By using a system of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), A549 cells and AG1522 cells, the study examined the cryoprotective effects of DMSO, glycerol and GG. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses induced by the three chemicals were also investigated with CHOmore » to determine the safety of GG for cosmetic products. Our data suggests that GG has great cryopresearvation ability in the concentration of 30%–40% (v/v). For cytotoxic studies, DMSO showed the highest cytotoxicity above 3% (v/v) in cell doubling time delay among three chemicals. For the acute cytotoxicity with trypan blue dye exclusion assay, GG showed stronger cell killing effect within 24 h above 4% (v/v). For the continuous cytotoxicity with colony formation assay for 7 days, DMSO showed significantly reduced clonogenic ability above 2%. In genotoxicity studies, CHO treated with glycerol at 2% concentration induced three times higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) than background levels. GG did not induce significant amounts of SCE compared to background. Micronuclei formation was equally observed in the 2% and above concentrations of glycerol and GG. Our data showed that GG has significant effects on cryopreservation compared to DMSO. Glycerol and GG have similar cytotoxicity effects to CHO, but glycerol induced genotoxic responses in the same concentration. Therefore, we conclude that GG may be a safer alternative compound to glycerol in cosmetic products and safer alternative to DMSO in cryopreservation. -- Highlights: •Glyceryl Glucoside is low cytotoxicity and

  9. Vascular smooth muscle relaxation mediated by nitric oxide donors: a comparison with acetylcholine, nitric oxide andnitroxyl ion

    PubMed Central

    Wanstall, Janet C; Jeffery, Trina K; Gambino, Agatha; Lovren, Fina; Triggle, Christopher R

    2001-01-01

    Vasorelaxant properties of three nitric oxide (NO) donor drugs (glyceryl trinitrate, sodium nitroprusside and spermine NONOate) in mouse aorta (phenylephrine pre-contracted) were compared with those of endothelium-derived NO (generated with acetylcholine), NO free radical (NO·; NO gas solution) and nitroxyl ion (NO−; from Angeli's salt). The soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (1H-(1,2,4-)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)-quinoxalin-1-one; 0.3, 1 and 10 μM), concentration-dependently inhibited responses to all agents. 10 μM ODQ abolished responses to acetylcholine and glyceryl trinitrate, almost abolished responses to sodium nitroprusside but produced parallel shifts (to a higher concentration range; no depression in maxima) in the concentration-response curves for NO gas solution, Angeli's salt and spermine NONOate. The NO· scavengers, carboxy-PTIO, (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide; 100 μM) and hydroxocobalamin (100 μM), both inhibited responses to NO gas solution and to the three NO donor drugs, but not Angeli's salt. Hydroxocobalamin, but not carboxy-PTIO, also inhibited responses to acetylcholine. The NO− inhibitor, L-cysteine (3 mM), inhibited responses to Angeli's salt, acetylcholine and the three NO donor drugs, but not NO gas solution. The data suggest that, in mouse aorta, responses to all three NO donors involve (i) activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, but to differing degrees and (ii) generation of both NO· and NO−. Glyceryl trinitrate and sodium nitroprusside, which generate NO following tissue bioactivation, have profiles resembling the profile of endothelium-derived NO more than that of exogenous NO. Spermine NONOate, which generates NO spontaneously outside the tissue, was the drug that most closely resembled (but was not identical to) exogenous NO. PMID:11588100

  10. Effect of pharmaceutical excipients on the stability of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in their solid dosage formulations.

    PubMed

    Stanisz, Beata; Regulska, Katarzyna; Kania, Jagoda; Garbacki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The compatibility studies of moexipril hydrochloride (MOXL), imidapril hydrochloride (IMD), enalapril maleate, (ENA) and lisinopril (LIS) in solid state with magnesium stearate and glyceryl behenate were performed. The aim of this study was to detect any possible drug-excipient interactions in order to optimize technological process conditions by the selection of the most adequate lubricant. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was employed for studying drug-excipient binary mixtures in 1:1 ratio and pure drugs under forced ageing test conditions: temperature 318K (45 °C) and relative humidity range of 50.9%-75.4%. The method had been revalidated prior to use. The degradation rate constants for the binary mixtures and pure substances were calculated. The experimental results evidenced that moexipril and enalapril degradation accorded with autocatalytic-second-order kinetics, imidapril degradation followed first-order reaction mechanism, and LIS followed reversible first-order reaction mechanism. A degradation pathway for each substance was proposed to account for the observed decomposition products. It was determined that moexipril stability decreased threefold in the presence of magnesium stearate indicating an incompatibility--(4.15 ± 0.12) 10(-3) compared to (1.43 ± 0.32) 10(-6) for moexipril in pure. No interaction between magnesium stearate and the remaining studied compounds was observed. The stability studies of MOXL-glyceryl behenate binary mixture revealed no interaction. Magnesium stearate and increased relative humidity induce MOXL instability, while glyceryl behenate is an optimal lubricant, and therefore, it is recommended for moexipril-containing solid formulations. However, for the formulations containing moexipril and magnesium stearate, it is suggested to minimize the humidity level during storage.

  11. Final report on the safety assessment of triacetin.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice Zondlo

    2003-01-01

    Triacetin, also known as Glyceryl Triacetate, is reported to function as a cosmetic biocide, plasticizer, and solvent in cosmetic formulations, at concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 4.0%. It is a commonly used carrier for flavors and fragrances. Triacetin was affirmed as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) human food ingredient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Triacetin was not toxic to animals in acute oral or dermal exposures, nor was it toxic in short-term inhalation or parenteral studies, and subchronic feeding and inhalation studies. Triacetin was, at most, slightly irritating to guinea pig skin. However, in one study, it caused erythema, slight edema, alopecia, and desquamation, and did cause some irritation in rabbit eyes. Triacetin was not sensitizing in guinea pigs. Triacetin was not an irritant or a sensitizer in a clinical maximization study, and only very mild reactions were seen in a Duhring-chamber test using a 50% dilution. In humans, Triacetin reportedly has caused ocular irritation but no injury. Triacetin was not mutagenic. Although there were no available reproductive and developmental toxicity data, Triacetin was quickly metabolized to glycerol and acetic acid and these chemicals were not developmental toxins. Reports of 1,2-glyceryl diesters, which may be present in Triacetin, affecting cell growth and proliferation raised the possibility of hyperplasia and/or tumor promotion. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded, however, that the effects of 1,2-glyceryl diesters on cell growth and proliferation require longer ester chains on the glycerin backbone than are present when acetic acid is esterified with glycerin, as in Triacetin. On the basis of the available information, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that Triacetin is safe as used in cosmetic formulations.

  12. Identification of an antagonist that selectively blocks the activity of prostamides (prostaglandin-ethanolamides) in the feline iris.

    PubMed

    Woodward, D F; Krauss, A H; Wang, J W; Protzman, C E; Nieves, A L; Liang, Y; Donde, Y; Burk, R M; Landsverk, K; Struble, C

    2007-02-01

    The prostamides (prostaglandin-ethanolamides) and prostaglandin (PG) glyceryl esters are biosynthesized by COX-2 from the respective endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol. Agonist studies suggest that their pharmacologies are unique and unrelated to prostanoid receptors. This concept was further investigated using antagonists. The isolated feline iris was used as a key preparation, where prostanoid FP receptors and prostamide activity co-exist. Activity at human recombinant FP and other prostanoid receptors was determined using stable transfectants. In the feline iris, AGN 204396 produced a rightward shift of the dose-response curves for prostamide F2alpha and the prostamide F2alpha analog bimatoprost but did not block the effects of PGF2alpha and synthetic FP receptor agonists. Studies on human recombinant prostanoid receptors confirmed that AGN 204396 did not behave as a prostanoid FP receptor antagonist. AGN 204396 exhibited no antagonism at DP and EP1-4, but was a highly effective TP receptor antagonist. Contrary to expectation, the FP receptor antagonist AL-8810 efficaciously contracted the cat iris. AGN 204396 did not affect AL-8810 induced contractions, demonstrating that AL-8810 and AGN 204396 are pharmacologically distinct. Unlike AL-8810, the ethylamide derivate of AL-8810 was not an agonist. Al-8810 did not block prostamide F2alpha activity. Finally, AGN 204396 did not block PGE2-glyceryl ester activity. The ability of AGN 204396 to selectively block prostamide responses suggests the existence of prostamide sensitive receptors as entities distinct from receptors recognizing PGF2alpha and PGE2-glyceryl ester.

  13. Identification of an antagonist that selectively blocks the activity of prostamides (prostaglandin-ethanolamides) in the feline iris

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, D F; Krauss, A H; Wang, J W; Protzman, C E; Nieves, A L; Liang, Y; Donde, Y; Burk, R M; Landsverk, K; Struble, C

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The prostamides (prostaglandin-ethanolamides) and prostaglandin (PG) glyceryl esters are biosynthesized by COX-2 from the respective endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol. Agonist studies suggest that their pharmacologies are unique and unrelated to prostanoid receptors. This concept was further investigated using antagonists. Experimental Approach: The isolated feline iris was used as a key preparation, where prostanoid FP receptors and prostamide activity co-exist. Activity at human recombinant FP and other prostanoid receptors was determined using stable transfectants. Key Results: In the feline iris, AGN 204396 produced a rightward shift of the dose-response curves for prostamide F2α and the prostamide F2α analog bimatoprost but did not block the effects of PGF2α and synthetic FP receptor agonists. Studies on human recombinant prostanoid receptors confirmed that AGN 204396 did not behave as a prostanoid FP receptor antagonist. AGN 204396 exhibited no antagonism at DP and EP1-4, but was a highly effective TP receptor antagonist. Contrary to expectation, the FP receptor antagonist AL-8810 efficaciously contracted the cat iris. AGN 204396 did not affect AL-8810 induced contractions, demonstrating that AL-8810 and AGN 204396 are pharmacologically distinct. Unlike AL-8810, the ethylamide derivate of AL-8810 was not an agonist. Al-8810 did not block prostamide F2α activity. Finally, AGN 204396 did not block PGE2-glyceryl ester activity. Conclusions and Implications: The ability of AGN 204396 to selectively block prostamide responses suggests the existence of prostamide sensitive receptors as entities distinct from receptors recognizing PGF2α and PGE2-glyceryl ester. PMID:17179945

  14. Nanostructured lipid carriers as a potential vehicle for Carvedilol delivery: Application of factorial design approach.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ganesh B; Patil, Nandkishor D; Deshmukh, Prashant K; Patil, Pravin O; Bari, Sanjay B

    2016-01-01

    Present invention relates to design of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) to augment oral bioavailability of Carvedilol (CAR). In this attempt, formulations of CAR-NLCs were prepared with glyceryl-monostearate (GMS) as a lipid, poloxamer 188 as a surfactant and tween 80 as a co-surfactant using high pressure homogenizer by 2(3) factorial design approach. Formed CAR-NLCs were assessed for various performance parameters. Accelerated stability studies demonstrated negligible change in particle size and entrapment efficiency, after storage at specified time up to 3 months. The promising findings in this investigation suggest the practicability of these systems for enhancement of bioavailability of drugs like CAR.

  15. Enhanced waterflooding design with dilute surfactant concentrations for North Sea conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Michels, A.M.; Djojosoeparto, R.S.; Haas, H.

    1996-08-01

    Efficient selection procedures for surfactants have been applied to design a low-concentration surfactant-flooding process for North Sea oilfield application. Anionic surfactants of the propoxy ethoxy glyceryl sulfonate type can be used at 0.1 wt% concentrations together with sacrificial agents and without a polymer drive. Currently estimated unit technical costs (UTC`s)--at 8%--for application in the North Sea oil fields range frommore » $81 to $$94/incremental m{sup 3}, without taking uncertainty factors into account. Including such factors would likely add another $$31/m{sup 3} to the costs.« less

  16. Cadmium sulfide mediated photoelectric effects in bilayer lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Baral, S.; Fendler, J.H.

    1989-03-01

    Development of semiconductor- and magnetic-particle-containing bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) has been prompted by the mimetic relevance of these systems. In particular, the authors have been interested for some times in artificial photosynthesis. Optimization of a given system requires an understanding of the mechanisms of photoelectron transfers in the environments of, and across, mimetic membranes. They have undertaken, therefore, a systematic study of semiconductor-mediated photoelectric effects in BLMs. The present article reports results on steady-state and time-resolved, cadmium sulfide mediated photovoltage and photocurrent measurements in glyceryl monooleate BLMs.

  17. Application of D-optimal experimental design method to optimize the formulation of O/W cosmetic emulsions.

    PubMed

    Djuris, J; Vasiljevic, D; Jokic, S; Ibric, S

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the application of D-optimal mixture experimental design in optimization of O/W cosmetic emulsions. Cetearyl glucoside was used as a natural, biodegradable non-ionic emulsifier in the relatively low concentration (1%), and the mixture of co-emulsifiers (stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol and glyceryl stearate) was used to stabilize the formulations. To determine the optimal composition of co-emulsifiers mixture, D-optimal mixture experimental design was used. Prepared emulsions were characterized with rheological measurements, centrifugation test, specific conductivity and pH value measurements. All prepared samples appeared as white and homogenous creams, except for one homogenous and viscous lotion co-stabilized by stearic acid alone. Centrifugation testing revealed some phase separation only in the case of sample co-stabilized using glyceryl stearate alone. The obtained pH values indicated that all samples expressed mild acid value acceptable for cosmetic preparations. Specific conductivity values are attributed to the multiple phases O/W emulsions with high percentages of fixed water. Results of the rheological measurements have shown that the investigated samples exhibited non-Newtonian thixotropic behaviour. To determine the influence of each of the co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties, the obtained results were evaluated by the means of statistical analysis (ANOVA test). On the basis of comparison of statistical parameters for each of the studied responses, mixture reduced quadratic model was selected over the linear model implying that interactions between co-emulsifiers play the significant role in overall influence of co-emulsifiers on emulsions properties. Glyceryl stearate was found to be the dominant co-emulsifier affecting emulsions properties. Interactions between the glyceryl stearate and other co-emulsifiers were also found to significantly influence emulsions properties. These findings are especially important

  18. Holographic interferometry of ultrasmall-pressure-induced curvature changes of bilayer lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, G.; Schneider-Henriquez, J.E.; Fendler, J.H.

    Two-exposure interferometric holograms have been shown to sensitively report ultrasmall-pressure (10 natm)-induced curvature changes in glyceryl monooleate (GMO) bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The number of concentric fringes observed, and hence the lateral distance between the plane of the Teflon and the BLM, increased linearly with increasing transmembrane pressure and led to a value of 1.1 {plus minus} 0.05 dyn/cm for the surface tension of the BLM. BLMs with appreciable Plateau-Gibbs borders have been shown to undergo nonuniform deformation; the bilayer portion is distorted less than the surrounding Plateau-Gibbs border upon the application of a transmembrane pressure gradient.

  19. Aquivion Perfluorosulfonic Superacid as an Efficient Pickering Interfacial Catalyst for the Hydrolysis of Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Fan, Zhaoyu; Hong, Bing; Pera-Titus, Marc

    2017-09-11

    Rational design of the surface properties of heterogeneous catalysts can boost the interfacial activity in biphasic reactions through the generation of Pickering emulsions. This concept, termed Pickering interfacial catalysis (PIC), has shown promising credentials in acid-catalyzed transesterification, ester hydrolysis, acetalization, etherification, and alkylation reactions. PIC has now been applied to the efficient, solvent-free hydrolysis of the triglyceride glyceryl trilaurate to lauric acid, catalyzed by Aquivion perfluorosulfonic superacid at mild conditions (100 °C and ambient pressure). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Sustaining pattern of phenformin hydrochloride using various polymers and waxes.

    PubMed

    Pandey, V P; Kannappan, N; Manavalan, R; Subburaj, T

    2002-01-01

    The present study was carried out to formulate matrix tablets of phenformin hydrochloride. Granules of phenformin HCl were prepared by using ethyl cellulose, eudragit RS 100, gum acacia, carnauba wax, stearyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate and triethanol amine. Thus the granules were compressed and fourteen tablets formulations were prepared. All the physical parameters of granules and matrix tablets were studied including compatibility study. One commercial timed disintegration capsule was also included for study and comparison. The results of in vitro studies showed that sustained release matrix tablet might be prepared using carnauba wax, stearyl alcohol, triethanol amine and magnesium stearate.

  1. Revisiting choline alphoscerate profile: a new, perspective, role in dementia?

    PubMed

    Scapicchio, Pier Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Choline alphoscerate (alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine, alpha-GPC) is a semisynthetic derivative of phosphatidylcholine with central parasympathomimetic action. This action is, on the basis of its use in pathologies, characterized by cognitive deficits of neurodegenerative or vascular nature. In a number of clinical studies, alpha-GPC demonstrated benefit in patients with cognitive dysfunction. In light of the limited therapeutical results obtained in the past decades by the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in dementia, and of the relevance of their side effects in long-lasting therapies, it is desirable to reconsider alpha-GPC in larger carefully controlled studies not only as monotherapy but also in association with cholinesterase inhibitor drugs.

  2. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J G; Storey, B T; Hemling, M L; Grob, R L

    1990-06-01

    The high-resolution one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa is presented. The 1H-NMR data was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates of the sugar unit, mild alkaline methanolysis of the glyceryl ester, mobility on normal phase and diphasic thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The structure of the molecule corresponds to 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-hexadecanoyl-3-O-beta-D-(3'-sulfo)-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol.

  3. Evaluation of Synthetic Fuel for Army Ground Applications: Tasks 2-6

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-29

    Additive Description HFRR, microns SLBOCLE, g Neat S-8 None 795 1050 04-865 03-POSF-452 5 Unpurified phthalic acid monoester 760 1450 04-866 02...POSF-414 7 Alkoxyl proponic acid 710 2100 04-867 02-POSF-4145 Alcohol glyceryl ester 740 1650 04-868 02-POSF-4146 Alcohol succinic mono ester 780 1650...The 35°C temperature is where the fast-id le and cold s tart advance disengages. The 54°C temperatu re is where the glow plugs controller is

  4. Severe coronary vasospasm associated with hyperthyroidism causing myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Masani, N. D.; Northridge, D. B.; Hall, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    A 48 year old woman presented with angina after an anterior myocardial infarction and was found to be hyperthyroid. Coronary angiography showed a stenosis of the left coronary os and a long, severe stenosis of the left anterior descending artery which was partially relieved by glyceryl trinitrate. Three months later, after radioactive iodine treatment had rendered her euthyroid, repeat coronary angiography showed entirely normal coronary arteries. This unusual case establishes an association between hyperthyroidism and coronary vasospasm resulting in myocardial infarction. Images PMID:8541184

  5. Cyclosporine a loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: optimization of formulation, process variable and characterization.

    PubMed

    Varia, Jigisha K; Dodiya, Shamsunder S; Sawant, Krutika K

    2008-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with Cyclosporine A using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and glyceryl palmitostearate (GPS) as lipid matrices were prepared by melt-homogenization using high-pressure homogenizer. Various process parameters such as homogenization pressure, homogenization cycles and formulation parameters such as ratio of drug: lipid, emulsifier: lipid and emulsifier: co-emulsifier were optimized using particle size and entrapment efficiencies as the dependent variables. The mean particle size of optimized batches of the GMS SLN and GPS SLN were found to be 131 nm and 158 nm and their entrapment efficiencies were 83 +/- 3.08% and 97 +/- 2.59% respectively. To improve the handling processing and stability of the prepared SLNs, the SLN dispersions were spray dried and its effect on size and reconstitution parameters were evaluated. The spray drying of SLNs did not significantly alter the size of SLNs and they exhibited good redispersibility. Solid state studies such as Infra Red Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry indicated absence of any chemical interaction between Cyclosporine A and the lipids. Scanning Electron Microscopy of optimized formulations showed spherical shape with smooth and non porous surface. In vitro release studies revealed that GMS based SLNs released the drug faster (41.12% in 20 hours) than GPS SLNs (7.958% in 20 hours). Release of Cyclosporine A from GMS SLN followed Higuchi equation better than first order while release from GPS SLN followed first order better than Higuchi model.

  6. Effect of two hydrophobic polymers on the release of gliclazide from their matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Talib; Saeed, Tariq; Mumtaz, Ahmad M; Javaid, Zeeshan; Abbas, Khizar; Awais, Azeema; Idrees, Hafiz Arfat

    2013-01-01

    Gliclazide is an oral hypoglycemic agent, indicated in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and in patients with diabetic retinopathy. It has good tolerability and is a short acting sulfonyl urea that requires large dose to maintain the blood glucose level. So development of a sustained release formulation of gliclazide (GLZ) is required for better patient compliance. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different drug polymer ratios on the release profile of gliclazide from the matrix. Oral matrix tablets of gliclazide were prepared by hot melt method, using pure and blended mixture of glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and stearic acid (SA) in different ratios. In vitro release pattern was studied for 8 h in phosphate buffer media (pH 7.4). Different kinetic models including zero order, first order, Higuchi and Peppas were applied to evaluate drug release behavior. Drug excipient compatibility was evaluated by scanning with DSC and FTIR. Higuchi model was found the most appropriate model for describing the release profile of GLZ and non-Fickian release was found predominant mechanism of drug release. The release of drug from the matrix was greatly controlled by GMS while SA appeared to facilitate the release of drug from matrix tablets. FTIR results showed no chemical interaction between drug and the polymers, and DSC results indicated amorphous state of GLZ and polymers without significant complex formation. The results indicate that matrix tablets of gliclazide using glyceryl monostearate and stearic acid showed marked sustained release properties.

  7. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Loaded Lipid Nanocarriers Incorporated in Thermosensitive In Situ Gel for Magnetic Brain Targeting of Clonazepam.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Haidy; Refai, Hanan; El Sayed, Nesrine

    2018-04-14

    The objective of the study was to target clonazepam to the brain through the intranasal olfactory mucosa using nanolipid carriers loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to allow nanocarrier guidance and retention with an external magnetic field. For improved delivery, the nanolipid carriers were incorporated in a thermosensitive mucoadhesive in situ gel. Different nanolipid carriers including solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were prepared and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release. The NLC composed of 3 solid lipids (Compritol ® 888, stearic acid, and glyceryl monostearate) and 2 liquid oils (oleic acid and glyceryl monooleate) showed the most satisfactory characteristics and was loaded with SPION (NLC/SPION). Both formulae (NLC and NLC/SPION) were incorporated in an optimized thermosensitive mucoadhesive in situ system composed of 15% pluronic 127 and 0.75% sodium alginate and evaluated for the anticonvulsant action in chemically induced convulsive Swiss Albino mice. The treatment of animals with NLC/SPION significantly prolonged the onset times for convulsion and considerably protected the animals from death. One can thus hope for the emergence of a new intranasal treatment of epilepsy with consequent decrease in peripheral side effects of clonazepam. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluid regimens for colostomy irrigation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lizarondo, Lucylynn; Gyi, Aye Aye; Schultz, Tim

    Various techniques for managing faecal evacuation have been proposed; however, colostomy irrigation is favoured as it leads to better patient outcomes. Alternative fluid regimens for colostomy irrigation have been suggested to achieve effective evacuation. The objective of this review was to summarise the best available evidence on the most effective fluid regimen for colostomy irrigation. Trials were identified by electronic searches of CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE. Unpublished articles and references lists from included studies were also searched. Randomised controlled trials and before-and-after studies investigating any fluid regimen for colostomy irrigation were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes measured included fluid inflow time, total wash-out time, haemodynamic changes during irrigation, cramps, leakage episodes, quality of life and level of satisfaction. Trial selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were carried out independently by two reviewers. Differences in opinion were resolved by discussion. The systematic literature search strategy identified two cross-over trials that compared water with another fluid regimen. Owing to the differences in irrigating solutions used, the results were not pooled for analysis. Both the polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and glyceryl trinitrate performed significantly better than water. There is some evidence to support the effectiveness of fluid regimens other than water, such as polyethylene glycol electrolyte and glyceryl trinitrate, for colostomy irrigation. Further well-designed clinical trials are required to establish solid evidence on the effectiveness of other irrigating solutions that might enhance colonic irrigation.

  9. Nanosized self-emulsifying lipid vesicles of diacylglycerol-PEG lipid conjugates: Biophysical characterization and inclusion of lipophilic dietary supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Koynova, Rumiana; Tihova, Mariana; Biopharma)

    Hydrated diacylglycerol-PEG lipid conjugates, glyceryl dioleate-PEG12 (GDO-PEG12) and glyceryl dipalmitate-PEG23 (GDP-PEG23), spontaneously form uni- or oligolamellar liposomes in their liquid crystalline phase, in distinct difference from the PEGylated phospholipids which form micelles. GDP-PEG23 exhibits peculiar hysteretic phase behavior and can arrange into a long-living hexagonal phase at ambient and physiological temperatures. Liposomes of GDO-PEG12 and its mixture with soy lecithin exchange lipids with the membranes much more actively than common lecithin liposomes; such an active lipid exchange might facilitate the discharging of the liposome cargo upon uptake and internalization, and can thus be important in drug delivery applications. Diacylglycerol-PEG lipidmore » liposome formulations can encapsulate up to 20-30 wt.% lipophilic dietary supplements such as fish oil, coenzyme Q10, and vitamins D and E. The encapsulation is feasible by way of dry mixing, avoiding the use of organic solvent.« less

  10. Lipid metabolites with free-radical scavenging activity from Euphorbia helioscopia L.

    PubMed

    Cateni, F; Zilic, J; Altieri, T; Zacchigna, M; Procida, G; Gaggeri, R; Rossi, D; Collina, S

    2014-07-01

    The methanolic extract of the plant Euphorbia helioscopia L. exhibited an interesting free-radical scavenging activity. From the aerial parts of Euphorbia helioscopia L. (Euphorbiaceae), a complex mixture of seven cerebrosides together with glucoclionasterol, a digalactosyldiacylglycerol and a diacylmonogalactosylglycerol were identified. The structures of the cerebrosides were characterized as 1-O-β-D-glucosides of phytosphingosines, which comprised (2S, 3S, 4E, 8E)-2-amino-4(E),8(E)-octadecadiene-1,3-diol, (2S, 3S, 4E, 8Z)-2-amino-4(E),8(Z)-octadecadiene-1,3-diol, (2S, 3S, 4R, 8Z)-2-amino-8(Z)-octadecene-1,3,4-triol as long chain bases with seven 2-hydroxy fatty acids of varying chain lengths (C16, C24:1, C26:1, C24, C26, C28:1) linked to the amino group. The glycosylglycerides were characterized as (2S)-2,3-O-di-(9,12,15-octadecatrienoyl)-glyceryl-6-O-(α-D-galactopyranosyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside and (2S)-2,3-O-di-(9,12,15-octadecatrienoyl)-glyceryl-1-O-β-D-galactopyranoside. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of triglyceride using an iridium nano-particle catalyst based amperometric biosensor.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    The detection and quantification of triglyceride (TG) using an iridium nano-particle modified carbon based biosensor was successfully carried out in this study. The detection procedures were based on the electrochemical detection of enzymatically produced NADH. TG was hydrolyzed by lipase and the glycerol produced was catalytically oxidized by NAD-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase producing NADH in a solution containing NAD(+). Glyceryl tributyrate, a short chain triglyceride, was chosen as the substrate for the evaluation of this TG biosensor in bovine serum and human serum. A linear response to glyceryl tributyrate in the concentration range of 0 to 10 mM and a sensitivity of 7.5 nA mM(-1) in bovine serum and 7.0 nA mM(-1) in human serum were observed experimentally. The potential interference of species such as uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was assessed. The incorporation of a selected surfactant and an increase in the incubation temperature appeared to enhance the performance of this biosensor. The conditions for the determination of TG levels in bovine serum using this biosensor were optimized, with sunflower seed oil being used as an analyte to simulate the detection of TG in blood. The experimental results demonstrated that this iridium nano-particle modified working electrode based biosensor provided a relatively simple means for the accurate determination of TG in serum.

  12. Effect of Antiadherents on the Physical and Drug Release Properties of Acrylic Polymeric Films.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Hussein O; Ghorab, Mamdouh M; Felton, Linda A; Gad, Shadeed; Fouly, Aya A

    2016-06-01

    Antiadherents are used to decrease tackiness of a polymer coating during both processing and subsequent storage. Despite being a common excipient in coating formulae, antiadherents may affect mechanical properties of the coating film as well as drug release from film-coated tablets, but how could addition of antiadherents affect these properties and to what extent and is there a relation between the physical characteristics of the tablet coat and the drug release mechanisms? The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics of films containing different amounts of the antiadherents talc, glyceryl monostearate, and PlasACRYL(TM) T20. Eudragit RL30D and Eudragit RS30D as sustained release polymers and Eudragit FS30D as a delayed release material were used. Polymer films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopic examination, and water content as calculated from loss on drying. The effect of antiadherents on in vitro drug release for the model acetylsalicylic acid tablets coated with Eudragit FS30D was also determined. Increasing talc concentration was found to decrease the ability of the polymer films to resist mechanical stress. In contrast, glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and PlasACRYL produced more elastic films. Talc at concentrations higher than 25% caused negative effects, which make 25% concentration recommended to be used with acrylic polymers. All antiadherents delayed the drug release at all coating levels; hence, different tailoring of drug release may be achieved by adjusting antiadherent concentration with coating level.

  13. Release of Methane from Bering Sea Sediments During the Last Glacial Period

    SciTech Connect

    Mea Cook; Lloyd Keigwin

    2007-11-30

    Several lines of evidence suggest that during times of elevated methane flux the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) was positioned near the sediment-water interface. We studied two cores (from 700 m and 1457 m water depth) from the Umnak Plateau region. Anomalously low d13C and high d18O in benthic and planktonic foraminifera in these cores are the consequence of diagenetic overgrowths of authigenic carbonates. There are multiple layers of authigenic-carbonate-rich sediment in these cores, and the stable isotope compositions of the carbonates are consistent with those formed during anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The carbonate-rich layers are associated with biomarkers producedmore » by methane-oxidizing archaea, archaeol and glyceryl dibiphytanyl glyceryl tetraether (GDGT). The d13C of the archaeol and certain GDGTs are isotopically depleted. These carbonate- and AOM-biomarker-rich layers were emplaced in the SMTZ during episodes when there was a high flux of methane or methane-rich fluids upward in the sediment column. The sediment methane in the Umnak Plateau region appears to have been very dynamic during the glacial period, and interacted with the ocean-atmosphere system at millennial time scales. The upper-most carbonate-rich layers are in radiocarbon-dated sediment deposited during interstitials 2 and 3, 28-20 ka, and may be associated with the climate warming during this time.« less

  14. Dissimilarities between methylene blue and cyanide on relaxation and cyclic GMP formation in endothelium-intact intrapulmonary artery caused by nitrogen oxide-containing vasodilators and acetylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Ignarro, L.J.; Harbison, R.G.; Wood, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to ascertain whether cyanide shares the properties of methylene blue as a selective inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle relaxation elicited by agents that stimulate the formation of cyclic GMP. Experiments were performed with endothelium-intact rings prepared from bovine intrapulmonary artery. Methylene blue, a good inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, antagonized both arterial relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in response to sodium nitroprusside, glyceryl trinitrate, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine and acetylcholine. In contrast, cyanide inhibited only the responses to sodium nitroprusside. Increasing concentrations of methylene blue depressed resting arterial levels of cyclic GMP and caused slowly developingmore » but marked contractions whereas cyanide was without effect. Contractile responses to phenylephrine, potassium and U46619 were potentiated by methylene blue but not by cyanide. Preincubation of dilute solutions of cyanide containing sodium nitroprusside in oxygenated Krebs' buffer at 37 degrees C for 15 min before addition to bath chambers depressed relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation caused by sodium nitroprusside markedly. Similar treatment of glyceryl trinitrate, however, failed to alter its effects in arterial rings. A chemical inactivation of sodium nitroprusside by cyanide appears to account for the specific inhibitory action of cyanide on arterial responses to sodium nitroprusside. This study indicates clearly that cyanide does not share the properties of methylene blue as an inhibitor of arterial relaxation elicited by vasodilators that stimulate cyclic GMP formation.« less

  15. Steady-state kinetic analysis of triacylglycerol delivery into mesenteric lymph

    SciTech Connect

    Mansbach, C.M. II; Arnold, A.

    1986-08-01

    The output of triacylglycerol in chylomicrons can be increased 60% by prefeeding rats with a 20% fat diet or 110% by including phosphatidylcholine in a lipid infusion. The present study was designed to determine whether the increment was due to an expansion of the chylomicron triacylglycerol precursor pool or an increase in its fractional turnover rate. A steady-state kinetic model was established in rats receiving 135 mol glyceryl trioleate/h. The decay in specific activity of triacylglycerol after removal of radiolabeled glyceryl trioleate from the duodenal infusate was followed for 4 h and analyzed by the SAAM 23 program. It wasmore » found that the fractional turnover rate of the chylomicron precursor pool remained the same in each experimental condition. However, the pool was found to expand in direct proportion to the chylomicron triacylglycerol output. Functionally the infused (TH)glyceride-glycerol and tri( UC)oleate behaved the same in lymph chylomicrons and was 90% of infusate specific activity. In summary, these data suggest that increases in chylomicron triacylglycerol output are dependent on the size of the mucosal precursor pool and the monoacylglycerol acyltransferase synthetic pathway for its triacylglycerol.« less

  16. Drug-Induced QTc Interval Prolongation: A Multicenter Study to Detect Drugs and Clinical Factors Involved in Every Day Practice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Guillermo A; Alvarez, Paulino A; Ponte, Marcelo L; Belloso, Waldo H; Bagnes, Claudia; Sparanochia, Cecilia; Gonzalez, Claudio D; Villa Etchegoyen, M Cecilia; Diez, Roberto A; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The actual prevalence of drug induced QTc prolongation in clinical practice is unknown. Our objective was to determine the occurrence and characteristics of drug-induced QT prolongation in several common clinical practices. Additionally, a subgroup of patients treated with dextropropoxyphene of particular interest for the regulatory authority was analysed. Medical history and comorbidities predisposing to QT interval prolongation were registered for 1270 patient requiring medical assistance that involved drug administration. Three ionograms and ECGs were performed: baseline, intra- and after treatment; QT interval was corrected with Bazzet formula. Among patients, 9.9% presented QTc >450/470 ms, 3% QTc > 500 ms, 12.7% ΔQTc >30 ms and 5.2% ΔQTc >60 ms. QTc prolongation associated with congestive heart failure, ischemic cardiopathy, diabetes, renal failure, arrhythmias, hypothyroidism, and bradycardia. At univariate analysis, clarithromycin, haloperidol, tramadol, amiodarone, glyceryl trinitrate, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, amoxicillin + sulbactam, ampicillin + sulbactam, fentanyl, piperacillin + tazobactam, and diazepam prolonged QTc. Prolongation remained significantly associated with furosemide, clarithromycin, glyceryl trinitrate and betalactamase inhibitors after multivariate analysis. QT interval prolongation in everyday practice is frequent, in association to clinical factors and drugs that can be easily identified for monitoring and prevention strategies.

  17. Formation of mannitol core microparticles for sustained release with lipid coating in a mini fluid bed system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bifeng; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was to prepare sustained release microparticles for methyl blue and aspartame as sparingly and freely water-soluble model drugs by lipid film coating in a Mini-Glatt fluid bed, and to assess the effect of coating load of two of lipids, hard fat and glyceryl stearate, on the release rates. 30g drug-loaded mannitol carrier microparticles with average diameter of 500 or 300μm were coated with 5g, 10g, 20g and 30g lipids, respectively. The model drugs were completely released in vitro through pores which mainly resulted from dissolution of the polyol core beads. The release of methyl blue from microparticles based on 500μm carrier beads extended up to 25days, while aspartame release from microparticles formed from 300μm carrier beads was extended to 7days. Although glyceryl stearate exhibits higher wettability, burst and release rates were similar for the two lipid materials. Polymorphic transformation of the hart fat was observed upon release. The lipid-coated microparticles produced with 500μm carrier beads showed slightly lower burst release compared to the microparticles produced with 300μm carrier beads as they carried relatively thicker lipid layer based on an equivalent lipid to mannitol ratio. Aspartame microparticles showed a much faster release than methyl blue due to the higher water-solubility of aspartame. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mycosporine-like Amino Acids and Other Phytochemicals Directly Detected by High-Resolution NMR on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) Blue-Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2016-09-07

    This study describes for the first time the use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Klamath (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, AFA) blue-green algae directly on powder suspension. These algae are considered to be a "superfood", due to their complete nutritional profile that has proved to have important therapeutic effects. The main advantage of NMR spectroscopy is that it permits the detection of a number of metabolites all at once. The Klamath alga metabolome was revealed to be quite complex, and the most peculiar phytochemicals that can be detected directly on algae by NMR are mycosporine-like amino acids (porphyra-334, P334; shinorine, Shi) and low molecular weight glycosides (glyceryl β-d-galactopyranoside, GalpG; glyceryl 6-amino-6-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside, ADG), all compounds with a high nutraceutical value. The presence of cis-3,4-DhLys was revealed for the first time. This molecule could be involved in the anticancer properties ascribed to AFA.

  19. Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:26191379

  20. Flavonolignans and other constituents from Lepidium meyenii with activities in anti-inflammation and human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bai, Naisheng; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Lai, Ching-Shu; Bai, Lu; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2015-03-11

    From the roots of Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae) have been isolated and identified 2 flavonolignans, tricin 4'-O-[threo-β-guaiacyl-(7″-O-methyl)-glyceryl] ether (1) and tricin 4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacyl-glyceryl) ether (2), along with 11 other known compounds, tricin (3), pinoresinol (4), 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (5), guanosine (6), glucotropaeolin (7), desulfoglucotropaeolin (8), 3-hydroxybenzylisothiocyanate (9), malic acid benzoate (10), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (11), d-phenylalanine (12), and vanillic acid 4-O-β-d-glucoside (13). Structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS data. Some isolates and previously isolated lepidiline B (14) were tested for cytotoxicity in a small panel of human cancer cell lines (Hep G2, COLO 205, and HL-60) and for anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage. Among them, compounds 1 and 14 were modestly active for inhibiting nitrite production in macrophage. Compounds 1, 14, and 3 were demonstrated to be selectively active against HL-60 cells with IC50 values of 40.4, 52.0, and 52.1 μM, respectively.

  1. Production of bioadditives from glycerol esterification over zirconia supported heteropolyacids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanhui; Zhu, Yulei; Gao, Xiaoqing; Mo, Tao; Zhu, Yifeng; Li, Yongwang

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of bioadditives for biofuels from glycerol esterification with acetic acid was performed over zirconia supported heteropolyacids catalysts using H(4)SiW(12)O(40) (HSiW), H(3)PW(12)O(40) (HPW) and H(3)PMo(12)O(40) (HPMo) as active compounds. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by N(2)-physisorption, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, NH(3)-TPD, FTIR of pyridine adsorption and H(2)O-TPD. Among the catalysts tested, HSiW/ZrO(2) achieved the best catalytic performance owing to the better combination of surface Brønsted acid sites and hydrothermal stability. A 93.6% combined selectivity of glyceryl diacetate and glyceryl triacetate with complete glycerol conversion was obtained at 120°C and 4h of reaction time in the presence of HSiW/ZrO(2). This catalyst also presented consistent activity for four consecutive reaction cycles, while HPW/ZrO(2) and HPMo/ZrO(2) exhibited distinct deactivation after reusability tests. In addition, HSiW/ZrO(2) can be resistant to the impurities present in bulk glycerol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two new aliphatic lactones from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present paper describes the isolation and characterization of two new aliphatic δ-lactones along with three glycerides and n-nonadecanyl cetoleate from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae). The structures of all the isolated phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Results Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum L. (Apiaceae) fruits resulted in the isolation of two new aliphatic δ-lactones characterized as 2α-n-heptatriacont-(Z)-3-en-1,5-olide (1) (coriander lactone) and 2α-n-tetracont-(Z,Z)-3,26-dien-18α-ol-1,5-olide (2) (hydroxy coriander lactone) together with glyceryl-1,2-dioctadec-9,12-dienoate-3-octadec-9-enoate (3); glyceryl-1,2,3-trioctadecanoate (4); n-nonadecanyl-n-docos-11-enoate (5) and oleiyl glucoside (6). Conclusions Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of C. sativum gave coriander lactone and hydroxy coriander lactone as the new phytoconstituents. PMID:22800677

  3. Energy utilization of a low carbohydrate diet fed genetically obese rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Thenen, S W; Mayer, J

    1977-02-01

    Genetically obese Zucker rats, ob/ob mice and non-obese littermates were fed low carbohydrate (2%, 48%, and 50% of energy as carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively) and control (60%, 19%, and 21%, as carobhydrate, protein, and fat) diets. The oxidation of the energy components of these diets was measured by adding D-[U-14C]glucose, L-[U-14C]glutamic acid, and glyceryl tri-[1-14C]oleate to test meals given intragastrically and collecting respiratory CO2 for 4 hours. The animals responded to the low carbohydrate diet by oxidizing less glucose and more glutamic acid, but these amounts were proportional to dietary carbohydrate and protein composition, In contrast, the animals oxidized both higher amounts and percentages of glyceryl trioleate when fed the low carbohydrate diet. Obese Zucker rats oxidized less fat than non-obese rats when fed both diets, while obese mice oxidized fat to the same extent as non-obese mice. Feeding the low carbohydrate diet significantly increased body weight in the obese mice, but not in obese rats and non-obese mice and rats. The effect of obesity and the low carbohydrate diet on food intake, serum glucose and lipid values and CO2 production are also reported.

  4. Influence of poloxamers on the dissolution performance and stability of controlled-release formulations containing Precirol ATO 5.

    PubMed

    Jannin, V; Pochard, E; Chambin, O

    2006-02-17

    Lipid excipients are usually used for the development of sustained-release formulations. When used in relatively high quantities, Precirol ATO 5 imparts sustained-release properties to solid oral dosage forms, by forming a lipid matrix. To control or adjust the drug release kinetics from such lipid matrix however, one must often resort to complementary ingredients or techniques. This study investigates the influence of poloxamers (Lutrol) included in lipid matrices composed of glyceryl palmitostearate (Precirol ATO 5) on their dissolution performance and their stability. The addition of these hydrophilic polymers in the lipid matrix increased the amount of theophylline released thanks to the swelling of the hydrophilic polymer and the creation of a porous network into the inert lipid matrix. The grade and the quantity of Lutrol could modulate the extent of drug release. Theophylline was released mainly by the matrix erosion but also by diffusion through the pores as suggested by the Peppas' model. Moreover, the addition of Lutrol enhanced the stability during storage. The theophylline release was quite steady after 6 months in different conditions (temperature and humidity). Thus, the mixture of glyceryl palmitostearate and poloxamers is an approach with many advantages for the development of controlled-release formulations by capsule molding.

  5. Development of terbinafine solid lipid nanoparticles as a topical delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Liu, Der-Zen; Liu, Jun-Jen; Chang, Tsung-Wei; Ho, Hsiu-O; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2012-01-01

    To resolve problems of long treatment durations and frequent administration of the antifungal agent terbinafine (TB), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with the ability to load lipophilic drugs and nanosize were developed. The SLNs were manufactured by a microemulsion technique in which glyceryl monostearate (GMS), glyceryl behenate (Compritol® 888; Gattefossé), and glyceryl palmitostearate (Precirol® ATO 5; Gattefossé) were used as the solid lipid phases, Tween® and Cremophor® series as the surfactants, and propylene glycol as the cosurfactant to construct ternary phase diagrams. The skin of nude mice was used as a barrier membrane, and penetration levels of TB of the designed formulations and a commercial product, Lamisil® Once™ (Novartis Pharmaceuticals), in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis, and dermis were measured; particle sizes were determined as an indicator of stability. The optimal SLN system contained a <5% lipid phase and >50% water phase. The addition of ethanol or etchants had no significant effect on enhancing the amount of TB that penetrated the skin layers, but it was enhanced by increasing the percentage of the lipid phase. Furthermore, the combination of GMS and Compritol® 888 was able to increase the stable amount of TB that penetrated all skin layers. For the ACP1-GM1 (4% lipid phase; Compritol® 888: GMS of 1:1) formulation, the amount of TB that penetrated the SC was similar to that of Lamisil® Once™, whereas the amount of TB of the dermis was higher than that of Lamisil® Once™ at 12 hours, and it was almost the same as that of Lamisil® Once™ at 24 hours. It was concluded that the application of ACP1-GM1 for 12 hours might have an efficacy comparable to that of Lamisil® Once™ for 24 hours, which would resolve the practical problem of the longer administration period that is necessary for Lamisil® Once™. PMID:22923986

  6. Renal cortical and medullary blood flow responses to altered NO availability in humans.

    PubMed

    Damkjær, Mads; Vafaee, Manoucher; Møller, Michael L; Braad, Poul Erik; Petersen, Henrik; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Bie, Peter

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify regional renal blood flow in humans. In nine young volunteers on a controlled diet, the lower abdomen was CT-scanned, and regional renal blood flow was determined by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using H(2)(15)O as tracer. Measurements were performed at baseline, during constant intravenous infusion of nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl nitrate and after intravenous injection of NO synthase inhibitor N(ω)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Using the CT image, the kidney pole areas were delineated as volumes of interest (VOI). In the data analysis, tissue layers with a thickness of one voxel were eliminated stepwise from the external surface of the VOI (voxel peeling), and the blood flow subsequently was determined in each new, reduced VOI. Blood flow in the shrinking VOIs decreased as the number of cycles of voxel peeling increased. After 4-5 cycles, blood flow was not reduced further by additional voxel peeling. This volume-insensitive flow was measured to be 2.30 ± 0.17 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) during the control period; it increased during infusion of glyceryl nitrate to 2.97 ± 0.18 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) (P < 0.05) and decreased after L-NMMA injection to 1.57 ± 0.17 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) (P < 0.05). Cortical blood flow was 4.67 ± 0.31 ml·g tissue(-1)·min(-1) during control, unchanged by glyceryl nitrate, and decreased after L-NMMA [3.48 ± 0.23 ml·(g·min)(-1), P < 0.05]. PET/CT scanning allows identification of a renal medullary region in which the measured blood flow is 1) low, 2) independent of reduction in the VOI, and 3) reactive to changes in systemic NO supply. The technique seems to provide indices of renal medullary blood flow in humans.

  7. Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles as an Ophthalmic Delivery System for Tetrandrine: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shuangshuang; Fang, Shiming; Wang, Jialu; Chen, Jingjing; Huang, Xingguo; He, Xin; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) that display improved pre-ocular residence time and ocular bioavailability and that can be used as an ophthalmic delivery system for tetrandrine (TET). The delivery system consisted of three primary components, including glyceryl monoolein, poloxamer 407, and water, and two secondary components, including Gelucire 44/14 and amphipathic octadecyl-quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The amount of TET, the amount of glyceryl monoolein, and the ratio of poloxamer 407 to glyceryl monoolein were selected as the factors that were used to optimize the dependent variables, which included encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. A three-factor, five-level central composite design was constructed to optimize the formulation. TET-loaded LCNPs (TET-LCNPs) were characterized to determine their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, particle morphology, inner crystalline structure, and in vitro drug release profile. Corneal permeation in excised rabbit corneas was evaluated. Pre-ocular retention was determined using a noninvasive fluorescence imaging system. Finally, pharmacokinetic study in the aqueous humor was performed by microdialysis technique. The optimal formulation had a mean particle size of 170.0 ± 13.34 nm, a homogeneous distribution with polydispersity index of 0.166 ± 0.02, a positive surface charge with a zeta potential of 29.3 ± 1.25 mV, a high entrapment efficiency of 95.46 ± 4.13 %, and a drug loading rate of 1.63 ± 0.07 %. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles that had smooth surfaces. Small-angle X-ray scattering profiles revealed an inverted hexagonal phase. The in vitro release assays showed a sustained drug release profile. A corneal permeation study showed that the apparent permeability coefficient of the optimal formulation was 2.03-fold higher than that of the TET solution. Pre-ocular retention

  8. The Japan Flavour and Fragrance Materials Association's (JFFMA) safety assessment of acetal food flavouring substances uniquely used in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hiroyuki; Abe, Hajime; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Saito, Kenji; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2015-01-01

    Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on five acetal flavouring substances uniquely used in Japan: acetaldehyde 2,3-butanediol acetal, acetoin dimethyl acetal, hexanal dibutyl acetal, hexanal glyceryl acetal and 4-methyl-2-pentanone propyleneglycol acetal. As no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all five substances had no chemical structural alerts predicting genotoxicity. Using Cramer's classification, acetoin dimethyl acetal and hexanal dibutyl acetal were categorised as class I, and acetaldehyde 2,3-butanediol acetal, hexanal glyceryl acetal and 4-methyl-2-pentanone propyleneglycol acetal as class III. The estimated daily intakes for all five substances were within the range of 1.45-6.53 µg/person/day using the method of maximised survey-derived intake based on the annual production data in Japan from 2001, 2005, 2008 and 2010, and 156-720 µg/person/day using the single-portion exposure technique (SPET), based on the average use levels in standard portion sizes of flavoured foods. The daily intakes of the two class I substances were below the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) - 1800 μg/person/day. The daily intakes of the three class III substances exceeded the TTC (90 μg/person/day). Two of these, acetaldehyde 2,3-butanediol acetal and hexanal glyceryl acetal, were expected to be metabolised into endogenous products after ingestion. For 4-methyl-2-pentanone propyleneglycol acetal, one of its metabolites was not expected to be metabolised into endogenous products. However, its daily intake level, based on the estimated intake calculated by the SPET method, was about 1/15 000th of the no observed effect level. It was thus concluded that all five substances raised no safety concerns when used for flavouring foods at the currently estimated intake levels. While no information on in vitro and in vivo toxicity for all five substances was available

  9. Physico-chemical characterisation, cytotoxic activity, and biocompatibility studies of tamoxifen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared via a temperature-modulated solidification method.

    PubMed

    Lakkadwala, Sushant; Nguyen, Sanko; Lawrence, Joseph; Nauli, Surya M; Nesamony, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) can efficiently and efficaciously incorporate anti-cancer agents. To prepare and characterise tamoxifen (TAM)-loaded SLNs. Glyceryl monostearate, Tween-80, and trehalose were used in SLNs. SLNs were tested via dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Characterisation studies revealed SLNs of about 540 nm with a negative surface charge and confirmed the entrapment of TAM in the SLNs. The entrapment efficiency was estimated to be 60%. The in vitro drug release profile demonstrated a gradual increase followed by a release plateau for several days. A drug concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxic activity was observed when the SLNs were evaluated in cell cultures. Biocompatible and stable lyophilised SLNs were successfully prepared and found to possess properties that may be utilised in an anti-cancer drug delivery system.

  10. The development of a stable, coated pellet formulation of a water-sensitive drug, a case study: development of a stable core formulation.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Shaun; Taylor, Scott; Booth, Steven W; Newton, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    A development program has been carried out to provide a stable extrusion/spheronisation pellet formulation for a highly water-soluble drug, sitagliptin, which undergoes a change in physical form on processing and is subject to hydrolytic decomposition. A conventional extrusion/spheronization formulation resulted in significant degradation of the drug. The inclusion of glyceryl monostearate into the formulation was found to reduce the water levels required to such a level that there was no significant degradation of the drug during processing to form pellets. The use of a ram extruder to screen formulations with small quantities minimizes the need for the drug in the formulation-screening process, and the results from this method of extrusion were found to be translatable to the use of a screen extruder, which allowed scale-up of the process.

  11. An empirical model for dissolution profile and its application to floating dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Kriangkrai, Worawut; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul

    2014-06-02

    A sum of two inverse Gaussian functions is proposed as a highly flexible empirical model for fitting of in vitro dissolution profiles. The model was applied to quantitatively describe theophylline release from effervescent multi-layer coated floating tablets containing different amounts of the anti-tacking agents talc or glyceryl monostearate. Model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression (mixed-effects modeling). The estimated parameters were used to determine the mean dissolution time, as well as to reconstruct the time course of release rate for each formulation, whereby the fractional release rate can serve as a diagnostic tool for classification of dissolution processes. The approach allows quantification of dissolution behavior and could provide additional insights into the underlying processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Study on chemical constituents from the roots and rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Jun; Li, Zhan-Lin; Chen, Hong; Zhou, Wei; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents in the roots and rhizomes of Sinopodophyllum emodi. The compounds were isolated by many different chromatographic methods such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column. Their structures were identified by their physicochemical properties and spectrascopic data. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as isopicrodeoxypodophyllotoxin(I), 3beta-hydroxy-7alpha-methoxy-24beta-ethyl-cholest-5-ene(II), 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-erg-osta-6,22-dien-3beta-ol(III), 7beta-hydroxysitosterol (IV), beta-sitosterol (V), daucosterol (VI), alpha-glyceryl palmitate (VII), alpha-D-glucose (VIII), 5-hydromethyl furaldehyde (IX). Compounds I - IV, VII - IX are obtained from this genus for the first time.

  13. Rivastigmine-loaded in situ gelling nanostructured lipid carriers for nose to brain delivery.

    PubMed

    Wavikar, Preeti R; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2015-01-01

    In the current research work, rivastigmine (RV)-loaded in situ gelling nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were developed for nose to brain delivery. NLCs were fabricated by ethanol injection method using glyceryl monosterate, Capmul MCM C8, Lecithin and Tween 80. NLCs showed average particle size of 123.2 ± 2.3 nm with entrapment efficiency of 68.34 ± 3.4%. DSC, XRD and IR studies showed complete amorphization and incorporation of the drug into nanoparticles. NLCs were incorporated into an in situ gelling system using 0.8% gellan gum and 15% Lutrol F 127. RV in situ gel showed excellent elasticity, rheology, mucoadhesion and adhesiveness to facilitate its adhesion to the upper nasal mucosa. NLC-based in situ gel showed a 2-fold increase in nasal permeation of the drug over plain RV solution. In situ gelling NLCs showed a 3-fold increase in enzyme inhibition efficacy.

  14. SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel Arthur

    The Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center completed analysis and testing of the CPS Powershot gasoline additive under the auspices of the Department of Energy’s Technical Assistance for US Small Businesses in Vehicle Technologies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify the makeup of the additive, finding a predominance of 2,3-Ditert-Butoxypropanol, also known as Glyceryl Di-Tert-Butyl Ether (GTBE). Blends of the additive at 2 and 4 volume percent were subjected to a number of standard ASTM tests, including Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, distillation, and vapor pressure. Results show a high boiling range and low vapor pressure formore » the additive, and a very modest octane boosting effect in gasoline with and without ethanol.« less

  15. Guaifenesin in rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Storms, William; Farrar, Judith R

    2009-03-01

    Mucus in the airways is a complex mixture of water, lipids, glycoproteins, sugars, and electrolytes that serves as a lubricant for the epithelium. The efficient flow of respiratory mucus is a first level of immune defense that requires an appropriate viscosity and elasticity for optimal barrier and ciliary functions. Thickening and drying of airway mucus by respiratory tract infections, allergies, and drugs can impair evacuation. Tenacious, bothersome mucus is an annoying and frequent symptom of rhinitis that is difficult to manage. Common remedies include adequate hydration through fluid intake and nasal washes. The use of mucoactive agents is controversial due to limited data and equivocal efficacy in available studies. Nonetheless, some patients benefit. This review examines the use of guaifenesin (glyceryl guaiacolate) on bothersome nasal mucus associated with rhinitis, including the available published data and clinical experience.

  16. Voriconazole-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Ocular Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Lígia M; Rocha, Kamilla A D; De Sá, Fernando A P; Marreto, Ricardo N; Lima, Eliana M; Gratieri, Tais; Taveira, Stephânia F

    2016-06-01

    To design and evaluate the potential of a topical delivery system for ocular administration of voriconazole, based on cationic nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). NLC dispersions composed of glyceryl behenate/capric caprylic triglyceride, polysorbate 80, sorbitan trioleate, and cetylpyridinium chloride were obtained and characterized. Ex vivo permeations experiments were performed to evaluate their drug delivery potential. NLCs presented a mean diameter of 250.2 ± 03.1 nm, narrow polydispersity index (0.288 ± 0.03), positive zeta potential (31.22 ± 3.8 mV), and over 75% encapsulation efficiency. Ex vivo ocular experiments proved that NLCs were able to deliver therapeutically relevant drug amounts to the cornea after only 30 minutes (13.88 ± 0.24 μg/cm). The formulation was nonexpensive, easy to prepare, and composed of well-tolerated and accepted excipients. Further in vivo experiments are necessary to confirm the improved performance and tolerability of the formulation.

  17. A new strategy for imaging biomolecular events through interactions between liquid crystals and oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiong-Zheng; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2012-11-21

    In this study, we demonstrate a new strategy to image biomolecular events through interactions between liquid crystals (LCs) and oil-in-water emulsions. The optical response had a dark appearance when a nematic LC, 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), is in contact with emulsion droplets of glyceryl trioleate (GT). In contrast, the optical response had a bright appearance when 5CB is in contact with GT emulsions decorated with surfactants such as sodium oleate. Since lipase can hydrolyze GT and produce oleic acid, the optical response also displays a bright appearance after 5CB has been in contact with a mixture of lipase and GT emulsions. These results indicate the feasibility of monitoring biomolecular events through interactions between LCs and oil-in-water emulsions.

  18. Mycobacteriocins produced by rapidly growing mycobacteria are Tween-hydrolyzing esterases.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Tomioka, H; Watanabe, T; Yoneyama, T

    1983-01-01

    Smegmatocin, a protein produced by Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14468, was found to have an esterase activity, hydrolyzing Tween 80, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, added to the assay medium for various "bacteriocins" from mycobacteria. Because M. diernhoferi ATCC 19340 (indicator strain for smegmatocin) is highly susceptible to oleic acid and smegmatocin requires Tween 80 for manifestation of its anti-M. diernhoferi activity, it is likely that smegmatocin-mediated antimicrobial action is caused by oleic acid generated by hydrolysis of Tween 80 by the inherent esterase action of smegmatocin. Other mycobacteriocins from rapidly growing mycobacteria also have inherent esterase activity against Tween 80 and require Tween 80 for expression of antimycobacterial action. Smegmatocin was found to hydrolyze various polyoxyethylene (sorbitan) fatty acyl esters but not sorbitan monooleate and glyceryl esters. Images PMID:6826523

  19. Bone Marrow Lipids in Rats Exposed to Total-Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Fred; Cress, Edgar A.

    1963-05-01

    ABS>Thin-layer chromatography was used to demonstrate that bone marrow lipids of rats were primarily triglycerides; gas-liquid chromatography of the fraction revealed that palmitic and oleic acids account for more than 80% of the fatty acids. Minor lipid components present in the control and irradiated marrow are glyceryl ethers, cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids. Cholesterol esters were not found. Total-body irradiation (800 r) increases the femur marrow triglyceride fraction approximately six times by 1 week after irradiation, and it remains elevated for many weeks. The relationship between dose and increase in marrow triglycerides appears to fit the equation y = bxmore » a. The water and lipid content of bone marrow bear a reciprocal relation to each other, while both water and residue are significantly reduced in the irradiated femur marrow.« less

  20. Stereospecificity of {beta}-O-4 lignin oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, J.L.; Pohl, P.I.

    1995-12-01

    Lignin, a complex macromolecule of vascular plants is a cross-linked polymer of glyceryl methoxyphenol units. The major type of linkage between the monomers is the {beta}-O-4 bond. We have studied the conformations of {beta}-O-4 lignin oligomers in a vacuum, and in the presence of water, cations, and cellulosic materials. There are several stereoisomers of {beta}-O-4 lignin oligomers because lignin monomers contain chiral atoms. We have constructed the stereoisomers using a stochastic chemical structure generator (the SIGNATURE program). The potential energies of the resulting structures were calculated using several force fields (MM2, DREIDING, CVFF), and several semiempirical codes (AM1, PM3). Themore » conformational space of the stereoisomers were investigated using Monte Carlo and simulated annealing modeling techniques. It was observed that the lowest energies were obtained for the stereospecific all-three and all-erythro isomers independently of the degree of polymerization.« less

  1. Decomposition of food lipids by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawar, W.W.

    1973-01-01

    A number of animal and vegetable fats as well as model systems of triglycerides were used in a study to examine the effects of irradiation on the lipid fraction of foods. More than one hundred compounds were identified as radiolytic products. These include a series of hydrocarbons, aldehydes, esters, free acids, ethane- and propanediol diesters, propenediol diesters, diglycerides, triglycerides, ketones, glyceryl ether diesters, and 2-alkyl cyclobutanones. Reaction mechanism are proposed to explain the formation of the decomposition products. Bascially, these compounds result via the formation of free radicals according to preferential cleavages in the vicinity of the carbonyl groups. Sincemore » some of these compounds are unique to radiation effects, a method was developed to detect irradiation treatment in foods. Variables affecting the radiolytic pattern are discussed, and a comparison between thermolytic and radiolytic effects is presented. (GE)« less

  2. Absorption properties of carbon dioxide enhanced-oil-recovery additives. Final Technical report, 12 May 1987-31 August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, J.T.; Holbrook, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    The selection of the optimum foaming agent (surfactant) for enhancing oil production by carbon dioxide flooding is based on foamability and adsorption. Measurement of adsorption on carbonate cores from New Mexico reservoirs showed large adsorption differences between three commercial, high-foaming surfactants. An ethoxylated alcohol structure was least adsorbed, 0.64 mg/cc pore volume; an ethoxylated alcohol sulfate was next, 0.74 mg/cc pore volume; the highest adsorbed was a glyceryl sulfonate, 2.30 mg/cc pore volume. Commercial application of the foaming additive involves injecting alternate slugs of surfactant solution and carbon dioxide. Surfactant concentration should be determined to allow for the adsorption above.

  3. Adsorption properties of carbon dioxide enchanced oil recovery additives

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, J.T.; Holbrook, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    The selection of the optimum foaming agent (surfactant) for enhancing oil production by carbon dioxide flooding is based on foamability and adsorption. Measurements of adsorption on carbonate cores from New Mexico reservoirs showed large adsorption differences between three commercial, high-foaming surfactants. An ethoxylated alcohol structure was at least adsorbed, 0.64 mg/cc pore volume; an ethoxylated alcohol sulfate was next, 0.74 mg/cc pore volume; the highest adsorbed was a glyceryl sulfonate, 2.30 mg/cc pore volume. Commercial application of the foaming additive involves injecting alternate slugs of surfactant solution and carbon dioxide. Surfactant concentration should be determined to allow for the adsorptionmore » above. 9 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  4. [The influence of nitrates on platelet oxygen metabolism: in vitro studies].

    PubMed

    Buczyński, A; Dziedziczak-Buczyńska, M; Gnitecki, W; Kocur, J

    1999-01-01

    Our investigations were carried out on human blood platelets obtained from persons aged 20-23, free from any systemic diseases. Drugs were incubated with blood platelets. Changes of antioxidant enzymes were detected. Glyceryl trinitrate increased the activity of Zn Cu-SOD (4.62%) and GPx (275.91%), concentration of ATP (13.01%) and the blood platelets aggregations (17.88%). Izosorbide dinitrate increased the activity of ZnCu-SOD (19.46%), GPx (150.36%) and Cat (15.62%), increased concentration of ATP (23.73%) and blood platelets aggregation (3.64%). Both preparats decreased concentration of MDA (Sustonit--30.79%, Iso-Mack--35.04%). Gliceryl trinitrate decreased the activity of catalase otherwise izosorbide dinitrate increased the activity of this enzyme.

  5. Design and evaluation of an oral multiparticulate system for dual delivery of amoxicillin and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Govender, Mershen; Choonara, Yahya E; van Vuuren, Sandy; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-09-01

    A delayed-release dual delivery system for amoxicillin and the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was developed and evaluated. Statistical optimization of a cross-linked denatured ovalbumin protective matrix was first synthesized using a Box-Behnken experimental design prior to encapsulation with glyceryl monostereate. The encapsulated ovalbumin matrix was thereafter incorporated with amoxicillin in a gastro-resistant capsule. In vitro characterization and stability analysis of the ovalbumin and encapsulated components were also performed Results: Protection of L. acidophilus probiotic against the bactericidal effects of amoxicillin within the dual formulation was determined. The dual formulation in this study proved effective and provides insight into current microbiome research to identify, classify and use functional healthy bacteria to develop novel probiotic delivery technologies.

  6. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on male reproductive system during exposure to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazhagan, G.; Riar, S. S.; Kain, A. K.; Bardhan, Jaya; Thomas, Pauline

    1989-09-01

    Two groups of male rats were exposed to simulated altitudes of 6060 m and 7576 m for 6 h/day for 7 days (intermittent exposure). In two additional groups of animals exposed to the same altitude, 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) was fed daily for 5 days prior to the exposure period and also during the exposure period. Rats that did not receive AA showed loss of body weight and weight of reproductive organs after exposure. Sex organs showed atrophy on histological examination and there was a deterioration in spermatozoal quality. There was an increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase, and decrease in protein, sialic acid and glyceryl phosphorylcholine content in various reproductive tissues after exposure. All the above changes in histology and biochemical composition could be partially prevented by AA supplementation. AA supplementation can therefore protect the male reproductive system from deleterious effects of hypoxia. The probable mechanism of action of AA is discussed.

  7. Encapsulation of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, a light-sensitive UV filter, in lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Durand, L; Habran, N; Henschel, V; Amighi, K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to encapsulate ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EMC), a commonly used UVB filter, in a solid lipid matrix in order to obtain microparticles and then nanoparticles to reduce its photo-instability under UV light exposure. Glyceryl behenate, rice bran wax and ozokerite were investigated for encapsulating EMC. The suspensions of nanoparticles contained 70% encapsulated EMC (relative to the lipid mass). The absorbance level at 310 nm of suspensions containing nanoparticles was more than twice that of those containing microparticles. So, decreasing the size of particles improved the efficiency of light protection, regardless of the lipid material used. Moreover, free EMC presented a 30% loss of its efficiency after 2 h of irradiation, whereas the three NLC formulations showed a loss of absorbency between 10% and 21%. The in vitro cutaneous penetration test did not show a higher potential penetration for EMC contained in nanosuspensions compared to free EMC.

  8. Hyaluronic Acid Graft Copolymers with Cleavable Arms as Potential Intravitreal Drug Delivery Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Borke, Tina; Najberg, Mathie; Ilina, Polina; Bhattacharya, Madhushree; Urtti, Arto; Tenhu, Heikki; Hietala, Sami

    2018-01-01

    Treatment of retinal diseases currently demands frequent intravitreal injections due to rapid clearance of the therapeutics. The use of high molecular weight polymers can extend the residence time in the vitreous and prolong the injection intervals. This study reports a water soluble graft copolymer as a potential vehicle for sustained intravitreal drug delivery. The copolymer features a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) backbone and poly(glyceryl glycerol) (PGG) side chains attached via hydrolysable ester linkers. PGG, a polyether with 1,2-diol groups in every repeating unit available for conjugation, serves as a detachable carrier. The influence of synthesis conditions and incubation in physiological media on the molecular weight of HA is studied. The cleavage of the PGG grafts from the HA backbone is quantified and polymer-from-polymer release kinetics are determined. The biocompatibility of the materials is tested in different cell cultures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Sphincter of Oddi Function and Risk Factors for Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Afghani, Elham; Lo, Simon K.; Covington, Paul S.; Cash, Brooks D.; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    The sphincter of Oddi (SO) is a smooth muscle valve regulating the flow of biliary and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum, initially described in 1887 by the Italian anatomist, Ruggero Oddi. SO dysfunction (SOD) is a broad term referring to numerous biliary, pancreatic, and hepatic disorders resulting from spasms, strictures, and relaxation of this valve at inappropriate times. This review brings attention to various factors that may increase the risk of SOD, including but not limited to: cholecystectomy, opiates, and alcohol. Lack of proper recognition and treatment of SOD may be associated with clinical events, including pancreatitis and biliary symptoms with hepatic enzyme elevation. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches are discussed to help recognize, prevent, and treat SOD. Future studies are needed to assess the treatment benefit of agents such as calcium-channel blockers, glyceryl trinitrate, or tricyclic antidepressants in patients with SOD. PMID:28194398

  10. Sphincter of Oddi Function and Risk Factors for Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Elham; Lo, Simon K; Covington, Paul S; Cash, Brooks D; Pandol, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    The sphincter of Oddi (SO) is a smooth muscle valve regulating the flow of biliary and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum, initially described in 1887 by the Italian anatomist, Ruggero Oddi. SO dysfunction (SOD) is a broad term referring to numerous biliary, pancreatic, and hepatic disorders resulting from spasms, strictures, and relaxation of this valve at inappropriate times. This review brings attention to various factors that may increase the risk of SOD, including but not limited to: cholecystectomy, opiates, and alcohol. Lack of proper recognition and treatment of SOD may be associated with clinical events, including pancreatitis and biliary symptoms with hepatic enzyme elevation. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches are discussed to help recognize, prevent, and treat SOD. Future studies are needed to assess the treatment benefit of agents such as calcium-channel blockers, glyceryl trinitrate, or tricyclic antidepressants in patients with SOD.

  11. Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy Unravels Aberrant Accumulation of Saturated Fat in Human Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Cui, Sishan; Ke, Kun; Zhao, Bixing; Liu, Xiaolong; Yue, Shuhua; Wang, Ping

    2018-06-05

    Lipid metabolism is dysregulated in human cancers. The analytical tools that could identify and quantitatively map metabolites in unprocessed human tissues with submicrometer resolution are highly desired. Here, we implemented analytical hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy to map the lipid metabolites in situ in normal and cancerous liver tissues from 24 patients. In contrast to the conventional wisdom that unsaturated lipid accumulation enhances tumor cell survival and proliferation, we unexpectedly visualized substantial amount of saturated fat accumulated in cancerous liver tissues, which was not seen in majority of their adjacent normal tissues. Further analysis by mass spectrometry confirmed significant high levels of glyceryl tripalmitate specifically in cancerous liver. These findings suggest that the aberrantly accumulated saturated fat may have great potential to be a metabolic biomarker for liver cancer.

  12. The assessment and management of chest pain in primary care: A focus on acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed

    Thomsett, Richard; Cullen, Louise

    2018-05-01

    Chest pain is a common presentation and diagnosis can be challenging. There are many causes for chest pain, including life-threatening conditions such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS), which can prove difficult to diagnose. This article focuses on diagnosis and early management of patients with possible ACS. Key differentials and essential primary care investigations and management are outlined. Hospital-based risk stratification and management are described, providing an outline of what patients can expect if referred to hospital. In primary care, an electrocardiogram (ECG) is the only investigation required for most patients while referral is made to hospital. Troponin testing should rarely be requested to investigate patients with suspected ACS in the primary care setting. Initial treatment may include aspirin, glyceryl trinitrate and oxygen if required. If ACS is suspected as the cause of the symptoms, urgent referral for definitive risk stratification is required.

  13. Dietary Nitrate Lowers Blood Pressure: Epidemiological, Pre-clinical Experimental and Clinical Trial Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gee, Lorna C; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator critical in maintaining vascular homeostasis, can reduce blood pressure in vivo. Loss of constitutive NO generation, for example as a result of endothelial dysfunction, occurs in many pathological conditions, including hypertension, and contributes to disease pathology. Attempts to therapeutically deliver NO via organic nitrates (e.g. glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) to reduce blood pressure in hypertensives have been largely unsuccessful. However, in recent years inorganic (or 'dietary') nitrate has been identified as a potential solution for NO delivery through its sequential chemical reduction via the enterosalivary circuit. With dietary nitrate found in abundance in vegetables this review discusses epidemiological, pre-clinical and clinical data supporting the idea that dietary nitrate could represent a cheap and effective dietary intervention capable of reducing blood pressure and thereby improving cardiovascular health.

  14. Preparation and Evaluation of Surface Modified Lactose Particles for Improved Performance of Fluticasone Propionate Dry Powder Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepak J; Jain, Rajesh R; Soni, P S; Abdul, Samad; Darshana, Hegde; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Menon, Mala D

    2015-08-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are generally formulated by mixing micronized drug particles with coarse lactose carrier particles to assist powder handling during the manufacturing and powder aerosol delivery during patient use. In the present study, surface modified lactose (SML) particles were produced using force control agents, and their in vitro performance on dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of Fluticasone propionate was studied. With a view to reduce surface passivation of high surface free energy sites on the most commonly used DPI carrier, α- lactose monohydrate, effects of various force control agents such as Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate, polyethylene glycol 6000, magnesium stearate, and soya lecithin were studied. DPI formulations prepared with SML showed improved flow properties, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed decrease in surface roughness. The DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns of SML showed no change in the crystal structure and thermal behavior under the experimental conditions. The fine particle fraction (FPF) values of lactose modified with Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate were improved, with increase in concentration up to 0.5%. Soya lecithin and PEG 6000 modified lactose showed decrease in FPF value with increase in concentration. Increase in FPF value was observed with increasing concentration of magnesium stearate. Two different DPI devices, Rotahaler(®) and Diskhaler(®), were compared to evaluate the performance of SML formulations. FPF value of all SML formulations were higher using both devices as compared to the same formulations prepared using untreated lactose. One month stability of SML formulations at 40°C/75% RH, in permeable polystyrene tubes did not reveal any significant changes in FPF values. SML particles can help in reducing product development hindrances and improve inhalational properties of DPI.

  15. Modification of drug release from acetaminophen granules by melt granulation technique - consideration of release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S

    2006-01-01

    Acetaminophen granules have been formed by a melt granulation process with the objective of retarding drug release for prolonged action formulations. The waxes used were goat wax, carnuba wax and glyceryl monostearate. In the melt granulation procedure, acetaminophen powder was triturated with the melted waxes and passed through a sieve of mesh 10 (aperture size 710 microm). The content of wax in resulting granules ranged from 10 to 40%w/w. Acetaminophen granules were also formed by the convectional method of wet granulation with starch mucilage (20%w/w). The granules were subjected to in-vitro drug release tests. The release data were subjected to analysis by three different well-established mathematical models (release kinetics) namely, - zero order flux, first order, and the Higuchi square root of time relationship. The convectional granules exhibited an initial zero order flux (first 55%) followed by a first order release profile (the remaining 45%). The pattern of drug release from the melt granulations was consistent with the first order kinetic and the Higuchi square root of time relationship, indicating a diffusion-controlled release mechanism. The first order release rate constant of the convectional granules was 1.95 +/- 0.02 h(-1). After melt granulation (wax content, 20%w/w) the rate constants dropped drastically to 0.130+/-0.001 h(-1) (goat wax), 0.120+/-0.003 h(-1) (carnuba wax), and 0.130+/-0.002 h(-1) (glyceryl monosterate) indicating that all three waxes were equivalent in retarding drug release from the melt granulations.

  16. Interannual variations in the lipids of the Antarctic pteropods Clione limacina and Clio pyramidata.

    PubMed

    Phleger, C F; Nelson, M M; Mooney, B D; Nichols, P D

    2001-03-01

    Antarctic pteropods, Clione limacina (Order Gymnosomata) and Clio pyramidata (order Thecosomata), were collected near Elephant Island, South Shetland Islands, during 1997 and 1998. Total lipid was high in C. limacina (29--36 mg g(-1) wet mass) and included 46% of diacy1glyceryl ether (DAGE, as % of total lipid) for both 1997 and 1998. DAGE was not detected in C. pyramidata, which had mainly polar lipid and triacy1glycerol. 1-O-Alkyl glyceryl ethers (GE) derived from the DAGE consisted primarily of 15:0 and 16:0, with lower 17:0 and a17:0. The principal sterols of both pteropods included trans-dehydrocholesterol, brassicasterol, 24-methylenecholesterol, cholesterol and desmosterol. Levels of 24-methylenecholesterol and desmosterol were lower in both pteropods in 1997 compared to 1998. C. limacina had high levels of the odd-chain fatty acids 17:1(n--8)c and 15:0 in contrast to C. pyramidata. The previously proposed source of elevated odd-chain fatty acids in C. limacina is via propionate derived from phytoplankton DMPT; another possible source may be from thraustochytrids, which are common marine microheterotrophs. C. pyramidata had twice as much PUFA as C. limacina, largely due to higher 20:5(n--3). The PUFA 18:5(n--3) and very long chain fatty acids (C(24), C(26) and C(28) VLC-PUFA) were only detected in 1998 pteropods. In comparison, 1996 samples of C. limacina contained lower DAGE levels, which also may reflect differences in diet and oceanographic conditions. Interannual variations in specific lipid biomarkers are discussed with respect to possible different phytoplankton food sources available in the AMLR survey area.

  17. Self-Assembled Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles for Transdermal Delivery of Paeonol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Chun; Zhu, Na; Zhu, Jin-Xiu; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Hong-Min; Wang, Qing-Qing; Wu, Xiao-Xiang; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Jin; Hao, Ji-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to optimize the preparation method for self-assembled glyceryl monoolein-based cubosomes containing paeonol and to characterize the properties of this transdermal delivery system to improve the drug penetration ability in the skin. Material/Methods In this study, the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles loaded with paeonol were prepared by fragmentation of glyceryl monoolein (GMO)/poloxamer 407 bulk cubic gel by high-pressure homogenization. We evaluated the Zeta potential of these promising skin-targeting drug-delivery systems using the Malvern Zeta sizer examination, and various microscopies and differential scanning calorimetry were also used for property investigation. Stimulating studies were evaluated based on the skin irritation reaction score standard and the skin stimulus intensity evaluation standard for paeonol cubosomes when compared with commercial paeonol ointment. In vitro tests were performed on excised rat skins in an improved Franz diffusion apparatus. The amount of paeonol over time in the in vitro penetration and retention experiments both was determined quantitatively by HPLC. Results Stimulating studies were compared with the commercial ointment which indicated that the paeonol cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles could reduce the irritation in the skin stimulating test. Thus, based on the attractive characteristics of the cubic crystal system of paeonol, we will further exploit the cosmetic features in the future studies. Conclusions The transdermal delivery system of paeonol with low-irritation based on the self-assembled cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles prepared in this study might be a promising system of good tropical preparation for skin application. PMID:26517086

  18. Fluid regimens for colostomy irrigation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lizarondo, Lucylynn; Aye Gyi, Aye; Schultz, Tim

    2008-09-01

    Background  Various techniques for managing faecal evacuation have been proposed; however, colostomy irrigation is favoured as it leads to better patient outcomes. Alternative fluid regimens for colostomy irrigation have been suggested to achieve effective evacuation. Aim  The objective of this review was to summarise the best available evidence on the most effective fluid regimen for colostomy irrigation. Search strategy  Trials were identified by electronic searches of CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE. Unpublished articles and references lists from included studies were also searched. Selection criteria  Randomised controlled trials and before-and-after studies investigating any fluid regimen for colostomy irrigation were eligible for inclusion. Outcomes measured included fluid inflow time, total wash-out time, haemodynamic changes during irrigation, cramps, leakage episodes, quality of life and level of satisfaction. Data collection and analysis  Trial selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were carried out independently by two reviewers. Differences in opinion were resolved by discussion. Main results  The systematic literature search strategy identified two cross-over trials that compared water with another fluid regimen. Owing to the differences in irrigating solutions used, the results were not pooled for analysis. Both the polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and glyceryl trinitrate performed significantly better than water. Conclusion  There is some evidence to support the effectiveness of fluid regimens other than water, such as polyethylene glycol electrolyte and glyceryl trinitrate, for colostomy irrigation. Further well-designed clinical trials are required to establish solid evidence on the effectiveness of other irrigating solutions that might enhance colonic irrigation. © 2008 The Authors. Journal Compilation © Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Polygonatum sibiricum rhizome promotes sleep by regulating non-rapid eye movement and GABAergic/serotonergic receptors in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kyungae; Suh, Hyung Joo; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2018-05-29

    The aim of this study is to investigate the sleep-promoting effect of a water extract of the Polygonatum sibiricum rhizome (PSE) in rodent models. PSE contained oleamide (0.10 mg/g extract) and glyceryl monolinoleate (0.17 mg/g extract), which are recognized as sleep-promoting substances. In pentobarbital-induced sleep model at hypnotic level, PSE (160 mg/kg) administration significantly decreased sleep latency time by 29% (2.7 min) and increased sleep duration time by 70% (68.4 min) compared with the normal control (3.8 min and 40.7 min, respectively). In the electroencephalography (EEG) analysis of rats, PSE-mediated sleep promotion accompanied the change of sleep architecture including increase of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and decrease of REM. This sleep promoting effect was more obvious in caffeine-induced awakening model; total sleep time was increased by 40% along with increased NREM by PSE treatment at 160 mg/kg. In addition, PSE significantly increased the protein and mRNA levels of GABA A -R2 and 5-HT1A receptor, the major sleep-related neurotransmitter receptors. Furthermore, glyceryl monolinoleate and oleamide effectively bound to GABA A receptor in a competitive binding assay. These results indicate that PSE-mediated sleep-promoting effect is associated with the extension of NREM and upregulation of GABA A -R2 and 5-HT1A, and is mediated by binding to the GABA A receptor in vertebrate models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Formulation Development, Process Optimization, and In Vitro Characterization of Spray-Dried Lansoprazole Enteric Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Chintan; Patadia, Riddhish; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the development of enteric microparticles of lansoprazole in a single step by employing the spray drying technique and studies the effects of variegated formulation/process variables on entrapment efficiency and in vitro gastric resistance. Preliminary trials were undertaken to optimize the type of Eudragit and its various levels. Further trials included the incorporation of plasticizer triethyl citrate and combinations of other polymers with Eudragit S 100. Finally, various process parameters were varied to investigate their effects on microparticle properties. The results revealed Eudragit S 100 as the paramount polymer giving the highest gastric resistance in comparison to Eudragit L 100-55 and L 100 due to its higher pH threshold and its polymeric backbone. Incorporation of plasticizer not only influenced entrapment efficiency, but diminished gastric resistance severely. On the contrary, polymeric combinations reduced entrapment efficiency for both sodium alginate and glyceryl behenate, but significantly influenced gastric resistance for only sodium alginate and not for glyceryl behenate. The optimized process parameters were comprised of an inlet temperature of 150°C, atomizing air pressure of 2 kg/cm2, feed solution concentration of 6% w/w, feed solution spray rate of 3 ml/min, and aspirator volume of 90%. The SEM analysis revealed smooth and spherical shape morphologies. The DSC and PXRD study divulged the amorphous nature of the drug. Regarding stability, the product was found to be stable under 3 months of accelerated and long-term stability conditions as per ICH Q1A(R2) guidelines. Thus, the technique offers a simple means to generate polymeric enteric microparticles that are ready to formulate and can be directly filled into hard gelatin capsules. PMID:27222612

  1. The effect of some general anaesthetics on the surface potential of lipid monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, A.D.; Mason, W.

    1979-01-01

    1 This study sought to investigate the report by Ginsberg (1978) that 0.7 M ethanol brought about a + 100 mV change (ΔΔV) in the surface potential of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) monolayers formed on KCl, although he predicted that a ΔΔV of -10 mV should have been found. 2 The effect of general anaesthetics such as n-alkyl alcohols and pentobarbitone on surface potential (ΔV) and surface tension (γ) of lipid monolayers formed on 145 mM KCl from either glyceryl monooleate (GMO) or phosphatidyl choline (PC) was examined with an Americium-241 air electrode assembly (ΔV) and a platinized platinum dipping plate and force balance (γ). 3 It was found that, as predicted by Ginsberg (1978), addition of 0.7 M ethanol to the aqueous phase bathing either PC or GMO monolayers brings about a negative-going change in interfacial potential (ΔΔV). 4 The magnitude of ΔΔV is dependent in a linear fashion on ethanol concentration. 5 Longer chain length alcohols up to n-decanol also bring about a negative going change in ΔΔV, and the dependence of ΔΔV on anaesthetic activity, with respect to increasing chain length of anaesthetic, is consistent with Traube's law. 6 Pentobarbitone added to the aqueous phase bathing the monolayer also elicits a negative ΔΔV, a finding which rules out the possibility of adsorption of the volatile alcohols to the measuring electrode. 7 The findings are discussed in terms of the proposition that increasing disorder in an array of fixed dipoles, such as might occur in a bilayer exposed to anaesthetic, would result in a lowering of the electrostatic barrier to the predominantly impermeable cation. PMID:465879

  2. Arterial alterations in severely obese children with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Dubern, Beatrice; Aggoun, Yacine; Boulé, Michèle; Fauroux, Brigitte; Bonnet, Damien; Tounian, Patrick

    2010-05-03

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in obese adults is associated with cardiovascular disease independently of obesity. Vascular alterations exist in children with obesity and may constitute the first stage in the development of adulthood cardiovascular disease. To investigate the relationship between OSA and early arterial alterations in obese children. Cross-sectional study of a prospective cohort. A total of 51 children with severe obesity managed at a teaching hospital outpatient clinic. Polysomnography was performed. We measured the intima-media thickness and incremental elastic modulus (Einc) to assess the mechanical characteristics of the common carotid artery. Arterial endothelial function was evaluated by measuring flow-mediated dilation and glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilation (GTNMD) of the brachial artery. A total of 24 (47%) children had a desaturation index (DI) >10/h and 7 (14%) had a respiratory event index >10/h. DI >10/h was associated with significantly higher values of Einc (4.0 + or - 0.5 vs. 2.4 + or - 0.4 mm Hg(-1) x 10(3), p=0.003) and GTNMD (18.0 + or - 1.1 vs. 14.1 + or - 1.0 %, p=0.02) after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, fasting insulin, and leptin. In the univariate analysis, GTNMD correlated positively with DI (r=0.14, p=0.02) after adjustment for age, sex, fasting insulin and leptin. By multivariate analysis with BMI as an additional independent variable, both GTNMD and Einc correlated significantly with DI (beta=0.4, p=0.02 and beta=0.27, p=0.04, respectively). OSA in children is associated with arterial alterations independently from obesity. The increased vasodilation in response to glyceryl trinitrate reflects pre-existing vasoconstriction probably induced by intermittent hypoxia. OSA should be detected early in children with severe obesity.

  3. Intestinal absorption of retinol and retinyl palmitate in the rat. Effects of tetrahydrolipstatin

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, E.; Borgstroem, B.

    1990-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the intestinal absorption of retinol and retinyl palmitate in thoracic duct and bile duct fistulated rats and to investigate the effect of a simultaneously administered lipase inhibitor, tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). Absorption was determined as lymphatic recovery over a 24-hr period, including an initial 12-hr continuous intraduodenal infusion of either (11,12-3H)retinol or (11,12-3H)retinyl palmitate given in emulsified glyceryl trioleate or in mixed micellar solution of monoolein and oleic acid. From micellar dispersion, labeled retinol and retinyl palmitate were recovered in the lymph to 50-60% and both to the same extent. Administered in emulsifiedmore » form, labeled retinol from fed retinyl palmitate was recovered to 47%, but retinol from fed retinol to only 18%. THL (10(-4) M) in the infusate had no significant effect on the recovery of 14C-labeled oleic acid. The recovery of label from emulsified glyceryl tri(1-14C)oleate was significantly decreased at this concentration of THL (76.5% vs 19.6% recovery). When administered in emulsified form, retinol absorption was not significantly affected by THL at 10(-4) M, while retinyl palmitate absorption was very significantly decreased (5.0% compared to 47.8%). In the presence of THL, retinol absorption from retinyl palmitate in micellar solution was decreased (from 58% to 17%). Most of the retinol in the lymph extracts (72.2 to 91.3) was present as retinyl ester, regardless of the chemical and physical form of administration. Furthermore, THL did not induce any change in this pattern.« less

  4. Abiotic Condensation Synthesis of Glyceride Lipids and Wax Esters Under Simulated Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2006-04-01

    Precursor compounds for abiotic proto cellular membranes are necessary for the origin of life. Amphipathic compounds such as fatty acids and acyl glycerols are important candidates for micelle/bilayer/vesicle formation. Two sets of experiments were conducted to study dehydration reactions of model lipid precursors in aqueous media to form acyl polyols and wax esters, and to evaluate the stability and reactions of the products at elevated temperatures. In the first set, mixtures of n-nonadecanoic acid and ethylene glycol in water, with and without oxalic acid, were heated at discrete temperatures from 150 ∘C to 300 ∘C for 72 h. The products were typically alkyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl bis-alkanoates and alkanols. The condensation products had maximum yields between 150 ∘C and 250 ∘C, and were detectable and thus stable under hydrothermal conditions to temperatures < 300 ∘C. In the second set of experiments, mixtures of n-heptanoic acid and glycerol were heated using the same experimental conditions, with and without oxalic acid, between 100 ∘C and 250 ∘C. The main condensation products were two isomers each of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols at all temperatures, as well as minor amounts of the fatty acid anhydride and methyl ester. The yield of glyceryl monoheptanoates generally increased with increasing temperature and glyceryl diheptanoates decreased noticeably with increasing temperature. The results indicate that condensation reactions and abiotic synthesis of organic lipid compounds under hydrothermal conditions occur easily, provided precursor concentrations are sufficiently high.

  5. Abiotic condensation synthesis of glyceride lipids and wax esters under simulated hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2006-04-01

    Precursor compounds for abiotic proto cellular membranes are necessary for the origin of life. Amphipathic compounds such as fatty acids and acyl glycerols are important candidates for micelle/bilayer/vesicle formation. Two sets of experiments were conducted to study dehydration reactions of model lipid precursors in aqueous media to form acyl polyols and wax esters, and to evaluate the stability and reactions of the products at elevated temperatures. In the first set, mixtures of n-nonadecanoic acid and ethylene glycol in water, with and without oxalic acid, were heated at discrete temperatures from 150 ( composite function)C to 300 ( composite function)C for 72 h. The products were typically alkyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl bis-alkanoates and alkanols. The condensation products had maximum yields between 150 ( composite function)C and 250 ( composite function)C, and were detectable and thus stable under hydrothermal conditions to temperatures < 300 ( composite function)C. In the second set of experiments, mixtures of n-heptanoic acid and glycerol were heated using the same experimental conditions, with and without oxalic acid, between 100 ( composite function)C and 250 ( composite function)C. The main condensation products were two isomers each of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols at all temperatures, as well as minor amounts of the fatty acid anhydride and methyl ester. The yield of glyceryl monoheptanoates generally increased with increasing temperature and glyceryl diheptanoates decreased noticeably with increasing temperature. The results indicate that condensation reactions and abiotic synthesis of organic lipid compounds under hydrothermal conditions occur easily, provided precursor concentrations are sufficiently high.

  6. FATTY ACID DESATURASE4 of Arabidopsis encodes a protein distinct from characterized fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinpeng; Ajjawi, Imad; Manoli, Arthur; Sawin, Andrew; Xu, Changcheng; Froehlich, John E; Last, Robert L; Benning, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Polar membrane glycerolipids occur in a mixture of molecular species defined by a polar head group and characteristic acyl groups esterified to a glycerol backbone. A molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol specific to chloroplasts of plants carries a Delta(3-trans) hexadecenoic acid in the sn-2 position of its core glyceryl moiety. The fad4-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana missing this particular phosphatidylglycerol molecular species lacks the necessary fatty acid desaturase, or a component thereof. The overwhelming majority of acyl groups associated with membrane lipids in plants contains double bonds with a cis configuration. However, FAD4 is unusual because it is involved in the formation of a trans double bond introduced close to the carboxyl group of palmitic acid, which is specifically esterified to the sn-2 glyceryl carbon of phosphatidylglycerol. As a first step towards the analysis of this unusual desaturase reaction, the FAD4 gene was identified by mapping of the FAD4 locus and coexpression analysis with known lipid genes. FAD4 encodes a predicted integral membrane protein that appears to be unrelated to classic membrane bound fatty acid desaturases based on overall sequence conservation. However, the FAD4 protein contains two histidine motifs resembling those of metalloproteins such as fatty acid desaturases. FAD4 is targeted to the plastid. Overexpression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis led to increased accumulation of the Delta(3-trans) hexadecanoyl group in phosphatidylglycerol relative to wild type. Taken together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that FAD4 is the founding member of a novel class of fatty acid desaturases.

  7. Lipids bearing extruded-spheronized pellets for extended release of poorly soluble antiemetic agent-Meclizine HCl.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Faaiza; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Nasiri, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmed, Kamran; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2017-04-12

    Antiemetic agent Meclizine HCl, widely prescribed in vertigo, is available only in immediate release dosage forms. The approved therapeutic dose and shorter elimination half-life make Meclizine HCl a potential candidate to be formulated in extended release dosage form. This study was aimed to develop extended release Meclizine HCl pellets by extrusion spheronization using natural and synthetic lipids. Influence of lipid type, drug/lipid ratio and combinations of different lipids on drug release and sphericity of pellets were evaluated. Thirty two formulations were prepared with four different lipids, Glyceryl monostearate (Geleol ® ), Glyceryl palmitostearate (Precirol ® ), Glyceryl behenate (Compritol ® ) and Carnauba wax, utilized either alone or in combinations of drug/lipid ratio of 1:0.5-1:3. Dissolution studies were performed at variable pH and release kinetics were analyzed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was conducted and no drug lipid interaction was found. Sphericity indicated by shape factor (e R ) varied with type and concentration of lipids: Geleol ® (e R  = 0.891-0.997), Precirol ® (e R  = 0.611-0.743), Compritol ® (e R  = 0.665-0.729) and Carnauba wax (e R  = 0.499-0.551). Highly spherical pellets were obtained with Geleol ® (Aspect ratio = 1.005-1.052) whereas irregularly shaped pellets were formed using Carnauba wax (Aspect ratio = 1.153-1.309). Drug release was effectively controlled by three different combinations of lipids: (i) Geleol ® and Compritol ® , (ii) Geleol ® and Carnauba wax and (iii) Geleol ® , Compritol ® and Carnauba wax. Scanning electron microscopy of Compritol ® pellets showed smooth surface with pores, whereas, irregular rough surface with hollow depressions was observed in Carnauba wax pellets. Energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated elemental composition of lipid matrix pellets. Kinetics of (i) Geleol ® and Compritol ® pellets, explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas (R 2  = 0.978-0.993) indicated

  8. Formulation and in vitro release evaluation of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsion delivery system for 30% ethanolic dried extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria for skin antiaging.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Elrashid Saleh; Noor, Azmin Mohd; Sakeena, Mohamed Hameem; Abdullah, Ghassan Z; Abdulkarim, Muthanna F; Sattar, Munavvar Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a remarkable surge of interest about natural products and their applications in the cosmetic industry. Topical delivery of antioxidants from natural sources is one of the approaches used to reverse signs of skin aging. The aim of this research was to develop a nanoemulsion cream for topical delivery of 30% ethanolic extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) for skin antiaging. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs)-based nanoemulsions were loaded with P. urinaria extract using a spontaneous method and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, and rheological properties. The release profile of the extract was evaluated using in vitro Franz diffusion cells from an artificial membrane and the antioxidant activity of the extract released was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Formulation F12 consisted of wt/wt, 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 0.5% glyceryl monostearate, 12% PKOEs, and 27% Tween 80/Span 80 (9/1) with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and a 59.5% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4. Formulation F36 was comprised of 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 1% glyceryl monostearate, 14% PKOEs, 28% Tween 80/Span 80 (9/1) with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and 56% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4 with shear thinning and thixotropy. The droplet size of F12 and F36 was 30.74 nm and 35.71 nm, respectively, and their nanosizes were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy images. Thereafter, 51.30% and 51.02% of the loaded extract was released from F12 and F36 through an artificial cellulose membrane, scavenging 29.89% and 30.05% of DPPH radical activity, respectively. The P. urinaria extract was successfully incorporated into a PKOEs-based nanoemulsion delivery system. In vitro release of the extract from the formulations showed DPPH radical scavenging activity. These formulations can neutralize reactive oxygen species and counteract

  9. Formulation and in vitro release evaluation of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsion delivery system for 30% ethanolic dried extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria for skin antiaging

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Elrashid Saleh; Noor, Azmin Mohd; Sakeena, Mohamed Hameem; Abdullah, Ghassan Z; Abdulkarim, Muthanna F; Sattar, Munavvar Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently there has been a remarkable surge of interest about natural products and their applications in the cosmetic industry. Topical delivery of antioxidants from natural sources is one of the approaches used to reverse signs of skin aging. The aim of this research was to develop a nanoemulsion cream for topical delivery of 30% ethanolic extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria) for skin antiaging. Methods Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs)-based nanoemulsions were loaded with P. urinaria extract using a spontaneous method and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, and rheological properties. The release profile of the extract was evaluated using in vitro Franz diffusion cells from an artificial membrane and the antioxidant activity of the extract released was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Results Formulation F12 consisted of wt/wt, 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 0.5% glyceryl monostearate, 12% PKOEs, and 27% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1) with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and a 59.5% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4. Formulation F36 was comprised of 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 1% glyceryl monostearate, 14% PKOEs, 28% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1) with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and 56% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4 with shear thinning and thixotropy. The droplet size of F12 and F36 was 30.74 nm and 35.71 nm, respectively, and their nanosizes were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy images. Thereafter, 51.30% and 51.02% of the loaded extract was released from F12 and F36 through an artificial cellulose membrane, scavenging 29.89% and 30.05% of DPPH radical activity, respectively. Conclusion The P. urinaria extract was successfully incorporated into a PKOEs-based nanoemulsion delivery system. In vitro release of the extract from the formulations showed DPPH radical scavenging activity. These formulations can

  10. Studies on the compressibility of wax matrix granules of acetaminophen and their admixtures with various tableting bases.

    PubMed

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S

    2006-04-01

    Matrix granules of acetaminophen have been formed by a melt granulation process whereby the acetaminophen powder was triturated with the melted wax--goat wax, glyceryl monostearate or carnuba wax. The compressibility of the matrix granules and their admixture, with diluent granules (lactose, alpha-cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose) was investigated. The granules were compressed to tablets at a constant load (30 arbitrary units on the load scale) of a manesty single punch machine. Resulting tablets were evaluated for tensile strength (T) and disintegration times (DT). Granule flow was determined by measuring their angle of repose when allowed to fall freely on a level surface. Matrix granules prepared by melt granulation with goat wax or glyceryl monostearate were too sticky and therefore did not flow at all. They were also poorly compressible (T values = 0.20MN/m2). Inclusion of the diluent remarkably improved granule flow property and compressibility. The T values of the tablets (measure of compressibility) increased from about 0.24 to 0.65 MN/m2 during increase in diluent (lactose) content from 20 to 80 %w/w. Microcrystalline cellulose and alpha-cellulose were more effective than lactose in promoting compressibility of the granules. By contrast the matrix granules formed with carnuba wax were free flowing (angle of repose, 18.60). Addition of the diluent further improved flowability slightly. The matrix granules (without a diluent) were readily compressible (T value, 1.79MN/m2). Addition of the diluent (80%w/w) reduced T values (MN/m2) slightly to 1.32 (lactose), 1.48 (alpha-cellulose) and 1.74 (microcrystalline cellulose). Tablets of the matrix granules only, disintegrated rapidly within 3 minutes. DT was further reduced to <30 s by addition of any of the diluents. The indication is that the inclusion of the diluents studied can be used to improve the compressibility of the otherwise poorly compressible matrix granules. Based on the flowability

  11. Impaired vascular function in physically active premenopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is associated with low shear stress and increased vascular tone.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Mak, Susanna; Harvey, Paula J

    2014-05-01

    Exercise-trained hypoestrogenic premenopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (ExFHA) exhibit impaired endothelial function. The vascular effects of an acute bout of exercise, a potent nitric oxide stimulus, in these women are unknown. Three groups were studied: recreationally active ExFHA women (n = 12; 24.2 ± 1.2 years of age; mean ± SEM), and recreationally active (ExOv; n = 14; 23.5 ± 1.2 years of age) and sedentary (SedOv; n = 15; 23.1 ± 0.5 years of age) ovulatory eumenorrheic women. Calf blood flow (CBF) and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were evaluated using plethysmographic and ultrasound techniques, respectively, both before and 1 hour after 45 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise. Endothelium-independent dilation was assessed at baseline using glyceryl trinitrate. Calf vascular resistance (CVR) and brachial peak shear rate, as determined by the area under the curve (SRAUCpk), were also calculated. FMD and glyceryl trinitrate responses were lower (P < .05) in ExFHA (2.8% ± 0.4% and 11.6% ± 0.7%, respectively) than ExOv (8.8% ± 0.7% and 16.7% ± 1.3%) and SedOv (8.0% ± 0.5% and 17.1% ± 1.8%). SRAUCpk was also lower (P < .05) in ExFHA. Normalization of FMD for SRAUCpk (FMD/SRAUCpk) did not alter (P > .05) the findings. CBF was lower (P < .05) and CVR higher (P < .05) in ExFHA. After exercise, FMD and SRAUCpk were augmented (P < .05), but remained lower (P < .05), in ExFHA. FMD/SRAUCpk no longer differed (P > .05) between the groups. CBF in ExFHA was increased (P < .05) and CVR decreased (P < .05) to levels observed in ovulatory women. Acute dynamic exercise improves vascular function in ExFHA women. Although the role of estrogen deficiency per se is unclear, our findings suggest that low shear rate and increased vasoconstrictor tone may play a role in impaired basal vascular function in these women.

  12. Effect of Moisture on the Thermoresponsive Properties of Binary Mixtures of Monoglycerides for Triggerable Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Stonewall, Hannah D; Kessinger, Haley M; Mengesha, Abebe E

    2017-10-01

    The crystallization behavior and temperature-dependent phase transition of monoglycerides have been utilized to develop thermal-sensitive drug delivery systems. The presence of excess water has been reported to influence the phase transition. The present study investigates the effect of moisture on the thermal behavior of binary blends of monoglycerides. Various compositions (0-100 wt%) of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and glyceryl monostearate (GMS) were prepared by fusion method, and exposed to varying relative humidity (RH) levels (0-100%). The moisture uptakes, sorption isotherm, and the thermal behavior of GMO-GMS samples were analyzed using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The in vitro nifedipine (NF) release was studied at 37 and 42°C. Samples of GMO-GMS (25:75, 50:50, and 75:25 wt%) stored at 97%RH at 25°C for 3 weeks increased in weight by 14.0, 14.7, and 15.8%, respectively. Despite such high moisture uptake, the GMO-GMS matrices maintained crystalline structure. The melting point (T m ) and heat of fusion (ΔH f ) of the samples were reduced as the amount of moisture in the matrices increased. However, the heat of fusion calculated on dry basis remained constant at 139.4 ± 1.25, 102.7 ± 1.14, and 46.7 ± 1.16 J/g for GMO-GMS 25:75, 50:50, and 75:25 wt%, respectively. The comparison of the XRD measurements of the dry samples with those containing 30% water confirmed the preserved crystalline arrangement in the matrices. This study indicates that despite the high moisture uptakes, the GMO-GMS matrices retained their crystalline properties and provided temperature-dependent drug release indicating the potential application for thermoresponsive local drug delivery systems.

  13. Synthesis and assessment of fertility-regulating potential of 2-(2''-chloroacetamidobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolyl) quinoline in adult rats as a male contraceptive agent.

    PubMed

    Bhowal, Sujit K; Lala, Sanchita; Hazra, Abhijit; Paira, Priyankar; Banerjee, Sukdeb; Mondal, Nirup B; Chakraborty, Smritinath

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertility-regulating potential of the compound 2-(2''-chloroacetamidobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolyl) quinoline in male rats. Rats of proven fertility were treated with the compound by oral gavage for 1 to 8 consecutive weeks. Functional fertility, testicular, epididymal and seminal vesicular weight, epididymal sperm count and spermatogenesis were quantitated. Reproductive hormones and some biochemical parameters were measured. Functional fertility was reduced significantly as revealed by a fall in fertility and pregnancy rate. The weight of the reproductive organs was reduced significantly. A reduction of sperm count and number of different types of testicular cells was observed. The treatment with the compound resulted in decline of testosterone and an increase of FSH hormone levels. The compound effectively reduced testicular protein, glycogen and epididymal glyceryl phosphorylcholine. Increase in testicular alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol was also observed. Fertility and other effects were regained gradually after cessation of treatment. The results revealed from the study indicate that the compound has reversible antifertility activity and can be explored as male contraceptive agent.

  14. Endocannabinoids as positive or negative factors in hematopoietic cell migration and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Patinkin, Deborah; Milman, Garry; Breuer, Aviva; Fride, Ester; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2008-10-24

    The ethanolamides of arachidonic, myristic and linoleic acids reduce bone marrow cell migration, while the 2-glyceryl esters of these acids enhance migration. Thus the 2 major endocannabinoids, anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol), whose structural difference lies in the nature of the end-group alone, work in opposite directions. The endocannabinoid arachidonoyl serine, a vasodilator, also reduces migration. The effect of 2-AG is mediated, in part at least, through the cannabinoid receptors, while the effect of anandamide, as well as the rest of the compounds assayed, are not mediated through them. Almost all cannabinoids tested, including anandamide and 2-AG, lead to approximate doubling of CFU-GEMM (colony-forming unit: granulocyte, erythrocyte, macrophage, megakaryocyte) colonies. The effect of anandamide is considerably more potent than that of 2-AG. A surprising dose-response increase of erythroid cells is noted in cultures with the ester cannabinoids (in the absence of the cytokine erythropoietin), while a considerable dose-response augmentation of megakaryocytes is noted in cultures with the ethanolamide cannabinoids (in the presence of erythropoietin). This is suggestive of some cross-talk between two different regulatory systems, one governed by glycoprotein ligands and the other by endocannabinoids.

  15. Combination lung cancer chemotherapy: Design of a pH-sensitive transferrin-PEG-Hz-lipid conjugate for the co-delivery of docetaxel and baicalin.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Li, Na; Liu, Yucai; Su, Hui

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to design a novel dual-ligand lipid based nanoparticle system. It is conducted by a specific ligand and pH sensitive lipid conjugate. Docetaxel (DTX) and baicalein (BA) are co-delivered by this system for combination lung cancer chemotherapy. Firstly, transferrin (Tf)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-hydrazone (hz)-glyceryl monostearate (GMS), Tf-PEG-hz-GMS, was synthesized. Tf decorated DTX and BA loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Tf-D/B-SLNs) were prepared by emulsification method. The capability of Tf-D/B-SLNs in suppressing lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was investigated. The results revealed the better antitumor efficiency of Tf-D/B-SLNs than the non-decorated SLNs and single drug loaded SLNs. Significant synergistic effects were observed in the dual drugs loaded systems. The best tumor inhibition ability and the lowest systemic toxicity also proved the pH-sensitive co-delivery nano-system could be a promising strategy for treatment of lung cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Towards Preserving the Immunogenicity of Protein Antigens Carried by Nanoparticles While Avoiding the Cold Chain

    PubMed Central

    Sloat, Brian R.; Sandoval, Michael A.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles are an attractive vaccine carrier with potent adjuvant activity. Data from our previous studies showed that immunization of mice with lecithin/glyceryl monostearate-based nanoparticles with protein antigens conjugated onto their surface induced a strong, quick, and long-lasting antigen-specific immune response. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of preserving the immunogenicity of protein antigens carried by nanoparticles without refrigeration using these antigen-conjugated nanoparticles as a model. The nanoparticles were lyophilized, and the immunogenicity of the antigens was evaluated in a mouse model using bovine serum albumin or the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens. With proper excipients, the nanoparticles can be lyophilized while maintaining the immunogenicity of the antigens. Moreover, the immunogenicity of the model antigen conjugated onto the nanoparticles was undamaged after a relatively extended period of storage at room temperature or under accelerated conditions (37°C) when the nanoparticles were lyophilized with 5% mannitol plus 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone. To our knowledge, the present study represents an early attempt to preserve the immunogenicity of the protein antigens carried by nanoparticles without refrigeration. PMID:20416366

  17. Characterization and evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared via a temperature-modulated solidification technique.

    PubMed

    Patel, Meghavi N; Lakkadwala, Sushant; Majrad, Mohamed S; Injeti, Elisha R; Gollmer, Steven M; Shah, Zahoor A; Boddu, Sai Hanuman Sagar; Nesamony, Jerry

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to advance solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) preparation methodology by preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles using a temperature-modulated solidification process. The technique was reproducible and prepared nanoparticles without the need of organic solvents. An anticancer agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), was incorporated in the SLNs. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis, zeta potential analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vitro cell viability studies. Particle size of the SLN dispersion was below 100 nm, and that of redispersed lyophilizates was ~500 nm. DSC and infrared spectroscopy suggested that the degree of crystallinity did not decrease appreciably when compared to GMS. TEM and AFM images showed well-defined spherical to oval particles. The drug encapsulation efficiency was found to be approximately 46%. In vitro drug release studies showed that 80% of the encapsulated drug was released within 1 h. In vitro cell cultures were biocompatible with blank SLNs but demonstrated concentration-dependent changes in cell viability to 5-FU-loaded SLNs. The 5-FU-loaded SLNs can potentially be utilized in an anticancer drug delivery system.

  18. Preparation of Deep Sea Fish Oil-Based Nanostructured Lipid Carriers with Enhanced Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiu-Yun; Guissi, Fida; Yang, Ru-Ya; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ke; Chen, Dan; Han, Zhi-Hao; Ma, Yi; Zhang, Min; Gu, Yue-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are a promising pharmaceutical delivery system with mean diameter less than 200 nm which are dispersed in an aqueous phase containing emulsifier(s), to increase the water solubility, stability and bioavailability of oil compounds. Herein we prepared a promising NLC with glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as the solid lipid template and deep sea fish oil as the liquid lipid template using melted-ultrasonic method. Fish oil-NLC had a mean size of 84.7 ± 2.6 nm and a zeta potential that ranged from -17.87 mV to -32.91 mV. The nanoparticles exhibited good stability for four weeks with a high encapsulation efficiency of 87.5 ± 5.2%. Afterwards, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) were used to investigate the contribution of Fish oil-NLC in enhancing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) cellular uptake in comparison with free FITC. The results of this study indicated the possibility of this carrier to overcome the shortcomings of deep sea fish oil and to provide a novel bifunctional carrier with nutritional potential and drug delivery ability.

  19. Impact of anti-tacking agents on properties of gas-entrapped membrane and effervescent floating tablets.

    PubMed

    Kriangkrai, Worawut; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul

    2014-12-01

    Tackiness caused by the gas-entrapped membrane (Eudragit(®)RL 30D) was usually observed during storage of the effervescent floating tablets, leading to failure in floatation and sustained release. In this work, common anti-tacking agents (glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and talc) were used to solve this tackiness problem. The impact of anti-tacking agent on the properties of free films and corresponding floating tablets was investigated. GMS was more effective than talc in reducing tackiness of the film. Addition and increasing amount of anti-tacking agents lowered the film mechanical strength, but the coating films were still strong and flexible enough to resist the generated gas pressure inside the floating tablet. Wettability and water vapor permeability of the film decreased with increasing level of anti-tacking agents as a result of their hydrophobicity. No interaction between anti-tacking agents and polymer was observed as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Increasing amount of anti-tacking agents decreased time to float and tended to retard drug release of the floating tablets. Floating properties and drug release were also influenced by type of anti-tacking agents. The obtained floating tablets still possessed good floating properties and controlled drug release even though anti-tacking agent had some effects. The results demonstrated that the tackiness problem of the floating tablets could be solved by incorporating anti-tacking agent into the gas-entrapped membrane.

  20. Influence of Surfactant and Lipid Type on the Physicochemical Properties and Biocompatibility of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pizzol, Carine Dal; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola Branco; Restrepo, Jelver Alexander Sierra; Pittella, Frederico; Silva, Adny Henrique; de Souza, Paula Alves; de Campos, Angela Machado; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Nine types of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) formulations were produced using tripalmitin (TPM), glyceryl monostearate (GM) or stearic acid (SA), stabilized with lecithin S75 and polysorbate 80. Formulations were prepared presenting PI values within 0.25 to 0.30, and the physicochemical properties, stability upon storage and biocompatibility were evaluated. The average particle size ranged from 116 to 306 nm, with a negative surface charge around −11 mV. SLN presented good stability up to 60 days. The SLN manufactured using SA could not be measured by DLS due to the reflective feature of this formulation. However, TEM images revealed that SA nanoparticles presented square/rod shapes with an approximate size of 100 nm. Regarding biocompatibility aspects, SA nanoparticles showed toxicity in fibroblasts, causing cell death, and produced high hemolytic rates, indicating toxicity to red blood cells. This finding might be related to lipid type, as well as, the shape of the nanoparticles. No morphological alterations and hemolytic effects were observed in cells incubated with SLN containing TPM and GM. The SLN containing TPM and GM showed long-term stability, suggesting good shelf-life. The results indicate high toxicity of SLN prepared with SA, and strongly suggest that the components of the formulation should be analyzed in combination rather than separately to avoid misinterpretation of the results. PMID:25141003

  1. Preparation and evaluation of miconazole nitrate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhalekar, Mangesh R; Pokharkar, Varsha; Madgulkar, Ashwini; Patil, Nilam; Patil, Nilkanth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare miconazole nitrate (MN) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (MN-SLN) effective for topical delivery of miconazole nitrate. Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, propylene glycol (PG) to increase drug solubility in lipid, tween 80, and glyceryl monostearate were used as the surfactants to stabilize SLN dispersion in the SLN preparation using hot homogenization method. SLN dispersions exhibited average size between 244 and 766 nm. All the dispersions had high entrapment efficiency ranging from 80% to 100%. The MN-SLN dispersion which showed good stability for a period of 1 month was selected. This MN-SLN was characterized for particle size, entrapment efficiency, and X-ray diffraction. The penetration of miconazole nitrate from the gel formulated using selected MN-SLN dispersion as into cadaver skins was evaluated ex-vivo using franz diffusion cell. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that MN was dispersed in SLN in an amorphous state. The MN-SLN formulations could significantly increase the accumulative uptake of MN in skin over the marketed gel and showed a significantly enhanced skin targeting effect. These results indicate that the studied MN-SLN formulation with skin targeting may be a promising carrier for topical delivery of miconazole nitrate.

  2. Towards preserving the immunogenicity of protein antigens carried by nanoparticles while avoiding the cold chain.

    PubMed

    Sloat, Brian R; Sandoval, Michael A; Cui, Zhengrong

    2010-06-30

    Nanoparticles are an attractive vaccine carrier with potent adjuvant activity. Data from our previous studies showed that immunization of mice with lecithin/glyceryl monostearate-based nanoparticles with protein antigens conjugated onto their surface induced a strong, quick, and long-lasting antigen-specific immune response. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of preserving the immunogenicity of protein antigens carried by nanoparticles without refrigeration using these antigen-conjugated nanoparticles as a model. The nanoparticles were lyophilized, and the immunogenicity of the antigens was evaluated in a mouse model using bovine serum albumin or the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein as model antigens. With proper excipients, the nanoparticles can be lyophilized while maintaining the immunogenicity of the antigens. Moreover, the immunogenicity of the model antigen conjugated onto the nanoparticles was undamaged after a relatively extended period of storage at room temperature or under accelerated conditions (37 degrees C) when the nanoparticles were lyophilized with 5% mannitol plus 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone. To our knowledge, the present study represents an early attempt to preserve the immunogenicity of the protein antigens carried by nanoparticles without refrigeration. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved pharmacokinetics and antihyperlipidemic efficacy of rosuvastatin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers.

    PubMed

    Rizwanullah, Md; Amin, Saima; Ahmad, Javed

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, rosuvastatin calcium-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers were developed and optimized for improved efficacy. The ROS-Ca-loaded NLC was prepared using melt emulsification ultrasonication technique and optimized by Box-Behnken statistical design. The optimized NLC composed of glyceryl monostearate (solid lipid) and capmul MCM EP (liquid lipid) as lipid phase (3% w/v), poloxamer 188 (1%) and tween 80 (1%) as surfactant. The mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ζ) and entrapment efficiency (%) of optimized NLC formulation was observed to be 150.3 ± 4.67 nm, 0.175 ± 0.022, -32.9 ± 1.36 mV and 84.95 ± 5.63%, respectively. NLC formulation showed better in vitro release in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) than API suspension. Confocal laser scanning showed deeper permeation of formulation across rat intestine compared to rhodamine B dye solution. Pharmacokinetic study on female albino Wistar rats showed 5.4-fold increase in relative bioavailability with NLC compared to API suspension. Optimized NLC formulation also showed significant (p < 0.01) lipid lowering effect in hyperlipidemic rats. Therefore, NLC represents a great potential for improved efficacy of ROS-Ca after oral administration.

  4. Surfactants selectively reallocated the bacterial distribution in soil bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Zhao, Qian; Wang, Xin; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2018-02-15

    Soil contaminated by aged petroleum hydrocarbons is faced with scarcity of electron acceptors, low activity of functional microbes and inefficient electron transfer, which hinder the bioremediation application. The soil microbial fuel cell (MFC) simultaneously solves these problems with bioelectricity production. In this study, five types of surfactants were introduced to enhance the bioavailability of aged petroleum hydrocarbon in soils. The ampholytic surfactant (lecithos) was optimal due to the highest bioelectricity generation (0.321Cd -1 g -1 ) and promoted hydrocarbon degradation (328%), while the nonionic (glyceryl monostearate) and cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants were inefficient. The surfactants induced a special microbial enrichment affiliated with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria (93%-99% of total) in soil MFCs. The anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) exhibited the strongest selectivity, and α-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria abundances decreased while Clostridia increased, much like the result obtained with the biosurfactant β-cyclodextrin. Furthermore, Bacillus abundance was increased in connected soil MFCs, except addition of lecithos in which Clostridium increased to 14.88% from 3.61% in the control. The high correlations among Bacillus, Phenylobacterium, Solibacillus (0.9162-0.9577) and among Alcaligenes, Dysgonomonas, Sedimentibacter (0.9538-0.9966) indicated a metabolic network of microorganisms in the soil bioelectrochemical remediation system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A theoretical approach to evaluate the release rate of acetaminophen from erosive wax matrix dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Agata, Yasuyoshi; Iwao, Yasunori; Shiino, Kai; Miyagishima, Atsuo; Itai, Shigeru

    2011-07-29

    To predict drug dissolution and understand the mechanisms of drug release from wax matrix dosage forms containing glyceryl monostearate (GM; a wax base), aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE; a pH-dependent functional polymer), and acetaminophen (APAP; a model drug), we tried to derive a novel mathematical model with respect to erosion and diffusion theory. Our model exhibited good agreement with the whole set of experimentally obtained values pertaining to APAP release at pH 4.0 and pH 6.5. In addition, this model revealed that the eroding speed of wax matrices was strongly influenced by the loading content of AMCE, but not that of APAP, and that the diffusion coefficient increased as APAP loading decreased and AMCE loading increased, thus directly defining the physicochemical properties of erosion and diffusion. Therefore, this model might prove a useful equation for the precise prediction of dissolution and for understanding the mechanisms of drug release from wax matrix dosage forms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Curcuminoids-loaded lipid nanoparticles: novel approach towards malaria treatment.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Aditya P; Tiyaboonchai, Waree; Patankar, Swati; Madhusudhan, Basavaraj; Souto, Eliana B

    2010-11-01

    In the present work, curcuminoids-loaded lipid nanoparticles for parenteral administration were successfully prepared by a nanoemulsion technique employing high-speed homogenizer and ultrasonic probe. For the production of nanoparticles, trimyristin, tristerin and glyceryl monostearate were selected as solid lipids and medium chain triglyceride (MCT) as liquid lipid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the spherical nature of the particles with sizes ranging between 120 and 250 nm measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The zeta potential of the particles ranged between -28 and -45 mV depending on the nature of the lipid matrix produced, which also influenced the entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading capacity (LC) found to be in the range of 80-94% and 1.62-3.27%, respectively. The LC increased reciprocally on increasing the amount of MCT as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC analyses revealed that increasing imperfections within the lipid matrix allowed for increasing encapsulation parameters. Nanoparticles were further sterilized by filtration process which was found to be superior over autoclaving in preventing thermal degradation of thermo-sensitive curcuminoids. The in vivo pharmacodynamic activity revealed 2-fold increase in antimalarial activity of curcuminoids entrapped in lipid nanoparticles when compared to free curcuminoids at the tested dosage level. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and evaluation of nitrendipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: influence of wax and glyceride lipids on plasma pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Venishetty Vinay; Chandrasekar, Durairaj; Ramakrishna, Sistla; Kishan, Veerabrahma; Rao, Yamsani Madhusudan; Diwan, Prakash Vamanrao

    2007-04-20

    Nitrendipine is an antihypertensive drug with poor oral bioavailability ranging from 10 to 20% due to the first pass metabolism. For improving the oral bioavailability of nitrendipine, nitrendipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles have been developed using triglyceride (tripalmitin), monoglyceride (glyceryl monostearate) and wax (cetyl palmitate). Poloxamer 188 was used as surfactant. Hot homogenization of melted lipids and aqueous phase followed by ultrasonication at temperature above the melting point of lipid was used to prepare SLN dispersions. SLN were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and crystallinity of lipid and drug. In vitro release studies were performed in phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 using Franz diffusion cell. Pharmacokinetics of nitrendipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles after intraduodenal administration to conscious male Wistar rats was studied. Bioavailability of nitrendipine was increased three- to four-fold after intraduodenal administration compared to that of nitrendipine suspension. The obtained results are indicative of solid lipid nanoparticles as carriers for improving the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs such as nitrendipine by minimizing first pass metabolism.

  8. Formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of cold pressed rice bran oil emulsion.

    PubMed

    Thanonkaew, Amonrat; Wongyai, Surapote; Decker, Eric A; McClements, David J

    2015-10-01

    Cold pressed rice bran oil (CPRBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health and functional attributes. The purpose of this work was to study the formation, antioxidant property and oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsion of CPRBO. The influence of oil (10-40 % CPRBO) and surfactant (1-5 % glyceryl monostearate (GMS)) concentration on the properties of emulsions were studied. The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of CPRBO emulsions decreased as GMS concentration increased, which was attributed to a decrease in droplet size after homogenization. The CPRBO emulsion was stable during storage at room temperature for 30 days. Increasing the oil concentration in the CPRBO emulsions increased their antioxidant activity, which can be attributed to the corresponding increase in phytochemical content. However, GMS concentration had little impact on the antioxidant activity of CPRBO emulsions. The storage of CPRBO emulsion at room temperature showed that lipid oxidation markers gradually increased after 30 days of storage, which was correlated to a decrease in gamma oryzanol content and antioxidant activity. These results have important implications for the utilization of rice bran oil (RBO) as a function ingredient in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products.

  9. Development and optimization of solid lipid nanoparticle formulation for ophthalmic delivery of chloramphenicol using a Box-Behnken design

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jifu; Fang, Xinsheng; Zhou, Yanfang; Wang, Jianzhu; Guo, Fengguang; Li, Fei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to optimize a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) of chloramphenicol by investigating the relationship between design factors and experimental data using response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was constructed using solid lipid (X1), surfactant (X2), and drug/lipid ratio (X3) level as independent factors. SLN was successfully prepared by a modified method of melt-emulsion ultrasonication and low temperature-solidification technique using glyceryl monostearate as the solid lipid, and poloxamer 188 as the surfactant. The dependent variables were entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL), and turbidity. Properties of SLN such as the morphology, particle size, zeta potential, EE, DL, and drug release behavior were investigated, respectively. As a result, the nanoparticle designed showed nearly spherical particles with a mean particle size of 248 nm. The polydispersity index of particle size was 0.277 ± 0.058 and zeta potential was −8.74 mV. The EE (%) and DL (%) could reach up to 83.29% ± 1.23% and 10.11% ± 2.02%, respectively. In vitro release studies showed a burst release at the initial stage followed by a prolonged release of chloramphenicol from SLN up to 48 hours. The release kinetics of the optimized formulation best fitted the Peppas–Korsmeyer model. These results indicated that the chloramphenicol-loaded SLN could potentially be exploited as a delivery system with improved drug entrapment efficiency and controlled drug release. PMID:21556343

  10. Exploration of hydrophobic modification degree of chitosan-based nanocomplexes on the oral delivery of enoxaparin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linlin; Li, Liang; Sun, Yujiao; Tian, Ye; Li, Ying; Li, Conghao; Junyaprasert, Varaporn B; Mao, Shirui

    2013-11-20

    The objective of this paper is to elucidate the influence of lipophilic modification degree of chitosan on the peroral absorption of enoxaparin. A series of novel chitosan grafted glyceryl monostearate (GM) copolymers with different GM substitution degree were synthesized and the successful synthesis was confirmed by (1)H NMR, FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Enoxaparin loaded nanocomplexes with different carriers were prepared by self-assembly process. Influence of GM substitution degree and chitosan molecular weight in the copolymer on the properties of the nanocomplexes was investigated. Morphology of the nanocomplexes was observed by atomic force microscopy. Mucoadhesive properties of the nanocomplexes were characterized using mucin particle method. Initially, mucoadhesion of the nanocomplexes increased with the increase of GM substitution degree and it started to decrease when the substitution degree was up to 18.6%. A good linear relationship between GM substitution degree and in vivo absorption of enoxaparin in fasted rats was established in the substitution degree range of 0-11.1%. In agreement with mucoadhesion data, further increasing GM substitution degree to 18.6% caused a decrease in oral absorption. In conclusion, oral bioavailability of enoxaparin can be enhanced by structure modification of the carriers and the bioavailability is hydrophobic modification degree dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and Evaluation of Taste Masked Granular Formulation of Satranidazole by Melt Granulation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harshal Ashok; Joshi, Pooja Rasiklal

    2014-01-01

    Drugs from nitroimidazole category are generally bitter in taste. Oral formulation with bitter taste is not palatable. Geriatrics and pediatrics patients usually suffer from swallowing difficulties. Many other patients in some disease conditions avoid swallowing tablets. Satranidazole is a new nitro-imidazole derivative with bitter taste and is available in market as film coated tablet. The purpose of this research was to mask the bitter taste of Satranidazole by coating complexation with low melting point wax and Eudragit EPO. Different types of wax (glyceryl monostearate, stearic acid and cetyl alcohol) were tried for taste masking. The drug to stearic acid ratio 1 : 2 was found to be optimum on the basis of taste evaluation and in vitro release. The formulated granules were found to possess good flow property. FTIR studies confirmed that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. Scanning Electron Microscopy of drug and the optimized batch of granules was performed. The in vitro release of drug from granules was compared with marketed tablet formulation. The taste masked granules of optimized batch showed 87.65% release of drug in 1 hr which is comparable to that of marketed tablet formulation. PMID:26556200

  12. Sustained release biodegradable solid lipid microparticles: Formulation, evaluation and statistical optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Afzal, Samina; Mahmood, Asif; Maheen, Safirah; Afzal, Khurram; Iqbal, Nabila; Andleeb, Mehwish; Abbas, Nazar

    2017-12-20

    For preparing nebivolol loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) by the solvent evaporation microencapsulation process from carnauba wax and glyceryl monostearate, central composite design was used to study the impact of independent variables on yield (Y1), entrapment efficiency (Y2) and drug release (Y3). SLMs having a 10-40 μm size range, with good rheological behavior and spherical smooth surfaces, were produced. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry pointed to compatibility between formulation components and the zeta-potential study confirmed better stability due to the presence of negative charge (-20 to -40 mV). The obtained outcomes for Y1 (29-86 %), Y2 (45-83 %) and Y3 (49-86 %) were analyzed by polynomial equations and the suggested quadratic model were validated. Nebivolol release from SLMs at pH 1.2 and 6.8 was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by lipid concentration. The release mechanism followed Higuchi and zero order models, while n > 0.85 value (Korsmeyer- Peppas) suggested slow erosion along with diffusion. The optimized SLMs have the potential to improve nebivolol oral bioavailability.

  13. Investigations on pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticulate systems of atypical antipsychotic drug: effect of material used and surface modification.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Emil; Saha, Ranendra N

    2017-04-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of material used for the preparation of nanoparticulate (NP) systems and surface modification on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine (OLN). NP carriers of OLN were prepared from two different materials such as polymer (polycaprolactone) and solid lipid (Glyceryl monostearate). These systems were further surface modified with surfactant, Polysorbate 80 and studied for pharmacokinetics-biodistribution in Wistar rats using in-house developed bioanalytical methods. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies resulted in a modified and varied distribution of NP systems with higher area under curve (AUC) values along with prolonged residence time of OLN in the rat blood circulation. The distribution of OLN to the brain was significantly enhanced with surfactant surface-modified NP systems, followed by nonsurface-modified NP formulations as compared with pure OLN solution. Biodistribution study demonstrated a low uptake of obtained NP systems by kidney and heart, thereby decreasing the nephrotoxicity and adverse cardiovascular effects. By coating the NP with surfactant, uptake of macrophage was found to be reduced. Thus, our studies confirmed that the biodistribution OLN could be modified effectively by incorporating in NP drug delivery systems prepared from different materials and surface modifications. A judicious selection of materials used for the preparation of delivery carriers and surface modifications would help to design a most efficient drug delivery system with better therapeutic efficacy.

  14. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Efavirenz by Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: In Vitro Drug Release and Pharmacokinetics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Mishra, Shikha; Bajpai, Meenakshi; Mishra, Anushika

    2014-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticle is an efficient lipid based drug delivery system which can enhance the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. Efavirenz is a highly lipophilic drug from nonnucleoside inhibitor category for treatment of HIV. Present work illustrates development of an SLN formulation for Efavirenz with increased bioavailability. At first, suitable lipid component and surfactant were chosen. SLNs were prepared and analyzed for physical parameters, stability, and pharmacokinetic profile. Efavirenz loaded SLNs were formulated using Glyceryl monostearate as main lipid and Tween 80 as surfactant. ESLN-3 has shown mean particle size of 124.5 ± 3.2 nm with a PDI value of 0.234, negative zeta potential, and 86% drug entrapment. In vitro drug release study has shown 60.6–98.22% drug release in 24 h by various SLN formulations. Optimized SLNs have shown good stability at 40°C ± 2°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity (RH) for 180 days. ESLN-3 exhibited 5.32-fold increase in peak plasma concentration (C max⁡) and 10.98-fold increase in AUC in comparison to Efavirenz suspension (ES). PMID:24967360

  15. Solid lipid nanoparticles as an efficient drug delivery system of olmesartan medoxomil for the treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Nilima T; Jani, Parva; Vanza, Jigar; Tandel, Hemal

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to develop solid lipid nanoparticles of olmesartan medoxomil using hot homogenization method to improve its oral bioavailability. Central composite design was applied to optimize the formulation variables; lipid X1 (Glyceryl monostearate) and surfactant X2 (Poloxamer: Tween 80). The particle sizes were in the nanometer range and spherical shaped for all prepared solid lipid nanoparticles formulations and the zeta potential absolute values were high, predicting good long-term stability. In vitro study of olmesartan loaded solid lipid nanoparticle exhibited controlled release profile for at least 24 h. The rate and extent of drug diffusion was studied using dialysis sac, rat's stomach and intestine tissues; study demonstrated that drug release from the solid lipid nanoparticles was significantly higher than drug suspension. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of olmesartan loaded solid lipid nanoparticles revealed higher Cmax of 1610 ng/mL, higher AUC of 15492.50 ng/mL and increased relative bioavailability by almost 2.3 folds compared to marketed formulation. These results clearly indicate that olmesartan loaded solid lipid nanoparticles are shown to have enhanced bioavailability and effective therapeutic result and thus would be an excellent way to treat hypertension. Hence, these solid lipid nanoparticles could represent as a great potential for a possible alternative to conventional oral formulation in the treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry. PMID:26760943

  17. The efficacy and safety of bufadienolides-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Weng, Yan; Wang, Lihui; He, Haibing; Yang, Jingyu; Tang, Xing

    2010-06-30

    Bufadienolides-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (BU-NLC) were prepared for parenteral application using glyceryl monostearate as solid core, medium-chain triglyceride and oleic acid as liquid lipid material, and Lipoid E-80, sodium deoxycholate and pluronic F68 as stabilizers. In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, antitumor efficacy and safety of BU-NLC were evaluated. Against human astrocytoma cell line (U87-MG) and human gastric carcinoma cell line (HGC-27) BU-NLC exhibited cytotoxicity that was similar to that of the free drug, and superior to that of the commercially available fluorouracil injection. BU-NLC exhibited a linear pharmacokinetic behavior at doses ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 mg/kg. The improved pharmacokinetic profile of bufadienolides when formulated in BU-NLC resulted in a higher plasma concentration and lower clearance after intravenous administration compared with bufadienolides solution (BU-S). A biodistribution study indicated that bufadienolides were mainly distributed in the lung, spleen, brain and kidney, and the longest retention was observed in the brain. A sarcoma-180 tumor model further confirmed the advantages of BU-NLC versus BU-S. Hemolysis and acute toxicity investigations showed that BU-NLC was safe when given by intravenous injection with reduced toxicity. In conclusion, the NLC system is a promising approach for the intravenous delivery of bufadienolides. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of hybrid lipid-based particles loaded with inorganic nanoparticles and active compounds for prolonged topical release.

    PubMed

    García-González, C A; Sampaio da Sousa, A R; Argemí, A; López Periago, A; Saurina, J; Duarte, C M M; Domingo, C

    2009-12-01

    The production of particulate hybrid carriers containing a glyceryl monostearate (Lumulse GMS-K), a waxy triglyceride (Cutina HR), silanized TiO(2) and caffeine were investigated with the aim of producing sunscreens with UV-radiation protection properties. Particles were obtained using the supercritical PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions) technique. This method takes advantages of the lower melting temperatures of the lipids obtained from the dissolution of CO(2) in the bulk mixture. Experiments were performed at 13 MPa and 345 K, according to previous melting point measurements. Blends containing Lumulse GMS-K and Cutina HR lipids (50 wt%) were loaded with silanized TiO(2) and caffeine in percentile proportions of 6 and 4 wt%, respectively. The particles produced were characterized using several analytical techniques as follows: system crystallinity was checked by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis, and morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Further, the UV-shielding ability of TiO(2) after its dispersion in the lipidic matrix was assessed by solid UV-vis spectroscopy. Preliminary results indicated that caffeine-loaded solid lipid particles presented a two-step dissolution profile, with an initial burst of 60 wt% of the loaded active agent. Lipid blends loaded with TiO(2) and caffeine encompassed the UV-filter behavior of TiO(2) and the photoaging prevention properties of caffeine.

  19. Preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of solid dispersions containing docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Qiu, Liyan; Hu, Minxin; Jin, Yi; Han, Jieru

    2008-06-01

    Solid dispersions using water-soluble carriers were studied for improving the dissolution of docetaxel, a poorly soluble compound. In order to obtain the most optimized formulation, we prepared many solid dispersions with different carriers, different solvents, or at a series of drug-to-carrier ratios, and compared their dissolution. The accumulative dissolution of docetaxel from poloxamer 188 was more excellent than that from PVP(k30) and glyceryl monostearate, and the dissolution of docetaxel from solid dispersion was markedly higher than that of pure docetaxel; meanwhile the increased dissolution was partly dependent on the ratios of docetaxel and poloxamer 188. The ethanol used to prepare solid dispersion is of more significant effect on the dissolution of docetaxel than that of acetone. The docetaxel/poloxamer 188 system was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The results of DSC, XRD, and ESEM analyses of docetaxel/poloxamer 188 system showed that there are intermolecular interactions between docetaxel and poloxamer, and the crystallinity of docetaxel disappeared. These results show that solid dispersion is a promising approach of developing docetaxel drug formulates.

  20. Galactosylated nanostructured lipid carriers for delivery of 5-FU to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Sadeghi, Hojjat; Khadem, Mostafa

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to design a targeted delivery system of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Lactobionic acid (LB) was conjugated to stearyl amine (SA) by a chemical reaction. The nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), containing LB conjugate, lecithin, glyceryl monostearate, oil [oleic acid (OA) or Labrafac 5 or 10%], and 5-FU, were dissolved in alcohol/acetone, the oil phase was added to the aqueous phase containing Tween 80 or Solutol(®) HS15 (0.25 or 0.5%), and NLCs were prepared by an emulsification-solvent diffusion method. Physical properties and drug release were studied in NLCs. The thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay was used to study the cytotoxicity of NLCs on HepG(2) cells, and the cellular uptake of NLCs was determined by flow cytometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H-NMR spectra confirmed the successful conjugation of LB and SA. The optimized NLCs consisted of 0.5% Solutol HS15 and 10% OA oil. The particle size of these nanoparticles was 139.2 nm, with a zeta potential of -18 mV, loading efficiency of 34.2%, release efficiency after 2 hours of the release test was 72.6%, and crystallinity was 0.63%. The galactosylated NLCs of 5-FU were cytotoxic on the HepG(2) cell line in a half concentration of 5-FU and seems promising in reducing 5-FU dose in HCC.

  1. Preparation, characterization, pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with tetrandrine.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Ji, Zhaoshuai; Zou, Meijuan; Nie, Xin; Shi, Yijie; Cheng, Gang

    2011-09-01

    Tetrandrine (TET) is a poorly water-soluble bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid. In this study, TET solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by a melt-emulsification and ultrasonication technique. Precirol(®) ATO 5, glyceryl monostearate, and stearic acid were used as the lipid matrix for the SLNs, while Lipoid E80, Pluronic F68, and sodium deoxycholate were used as emulsifying and stabilizing agents. The physicochemical characteristics of the TET-SLNs were investigated when it was found that the mean particle size and zeta potential of the TET-SLNs were 134 ± 1.3 nm and -53.8 ± 1.7 mV, respectively, and the entrapment efficiency (EE) was 89.57% ± 0.39%. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that TET was in an amorphous state in SLNs. TET-SLNs exhibited a higher release rate at a lower pH and a lower release rate at a higher pH. The release pattern of the TET-SLNs followed the Weibull model. The pharmacokinetics of TET-SLNs after intravenous administration to male rats was studied. TET-SLN resulted in a higher plasma concentration and lower clearance. The biodistribution study indicated that TET-SLN showed a high uptake in reticuloendothelial system organs. In conclusion, TET-SLNs with a small particle size, and high EE, can be produced by the method described in this study. The SLN system is a promising approach for the intravenous delivery of tetrandrine.

  2. Differences in the rheological properties and mixing compatibility with heparinoid cream of brand name and generic steroidal ointments: The effects of their surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Shuji; Yutani, Reiko; Kodani, Rhu-Ichi; Teraoka, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Most steroidal ointments contain propylene glycol (PG) and surfactants, which improve the solubility of corticosteroids in white petrolatum. Surfactants aid the uniform dispersal of PG within white petrolatum. Since the surfactants used in generic ointments are usually different from those used in brand name ointments, we investigated the effects of surfactants on the rheological properties of three brand name ointments and six equivalent generic ointments. We detected marked differences in hardness, adhesiveness, and spreadability among the ointments. Further examinations of model ointments consisting of white petrolatum, PG, and surfactants revealed that the abovementioned properties, especially hardness and adhesiveness, were markedly affected by the surfactants. Since steroidal ointments are often admixed with moisturizing creams prior to use, we investigated the mixing compatibility of the ointments with heparinoid cream and how this was affected by their surfactants. We found that the ointments containing glyceryl monostearate demonstrated good mixing compatibility, whereas those containing non-ionic surfactants with polyoxyethylene chains exhibited phase separation. These results were also consistent with the findings for the model ointments, which indicates that the mixing compatibility of steroidal ointments with heparinoid cream is determined by the emulsifying capacity of the surfactants in their oily bases.

  3. Wax-based sustained release matrix pellets prepared by a novel freeze pelletization technique II. In vitro drug release studies and release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cheboyina, Sreekhar; Wyandt, Christy M

    2008-07-09

    A novel freeze pelletization technique was evaluated for the preparation of wax-based sustained release matrix pellets. Pellets containing water-soluble drugs were successfully prepared using a variety of waxes. The drug release significantly depended on the wax type used and the aqueous drug solubility. The drug release decreased as the hydrophobicity of wax increased and the drug release increased as the aqueous drug solubility increased. In glyceryl monostearate (GMS) pellets, drug release rate decreased as the loading of theophylline increased. On the contrary, the release rate increased as the drug loading of diltiazem HCl increased in Precirol pellets. Theophylline at low drug loads existed in a dissolved state in GMS pellets and the release followed desorption kinetics. At higher loads, theophylline existed in a crystalline state and the release followed dissolution-controlled constant release for all the waxes studied. However, with the addition of increasing amounts of Brij 76, theophylline release rate increased and the release mechanism shifted to diffusion-controlled square root time kinetics. But the release of diltiazem HCl from Precirol pellets at all drug loads, followed diffusion-controlled square root time kinetics. Therefore, pellets capable of providing a variety of release profiles for different drugs can be prepared using this freeze pelletization technique by suitably modifying the pellet forming matrix compositions.

  4. Tadalafil-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers using permeation enhancers.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Suep; Pham, Cuong Viet; Myung, Chang-Seon; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-11-30

    Tadalafil is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. In this study, we prepared and evaluated transdermal nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) to improve the skin permeability of tadalafil. Tadalafil-loaded NLC dispersions were prepared using glyceryl monostearate as a solid lipid, oleic acid as a liquid lipid, and Tween 80 as a surfactant. We characterized the dispersions according to particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and transmission electron microscopy. In vitro skin permeation studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells, and cytotoxicity was examined using HaCaT keratinocyte cell lines. Tadalafil skin permeability increased for all tadalafil-loaded NLC formulations. The tadalafil-loaded NLC dispersion with ethanol and limonene as skin permeation enhancers exhibited the highest flux (∼4.8-fold) compared to that observed with tadalafil solution alone. Furthermore, a tadalafil-loaded NLC gel with selected permeation enhancers showed tolerance against toxicity in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that the NLC formulations with ethanol and limonene as skin permeation enhancers could be a promising dermal delivery carrier for tadalafil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Safranal-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: evaluation of sunscreen and moisturizing potential for topical applications

    PubMed Central

    Khameneh, Bahman; Halimi, Vahid; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): In the current study, sunscreen and moisturizing properties of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN)-safranal formulations were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Series of SLN were prepared using glyceryl monostearate, Tween 80 and different amounts of safranal by high shear homogenization, and ultrasound and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) methods. SLN formulations were characterized for size, zeta potential, morphology, thermal properties, and encapsulation efficacy. The Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of the products was determined in vitro using transpore tape. The moisturizing activity of the products was also evaluated by corneometer. Results: The SPF of SLN-safranal formulations was increased when the amount of safranal increased. Mean particle size for all formulas was approximately 106 nm by probe sonication and 233 nm using HPH method. The encapsulation efficiency of safranal was around 70% for all SLN-safranal formulations. Conclusion: The results conclude that SLN-safranal formulations were found to be effective for topical delivery of safranal and succeeded in providing appropriate sunscreen properties. PMID:25810877

  6. In vitro anticancer evaluation of 5-fluorouracil lipid nanoparticles using B16F10 melanoma cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, Vikram S.; Gude, Rajiv P.; Murthy, Rayasa S. Ramachandra

    2013-05-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the formulation and in vitro anticancer activities of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prepared using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and cetyl palmitate (CP) by hot homogenization method. The lipids were selected based on the partition coefficient of 5-FU in lipids. The lipid nanoparticles were optimized for process and formulation parameters. The optimized nanoparticles were characterized for their zeta potential, morphology, release kinetics, and anticancer activity. Higher entrapments were achieved using a combination of emulsifiers. The zeta potential of the optimized CP and GMS SLN formulation were -8.26 and -9.35 mV, respectively. Both the optimized formulations were spherical. The in vitro release studies of SLNs of both the lipid carriers followed Peppas-Korsenmeyer equation when carried out at pH 3.5 and 7.4. The chemosensitivity assay carried out in B16F10 cell lines revealed that CP SLNs had better cytotoxicity than 5-FU solution and GMS SLNs at 48 h of incubation. Subtoxic concentration of 5-FU-loaded CP SLNs (0.12 μg/mL) possessed comparable antimigrational activity, colony inhibition activity, and cytopathic as that of 5-FU solution effects. The results indicated that encapsulating 5-FU in CP would be a promising delivery system for delivering 5-FU.

  7. Solid lipid nanoparticles as vesicles for oral delivery of olmesartan medoxomil: formulation, optimization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nooli, Mounika; Chella, Naveen; Kulhari, Hitesh; Shastri, Nalini R; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2017-04-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) is an antihypertensive drug with low oral bioavailability (28%) resulting from poor aqueous solubility, presystemic metabolism and P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. The present investigation studies the role of lipid nanocarriers in enhancing the OLM bioavailability through oral delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were prepared by solvent emulsion-evaporation method. Statistical tools like regression analysis and Pareto charts were used to detect the important factors effecting the formulations. Formulation and process parameters were then optimized using mean effect plot and contour plots. The formulations were characterized for particle size, size distribution, surface charge, percentage of drug entrapped in nanoparticles, drug-excipients interactions, powder X-ray diffraction analysis and drug release in vitro. The optimized formulation comprised glyceryl monostearate, soya phosphatidylcholine and Tween 80 as lipid, co-emulsifier and surfactant, respectively, with an average particle size of 100 nm, PDI 0.291, zeta potential of -23.4 mV and 78% entrapment efficiency. Pharmacokinetic evaluation in male Sprague Dawley rats revealed 2.32-fold enhancement in relative bioavailability of drug from SLN when compared to that of OLM plain drug on oral administration. In conclusion, SLN show promising approaches as a vehicle for oral delivery of drugs like OLM.

  8. Nanostructured lipid carriers for oral bioavailability enhancement of raloxifene: Design and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirmal V; Seth, Avinash K; Balaraman, R; Aundhia, Chintan J; Maheshwari, Rajesh A; Parmar, Ghanshyam R

    2016-05-01

    The objective of present work was to utilize potential of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for improvement in oral bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX). RLX loaded NLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion method using glyceryl monostearate and Capmul MCM C8 as solid lipid and liquid lipid, respectively. A full 3(2) factorial design was utilized to study the effect of two independent parameters namely solid lipid to liquid lipid ratio and concentration of stabilizer on the entrapment efficiency of prepared NLCs. The statistical evaluation confirmed pronounced improvement in entrapment efficiency when liquid lipid content in the formulation increased from 5% w/w to 15% w/w. Solid-state characterization studies (DSC and XRD) in optimized formulation NLC-8 revealed transformation of RLX from crystalline to amorphous form. Optimized formulation showed 32.50 ± 5.12 nm average particle size and -12.8 ± 3.2 mV zeta potential that impart good stability of NLCs dispersion. In vitro release study showed burst release for initial 8 h followed by sustained release up to 36 h. TEM study confirmed smooth surface discrete spherical nano sized particles. To draw final conclusion, in vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried out that showed 3.75-fold enhancements in bioavailability with optimized NLCs formulation than plain drug suspension. These results showed potential of NLCs for significant improvement in oral bioavailability of poorly soluble RLX.

  9. Solid lipid nanoparticles for enhancing vinpocetine's oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Luo, YiFan; Chen, DaWei; Ren, LiXiang; Zhao, XiuLi; Qin, Jing

    2006-08-10

    An ultrasonic-solvent emulsification technique was adopted to prepare vinpocetine loaded Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanodispersions with narrow size distribution. To increase the lipid load the process was conducted at 50 degrees C, and in order to prepare nanoparticle using an ultrasonic-solvent emulsification technique. The mean particle size and droplet size distribution, drug loading capacity, drug entrapment efficiency (EE%), zeta potential, and long-term physical stability of the SLNs were investigated in detail respectively. Drug release from two sorts of VIN-SLN was studied using a dialysis bag method. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in male rats after oral administration of 10 mg kg(-1) VIN in different formulations, it was found that the relative bioavailability of VIN in SLNs was significantly increased compared with that of the VIN solution. The amount of surfactant also had a marked effect on the oral absorption of VIN with SLN formulations. The absorption mechanism of the SLN formulations was also discussed. These results indicated that VIN absorption is enhanced significantly by employing SLN formulations. SLNs offer a new approach to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.

  10. Effect of sterilization on the physical stability of brimonidine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers.

    PubMed

    El-Salamouni, Noha S; Farid, Ragwa M; El-Kamel, Amal H; El-Gamal, Safaa S

    2015-12-30

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems have recently been under consideration for topical ophthalmic drug delivery. Brimonidine base-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carrier formulations were prepared using glyceryl monostearate as solid lipid and were evaluated for their physical stability following sterilization by autoclaving at 121°C for 15min. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of autoclaving on the physical appearance, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and particle morphology of the prepared formulations, compared to non-autoclaved ones. Results showed that, autoclaving at 121°C for 15min allowed the production of physically stable formulations in nanometric range, below 500nm suitable for ophthalmic application. Moreover, the autoclaved samples appeared to be superior to non-autoclaved ones, due to their increased zeta potential values, indicating a better physical stability. As well as, increased amount of brimonidine base entrapped in the tested formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Asymmetric lipid-polymer particles (LIPOMER) by modified nanoprecipitation: role of non-solvent composition.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Anil B; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-07-15

    Asymmetric lipid polymer nanostructures (LIPOMER) comprising glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as lipid and Gantrez AN 119 (Gantrez) as polymer, revealed enhanced splenic accumulation. In the present paper, we attempt to explain the formation of asymmetric GMS LIPOMER using real time imaging. Particles were prepared by precipitation under static conditions using different non-solvent phase compositions. The process was video recorded and the videos converted to time elapsed images using the FFmpeg 0.10.2 software at 25 frames/sec. Non-solvent compositions comprising >30% of IPA/Acetone revealed significant stranding of the solvent phase and slower onset of precipitation(2-6s). At lower concentrations of IPA and acetone, and in non-solvent compositions comprising ethanol/water the stranding phenomenon was not evident. Further, rapid precipitation(<1 s) was evident. Nanoprecipitation based on the Marangoni effect is a result of diffusion stranding, interfacial turbulence, and mass transfer of solvent and non-solvent resulting in solute precipitation. Enhanced diffusion stranding favored by high interaction of GMS and Gantrez(low ΔPol), and the low solubility parameter(Δδtotal) and high mixing enthalpy(ΔHM) of GMS in IPA resulted in droplets with random shapes analogous to an amoeba with pseudopodia, which on precipitation formed asymmetric particles. Asymmetric particles could be readily designed through appropriate selection of solutes and non-solvent phase by modified nanoprecipitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  13. Doxycycline hyclate-loaded bleached shellac in situ forming microparticle for intraperiodontal pocket local delivery.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Chanyaboonsub, Nuttapong; Setthajindalert, Orn

    2016-10-10

    Bleached shellac (BS) is a water-insoluble polyester resin made up of sesquiterpenoid acids esterified with hydroxy aliphatic acids. In this study, BS dissolved in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 2-pyrrolidone was used as the internal phase of oil in oil emulsion using olive oil emulsified with glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as the external phase of in situ forming microparticles (ISM). Doxycycline hyclate (DH)-loaded BS ISMs were tested for emulsion stability, viscosity, rheology, transformation into microparticles, syringeability, drug release, surface topography, in vitro degradation and antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. All emulsions exhibited pseudoplastic flow and notably low syringeability force. Slower transformation from emulsion into microparticles of ISM prepared with 2-pyrrolidone was owing to slower solvent exchange of this solvent which promoted less porous structure of obtained BS matrix microparticles. The system containing 2-pyrrolidone exhibited a higher degradability than that prepared with DMSO. Developed DH-loaded BS ISMs exhibited a sustainable drug release for 47days with Fickian diffusion and effectively inhibited P. gingivalis, S. mutans and S. aureus. Therefore a DH-loaded BS ISM using olive oil containing GMS as the external phase and 2-pyrrolidone as a solvent was a suitable formulation for periodontitis treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles from W/O/W emulsions: preliminary studies on insulin encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Gallarate, Marina; Trotta, Michele; Battaglia, Luigi; Chirio, Daniela

    2009-08-01

    A method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) from W/O/W multiple emulsions was developed applying the solvent-in-water emulsion-diffusion technique. Insulin was chosen as hydrophilic peptide drug to be dissolved in the acidic inner aqueous phase of multiple emulsions and to be consequently carried in SLN. Several partially water-miscible solvents with low toxicity were screened in order to optimize emulsions and SLN composition, after assessing that insulin did not undergo any chemical modification in the presence of the different solvents and under the production process conditions. SLN of spherical shape and with mean diameters in the 600-1200 nm range were obtained by simple water dilution of the W/O/W emulsion. Best results, in terms of SLN mean diameter and encapsulation efficiencies, were obtained using glyceryl monostearate as lipid matrix, butyl lactate as a solvent, and soy lecithin and Pluronic F68 as surfactants. Encapsulation efficiencies up to 40% of the loaded amount were obtained, owing to the actual multiplicity of the system; the use of multiple emulsion-derived SLN can be considered a useful strategy to encapsulate a hydrophilic drug in a lipid matrix.

  15. Development, optimization and evaluation of long chain nanolipid carrier for hepatic delivery of silymarin through lymphatic transport pathway.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Shilpa; Garg, Tarun; Murthy, R S R; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-05-15

    In the present study, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with three different lipid combinations (solid lipid:liquid lipid) were prepared through emulsification and ultrasonication using a Box-Behnken design. From the design, the best lipid combination was glyceryl monostearate and oleic acid, which gives particle of smaller size (223.73 ± 43.39nm) with high drug entrapment efficiency (78.65 ± 2.2%). In vitro release studies show that 84.60 ± 5.66% of drug was released in 24h. In vivo studies revealed that drug absorption occurs through lymphatic pathway as only 5.008 ± 0.011μg/ml of peak plasma concentration was achieved in blood plasma in presence of chylomicron inhibitor. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax) for silymarin loaded NLC was found to be 25.565 ± 0.969μg/ml as compared to silymarin suspension whose Cmax was found to be 14.050 ± 0.552 μg/ml, this confirms 2-fold increase in relative bioavailability. In vivo studies revealed that 19.268 ± 1.29μg of drug reaches to liver in 2h whereas negligible drug concentration reported in other organs. It was concluded that drug loaded NLCs was beneficial for targeting liver or other lymphatic disorders through lymphatic transport pathway. Finally, the main purpose of modifying lymphatic transport system was successfully achieved through NLCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of enalapril maleate chemical stability by high shear melting granulation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula Montandon; Cunha, Talita Amorim; Serpa, Raphael Caixeta; Taveira, Stephânia Fleury; Lima, Eliana Martins; Almeida Diniz, Danielle Guimarães; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro; Marreto, Ricardo Neves

    2014-09-18

    Abstract Enalapril maleate is a widely used drug, which is chemically unstable when mixed with excipients resulting in enalaprilat and diketopiperazine as the main degradation products. The preparation of enalapril sodium salt has been used to improve drug stability in solid dosage forms; however, product rejection is observed when the chemical reaction for obtaining the sodium salt is not completely finished before packaging. In this study, granules were prepared by melting granulation using stearic acid or glyceryl monostearate, with a view to developing more stable enalapril maleate solid dosage forms. The granules were prepared in a laboratory-scale high shear mixer and compressed in a rotary machine. Size distribution, flow properties, in vitro drug release and enalapril maleate chemical stability were evaluated and compared with data obtained from tablets prepared without hydrophobic binders. All formulations showed good physical properties and immediate drug release. The greatest improvement in the enalapril maleate stability was observed in formulations containing stearic acid. This study showed that hot melting granulation could be successfully used to prepare enalapril maleate granules which could substitute the in situ formation of enalapril sodium salt, since they provided better enalapril stability in solid dosage forms.

  17. Nanoscale confinement effects on the relaxation dynamics in networks of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A and low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, Ioannis M; Stathopoulos, Andreas; Vassilikou-Dova, Aglaia; Brostow, Witold

    2007-03-22

    Thermoplastic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (Mw(PEO) approximately 4000) has been used to prepare thermosetting nanocomposites incorporating diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy oligomer. Blends with various PEO/DGEBA weight ratios were cured using stoichiometric portions of 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane. The resulting semi-interpenetrating polymer networks were studied by several techniques. Nanoscale confinement effects, thermal (glass transition, melting and crystallization temperatures) and structural features of our materials are similar to those for networks with much higher Mw(PEO) and different curing agents; however, the polyether crystallization onset occurs in our case at a lower PEO concentration; shorter PEO chains organize themselves more easily into crystalline domains. Very low estimates of the k parameter of the Gordon-Taylor equation, used to fit the compositional dependences of the dielectric and calorimetric glass transition temperatures, and a strong plasticization of the motion of the glyceryl segments (beta-relaxation) in the epoxy resin were observed. These illustrate an intensified weakening in the strength of the intermolecular interactions in the modified networks, as compared to the high strength of the self-association of hydroxyls in the neat resin. The significance of hydrogen-bonding interactions between the components for obtaining structurally homogeneous thermoset-i-thermoplastic networks is discussed.

  18. Mono- and tri-ester hydrogenolysis using tandem catalysis. Scope and mechanism.

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, Tracy L.; Li, Zhi; Assary, Rajeev S.

    The scope and mechanism of thermodynamically leveraged ester RC(O)O-R' bond hydrogenolysis by tandem metal triflate + supported Pd catalysts are investigated both experimentally and theoretically by DFT and energy span analysis. This catalytic system has a broad scope, with relative cleavage rates scaling as, tertiary 4 secondary 4 primary ester at 1 bar H-2, yielding alkanes and carboxylic acids with high conversion and selectivity. Benzylic and allylic esters display the highest activity. The rate law is nu = k[M(OTf )(n)](1)[ester](0)[H-2](0) with an H/D kinetic isotope effect = 6.5 +/- 0.5, implying turnover-limiting C-H scission following C-O cleavage, in agreement withmore » theory. Intermediate alkene products are then rapidly hydrogenated. Applying this approach with the very active Hf(OTf)(4) catalyst to bio-derived triglycerides affords near-quantitative yields of C-3 hydrocarbons rather than glycerol. From model substrates, it is found that RC(O)O-R' cleavage rates are very sensitive to steric congestion and metal triflate identity. For triglycerides, primary/external glyceryl CH2-O cleavage predominates over secondary/internal CH-O cleavage, with the latter favored by less acidic or smaller ionic radius metal triflates, raising the diester selectivity to as high as 48% with Ce(OTf)(3).« less

  19. Lipids and buoyancy in Southern ocean pteropods.

    PubMed

    Phleger, C F; Nichols, P D; Virtue, P

    1997-10-01

    The lipids of Clione limacina, a Southern Ocean pteropod (order Gymnosomata), contain 28% diacylglyceryl ether (DAGE) (as percentage of total lipid) whereas the pteropod Limacina helicina (order Thecosomata) lacks DAGE. The alkyl glyceryl ether diols (1-O-alkyl glycerols, GE) of Clione DAGE are dominated by 16:0 (60%) and 15:0 (21%), in contrast with deep-sea shark liver DAGE, which is dominated by 18:1 GE. The fatty acid profiles of Clione and Limacina are similar (28-32% polyunsaturated, 26-34% monounsaturated) as are the sterols, which include 24-methylenecholesterol, transdehydrocholesterol, cholesterol, and desmosterol. This finding probably reflects the fact that Limacina is the major food source for Clione. Spongiobranchaea australis, another Southern Ocean pteropod (order Gymnosomata), has 0.9-1.7% DAGE, but has less lipid (3.3-4.8 mg/g lipid, wet weight) than Clione (50.8 mg/g lipid, wet weight). We propose a buoyancy role for DAGE in Clione since Limacina has bubbles for flotation which Clione lack; DAGE provides 23% more uplift than triacylglycerol at a concentration of 1.025 g/mL seawater.

  20. Differential Off-line LC-NMR (DOLC-NMR) Metabolomics To Monitor Tyrosine-Induced Metabolome Alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, Richard; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2017-04-19

    A novel differential off-line LC-NMR approach (DOLC-NMR) was developed to capture and quantify nutrient-induced metabolome alterations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Off-line coupling of HPLC separation and 1 H NMR spectroscopy supported by automated comparative bucket analyses, followed by quantitative 1 H NMR using ERETIC 2 (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations), has been successfully used to quantitatively record changes in the metabolome of S. cerevisiae upon intervention with the aromatic amino acid l-tyrosine. Among the 33 metabolites identified, glyceryl succinate, tyrosol acetate, tyrosol lactate, tyrosol succinate, and N-acyl-tyrosine derivatives such as N-(1-oxooctyl)-tyrosine are reported for the first time as yeast metabolites. Depending on the chain length, N-(1-oxooctyl)-, N-(1-oxodecanyl)-, N-(1-oxododecanyl)-, N-(1-oxomyristinyl)-, N-(1-oxopalmityl)-, and N-(1-oxooleoyl)-l-tyrosine imparted a kokumi taste enhancement above their recognition thresholds ranging between 145 and 1432 μmol/L (model broth). Finally, carbon module labeling (CAMOLA) and carbon bond labeling (CABOLA) experiments with 13 C 6 -glucose as the carbon source confirmed the biosynthetic pathway leading to the key metabolites; for example, the aliphatic side chain of N-(1-oxooctyl)-tyrosine could be shown to be generated via de novo fatty acid biosynthesis from four C 2 -carbon modules (acetyl-CoA) originating from glucose.

  1. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Jiri; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M.J.

    2011-01-01

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2 h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10 min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. PMID:21915852

  2. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jiri; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M J

    2012-02-01

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2 h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10 min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Evidence-Based Management of Pain After Excisional Haemorrhoidectomy Surgery: A PROSPECT Review Update.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Barazanchi, Ahmed W H; Hill, Andrew G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to update previous PROSPECT ( http://www.postoppain.org ) review recommendations for the management of pain after excisional haemorrhoidectomy. Randomized studies and reviews published in the English language from July 2006 (end date of last review) to March 2016, assessing analgesic, anaesthetic, and operative interventions pertaining to excisional haemorrhoidectomy in adults, and reporting pain scores, were retrieved from the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases. An additional 464 studies were identified of which 74 met the inclusion criteria. There were 48 randomized controlled trials and 26 reviews. Quantitative analyses were not performed, as there were limited numbers of trials with a sufficiently homogeneous design. Pudendal nerve block, with or without general anaesthesia, is recommended for all patients undergoing haemorrhoidal surgery. Either closed haemorrhoidectomy, or open haemorrhoidectomy with electrocoagulation of the pedicle is recommended as the primary procedure. Combinations of analgesics (paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids), topical lignocaine and glyceryl trinitrate, laxatives, and oral metronidazole are recommended post-operatively. The recommendations are largely based on single intervention, not multimodal intervention, studies.

  4. Allergenic Ingredients in Facial Wet Wipes.

    PubMed

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis commonly occurs on the face. Facial cleansing wipes may be an underrecognized source of allergens. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in facial wet wipes. Ingredient lists from name brand and generic facial wipes from 4 large retailers were analyzed. In the 178 facial wipes examined, a total of 485 ingredients were identified (average, 16.7 ingredients per wipe). Excluding botanicals, the top 15 potentially allergenic ingredients were glycerin (64.0%), fragrance (63.5%), phenoxyethanol (53.9%), citric acid (51.1%), disodium EDTA (44.4%), sorbic acid derivatives (39.3%), tocopherol derivatives (38.8%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (32.6%), glyceryl stearate (31.5%), sodium citrate (29.8%), glucosides (27.5%), cetearyl alcohol (25.8%), propylene glycol (25.3%), sodium benzoate (24.2%), and ceteareth-20 (23.6%)/parabens (23.6%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (2.2%) and methylchloroisothiazolinone (1.1%) were uncommon. The top potential allergens of botanical origin included Aloe barbadensis (41.0%), chamomile extracts (27.0%), tea extracts (21.3%), Cucumis sativus (20.2%), and Hamamelis virginiana (10.7%). Many potential allergens are present in facial wet wipes, including fragrances, preservatives, botanicals, glucosides, and propylene glycol.

  5. Effect of side-chain structure of rigid polyimide dispersant on mechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube/cyanate ester composite.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2011-05-01

    Three kinds of polymer, polyimide without side-chain (PI), polyimide-graft-glyceryl 4-nonylphenyl ether (PI-GNE), and polyimide-graft-bisphenol A diglyceryl acrylate (PI-BDA), have been synthesized and used to disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and to improve the interfacial bonding between SWNTs and cyanate ester (CE) matrix. Visual observation, UV-vis-near-IR (UV-vis-NIR) spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show that both PI-GNE and PI-BDA are highly effective at dispersing and debundling SWNTs in DMF, whereas PI is less effective. Interaction between SWNTs and PI, PI-GNE or PI-BDA was confirmed by computer simulation and Raman spectra. A series of CE-based composite films reinforced with different loadings of SWNTs, SWNTs/PI, SWNTs/PI-GNE and SWNTs/PI-BDA were prepared by solution casting. It was found that, because of the unique side-chain structure of PI-BDA, SWNTs/PI-BDA disperse better in CE matrix than do SWNTs/PI-GNE, SWNTs/PI, and SWNTs. As a result, SWNTs/PI-BDA/CE composites have the greatest improvement in mechanical properties of the materials tested. These results imply that the choice of side-chain on a dispersant is very important to the dispersion of SWNTs in matrix and the filler/matrix interfacial adhesion, which are two key requirements for achieving effective reinforcement.

  6. Preparation and physicochemical properties of surfactant-free emulsions using electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Masahiro; Wada, Yuko; Hosoya, Takashi; Hino, Fumio; Kitahara, Yoshiyasu; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Surfactant-free emulsions by adding jojoba oil, squalane, olive oil, or glyceryl trioctanoate (medium chain fatty acid triglycerides, MCT) to electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate (GE-100) were prepared, and their physiochemical properties (thixotropy, zeta potential, and mean particle diameter) were evaluated. At an oil concentration of 10%, the zeta potential was ‒22.3 ‒ ‒26.8 mV, showing no marked differences among the emulsions of various types of oil, but the mean particle diameters in the olive oil emulsion (327 nm) and MCT emulsion (295 nm) were smaller than those in the other oil emulsions (452-471 nm). In addition, measurement of the hysteresis loop area of each type of emulsion revealed extremely high thixotropy of the emulsion containing MCT at a low concentration and the olive emulsion. Based on these results, since surfactants and antiseptic agents markedly damage sensitive skin tissue such as that with atopic dermatitis, surfactant- and antiseptic-free emulsions are expected to be new bases for drugs for external use.

  7. A rheological and microstructural characterisation of bigels for cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Francesca R; Shakeel, Ahmad; Greco, Valeria; Oliviero Rossi, Cesare; Baldino, Noemi; Gabriele, Domenico

    2016-12-01

    Bigels are biphasic systems formed by water-based hydrogels and oil-based organogels, mainly studied, in the last few years, for pharmaceutical and cosmetic application focused on the controlled delivery of both lipophilic and hydrophilic active agents. The rheological properties of bigels depend on both the amount and the rheological characteristics of single structured phases. Moreover, it can be expected that, at large fractions of one of the starting gels, systems more complex than oil-in-water or water-in-oil can be obtained, yielding bicontinuous or matrix-in-matrix arrangement. Model bigels were investigated from a microstructural (i.e. microscopy and electrical conductivity tests) and rheological point of view. The hydrogel was prepared by using a low-methoxyl pectin whereas the organogel was prepared by using olive oil and, as gelator, a mixture of glyceryl stearate and policosanol. Model bigels were obtained by increasing the amount of organogel mixed with the hydrogel, and microstructural characterisation evidenced an organogel-in-hydrogel behaviour for all investigated samples, even though at the highest organogel content a more complex structure seems to arise. A semi-empirical model, based on theoretical equations developed for suspensions of elastic spheres in elastic media, was proposed to relate bigel rheological properties to single phase properties and fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and characterization of citral-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huaixiang; Lu, Zhuoyan; Li, Danfeng; Hu, Jing

    2018-05-15

    Citral-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (citral-SLNs) were prepared via a high-pressure homogenization method, using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) as the solid lipid and a mixture of Tween 80 (T-80) and Span 80 (S-80) at a weight ratio of 1:1 as the surfactant. The microstructure and properties of the citral-SLNs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The chemical stability of citral in the citral-SLNs was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME-GC). The GC results showed that 67.0% of the citral remained in the citral-SLN suspensions after 12 days, while only 8.22% remained in the control. Therefore, the encapsulation of citral in the solid lipid can enhance its stability in acidic surroundings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic composition of aerosol particulate matter during a haze episode in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzi Bin Abas, M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Maah, M. Jamil; Abu Samah, Azizan; Oros, Daniel R.; Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    The solvent-extractable compounds of urban airborne particulate matter were analyzed to determine the distributions of homologous and biomarker tracers. Samples were collected by high-volume air filtration during the haze episode of 1997 around the University of Malaya campus near Petaling Jaya, a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These results show that the samples contain n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkanols, methyl n-alkanoates, n-alkyl nitriles, n-alkanals, n-alkanoic acids, levoglucosan, PAHs, and UCM as the dominant components, with minor amounts of terpenoids, glyceryl esters and sterols, all derived from natural biogenic sources (vascular plant wax), from burning of biomass, and from anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuel products (lubricating oil, vehicle emissions, etc.). Some compositional differences are observed in the samples and greater atmospheric concentrations were found for almost all organic components in the samples collected near a roadway. The results interpreted in terms of major sources are due to local build-up of organic contaminants from vehicular emissions, smoke from biomass burning, and natural background as a result of the atmospheric stability during the haze episodes. The organic components transported in from areas outside the region, assuming all smoke components are external to the city, amount to about 30% of the total organic particle burden.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Silymarin Synchronized and Sustained Release Dropping Pill.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hong; Li, Xue-Jing; Huang, Ai-Wen; Zhang, Jing; Song, Hong-Tao

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a synchronized and sustained-release silymarin dropping pill, and to evaluate its pharmacokinetic characteristics. Polyoxyethylene stearate, glyceryl monostearate, and stearic acid were used to prepare the dropping pills. X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and release were used to evaluate its physicochemical properties. The plasma concentration of silybin in beagle dogs after oral administration of silymarin dropping pills and silymarin capsule was determined by RP-HPLC. Synchronized release was achieved with high similarity factor f2 values between every set of two of the five components. Mean plasma concentration-time curves of silymarin after oral administration of dropping pills in beagle dogs were in accordance with first-order absorption and open twocompartment model. The Tmax, Cmax, and AUC0-∞ of dropping pills in beagle dogs were 0.8750±0.13 h, 0.8183±0.07 μg·ml-1, and 2.274±0.90 μg·h·ml-1, respectively. Silymarin dropping pills prolonged in vivo exposure and reduced maximum in vivo concentration, achieving a stable level in the serum. The combination of solid dispersion technique and dropping pill formulation allowed synchronized release of multiple components in herbal medicine, and has potential application in the development of sustained release in herbal medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Free radicals and theophylline neurotoxicity : an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gulati, K; Ray, A; Vijayan, V K

    2007-05-30

    Free radicals play a crucial role in health and disease and both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been implicated in CNS effects like excitotoxicity. Theophylline, a re-emerging drug for the treatment of obstructive airway disease, has a narrow therapeutic index which precludes its safe use. The present study evaluated the possible involvement of free radicals in theophylline induced seizures in mice. Aminophylline (100-250 mg/kg) consistently induced seizures and post-ictal mortality, and conventional anticonvulsants and adenosine agonists were ineffective in antagonizing them. Further, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, per se, also did not show any significant seizurogenic potential. Pretreatments with antioxidants, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and melatonin, all dose dependently reduced seizure incidence and mortality after aminophylline, whereas, antioxidant depletion potentiated such excitotoxicity. Pretreatments with the NO synthase inhibitors, L-NAME and 7-NI blocked aminophylline seizures, whereas, the NO mimetics, L-arginine and glyceryl trinitrate, tended to potentiate this phenomenon. Sub-effective doses of aminophylline (100 mg/kg) also induced seizures when combined with subthreshold intensity of electroshock, and such seizures were similarly antagonized by the antioxidants and NO synthase inhibitors. Biochemical assay of brain homogenates showed that aminophylline seizures were associated with enhancements in brain MDA and NOx (NO metabolites) levels, whereas, SOD activity was reduced, and these changes were attenuated after melatonin and L-NAME pretreatments. The pharmacological and biochemical data are strongly suggestive of the involvement of both ROS and RNS during theophylline-induced seizures.

  12. Effect of Liquid Crystalline Systems Containing Antimicrobial Compounds on Infectious Skin Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Aires, Carolina Patrícia; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed (i) to prepare liquid crystalline systems (LCS) of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and water containing antibacterial compounds and (ii) to evaluate their potential as drug delivery systems for topical treatment of bacterial infections. Therefore, LCS containing CPC (cetylpyridinium chloride) (LCS/CPC) and PHMB (poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride) (LCS/PHMB) were prepared and the liquid crystalline phases were identified by polarizing light microscopy 24 h and 7 days after preparation. The in vitro drug release profile and in vitro antibacterial activity of the systems were assessed using the double layer agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. The interaction between GMO and the drugs was evaluated by a drug absorption study. Stable liquid crystalline systems containing CPC and PHMB were obtained. LCS/PHMB decreased the PHMB release rate and exerted strong antibacterial activity against all the investigated bacteria. In contrast, CPC interacted with GMO so strongly that it became attached to the system; the amount released was not sufficient to exert antibacterial activity. Therefore, the studied liquid crystalline systems were suitable to deliver PHMB, but not CPC. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that GMO interacts with each drug differently, which may interfere in the final efficiency of GMO/water LCS.

  13. EPR investigation of gamma irradiated single crystal guaifenesin: A combined experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasdemir, Halil Ugur; Sayin, Ulku; Türkkan, Ercan; Ozmen, Ayhan

    2016-04-01

    Gamma irradiated single crystal of Guaifenesin (Glyceryl Guaiacolate), an important expectorant drug, were investigated with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy between 123 and 333 K temperature at different orientations in the magnetic field. Considering the chemical structure and the experimental spectra of the gamma irradiated single crystal of guaifenesin sample, we assumed that alkoxy or alkyl-type paramagnetic species may be produced by irradiation. Depending on this assumption, eight possible alkoxy and alkyl-type radicals were modeled and EPR parameters of these modeled radicals were calculated using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)-level of density functional theory (DFT). Theoretically calculated values of alkyl-type modeled radical(R3) are in good agreement with experimentally determined EPR parameters of single crystal. Furthermore, simulation spectra which are obtained by using the theoretical initial values are well matched with the experimental spectra. It was determined that a stable Cα •H2αCβHβCγH2γ (R3) alkyl radical was produced in the host crystal as a result of gamma irradiation.

  14. Anesthesia of bulls undergoing surgical manipulation of the vas deferentia.

    PubMed Central

    Garner, H E; Mather, E C; Hoover, T R; Brown, R E; Halliwell, W C

    1975-01-01

    Twelve bulls ranging from 341 to 545 kilograms in body mass were successfully anesthetized for either vasectomy or prosthetic vas deferens implantation with a combination of thiopental sodium, glyceryl guaiacolate, nitrous oxide, halothane and oxygen. Duration of anesthetic administration was 119.2 plus or minus 24.2 (S.D.) minutes. Righting reflexes returned 15.0 plus or minus 8.0 minutes after cessation of anesthetic administration and the bulls were capable of standing within 46.6 plus or minus 17.8 minutes. Interpretations of pulse rate, respiratory rate and eye reflexes were related to anesthetic depth and maintenance. A control mean respiratory frequency of 28.8 plus or minus 3.6 per minute compared to minimum and maximum frequencies of 26.8 plus or minus 5.1 and 37.6 plus or minus 6.3, respectively, during anesthetic maintenance. A control mean pulse frequency of 91.6 plus or minus 15.9 per minute compared to minimum and maximum frequencies of 84.8 plus or minus 13 and 102.3 plus or minus 13.4, respectively, during maintenance of anesthesia. Methods for avoiding complications related to anesthetic induction, maintenance and emergence were described. Specific pharmacological aspects of atropine, halothane and nitrous oxide were emphasized in light of their application to ruminant anesthesia. PMID:1139409

  15. The calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist MK-8825 decreases spinal trigeminal activity during nitroglycerin infusion.

    PubMed

    Feistel, Stephan; Albrecht, Stephanie; Messlinger, Karl

    2013-11-20

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are regarded as key mediators in migraine and other primary headaches. Migraineurs respond to infusion of nitroglycerin with delayed headaches, and inhibition of CGRP receptors has been shown to be effective in migraine therapy. In animal experiments nitrovasodilators like nitroglycerin induced increases in spinal trigeminal activity, which were reversed after inhibition of CGRP receptors. In the present study we asked if CGRP receptor inhibition can also prevent spinal trigeminal activity induced by nitroglycerin. In isoflurane anaesthetised rats extracellular recordings were made from neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus with meningeal afferent input. The non-peptide CGRP receptor inhibitor MK-8825 (5 mg/kg) dissolved in acidic saline (pH 3.3) was slowly infused into rats one hour prior to prolonged glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) infusion (250 μg/kg/h for two hours). After infusion of MK-8825 the activity of spinal trigeminal neurons with meningeal afferent input did not increase under continuous nitroglycerin infusion but decreased two hours later below baseline. In contrast, vehicle infusion followed by nitroglycerin was accompanied by a transient increase in activity. CGRP receptors may be important in an early phase of nitroglycerin-induced central trigeminal activity. This finding may be relevant for nitroglycerin-induced headaches.

  16. The calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist MK-8825 decreases spinal trigeminal activity during nitroglycerin infusion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide (NO) are regarded as key mediators in migraine and other primary headaches. Migraineurs respond to infusion of nitroglycerin with delayed headaches, and inhibition of CGRP receptors has been shown to be effective in migraine therapy. In animal experiments nitrovasodilators like nitroglycerin induced increases in spinal trigeminal activity, which were reversed after inhibition of CGRP receptors. In the present study we asked if CGRP receptor inhibition can also prevent spinal trigeminal activity induced by nitroglycerin. Methods In isoflurane anaesthetised rats extracellular recordings were made from neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus with meningeal afferent input. The non-peptide CGRP receptor inhibitor MK-8825 (5 mg/kg) dissolved in acidic saline (pH 3.3) was slowly infused into rats one hour prior to prolonged glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) infusion (250 μg/kg/h for two hours). Results After infusion of MK-8825 the activity of spinal trigeminal neurons with meningeal afferent input did not increase under continuous nitroglycerin infusion but decreased two hours later below baseline. In contrast, vehicle infusion followed by nitroglycerin was accompanied by a transient increase in activity. Conclusions CGRP receptors may be important in an early phase of nitroglycerin-induced central trigeminal activity. This finding may be relevant for nitroglycerin-induced headaches. PMID:24256609

  17. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells against oxidative damage and increases endothelial nitric oxide production to reverse nitroglycerin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hu, X Y; Fang, Q; Ma, D; Jiang, L; Yang, Y; Sun, J; Yang, C; Wang, J S

    2016-06-10

    Medical nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) use is limited principally by tolerance typified by a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) produced by biotransformation. Such tolerance may lead to endothelial dysfunction by inducing oxidative stress. In vivo studies have demonstrated that aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) plays important roles in GTN biotransformation and tolerance. Thus, modification of ALDH2 expression represents a potentially effective strategy to prevent and reverse GTN tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. In this study, a eukaryotic expression vector containing the ALDH2 gene was introduced into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by liposome-mediated transfection. An indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that ALDH2 expression increased 24 h after transfection. Moreover, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting revealed significantly higher ALDH2 mRNA and protein expression in the gene-transfected group than in the two control groups. GTN tolerance was induced by treating HUVECs with 10 mM GTN for 16 h + 10 min, which significantly decreased NO levels in control cells, but not in those transfected with ALDH2. Overexpression of ALDH2 increased cell survival against GTN-induced cytotoxicity and conferred protection from oxidative damage resulting from nitrate tolerance, accompanied by decreased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced expression of heme oxygenase 1. Furthermore, ALDH2 overexpression promoted Akt phosphorylation under GTN tolerance conditions. ALDH2 gene transfection can reverse and prevent tolerance to GTN through its bioactivation and protect against oxidative damage, preventing the development of endothelial dysfunction.

  18. Catalysis of nitrite generation from nitroglycerin by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

    PubMed

    Seabra, Amedea B; Ouellet, Marc; Antonic, Marija; Chrétien, Michelle N; English, Ann M

    2013-11-30

    Vascular relaxation to nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate; GTN) requires its bioactivation by mechanisms that remain controversial. We report here that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the release of nitrite from GTN. In assays containing dithiothreitol (DTT) and NAD(+), the GTN reductase activity of purified GAPDH produces nitrite and 1,2-GDN as the major products. A vmax of 2.6nmolmin(-)(1)mg(-)(1) was measured for nitrite production by GAPDH from rabbit muscle and a GTN KM of 1.2mM. Reductive denitration of GTN in the absence of DTT results in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of GAPDH dehydrogenase activity. Disulfiram, a thiol-modifying drug, inhibits both the dehydrogenase and GTN reductase activity of GAPDH, while DTT or tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine reverse the GTN-induced inhibition. Incubation of intact human erythrocytes or hemolysates with 2mM GTN for 60min results in 50% inhibition of GAPDH's dehydrogenase activity, indicating that GTN is taken up by these cells and that the dehydrogenase is a target of GTN. Thus, erythrocyte GAPDH may contribute to GTN bioactivation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and characterization of oxybenzone-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with enhanced safety and sunscreening efficacy: SPF and UVA-PF.

    PubMed

    Sanad, R A; Abdel Malak, N S; El-Bayoomy, T S; Badawi, A A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to formulate solid lipid nanoparticles of oxybenzone to enhance its sunscreening efficacy while reducing its side effects. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of oxybenzone were prepared by the solvent diffusion method. A complete 2(4) factorial design was used to optimize preparations. The study design involves the investigation of four independent variables, namely lipid type (Glyceryl monostearate, GMS; and Witepsol E85, WE85), lipid concentration (5 and 10%), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration (1 and 2%), and ethanol/acetone ratios (1:1 and 3:1, v/v), in terms of their effect on the particle size and entrapment efficiency. GMS was found to significantly increase the p.s. and EE%. SLNs prepared using 10% lipid had slower drug release compared to those prepared using 5%. The candidate oxybenzone-loaded SLN formula (SLN2) consisting of 0.5% oxybenzone, 10% GMS, 1% PVA, and ethanol/acetone (1:1, v/v) was then formulated into a gel and compared to the corresponding free oxybenzone nanosuspension and placebo SLN. The formulations were evaluated for skin irritation, in vitro sun protection factor, and ultraviolet A protection factors. The incorporation of oxybenzone into solid lipid nanoparticles greatly increased the SPF and UVA protection factor of oxybenzone more than five-fold while providing the advantage of overcoming skin irritancy problems.

  20. Development and optimization of solid lipid nanoparticle formulation for ophthalmic delivery of chloramphenicol using a Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jifu; Fang, Xinsheng; Zhou, Yanfang; Wang, Jianzhu; Guo, Fengguang; Li, Fei; Peng, Xinsheng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to optimize a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) of chloramphenicol by investigating the relationship between design factors and experimental data using response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was constructed using solid lipid (X(1)), surfactant (X(2)), and drug/lipid ratio (X(3)) level as independent factors. SLN was successfully prepared by a modified method of melt-emulsion ultrasonication and low temperature-solidification technique using glyceryl monostearate as the solid lipid, and poloxamer 188 as the surfactant. The dependent variables were entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL), and turbidity. Properties of SLN such as the morphology, particle size, zeta potential, EE, DL, and drug release behavior were investigated, respectively. As a result, the nanoparticle designed showed nearly spherical particles with a mean particle size of 248 nm. The polydispersity index of particle size was 0.277 ± 0.058 and zeta potential was -8.74 mV. The EE (%) and DL (%) could reach up to 83.29% ± 1.23% and 10.11% ± 2.02%, respectively. In vitro release studies showed a burst release at the initial stage followed by a prolonged release of chloramphenicol from SLN up to 48 hours. The release kinetics of the optimized formulation best fitted the Peppas-Korsmeyer model. These results indicated that the chloramphenicol-loaded SLN could potentially be exploited as a delivery system with improved drug entrapment efficiency and controlled drug release.

  1. The retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Andrew D

    2008-12-01

    The incidence and importance of retained placenta (RP) varies greatly around the world. In less developed countries, it affects about 0.1% of deliveries but has up to 10% case fatality rate. In more developed countries, it is more common (about 3% of vaginal deliveries) but very rarely associated with mortality. There are three main types of retained placenta following the vagina delivery: placenta adherens (when there is failed contraction of the myometrium behind the placenta), trapped placenta (a detached placenta trapped behind a closed cervix) and partial accreta (when there is a small area of accreta preventing detachment). All can be treated by manual removal of placenta, which should be carried out at 30-60 minutes postpartum. Medical management is also an option for placenta adherens and trapped placenta. The need for manual removal can be reduced by 20% by the use of intraumbilical oxytocin (30 i.u. in 30 mL saline). A trapped placenta may respond to glyceryl trinitrate (500 mcg sublingually) or gentle, persistent, controlled cord traction.

  2. ESTIMATION OF FAT ABSORPTION BY MONITORING OF EXPIRED RADIOACTIVE CARBON DIOXIDE AFTER FEEDING A RADIOACTIVE FAT

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, A.D.; Cozzetto, F.J.; Bennett, L.R.

    1962-03-01

    A rapid, quantitative method based upon the oxidative decarboxylation of an easily, absorbable, short-chain fatty acid is described. The method for diagnosis of steatorrhea is based upon oral administration of radioactive glyceryl trioctanoate (RATO) and study of its oxidative decarboxylation as determined by monitoring expired C/sup 14/O/sub 2/. Results on 20 controls and 21 patients with steatorrhea of various types clearly separated 15 of the controls from all of the patients with steatorrhea, and 14 of 21 patients with steatorrhea fell below the lowest value encountered in 20 control subjects. The test was performed in the fasting patient, who wasmore » given a gelatin capsule containing 2 to 3 C of RATO in a corn oil base, and after 10 min C/sup 14/O/ sub 2/ in the expired air was measured. By calibration against standard sources the C/sup 14/O/sub 2/ is expressed in microcuries of activity. The average delay time is 26 min with a range of 8 to 54 min. The method thus provides a simple indication that gastric emptying has begun. (TCO)« less

  3. BIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE RADIOSENSITIVITY OF THE SMALL INTESTINE TO X RAYS. I. ABSORPTION OF LIPIDS (in French)

    SciTech Connect

    Maisin, J.R.; Dulcino, J.; Verly, W.

    1963-01-01

    The first results of a study on the absorption of fats during acute gastro-intestinal syndrome, occurring after irradiation, are reported. Three- month old C/sup +/ mice were exposed on the stomach with x-ray doses of 600, 1500, and 2500 r. The third day after irradiation the mice received either by stomach tube or injection in the duodenum a diet containing glyceryl-tri- (palmitate-1-C /sup 14/) or H/sup 3/-palmitic acid giving an activity equal to 0.5 mu c C/sup 14/ or 1 mu c H/sup 3/. The mice were sacrificed at different moments after administration of the diet. The results are givenmore » graphically and discussed. It was shown that the decrease in the absorption of fats, given by stomach tube, to mice receiving an abdominal irradiation of 1500 and 2500 r is essentially caused by gastric retention. In effect, when the fats are introduced directly in the duodenum, the absorption decrease observed in the irradiated mouse is not significant. There is no significant modification in the absorption of fats 13 months after irradiation with 600 r, whether they are given by stomach tube or duodenum injection. (J.S.R.)« less

  4. Phosphorus NMR of isolated perfused morris hepatomas

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.A.; Meyer, R.A.; Brown, T.R.

    1986-03-05

    The authors are developing techniques for the study of perfused solid tumors by NMR. Tissue-isolated solid hepatomas were grown to 1-2 cm diameter as described previously. The arterial supply was isolated and the tumors perfused (0.5 - 1.0 ml/min) in vitro at 25 C with a 15% suspension of red blood cells in Krebs-Henseliet solution. /sup 31/P-NMR spectra were acquired at 162 MHz in a specially-designed NMR probe using a solenoidal coil. Intracellular pH (monitored from the chemical shift of inorganic phosphate) and ATP levels were stable for up to 6 hrs during perfusion. During 30 min of global ischemia,more » ATP decreased by 75% and pH fell from 7.0 to 6.7. These changes were reversed by 1 hr reperfusion. In addition to ATP and phosphate, the spectra included a large resonance due to phosphomonoesters, as well as peaks consistent with glycerylphosphocholine, glyceryl-phosphoethanolamine, phosphocreatine, NAD, and UDPG. However, the most novel feature of the spectra was the presence of an unidentified peak in the phosphonate region (+ 16.9 ppm). The peak was not present in spectra of muscle, liver, brain, kidney, or fat tissues excised from the same animals. They are presently attempting to identify the compound that gives rise to this peak and to establish its metabolic origin.« less

  5. Composition and process for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, L.J.

    1988-04-12

    A process for recovering crude oil from a subterranean formating having at least one injection means in fluid communication with at least one production means is described comprising: (a) injecting into the formation a liquid composition consisting essentially of at least one surfactant selected from surfactants having a formula RCH/sub 2/CH=C(R)CH/sub 2/O(CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/O)/sub m/X, wherein R is C/sub 3/-C/sub 8/ alkyl, m is an integer from 1 to 10, and X is a sulfonate, sulfate, glyceryl sulfonate, or carboxylate anion neutralized by a sodium, potassium, or ammonium cation and an aqueous medium; (b) injecting a gas to urge themore » composition toward the production means, provided that the surfactant is present in an amount effective to reduce the mobility of the gas through the formation; and (c) recovering crude oil from the formation through the production means.« less

  6. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (nitric oxide) has protective actions in the stomach

    SciTech Connect

    MacNaughton, W.K.; Wallace, J.L.; Cirino, G.

    1989-01-01

    The role that nitric oxide, an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, may play in the regulation of gastric mucosal defense was investigated by assessing the potential protective actions of this factor against the damage caused by ethanol in an ex vivo chamber preparation of the rat stomach. Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate and sodium nitroprusside, which have been shown to release nitric oxide, markedly reduced the area of 70% ethanol-induced hemorrhagic damage. Topical application of a 0.01% solution of authentic nitric oxide also significantly reduced the severity of mucosal damage. Pretreatment with indomethacin precluded the involvement of endogenous prostaglandins in the protectivemore » effects of these agents. The protective effects of NO were transient, since a delay of 5 minutes between NO administration and ethanal administration resulted in a complete loss of the protective activity. The protection against ethanol afforded by 10 ug/ml nitroprusside could be completely reversed by intravenous infusion of either 1% methylene blue or 1 mM hemoglobin, both of which inhibit vasodilation induced by nitric oxide. Intravenous infusion of 1% methylene blue significantly increased the susceptibility of the mucosa to damage induced by topical 20% ethanol.« less

  7. Isotopic exchange during derivatization of platelet activating factor for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Haroldsen, P.E.; Gaskell, S.J.; Weintraub, S.T.

    1991-04-01

    One approach to the quantitative analysis of platelet activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine; also referred to as AGEPC, alkyl glyceryl ether phosphocholine) is hydrolytic removal of the phosphocholine group and conversion to an electron-capturing derivative for gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectrometry. (2H3)Acetyl-AGEPC has been commonly employed as an internal standard. When 1-hexadecyl-2-(2H3)acetyl glycerol (obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of (2H3)-C16:0 AGEPC) is treated with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride at 120 degrees C, the resulting 3-pentafluorobenzoate derivative shows extensive loss of the deuterium label. This exchange is evidently acid-catalyzed since derivatization of 1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl glycerol under the same conditions in the presence of a trace ofmore » 2HCl results in the incorporation of up to three deuterium atoms. Isotope exchange can be avoided if the reaction is carried out at low temperature in the presence of base. Direct derivatization of (2H3)-C16:0 AGEPC by treatment with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride or heptafluorobutyric anhydride also results in loss of the deuterium label. The use of (13C2)-C16:0 AGEPC as an internal standard is recommended for rigorous quantitative analysis.« less

  8. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor produced and released from artery and vein is nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ignarro, L.J.; Buga, G.M.; Wood, K.S.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) is responsible for the vascular smooth muscle relaxation elicited by endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). EDRF is an unstable humoral substance released from artery and vein that mediates the action of endothelium-dependent vasodilators. NO is and unstable endothelium-independent vasodilator that is released from vasodilator drugs such as nitroprusside and glyceryl trinitrate. The authors have repeatedly observed that the actions of NO on vascular smooth muscle closely resemble those of EDRF. In the present study the vascular effects of EDRF released from perfused bovine intrapulmonary artery and vein were comparedmore » with the effects of NO delivered by superfusion over endothelium-denuded arterial and venous strips arranged in a cascade. EDRF was indistinguishable from NO in that both were labile inactivated by pyrogallol or superoxide anion, stabilized by superoxide dismutase, and inhibited by oxyhemoglobin or potassium. Both EDRF and NO produced comparable increases in cyclic GMP accumulation in artery and vein, and this cyclic GMP accumulation was inhibited by pyrogallol, oxyhemoglobin, potassium, and methylene blue. EDRF was identified chemically as NO, or a labile nitroso species, by two procedures. Thus, EDRF released from artery and vein possesses identical and biological and chemical properties as NO.« less

  9. Tricaprylin-water partition coefficients and their temperature dependence for selected chlorobenzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadur, N.P.; Shiu, W.Y.; Boocock, D.G.B.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of partition coefficients between tricaprylin (glyceryl tri-n-octanoate) and water are reported for seven chlorobenzenes (1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene) between 5 and 45 C. The values are compared with reported data on octanol-water and triolein-water partition coefficients. The van`t Hoff plots of log K{sub OW} versus T{sup {minus}1} exhibit linearity with values of K{sub OW} increasing by 5--8% over this temperature range, and the enthalpy of phase change varies from 9.7 to 16 kJ/mol. Several reasons are suggested why tricaprylin-water partition coefficients may be preferable to octanol-water and triolein-water partition coefficients when quantifying a substance`s hydrophobicity.more » The mutual solubilities of tricaprylin and water are less than that of octanol and water. Tricaprylin is easier to purify than triolein and, because of its lower molecular mass, is easier to analyze by gas chromatography.« less

  10. Effect of chloroquine on intestinal lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Mansbach, C.M. 2d.; Arnold, A.; Garrett, M.

    1987-11-01

    Most studies that have quantitated recovery of infused lipid in the intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph have only been able to recapture 50-75%. One possibility is that the missing lipid enters a triacylglycerol (TG) storage pool in the enterocyte and is hydrolyzed by lysosomal lipase, and the free fatty acid released is transported by the portal vein. This postulate was tested by comparing glyceryl trioleate (TO)-infused rats pretreated with the lysosomotropic drug, chloroquine (6.3 mg.kg-1.h-1) with saline controls. Chloroquine increased mucosal TG from 94 +/- 6 to 128 +/- 8 mumol. Additionally, the specific activity of the mucosal TG relativemore » to the infused (/sup 3/H)TO was reduced in the treated rats. The mucosal TG increase was not due to impaired TG output, which remained the same as controls. We conclude that the TG in the acid lipase-sensitive pool derives most of its glyceride-glycerol from endogenous sources. Furthermore, the increment in mucosal TG caused by chloroquine is not enough to explain the majority of the acyl groups unaccounted for in the mucosa and lymph after a TG infusion. For these a direct passage of acyl groups through the enterocyte is postulated.« less

  11. Biodiesel synthesis using calcined layered double hydroxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, J. Link; Crofcheck, Czarena; TAckett, S. Adam

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic properties of calcined Li-Al, Mg-Al and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were examined in two transesterification reactions, namely, the reaction of glyceryl tributyrate with methanol, and the reaction of soybean oil with methanol. While the Li-Al catalysts showed high activity in these reactions at the reflux temperature of methanol, the Mg-Fe and Mg-Al catalysts exhibited much lower methyl ester yields. CO2 TPD measurements revealed the presence of sites of weak, medium and strong basicity on both Mg-Al and Li-Al catalysts, the latter showing higher concentrations of medium and strong base sites; by implication, these are the main sitesmore » active in transesterification catalyzed by calcined Li-Al LDHs. Maximum activity was observed for the Li-Al catalysts when a calcination temperature of 450-500 aC was applied, corresponding to decomposition of the layered double hydroxide to the mixed oxide without formation of crystalline lithium aluminate phases.« less

  12. Acetylglyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC; platelet-activating factor)-induced stimulation of rabbit platelets: correlation between phosphatidic acid level, 45Ca2+ uptake, and (3H)serotonin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.D.; Hanahan, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    When 32P-labeled rabbits platelet were incubated with 5 X 10(-10) M 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine (AGEPC), either in the presence or absence (0.1 mM EGTA) of added Ca2+, there was a three- to five-fold increase in the (32P)phosphatidic acid (PA) pool within 15 to 20 s. This event was followed by a gradual decrease in the (32P)PA level to near basal level in 5 min. AGEPC effected this change in (32P)PA in a characteristic dose- and time-dependent manner. Polar head group analogs of AGEPC, such as AGEDME and AGEMME, also effected an increase in PA labeling at levels comparable to those previously reportedmore » for their activity toward rabbit platelets. Other analogs, i.e., lysoGEPC and the enantiomer, sn-1-AGEPC, which are inactive toward rabbit platelets, also showed no effect on the level of (32P)PA. The finding that the PA level in rabbit platelets could be manipulated by the addition of AGEPC, without any added Ca2+, provided an excellent model system for establishing a correlation between the uptake of Ca2+, serotonin release, and PA level. Thus, PA must be regarded as a sensitive indicator of a reaction mechanism important to the platelet response to AGEPC, and could be the focal point in promoting calcium uptake during the stimulation process.« less

  13. CO{sub 2}-philic oligomers as novel solvents for CO{sub 2} absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Matthew B; Luebke, David R; Enick, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Desirable properties for an oligomeric CO{sub 2}-capture solvent in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant include high selectivity for CO{sub 2} over H{sub 2} and water, low viscosity, low vapor pressure, low cost, and minimal environmental, health, and safety impacts. The neat solvent viscosity and solubility of CO{sub 2}, measured via bubble-point loci and presented on a pressure−composition diagram (weight basis), and water miscibility in CO{sub 2}-philic solvents have been determined and compared to results obtained with Selexol, a commercial oligomeric CO{sub 2} solvent. The solvents tested include polyethyleneglycol dimethylether (PEGDME), polypropyleneglycol dimethylether (PPGDME), polypropyleneglycol diacetate (PPGDAc), polybutyleneglycol diacetatemore » (PBGDAc), polytetramethyleneetherglycol diacetate (PTMEGDAc), glyceryl triacetate (GTA), polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), and perfluorpolyether (PFPE) that has a perfluorinated propyleneglycol monomer unit. Overall, PDMS and PPGDME are the best oligomeric solvents tested and exhibit properties that make them very promising alternatives for the selective absorption of CO{sub 2} from a mixed gas stream, especially if the absorption of water is undesirable.« less

  14. In-vitro/in-vivo correlation of pulsatile drug release from press-coated tablet formulations: a pharmacoscintigraphic study in the beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Manish; McInnes, Fiona J; Watson, David G; Mullen, Alexander B; Stevens, Howard N E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo performance of a press-coated tablet (PCT) intended for time delayed drug release, consisting of a rapidly disintegrating theophylline core tablet, press-coated with barrier granules containing glyceryl behenate (GB) and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC). The PCTs showed pulsatile release with a lag time dependent upon the GB and L-HPC composition of the barrier layer. In-vivo gamma-scintigraphic studies were carried out for PCTs containing GB:L-HPC at 65:35 w/w and 75:25 w/w in the barrier layer in four beagle dogs, in either the fed or fasted state. The in-vivo lag time in both the fed and fasted states did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from the in-vitro lag time. Additionally, no significant difference (p<0.05) between in-vivo fed and fasted disintegration times was observed, demonstrating that in-vivo performance of the PCT was not influenced by the presence or absence of food in the gastrointestinal tract. A distinct lag time was obtained prior to the appearance of drug in plasma and correlated (R2=0.98) with disintegration time observed from scintigraphic images. However, following disintegration, no difference in pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-6 dis), K(el), Cmax) was observed. The current study highlighted the potential use of these formulations for chronopharmaceutical drug delivery.

  15. Investigating critical effects of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose tablets.

    PubMed

    Patadia, Riddhish; Vora, Chintan; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    The research envisaged focuses on vital impacts of variegated lubricants, glidants and hydrophilic additives on lag time of press coated ethylcellulose (EC) tablets using prednisone as a model drug. Several lubricants and glidants such as magnesium stearate, colloidal SiO2, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol (6000) and glyceryl behenate were investigated to understand their effects on lag time by changing their concentrations in outer coat. Further, the effects of hydrophilic additives on lag time were examined for hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (E5), hydroxypropylcellulose (EF and SSL), povidone (K30), copovidone, polyethylene glycol (4000), lactose and mannitol. In vitro drug release testing revealed that each selected lubricant/glidant, if present even at concentration of 0.25% w/w, significantly reduced the lag time of press coated tablets. Specifically, colloidal SiO2 and/or magnesium stearate were detrimental while other lubricants/glidants were relatively less injurious. Among hydrophilic additives, freely water soluble fillers had utmost influence in lag time, whereas, comparatively less impact was observed with polymeric binders. Concisely, glidant and lubricant should be chosen to have minimal impact on lag time and further judicious selection of hydrophilic additives should be exercised for modulating lag time of pulsatile release formulations.

  16. Magnetic solid lipid nanoparticles in hyperthermia against colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz de Escalona, María; Sáez-Fernández, Eva; Prados, José C; Melguizo, Consolación; Arias, José L

    2016-05-17

    A reproducible double emulsion/solvent evaporation procedure is developed to formulate magnetic solid lipid nanoparticles (average size≈180 nm) made of iron oxide cores embedded within a glyceryl trimyristate solid matrix. The physicochemical characterization of the nanocomposites ascertained the efficacy of the preparation conditions in their production, i.e. surface properties (electrokinetic and thermodynamic data) were almost indistinguishable from those of the solid lipid nanomatrix, while electron microscopy characterizations and X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the satisfactory coverage of the magnetite nuclei. Hemocompatibility of the particles was established in vitro. Hysteresis cycle determinations defined the appropriate magnetic responsiveness of the nanocomposites, and their heating characteristics were investigated in a high frequency alternating gradient of magnetic field: a constant maximum temperature of 46 °C was obtained within 40 min. Finally, in vitro tests performed on human HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells demonstrated a promising decrease in cell viability after treatment with the nanocomposites and exposure to that alternating electromagnetic field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such type of nanoformulation with very promising hyperthermia characteristics has been developed for therapeutic aims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A potential carrier based on liquid crystal nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery of pilocarpine nitrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Lin; Wu, Weijun; Wang, Baoyan; Wang, Zhongyuan; Xin, Hongliang; Xu, Qunwei

    2013-10-15

    Poor corneal penetration and short preocular retention of a clinical hydrophilic drug, pilocarpine nitrate (PN), for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma, limit its ocular application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of liquid crystal nanoparticles (LCNPs) for ocular delivery of PN. LCNPs were developed by a top-down method using glyceryl monoolein (GMO) and water in the presence of stabilizer Poloxamer 407. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS). The size of LCNP is 202.28±19.32 nm and the encapsulation efficiency reached 61.03%. The in vitro release profiles indicated that PN could keep sustained release from PN-loaded LCNPs for 8h. An ex vivo corneal permeation study revealed that the apparent permeability coefficient of PN-loaded LCNPs was 2.05-fold higher than that of commercial eye drops. In addition, the topical administration test showed that PN-loaded LCNPs had a prolonged effect on decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP) of rabbits compared with commercial drug and physiological saline. In conclusion, LCNPs had been demonstrated to be potential for controlled-release ocular drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pathways of acetylcholine synthesis, transport and release as targets for treatment of adult-onset cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Amenta, F; Tayebati, S K

    2008-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely diffused in central, peripheral, autonomic and enteric nervous system. This paper has reviewed the main mechanisms of ACh synthesis, storage, and release. Presynaptic choline transport supports ACh production and release, and cholinergic terminals express a unique transporter critical for neurotransmitter release. Neurons cannot synthesize choline, which is ultimately derived from the diet and is delivered through the blood stream. ACh released from cholinergic synapses is hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase into choline and acetyl coenzyme A and almost 50% of choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a high-affinity choline transporter. Parallel with the development of cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction, cholinergic precursor loading strategy was tried for treating cognitive impairment occurring in Alzheimer's disease. Controlled clinical studies denied clinical usefulness of choline and lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), whereas for other phospholipids involved in choline biosynthetic pathways such as cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) or alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine (choline alphoscerate) a modest improvement of cognitive dysfunction in adult-onset dementia disorders is documented. These inconsistencies have probably a metabolic explanation. Free choline administration increases brain choline availability but it does not increase ACh synthesis/or release. Cholinergic precursors to serve for ACh biosynthesis should be incorporate and stored into phospholipids in brain. It is probable that appropriate ACh precursors and other correlated molecules (natural or synthesized) could represent a tool for developing therapeutic strategies by revisiting and updating treatments/supplementations coming out from this therapeutic stalemate.

  19. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities of a gemcitabine derivative carried by nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sloat, Brian R.; Sandoval, Michael A.; Li, Dong; Chung, Woon-Gye; Lansakara-P., Dharmika S. P.; Proteau, Philip J.; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Gemcitabine (Gemzar®) is the first line treatment for pancreatic cancer and often used in combination therapy for non-small cell lung, ovarian, and metastatic breast cancers. Although extremely toxic to a variety of tumor cells in culture, the clinical outcome of gemcitabine treatment still needs improvement. In the present study, a new gemcitabine nanoparticle formulation was developed by incorporating a previously reported stearic acid amide derivative of gemcitabine into nanoparticles prepared from lecithin/glyceryl monostearate-in-water emulsions. The stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles were cytotoxic to tumor cells in culture, although it took a longer time for the gemcitabine in the nanoparticles to kill tumor cells than for free gemcitabine. In mice with pre-established model mouse or human tumors, the stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles were significantly more effective than free gemcitabine in controlling the tumor growth. PEGylation of the gemcitabine nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (2000) prolonged the circulation of the nanoparticles in blood and increased the accumulation of the nanoparticles in tumor tissues (> 6-fold), but the PEGylated and un-PEGylated gemcitabine nanoparticles showed similar anti-tumor activity in mice. Nevertheless, the nanoparticle formulation was critical for the stearoyl gemcitabine to show a strong anti-tumor activity. It is concluded that for the gemcitabine derivate-containing nanoparticles, cytotoxicity data in culture may not be used to predict their in vivo anti-tumor activity, and this novel gemcitabine nanoparticle formulation has the potential to improve the clinical outcome of gemcitabine treatment. PMID:21371545

  20. Effects of some lubricants and evaluation of compression parameters on directly compressible powders.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Timuçin; Halaçoğlu, Mekin Doğa

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of conventional lubricants including a new candidate lubricant "Hexagonal boron nitride (HBN)" on direct compression powders. Lubricants such as magnesium stearate, glyceryl behenate, stearic acid, talc and polyethylene glycol6000 were studied in this article. Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented tablet press with various lubricant concentrations. Bulk and tapped densities, and Carr's index parameters were calculated for powders. Tensile strength, cohesion index, lower punch ejection force and lubricant effectiveness values were investigated for tablets. The deformation mechanisms of tablets were studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricants. Powders formulated with MGST and HBN showed better flow properties based on Carr's index. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on lubricant effectiveness for tablets. HBN was found very close to MGST with the same concentrations. Other lubricants showed less effectiveness than that of MGST and HBN. It is observed that an increase in the concentration of HBN leads to decreased tensile strength and cohesion index values because of its surface-covering property. Despite covering property, HBN had no significant effect on disintegration time. Based on the Heckel plots at the level of 1%, HBN showed the most pronounced plastic character.

  1. Patellar Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Aaron; Watson, Jonathan N.; Hutchinson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Patellar tendinopathy is a common condition. There are a wide variety of treatment options available, the majority of which are nonoperative. No consensus exists on the optimal method of treatment. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed spanning 1962-2014. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: The majority of cases resolve with nonoperative therapy: rest, physical therapy with eccentric exercises, cryotherapy, anti-inflammatories, corticosteroid injections, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, glyceryl trinitrate, platelet-rich plasma injections, and ultrasound-guided sclerosis. Refractory cases may require either open or arthroscopic debridement of the patellar tendon. Corticosteroid injections provide short-term pain relief but increase risk of tendon rupture. Anti-inflammatories and injectable agents have shown mixed results. Surgical treatment is effective in many refractory cases unresponsive to nonoperative modalities. Conclusion: Physical therapy with an eccentric exercise program is the mainstay of treatment for patellar tendinopathy. Platelet-rich plasma has demonstrated mixed results; evidence-based recommendations on its efficacy cannot be made. In the event that nonoperative treatment fails, surgical intervention has produced good to excellent outcomes in the majority of patients. PMID:26502416

  2. Vaccine Adjuvant Incorporation Strategy Dictates Peptide Amphiphile Micelle Immunostimulatory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Kramer, Jake S; Smith, Josiah D; Allen, Brittany N; Leeper, Caitlin N; Li, Xiaolei; Morton, Logan D; Gallazzi, Fabio; Ulery, Bret D

    2018-06-01

    Current vaccine research has shifted from traditional vaccines (i.e., whole-killed or live-attenuated) to subunit vaccines (i.e., protein, peptide, or DNA) as the latter is much safer due to delivering only the bioactive components necessary to produce a desirable immune response. Unfortunately, subunit vaccines are very weak immunogens requiring delivery vehicles and the addition of immunostimulatory molecules termed adjuvants to convey protective immunity. An interesting type of delivery vehicle is peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs), unique biomaterials where the vaccine is part of the nanomaterial itself. Due to the modularity of PAMs, they can be readily modified to deliver both vaccine antigens and adjuvants within a singular construct. Through the co-delivery of a model antigenic epitope (Ovalbumin 319-340 -OVA BT ) and a known molecular adjuvant (e.g., 2,3-dipalmitoyl-S-glyceryl cysteine-Pam 2 C), greater insight into the mechanisms by which PAMs can exert immunostimulatory effects was gained. It was found that specific combinations of antigen and adjuvant can significantly alter vaccine immunogenicity both in vitro and in vivo. These results inform fundamental design rules that can be leveraged to fabricate optimal PAM-based vaccine formulations for future disease-specific applications. Graphical Abstract.

  3. Detection of Cyclooxygenase-2-Derived Oxygenation Products of the Endogenous Cannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Amanda J; Kingsley, Philip J; Mitchener, Michelle M; Altemus, Megan; Patrick, Toni A; Gaulden, Andrew D; Marnett, Lawrence J; Patel, Sachin

    2018-05-09

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins, which are involved in immune regulation, vascular function, and synaptic signaling. COX-2 also inactivates the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) via oxygenation of its arachidonic acid backbone to form a variety of prostaglandin glyceryl esters (PG-Gs). Although this oxygenation reaction is readily observed in vitro and in intact cells, detection of COX-2-derived 2-AG oxygenation products has not been previously reported in neuronal tissue. Here we show that 2-AG is metabolized in the brain of transgenic COX-2-overexpressing mice and mice treated with lipopolysaccharide to form multiple species of PG-Gs that are detectable only when monoacylglycerol lipase is concomitantly blocked. Formation of these PG-Gs is prevented by acute pharmacological inhibition of COX-2. These data provide evidence that neuronal COX-2 is capable of oxygenating 2-AG to form a variety PG-Gs in vivo and support further investigation of the physiological functions of PG-Gs.

  4. Development and characterization of novel hydrogel containing antimicrobial drug for treatment of burns

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Vaishali; Korat, Vaishali; Baldaniya, Lalji; Gohel, Mukesh; Gandhi, Tejal; Patel, Nirav

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of burn management and therapy is fast healing and epithelisation to prevent infection. The present study is concerned with the development and characterization of a novel nanaoparticulate system; cubosomes, loaded with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) and Aloe vera for topical treatment of infected burns. Methods: Cubosome dispersions were formulated by an emulsification technique using different concentrations of a lipid phase Glyceryl Monooleate (GMO) and Poloxamer 407. The optimum formulae were incorporated in an aloe vera gel containing carbopol 934, to form cubosomal hydrogels (cubogels). The cubogels were characterized by in vitro release of SSD, rheological properties, pH, bioadhesion, Transmission Electron Microscopy and in-vivo Wound Healing Study. Results: The results show that the different concentration of GMO had significant effect on particle size, % EE and in vitro drug release. From the in-vitro drug release pattern and similarity factor (f2), it was concluded that batch CG3 (15% GMO and 1% P407) exhibited complete and controlled drug release within 12 hour (i.e. 98.25%), better bio adhesion and superior burn healing as compared to the marketed product. Conclusion: The in vivo burns healing study in rats revealed that the prepared optimized cubogel containing SSD and aloe vera has superior burns healing rate than cubogel with only SSD and marketed preparation so, it may be successfully used in the treatment of deep second degree burn. PMID:27606259

  5. Development and characterization of novel hydrogel containing antimicrobial drug for treatment of burns.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Vaishali; Korat, Vaishali; Baldaniya, Lalji; Gohel, Mukesh; Gandhi, Tejal; Patel, Nirav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of burn management and therapy is fast healing and epithelisation to prevent infection. The present study is concerned with the development and characterization of a novel nanaoparticulate system; cubosomes, loaded with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) and Aloe vera for topical treatment of infected burns. Cubosome dispersions were formulated by an emulsification technique using different concentrations of a lipid phase Glyceryl Monooleate (GMO) and Poloxamer 407. The optimum formulae were incorporated in an aloe vera gel containing carbopol 934, to form cubosomal hydrogels (cubogels). The cubogels were characterized by in vitro release of SSD, rheological properties, pH, bioadhesion, Transmission Electron Microscopy and in-vivo Wound Healing Study. The results show that the different concentration of GMO had significant effect on particle size, % EE and in vitro drug release. From the in-vitro drug release pattern and similarity factor (f2), it was concluded that batch CG3 (15% GMO and 1% P407) exhibited complete and controlled drug release within 12 hour (i.e. 98.25%), better bio adhesion and superior burn healing as compared to the marketed product. The in vivo burns healing study in rats revealed that the prepared optimized cubogel containing SSD and aloe vera has superior burns healing rate than cubogel with only SSD and marketed preparation so, it may be successfully used in the treatment of deep second degree burn.

  6. Determination of fatty acid methyl esters derived from algae Scenedesmus dimorphus biomass by GC-MS with one-step esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of glycerolipids.

    PubMed

    Avula, Satya Girish Chandra; Belovich, Joanne M; Xu, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Algae can synthesize, accumulate and store large amounts of lipids in its cells, which holds immense potential as a renewable source of biodiesel. In this work, we have developed and validated a GC-MS method for quantitation of fatty acids and glycerolipids in forms of fatty acid methyl esters derived from algae biomass. Algae Scenedesmus dimorphus dry mass was pulverized by mortar and pestle, then extracted by the modified Folch method and fractionated into free fatty acids and glycerolipids on aminopropyl solid-phase extraction cartridges. Fatty acid methyl esters were produced by an optimized one-step esterification of fatty acids and transesterification of glycerolipids with boron trichloride/methanol. The matrix effect, recoveries and stability of fatty acids and glycerolipids in algal matrix were first evaluated by spiking stable isotopes of pentadecanoic-2,2-d 2 acid and glyceryl tri(hexadecanoate-2,2-d 2 ) as surrogate analytes and tridecanoic-2,2-d 2 acid as internal standard into algal matrix prior to sample extraction. Later, the method was validated in terms of lower limits of quantitation, linear calibration ranges, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy using tridecanoic-2,2-d 2 acid as internal standard. The method developed has been applied to the quantitation of fatty acid methyl esters from free fatty acid and glycerolipid fractions of algae Scenedesmus dimorphus. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Proctalgia fugax, an evidence-based management pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeyarajah, Santhini; Chow, Andre; Ziprin, Paul; Tilney, Henry; Purkayastha, Sanjay

    2010-09-01

    Proctalgia fugax (PF) is a benign anorectal condition which has been described in the literature since the nineteenth century commonly presenting to general surgeons. There is little high level evidence on the subject and its therapeutic modalities. We aimed through this systematic literature review to outline the definition and diagnostic criteria of this condition, the aetiology and differential diagnoses and describe the different treatment modalities that have been attempted and their success. A literature search of Google Scholar and Medline using Pubmed as the search engine was used to identify all studies directly related to the definition, aetiology and treatment options for this condition (latest at 12 August 2008) was performed. The search produced 61 references with three others obtained from the references of these papers. The prevalence of PF in the general population ranges from 4% to 18%. The diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic symptoms as defined by Rome III guidelines and physical examination. The mainstay of treatment is reassurance and careful counselling with evidence in the literature for warm baths, topical treatment with glyceryl trinitrate or diltiazem and salbutamol inhalation. In persistent cases, local anaesthetic blocks, clonidine or Botox injections can be considered after clarification of risk and benefit. Based on this we suggest that diagnosis should be made through exclusion of common organic causes such as haemorrhoids, anal fissure or anorectal carcinoma and on the fulfillment of Rome III criteria. The main treatment for this benign condition remains reassurance and topical treatment.

  8. Development of New Lipid-Based Paclitaxel Nanoparticles Using Sequential Simplex Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaowei; Mattingly, Cynthia A.; Tseng, Michael; Cho, Moo; Adams, Val R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to develop Cremophor-free lipid-based paclitaxel (PX) nanoparticle formulations prepared from warm microemulsion precursors. To identify and optimize new nanoparticles, experimental design was performed combining Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization. The combination of Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization efficiently directed the design of paclitaxel nanoparticles. Two optimized paclitaxel nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained: G78 NPs composed of glyceryl tridodecanoate (GT) and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78), and BTM NPs composed of Miglyol 812, Brij 78 and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS). Both nanoparticles successfully entrapped paclitaxel at a final concentration of 150 μg/ml (over 6% drug loading) with particle sizes less than 200 nm and over 85% of entrapment efficiency. These novel paclitaxel nanoparticles were stable at 4°C over three months and in PBS at 37°C over 102 hours as measured by physical stability. Release of paclitaxel was slow and sustained without initial burst release. Cytotoxicity studies in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells showed that both nanoparticles have similar anticancer activities compared to Taxol®. Interestingly, PX BTM nanocapsules could be lyophilized without cryoprotectants. The lyophilized powder comprised only of PX BTM NPs in water could be rapidly rehydrated with complete retention of original physicochemical properties, in-vitro release properties, and cytotoxicity profile. Sequential Simplex Optimization has been utilized to identify promising new lipid-based paclitaxel nanoparticles having useful attributes. PMID:19111929

  9. Synthesis and characterization of novel polymers from non-petroleum sources for use in enhanced oil recovery. Final report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are discussed for grafting of acrylamide to: (1) starch and related polysaccharides; and (2) cellulose solutions. In grafting acrylamide to various polysaccharide substrates such as okra polysaccharide, yellow dextrin, waxy corn starch, potato amylose, gum arabic, the efficiency of Ce/sup 4 +/ as initiator was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.89, depending on reaction conditions. Okra polysaccharide was isolated, characterized, and evaluated for use in enhanced oil recovery. A series of experiments designed to increase the viscosifying power of certain polymers by chain extension techniques has also been conducted. Characterization of the polymers bymore » ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, membrane filtration, multi-cell equilibrium dialysis, and rheological studies has also been done. In grafting of acrylamide to cellulose solutions the following two courses were taken: (1) dissolution of cellulose in 70% aqueous zinc chloride, followed by Ce/sup 4 +/ initiated grafting of acrylamide, and (2) introduction of a 1,2-diol substituent onto the anhydroglucose units of the cellulose chain via dissolution of cellulose in concentrated aqueous NaOH, followed by treatment with glyceryl chlorohydrin. Considerable progress has been made via both approaches. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  10. Herpes simplex virus antigens directly activate NK cells via TLR2, thus facilitating their presentation to CD4 T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min; Osborne, Naomi R; Zeng, Weiguang; Donaghy, Heather; McKinnon, Kay; Jackson, David C; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2012-05-01

    NK cells infiltrate human herpetic lesions, but their role has been underexplored. HSV can stimulate innate immune responses via surface TLR2, which is expressed on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and NK cells. In this study, UV-inactivated HSV1/2 and immunodominant HSV2 glycoprotein D peptides conjugated to the TLR2 agonist dipalmitoyl-S-glyceryl cysteine stimulated CD4 T lymphocyte IFN-γ responses within PBMCs or in coculture with monocyte-derived DCs. NK cells contributed markedly to the PBMC responses. Furthermore, NK cells alone were activated directly by both Ags, also upregulating HLA-DR and HLA-DQ and then they activated autologous CD4 T lymphocytes. Using Transwells, Ag-stimulated NK cells and CD4 T lymphocytes were shown to interact through both cell-to-cell contact and cytokines, differing in relative importance in different donors. A distinct immunological synapse between Ag-stimulated NK cells and CD4 T lymphocytes was observed, indicating the significance of their cell-to-cell contact. A large proportion (57%) of NK cells was also in contact with CD4 T lymphocytes in the dermal infiltrate of human recurrent herpetic lesions. Thus, NK cells stimulated by TLR2-activating HSV Ags can present Ag alone or augment the role of DCs in vitro and perhaps in herpetic lesions or draining lymph nodes. In addition to DCs, NK cells should be considered as targets for adjuvants during HSV vaccine development.

  11. Effects of the glycerophosphate-polylactic copolymer formation on electrospun fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wen; Zhang, Guanghua; Li, YaLi; Fan, Guodong

    2018-06-01

    Poly-lactic (PLA) porous fibers are widely used in tissue engineering scaffolds and many other fields. Non-solvent induced phase separation is one of the best way for preparation of porous fiber. It is difficult to obtain the PLA electrospun porous fibers by phase separation. In this paper, glycerophosphate-polylactic copolymer (GP-PLA) are synthesized with sodium glyceryl phosphate and L-lactide to produce porous fibers. Furthermore, the Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), FT-IR and 1H-NMR are applied for characterizing the obtained copolymers. Thermogravimetric (TG) measurements indicate that the thermal stability of GP-PLA is lower than that of linear PLA. Under 30% humidity, porous GP-PLA fibers are obtained by electrospinning method, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) refers that through the modification of the molecular structure, GP-PLA fibers are more porous under the same condition. The water contact angle is increased coming with the increase of GP contents. Hydrophilic porous GP-PLA fibers are obtained via solvent phase separation. The relationship between hydrophilicity and surface morphology of materials is further explained by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). GP-PLA has a potential application in the field of scaffold for tissue engineering.

  12. Transdermal delivery of paeonol using cubic gel and microemulsion gel

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Maofu; Shen, Qi; Chen, Jinjin

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to develop new systems for transdermal delivery of paeonol, in particular microemulsion gel and cubic gel formulations. Methods Various microemulsion vehicles were prepared using isopropyl myristate as an oil phase, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor® EL) as a surfactant, and polyethylene glycol 400 as a cosurfactant. In the optimum microemulsion gel formulation, carbomer 940 was selected as the gel matrix, and consisted of 1% paeonol, 4% isopropyl myristate, 28% Cremophor EL/polyethylene glycol 400 (1:1), and 67% water. The cubic gel was prepared containing 3% paeonol, 30% water, and 67% glyceryl monooleate. Results A skin permeability test using excised rat skins indicated that both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations had higher permeability than did the paeonol solution. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study done in rats showed that the relative bioavailability of the cubic gel and microemulsion gel was enhanced by about 1.51-fold and 1.28-fold, respectively, compared with orally administered paeonol suspension. Conclusion Both the cubic gel and microemulsion gel formulations are promising delivery systems to enhance the skin permeability of paeonol, in particular the cubic gel. PMID:21904450

  13. Development of gastroretentive metronidazole floating raft system for targeting Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Abou Youssef, Nancy Abdel Hamid; Kassem, Abeer Ahmed; El-Massik, Magda Abd Elsamea; Boraie, Nabila Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The study demonstrates the feasibility of prolonging gastric residence time and release rate of metronidazole (Mz) by preparing floating raft system (FRS) using ion-sensitive in situ gel forming polymers. FRSs contained 3, 4, 5 and 0.5, 0.75, 1% w/v sodium alginate (Alg) and gellan gum (G), respectively, 0.25% w/v sodium citrate and calcium carbonate (C). Lipids: glyceryl mono stearate (GMS), Precirol(®) and Compritol(®) were incorporated into G-based formulations (G1%C1%). Mz:lipid ratio was 1:1, except for Mz:GMS, ratios of 1:1.5 and 1:2 were also investigated. Buoyancy, gelation capacity and viscosity parameters were evaluated. Drug release and kinetics for selected formulae were examined. The selected lipid containing formula was subjected to an accelerated stability testing. Alg4%C2% FRS exhibited short gelation lag time (3s), long duration (>24h), floating lag time 1m in and duration >24h, and a reliable sustained drug release (MDT 6h). Gellan gum FRSs achieved successful floating gastroretention, but failed to achieve the required gelation capacity. Incorporation of GMS (Mz:GMS 1:1) enhanced the gelation lag time and duration (6s and >24h, respectively), keeping sustained drug release and formulation stability. The improved characteristics of the selected FRS make them excellent candidates for gastric targeting to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation and characterization of microcrystalline semiconductor particles on bilayer lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Baral, S.; Zhao, X.K.; Rolandi, R.

    Microcrystalline cadmium, indium, copper, and zinc sulfides were generated in situ on the surface of bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) prepared from bovine-brain phosphatidylserine (PS), glyceryl monooleate (GMO), and a synthetic, polymerizable surfactant (n-C/sub 15/H/sub 31/CO/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/)/sub 2/N/sup +/(CH/sub 3/)CH/sub 2/C/sub 6/H/sub 4/CH double bond CH/sub 2/, Cl/sup -/ (STYRS). Semiconductor-containing BLMs remained stable for days. Semiconductor formation on the BLM surface was monitored by optical microscopy, voltage-dependent capacitance measurements, and absorption and intracavity-laser-absorption spectroscopy. Band gap excitation of GMO- BLM-incorporated CdS resulted in the development of photovoltage. Irradiation of CdS incorporated into BLMs formed from STYRS (using amore » 350-nm cutoff filter) led to absorption losses due to the styrene moiety in the surfactant. Apparently, CdS sensitized the photopolymerization of STRYS BLMs.« less

  15. Structure-interfacial properties relationship and quantification of the amphiphilicity of well-defined ionic and non-ionic surfactants using the PIT-slope method.

    PubMed

    Ontiveros, Jesús F; Pierlot, Christel; Catté, Marianne; Molinier, Valérie; Salager, Jean-Louis; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2015-06-15

    The Phase Inversion Temperature of a reference C10E4/n-Octane/Water system exhibits a quasi-linear variation versus the mole fraction of a second surfactant S2 added in the mixture. This variation was recently proposed as a classification tool to quantify the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) of commercial surfactants. The feasibility of the so-called PIT-slope method for a wide range of well-defined non-ionic and ionic surfactants is investigated. The comparison of various surfactants having the same dodecyl chain tail allows to rank the polar head hydrophilicity as: SO3Na⩾SO4Na⩾NMe3Br>E2SO3Na≈CO2Na⩾E1SO3Na⩾PhSO3Na>Isosorbide(exo)SO4Na≫IsosorbideendoSO4Na≫E8⩾NMe2O>E7>E6⩾Glucosyl>E5⩾Diglyceryl⩾E4>E3>E2≈Isosorbide(exo)>Glyceryl>Isosorbide(endo). The influence on the surfactant HLB of other structural parameters, i.e. hydrophobic chain length, unsaturation, replacement of Na(+) by K(+) counterion, and isomerism is also investigated. Finally, the method is successfully used to predict the optimal formulation of a new bio-based surfactant, 1-O-dodecyldiglycerol, when performing an oil scan at 25 °C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of matrix tablets controlled drug release using Elman dynamic neural networks and decision trees.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jelena; Ibrić, Svetlana; Betz, Gabriele; Đurić, Zorica

    2012-05-30

    The main objective of the study was to develop artificial intelligence methods for optimization of drug release from matrix tablets regardless of the matrix type. Static and dynamic artificial neural networks of the same topology were developed to model dissolution profiles of different matrix tablets types (hydrophilic/lipid) using formulation composition, compression force used for tableting and tablets porosity and tensile strength as input data. Potential application of decision trees in discovering knowledge from experimental data was also investigated. Polyethylene oxide polymer and glyceryl palmitostearate were used as matrix forming materials for hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets, respectively whereas selected model drugs were diclofenac sodium and caffeine. Matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method and tested for in vitro dissolution profiles. Optimization of static and dynamic neural networks used for modeling of drug release was performed using Monte Carlo simulations or genetic algorithms optimizer. Decision trees were constructed following discretization of data. Calculated difference (f(1)) and similarity (f(2)) factors for predicted and experimentally obtained dissolution profiles of test matrix tablets formulations indicate that Elman dynamic neural networks as well as decision trees are capable of accurate predictions of both hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets dissolution profiles. Elman neural networks were compared to most frequently used static network, Multi-layered perceptron, and superiority of Elman networks have been demonstrated. Developed methods allow simple, yet very precise way of drug release predictions for both hydrophilic and lipid matrix tablets having controlled drug release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculae, G.; Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions.

  18. Speciation of arsenic in marine food (Anemonia sulcata) by liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and organic mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Acuña, M; García-Barrera, T; García-Sevillano, M A; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2013-03-22

    Arsenic species have been investigated in Anemonia sulcata, which is frequently consumed food staple in Spain battered in wheat flour and fried with olive oil. Speciation in tissue extracts was carried out by anion/cation exchange chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-(AEC/CEC)-ICP-MS). Three methods for the extraction of arsenic species were investigated (ultrasonic bath, ultrasonic probe and focused microwave) and the optimal one was applied. Arsenic speciation was carried out in raw and cooked anemone and the dominant species are dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) followed by arsenobetaine (AB), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MA(V)), tetramethylarsonium ion (TETRA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO). In addition, arsenocholine (AsC), glyceryl phosphorylarsenocholine (GPAsC) and dimethylarsinothioic acid (DMAS) were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). These results are interesting since GPAsC has been previously reported in marine organisms after experimental exposure to AsC, but not in natural samples. In addition, this paper reports for the first time the identification of DMAS in marine food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Encapsulation of the UV filters ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane in lipid microparticles: effect on in vivo human skin permeation.

    PubMed

    Scalia, S; Mezzena, M; Ramaccini, D

    2011-01-01

    Lipid microparticles loaded with the UVB filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and the UVA filter butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) were evaluated for their effect on the sunscreen agent's percutaneous penetration. Microparticles loaded with EHMC or BMDBM were prepared by the melt emulsification technique using stearic acid or glyceryl behenate as lipidic material, respectively, and hydrogenate phosphatidylcholine as the surfactant. Nonencapsulated BMDBM and EHMC in conjunction with blank microparticles or equivalent amounts of the 2 UV filters loaded in the lipid microparticles were introduced into oil-in-water emulsions and applied to human volunteers. Skin penetration was investigated in vivo by the tape-stripping technique. For the cream with the nonencapsulated sunscreen agents, the percentages of the applied dose diffused into the stratum corneum were 32.4 ± 4.1% and 30.3 ± 3.3% for EHMC and BMDBM, respectively. A statistically significant reduction in the in vivo skin penetration to 25.3 ± 5.5% for EHMC and 22.7 ± 5.4% for BMDBM was achieved by the cream containing the microencapsulated UV filters. The inhibiting effect on permeation attained by the lipid microparticles was more marked (45-56.3% reduction) in the deeper stratum corneum layers. The reduced percutaneous penetration of BMDBM and EHMC achieved by the lipid microparticles should preserve the UV filter efficacy and limit potential toxicological risks. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Preparation and characterization of azithromycin--Aerosil 200 solid dispersions with enhanced physical stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuechao; Peng, Huanhuan; Tian, Bin; Gou, Jingxin; Yao, Qing; Tao, Xiaoguang; He, Haibing; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Xing; Cai, Cuifang

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of azithromycin (AZI)--Aerosil 200 solid dispersions specifically with high stability under accelerated condition (40 °C/75% RH). Ball milling (BM) and hot-melt extrusion (HME) were used to prepare AZI solid dispersions. The physical properties of solid dispersions were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). For solid dispersions prepared with both methods, no crystalline of AZI was detected (except for AZI: Aerosil 200=75:25) by DSC or PXRD, indicating the amorphous state of AZI in solid dispersions. The FT-IR results demonstrated the loss of crystallization water and the formation of hydrogen bonds between Aerosil 200 and AZI during the preparation of solid dispersions. After 4 weeks storage under accelerated condition, the degree of crystallinity of AZI increased in solid dispersions prepared by BM, whereas for solid dispersions containing AZI, Aerosil 200 and glyceryl behenate (GB) prepared by HME, no crystalline of AZI was identified. This high stability can be attributed to the hydrophobic properties of GB and the presence of hydrogen bonds. Based on the above results, it is inferred the protection of hydrogen bonds between AZI and Aerosil 200 formed during preparation process effectively inhibited the recrystallization of AZI and improved the physical stability of amorphous AZI in the presence of Aerosil 200. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of hexagonal boron nitride on dry compression mixture of Avicel DG and Starch 1500.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Timuçin; Halaçoğlu, Mekin Doğa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the lubrication properties of hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) on a (1:1) binary mixture of Avicel DG and Starch 1500 after using the dry granulation-slugging method and compare it with conventional lubricants, such as magnesium stearate (MGST), glyceryl behenate (COMP) and stearic acid (STAC). MGST is one of the most commonly used lubricants in the pharmaceutical industry. However, it has several adverse effects on tablet properties. In our current study, we employed various methods to eradicate the work hardening phenomenon in dry granulation, and used HBN as a new lubricant to overcome the adverse effects of other lubricants on tablet properties. HBN was found to be as effective as MGST and did not show any significant adverse effects on the crushing strength or work hardening. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, it was concluded that HBN distributed better than MGST. As well as showing better distribution, HBN's effect on disintegration was the least pronounced. Semi-quantitative weight percent distribution of B and N elements in the tablets was obtained using EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy). Based on atomic force microscope (AFM) surface roughness images, formulations prepared with 1% HBN showed better plastic character than those prepared with MGST.

  2. Compression parameters of hexagonal boron nitride on direct compression mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and modified starch.

    PubMed

    Halaçoğlu, Mekin Doğa; Uğurlu, Timuçin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of conventional lubricants including a new candidate lubricant "hexagonal boron nitride (HBN)" on direct compression powders. Lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), glyceryl behenate, stearic acid, talc and polyethylene glycol6000 were studied and tablets were manufactured on a single station instrumented tablet press. This study comprised the continuation of our previous one, so mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and modified starch was used as a master formula to evaluate effects of lubricants on pharmaceutical excipients that undergo complete plastic deformation without any fragmentation under compression pressure. Bulk and tapped densities, and Carr's index parameters were calculated for powders. Tensile strength, cohesion index, lower punch ejection force and lubricant effectiveness values were investigated for tablets. The deformation mechanisms of tablets were studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricant. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant and HBN was found very close to it. HBN did not show a significant negative effect on the crushing strength and disintegration time of the tablets when we compared with MGST. Based on the Heckel plots at the level of 1%, formulation prepared with HBN showed the most pronounced plastic character.

  3. Delivery of Dual Drug Loaded Lipid Based Nanoparticles across the Blood-Brain Barrier Impart Enhanced Neuroprotection in a Rotenone Induced Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Paromita; Das, Manasi; Tripathy, Kalpalata; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2016-12-21

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most widespread form of dementia where there is an age related degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain. Accumulation of α-synuclein (αS) protein aggregate, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuronal cell death are the pathological hallmarks of PD. In this context, amalgamation of curcumin and piperine having profound cognitive properties, and antioxidant activity seems beneficial. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the major impediment for delivery of neurotherapeutics to the brain. The present study involves formulation of curcumin and piperine coloaded glyceryl monooleate (GMO) nanoparticles coated with various surfactants with a view to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin and penetration of both drugs to the brain tissue crossing the BBB and to enhance the anti-parkinsonism effect of both drugs in a single platform. In vitro results demonstrated augmented inhibition of αS protein into oligomers and fibrils, reduced rotenone induced toxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, and activation of autophagic pathway by dual drug loaded NPs compared to native counterpart. Further, in vivo studies revealed that our formulated dual drug loaded NPs were able to cross BBB, rescued the rotenone induced motor coordination impairment, and restrained dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in a PD mouse model.

  4. Risk based approach for design and optimization of stomach specific delivery of rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Vora, Chintan; Patadia, Riddhish; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2013-10-15

    The research envisaged focuses on risk management approach for better recognizing the risks, ways to mitigate them and propose a control strategy for the development of rifampicin gastroretentive tablets. Risk assessment using failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was done to depict the effects of specific failure modes related to respective formulation/process variable. A Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of amount of sodium bicarbonate (X1), pore former HPMC (X2) and glyceryl behenate (X3) on percent drug release at 1st hour (Q1), 4th hour (Q4), 8th hour (Q8) and floating lag time (min). Main effects and interaction plots were generated to study effects of variables. Selection of the optimized formulation was done using desirability function and overlay contour plots. The optimized formulation exhibited Q1 of 20.9%, Q4 of 59.1%, Q8 of 94.8% and floating lag time of 4.0 min. Akaike information criteria and Model selection criteria revealed that the model was best described by Korsmeyer-Peppas power law. The residual plots demonstrated no existence of non-normality, skewness or outliers. The composite desirability for optimized formulation computed using equations and software were 0.84 and 0.86 respectively. FTIR, DSC and PXRD studies ruled out drug polymer interaction due to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sesquiterpenes from the Saudi Red Sea: Litophyton arboreum with their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T; Hawas, Usama W; El-Desouky, Samy K; Al-Farawati, Radwan

    2018-01-26

    A new pseudoguaiane-type sesquiterpene named litopharbol (1) was isolated from the methanolic extract of the Red Sea soft coral Litophyton arboreum, along with known sesquiterpenoids alismol (2), alismorientol B (3), teuhetenone A (4), and calamusin I (5); steroid, 24-methyl-cholesta-5,24(28)-diene-3β-ol (6), alkyl glyceryl ether, chimyl alcohol (7); sphingolipid, erythro-N-dodecanoyl-docosasphinga-(4E,8E)-dienine (8); and nitrogenous bases, thymine (9) and thymidine (10). The structures were determined on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR data including heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy, and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy) and mass spectrometric analyses. Compounds 1-5 were explored for antimicrobial activity and cancer cell line sensitivity tests. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with a minimum inhibition concentration of 1.8 μg/mL, whereas compound 3 showed significant potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 (breast cancer cells) with IC50 4.32 μM.

  6. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian

    2008-11-12

    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins.

  7. Identification of minor secondary metabolites from the latex of Croton lechleri (Muell-Arg) and evaluation of their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    De Marino, Simona; Gala, Fulvio; Zollo, Franco; Vitalini, Sara; Fico, Gelsomina; Visioli, Francesco; Iorizzi, Maria

    2008-06-01

    Dragon's blood (Sangre de drago), a viscous red sap derived from Croton lechleri Muell-Arg (Euphorbiaceae), is extensively used by indigenous cultures of the Amazonian basin for its wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to identify the minor secondary metabolites and test the antioxidant activity of this sustance. A bioguided fractionation of the n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and aqueous extracts led to the isolation of 15 compounds: three megastigmanes, four flavan-3-ols, three phenylpropanoids, three lignans, a clerodane, and the alkaloid taspine. In addition to these known molecules, six compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in the latex: blumenol B, blumenol C, 4,5-dihydroblumenol A, erythro-guaiacyl-glyceryl-beta-O-4'- dihydroconiferyl ether, 2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]-propane-1,3-diol and floribundic acid glucoside. Combinations of spectroscopic methods ((1)H-, (13)C- NMR and 2D-NMR experiments), ESI-MS, and literature comparisons were used for compound identification. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by DPPH, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation assays. Flavan-3-ols derivatives (as major phenolic compounds in the latex) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity.

  8. The role of nitrates in the prevention of preeclampsia: an update.

    PubMed

    Kalidindi, Madhavi; Velauthar, Luxmi; Khan, Khalid; Aquilina, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Defective nitric oxide synthesis and nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation is widely documented in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several studies demonstrated the beneficial role of nitric oxide agents, especially glyceryl trinitrate and L-arginine in reducing the blood pressure and improving the uteroplacental blood flow velocities. However, there is insufficient evidence on the efficacy and safety of these agents in the prevention of preeclampsia and its complications, as there are very few randomized controlled trials with small number of women. The aim of this review is to summarize and evaluate the role of nitrates in the prevention of preeclampsia based on the available evidence in the literature till date and suggestions for future research. Supplementation with L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in women at high risk of preeclampsia [P < 0.001, absolute risk reduction 0.17 (confidence interval 0.12-0.21)]. On the basis of the recent evidence, nitric oxide agents may be beneficial in the prevention of preeclampsia. Randomized controlled trials initiated in the first trimester and using long-acting nitrates are needed in high-risk women to validate these findings.

  9. Non-hemodynamic effects of organic nitrates and the distinctive characteristics of pentaerithrityl tetranitrate.

    PubMed

    Gori, Tommaso; Daiber, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Organic nitrates are among the oldest and yet most commonly employed drugs in the long-term therapy of coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. While they have long been used in clinical practice, our understanding of their mechanism of action and side effects remains incomplete. For instance, recent findings provide evidence of previously unanticipated, non-hemodynamic properties that include potentially beneficial mechanisms (such as the induction of a protective phenotype that mimics ischemic preconditioning), but also toxic effects (such as endothelial and autonomic dysfunction, rebound angina, tolerance). To date, the most commonly employed organic nitrates are isosorbide mononitrate, isosorbide dinitrate, and nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate). Another organic nitrate, pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), has long been employed in eastern European countries and is currently being reintroduced in Western countries. In light of their wide use, and of the (re)introduction of PETN in Western markets, the present review focuses on the novel effects of organic nitrates, describing their potential clinical implications and discussing differences among different compounds. We believe that these recent findings have important clinical implications. Since the side effects of organic nitrates such as nitroglycerin and isosorbides appear to be mediated by reactive oxygen species, care should be taken that drugs with antioxidant properties are co-administered. On the other hand, efforts should be made to clinically exploit the preconditioning effects of these drugs.

  10. Preparation of Emulsifying Wax/GMO Nanoparticles and Evaluation as a Delivery System for Repurposing Simvastatin in Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Eskinazi-Budge, Aaron; Manickavasagam, Dharani; Czech, Tori; Novak, Kimberly; Kunzler, James; Oyewumi, Moses O

    2018-05-30

    Simvastatin (Sim) is a widely known drug in the treatment of hyperlipidemia that has attracted so much attention in bone regeneration based on its potential osteoanabolic effect. However, repurposing of Sim in bone regeneration will require suitable delivery systems that can negate undesirable off-target/side effects. In this study, we have investigated a new lipid nanoparticle (NP) platform that was fabricated using a binary blend of emulsifying wax (Ewax) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO). Using the binary matrix materials, NPs loaded with Sim (0-500 µg/mL) were prepared and showed an average particle size of about 150 nm. NP size stability was dependent on Sim concentration loaded in NPs. The suitability of NPs prepared with the binary matrix materials in Sim delivery for potential application in bone regeneration was supported by biocompatibility in pre-osteoclastic and pre-osteoblastic cells. Additional data demonstrated that biofunctional Sim was released from NPs that facilitated differentiation of osteoblasts (cells that form bones) while inhibiting differentiation of osteoclasts (cells that resorb bones). The overall work demonstrated the preparation of NPs from Ewax/GMO blends and characterization to ascertain potential suitability in Sim delivery for bone regeneration. Additional studies on osteoblast and osteoclast functions are warranted to fully evaluate the efficacy simvastatin-loaded Ewax/GMO NPs using in-vitro and in-vivo approaches.

  11. Molecular dynamics approach to water structure of HII mesophase of monoolein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Vesselin; Ivanova, Anela; Madjarova, Galia; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2012-02-01

    The goal of the present work is to study theoretically the structure of water inside the water cylinder of the inverse hexagonal mesophase (HII) of glyceryl monooleate (monoolein, GMO), using the method of molecular dynamics. To simplify the computational model, a fixed structure of the GMO tube is maintained. The non-standard cylindrical geometry of the system required the development and application of a novel method for obtaining the starting distribution of water molecules. A predictor-corrector schema is employed for generation of the initial density of water. Molecular dynamics calculations are performed at constant volume and temperature (NVT ensemble) with 1D periodic boundary conditions applied. During the simulations the lipid structure is kept fixed, while the dynamics of water is unrestrained. Distribution of hydrogen bonds and density as well as radial distribution of water molecules across the water cylinder show the presence of water structure deep in the cylinder (about 6 Å below the GMO heads). The obtained results may help understanding the role of water structure in the processes of insertion of external molecules inside the GMO/water system. The present work has a semi-quantitative character and it should be considered as the initial stage of more comprehensive future theoretical studies.

  12. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  13. Contact allergy to ingredients of hair cosmetics - a comparison of female hairdressers and clients based on IVDK 2007-2012 data.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; John, Swen Malte; Schnuch, Axel; Geier, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    Cosmetics for bleaching, waving/relaxing and dyeing hair contain well-known allergens, leading to a substantial number of cases of allergic contact dermatitis. To compare the frequency of important contact allergens (i) between two distinct groups of exposed patients, and (ii) with previous surveillance data. On the basis of data collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; www.ivkd.org) between 2007 and 2012 in 824 female hairdressers and 2067 female clients, the current spectrum of contact sensitization to ingredients of hair cosmetics, as contained in different pertinent series, is described. A similar burden of sensitization as in previous analyses was observed, but with some increase in sensitization to oxidative hair dye components in clients. Some allergens mainly affected hairdressers, such as ammonium persulfate (18.7% positive) and glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG; still 4.7% positive, with a few cases also in young hairdressers, despite removal from the German market). Hair dyes remain important contact allergens, despite various attempts by the cosmetic industry to introduce hair dyes with lower allergenic potential. The re-emergence of GMTG as an occupational allergen should be considered as a warning signal ('sentinel event') prompting close monitoring. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Murine Model for Human Sepiapterin-Reductase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seungkyoung; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Jin-Man; Park, Sean; Peris, Joanna; Laipis, Philip; Park, Young Shik; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, S. Paul

    2006-01-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for several enzymes, including all three forms of nitric oxide synthases, the three aromatic hydroxylases, and glyceryl-ether mono-oxygenase. A proper level of BH4 is, therefore, necessary for the metabolism of phenylalanine and the production of nitric oxide, catecholamines, and serotonin. BH4 deficiency has been shown to be closely associated with diverse neurological psychiatric disorders. Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step of BH4 biosynthesis. Whereas the number of cases of neuropsychological disorders resulting from deficiencies of other catalytic enzymes involved in BH4 biosynthesis and metabolism has been increasing, only a handful of cases of SPR deficiency have been reported, and the role of SPR in BH4 biosynthesis in vivo has been poorly understood. Here, we report that mice deficient in the Spr gene (Spr−/−) display disturbed pterin profiles and greatly diminished levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, indicating that SPR is essential for homeostasis of BH4 and for the normal functions of BH4-dependent enzymes. The Spr−/− mice exhibit phenylketonuria, dwarfism, and impaired body movement. Oral supplementation of BH4 and neurotransmitter precursors completely rescued dwarfism and phenylalanine metabolism. The biochemical and behavioral characteristics of Spr−/− mice share striking similarities with the symptoms observed in SPR-deficient patients. This Spr mutant strain of mice will be an invaluable resource to elucidate many important issues regarding SPR and BH4 deficiencies. PMID:16532389

  15. Severe Hypertension and Bradycardia Secondary to Midodrine Overdose.

    PubMed

    Wong, L Y; Wong, A; Robertson, T; Burns, K; Roberts, M; Isbister, G K

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this case is to describe the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of midodrine in overdose. A 20 year old female ingested up to 350 mg midodrine while recovering in hospital from another overdose. She developed vomiting and severe hypertension (blood pressure [BP], 210/100 mmHg). Remarkable findings included a heart rate with a range of 43-60 beats/min, spontaneous respirations (20 breaths/min), and oxygen saturations of >95 % on FiO2 25 %, and a GS of 8. She was admitted to intensive care and had a normal non-contrast CT brain. She was treated with a glyceryl trinitrate patch (5 mg) and observed for 36 h with subsequent BP reduction to 124/81 mmHg and improved in conscious state. Midodrine and desglymidodrine concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and were detected with 2-h post-ingestion at concentrations of 158.4 and 169.7 ng/mL, respectively. The parent drug concentrations rapidly decreased with an elimination of half-life of 1.6 h, and the metabolite initially increased and then decreased. The peak in blood pressure appeared to coincide with peak metabolite concentrations. Midodrine in overdose can potentially cause severe hypertension and reflex bradycardia but given its short half-life treatment with vasodilator agents and supportive care is sufficient.

  16. Melt Adsorption as a Manufacturing Method for Fine Particles of Wax Matrices without Any Agglomerates.

    PubMed

    Shiino, Kai; Fujinami, Yukari; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    We have focused on melt adsorption as manufacture method of wax matrices to control particles size of granules more easily than melt granulation. The purpose of present study was to investigate the possibility of identifying a hydrophobic material with a low melting point, currently used as a meltable binder of melt granulation, to apply as a novel carrier in melt adsorption. Glyceryl monostearate (GM) and stearic acid (SA) were selected as candidate hydrophobic materials with low melting points. Neusilin US2 (US2), with a particle diameter of around 100 µm was selected as a surface adsorbent, while dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), was used as a non-adsorbent control to prepare melting granules as a standard for comparison. We prepared granules containing ibuprofen (IBU) by melt adsorption or melt granulation and evaluated the particle size, physical properties and crystallinity of granules. Compared with melt granulation using DCPD, melt adsorption can be performed over a wide range of 14 to 70% for the ratio of molten components. Moreover, the particle size; d50 of obtained granules was 100-200 µm, and these physical properties showed good flowability and roundness. The process of melt adsorption did not affect the crystalline form of IBU. Therefore, the present study has demonstrated for the first time that melt adsorption using a hydrophobic material, GM or SA, has the potential capability to control the particle size of granules and offers the possibility of application as a novel controlled release technique.

  17. Defensive Armor of Potato Tubers: Nonpolar Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant Assessment, and Solid-State NMR Compositional Analysis of Suberin-Enriched Wound-Healing Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Kallash, Linda; Wang, Isabel; Phan, Van C.; Huang, Wenlin; Serra, Olga; Stark, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    The cultivation, storage, and distribution of potato tubers are compromised by mechanical damage and suboptimal healing. To investigate wound-healing progress in cultivars with contrasting russeting patterns, metabolite profiles reported previously for polar tissue extracts were complemented by GC/MS measurements for nonpolar extracts and quantitative 13C NMR of interfacial solid suspensions. Potential marker compounds that distinguish cultivar type and wound-healing time point included fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, glyceryl esters, α,ω-fatty diacids, and hydroxyfatty acids. The abundant long-chain fatty acids in nonpolar extracts and solids from the smooth-skinned Yukon Gold cultivar suggested extensive suberin biopolymer formation; this hypothesis was supported by high proportions of arenes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups in the solid and among the polar markers. The absence of many potential marker classes in nonpolar Atlantic extracts and interfacial solids suggested a limited extent of suberization. Modest scavenging activities of all nonpolar extracts indicate that the majority of antioxidants produced in response to wounding are polar. PMID:26166447

  18. Comprehension of direct extraction of hydrophilic antioxidants using vegetable oils by polar paradox theory and small angle X-ray scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Ruiz, Karine; Rossignol Castera, Anne; Bauduin, Pierre; Diat, Olivier; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    Since the polar paradox theory rationalised the fact that polar antioxidants are more effective in nonpolar media, extractions of phenolic compounds in vegetable oils were inspired and achieved in this study for obtaining oils enriched in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the influence of surfactants on the extractability of phenolic compounds was experimentally studied first, followed by the small angle X-ray scattering analysis for the oil structural observation before and after extraction so as to better understand the dissolving mechanism underpinning the extraction. The results showed a significant difference on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds among oils, which was mainly dependent on their composition instead of the unsaturation of fatty acids. Appropriate surfactant additions could significantly improve extraction yield for refined sunflower oils, which 1% w/w addition of glyceryl oleate was determined as the optimal. Besides, 5% w/w addition of lecithin performed the best in oil enrichments compared with mono- and di-glycerides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immobilization of pectinase from Leucoagaricus gongylophorus on magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Adalberto, Paulo Roberto; José dos Santos, Francisco; Golfeto, Camilla Calemi; Costa Iemma, Mônica Rosas; Ferreira de Souza, Dulce Helena; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2012-10-21

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) hydrolyze the α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in polygalacturonic acid chains. The interest on specific inhibitors of pectinase and the versatility of magnetic support for enzyme immobilization endorsed the preparation of an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER). This work presents the synthesis of CoFe(2)O(4) amino-derivatives, which was employed as the support for the immobilization of pectinases from Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Amino-functionalized CoFe(2)O(4) was obtained from glyceryl-derivatized CoFe(2)O(4) and was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and electronic microscopy. The immobilized enzyme maintained the same thermal, chemical and kinetic behaviour of the free enzyme (T(opt) 60 °C; pH(opt) 5.0; K(app)(M) = 0.5 mg min(-1); V(app)(M) ≈ 5.0 μmol min(-1) mL(-1)). The straightforward synthesis of CoFe(2)O(4) derivatives and the efficiency of immobilization offer wide perspectives for the use of the developed new IMER.

  20. Towards a versatile technique for tracking nanoparticle-mucus interaction: a step on the road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafee, N.; Schneider, M.

    2014-02-01

    Respiratory mucus is one of the main barriers for nanoparticle-based pulmonary delivery systems. This holds true especially for lung diseases like cystic fibrosis, where a very tenacious thick mucus layer hinders particle diffusion to the lung epithelium or the target area. Typically, mean square displacement of particles is used for mobility evaluation. In contrast, our objective is to develop a feasible technique to track directed particle penetration as a prerequisite for efficient pulmonary nanotherapy. Therefore, particle diffusion in artificial mucus was monitored based on confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and particle-mucus interaction was observed. As pharmaceutical relevant and benign materials, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by hot-melt emulsification using glyceryl behenate and different stabilizing agents such as poloxamer-407, tween-80, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The diffusion of labeled SLNs in stained artificial sputum representing CF-patient sputum was verified by 3D time laps imaging. Thus, the effect of coating, particle size and mucus viscosity on nanoparticle diffusion was studied. Using image analysis software "Image J", the total fluorescent signal after 30 min in case of poloxamer-coated SLNs was 5 and 100 folds higher than tween- and PVA-coated SLNs, respectively. Nevertheless, increasing mucus viscosity reduced the diffusion of tweencoated SLNs by a factor of 10. Studying particle-mucus interaction by CLSM can be considered a promising and versatile technique.

  1. Nanostructured lipid carriers for oral bioavailability enhancement of raloxifene: Design and in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirmal V.; Seth, Avinash K.; Balaraman, R.; Aundhia, Chintan J.; Maheshwari, Rajesh A.; Parmar, Ghanshyam R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present work was to utilize potential of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for improvement in oral bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX). RLX loaded NLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion method using glyceryl monostearate and Capmul MCM C8 as solid lipid and liquid lipid, respectively. A full 32 factorial design was utilized to study the effect of two independent parameters namely solid lipid to liquid lipid ratio and concentration of stabilizer on the entrapment efficiency of prepared NLCs. The statistical evaluation confirmed pronounced improvement in entrapment efficiency when liquid lipid content in the formulation increased from 5% w/w to 15% w/w. Solid-state characterization studies (DSC and XRD) in optimized formulation NLC-8 revealed transformation of RLX from crystalline to amorphous form. Optimized formulation showed 32.50 ± 5.12 nm average particle size and −12.8 ± 3.2 mV zeta potential that impart good stability of NLCs dispersion. In vitro release study showed burst release for initial 8 h followed by sustained release up to 36 h. TEM study confirmed smooth surface discrete spherical nano sized particles. To draw final conclusion, in vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried out that showed 3.75-fold enhancements in bioavailability with optimized NLCs formulation than plain drug suspension. These results showed potential of NLCs for significant improvement in oral bioavailability of poorly soluble RLX. PMID:27222747

  2. Determination of component volumes of lipid bilayers from simulations.

    PubMed Central

    Petrache, H I; Feller, S E; Nagle, J F

    1997-01-01

    An efficient method for extracting volumetric data from simulations is developed. The method is illustrated using a recent atomic-level molecular dynamics simulation of L alpha phase 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer. Results from this simulation are obtained for the volumes of water (VW), lipid (V1), chain methylenes (V2), chain terminal methyls (V3), and lipid headgroups (VH), including separate volumes for carboxyl (Vcoo), glyceryl (Vgl), phosphoryl (VPO4), and choline (Vchol) groups. The method assumes only that each group has the same average volume regardless of its location in the bilayer, and this assumption is then tested with the current simulation. The volumes obtained agree well with the values VW and VL that have been obtained directly from experiment, as well as with the volumes VH, V2, and V3 that require certain assumptions in addition to the experimental data. This method should help to support and refine some assumptions that are necessary when interpreting experimental data. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:9129826

  3. Defensive Armor of Potato Tubers: Nonpolar Metabolite Profiling, Antioxidant Assessment, and Solid-State NMR Compositional Analysis of Suberin-Enriched Wound-Healing Tissues.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Kallash, Linda; Wang, Isabel; Phan, Van C; Huang, Wenlin; Serra, Olga; Stark, Ruth E

    2015-08-05

    The cultivation, storage, and distribution of potato tubers are compromised by mechanical damage and suboptimal healing. To investigate wound-healing progress in cultivars with contrasting russeting patterns, metabolite profiles reported previously for polar tissue extracts were complemented by GC/MS measurements for nonpolar extracts and quantitative (13)C NMR of interfacial solid suspensions. Potential marker compounds that distinguish cultivar type and wound-healing time point included fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, glyceryl esters, α,ω-fatty diacids, and hydroxyfatty acids. The abundant long-chain fatty acids in nonpolar extracts and solids from the smooth-skinned Yukon Gold cultivar suggested extensive suberin biopolymer formation; this hypothesis was supported by high proportions of arenes, alkenes, and carbonyl groups in the solid and among the polar markers. The absence of many potential marker classes in nonpolar Atlantic extracts and interfacial solids suggested a limited extent of suberization. Modest scavenging activities of all nonpolar extracts indicate that the majority of antioxidants produced in response to wounding are polar.

  4. Nevirapine Loaded Core Shell Gold Nanoparticles by Double Emulsion Solvent Evaporation: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, Bhagyashree R; Siddiqui, Ejaz A; Syed, Asad S; Velhal, Shilpa M; Ahmad, Absar; Bandivdekar, Atmaram B; Devarajan, Padma V

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a macrophage resident infection localized in the reticuloendothelial system and remote locations of brain and bone marrow. We present core shell nanoparticles of gold(AuNPs) and nevirapine(NVP) for targeted delivery to the multiple HIV reservoirs. The aim of the study was to design core shell NVP loaded AuNPs with high drug loading and to evaluate biodistribution of the nanoparticles in possible HIV reservoirs in vivo. A specific objective was to assess the possible synergy of AuNPs with NVP on anti-HIV activity in vitro. Core shell nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method and characterized. Glyceryl monostearate-nevirapine-gold nanoparticles(GMS-NVP-AuNPs) revealed high entrapment efficiency (>70%), high loading (~40%), particle size <250 nm and zeta potential -35.9± 1.41mv and exhibited sustained release with good stability. Surface plasmon resonance indicated shell formation while SEM coupled EDAX confirmed the presence of Au. TEM confirmed formation of spherical core shell nanoparticles. GMS-NVP-AuNPs revealed low hemolysis (<10 %) and serum stability upto 6 h. GMS-NVP-AuNPs exhibited rapid, high and sustained accumulation in the possible HIV reservoir organs, including the major organs of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus and also remote locations of brain, ovary and bone marrow. High cell viability and enhanced uptake in PBMC's and TZM-bl cells were observed. While uptake in PBMC's proposed monocytes/macrophages enabled brain delivery. GMS-NVP-AuNPs demonstrated synergistic anti-HIV activity. The superior anti-HIV activity in vitro coupled with extensive localization of the nanoparticles in multiple HIV reservoirs suggests great promise of the core shell GMS-NVP-AuNPs for improved therapy of HIV.

  5. Near-infrared mediated quantum dots and paclitaxel co-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for cancer theragnostic.

    PubMed

    Olerile, Livesey David; Liu, Yongjun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Tianqi; Mu, Shengjun; Zhang, Jing; Selotlegeng, Lesego; Zhang, Na

    2017-02-01

    Timing is an important factor in cancer management. Theragnostic systems have benefit of improving patients' life-quality by expediting therapeutic decisions. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of co-loaded [quantum dots (CdTe/CdS/ZnS) and paclitaxel] NLC (nanostructured lipid carriers) as a parenteral multifunctional delivery system. The co-loaded NLC was prepared by emulsion-evaporation and low temperature-solidification method utilising glyceryl monostearate, oleic acid, and soya phosphatidylcholine as lipid matrix. In characterising the co-loaded NLC, physicochemical properties of particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), morphology, encapsulation efficacy (EE) and drug loading (DL) were investigated. Moreover, in-vitro paclitaxel release profile, cytotoxicity, histopathological, in-vivo anti-tumour efficacy, and in-vivo and ex-vivo fluorescence optical imaging abilities of the co-loaded NLC were assessed. The mean particle size, PDI and ZP were reported to be 115.93±1.61nm, 0.17±0.04 and -0.22±0.03mV, respectively. The particles were spheroid-like in shape with relatively smooth surface. A higher EE (80.70±2.11%) and DL (4.68±0.04%) were recorded. The coloaded NLC exhibited a biphasic pattern of drug release. IC 50 value was found to be 1.05±0.58μM. The tumour growth inhibition rate of 77.85% was registered. The in-vivo and ex-vivo imaging results indicated capability of the co-loaded NLC to specifically target and detect the H22 tumour. Tissues showed no significant cytoarchitectural differences. We can satisfactorily conclude that co-loaded NLC formulation can be qualified as a splendid parenteral drug delivery system foundation for cancer theragnostic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of Isradipine Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles on the Pharmacodynamic Effect in Rats.

    PubMed

    Thirupathi, G; Swetha, E; Narendar, D

    2017-03-01

    Isradipine (ID), is an antihypertensive drug, having low oral bioavailability (15-24%) due to poor aqueous solubility (0.01 mg/mL) and also hepatic first-pass metabolism. Among various approaches, Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed using stearic acid, glyceryl monostearate as lipid matrices for improving the oral bioavailability of ID. ID-SLNs were prepared by using hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication. The prepared SLNs were characterized for size, PDI, zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug content. In vitro release studies were performed in 0.1NHCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer of by open tube method. Physical stability of the SLNs was observed at refrigerated temperature and room temperature for 90 days. Further, pharmacodynamic study was conducted in wistar rats. SLNs prepared with GMS having size of 188.6±3.6 nm, PDI of 0.273±0.052, ZP of - 21.8±2.7 mV with 86.86±0.75% EE were optimized. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) study revealed that no interaction between drug and lipid. In vitro release studies showed that more cumulative release of ID in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer than in 0.1NHCl during 24 h. The lyophilized SLN formulation was used in knowing morphology of SLNs, and was found to have spherical shape with increased polydispersity by Scanning electron microscopy. Pharmacodynamic study of SLNs in fructose induced hypertensive rats showed a decrease in systolic blood pressure for 36 h, when compared to suspension, which showed a decrease in systolic blood pressure for only 2 h. Thus, the results conclusively demonstrated the role of SLNs for a significant enhancement in pharmacodynamic effect of ID. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Rifampicin Lipid-Polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LIPOMER) for enhanced Peyer's patch uptake.

    PubMed

    Bachhav, Sagar S; Dighe, Vikas D; Kotak, Darsheen; Devarajan, Padma V

    2017-10-30

    The oral uptake of intact nanocarriers through Peyer's patches is an important uptake pathway. We report Rifampicin Lipid-Polymer hybrid nanoparticles (RIF-LIPOMER) using glyceryl monostearate as lipid and the mucoadhesive polymer, Gantrez, with the objective of balancing hydrophobicity and mucoadhesion for enhanced Peyer's patch uptake. RIF-LIPOMER was optimized for size, hydrophobicity, and mucoadhesion using Box-Behnken. Designed RIF-LIPOMER (RIF-LIPO-120) exhibited average particle size in the range 300-400nm with drug loading >12%. DSC and XRD confirmed complete amorphization. Contact angle and mucoadhesion force revealed that RIF-LIPO-120 exhibited greater hydrophobicity and lower mucoadhesion compared to Gantrez nanoparticles (RIF-GzNP). Comparative uptake of fluorescent labelled RIF-LIPO-120 and RIF-GzNP, through Peyer's patch following intraduodenal administration in rats, revealed the high accumulation of RIF-GzNP at the villi border, and high Peyer's patch uptake of RIF-LIPO-120. Furthermore, lower accumulation of RIF-LIPO-120 in the liver, compared to RIF-GzNP, suggested bypass of the portal circulation and lymphatic uptake through Peyer's patches. Significantly higher lung: plasma concentration ratio exhibited by RIF-LIPO-120 compared to RIF-GzNP confirmed the same (p<0.05). Our study demonstrated that optimization of hydrophobicity and mucoadhesion of nanoparticles could favor Peyer's patch uptake, which in turn could enable enhanced drug accumulation in the lungs with advantage in the therapy of pulmonary afflictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Porous Silica-Supported Solid Lipid Particles for Enhanced Solubilization of Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Rokhsana; Rao, Shasha; Bremmell, Kristen E; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-07-01

    Low dissolution of drugs in the intestinal fluid can limit their effectiveness in oral therapies. Here, a novel porous silica-supported solid lipid system was developed to optimize the oral delivery of drugs with limited aqueous solubility. Using lovastatin (LOV) as the model poorly water-soluble drug, two porous silica-supported solid lipid systems (SSL-A and SSL-S) were fabricated from solid lipid (glyceryl monostearate, GMS) and nanoporous silica particles Aerosil 380 (silica-A) and Syloid 244FP (silica-S) via immersion/solvent evaporation. SSL particles demonstrated significantly higher rate and extent of lipolysis in comparison with the pure solid lipid, depending on the lipid loading levels and the morphology. The highest lipid digestion was observed when silica-S was loaded with 34% (w/w) solid lipid, and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis confirmed the encapsulation of up to 2% (w/w) non-crystalline LOV in this optimal SSL-S formulation. Drug dissolution under non-digesting intestinal conditions revealed a three- to sixfold increase in dissolution efficiencies when compared to the unformulated drug and a LOV-lipid suspension. Furthermore, the SSL-S provided superior drug solubilization under simulated intestinal digesting condition in comparison with the drug-lipid suspension and drug-loaded silica. Therefore, solid lipid and nanoporous silica provides a synergistic effect on optimizing the solubilization of poorly water-soluble compound and the solid lipid-based porous carrier system provides a promising delivery approach to overcome the oral delivery challenges of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  9. Antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in-vitro condition.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Mahboobeh; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Arouiee, Hossein; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Neamati, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO). In this study, Z. multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (ZE-SLNs) were prepared to improve its efficiency in controlling some fungal pathogens. SLNs containing Z. multiflora essential oil were prepared by high shear homogenization and ultra sound technique. ZEO-SLNs contained 0.03% ZEO in 5% of lipid phase (Glyceryl monostearate-GMS and Precirol® ATO 5). Tween 80 and Poloxamer 188 (2.5% w/v) were used as surfactant in the aqueous phase. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs and ZEO was compared under in vitro conditions. The particle size of ZE-SLNs was around 255.5±3 nm with PDI of 0.369±0.05 and zeta potential was about -37.8±0.8 mV. Encapsulation efficacy of ZE-SLNs in crystalline form was 84±0.92%. The results showed that the ZEO and ZE-SLNs had 54 and 79% inhibition on the growth of fungal pathogens, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) under in vitro conditions for the ZEO on the fungal pathogens of Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, and Rhizopus stolonifer was 300, 200, 300, 200, 200 and 200 ppm, respectively, for ZE-SLNs, it was 200, 200, 200, 100, 50 and 50 ppm. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs was significantly more than ZEO. Our results showed that the SLNs were suitable carriers for Z. multiflora essential oil in controlling the fungal pathogens and merits further investigation.

  10. Enhanced brain targeting efficacy of Olanzapine through solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Jawahar; Baskaran, Mahendran; Humtsoe, Lireni C; Vadivelan, R; Justin, A

    2017-03-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ) is a typical anti-psychotic drug, which is highly lipophilic in nature, belongs to Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class II category. Though OLZ is an effective agent in the treatment of Schizophrenia, but it exhibits poor bioavailability (57%) due to extensive first-pass metabolism resulted in high dose is required to achieve therapeutic concentration in brain. Emerging evidences are indicating that high dose administration of OLZ may cause Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in the psychotic patients. Hence, the present study is designed to develop Olanzapine solid lipid (OLZ-SLNs) using minimal dose of OLZ thereby enhancing the brain efficacy as well as to reduce the side effects associated with OLZ. OLZ-SLNs have been prepared by "solvent diffusion method" using lipids, such as glyceryl monostearate (GMS), tripalmitin (TP), Tween 80, and Stearyl amine as positive charge inducer. The prepared OLZ-SLNs were subjected to particle size analysis, zeta potential, and poly dispersity index measurement by using Malvern Zetasizer. Pharmacokinetics assessments of OLZ-SLNs were carried in conscious male Wistar rats through intravenous administration. Results have shown that average particle size and zeta potential of SLNs of GMS and TP were ranged from 165.1 ± 2.2 to 110.5 ± 0.5 and 35.29 ± 1.2 and 66.50 ± 0.7 mV, respectively. Relative bioavailability of OLZ in the brain was increased up to 23-fold and clearance was decreased when OLZ-SLNs while administrated intravenously. The area under the curve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT) of OLZ-SLNs in brain were higher than OLZ suspension. These results indicate that SLNs are a promising drug delivery for OLZ. It may be an effective tool to enhance the bioavailability of OLZ in the brain with less dose administration, which could reduce the EPS associated with OLZ.

  11. Design and characterization of Amoitone B-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jingjing; Zhang, Dianrui; Hao, Leilei; Li, Caiyun; Qi, Lisi; Guo, Hejian; Liu, Xinquan; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Amoitone B, a novel compound chemically synthesized as the analogue of cytosporone B, has been proved to own superior affinity with Nur77 than its parent compound and exhibit notable anticancer activity. However, its application is seriously restricted due to the water-insolubility and short biological half-time. The aim of this study was to construct an effective delivery system for Amoitone B to realize sustained release, thus prolong drug circulation time in body and improve the bioavailability. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) act as a new type of colloidal drug delivery system, which offer the advantages of improved drug loading and sustained release. Amoitone B-loaded NLC (AmB-NLC) containing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and various amounts of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) were successfully prepared by emulsion-evaporation and low temperature-solidification technology with a particle size of about 200 nm and a zeta potential value of about -20 mV. The results of X-ray diffraction and DSC analysis showed amorphous crystalline state of Amoitone B in NLC. Furthermore, the drug entrapment efficacy (EE) was improved compared with solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). The EE range was from 71.1% to 84.7%, enhanced with the increase of liquid lipid. In vitro drug release studies revealed biphasic drug release patterns with burst release initially and prolonged release afterwards and the release was accelerated with augment of liquid lipid. These results demonstrated that AmB-NLC could be a promising delivery system to control drug release and improve loading capacity, thus prolong drug action time in body and enhance the bioavailability.

  12. Development, characterization, and evaluation of sunscreen cream containing solid lipid nanoparticles of silymarin.

    PubMed

    Netto MPharm, Gladyston; Jose, Jobin

    2017-12-10

    Most of the sunscreen formulations mainly contain chemicals or synthetic molecules. Nowadays, researchers are mainly focussing on herbal formulations due to toxicity of the synthetic molecules. Silymarin is a natural flavonoids having excellent antioxidant properties. Solid lipid nanoparticles are novel drug carriers which improve the drug stability and tolerance effect and also enhance the permeation effect. This study aimed at the preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles containing silymarin that will be incorporated into a sunscreen cream and determine its sun protection factor. The solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by micro-emulsion method; here, the glyceryl monostearate was used as lipid, and Tween 80 was used as an emulsifier. The solid lipid nanoparticles were evaluated for drug entrapment, particle size and morphology, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. The dispersion was formulated into sunscreen cream and evaluated for various parameters, such as extrudability, viscosity, spreadability, drug content, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation of drug, in vitro and in vivo sun protection factor determination, in vivo skin irritation test, and accelerated stability studies. The results suggested that as the concentration of emulsifier increased, the entrapment efficiency of silymarin increased. In vitro and in vivo sun protection factor determination showed that SPF of 13.80 and 14.1, respectively. Stability studies were performed under accelerated conditions, and it did not show any appreciable change in parameters. These results indicated that the sunscreen containing silymarin solid lipid nanoparticles exhibited better photoprotective action. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lipid Nanocarrier-Mediated Drug Delivery System to Enhance the Oral Bioavailability of Rifabutin.

    PubMed

    Nirbhavane, Pradip; Vemuri, Nalini; Kumar, Neeraj; Khuller, Gopal Krishan

    2017-04-01

    Rifabutin (RFB) is prescribed for the treatment of tuberculosis infections as well as Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in immunocompromised individuals and HIV patients. With a view to develop a sustained release oral solid lipid nanoformulation (SLN), RFB was encapsulated in glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles. The rifabutin solid lipid nanoparticles (RFB-SLNs), prepared by the solvent diffusion evaporation method, had a size of 345 ± 17.96 nm and PDI of 0.321 ± 0.09. The stability of RFB-SLNs was investigated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) pH 2.0, simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) pH 6.8 and physiological buffer (PBS) pH 7.4. The gastric medium did not affect the SLNs and were found to be stable, while a sustained release was observed in SIF up to 48 h and in PBS up to 7 days. The pharmacokinetic profile of a single oral administration of RFB-SLNs in mice showed maintenance of therapeutic drug concentrations in plasma for 4 days and in the tissues (lungs, liver and spleen) for 7 days. Oral administration of free RFB showed clearance from plasma within 24 h. The relative bioavailability of RFB from SLNs was five fold higher as compared to administration with free RFB. The intent of using lipid nanocarriers is primarily to enhance the oral bioavailability of rifabutin and eventually decrease the dose and dosing frequency for successful management of MAC infection.

  14. Oral apomorphine delivery from solid lipid nanoparticles with different monostearate emulsifiers: pharmacokinetic and behavioral evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Wu, Pao-Chu; Fu, Yaw-Syan; Kao, Yao-Ren; Fang, Jia-You; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2011-02-01

    Apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist for treating Parkinson's disease, has very poor oral bioavailability (<2%) due to the first-pass effect. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the oral bioavailability and brain regional distribution of apomorphine could be improved by utilizing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and polyethylene glycol monostearate (PMS) were individually incorporated into SLNs as emulsifiers. It was found that variations in the emulsifiers had profound effects on the physicochemical characteristics. Mean diameters of the GMS and PMS systems were 155 and 63 nm, respectively. More than 90% of the apomorphine was entrapped in the SLNs. The interfacial film was the likely location for most of apomorphine molecules. The PMS system, when incubated in simulated intestinal medium, was found to be more stable in terms of particle size and encapsulation efficiency than the GMS system. Using the GMS and PMS systems to orally administer apomorphine (26 mg/kg) equally enhanced the bioavailability in rats. SLNs showed 12- to 13-fold higher bioavailability than the reference solution. The drug distribution in the striatum, the predominant site of therapeutic action, also increased when using the SLNs. The anti-Parkinsonian activity of apomorphine was evaluated in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions, a model of Parkinson's disease. The contralateral rotation behavior was examined after oral apomorphine delivery. The total number of rotations increased from 20 to 94 and from 20 to 115 when the drug was administered from SLNs containing GMS and PMS, respectively. The experimental results suggest that SLNs may offer a promising strategy for apomorphine delivery via oral ingestion. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Development of sustained-release lipophilic calcium stearate pellets via hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Roblegg, Eva; Jäger, Evelyn; Hodzic, Aden; Koscher, Gerold; Mohr, Stefan; Zimmer, Andreas; Khinast, Johannes

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was the development of retarded release pellets using vegetable calcium stearate (CaSt) as a thermoplastic excipient. The matrix carrier was hot melt extruded and pelletized with a hot-strand cutter in a one step continuous process. Vegetable CaSt was extruded at temperatures between 100 and 130°C, since at these temperatures cutable extrudates with a suitable melt viscosity may be obtained. Pellets with a drug loading of 20% paracetamol released 11.54% of the drug after 8h due to the great densification of the pellets. As expected, the drug release was influenced by the pellet size and the drug loading. To increase the release rate, functional additives were necessary. Therefore, two plasticizers including glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and tributyl citrate (TBC) were investigated for plasticization efficiency and impact on the in vitro drug release. GMS increased the release rate due to the formation of pores at the surface (after dissolution) and showed no influence on the process parameters. The addition of TBC increased the drug release to a higher extent. After dissolving, the pellets exhibited pores at the surface and in the inner layer. Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (SWAXS) revealed no major change in crystalline peaks. The results demonstrated that (nearly) spherical CaSt pellets could be successfully prepared by hot melt extrusion using a hot-strand cutter as downstreaming system. Paracetamol did not melt during the process indicating a solid suspension. Due to the addition of plasticizers, the in vitro release rate could be tailored as desired. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel Solid Lipid Nanocarrier Of Glibenclamide: A Factorial Design Approach With Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sonia; Patel, Payal; Gupta, Arti

    2018-05-21

    In the present investigation a factorial design approach attempt was applied to develop the solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of Glibenclamide (GLB) a poorly water-soluble drug (BCS -II) used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Prime objectives of this experiment are to optimize the SLN formulation of Glibenclamide and improve the therapeutic effectiveness of the developed formulation. Glibenclamide loaded SLNs (GLB-SLN) were fabricated by High speed homogenization technique. A 32-factorial design approach has been employed to assess the influence of two independent variables, namely amount of Poloxamer 188 and Glyceryl Monostearate on entrapment efficiency (% EE) (Y1), Particle Size (nm) (Y2), % drug release at 8hr Q8 (Y3) and 24 hr Q24 (Y4) of prepared SLNs. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed the compatibility of the drug into lipid matrix with surfactant, while Transmission electron and Scanning electron microscopy studies indicated the size and shape of SLN. The entrapment efficiency, particle size, Q8 and Q24 of the optimized SLNs were 88.93%, 125 nm, 31.12±0.951% and 86.07±1.291% respectively. Optimized GLB-SLN formula was derived from an overlay plot. Three dimensional response surface plots and regression equations confirmed the corresponding influence of selected independent variables on measured responses. In vivo testing of the GLB-SLN in diabetic albino rats demonstrated significant antidiabetic effect of GLB-SLN. The hypoglycemic effect obtained by GLB-SLN remained significantly higher than that given by drug alone and marketed formulation, further confirming the higher therapeutic effectiveness of the GLB-SLN formulation. Our findings suggested the feasibility of investigated system for oral administration of Glibenclamide. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Preparation and Evaluation of Montelukast Sodium Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Priyanka, K; Sathali, A Abdul Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are an alternative carrier system used to load the drug for targeting, to improve the bioavailability by increasing its solubility, and protecting the drug from presystemic metabolism. The avoidance of presystemic metabolism is due to the nano-metric size range, so that the liver cannot uptake the drug from the delivery system and is not metabolized by the liver. Montelukast sodium is an anti-asthmatic drug, because of its poor oral bioavailability, presystemic metabolism, and decreased half-life; it was chosen to formulate as the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) system by hot homogenization followed by an ultrasonication method, to overcome the above. Compritol ATO 888, stearic acid, and glyceryl monostearate were used as a lipid matrix and polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant. The prepared formulations have been evaluated for entrapment efficiency, drug content, in vitro drug release, particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared studies (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and stability. Particle size analysis revealed that the SLN prepared from the higher melting point lipid showed a larger particle size and with increased carbon chain length of the fatty acids. Entrapment efficiency (EE) was ranging from 42% to 92%. In vitro release studies showed maximum cumulative drug release was obtained for F 1 (59.1%) containing stearic acid, and the lowest was observed for F 18 (28.1%) containing compritol ATO 888 after 12 h and all the formulations followed first-order release kinetics. FT-IR and DSC studies revealed no interaction between drug and lipids. Studies showed that increase in lipid concentration, increased particle size, EE, and maintained the sustained release of drug. Among all, compritol ATO 888 was chosen as the best lipid for formulating SLN because it had high EE and sustained the drug release. PMID:23112531

  18. Synchrotron Radiation Microcomputed Tomography Guided Chromatographic Analysis for Displaying the Material Distribution in Tablets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liu; Wu, Li; Wang, Caifen; Zhang, Guoqing; Yu, Lin; Li, Haiyan; Maharjan, Abi; Tang, Yan; He, Dunwei; York, Peter; Sun, Huimin; Yin, Xianzhen; Zhang, Jiwen; Sun, Lixin

    2018-03-06

    One unusual and challenging scientific field that has received only cursory attention to date is the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure and spatial distribution of drug(s) and formulation materials in solid dosage forms. This study aims to provide deeper insight into the relationships between the microstructure of multiple-unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets and the spatial distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and excipients to facilitate the design of quantitative models for drug delivery systems. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microcomputed tomography (SR-μCT) was established as a 3D structure elucidation technique, which, in conjunction with liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector (LC-ELSD) enables chemical analysis of tablets. On the basis of the specific interior construction of theophylline MUPS tablets, the spatial distribution of materials was acquired by quantifying microregion samples that had been validated by SR-μCT for their locations in the MUPS tablets. The 3D structure of the MUPS tablets was catalogued as three structural domains: a matrix layer (ML), a protective cushion layer (PCL), and pellets (PL). Compared with the components in the ML, components in the PL had a larger proportion of theophylline, sucrose, and diethyl phthalate and a smaller proportion of lactose and sodium lauryl sulfate, whereas glyceryl monostearate was found to account for a large portion of the PCL. Microstructural characterization-guided zonal chemical determination represents a new approach for quality assessment and the development of drug delivery systems with in-depth insight into their constituent layers on a new scale.

  19. Esterification of free fatty acids in adipocytes: a comparison between octanoate and oleate.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Choi, J K; Kirkland, J L; Corkey, B E; Hamilton, J A

    2000-07-15

    Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) are present in milk, coconut oil and other foods, and are used therapeutically in special diets for certain disorders of lipid and glucose utilization. Recently, it has become apparent that MCT are not only oxidized in the liver, but are also present in lymph and fat tissue, particularly after chronic treatment. To evaluate the influence of MCT on metabolism in fat cells, we compared incorporation of octanoate and oleate into cellular triacylglycerols of 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as their effects on preadipocyte differentiation. We found that less octanoate than oleate was stored and that more octanoate than oleate was oxidized. Octanoate was esterified to a greater extent at the sn-1,3 position of glyceryl carbons than at the sn-2 position, whereas the opposite was true for oleate. Glycerol release from fat cells pre-treated with octanoate was also greater than from cells pre-treated with oleate, presumably related to the preferential release of octanoate from the sn-1,3 position. Octanoate was not incorporated into lipids in undifferentiated cells and did not induce differentiation in these cells, whereas oleate was readily stored and actually induced differentiation. Incorporation of octanoate into lipids increased as cells differentiated, but reached a maximum of about 10% of the total stored fatty acids. If these effects in vitro also occur in vivo, substitution of octanoate for oleate or other long-chain fatty acids could have the beneficial effect of diminishing fat-cell number and lipid content.

  20. Esterification of free fatty acids in adipocytes: a comparison between octanoate and oleate.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, W; Choi, J K; Kirkland, J L; Corkey, B E; Hamilton, J A

    2000-01-01

    Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) are present in milk, coconut oil and other foods, and are used therapeutically in special diets for certain disorders of lipid and glucose utilization. Recently, it has become apparent that MCT are not only oxidized in the liver, but are also present in lymph and fat tissue, particularly after chronic treatment. To evaluate the influence of MCT on metabolism in fat cells, we compared incorporation of octanoate and oleate into cellular triacylglycerols of 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as their effects on preadipocyte differentiation. We found that less octanoate than oleate was stored and that more octanoate than oleate was oxidized. Octanoate was esterified to a greater extent at the sn-1,3 position of glyceryl carbons than at the sn-2 position, whereas the opposite was true for oleate. Glycerol release from fat cells pre-treated with octanoate was also greater than from cells pre-treated with oleate, presumably related to the preferential release of octanoate from the sn-1,3 position. Octanoate was not incorporated into lipids in undifferentiated cells and did not induce differentiation in these cells, whereas oleate was readily stored and actually induced differentiation. Incorporation of octanoate into lipids increased as cells differentiated, but reached a maximum of about 10% of the total stored fatty acids. If these effects in vitro also occur in vivo, substitution of octanoate for oleate or other long-chain fatty acids could have the beneficial effect of diminishing fat-cell number and lipid content. PMID:10880345

  1. Curcumin-loaded colloidal carrier system: formulation optimization, mechanistic insight, ex vivo and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Naz, Zrien; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2015-01-01

    The present work investigated the topical delivery potential of nanoemulsion gel loaded with curcumin (CR). CR nanoemulsion (CR-NE) was prepared by spontaneous emulsification method using oil (Labrafac PG/glyceryl triacetate), surfactant:cosurfactant (Smix) (tween 80/polyethylene glycol [PEG] 400) and water. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed and thermodynamic stability testing was performed. Droplet size and zeta potential were evaluated using photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron spectroscopy. Six formulations selected with an average droplet size ≤70±2.72 nm showed a fourfold increase in skin permeation as compared to crude CR solution in oil. The formulation CR-NE4 having a flux of 117.04±2.32 µg/cm(2)/h and with maximum retention (42.87%) was selected, characterized (droplet size =41.13±3.34 nm and zeta potential =-33.1±1.45 mV), and incorporated into gel using carbopol-980 (1% w/v). Skin dynamics analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed maximum deposition of CR up to a depth of 86.98 µm and was in concordance with differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies that confirmed lipid bilayer disruption, enhancing permeation. A 28-day anti-arthritic evaluation (body weight, paw edema, tibiotarsal joint thickness, TNF-α and IL-1β levels, and histopathology) on Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritic rat model after topical application of CR-NE gel in Wistar rats demonstrated substantial reversal of arthritic symptoms. Thus, CR-NE gel possesses potential for therapeutic effects locally in inflammatory arthritic disorders with improved topical bioavailability.

  2. A randomized, controlled trial of diathermy hemorrhoidectomy vs. stapled hemorrhoidectomy in an intended day-care setting with longer-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, M J; Cohen, C R G; Kamm, M A; Phillips, R K S

    2003-04-01

    Hemorrhoidectomy is the most effective long-term treatment for hemorrhoids. Although it is possible to perform hemorrhoidectomy as a day case with a high degree of patient satisfaction, patients take an average of 14 days off work after surgery. Stapled hemorrhoidectomy is believed to be less painful than conventional hemorrhoidectomy and should allow an earlier return to work. The aim of this study was to compare both the immediate and the long-term results of stapled hemorrhoidectomy with diathermy hemorrhoidectomy in patients with prolapsing internal hemorrhoids in an intended day-care setting. Thirty-one patients were randomly assigned to undergo diathermy hemorrhoidectomy (n = 16) or stapled hemorrhoidectomy performed with a purpose-designed endoluminal stapling device, PPH01T (n = 15). All operations were planned as day or short-stay cases. All patients received lactulose, commenced preoperatively, together with postoperative topical glyceryl trinitrate and oral metronidazole. Patients were assessed by structured interview to assess their symptoms before and after surgery, with an intended follow-up of six months. All patients completed a 10-cm visual analog pain scale daily for the first ten days after surgery. The total pain score (sum of all pain scores) was significantly higher in the diathermy group (50 (range, 9.8-79.9) vs. 19.6 (range, 1.3-89.5), P = 0.03). Patients took a median of 14 (range, 3-21) days off work after diathermy hemorrhoidectomy compared with 10 (range, 3-38) days for the patients undergoing stapled hemorrhoidectomy (P = 0.15). At long-term follow-up, three patients (all in the stapled group) developed new symptoms of fecal urgency and anal pain, and three patients required further surgery to remove symptomatic external hemorrhoids after stapled hemorrhoidectomy. Although stapled hemorrhoidectomy is less painful in the short term, this does not lead to a significantly earlier return to work, and some patients develop new symptoms at

  3. Creation and Characterization of an Ultrasound and CT Phantom for Non-invasive Ultrasound Thermometry Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chun-Yen; Kruse, Dustin E.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Caskey, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound thermometry provides noninvasive two-dimensional (2-D) temperature monitoring, and in this paper, we have investigated the use of computed tomography (CT) radiodensity to characterize tissues to improve the accuracy of ultrasound thermometry. Agarose-based tissue-mimicking phantoms were created with glyceryl trioleate (a fat-mimicking material) concentration of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. The speed of sound (SOS) of the phantoms was measured over a temperature range of 22.1–41.1°C. CT images of the phantoms were acquired by a clinical dedicated breast CT scanner, followed by calculation of the Hounsfield units (HU). The phantom was heated with a therapeutic acoustic pulse (1.54 MHz), while RF data were acquired with a 10-MHz linear-array transducer. 2-D speckle tracking was used to calculate the thermal strain offline. The tissue dependent thermal strain parameter required for ultrasound thermometry was analyzed and correlated with CT radiodensity, followed by validation of the temperature prediction. Results showed that the change in SOS with the temperature increase was opposite in sign between the 0–10% and 20–50% trioleate phantoms. The inverse of the tissue dependent thermal strain parameter of the phantoms was correlated with the CT radiodensity (R2 = 0.99). A blinded ultrasound thermometry study on phantoms with a trioleate range of 5–35% demonstrated the capability to estimate the tissue dependent thermal strain parameter and estimate temperature with error less than ~1°C. In conclusion, CT radiodensity may provide a method for improving ultrasound thermometry in heterogeneous tissues. PMID:24107918

  4. Supercritical fluid precipitation of ketoprofen in novel structured lipid carriers for enhanced mucosal delivery--a comparison with solid lipid particles.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V S S; Matias, A A; Rodríguez-Rojo, S; Nogueira, I D; Duarte, C M M

    2015-11-10

    Structured lipid carriers based on mixture of solid lipids with liquid lipids are the second generation of solid lipid particles, offering the advantage of improved drug loading capacity and higher storage stability. In this study, structured lipid carriers were successfully prepared for the first time by precipitation from gas saturated solutions. Glyceryl monooleate (GMO), a liquid glycerolipid, was selected in this work to be incorporated into three solid glycerolipids with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) ranging from 1 to 13, namely Gelucire 43/01™, Geleol™ and Gelucire 50/13™. In general, microparticles with a irregular porous morphology and a wide particle size distribution were obtained. The HLB of the individual glycerolipids might be a relevant parameter to take into account during the processing of solid:liquid lipid blends. As expected, the addition of a liquid lipid into a solid lipid matrix led to increased stability of the lipid carriers, with no significant modifications in their melting enthalpy after 6 months of storage. Additionally, Gelucire 43/01™:GMO particles were produced with different mass ratios and loaded with ketoprofen. The drug loading capacity of the structured lipid carriers increased as the GMO content in the particles increased, achieving a maximum encapsulation efficiency of 97% for the 3:1 mass ratio. Moreover, structured lipid carriers presented an immediate release of ketoprofen from its matrix with higher permeation through a mucous-membrane model, while solid lipid particles present a controlled release of the drug with less permeation capacity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Experimental study of faecal continence and colostomy irrigation.

    PubMed

    O'Bichere, A; Sibbons, P; Doré, C; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2000-07-01

    Colostomy irrigation is a useful method of achieving faecal continence in selected conditions, but remains largely underutilized because it is time consuming. This study investigated the effect of modifying irrigation technique (route, infusion regimen and pharmacological manipulation) on colonic emptying time in a porcine model. An end-colostomy and caecostomy were fashioned in six pigs. Twenty markers were introduced into the caecum immediately before colonic irrigation. Irrigation route (antegrade or retrograde), infusion regimen (tap water, polyethylene glycol (PEG), 1.5 per cent glycine) and pharmacological agent (glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 0.25 mg/kg, diltiazem 3.9 mg/kg, bisacodyl 0.25 mg/kg) were assigned to each animal at random. Colonic transit was assessed by quantifying cumulative expelled markers (CEM) and stool every hour for 12 h. Mean CEM at 6 h for bisacodyl, GTN and diltiazem were 18.17, 12.17 and zero respectively; all pairwise differences in means were significant (P < 0.001). The difference at 12 h between the two routes (P = 0.001) and three fluids (tap water 6.75, glycine 14.83, PEG 16.33; P < 0. 001) was significant, but not for PEG versus glycine and bisacodyl versus GTN. Cumulative output was significantly more with the antegrade than retrograde route using PEG, but the difference in mean cumulative output for bisacodyl and GTN at 12 h was not significant. Colonic emptying is more efficient with antegrade than retrograde irrigation. PEG and glycine enhance emptying similar to bisacodyl and GTN solution. These findings show promise for improved faecal continence by colostomy irrigation and may justify construction of a Malone conduit at the time of colostomy in selected patients who wish to irrigate. Presented in part to the British Society of Gastroenterology in Glasgow, UK, March 1999, and published in abstract form as Gut 1999; 44(Suppl 1): A135

  6. Evaluating endothelial function of the common carotid artery: an in vivo human model.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, S; Bifari, F; Trombetta, M; Guidi, G C; Mazzi, M; Anzola, G P; Rizzuto, N; Bonadonna, R

    2009-03-01

    Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of peripheral conduit arteries is a well-established tool to evaluate endothelial function. The aims of this study are to apply the FMD model to cerebral circulation by using acetazolamide (ACZ)-induced intracranial vasodilation as a stimulus to increase common carotid artery (CCA) diameter in response to a local increase of blood flow velocity (BFV). In 15 healthy subjects, CCA end-diastolic diameter and BFV, middle cerebral artery (MCA) BFV and mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) were measured at basal conditions, after an intravenous bolus of 1g ACZ, and after placebo (saline) sublingual administration at the 15th and 20th minute. In a separate session, the same parameters were evaluated after placebo (saline) infusion instead of ACZ and after 10 microg/m(2) bs and 300 microg of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), administered sublingually, at the 15th and 20th minute, respectively. After ACZ bolus, there was a 35% maximal MCA mean BFV increment (14th minute), together with a 22% increase of mean CCA end-diastolic BFV and a CCA diameter increment of 3.9% at the 3rd minute (p=0.024). There were no MBP significant variations up to the 15th minute (p=0.35). After GTN administration, there was a significant increment in CCA diameter (p<0.00001). ACZ causes a detectable CCA dilation in healthy individuals concomitantly with an increase in BFV. Upon demonstration that this phenomenon is endothelium dependent, this experimental model might become a valuable tool to assess endothelial function in the carotid artery.

  7. The effect of pH, buffer capacity and ionic strength on quetiapine fumarate release from matrix tablets prepared using two different polymeric blends.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Rania; AlJanabi, Reem; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Abbas, Aiman

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the different physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal (GI) fluid (pH, buffer capacity, and ionic strength) on the in vitro release of the weakly basic BCS class II drug quetiapine fumarate (QF) from two once-a-day matrix tablet formulations (F1 and F2) developed as potential generic equivalents to Seroquel ® XR. F1 tablets were prepared using blends of high and low viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and K100LV, respectively), while F2 tablets were prepared from HPMC K4M and PEGylated glyceryl behenate (Compritol ® HD5 ATO). The two formulations attained release profiles of QF over 24 h similar to that of Seroquel ® XR using the dissolution medium published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A series of solubility and in vitro dissolution studies was then carried out using media that simulate the gastric and intestinal fluids and cover the physiological pH, buffer capacity and ionic strength range of the GIT. Solubility studies revealed that QF exhibits a typical weak base pH-dependent solubility profile and that the solubility of QF increases with increasing the buffer capacity and ionic strength of the media. The release profiles of QF from F1, F2 and Seroquel ® XR tablets were found to be influenced by the pH, buffer capacity and ionic strength of the dissolution media to varying degrees. Results highlight the importance of studying the physiological variables along the GIT in designing controlled release formulations for more predictive in vitro-in vivo correlations.

  8. Acetate supplementation induces growth arrest of NG2/PDGFRα-positive oligodendroglioma-derived tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Patrick M; Tighe, Scott W; Driscoll, Heather E; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Viapiano, Mariano S; Lawler, Sean E; Jaworski, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is associated with globally hypoacetylated chromatin and considerable attention has recently been focused on epigenetic therapies. N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate and ultimately acetyl-Coenzyme A for histone acetylation, are reduced in oligodendroglioma. The short chain triglyceride glyceryl triacetate (GTA), which increases histone acetylation and inhibits histone deacetylase expression, has been safely used for acetate supplementation in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. We demonstrate that GTA induces cytostatic G0 growth arrest of oligodendroglioma-derived cells in vitro, without affecting normal cells. Sodium acetate, at doses comparable to that generated by complete GTA catalysis, but not glycerol also promoted growth arrest, whereas long chain triglycerides promoted cell growth. To begin to elucidate its mechanism of action, the effects of GTA on ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase protein levels and differentiation of established human oligodendroglioma cells (HOG and Hs683) and primary tumor-derived oligodendroglioma cells that exhibit some features of cancer stem cells (grade II OG33 and grade III OG35) relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu) were examined. The nuclear localization of ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase-1 in untreated cells was regulated during the cell cycle. GTA-mediated growth arrest was not associated with apoptosis or differentiation, but increased expression of acetylated proteins. Thus, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a safe, novel epigenetic therapy to reduce the growth of oligodendroglioma cells without affecting normal neural stem or oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation or differentiation.

  9. Acetate supplementation as a means of inducing glioblastoma stem-like cell growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Long, Patrick M; Tighe, Scott W; Driscoll, Heather E; Fortner, Karen A; Viapiano, Mariano S; Jaworski, Diane M

    2015-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary adult malignant brain tumor, is associated with a poor prognosis due, in part, to tumor recurrence mediated by chemotherapy and radiation resistant glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). The metabolic and epigenetic state of GSCs differs from their non-GSC counterparts, with GSCs exhibiting greater glycolytic metabolism and global hypoacetylation. However, little attention has been focused on the potential use of acetate supplementation as a therapeutic approach. N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of brain acetate, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis, are significantly reduced in GBM tumors. We recently demonstrated that NAA supplementation is not an appropriate therapeutic approach since it increases GSC proliferation and pursued an alternative acetate source. The FDA approved food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) has been safely used for acetate supplementation therapy in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. This study characterized the effects of GTA on the proliferation and differentiation of six primary GBM-derived GSCs relative to established U87 and U251 GBM cell lines, normal human cerebral cortical astrocytes, and murine neural stem cells. GTA reduced proliferation of GSCs greater than established GBM lines. Moreover, GTA reduced growth of the more aggressive mesenchymal GSCs greater than proneural GSCs. Although sodium acetate induced a dose-dependent reduction of GSC growth, it also reduced cell viability. GTA-mediated growth inhibition was not associated with differentiation, but increased protein acetylation. These data suggest that GTA-mediated acetate supplementation is a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit GSC growth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Oral acetate supplementation attenuates N-methyl D-aspartate receptor hypofunction-induced behavioral phenotypes accompanied by restoration of acetyl-histone homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Seema; Choudhury, Arnab; Gusain, Priya; Parvez, Suhel; Palit, Gautam; Shukla, Shubha; Ganguly, Surajit

    2016-04-01

    Aberrations in cellular acetate-utilization processes leading to global histone hypoacetylation have been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the role of acetate supplementation in the form of glyceryl triacetate (GTA) for the ability to restore the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-induced histone hypoacetylation and to ameliorate associated behavioral phenotypes in mice. Taking cues from the studies in SH-SY5Y cells, we monitored acetylation status of specific lysine residues of histones H3 and H4 (H3K9 and H4K8) to determine the impact of oral GTA supplementation in vivo. Mice treated chronically with MK-801 (10 days; 0.15 mg/kg daily) induced hypoacetylation of H3K9 and H4K8 in the hippocampus. Daily oral supplementation of GTA (2.9 g/kg) was able to prevent this MK801-induced hypoacetylation significantly. Though MK-801-stimulated decreases in acetyl-H3K9 and acetyl-H4K8 were found to be associated with ERK1/2 activation, GTA seemed to act independent of this pathway. Simultaneously, GTA administration was able to attenuate the chronic MK-801-induced cognitive behavior phenotypes in elevated plus maze and novel object recognition tests. Not only MK-801, GTA also demonstrated protective effects against behavioral phenotypes generated by another NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine. Acute (single injection) ketamine-mediated hyperactivity phenotype and chronic (10 days treatment) ketamine-induced phenotype of exaggerated immobility in forced swim test were ameliorated by GTA. The signature behavioral phenotypes induced by acute and chronic regimen of NMDA receptor antagonists seemed to be attenuated by GTA. This study thus provides a therapeutic paradigm of using dietary acetate supplement in psychiatric disorders.

  11. Triacetin-based acetate supplementation as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant therapy in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Tsen, Andrew R.; Long, Patrick M.; Driscoll, Heather E.; Davies, Matthew T.; Teasdale, Benjamin A.; Penar, Paul L.; Pendlebury, William W.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Lawler, Sean E.; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is associated with epigenetic (i.e., histone hypoacetylation) and metabolic (i.e., aerobic glycolysis) alterations. Levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate, are reduced in glioma; yet, few studies have investigated acetate as a potential therapeutic agent. This preclinical study sought to test the efficacy of the food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) as a novel therapy to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma cells. The growth-inhibitory effects of GTA, compared to the histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA), were assessed in established human glioma cell lines (HOG and Hs683 oligodendroglioma, U87 and U251 glioblastoma) and primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu), normal astrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. GTA was also tested as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant with temozolomide (TMZ) in orthotopically grafted GSCs. GTA induced cytostatic growth arrest in vitro comparable to Vorinostat, but, unlike Vorinostat, GTA did not alter astrocyte growth and promoted NSC expansion. GTA alone increased survival of mice engrafted with glioblastoma GSCs and potentiated TMZ to extend survival longer than TMZ alone. GTA was most effective on GSCs with a mesenchymal cell phenotype. Given that GTA has been chronically administered safely to infants with Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a novel, safe chemotherapeutic adjuvant to reduce the growth of glioma tumors, most notably the more rapidly proliferating, glycolytic, and hypoacetylated mesenchymal glioma tumors. PMID:23996800

  12. Acetate supplementation modulates brain adenosine metabolizing enzymes and adenosine A₂A receptor levels in rats subjected to neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark D; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Geiger, Jonathan D; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2014-06-04

    Acetate supplementation reduces neuroglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in rat models of neuroinflammation and Lyme neuroborreliosis. Because single-dose glyceryl triacetate (GTA) treatment increases brain phosphocreatine and reduces brain AMP levels, we postulate that GTA modulates adenosine metabolizing enzymes and receptors, which may be a possible mechanism to reduce neuroinflammation. To test this hypothesis, we quantified the ability of GTA to alter brain levels of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), adenosine kinase (AK), and adenosine A2A receptor using western blot analysis and CD73 activity by measuring the rate of AMP hydrolysis. Neuroinflammation was induced by continuous bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion in the fourth ventricle of the brain for 14 and 28 days. Three treatment strategies were employed, one and two where rats received prophylactic GTA through oral gavage with LPS infusion for 14 or 28 days. In the third treatment regimen, an interventional strategy was used where rats were subjected to 28 days of neuroinflammation, and GTA treatment was started on day 14 following the start of the LPS infusion. We found that rats subjected to neuroinflammation for 28 days had a 28% reduction in CD73 levels and a 43% increase in AK levels that was reversed with prophylactic acetate supplementation. CD73 activity in these rats was increased by 46% with the 28-day GTA treatment compared to the water-treated rats. Rats subjected to neuroinflammation for 14 days showed a 50% increase in levels of the adenosine A2A receptor, which was prevented with prophylactic acetate supplementation. Interventional GTA therapy, beginning on day 14 following the induction of neuroinflammation, resulted in a 67% increase in CD73 levels and a 155% increase in adenosine A2A receptor levels. These results support the hypothesis that acetate supplementation can modulate brain CD73, AK and adenosine A2A receptor levels, and possibly influence purinergic

  13. Acetate supplementation as a means of inducing glioblastoma stem-like cell growth arrest

    PubMed Central

    Long, Patrick M.; Tighe, Scott W.; Driscoll, Heather E.; Fortner, Karen A.; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary adult malignant brain tumor, is associated with a poor prognosis due, in part, to tumor recurrence mediated by chemotherapy and radiation resistant glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). The metabolic and epigenetic state of GSCs differs from their non-GSC counterparts, with GSCs exhibiting greater glycolytic metabolism and global hypoacetylation. However, little attention has been focused on the potential use of acetate supplementation as a therapeutic approach. N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of brain acetate, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis, are significantly reduced in GBM tumors. We recently demonstrated that NAA supplementation is not an appropriate therapeutic approach since it increases GSC proliferation and pursued an alternative acetate source. The FDA approved food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) has been safely used for acetate supplementation therapy in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. This study characterized the effects of GTA on the proliferation and differentiation of six primary GBM-derived GSCs relative to established U87 and U251 GBM cell lines, normal human cerebral cortical astrocytes, and murine neural stem cells. GTA reduced proliferation of GSCs greater than established GBM lines. Moreover, GTA reduced growth of the more aggressive mesenchymal GSCs greater than proneural GSCs. Although sodium acetate induced a dose-dependent reduction of GSC growth, it also reduced cell viability. GTA-mediated growth inhibition was not associated with differentiation, but increased protein acetylation. These data suggest that GTA-mediated acetate supplementation is a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit GSC growth. PMID:25573156

  14. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  15. Acetate Supplementation Induces Growth Arrest of NG2/PDGFRα-Positive Oligodendroglioma-Derived Tumor-Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Long, Patrick M.; Tighe, Scott W.; Driscoll, Heather E.; Moffett, John R.; Namboodiri, Aryan M. A.; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lawler, Sean E.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is associated with globally hypoacetylated chromatin and considerable attention has recently been focused on epigenetic therapies. N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate and ultimately acetyl-Coenzyme A for histone acetylation, are reduced in oligodendroglioma. The short chain triglyceride glyceryl triacetate (GTA), which increases histone acetylation and inhibits histone deacetylase expression, has been safely used for acetate supplementation in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. We demonstrate that GTA induces cytostatic G0 growth arrest of oligodendroglioma-derived cells in vitro, without affecting normal cells. Sodium acetate, at doses comparable to that generated by complete GTA catalysis, but not glycerol also promoted growth arrest, whereas long chain triglycerides promoted cell growth. To begin to elucidate its mechanism of action, the effects of GTA on ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase protein levels and differentiation of established human oligodendroglioma cells (HOG and Hs683) and primary tumor-derived oligodendroglioma cells that exhibit some features of cancer stem cells (grade II OG33 and grade III OG35) relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu) were examined. The nuclear localization of ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase-1 in untreated cells was regulated during the cell cycle. GTA-mediated growth arrest was not associated with apoptosis or differentiation, but increased expression of acetylated proteins. Thus, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a safe, novel epigenetic therapy to reduce the growth of oligodendroglioma cells without affecting normal neural stem or oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation or differentiation. PMID:24278309

  16. Relationships of vascular function with measures of ambulatory blood pressure variation.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Bondonno, Catherine P; Puddey, Ian B; Lukoshkova, Elena V; Head, Geoffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Characteristics of short-term blood pressure (BP) variation may influence cardiovascular disease risk via effects on vascular function. In a cross-sectional study of a group of treated hypertensive and untreated largely normotensive subjects we investigated the relationships of measures of short-term BP variation with brachial artery vasodilator function. A total of 163 treated hypertensive (n = 91) and untreated largely normotensive (n = 72) men and women were recruited from the general population. Measures of systolic and diastolic BP variation were calculated from 24 h ambulatory BP assessments and included: (i) rate of measurement-to-measurement BP variation (SBP-var and DBP-var); and (ii) day-to-night BP dip (SBP-dip and DBP dip). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent vasodilation was assessed in response to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Relationships were explored using univariate and multivariate linear regression. The relationships of brachial artery vasodilator function with BP variation were not significantly different between treated hypertensive and untreated subjects, therefore these groups were combined for analysis. In univariate analysis, higher SBP-var (P < 0.001) and lower DBP-dip (P = 0.004) were associated with lower FMD; and higher SBP-var (P = 0.002) and lower SBP-dip (P = 0.003) and DBP-dip (P = 0.001) were associated with lower GTN-mediated dilation. In multivariate analysis, lower SBP-dip (P = 0.007) and DBP-dip (P = 0.03) were independently associated with lower GTN response. Our results indicate that a lower day-to-night BP dip is independently associated with impaired smooth muscle cell function. Although rate of BP variation was associated with measures of endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, relationships were attenuated after accounting for age and BP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A NOS3 polymorphism determines endothelial response to folate in children with type 1 diabetes or obesity.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Esko J; Peña, Alexia S; MacKenzie, Karen; Bose-Sundernathan, Tulika; Gent, Roger; Couper, Jennifer J

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of polymorphisms in NOS3 and folate pathway enzymes on vascular function and folate status and endothelial response to folate in children with diabetes or obesity. A total of 244 subjects (age 13.8 ± 2.8 years, 125 males) were studied for NOS3 and/or folate pathway polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism, including at baseline: 139 with type 1 diabetes; 58 with obesity; and 47 controls. The effect of NOS3 genotype on endothelial response to folate (5 mg) was assessed in 85 subjects with diabetes and 28 obese subjects who received active treatment during intervention trials. Vascular function (flow-mediated dilatation [FMD] and glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilatation), clinical, and biochemical measurements were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks in folate intervention studies. Folate pathway enzyme and NOS3 polymorphisms did not significantly affect baseline vascular function. The polymorphism in intron 4 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase altered endothelial response to folate significantly: in subjects with diabetes FMD improved by 6.4 ± 5% (insertion carriers) vs 2.3 ± 6.6% (deletion carriers), P = .01; in obese subjects FMD improved by 1.8 ± 5.4% (insertion carriers) and deteriorated by -3.2 ± 7.2% (deletion carriers), P = .05. More subjects carrying the insertion normalized FMD after folate supplementation (insertion 64% vs deletion 28%, χ(2) = 10.14, P = .001). A NOS3 polymorphism predicts endothelial response to folate in children with diabetes or obesity, with implications for vascular risk and folate intervention studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Guaifenesin has no effect on sputum volume or sputum properties in adolescents and adults with acute respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hoffer-Schaefer, Agathe; Rozycki, Henry J; Yopp, Melissa A; Rubin, Bruce K

    2014-05-01

    Guaifenesin (glyceryl guaiacolate ether [GGE]) has been studied as a cough suppressant and as an expectorant; however, published studies to date have failed to find a consistent benefit. An 8-day multi-center clinical trial was conducted to study the effect of two 600-mg extended-release GGE tablets twice daily for 1 week on cold symptoms, sputum volume, and properties in adolescents and adults with productive cough from an acute respiratory tract infection (RTI). The study enrolled 378 subjects (GGE, n = 188; and placebo, n = 190) who were otherwise healthy and had an RTI for up to 5 days before enrollment. Subjects suffered from at least 2 of 3 symptoms of cough, thickened mucus, and chest congestion. A total of 151 GGE and 144 control subjects completed the full protocol. Single-sputum samples were collected from each subject on days 1, 3, 4, and 8 of the study. The rheology and interfacial tension of sputum were measured, and 24-h collected samples from days 1 and 4 were analyzed for total volume and hydration. Symptoms in both the GGE and placebo groups improved to a similar degree over time. There were no significant differences between the GGE and placebo groups for sputum volume (P = .41), percent solids (P = .69), interfacial tension (P = .88), elasticity (P = .71), viscosity (P = .45), or mechanical impedance (P = .75). The recommended dose of GGE had no measurable effect on sputum volume or properties and is unlikely to be an expectorant or mucolytic when used to treat acute RTI. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01046136.).

  19. Synergistic effect of high and low molecular weight molecules in the foamability and foam stability of sparkling wines.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Elisabete; Reis, Ana; Domingues, M Rosário M; Rocha, Sílvia M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2011-04-13

    The foam of sparkling wines is a key parameter of their quality. However, the compounds that are directly involved in foam formation and stabilization are not yet completely established. In this work, seven sparkling wines were produced in Bairrada appellation (Portugal) under different conditions and their foaming properties evaluated using a Mosalux-based device. Fractionation of the sparkling wines into four independent fractions, (1) high molecular weight material, with molecular weight higher than 12 kDa (HMW), (2) hydrophilic material with molecular weigh between 1 and 12 kDa (AqIMW), (3) hydrophobic material with molecular weigh between 1 and 12 kDa (MeIMW), and (4) hydrophobic material with a molecular weight lower than 1 kDa (MeLMW), allowed the observation that the wines presenting the lower foam stability were those that presented lower amounts of the MeLMW fraction. The fraction that presented the best foam stability was HMW. When HMW is combined with MeLMW fraction, the foam stability largely increased. This increase was even larger, approaching the foam stability of the sparkling wine, when HMW was combined with the less hydrophobic subfraction of MeLMW (fraction 3). Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) of fraction 3 allowed the assignment of polyethylene glycol oligomers (n = 5-11) and diethylene glycol 8-hydroxytridecanoate glyceryl acetate. To observe if these molecules occur in sparkling wine foam, the MeLMW was recovered directly from the sparkling wine foam and was also analyzed by ESI-MS/MS. The presence of monoacylglycerols of palmitic and stearic acids, as well as four glycerylethylene glycol fatty acid derivatives, was observed. These surface active compounds are preferentially partitioned by the sparkling wine foam rather than the liquid phase, allowing the inference of their role as key components in the promotion and stabilization of sparkling wine foam.

  20. Structural Requirements of Alkylglyceryl-l-Ascorbic Acid Derivatives for Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Taira, Norihisa; Katsuyama, Yushi; Yoshioka, Masato; Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio

    2018-04-10

    l-Ascorbic acid has multifunctional benefits on skin aesthetics, including inhibition of melanin production, and is widely used in cosmetics. It, however, has low stability and poor skin penetration. We hypothesize that alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives, highly stable vitamin C-alkylglycerol conjugates, would have similar anti-melanogenic activity with better stability and penetration. We test 28 alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives ( 1 - 28 ) on theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells to determine if they inhibit melanogenesis and establish any structure-function relationships. Although not the most potent inhibitors, 3- O -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-2- O -hexyl-l-ascorbic acid ( 6 , IC 50 = 81.4 µM) and 2- O -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-3- O -hexyl-l-ascorbic acid ( 20 , IC 50 = 117 µM) are deemed the best candidate derivatives based on their inhibitory activities and low toxicities. These derivatives are also found to be more stable than l-ascorbic acid and to have favorable characteristics for skin penetration. The following structural requirements for inhibitory activity of alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives are also determined: (i) alkylation of glyceryl-l-ascorbic acid is essential for inhibitory activity; (ii) the 3- O -alkyl-derivatives ( 2 - 14 ) exhibit stronger inhibitory activity than the corresponding 2- O -alkyl-derivatives ( 16 - 28 ); and (iii) derivatives with longer alkyl chains have stronger inhibitory activities. Mechanistically, our studies suggest that l-ascorbic acid derivatives exert their effects by suppressing the mRNA expression of tyrosinase and tyrosine-related protein-1.

  1. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers/cosmetologists: retrospective analysis of north american contact dermatitis group data, 1994 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Wang, Michael Z; Mathias, C G Toby; Maibach, Howard I; Belsito, Donald V; Zug, Kathryn A; Taylor, James S; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fransway, Anthony F; Deleo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Rietschel, Robert L; Fowler, Joseph F; Sasseville, Denis

    2012-01-01

    European studies document that occupational contact dermatitis (CD) is common in hairdressers, but studies from North America are lacking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of occupational CD among North American hairdressers/cosmetologists (HD/CS) and to characterize responsible allergens and irritants as well as their sources. A cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group between 1994 and 2010 was conducted. Of 35,842 patients, 432 (1.2%) were HD/CS. Significantly, most of the HD/CS were female (89.8%) and younger than 40 years (55.6%) as compared with non-hairdressers (P < 0.0001). The rates for allergic and irritant CD in HD/CS were 72.7% and 37.0%, respectively. The most common body site of involvement was the hand, and this was significantly more common than in non-HD/CS (P < 0.0001). The most frequent currently relevant and occupationally related allergens were glyceryl thioglycolate, p-phenylenediamine, nickel sulfate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and quaternium-15. Hair dyes, permanent wave solutions, and other hair products were common sources of allergens. The North American Contact Dermatitis Group allergen series missed at least 1 occupationally-related allergen in 26.2% of patients. Contact dermatitis in North American HD/CS is common, and occupationally related allergens are those found in HD/CS products. Supplemental hairdressing/cosmetology antigen series are important in detecting all occupationally related allergens in this population.

  2. Antiglioma activity of curcumin-loaded lipid nanoparticles and its enhanced bioavailability in brain tissue for effective glioblastoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Paromita; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of brain and central nervous system tumours, is characterized by high rates proliferation, migration and invasion. The major road block in the delivery of drugs to the brain is the blood-brain barrier, along with the expression of various multi-drug resistance (MDR) proteins that cause the efflux of a wide range of chemotherapeutic drugs. Curcumin, a herbal drug, is known to inhibit cellular proliferation, migration and invasion and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. It also has the potential to modulate MDR in glioma cells. However, the greatest challenge in the administration of curcumin stems from its low bioavailability and high rate of metabolism. To circumvent the above pitfalls of curcumin we have developed curcumin-loaded glyceryl monooleate (GMO) nanoparticles (NP) coated with the surfactant Pluronic F-68 and vitamin E D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) for brain delivery. We demonstrated that our curcumin-loaded NPs inhibit cellular proliferation, migration and invasion along with a higher percentage of cell cycle arrest and telomerase inhibition, thus leading to a greater percentage apoptotic cell death in glioma cells compared with native curcumin. An in vivo study demonstrated enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in blood serum and brain tissue when delivered by curcumin-loaded GMO NPs compared with native curcumin in a rat model. Thus, curcumin-loaded GMO NPs can be used as an effective delivery system to overcome the challenges of drug delivery to the brain, providing a new approach to glioblastoma therapy. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch test results: 2009 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Belsito, Donald V; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; DeKoven, Joel G; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fransway, Anthony F; Mathias, C G Toby; Zug, Kathryn A; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-01-01

    Patch testing is an important diagnostic tool for determination of substances responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. This study reports the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch testing results from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010. At 12 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a screening series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database. Descriptive frequencies were calculated, and trends were analyzed using χ2 statistics. A total of 4308 patients were tested. Of these, 2614 (60.7%) had at least 1 positive reaction, and 2284 (46.3%) were ultimately determined to have a primary diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Four hundred twenty-seven (9.9%) patients had occupationally related skin disease. There were 6855 positive allergic reactions. As compared with the previous reporting period (2007-2008), the positive reaction rates statistically decreased for 20 allergens (nickel, neomycin, Myroxylon pereirae, cobalt, formaldehyde, quaternium 15, methydibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol, methylchlorisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, potassium dichromate, diazolidinyl urea, propolis, dimethylol dimethylhydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, glyceryl thioglycolate, dibucaine, amidoamine, clobetasol, and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea; P < 0.05) and statistically increased for 4 allergens (fragrance mix II, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, propylene glycol, and benzocaine; P < 0.05). Approximately one quarter of tested patients had at least 1 relevant allergic reaction to a non-NACDG allergen. Hypothetically, approximately one quarter of reactions detected by NACDG allergens would have been missed by TRUE TEST (SmartPractice Denmark, Hillerød, Denmark). These results affirm the value of patch testing with many allergens.

  4. A comparison of absorption of glycerol tristearate and glycerol trioleate by rat small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstedt, S.E.; Hayashi, H.; Kritchevsky, D.

    1990-09-01

    Generally, fats rich in saturated fatty acids raise serum cholesterol, whereas fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids lower it. There appear to be exceptions; e.g., stearic acid (18:0)-rich fats have little or no effect on serum cholesterol concentrations. This apparent lack of cholesterolemic effect of stearic acid-rich fat could be because intestinal absorption of fat is poor or subsequent plasma and/or tissue metabolism of fat is different. To investigate mechanisms involved, we compared intestinal digestion, uptake, and lymphatic transport of glycerol tristearate (TS) and glycerol trioleate (TO, 18:1). Two groups of rats bearing intestinal lymph fistulas were used. TO ratsmore » were fed intraduodenally for 8 h at a constant rate a lipid emulsion of 25 mumols/h of TO (labeled with glycerol tri(9,10 (n)-3H)oleate), 7.8 mumols of egg phosphatidylcholine, and 57 mumols of sodium taurocholate in 3 ml of phosphate-buffered saline. TS rats were fed the same lipid emulsion except that TS replaced TO and the emulsion was labeled with glyceryl (1,3-14C)tristearate. The lymph triglyceride and radioactivity were determined. After infusion, the luminal and mucosal radioactive lipid content was analyzed. The results showed that there was significantly less lipid transported in the lymph of TS rats compared with TO rats. The results also showed a significant decrease in the absorption of TS as compared with TO. This was due in part to poor lipolysis. In addition, the lipid absorbed by the intestine of the TS rats was transported into lymph less efficiently than in TO rats.« less

  5. Protective effects of butyrate-based compounds on a mouse model for spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Butchbach, Matthew E R; Lumpkin, Casey J; Harris, Ashlee W; Saieva, Luciano; Edwards, Jonathan D; Workman, Eileen; Simard, Louise R; Pellizzoni, Livio; Burghes, Arthur H M

    2016-05-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a childhood-onset degenerative disease resulting from the selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord. SMA is caused by the loss of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1) but retention of SMN2. The number of copies of SMN2 modifies disease severity in SMA patients as well as in mouse models, making SMN2 a target for therapeutics development. Sodium butyrate (BA) and its analog (4PBA) have been shown to increase SMN2 expression in SMA cultured cells. In this study, we examined the effects of BA, 4PBA as well as two BA prodrugs-glyceryl tributyrate (BA3G) and VX563-on the phenotype of SMNΔ7 SMA mice. Treatment with 4PBA, BA3G and VX563 but not BA beginning at PND04 significantly improved the lifespan and delayed disease end stage, with administration of VX563 also improving the growth rate of these mice. 4PBA and VX563 improved the motor phenotype of SMNΔ7 SMA mice and prevented spinal motor neuron loss. Interestingly, neither 4PBA nor VX563 had an effect on SMN expression in the spinal cords of treated SMNΔ7 SMA mice; however, they inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and restored the normal phosphorylation states of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, both of which are altered by SMN deficiency in vivo. These observations show that BA-based compounds with favorable pharmacokinetics ameliorate SMA pathology possibly by modulating HDAC and Akt signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A new class of organic nitrates: investigations on bioactivation, tolerance and cross-tolerance phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Schuhmacher, S; Schulz, E; Oelze, M; König, A; Roegler, C; Lange, K; Sydow, L; Kawamoto, T; Wenzel, P; Münzel, T; Lehmann, J; Daiber, A

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The chronic use of organic nitrates is limited by serious side effects including oxidative stress, nitrate tolerance and/or endothelial dysfunction. The side effects and potency of nitroglycerine depend on mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). We sought to determine whether this concept can be extended to a new class of organic nitrates with amino moieties (aminoalkyl nitrates). Experimental approach: Vasodilator potency of the organic nitrates, in vitro tolerance and in vivo tolerance (after continuous infusion for 3 days) were assessed in wild-type and ALDH-2 knockout mice by isometric tension studies. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was analysed by L-012-dependent chemiluminescence and protein tyrosine nitration. Key results: Aminoethyl nitrate (AEN) showed an almost similar potency to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), even though it is only a mononitrate. AEN-dependent vasodilatation was mediated by cGMP and nitric oxide. In contrast to triethanolamine trinitrate (TEAN) and GTN, AEN bioactivation did not depend on ALDH-2 and caused no in vitro tolerance. In vivo treatment with TEAN and GTN, but not with AEN, induced cross-tolerance to acetylcholine (ACh)-dependent and GTN-dependent relaxation. Although all nitrates tested induced tolerance to themselves, only TEAN and GTN significantly increased mitochondrial oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions and implications: The present results demonstrate that not all high potency nitrates are bioactivated by ALDH-2 and that high potency of a given nitrate is not necessarily associated with induction of oxidative stress or nitrate tolerance. Obviously, there are distinct pathways for bioactivation of organic nitrates, which for AEN may involve xanthine oxidoreductase rather than P450 enzymes. PMID:19563531

  7. Direct Toll-like receptor-mediated stimulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells occurs in vivo and promotes differentiation toward macrophages.

    PubMed

    Megías, Javier; Yáñez, Alberto; Moriano, Silvia; O'Connor, José-Enrique; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, María-Luisa

    2012-07-01

    As Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), they may play a role in hematopoiesis in response to pathogens during infection. We show here that TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists (tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-L-Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 [Pam3CSK4], lipopolysaccharide [LPS], and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide [ODN]) induce the in vitro differentiation of purified murine lineage negative cells (Lin(-) ) as well as HSPCs (identified as Lin(-) c-Kit(+) Sca-1(+) IL-7Rα(-) [LKS] cells) toward macrophages (Mph), through a myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent pathway. In order to investigate the possible direct interaction of soluble microorganism-associated molecular patterns and TLRs on HSPCs in vivo, we designed a new experimental approach: purified Lin(-) and LKS cells from bone marrow of B6Ly5.1 mice (CD45.1 alloantigen) were transplanted into TLR2(-/-) , TLR4(-/-) , or MyD88(-/-) mice (CD45.2 alloantigen), which were then injected with soluble TLR ligands (Pam3CSK4, LPS, or ODN, respectively). As recipient mouse cells do not recognize the TLR ligands injected, interference by soluble mediators secreted by recipient cells is negligible. Transplanted cells were detected in the spleen and bone marrow of recipient mice, and in response to soluble TLR ligands, cells differentiated preferentially to Mph. These results show, for the first time, that HSPCs may be directly stimulated by TLR agonists in vivo, and that the engagement of these receptors induces differentiation toward Mph. Therefore, HSPCs may sense pathogen or pathogen-derived products directly during infection, inducing a rapid generation of cells of the innate immune system. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Randomized controlled trial using bosentan to enhance the impact of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Duncker, Dirk J; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-11-01

    In type 2 diabetes patients, endothelin (ET) receptor blockade may enhance blood flow responses to exercise training. The combination of exercise training and ET receptor blockade may represent a more potent stimulus than training alone to improve vascular function, physical fitness and glucose homeostasis. We assessed the effect of an 8 week exercise training programme combined with either ET blockade or placebo on vasculature, fitness and glucose homeostasis in people with type 2 diabetes. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, brachial endothelium-dependent and ‑independent dilatation (using flow-mediated dilatation and glyceryl trinitrate, respectively), glucose homeostasis (using Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) and physical fitness (maximal cycling test) were assessed in 18 men with type 2 diabetes (60 ± 6 years old). Subjects underwent an 8 week exercise training programme, with half of the subjects receiving ET receptor blockade (bosentan) and the other half a placebo, followed by reassessment of the tests above. Exercise training improved physical fitness to a similar extent in both groups, but we did not detect changes in vascular function in either group. This study suggests that there is no adaptation in brachial and femoral artery endothelial function after 8 weeks of training in type 2 diabetes patients. Endothelin receptor blockade combined with exercise training does not additionally alter conduit artery endothelial function or physical fitness in type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  9. Molecular interactions of plant oil components with stratum corneum lipids correlate with clinical measures of skin barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Mack Correa, Mary Catherine; Mao, Guangru; Saad, Peter; Flach, Carol R; Mendelsohn, Richard; Walters, Russel M

    2014-01-01

    Plant-derived oils consisting of triglycerides and small amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) are commonly used in skincare regimens. FFAs are known to disrupt skin barrier function. The objective of this study was to mechanistically study the effects of FFAs, triglycerides and their mixtures on skin barrier function. The effects of oleic acid (OA), glyceryl trioleate (GT) and OA/GT mixtures on skin barrier were assessed in vivo through measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and fluorescein dye penetration before and after a single application. OA's effects on stratum corneum (SC) lipid order in vivo were measured with infrared spectroscopy through application of perdeuterated OA (OA-d34). Studies of the interaction of OA and GT with skin lipids included imaging the distribution of OA-d34 and GT ex vivo with IR microspectroscopy and thermodynamic analysis of mixtures in aqueous monolayers. The oil mixtures increased both TEWL and fluorescein penetration 24 h after a single application in an OA dose-dependent manner, with the highest increase from treatment with pure OA. OA-d34 penetrated into skin and disordered SC lipids. Furthermore, the ex vivo IR imaging studies showed that OA-d34 permeated to the dermal/epidermal junction while GT remained in the SC. The monolayer experiments showed preferential interspecies interactions between OA and SC lipids, while the mixing between GT and SC lipids was not thermodynamically preferred. The FFA component of plant oils may disrupt skin barrier function. The affinity between plant oil components and SC lipids likely determines the extent of their penetration and clinically measurable effects on skin barrier functions. PMID:24372651

  10. Identification, characterization, immobilization, and mutational analysis of a novel acetylesterase with industrial potential (LaAcE) from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Ryu, Bum Han; Yoo, Wanki; Lee, Chang Woo; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Kim, T Doohun

    2018-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, which are involved in the fermentation of vegetables, meats, and dairy products, are widely used for the productions of small organic molecules and bioactive peptides. Here, a novel acetylesterase (LaAcE) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM was identified, functionally characterized, immobilized, and subjected to site-directed mutagenesis for biotechnological applications. The enzymatic properties of LaAcE were investigated using biochemical and biophysical methods including native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, acetic acid release, biochemical assays, enzyme kinetics, and spectroscopic methods. Interestingly, LaAcE exhibited the ability to act on a broad range of substrates including glucose pentaacetate, glyceryl tributyrate, fish oil, and fermentation-related compounds. Furthermore, immobilization of LaAcE showed good recycling ability and high thermal stability compared with free LaAcE. A structural model of LaAcE was used to guide mutational analysis of hydrophobic substrate-binding region, which was composed of Leu 156 , Phe 164 , and Val 204 . Five mutants (L156A, F164A, V204A, L156A/F164A, and L156A/V204A) were generated and investigated to elucidate the roles of these hydrophobic residues in substrate specificity. This work provided valuable insights into the properties of LaAcE, and demonstrated that LaAcE could be used as a model enzyme of acetylesterase in lactic acid bacteria, making LaAcE a great candidate for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hexagonal boron nitride as a tablet lubricant and a comparison with conventional lubricants.

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Timuçin; Turkoğlu, Murat

    2008-04-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the lubrication properties of hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) as a new tablet lubricant and compare it with conventional lubricants such as magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), and glyceryl behenate (COMP). Tablets were manufactured on an instrumented single-station tablet press to monitor lower punch ejection force (LPEF) containing varied lubricants in different ratio (0.5, 1, 2%). Tablet crushing strength, disintegration time and thickness were measured. Tensile strength of compacted tablets were measured by applying a diametrical load across the edge of tablets to determine mechanical strength. The deformation mechanism of tablets was studied during compression from the Heckel plots with or without lubricants. MGST was found to be the most effective lubricant based on LPEF-lubrication concentration profile and LPEF of HBN was found very close to that of MGST. HBN was better than both STAC and COMP. A good lubrication was obtained at 0.5% for MGST and HBN (189 and 195N, respectively). Where COMP and STAC showed 20 and 35% more LPEF compare to that of MGST (239 and 288N, respectively). Even at the concentration of 2% COMP and STAC did not decrease LPEF as much as 0.5% of MGST and HBN. Like all conventional lubricants the higher the concentration of HBN the lower the mechanical properties of tablets because of its hydrophobic character. However, this deterioration was not as pronounced as MGST. HBN had no significant effect on tablet properties. Based on the Heckel plots, it was observed that after the addition of 1% lubricant granules showed less plastic deformation.

  12. In Vivo Lipid "Tag and Track" Approach Shows Acyl Editing of Plastid Lipids and Chloroplast Import of Phosphatidylglycerol Precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hurlock, Anna K; Wang, Kun; Takeuchi, Tomomi; Horn, Patrick J; Benning, Christoph

    2018-06-19

    In plant lipid metabolism, the synthesis of many intermediates or end products often appears overdetermined with multiple synthesis pathways acting in parallel. Lipid metabolism is also dynamic with interorganelle transport, turnover, and remodeling of lipids. To explore this complexity in vivo, we developed an in vivo lipid "tag and track" method. Essentially, we probed lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana by expressing a coding sequence for a fatty acid desaturase from Physcomitrella patens (Δ6D). This enzyme places a double bond after the 6 th carbon from the carboxyl end of an acyl group attached to phosphatidylcholine at its sn-2 glyceryl position providing a subtle, but easily trackable modification of the glycerolipid. Phosphatidylcholine is a central intermediate in plant lipid metabolism as it is modified and converted to precursors for other lipids throughout the plant cell. Taking advantage of the exclusive location of Δ6D in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its known substrate specificity for one of the two acyl groups on phosphatidylcholine, we were able to "tag and track" the distribution of lipids within multiple compartments and their remodeling in transgenic lines of different genetic backgrounds. Key findings were the presence of ER-derived precursors in plastid phosphatidylglycerol and prevalent acyl editing of thylakoid lipids derived from multiple pathways. We expect that this "tag and track" method will serve as a tool to address several unresolved aspects of plant lipid metabolism, such as the nature and interaction of different subcellular glycerolipid pools during plant development or in response to adverse conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Duloxetine HCl lipid nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and dosage form design.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketan; Padhye, Sameer; Nagarsenker, Mangal

    2012-03-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of duloxetine hydrochloride (DLX) were prepared to circumvent the problems of DLX, which include acid labile nature, high first-pass metabolism, and high-dosing frequency. The DLX-SLNs were prepared by using two different techniques, viz. solvent diffusion method and ultrasound dispersion method, and evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, physical characteristics, and chemical stability. Best results were obtained when SLNs were prepared by ultrasound dispersion method using glyceryl mono stearate as solid lipid and DLX in ratio of 1:20 and mixture of polysorbate 80 and poloxamer 188 as surfactant in concentration of 3%. The mean particle size of formulation and entrapment efficiency was 91.7 nm and 87%, respectively, and had excellent stability in acidic medium. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction data showed complete amorphization of DLX in lipid. In vitro drug release from SLNs was observed for 48 h and was in accordance with Higuchi kinetics. In vivo antidepressant activity was evaluated in mice by forced swim test. DLX-SLNs showed significant enhancement in antidepressant activity at 24 h when administered orally in comparison to drug solution. These results confirm the potential of SLNs in enhancing chemical stability and improving the efficacy of DLX via oral route. The SLN dispersion was converted into solid granules by adsorbing on colloidal silicon dioxide and characterized for particle size after redispersion, morphology, and flow properties. Results indicated that nanoparticles were successfully adsorbed on the carrier and released SLNs when dispersed in water.

  14. Absorption Study of Genistein Using Solid Lipid Microparticles and Nanoparticles: Control of Oral Bioavailability by Particle Sizes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Barua, Sonia; Kim, Hyeongmin; Hong, Seong-Chul; Yoo, Seung-Yup; Jeon, Hyojin; Cho, Yeongjin; Gil, Sangwon; Oh, Kyungsoo; Lee, Jaehwi

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the effect of particle size of genistein-loaded solid lipid particulate systems on drug dissolution behavior and oral bioavailability was investigated. Genistein-loaded solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles were prepared with glyceryl palmitostearate. Except for the particle size, other properties of genistein-loaded solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles such as particle composition and drug loading efficiency and amount were similarly controlled to mainly evaluate the effect of different particle sizes of the solid lipid particulate systems on drug dissolution behavior and oral bioavailability. The results showed that genistein-loaded solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles exhibited a considerably increased drug dissolution rate compared to that of genistein bulk powder and suspension. The microparticles gradually released genistein as a function of time while the nanoparticles exhibited a biphasic drug release pattern, showing an initial burst drug release, followed by a sustained release. The oral bioavailability of genistein loaded in solid lipid microparticles and nanoparticles in rats was also significantly enhanced compared to that in bulk powders and the suspension. However, the bioavailability from the microparticles increased more than that from the nanoparticles mainly because the rapid drug dissolution rate and rapid absorption of genistein because of the large surface area of the genistein-solid lipid nanoparticles cleared the drug to a greater extent than the genistein-solid lipid microparticles did. Therefore, the findings of this study suggest that controlling the particle size of solid-lipid particulate systems at a micro-scale would be a promising strategy to increase the oral bioavailability of genistein.

  15. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    PubMed

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced oral absorption of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol by self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing piperine: in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E; Tan, Xiao-bin; Li, Song-lin; Cheng, Xu-dong; You, Ming; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2013-01-01

    Background 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), similar to several other anticancer agents, has low oral absorption and is extensively metabolized. These factors limit the use of PPD for treatment of human diseases. Methods In this study, we used cubic nanoparticles containing piperine to improve the oral bioavailability of PPD and to enhance its absorption and inhibit its metabolism. Cubic nanoparticles loaded with PPD and piperine were prepared by fragmentation of glyceryl monoolein (GMO)/poloxamer 407 bulk cubic gel and verified using transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. We evaluated the in vitro release of PPD from these nanoparticles and its absorption across the Caco-2 cell monolayer model, and subsequently, we examined the bioavailability and metabolism of PPD and its nanoparticles in vivo. Results The in vitro release of PPD from these nanoparticles was less than 5% at 12 hours. PPD-cubosome and PPD-cubosome loaded with piperine (molar ratio PPD/piperine, 1:3) increased the apical to basolateral permeability values of PPD across the Caco-2 cell monolayer from 53% to 64%, respectively. In addition, the results of a pharmacokinetic study in rats showed that the relative bioavailabilities of PPD-cubosome [area under concentration–time curve (AUC)0–∞] and PPD-cubosome containing piperine (AUC0–∞) compared to that of raw PPD (AUC0–∞) were 166% and 248%, respectively. Conclusion The increased bioavailability of PPD-cubosome loaded with piperine is due to an increase in absorption and inhibition of metabolism of PPD by cubic nanoparticles containing piperine rather than because of improved release of PPD. The cubic nanoparticles containing piperine may be a promising oral carrier for anticancer drugs with poor oral absorption and that undergo extensive metabolism by cytochrome P450. PMID:23426652

  17. 6D.03: FLOW-MEDIATED DILATATION (FMD) AND ENDOTHELIUM-INDEPENDENT DILATATION (EID) IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIFOCAL FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Khettab, H; Lorthior, A; Niarra, R; Chambon, Y; Jeunemaitre, X; Plouin, P F; Laurent, S; Boutouyrie, P; Azizi, M

    2015-06-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FD) is a rare idiopathic, segmental, non-atherosclerotic non-inflammatory vascular disease. We previously showed that FD is a general arterial disease with focal exacerbation of the trait. However, whether endothelial dysfunction may be involved in the pathophysiology of FD is unclear. In a cross sectional study, we compared the endothelial function between 50 patients with multifocal FD of renal/carotid arteries confirmed by CT-angiography, 50 essential hypertensive (EH) patients matched for age, sex, ethnicity and BP and 50 healthy subjects (HS) matched for age, sex and ethnicity. Exclusion criteria were: tobacco consumption, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, aspirin or statin treatment. Brachial artery (BA) FMD after release of hand ischemia and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced EID was measured using a high-resolution radiofrequency-based echotracking system blind to the diagnosis. FD, EH and HS were well matched (52yrs, 85% women, 80% caucasian). SBP was higher in FD (125 ± 15mmHg) and EH (121 ± 12mmHg) than EH (113 ± 10mmHg) despite antihypertensive treatments. BA external diameter was significantly lower in FD than in both HS and EH before, during and after hand ischemia and after GTN. BA intima media thickness (IMT), internal diameter did not differ between the 3 groups. FMD (%) or EID (%) did not significantly differ between the 3 groups. BA flow velocity did not significantly differ in any experimental condition.(Figure is included in full-text article.) : In conclusion, despite showing similar acute vasodilatory responses to flow and GTN, FD patients differed from EH and HS in terms of arterial morphology with smaller BA diameter associated with similar IMT. This paradoxical remodeling may suggest a chronic defect in the endothelium-dependent pathways involved in arterial remodeling in FD patients.

  18. Crisis management during anaesthesia: myocardial ischaemia and infarction.

    PubMed

    Ludbrook, G L; Webb, R K; Currie, M; Watterson, L M

    2005-06-01

    Myocardial ischaemia and infarction are significant perioperative complications which are associated with poor patient outcome. Anaesthetic practice should therefore focus, particularly in the at risk patient, on their prevention, their accurate detection, on the identification of precipitating factors, and on rapid effective management. To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD-A SWIFT CHECK" supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for myocardial ischaemia and infarction in the management of myocardial ischaemia and/or infarction occurring in association with anaesthesia. The potential performance of this structured approach for each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. Of the 125 incidents retrieved from the 4000 reports, 40 (1%) were considered to demonstrate myocardial infarction or ischaemia. The use of the structured approach described in this paper would have led to appropriate management in 90% of cases, with the remaining 10% requiring other sub-algorithms. It was considered that the application of this structured approach would have led to earlier recognition and/or better management of the problem in 45% of cases. Close and continuous monitoring of patients at risk of myocardial ischaemia during anaesthesia is necessary, using optimal ECG lead configurations, but sensitivity of this monitoring is not 100%. Coronary vasodilatation with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) should not be withheld when indicated and the early use of beta blocking drugs should be considered even with normal blood pressures and heart rates.

  19. [Nitroglycerin patch for tocolysis--a prospective randomized comparison with fenoterol by infusion].

    PubMed

    Schleussner, E; Richter, S; Gross, W; Kähler, C; Möller, A; Möller, U; Seewald, H J

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate tocolytic efficacy of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in comparison to fenoterol per infusionem in a prospective randomized multicenter study. 50 pregnant women between 27 and 35 weeks of gestation with preterm labour were treated with either GTN patches (0.4-0.8 mg/h) or fenoterol per infusionem (60-120 micrograms/h) up to stop of contractions or 35 weeks in maximum. The primary outcomes were the prolongation of gestation by 48 h, 7 days or up to 37 weeks of gestation as well as the neonatal outcome. The progression of cervical ripening and maternal side effects during tocolysis were assessed as secondary outcome criteria. There was no difference in successful tocolysis for 48 h and 7 days in both groups, whereas significantly more women passed 37 weeks after GTN therapy. So mean duration of pregnancy, birth weight and height were greater, whereas transfer into neonatal care unit was significantly rare after GTN. There were no differences in neonatal outcome and progression of cervical ripening during tocolysis. Maternal side effects during GTN were fewer and weaker compared with fenoterol. Circa 70% of GTN treated women had a headache temporary, whereas more than 90% of the patients with fenoterol suffered from tachycardia and tremor. Tocolytic efficacy of transdermal GTN was at least equivalent to the established beta-mimetic therapy with fenoterol. Because of the lower preterm delivery rate transfer into neonatal care for control was significantly rarer after GTN with equally good neonatal outcome in both groups. Beside the headache transdermal GTN therapy had lower maternal side effects in comparison to fenoterol.

  20. Triacetin-based acetate supplementation as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant therapy in glioma.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Andrew R; Long, Patrick M; Driscoll, Heather E; Davies, Matthew T; Teasdale, Benjamin A; Penar, Paul L; Pendlebury, William W; Spees, Jeffrey L; Lawler, Sean E; Viapiano, Mariano S; Jaworski, Diane M

    2014-03-15

    Cancer is associated with epigenetic (i.e., histone hypoacetylation) and metabolic (i.e., aerobic glycolysis) alterations. Levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate, are reduced in glioma; yet, few studies have investigated acetate as a potential therapeutic agent. This preclinical study sought to test the efficacy of the food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) as a novel therapy to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma cells. The growth-inhibitory effects of GTA, compared to the histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA), were assessed in established human glioma cell lines (HOG and Hs683 oligodendroglioma, U87 and U251 glioblastoma) and primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu), normal astrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. GTA was also tested as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant with temozolomide (TMZ) in orthotopically grafted GSCs. GTA-induced cytostatic growth arrest in vitro comparable to Vorinostat, but, unlike Vorinostat, GTA did not alter astrocyte growth and promoted NSC expansion. GTA alone increased survival of mice engrafted with glioblastoma GSCs and potentiated TMZ to extend survival longer than TMZ alone. GTA was most effective on GSCs with a mesenchymal cell phenotype. Given that GTA has been chronically administered safely to infants with Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a novel, safe chemotherapeutic adjuvant to reduce the growth of glioma tumors, most notably the more rapidly proliferating, glycolytic and hypoacetylated mesenchymal glioma tumors. © 2013 UICC.

  1. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Adult Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Matthew J; Chung, Tricia; Glassford, Neil J; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2017-08-01

    To identify the normal baseline preoperative range of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO 2 ) derived using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the efficacy of perioperative interventions designed to modulate SctO 2 in cardiac surgical patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) extracted from the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Hospitals performing cardiac surgery. The study comprised 953 participants from 11 RCTs. Interventions included the following: (1) SctO 2 monitoring protocol compared with no monitoring; (2) use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) compared with no CPB; (3) normothermic CPB compared with hypothermic CPB; (4) glyceryl trinitrate during surgery compared with placebo; (5) midazolam during induction of anesthesia compared with propofol; (6) sevoflurane anesthesia compared with total intravenous anesthesia; (7) sevoflurane anesthesia compared with propofol-based anesthesia; and (8) norepinephrine during CPB compared with phenylephrine. Eleven RCTs with 953 participants measured baseline preoperative SctO 2 using NIRS. The pooled mean baseline SctO 2 was 66.4% (95% CI 65.0-67.7), generating a reference range of 51.0% to 81.8%. Four interventions (1, 3, 4, and 6 described in the Interventions section above) increased intraoperative SctO 2 across the majority of reported time points. Postoperative follow-up of SctO 2 occurred in only 1 study, and postoperative cognitive assessment correlating SctO 2 with cognitive function was applied in only 4 studies using variable methodology. The authors have established that reference values for baseline NIRS-derived SctO 2 in cardiac surgery patients are varied and have identified interventions that modulate SctO 2 . This information opens the door to standardized research and interventional studies in this field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Crystal Structure and Functional Characterization of an Esterase (EaEST) from Exiguobacterium antarcticum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Woo; Kwon, Sena; Park, Sun-Ha; Kim, Boo-Young; Yoo, Wanki; Ryu, Bum Han; Kim, Han-Woo; Shin, Seung Chul; Kim, Sunghwan; Park, Hyun; Kim, T Doohun; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    A novel microbial esterase, EaEST, from a psychrophilic bacterium Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7, was identified and characterized. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing structural analysis and biochemical characterization of an esterase isolated from the genus Exiguobacterium. Crystal structure of EaEST, determined at a resolution of 1.9 Å, showed that the enzyme has a canonical α/β hydrolase fold with an α-helical cap domain and a catalytic triad consisting of Ser96, Asp220, and His248. Interestingly, the active site of the structure of EaEST is occupied by a peracetate molecule, which is the product of perhydrolysis of acetate. This result suggests that EaEST may have perhydrolase activity. The activity assay showed that EaEST has significant perhydrolase and esterase activity with respect to short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (≤C8), naphthyl derivatives, phenyl acetate, and glyceryl tributyrate. However, the S96A single mutant had low esterase and perhydrolase activity. Moreover, the L27A mutant showed low levels of protein expression and solubility as well as preference for different substrates. On conducting an enantioselectivity analysis using R- and S-methyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpropionate, a preference for R-enantiomers was observed. Surprisingly, immobilized EaEST was found to not only retain 200% of its initial activity after incubation for 1 h at 80°C, but also retained more than 60% of its initial activity after 20 cycles of reutilization. This research will serve as basis for future engineering of this esterase for biotechnological and industrial applications.

  3. Does the duration of symptoms of anal fissure impact its response to conservative treatment? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Emile, Sameh Hany; Elgendy, Hesham; Elfeki, Hossam; Magdy, Alaa; Abdelmawla, Ahmed Aly; Abdelnaby, Mahmoud; Khafagy, Wael

    2017-08-01

    Conservative treatment is the first line of treatment for anal fissure. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of symptom duration on the response of anal fissure to conservative treatment. This prospective study was conducted on sixty patients with acute or chronic anal fissure who were treated conservatively with bulking agents, Sitz baths, and topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) 0.2%. Pain and constipation were assessed prior to treatment and at 6 weeks after therapy using visual analogue scale (VAS) and Wexner constipation score. Adverse effects as headache and postural hypotension were also queried. The mean pre-treatment VAS for acute fissure was significantly higher than chronic fissure (8.8 ± 0.96 Vs 5.8 ± 1.12), also the post-treatment VAS for acute fissure was significantly lower at 6 weeks of treatment (0.47 ± 0.8 Vs 2.5 ± 1.3). The baseline Wexner constipation score was comparable in both groups; however, at six weeks of treatment it declined more significantly in patients with acute fissure. Patients with acute fissure achieved significantly better healing than chronic fissure (80% Vs 40%). Healing rates decreased from 100% in patients with symptoms < one month to 33.3% in patients with symptoms >6 months. Conservative treatment including topical GTN 0.2% significantly hastened healing and relieved pain and other symptoms of acute more than chronic anal fissure. Healing rates of anal fissure in response to conservative treatment showed remarkable decrease in proportion to the duration of complaint. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulation of the pharmacological actions of nitrovasodilators by methylene blue and pyocyanin.

    PubMed Central

    Gryglewski, R. J.; Zembowicz, A.; Salvemini, D.; Taylor, G. W.; Vane, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    1. In superfused precontracted strips of rabbit aorta, methylene blue (MeB) or pyocyanin (Pyo, 1-hydroxy-5-methyl phenazinum betaine) at concentrations of 1-10 microM inhibited relaxations induced by endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) or 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1). However, the vasorelaxant actions of sodium nitroprusside (NaNP) or sodium nitrite (NaNO2) were enhanced by MeB or Pyo. Oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2, 1 microM) inhibited the activities of EDRF and all of the nitrovasodilators studied. Vascular preparations were not relaxed by Pyo unless pretreated with NaNP (0.05-10 microM). 2. In bathed, precontracted rings of rabbit aorta, Pyo (10 microM) produced a shift to the left of the cumulative concentration-response curve for NaNP (0.01-10 microM). The rise in guanosine-3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) content of aortic tissue was also enhanced. 3. The vasorelaxant potency of NaNP (30 microM) at pH 5-8 and at 37 degrees C remained unchanged over 2.5 h while a solution of SNAP (30 microM) progressively lost its biological activity over 60 min. The in vitro degradation of the biological activity of SNAP was accelerated by MeB (150 microM) or Pyo (150 microM), whereas the vasorelaxant potency NaNP (30 microM) was doubled when incubated with MeB or Pyo. 4. In human platelet-rich plasma, MeB or Pyo (0.3-3.0 microM) uncovered an anti-aggregatory action of subthreshold concentrations of NaNP (4-8 microM). This was abrogated by HbO2 (10 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1327388

  5. Semiconductor particles in bilayer lipid membranes. Formation, characterization, and photoelectrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.K.; Baral, S.B.; Rolandi, R.

    Bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) have been formed from bovine brain phosphatidylserine (PS), glyceryl monooleate (GMO), and a ploymerizable surfactant, (n-C/sub 15/H/sub 31/CO/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/))/sub 2/N/sup +/(CH/sub 3/)CH/sub 2/C/sub 6/H/sub 4/CH==CH/sub 2/Cl/sup -/(STYRS). These BLMs were then used to provide matrices for the in situ generation of microcrystalline CdS, CuS, Cu/sub 2/S, PbS, ZnS, HgS, and In/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Semiconductors were formed by injecting appropriate metal ion precursors and H/sub 2/S into the bathing solutions on opposite sides of the BLM. Their presence was established by voltage-dependent capacitance measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and optical microscopy. Subsequent to the injection of H/sub 2/S,more » the first observable change was the appearance of fairly uniform white dots on the black film. These dots rapidly moved around and grew in size, forming islands that then merged with themselves and with a second generation of dots, which ultimately led to a continuous film that continued to grow in thickness. Film formation and growth were monitored by simultaneous optical thickness and capacitance measurements. These data were treated in terms of an equivalent R-C circuit and allowed for the assessment of the semiconductor penetration depth into the BLM. This value for a GMO-BLM-supported In/sub 2/S/sub 3/ film was determined to be 24 A. Bandgap excitation, by nanosecond-pulsed or continuous illumination of the BLM-supported semiconductor film, led to observable photoelectric effects. Visible light (lambda > 350 nm) excitation into STYRS-BLM-supported CdS led to polymerization of the styrene moiety of STYRS. BLM-supported semiconductors remained stable for days.« less

  6. The viscoelastic evaluation of transdermal adhesive systems and the influence of excipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, Steven Marshall

    1998-12-01

    The transdermal dosage form requires simultaneous consideration of both drug delivery and adhesion to skin in order to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. A transdermal system with inadequate adhesion performance will produce a variable and unpredictable systemic blood level profile. It is therefore of paramount importance that the adhesive performance be fully contemplated within the development of a total transdermal system. An experimental strategy was developed within this thesis which utilizes a sequential combination of a dynamic stress followed by a static shear stress evaluation Within the dynamic stress evaluation, a sinusoidal stress of constant frequency, over a frequency of 0.065 to 64 Hz was applied normal to the surface of an adhesive system. The static shear stress apparatus (CIRUSS) applies a constant shear stress for a defined time interval (three minutes) followed by an instantaneous removal of the applied shear stress. The mechanical behavior of two distinct adhesive polymers (silicone and acrylate) was modeled as a one-dimensional four-parameter solid and five-parameter solid respectively for the two adhesive systems. The effects of several additives were examined including ethyl oleate, glyceryl monolaurate, an amine oxide, Teflon and a macromer. In addition, the effect of branching and cross-linking was examined using the acrylate adhesive system. A physical interpretation of the mechanical behavior was proposed associating the deformation within an adhesive system with the disruption of the hydrogen bonding network as well as the covalent bonds within the polymer backbone. The collected data was consistent with the author's postulate. The presented results verify the utility of the aforementioned sequential evaluation strategy in characterizing adhesive viscoelastic performance.

  7. A novel injectable in situ forming poly-DL-lactide and DL-lactide/glycolide implant containing lipospheres for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Soad A; Elshafeey, Ahmed H; Elsayed, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    One of the greatest challenges in in situ forming implant (ISFI) systems by polymer precipitation is the large burst release during the first 1-24 hours after implant injection. The aim of this study was to decrease the burst-release effect of a water-soluble model drug, donepezil HCl, with a molecular weight of 415.96 Da, from in situ forming implants using a novel in situ implant containing lipospheres (ISILs). In situ implant suspensions were prepared by dispersing cetyl alcohol and glyceryl stearate lipospheres in a solution of poly-DL-lactide (PDL) or DL-lactide/glycolide copolymer (PDLG). Also, in situ implant solutions were prepared using different concentrations of PDL or PDLG solutions in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Triacetin and Pluronic L121 were used to modify the release pattern of donepezil from the in situ implant solutions. In vitro release, rheological measurement, and injectability measurement were used to evaluate the prepared in situ implant formulae. It was found that ISIL decreased the burst effect as well as the rate and extent of drug release, compared to lipospheres, PDL, and PDLG in situ implant. The amount of drug released in the first day was 37.75, 34.99, 48.57, 76.3, and 84.82% for ISIL in 20% PDL (IL-1), ISIL in 20% PDLG (IL-2), lipospheres (L), 20% PDL ISFI (I5), and 20% PDLG ISFI (I8), respectively. The prepared systems showed Newtonian flow behavior. ISIL (IL-1 and IL-2) had a flow rate of 1.94 and 1.40 mL/min, respectively. This study shows the potential of using in situ implants containing lipospheres in controlling the burst effect of ISFI.

  8. Preparation and Oxidation Stability Evaluation of Tea Polyphenols-Loaded Inverse Micro-Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaohong; Sun, Jingjing; Yang, Ying; Chen, Mengjie; Liu, Jianhua; Wu, Jinhong; Wang, Zhengwu

    2017-05-01

    Compared to synthetic antioxidants, tea polyphenols (TPs) has its own advantages in edible oil industry, however, the hydrophilic properties have restricted its applications. In this study, the ternary phase diagram of TPs-loaded micro-emulsion (ME) system was constructed, in which glyceryl monooleate (GMO), Tween80, linoleic acid as the surfactants, ethanol as the co-surfactant and soybean, corn, sunflower oil as the oil phase, have been used for the preparation of ME. The results indicated that a composition of ME (57.5% oil, 18% Tween80, 18% GMO, 4% Linolic acid, and 2.5% water+ethanol) could dissolve maximum water and could stable for 2 mo at room temperature with an average diameter of 6 to 7 nm, as detected by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The loaded of TPs into ME led to an increase of particle size to 15 to 16 nm, due to increased polarity of the water phase. The antioxidant capacity of TPs in ME was characterized by the peroxide value (POV) method. The addition of 1% water phase with 0.1 g/mL TPs could retain the POV at low value for 30 d at accelerating temperature 50 °C. Meanwhile, comparing the three edible oil, ME with corn oil has lower conductivity and higher value of POV during the storage. This work provides an efficient and environmentally friendly approach for the preparation of TPs-loaded ME, which is beneficial to the application of TPs in edible oil. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Repaglinide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: effect of using different surfactants/stabilizers on physicochemical properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Hossein Ali; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Hamidi, Mehrdad; Jalali, Mohammad Barzegar

    2015-09-21

    Repaglinide is an efficient anti-diabetic drug which is prescribed widely as multi-dosage oral daily regimens. Due to the low compliance inherent to each multi-dosage regimen, development of prolonged-release formulations could enhance the overall drug efficacy in patient populations. Repaglinide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed and characterized in vitro. Various surfactants were used in this study during the nanocarrier preparation procedure and their corresponding effects on some physicochemical properties of SLNs such as size, zeta potential; drug loading parameters and drug release profiles was investigated. Stearic acid and glyceryl mono stearate (GMS) were used as lipid phase and phosphatidylcholin, Tween80, Pluronic F127, poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were used as surfactant/stabilizer. The results showed some variations between formulations; where the Tween80-based SLNs showed smallest size, the phosphatidylcholin-based SLNs indicated most prolonged drug release time and the highest loading capacity. SEM images of these formulations showed morphological variations and also confirmed the nanoscale size of these particles. The FTIR and DSC results demonstrated no interaction between drug and excipients. The invitro release profiles of different formulations were studied and observed slow release of drug from all formulations. However significant differences were found among them in terms of their initial burst release as well as the whole drug release profile. From fitting these data to various statistical models, the Peppas model was proposed as the best model to describe the statistical indices and, therefore, mechanism of drug release. The results of this study confirmed the effect of surfactant type on SLNs physicochemical properties such as morphological features, loading parameters, particle sizes and drug release kinetic. With respect to the outcome data, the mixture of phosphatidylcholin/Pluronic F127

  10. Vascular dysfunction in women with a history of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction: insights into future vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Yinon, Yoav; Kingdom, John C P; Odutayo, Ayodele; Moineddin, Rahim; Drewlo, Sascha; Lai, Vesta; Cherney, David Z I; Hladunewich, Michelle A

    2010-11-02

    Women with a history of placental disease are at increased risk for the future development of vascular disease. It is unknown whether preexisting endothelial dysfunction underlies both the predisposition to placental disease and the later development of vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess vascular function in postpartum women and to determine whether differences emerged depending on the presentation of placental disease. Women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia (n=15), late-onset preeclampsia (n=9), intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia (n=9), and prior normal pregnancy (n=16) were studied 6 to 24 months postpartum. Flow-mediated vasodilatation and flow-independent (glyceryl trinitrate-induced) vasodilatation were studied through the use of high-resolution vascular ultrasound examination of the brachial artery. Arterial stiffness was assessed by pulse-wave analysis (augmentation index). Laboratory assessment included circulating angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, placental growth factor, and soluble endoglin). Flow-mediated vasodilatation was significantly reduced in women with previous early-onset preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction compared with women with previous late-onset preeclampsia and control subjects (3.2±2.7% and 2.1±1.2% versus 7.9±3.8% and 9.1±3.5%, respectively; P<0.0001). Flow-independent vasodilatation was similar among all groups. Similarly, the radial augmentation index was significantly increased among women with previous early-onset preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, but not among late preeclamptic women and control subjects (P=0.0105). Circulating angiogenic factors were similar in all groups. Only women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia exhibit impaired vascular function, which might explain their predisposition to placental disease and their higher

  11. A new class of organic nitrates: investigations on bioactivation, tolerance and cross-tolerance phenomena.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, S; Schulz, E; Oelze, M; König, A; Roegler, C; Lange, K; Sydow, L; Kawamoto, T; Wenzel, P; Münzel, T; Lehmann, J; Daiber, A

    2009-09-01

    The chronic use of organic nitrates is limited by serious side effects including oxidative stress, nitrate tolerance and/or endothelial dysfunction. The side effects and potency of nitroglycerine depend on mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). We sought to determine whether this concept can be extended to a new class of organic nitrates with amino moieties (aminoalkyl nitrates). Vasodilator potency of the organic nitrates, in vitro tolerance and in vivo tolerance (after continuous infusion for 3 days) were assessed in wild-type and ALDH-2 knockout mice by isometric tension studies. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was analysed by L-012-dependent chemiluminescence and protein tyrosine nitration. Aminoethyl nitrate (AEN) showed an almost similar potency to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), even though it is only a mononitrate. AEN-dependent vasodilatation was mediated by cGMP and nitric oxide. In contrast to triethanolamine trinitrate (TEAN) and GTN, AEN bioactivation did not depend on ALDH-2 and caused no in vitro tolerance. In vivo treatment with TEAN and GTN, but not with AEN, induced cross-tolerance to acetylcholine (ACh)-dependent and GTN-dependent relaxation. Although all nitrates tested induced tolerance to themselves, only TEAN and GTN significantly increased mitochondrial oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. The present results demonstrate that not all high potency nitrates are bioactivated by ALDH-2 and that high potency of a given nitrate is not necessarily associated with induction of oxidative stress or nitrate tolerance. Obviously, there are distinct pathways for bioactivation of organic nitrates, which for AEN may involve xanthine oxidoreductase rather than P450 enzymes.

  12. Number of nitrate groups determines reactivity and potency of organic nitrates: a proof of concept study in ALDH-2−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, P; Hink, U; Oelze, M; Seeling, A; Isse, T; Bruns, K; Steinhoff, L; Brandt, M; Kleschyov, A L; Schulz, E; Lange, K; Weiner, H; Lehmann, J; Lackner, K J; Kawamoto, T; Münzel, T; Daiber, A

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) has been shown to provide a pathway for bioactivation of organic nitrates and to be prone to desensitization in response to highly potent, but not to less potent, nitrates. We therefore sought to support the hypothesis that bioactivation by ALDH-2 critically depends on the number of nitrate groups within the nitrovasodilator. Experimental approach: Nitrates with one (PEMN), two (PEDN; GDN), three (PETriN; glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) and four (pentaerithrityl tetranitrate, PETN) nitrate groups were investigated. Vasodilatory potency was measured in isometric tension studies using isolated aortic segments of wild type (WT) and ALDH-2−/− mice. Activity of the cGMP-dependent kinase-I (reflected by levels of phosphorylated VAsodilator Stimulated Phosphoprotein, P-VASP) was quantified by Western blot analysis, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity by HPLC. Following incubation of isolated mitochondria with PETN, PETriN-chromophore and PEDN, metabolites were quantified using chemiluminescence nitrogen detection and mass spectrometry. Key results: Compared to WT, vasorelaxation in response to PETN, PETriN and GTN was attenuated about 10fold in ALDH-2−/− mice, identical to WT vessels preincubated with inhibitors of ALDH-2. Reduced vasodilator potency correlated with reduced P-VASP formation and diminished biotransformation of the tetranitrate- and trinitrate-compounds. None of these findings were observed for PEDN, GDN and PEMN. Conclusions and implications: Our results support the crucial role of ALDH-2 in bioactivating highly reactive nitrates like GTN, PETN and PETriN. ALDH-2-mediated relaxation by organic nitrates therefore depends mainly on the number of nitrate groups. Less potent nitrates like PEDN, GDN and PEMN are apparently biotransformed by other pathways. PMID:17220910

  13. Understanding organic nitrates – a vein hope?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark R; Wadsworth, Roger M

    2009-01-01

    The organic nitrate drugs, such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin), are clinically effective in angina because of their dilator profile in veins and arteries. The exact mechanism of intracellular delivery of nitric oxide (NO), or another NO-containing species, from these compounds is not understood. However, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (mtALDH) has recently been identified as an organic nitrate bioactivation enzyme. Nitrate tolerance, the loss of effect of organic nitrates over time, is caused by reduced bioactivation and/or generation of NO-scavenging oxygen-free radicals. In a recent issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Wenzl et al. show that guinea-pigs, deficient in ascorbate, also have impaired responsiveness to GTN, but nitrate tolerance was not due to ascorbate deficiency that exhibited divergent changes in mtALDH activity. Thus, the complex function of mtALDH appears to be the key to activation of GTN, the active NO species formed and the induction of tolerance that can limit clinical effectiveness of organic nitrate drugs. British Journal of Pharmacology (2009) 157, 565–567; doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00193.x This article is part of a themed section on Endothelium in Pharmacology. For a list of all articles in this section see the end of this paper, or visit: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121548564/issueyear?year=2009 The paper by Wenzl et al. is available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122221718/PDFSTART PMID:19630835

  14. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of multifunctional, amphiphilic polyethers with cholesterol moieties.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Sascha; Hofmann, Anna M; Busse, Karsten; Frey, Holger; Kressler, Jörg

    2011-03-01

    Langmuir films of multifunctional, hydrophilic polyethers containing a hydrophobic cholesterol group (Ch) were studied by surface pressure-mean molecular area (π-mmA) measurements and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The polyethers were either homopolymers or diblock copolymers of linear poly(glycerol) (lPG), linear poly(glyceryl glycidyl ether) (lPGG), linear poly(ethylene glycol) (lPEG), or hyperbranched poly(glycerol) (hbPG). Surface pressure measurements revealed that the homopolymers lPG and hbPG did not stay at the water surface after spreading and solvent evaporation, in contrast to lPEG. Because of the incorporation of the Ch group in the polymer structure, stable Langmuir films were formed by Ch-lPG(n), Ch-lPGG(n), and Ch-hbPG(n). The Ch-hbPG(n), Ch-lPEG(n), Ch-lPEG(n)-b-lPG(m), Ch-lPEG(n)-b-lPGG(m), and Ch-lPEG(n)-b-hbPG(m) systems showed an extended plateau region assigned to a phase transition involving the Ch groups. Typical hierarchically ordered morphologies of the LB films on hydrophilic substrates were observed for all Ch-initiated polymers. All LB films showed that Ch of the Ch-initiated homopolymers is able to crystallize. This strong tendency of self-aggregation then triggers further dewetting effects of the respective polyether entities. Fingerlike morphologies are observed for Ch-lPEG(69), since the lPEG(69) entity is able to undergo crystallization after transfer onto the silicon substrate.

  15. The effect of lipophilicity of spin-labeled compounds on their distribution in solid lipid nanoparticle dispersions studied by electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Pegi, Ahlin; Julijana, Kristl; Slavko, Pecar; Janez, Strancar; Marjeta, Sentjurc

    2003-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) constitute an attractive drug carrier system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of lipophilicity and structure of different model molecules on their distribution in SLN dispersions. SLN composed of glyceryl tripalmitate as lipid and soybean lecithin and poloxamer 188 as stabilizers were prepared by a melt-emulsification process. PC(10,3), MeFASL(10,3), C(14)-Tempo, and Tempol were incorporated into SLN as spin-labeled compounds. The partition of SP between triglyceride and water was determined experimentally by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and compared with calculated partition coefficients. The distribution of molecules in SLN dispersions was determined from the parameters of EPR spectra, from the reduction kinetics of the spin-labeled compounds with sodium ascorbate, and by computer simulation of EPR spectral line shapes. The experimentally obtained partition coefficients increase in the order Tempol < MeFASL(10,3) < C(14)-Tempo, showing the same trend as the partition coefficients calculated according to Rekker. In SLN dispersions, it was estimated that the ratio of SP between solid lipid core, phospholipid layers (deeper in SLN layer or in liposomes and closer to the surface of SLN), and water is for Tempol 0:0:100, for C(14)-Tempo 46:54(20:34):0, for MeFASL(10,3) 34:65(38:27):1, and for PC(10,3) 10:89(26:3:60):1. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association

  16. Fabrication of novel GMO/Eudragit E100 nanostructures for enhancing oral bioavailability of carvedilol.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sharvil S; Roy, Krishtey; Choudhary, Bhavana; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, novel nanostructures comprising of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and Eudragit E100 were prepared using high intensity ultrasonic homogenization. 3(2) Factorial design approach was used for optimization of nanostructures. Results of regression analysis revealed that the amount of GMO and Eudragit E100 had a drastic effect on particle size and percent entrapment efficiency. Optimized carvedilol-loaded nanostructures (Car-NS) were characterized by FTIR, TEM, DSC, in vitro drug release study. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, Tmax, Ke, Ka, Vd and AUC were estimated for Car-NS upon its oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats. Particle size of Car-NS was found to be 183 ± 2.43 nm with an entrapment efficiency of 81.4 ± 0.512%. FTIR studies revealed loading and chemical compatibility of carvedilol with the components of nanostructures. DSC thermograms did not show endothermic peak for melting of carvedilol which could be attributed to solubilization of carvedilol in molten GMO during DSC run. The prepared Car-NS released carvedilol in sustained manner over a period of 10 h as suggested by in vitro drug release study. The pharmacokinetic study of Car-NS showed significant improvement in Cmax (two fold, p < 0.001) and AUC (four folds, p < 0.001) of carvedilol when compared to carvedilol suspension. Car-NS were found to be stable for a period of 3 months. Thus, a stable, floating, multiparticulate GMO/Eudragit E100 nanostructures having ability to release the drug in sustained manner with enhanced oral bioavailability can prove to be a promising carrier system for poorly water soluble drugs.

  17. Evaluation and optimization of pH-responsive niosomes as a carrier for efficient treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Salem, Heba F; Kharshoum, Rasha M; Abo El-Ela, Fatma I; F, Amr Gamal; Abdellatif, Khaled R A

    2018-06-01

    Tamoxifen citrate (TXC) is commonly indicated to prevent cell multiplication and development of breast cancer. However, it is usually associated with limited activity and development of toxicity and resistance. This study aimed to describe an in situ pH-responsive niosomes as a carrier for localized and sustained delivery of TXC. The thin film hydration method was utilized to produce TXC niosomes using sorbitan monostearate and cholesterol of 1:1 Molar ratio. The produced formula displayed nano-spherical shape with entrapment efficiency (EE) of 88.90 ± 0.72% and drug release of 49.2 ± 1.51% within 8 h. This formula was incorporated into chitosan/glyceryl monooleate (CH/GMO) as a localized in situ pH-responsive hydrogel delivery system. Different formulae were produced by Design-Expert software based on user-defined response surface design utilizing different chitosan concentration (A) and GMO concentration (B) characterized for mean viscosity (R 2 ) and in vitro release studies (R 1 ). The results displayed that R 1 was significantly antagonistic with both of A and B while R 2 was significantly synergistic with both of them. The optimum formula was selected and capped with gold as an ideal candidate for computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the efficacy and tissue distribution of TXC utilizing Ehrlich carcinoma mice model. The optimum formula showed localized TXC in a tumour and consequently a significant anti-tumour efficacy compared with free TXC. Based on these outcomes, the novel in situ pH-responsive TXC-loaded noisome could be a promising formula for the efficient treatment of breast cancer.

  18. Insulin resistance adds to endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients and in normotensive offspring of subjects with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zizek, B; Poredos, P

    2001-02-01

    To evaluate whether endothelium-dependent (nitric oxide-mediated) dilation of the brachial artery (BA) is impaired in patients being treated for essential hypertension (EH), and whether this abnormality can be detected in normotensive offspring of subjects with EH (familial trait, FT); and to investigate the interrelationship between flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance. Cross-sectional study. Angiology department at a teaching hospital. The study encompassed 172 subjects, of whom 46 were treated hypertonics aged 40-55 (49) years, and 44 age-matched, normotensive volunteers as controls. We also investigated 41 normotonics with FT aged 20-30 (25) years and 41 age-and sex-matched controls without FT. Using high-resolution ultrasound, BA diameters at rest, during reactive hyperaemia (endothelium-dependent dilation) and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) application (endothelium-independent dilation) were measured. In hypertonics FMD was significantly lower than in controls [2.4 (2.9) vs. 7.4 (2.5)%; P < 0.00005], as was GTN-induced dilation [12.1 (4.3) vs. 16.1 (4.6)%; P=0.0007]. In subjects with FT, FMD was also decreased compared with the control group [5.8 (4.1) vs. 10.0 (3.0)%; P < 0.00005]. The response to GTN was comparable in both groups of young subjects. FMD was negatively related to insulin concentration in all subjects studied (P < 0.00005). In treated patients with EH, flow-mediated dilation of the BA as well as endothelium-independent dilation are decreased. In individuals with FT the endothelial function of the peripheral arteries is also altered in the absence of elevated blood pressure. Endothelial dysfunction is related to hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance, which could be one of the pathogenetic determinants of EH and its complications.

  19. Protective Effects of Butyrate-based Compounds on a Mouse Model for Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Butchbach, Matthew E. R.; Lumpkin, Casey J.; Harris, Ashlee W.; Saieva, Luciano; Edwards, Jonathan D.; Workman, Eileen; Simard, Louise R.; Pellizzoni, Livio; Burghes, Arthur H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a childhood-onset degenerative disease resulting from the selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord. SMA is caused by the loss of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1) but retention of SMN2. The number of copies of SMN2 modifies disease severity in SMA patients as well as in mouse models, making SMN2 a target for therapeutics development. Sodium butyrate (BA) and its analogue (4PBA) have been shown to increase SMN2 expression in SMA cultured cells. In this study, we examined the effects of BA, 4PBA as well as two BA prodrugs—glyceryl tributyrate (BA3G) and VX563—on the phenotype of SMNΔ7 SMA mice. Treatment with 4PBA, BA3G and VX563 but not BA beginning at PND04 significantly improved the lifespan and delayed disease end stage, with administration of VX563 also improving the growth rate of these mice. 4PBA and VX563 improved the motor phenotype of SMNΔ7 SMA mice and prevented spinal motor neuron loss. Interestingly, neither 4PBA nor VX563 had an effect on SMN expression in the spinal cords of treated SMNΔ7 SMA mice; however, they inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and restored the normal phosphorylation states of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, both of which are altered by SMN deficiency in vivo. These observations show that BA-based compounds with favourable pharmacokinetics ameliorate SMA pathology possibly by modulating HDAC and Akt signaling. PMID:26892876

  20. Measurement of the Biomechanical Function and Structure of Ex Vivo Drying Skin Using Raman Spectral Analysis and its Modulation with Emollient Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Biniek, Krysta; Tfayli, Ali; Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Quatela, Alessia; Galliano, Marie-Florence; Delalleau, Alexandre; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Duplan, Helene

    2018-06-22

    An important aspect of the biomechanical behavior of the stratum corneum (SC) is the drying stresses that develop with water loss. These stresses act as a driving force for damage in the form of chapping and cracking. Betasitosterol is a plant sterol with a structure similar to cholesterol, a key component in the intercellular lipids of the outermost layer of human skin, the SC. Cholesterol plays an important role in stabilizing the SC lipid structure, and altered levels of cholesterol have been linked with SC barrier abnormalities. Betasitosterol is currently applied topically to skin for treatment of wounds and burns. However, it is unknown what effect betasitosterol has on the biomechanical barrier function of skin. Here, by analyzing the drying stress profile of SC generated during a kinetics of dehydration, we show that betasitosterol, in combination with two emollient molecules, isocetyl stearoyl stearate (ISS) and glyceryl tri-2-ethylhexanoate (GTEH), causes a significant modulation of the drying stress behavior of the SC by reducing both the maximal peak stress height and average plateau of the drying stress profile. Raman spectra analyses demonstrate that the combination of betasitosterol with the two emollients, ISS and GTEH, allows a high water retention capacity within the SC, while the lipid conformational order by increasing the amount of trans conformers. Our study highlights the advantage of combining a biomechanical approach together with Raman spectroscopy in engineering a suitable combination of molecules for alleviating dryness and dry skin damage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of aldehyde dehydrogenase in hypoxic vasodilator effects of nitrite in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Sayqa; Borgognone, Alessandra; Lin, Erica Lai-Sze; O'Sullivan, Aine G; Sharma, Vishal; Drury, Nigel E; Menon, Ashvini; Nightingale, Peter; Mascaro, Jorge; Bonser, Robert S; Horowitz, John D; Feelisch, Martin; Frenneaux, Michael P; Madhani, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypoxic conditions favour the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) to elicit vasodilatation, but the mechanism(s) responsible for bioconversion remains ill defined. In the present study, we assess the role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in nitrite bioactivation under normoxia and hypoxia in the rat and human vasculature. Experimental Approach The role of ALDH2 in vascular responses to nitrite was studied using rat thoracic aorta and gluteal subcutaneous fat resistance vessels from patients with heart failure (HF; 16 patients) in vitro and by measurement of changes in forearm blood flow (FBF) during intra-arterial nitrite infusion (21 patients) in vivo. Specifically, we investigated the effects of (i) ALDH2 inhibition by cyanamide or propionaldehyde and the (ii) tolerance-independent inactivation of ALDH2 by glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) on the vasodilator activity of nitrite. In each setting, nitrite effects were measured via evaluation of the concentration–response relationship under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in the absence or presence of ALDH2 inhibitors. Key Results Both in rat aorta and human resistance vessels, dilatation to nitrite was diminished following ALDH2 inhibition, in particular under hypoxia. In humans there was a non-significant trend towards attenuation of nitrite-mediated increases in FBF. Conclusions and Implications In human and rat vascular tissue in vitro, hypoxic nitrite-mediated vasodilatation involves ALDH2. In patients with HF in vivo, the role of this enzyme in nitrite bioactivation is at the most, modest, suggesting the involvement of other more important mechanisms. PMID:25754766

  2. Modulation of the vasodepressor actions of acetylcholine, bradykinin, substance P and endothelin in the rat by a specific inhibitor of nitric oxide formation.

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, B. J.; Lopez-Belmonte, J.; Rees, D. D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of the specific inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) formation, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), on resting systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) and on the actions of both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilators were investigated in the anaesthetized, normotensive rat. 2. Intravenous administration of L-NMMA (12.5-50 mg kg-1; 47-188 mumol kg-1) but not its enantiomer, D-NMMA, induced a dose-related increase in BP, which was reversed by the intravenous administration of L-arginine (150-600 mumol kg-1), but not D-arginine. 3. The vasodepressor responses to intravenous administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilators, acetylcholine, bradykinin and substance P were significantly inhibited by L-NMMA (94 and 188 mumol kg-1 i.v.), but not by D-NMMA. 4. The inhibition by L-NMMA of these vasodepressor responses was reversed by administration of L-arginine, but not D-arginine. 5. Endothelin (ET-1) induced dose-related vasodepressor responses following bolus intravenous administration, which were significantly inhibited by L-NMMA but not by D-NMMA. This inhibition was reversed by administration of L-arginine. 6. The vasodepressor effects of the endothelium-independent vasodilators, glyceryl trinitrate or prostacyclin, were not significantly inhibited by L-NMMA. 7. These findings with L-NMMA suggest that resting blood pressure in the rat is modulated by endogenous NO biosynthesis and that endothelium-dependent vasodilators act through the formation of endogenous NO to exert their actions in vivo. PMID:2479442

  3. Effects of nifedipine on anorectal smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cook, T A; Brading, A F; Mortensen, N J

    1999-06-01

    Glyceryl trinitrate reduces anal resting pressure and aids the healing of anal fissures. However, some patients develop tachyphylaxis and the fissure fails to heal, suggesting that other agents are needed. This study assesses the effects of nifedipine (a calcium channel antagonist) in modulating resting tone and agonist-induced contractions in human internal anal sphincter (IAS) and rectal circular muscle. Smooth muscle strips from the IAS and rectal circular muscle from ten patients undergoing surgical resection were mounted for isometric tension recording in a superfusion organ bath. The effects of noradrenaline and carbachol were assessed in the presence of various perfusates. LAS strips developed tone and spontaneous activity. Noradrenaline produced dose-dependent contractions. In calcium-free Krebs solution, tone and activity were abolished and no contractions were elicited in response to noradrenaline. Nifedipine also abolished tone and spontaneous activity, but contractions to noradrenaline were only slightly attenuated. In contrast, rectal smooth muscle strips developed spontaneous activity but no resting tone and contracted in response to carbachol. In calcium-free Krebs solution, the spontaneous activity and carbachol contractions were abolished. Addition of nifedipine to the perfusate abolished spontaneous activity and greatly reduced contractions. These data suggest that spontaneous activity and resting tone are dependent on extracellular calcium and flux across the cells. Agonist-induced contraction in the IAS is attributable mainly to the release of calcium from intracellular stores, whereas rectal circular smooth muscle depends principally on extracellular calcium entering the cell for contraction. The attenuation of contractions in both tissues and the abolition of resting tone in the IAS suggest that nifedipine may be useful in the management of patients with anorectal disorders.

  4. Influence of type and level of water-soluble additives on drug release and surface and mechanical properties of Surelease films.

    PubMed

    Rohera, Bhagwan D; Parikh, Nilesh H

    2002-11-01

    Ethylcellulose in combination with water-soluble additives has been used in the development of microporous membrane-coated dosage forms. In the present study, application of three types of water-soluble additives, namely polyethylene glycols (PEG 400, 3350, and 8000), maltodextrins (Maltrin M150, M100, and M040 in the order of lower to higher average polymer size and molecular weight; dextrose equivalence 16.9, 11.1, and 4.8, respectively), and xylitol, as porosity modifiers in the films of a commercially available aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion (Surelease/E-7-7060 plasticized with glyceryl tricaprylate/caprate) was investigated. The effect of type and level of these additives on drug release characteristics and surface and mechanical properties of the polymeric films was studied. Each additive was incorporated at 20 and 30% levels in the polymeric dispersion based on its solids content. Ibuprofen tablets were coated using the polymeric dispersion with and without additive at 3% w/w coat level in a fluid-bed equipment. The coated tablets were evaluated for their drug release rate, coat reflectivity (gloss), Brinell hardness, and elastic modulus. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of the films was performed to determine the physico-chemical changes in the applied film-coats. The rate of drug release, hence film porosity, was observed to be dependent on the type and level of the additive added. The molecular weight of the additive and its concentration in the polymeric dispersion had significant influence on the rate of drug release, hardness, and elasticity of the film-coats.

  5. A Look Behind the Salt Curve: An Examination of Thickening Mechanisms in Shampoo Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penfield, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements are used to examine two mechanisms for thickening simple shampoo formulations. The salt curve, in which viscosity of a surfactant solution is maximized at intermediate levels of salt, is shown to be due to the variation in relaxation time; this is found to correlate with variation in the degree of entanglement per micelle. This is contrasted with the effect of PEG-150 distearate, which alters viscosity through a change in modulus.

  6. A novel mathematical model considering change of diffusion coefficient for predicting dissolution behavior of acetaminophen from wax matrix dosage form.

    PubMed

    Nitanai, Yuta; Agata, Yasuyoshi; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2012-05-30

    From wax matrix dosage forms, drug and water-soluble polymer are released into the external solvent over time. As a consequence, the pore volume inside the wax matrix particles is increased and the diffusion coefficient of the drug is altered. In the present study, we attempted to derive a novel empirical mathematical model, namely, a time-dependent diffusivity (TDD) model, that assumes the change in the drug's diffusion coefficient can be used to predict the drug release from spherical wax matrix particles. Wax matrix particles were prepared by using acetaminophen (APAP), a model drug; glyceryl monostearate (GM), a wax base; and aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE), a functional polymer that dissolves below pH 5.0 and swells over pH 5.0. A three-factor, three-level (3(3)) Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of several of the variables in the model formulation, and the release of APAP from wax matrix particles was evaluated by the paddle method at pH 4.0 and pH 6.5. When comparing the goodness of fit to the experimental data between the proposed TDD model and the conventional pure diffusion model, a better correspondence was observed for the TDD model in all cases. Multiple regression analysis revealed that an increase in AMCE loading enhanced the diffusion coefficient with time, and that this increase also had a significant effect on drug release behavior. Furthermore, from the results of the multiple regression analysis, a formulation with desired drug release behavior was found to satisfy the criteria of the bitter taste masking of APAP without lowering the bioavailability. That is to say, the amount of APAP released remains below 15% for 10 min at pH 6.5 and exceeds 90% within 30 min at pH 4.0. The predicted formulation was 15% APAP loading, 8.25% AMCE loading, and 400 μm mean particle diameter. When wax matrix dosage forms were prepared accordingly, the predicted drug release behavior agreed well with experimental values at each pH level

  7. Development, Characterization and Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a potential Anticancer Drug Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Meghavi

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) consist of spherical solid lipid particles in the nanometer size range, which are dispersed in water or in an aqueous surfactant solution. SLN technology represents a promising new approach to deliver hydrophilic as well as lipophilic drugs. The commercialization of SLN technology remains limited despite numerous efforts from researchers. The purpose of this research was to advance SLN preparation methodology by investigating the feasibility of preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles by using three preparation methods namely microemulsion technique, magnetic stirring technique and temperature modulated solidification technique of which the latter two were developed in our laboratory. An anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil was incorporated in the SLNs prepared via the temperature modulated solidification process. Optimization of the magnetic stirring process was performed to evaluate how the physicochemical properties of the SLN was influenced by systematically varying process parameters including concentration of the lipid, concentration of the surfactant, type of surfactant, time of stirring and temperature of storage. The results demonstrated 1:2 GMS to tween 80 ratio, 150 ml dispersion medium and 45 min stirring at 4000 RPM speed provided an optimum formulation via the temperature modulated solidification process. SLN dispersions were lyophilized to stabilize the solid lipid nanoparticles and the lyophilizates exhibited good redispersibility. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis via dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release studies. Particle size of SLN dispersion prepared via the three preparation techniques was approximately 66 nm and that of redispersed lyophilizates was below 500 nm. TEM images showed spherical to oval particles that were less dense in the core

  8. Optimization of a novel wax matrix system using aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E and ethylcellulose to suppress the bitter taste of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Shiino, Kai; Iwao, Yasunori; Miyagishima, Atsuo; Itai, Shigeru

    2010-08-16

    The purpose of the present study was to design and evaluate a novel wax matrix system containing various ratios of aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE) and ethylcellulose (EC) as functional polymers in order to achieve the optimal acetaminophen (APAP) release rate for taste masking. A two factor, three level (3(2)) full factorial study design was used to optimize the ratios of AMCE and EC, and the release of APAP from the wax matrix was evaluated using a stationary disk in accordance with the paddle method. The disk was prepared by congealing glyceryl monostearate (GM), a wax with a low melting point, with various ratios of polymers and APAP. The criteria for release rate of APAP from the disk at pH 4.0 and pH 6.5 were calculated to be more than 0.5017 microg/(mlxmin) and less than 0.1414 microg/(mlxmin), respectively, under the assumption that the particle size of spherical matrix should be 100 microm. In multiple regression analysis, the release of APAP at pH 4.0 was found to increase markedly as the concentration of AMCE increased, whereas the release of APAP at pH 6.5 decreased as the EC concentration increased, even when a high level of AMCE was incorporated. Using principle component analysis, it was found that the viscosity of the matrix affects the pH-dependent release of APAP at pH 4.0 and pH 6.5. Furthermore, using multiple regression analysis, the optimum ratio of APAP:AMCE:EC:GM was found to be 30:7:10:53, and the release pattern of APAP from the optimum wax formulation nearly complied with the desired criteria. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the incorporation of AMCE and EC into a wax matrix system enabled the appropriate release of APAP as a means of taste masking. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and in vivo evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticulate systems of Olanzapine for acute phase schizophrenia treatment: Investigations on antipsychotic potential and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Emil; Reddi, Satish; Rinwa, Vibhu; Balwani, Garima; Saha, Ranendra

    2017-06-15

    The present paper discusses the design, characterization and in vivo evaluation of glyceryl monostearate nanoparticles of Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug for acute schizophrenia treatment, during which hospitalization is mandatory and adverse effects are at its peak. The solid lipid nanoparticulate system was obtained by emulsification-ultra sonication technique wherein three factors such as solid lipid content, concentration of surfactant and drug: solid lipid ratio were selected at three different levels in order to study their influence on significant characteristic responses such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency and drug content. A Box Behnken design with 17 runs involving whole factors at three levels was employed for the study. The optimized formulation was further coated with Polysorbate 80 in order to enhance its brain targeting potential through endocytosis transport process via blood brain barrier. The designed formulations were pre-clinically tested successfully in Wistar rat model for in vivo antipsychotic efficacy (apomorphine induced psychosis) and adverse effects (weight gain study for 28days). The results obtained indicated that solid lipid nanoparticles had very narrow size distribution (151.29±3.36nm) with very high encapsulation efficiency (74.51±1.75%). Morphological studies by SEM have shown that solid lipid nanoparticles were spherical in shape with smooth surface. Olanzapine-loaded nanoparticles prepared from solid lipid, extended the release of drug for 48h, as found by the in vitro release studies. The formulations also exhibited high redispersibility after freeze-drying and stability study results demonstrated good stability, with no significant change for a period of 6months. In vivo evaluation and adverse effects studies of Olanzapine-loaded nanoparticulate systems in animal model have demonstrated an improved therapeutic efficacy than pure Olanzapine. The antipsychotic effect of drug loaded nanoparticulate systems

  10. Buparvaquone loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery in theleriosis

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Maheshkumar P.; Shelkar, Nilakash; Gaikwad, Rajiv V.; Vanage, Geeta R.; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Buparvaquone (BPQ), a hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative, has been investigated for the treatment of many infections and is recommended as the gold standard for the treatment of theileriosis. Theileriosis, an intramacrophage infection is localized mainly in reticuloendotheileial system (RES) organs. The present study investigates development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of BPQ for targeted delivery to the RES. Materials and Methods: BPQ SLN was prepared using melt method by adding a molten mixture into aqueous Lutrol F68 solution (80°C). Larger batches were prepared up to 6 g of BPQ with GMS: BPQ, 2:1. SLN of designed size were obtained using ultraturrax and high pressure homogenizer. A freeze and thaw study was used to optimize type and concentration of cryoprotectant with Sf: Mean particle size, Si: Initial particle size <1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study was performed on optimized formulation. Formulation was investigated for in vitro serum stability, hemolysis and cell uptake study. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study was performed in Holtzman rat. Results: Based on solubility in lipid; glyceryl monostearate (GMS) was selected for preparation of BPQ SLN. Batches of BPQ SLN were optimized for average particle size and entrapment efficiency at <100 mg solid content. A combination of Solutol HS-15 and Lutrol F68 at 2% w/v and greater enabled the desired Sf/Si < 1.3. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed decrease in crystallinity of BPQ in BPQ SLN while, scanning electron microscope revealed spherical morphology. BPQ SLN revealed good stability at 4°C and 25°C. Low hemolytic potential (<8%) and in vitro serum stability up to 5 h was observed. Cytotoxicity of SLN to the U937 cell was low. The macrophage cell line revealed high (52%) uptake of BPQ SLN in 1 h suggesting the potential to RES uptake. SLN revealed longer

  11. Phase 2 comparison of a novel ammonia scavenging agent with sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with urea cycle disorders: safety, pharmacokinetics and ammonia control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brendan; Rhead, William; Diaz, George A; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Mian, Asad; Shchelochkov, Oleg; Marier, J F; Beliveau, Martin; Mauney, Joseph; Dickinson, Klara; Martinez, Antonia; Gargosky, Sharron; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Berry, Susan A

    2010-07-01

    Glycerol phenylbutyrate (glyceryl tri (4-phenylbutyrate)) (GPB) is being studied as an alternative to sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) for the treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs). This phase 2 study explored the hypothesis that GPB offers similar safety and ammonia control as NaPBA, which is currently approved as adjunctive therapy in the chronic management of UCDs, and examined correlates of 24-h blood ammonia. An open-label, fixed sequence switch-over study was conducted in adult UCD patients taking maintenance NaPBA. Blood ammonia and blood and urine metabolites were compared after 7 days (steady state) of TID dosing on either drug, both dosed to deliver the same amount of phenylbutyric acid (PBA). Ten subjects completed the study. Adverse events were comparable for the two drugs; 2 subjects experienced hyperammonemic events on NaPBA while none occurred on GPB. Ammonia values on GPB were approximately 30% lower than on NaPBA (time-normalized AUC=26.2 vs. 38.4 micromol/L; Cmax=56.3 vs. 79.1 micromol/L; not statistically significant), and GPB achieved non-inferiority to NaPBA with respect to ammonia (time-normalized AUC) by post hoc analysis. Systemic exposure (AUC(0-24)) to PBA on GPB was 27% lower than on NaPBA (540 vs. 739 microgh/mL), whereas exposure to phenylacetic acid (PAA) (575 vs. 596 microg h/mL) and phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) (1098 vs. 1133 microg h/mL) were similar. Urinary PAGN excretion accounted for approximately 54% of PBA administered for both NaPBA and GPB; other metabolites accounted for <1%. Intact GPB was generally undetectable in blood and urine. Blood ammonia correlated strongly and inversely with urinary PAGN (r=-0.82; p<0.0001) but weakly or not at all with blood metabolite levels. Safety and ammonia control with GPB appear at least equal to NaPBA. Urinary PAGN, which is stoichiometrically related to nitrogen scavenging, may be a useful biomarker for both dose selection and adjustment for optimal control of venous ammonia. Copyright

  12. Evaluation of hydrophobic materials as matrices for controlled-release drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Rahman, M Sharifur; Karim, M Ziaul; Akter, Sanjida; Awkat, M Talat Bin; Reza, Md Selim

    2003-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different insoluble and erodable wax-lipid based materials and their content level on the release profile of drug from matrix systems. Matrix tablets of theophylline were prepared using carnauba wax, bees wax, stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate as rate-retarding agents by direct compression process. The release of theophylline from these hydrophobic matrices was studied over 8-hours in buffer media of pH 6.8. Statistically significant difference was found among the drug release profile from different matrices. The release kinetics was found to be governed by the type and content of hydrophobic materials in the matrix. At lower level of wax matrices (25%), a potential burst release was observed with all the materials being studied. Bees wax could not exert any sustaining action while an extensive burst release was found with carnauba wax at this hydrophobic load. Increasing the concentration of fat-wax materials significantly decreased the burst effect of drug from the matrix. At higher hydrophobic level (50% of the matrix), the rate and extent of drug release was significantly reduced due to increased tortuosity and reduced porosity of the matrix. Cetostearyl alcohol imparted the strongest retardation of drug release irrespective of fat-wax level. Numerical fits indicate that the Higuchi square root of time model was the most appropriate one for describing the release profile of theophylline from hydrophobic matrices. The release mechanism was also explored and explained with biexponential equation. Application of this model indicates that Fickian or case I kinetics is the predominant mechanism of drug release from these wax-lipid matrices. The mean dissolution time (MDT) was calculated for all the formulations and the highest MDT value was obtained with cetostearyl matrix. The greater sustaining activity of cetostearyl alcohol can be attributed to some level of

  13. Impaired vasoreactivity in mildly disabled CADASIL patients.

    PubMed

    Campolo, Jonica; De Maria, Renata; Frontali, Marina; Taroni, Franco; Inzitari, Domenico; Federico, Antonio; Romano, Silvia; Puca, Emanuele; Mariotti, Caterina; Tomasello, Chiara; Pantoni, Leonardo; Pescini, Francesca; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Stromillo, Maria Laura; De Stefano, Nicola; Tavani, Alessandra; Parodi, Oberdan

    2012-03-01

    CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is a rare genetic disease caused by NOTCH3 gene mutations. A dysfunction in vasoreactivity has been proposed as an early event in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to verify whether endothelium dependent and/or independent function is altered in CADASIL patients with respect to controls. Vasoreactivity was studied by a non-invasive pletismographic method in 49 mildly disabled CADASIL patients (30-65 years, 58% male, Rankin scale ≤2) and 25 controls. Endothelium dependent vasodilatation was assessed by reactive hyperaemia (flow mediated dilation-peripheral arterial tone (FMD-PAT)) and endothelium independent vasoreactivity by glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) administration (GTN-PAT). Patients and controls showed comparable age, gender and cardiovascular risk factor distribution. GTN-PAT values were significantly lower in CADASIL patients (1.54 (1.01 to 2.25)) than in controls (1.89 (1.61 to 2.59); p=0.041). FMD-PAT scores did not differ between patients and controls (1.88 (1.57 to 2.43) vs 2.08 (1.81 to 2.58); p=0.126) but 17 CADASIL patients (35%) had FMD-PAT scores below the fifth percentile of controls. FMD-PAT and GTN-PAT values correlated both in controls (ρ=0.648, p<0.001) and CADASIL patients (ρ=0.563, p<0.001). By multivariable logistic regression for clinical and laboratory variables, only GTN-PAT (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.97; p=0.044) was independently associated with FMD-PAT below the fifth percentile in CADASIL patients. The impaired vasoreactivity observed in CADASIL patients highlights the fact that both endothelial and smooth muscle functional alterations may already be present in mildly disabled subjects. The improvement in vascular function could be a new target for pharmacological trials in CADASIL patients.

  14. Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin but not conventional aspirin improves healing of experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zwolinska-Wcislo, Malgorzata; Brzozowski, Tomasz; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Targosz, Aneta; Urbanczyk, Katarzyna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Sliwowski, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, selective COX-2 inhibitors and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing aspirin in the healing of ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Rats with 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfon-ic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis received intragastric (ig) treatment with vehicle, aspirin (ASA) (a non-selective COX inhibitor), celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) or NO-releasing ASA for a period of ten days. The area of colonic lesions, colonic blood flow (CBF), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and expression of proinflammatory markers COX-2, inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assessed. The effects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a NO donor, and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5-​tetramethyl-1H-imidazolyl-1-oxy-3-oxide, onopotassium salt (carboxy-PTIO), a NO scavenger, administered without and with ASA or NO-ASA, and the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves in the mechanism of healing the experimental colitis was also determined. RESULTS: Rats with colitis developed macroscopic and microscopic colonic lesions accompanied by a significant decrease in the CBF, a significant rise in colonic weight, MPO activity and plasma IL-1β and TNF-α levels. These effects were aggravated by ASA and 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole (SC-560), but not celecoxib and counteracted by concurrent treatment with a synthetic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) analog. Treatment with NO-ASA dose-dependently accelerated colonic healing followed by a rise in plasma NOx content and CBF, suppression of MPO and downregulation of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs. Treatment with GTN, the NO donor, significantly inhibited the ASA-induced colonic lesions and increased CBF, while carboxy-PTIO or capsaicin-denervation counteracted the NO-ASA-induced improvement of colonic healing and the accompanying increase in the CBF. These effects were restored by co

  15. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. © 2011 The Authors

  16. Method developments approaches in supercritical fluid chromatography applied to the analysis of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lesellier, E; Mith, D; Dubrulle, I

    2015-12-04

    Analyses of complex samples of cosmetics, such as creams or lotions, are generally achieved by HPLC. These analyses are often multistep gradients, due to the presence of compounds with a large range of polarity. For instance, the bioactive compounds may be polar, while the matrix contains lipid components that are rather non-polar, thus cosmetic formulations are usually oil-water emulsions. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) uses mobile phases composed of carbon dioxide and organic co-solvents, allowing for good solubility of both the active compounds and the matrix excipients. Moreover, the classical and well-known properties of these mobile phases yield fast analyses and ensure rapid method development. However, due to the large number of stationary phases available for SFC and to the varied additional parameters acting both on retention and separation factors (co-solvent nature and percentage, temperature, backpressure, flow rate, column dimensions and particle size), a simplified approach can be followed to ensure a fast method development. First, suited stationary phases should be carefully selected for an initial screening, and then the other operating parameters can be limited to the co-solvent nature and percentage, maintaining the oven temperature and back-pressure constant. To describe simple method development guidelines in SFC, three sample applications are discussed in this paper: UV-filters (sunscreens) in sunscreen cream, glyceryl caprylate in eye liner and caffeine in eye serum. Firstly, five stationary phases (ACQUITY UPC(2)) are screened with isocratic elution conditions (10% methanol in carbon dioxide). Complementary of the stationary phases is assessed based on our spider diagram classification which compares a large number of stationary phases based on five molecular interactions. Secondly, the one or two best stationary phases are retained for further optimization of mobile phase composition, with isocratic elution conditions or, when

  17. Clinical pharmacokinetics of vasodilators. Part II.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, R; Nelson, K; Kirsten, D; Heintz, B

    1998-07-01

    Stimulating cardiac beta 1-adrenoceptors with oxyfedrine causes dilatation of coronary vessels and positive inotropic effects on the myocardium. beta 1-adrenergic agonists increase coronary blood flow in nonstenotic and stenotic vessels. The main indication for the use of the phosphodiesterase inhibitors pamrinone, mirinone, enoximone and piroximone is acute treatment of severe congestive heart failure. Theophylline is indicated for the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, apnea in preterm infants ans sleep apnea syndrome. Severe arterial occlusive disease associated with atherosclerosis can be beneficially affected by elcosanoids. These drugs must be administered parenterally and have a half-life of only a few minutes. Sublingual or buccal preparations of nitrates are the only prompt method (within 1 or 2 min) of terminating anginal pain, except for biting nifedipine capsules. The short half-life (about 2.5 min) of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate) makes long term therapy impossible. Tolerance is a problem encountered with longer-acting nitric oxide donors. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of vasodilating drugs can prevent a too sudden and severe blood pressure decrease in patients with chronic hypertension. In considering the administration of a second dose, or another drug, the time necessary for the initially administered drug to reach maximal efficacy should be taken into account. In hypertensive emergencies urapidil, sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, hydralazine and phentolamine are the drugs of choice, with the addition of beta-blockers during catecholamine crisis or dissecting aortic aneurysm. Childhood hypertension is most often treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or calcium antagonists, primarily nifedipine. Because of the teratogenic risk involved with ACE inhibitors, extreme caution must be exercised when prescribing for adolescent females. The propagation of health benefits to breast

  18. Isolation, molecular properties, and kinetic characterization of lipoprotein lipase from rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.; Scanu, A.M.

    1977-06-25

    Lipoprotein lipase was isolated to electrophoretic and chromatographic purity from rat heart acetone/ether powder by a combination of n-butyl alcohol precipitation and heparin/sepharose affinity column chromatography. By sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride, and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the enzyme was found to have a minimum molecular weight of about 34,000. It had a relative abundance of glutamic acid and contains 3.3 percent carbohydrate by weight. The composition was as follows, in moles per 34,000 g: mannose (neutral sugars), 5.1; sialic acid, 0.8; and glucosamine, 2.3. When tested against a triolein emulsion, the enzyme was activemore » only in the presence of apolipoprotein glutamic acid (apo C-II); it was inactivated by 1 M NaCl and by apolipoproteins serine and alanine isolated from human serum very low density lipoprotein. In order to define the kinetics of hydrolysis of triglyceride by lipoprotein lipase, we carried out studies on monomolecular films of glyceryl tri(1-/sup 14/C)octanoate. In the presence of excess apo C-II, the hydrolysis followed first order time course and yielded a second order rate constant of 1.85 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/ S/sup -1/. The apparent first order rate constants, k/sub exp/, were proportional to enzyme concentrations over at least a 5-fold range. When enzyme concentrations of 0.22, 0.35, and 0.66 ..mu..g/ml were used, the rate of hydrolysis increased as a function of apo C-II concentration and reached a maximum at a concentration of apo C-II corresponding to a molar ratio of enzyme to apo C-II of about 1 : 1, respectively, which suggests the formation of a stoichiometric complex. The availability of a pure enzyme and the knowledge of its kinetics should stimulate further studies on the molecular basis of enzyme action.« less

  19. Mechanism of lipid mobilization by the small intestine after transport blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, J.; Tso, P.; Mansbach, C.M. II

    1988-07-01

    The nonionic detergent, Pluronic L-81 (L-81) has been shown to block the transport of intestinal mucosal triacylglycerol (TG) in chylomicrons. This results in large lipid masses within the enterocyte that are greater in diameter than chylomicrons. On removal of L-81, mucosal TG is rapidly mobilized and appears in the lymph. We questioned whether the blocked TG requires partial or complete hydrolysis before its transport. Rats were infused intraduodenally with (3H)glyceryl, (14C)oleoyl trioleate (TO) and 0.5 mg L-81/h for 8 h, followed by 120 mumol/h linoleate for 18 h. Mesenteric lymph was collected and analyzed for TG content and radioactivity. Anmore » HPLC method was developed to separate TG on the basis of its acyl group species. The assumed acyl group composition was confirmed by gas liquid chromatography analysis. TG lymphatic output was low for the first 8 h but increased to 52 mumol/h at the 11th h of infusion (3 h after stopping L-81). 38% of the infused TO was retained in the mucosa after the 8-h infusion. 95% of mucosal TG was TO, 92% of the radioactivity was in TG, and 2.4% of the 14C disintegrations per minute was in fatty acid. HPLC analysis of lymph at 6, 10, 12, and 14.5 h of infusion showed a progressive rise in TG composed of one linoleate and two oleates, to 39%; and in TG composed of two linoleates and one oleate to 20% at 14.5 h of infusion. On a mass basis, however, 80% of the TG acyl groups were oleate. 3H/14C ratios in the various TG acyl group species reflected the decrease in oleate. We conclude that first, unlike liver, most mucosal TG is not hydrolyzed before transport. The mechanism of how the large lipid masses present in mucosal cells after L-81 infusion are converted to the much smaller chylomicrons is unknown. Second, the concomitant infusion of linoleate did not impair lymph TG delivery after L-81 blockade.« less

  20. Evaporation control research, 1959-60

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1963-01-01

    Two hundred and forty-five dispersions of long-chain alkanols were formulated by using various emulsifiers and alkanols. The dispensing and spreading ability of each of these formulations was tested. The most promising emulsifier that could be used with any of the alkanols was glyceryl monostearate (self-emulsifying). However, the concentration of the alkanol in the dispersion form varied somewhat: with the length of the carbon chain. A maximum concentration of 16 percent was obtained using the longer chain alkanols in the dispersion form without losing any of the properties of a fluid. Nine field tests were undertaken on small stock tanks. The retardant materials used in these tests were dodecanol, hexadecanol, and octadecanol. These materials were applied in either liquid or dispersion form. Four types of dispensing equipment were tested. The first type used a pressure system which sprayed a liquid onto the surface of the water. An anemometer and wind-controlled vane, operated by an electrical system, determined the length End frequency of application. The second type was similar to the first except that gravity was utilized to force the liquid onto the surface. The third type. used a drip system with rates of about 10 drops per minute. The fourth type used a gravity feed and a wind-controlled valve which allowed the dispersion material to flow onto the surface of the water when the wind was in the proper direction. In the field tests, the best reduction in evaporation was obtained using octadecanol in dispersion form and dispensed with the wind-controlled valve and gravity feed system. The maximum reduction in evaporation for a 2-week period was 27 percent. However, the economics of suppressing evaporation from stock tanks is questionable because of the short travel time across the tank by the film. There are still many problems unsolved. Some of these can be resolved in the laboratory whereas others can be resolved only in the field. Some of the more serious

  1. Development of a rectal nicotine delivery system for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Dash, A K; Gong, Z; Miller, D W; Huai-Yan, H; Laforet, J

    1999-11-10

    The aims of this investigation were: i. to develop a rectal nicotine delivery system with bioadhesives for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and ii. to evaluate nicotine transport and cytotoxicity of the delivery system using Caco-2 cell culture systems. Rectal nicotine suppository formulations were prepared in semi-synthetic glyceride bases (Suppocire AM and AI, Gattefosse Inc.) by fusion method. The in vitro release of nicotine was carried out in modified USP dissolution apparatus 1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction were used to study the polymorphic changes if any in the formulations. An LC method was used for the assay of nicotine. The effect of bioadhesives (glyceryl monooleate (GMO), and Carbopol) on the nicotine flux was evaluated using Caco-2 cell permeability studies and Caco-2 cell viability was determined using the MTT toxicity assay. In vitro release studies indicated that the low melting AI base was superior to that of the AM base. Presence of GMO in the formulation enhanced the release of nicotine whereas Carbopol showed an opposite effect. The enhanced release of nicotine in the presence of GMO was found to be partly due to the melting point lowering effect of this compound. Caco-2 cell absorption studies showed that there was a decrease in the flux of nicotine in the presence of both the bioadhesives. The flux of the fluorescein marker which is used to study the integrity of the cell monolayers was found to be slightly higher only in the presence of 10% (w/w) Carbopol. Nicotine, Carbopol, and GMO do not have any cytotoxic effect on these cell monolayers within the concentration range used in the formulations. Rectal nicotine formulations containing bioadhesives were developed and characterized. Both in vitro release and cell culture studies have indicated that one can manipulate the nicotine release from these rectal delivery systems by incorporation of various bioadhesives or the use of different bases in the

  2. A novel method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles using n-butanol as an additional co-surfactant according to the o/w microemulsion quenching technique.

    PubMed

    Mojahedian, Mohammad M; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) are novel medicinal carriers for controlled drug release and drug targeting in different roots of administration such as parenteral, oral, ophthalmic and topical. These carriers have some benefits such as increased drug stability, high drug payload, the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and no biotoxicity. Therefore, due to the cost-efficient, proportionally increasable, and reproducible preparation of SLN/NLC and the avoidance of organic solvents used, the warm microemulsion quenching method was selected from among several preparation methods for development in this research. To prepare the warm O/W microemulsion, lipids (distearin, stearic acid, beeswax, triolein alone or in combination with others) were melted at a temperature of 65°C. After that, different ratios of Tween60 (10-22.5%) and glyceryl monostearate (surfactant and co-surfactant) and water were added, and the combination was stirred. Then, 1-butanol (co-surfactant) was added dropwise until a clear microemulsion was formed and titration continued to achieve cloudiness (to obtain the microemulsion zone). The warm o/w microemulsions were added dropwise into 4°C water (1:5 volume ratio) while being stirred at 400 or 600 rpm. Lipid nanosuspensions were created upon the addition of the warm o/w microemulsion to the cold water. The SLN were obtained over a range of concentrations of co-surfactants and lipids and observed for microemulsion stability (clearness). For selected preparations, characterization involved also determination of mean particle size, polydispersity and shape. According to the aim of this study, the optimum formulations requiring the minimum amounts of 1-butanol (1.2%) and lower temperatures for creation were selected. Mono-disperse lipid nanoparticles were prepared in the size range 77 ± 1 nm to 124 ± 21 nm according to a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and transmission electron

  3. Safety of air travel following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Roby, Howard; Lee, Anna; Hopkins, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial was carried out to: 1) examine the safety of patients flying on commercial airlines 2 wk after a myocardial infarction; 2) determine whether or not the use of supplemental oxygen was associated with a reduced risk of in-flight adverse events; and 3) determine the need for a medical escort. There were 38 patients who were prospectively and randomly assigned supplemental continuous oxygen therapy (2 L x min(-1) via nasal prongs; n = 19) or no oxygen (n = 19) during the flight. Prior to flying, an escorting doctor completed a medical questionnaire for each patient. Both groups underwent Holter monitoring throughout the flight. The major end-point was the development of inflight myocardial ischemia, as detected by Holter monitoring. Minor end-points included patients complaining of chest pain or dyspnea; the detection of bigeminy or trigeminy by Holter monitoring; or oxygen desaturation to less than 90%, as measured by pulse oximetry. Of the 38 patients enrolled, there was only 1 major end-point. This patient had a brief, self-limiting, asymptomatic episode of myocardial ischemia diagnosed by Holter monitoring. Minor end-points occurred in 13 (34%) patients. One patient had asymptomatic evidence of S-T depression on a transport monitor, but not on the Holter. Five patients had transient low (<90%) oxygen saturations, two complained of chest pain, and five had complex ventricular ectopic beats or periods of transient ventricular tachycardia. None of the minor end-points were associated with Holter evidence of myocardial ischemia. Of the 30 patients with completed questionnaires and Holter results, there was no difference in the incidence of minor end-points between the oxygen (5/13) and no oxygen groups (6/15) (p = 0.93). Intervention by the medical escort consisted of commencing oxygen therapy on those patients with low oxygen saturations and those with chest pain. Use of an already dispensed glyceryl trinitrate spray was

  4. Development and evaluation of nanostructured lipid carrier-based hydrogel for topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Rajinikanth, Paruvathanahalli Siddalingam; Chellian, Jestin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC)-based hydrogel and study its potential for the topical delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Precirol® ATO 5 (glyceryl palmitostearate) and Labrasol® were selected as the solid and liquid lipid phases, respectively. Poloxamer 188 and Solutol® HS15 (polyoxyl-15-hydroxystearate) were selected as surfactants. The developed lipid formulations were dispersed in 1% Carbopol® 934 (poly[acrylic acid]) gel medium in order to maintain the topical application consistency. The average size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index for the 5-FU-NLC were found to be 208.32±8.21 nm, −21.82±0.40 mV, and 0.352±0.060, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy study revealed that 5-FU-NLC was <200 nm in size, with a spherical shape. In vitro drug permeation studies showed a release pattern with initial burst followed by sustained release, and the rate of 5-FU permeation was significantly improved for 5-FU-NLC gel (10.27±1.82 μg/cm2/h) as compared with plain 5-FU gel (2.85±1.12 μg/cm2/h). Further, skin retention studies showed a significant retention of 5-FU from the NLC gel (91.256±4.56 μg/cm2) as compared with that from the 5-FU plain gel (12.23±3.86 μg/cm2) in the rat skin. Skin irritation was also significantly reduced with 5-FU-NLC gel as compared with 5-FU plain gel. These results show that the prepared 5-FU-loaded NLC has high potential to improve the penetration of 5-FU through the stratum corneum, with enormous retention and with minimal skin irritation, which is the prerequisite for topically applied formulations. PMID:27785014

  5. The Effect of Millisecond Pulsed Electric Fields (msPEF) on Intracellular Drug Transport with Negatively Charged Large Nanocarriers Made of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN): In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kulbacka, Julita; Pucek, Agata; Wilk, Kazimiera Anna; Dubińska-Magiera, Magda; Rossowska, Joanna; Kulbacki, Marek; Kotulska, Małgorzata

    2016-10-01

    Drug delivery technology is still a dynamically developing field of medicine. The main direction in nanotechnology research (nanocarriers, nanovehicles, etc.) is efficient drug delivery to target cells with simultaneous drug reduction concentration. However, nanotechnology trends in reducing the carrier sizes to several nanometers limit the volume of the loaded substance and may pose a danger of uncontrolled access into the cells. On the other hand, nanoparticles larger than 200 nm in diameter have difficulties to undergo rapid diffusional transport through cell membranes. The main advantage of large nanoparticles is higher drug encapsulation efficiency and the ability to deliver a wider array of drugs. Our present study contributes a new approach with large Tween 80 solid lipid nanoparticles SLN (i.e., hydrodynamic GM-SLN-glycerol monostearate, GM, as the lipid and ATO5-SLNs-glyceryl palmitostearate, ATO5, as the lipid) with diameters DH of 379.4 nm and 547 nm, respectively. They are used as drug carriers alone and in combination with electroporation (EP) induced by millisecond pulsed electric fields. We evaluate if EP can support the transport of large nanocarriers into cells. The study was performed with two cell lines: human colon adenocarcinoma LoVo and hamster ovarian fibroblastoid CHO-K1 with coumarin 6 (C6) as a fluorescent marker for encapsulation. The biological safety of the potential treatment procedure was evaluated with cell viability after their exposure to nanoparticles and EP. The EP efficacy was evaluated by FACS method. The impact on intracellular structure organization of cytoskeleton was visualized by CLSM method with alpha-actin and beta-tubulin. The obtained results indicate low cytotoxicity of both carrier types, free and loaded with C6. The evaluation of cytoskeleton proteins indicated no intracellular structure damage. The intracellular uptake and accumulation show that SLNs do not support transport of C6 coumarin. Only application of

  6. Dapagliflozin acutely improves endothelial dysfunction, reduces aortic stiffness and renal resistive index in type 2 diabetic patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Solini, Anna; Giannini, Livia; Seghieri, Marta; Vitolo, Edoardo; Taddei, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Bruno, Rosa Maria

    2017-10-23

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors reduce blood pressure (BP) and renal and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes through not fully elucidated mechanisms. Aim of this study was to investigate whether dapagliflozin is able to acutely modify systemic and renal vascular function, as well as putative mechanisms. Neuro-hormonal and vascular variables, together with 24 h diuresis, urinary sodium, glucose, isoprostanes and free-water clearance were assessed before and after a 2-day treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg QD in sixteen type 2 diabetic patients; data were compared with those obtained in ten patients treated with hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg QD. Brachial artery endothelium-dependent and independent vasodilation (by flow-mediated dilation) and pulse wave velocity were assessed. Renal resistive index was obtained at rest and after glyceryl trinitrate administration. Differences were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA, considering treatment as between factor and time as within factor; Bonferroni post hoc comparison test was also used. Dapagliflozin decreased systolic BP and induced an increase in 24 h diuresis to a similar extent of hydrochlorothiazide; 24 h urinary glucose and serum magnesium were also increased. 24 h urinary sodium and fasting blood glucose were unchanged. Oxidative stress was reduced, as by a decline in urinary isoprostanes. Flow-mediated dilation was significantly increased (2.8 ± 2.2 to 4.0 ± 2.1%, p < 0.05), and pulse-wave-velocity was reduced (10.1 ± 1.6 to 8.9 ± 1.6 m/s, p < 0.05), even after correction for mean BP. Renal resistive index was reduced (0.62 ± 0.04 to 0.59 ± 0.05, p < 0.05). These vascular modifications were not observed in hydrochlorothiazide-treated individuals. An acute treatment with dapagliflozin significantly improves systemic endothelial function, arterial stiffness and renal resistive index; this effect is independent of changes in BP and occurs in the presence

  7. Impact of autologous blood injections in treatment of mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy: double blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kevin J; Fulcher, Mark L; Rowlands, David S; Kerse, Ngaire

    2013-04-18

    To assess the effectiveness of two peritendinous autologous blood injections in addition to a standardised eccentric calf strengthening programme in improving pain and function in patients with mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy. Single centre, participant and single assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised, controlled trial. Single sports medicine clinic in New Zealand. 53 adults (mean age 49, 53% men) with symptoms of unilateral mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy for at least three months. Participants were excluded if they had a history of previous Achilles tendon rupture or surgery or had undergone previous adjuvant treatments such as injectable therapies, glyceryl trinitrate patches, or extracorporeal shockwave therapy. All participants underwent two unguided peritendinous injections one month apart with a standardised protocol. The treatment group had 3 mL of their own whole blood injected while the control group had no substance injected (needling only). Participants in both groups carried out a standardised and monitored 12 week eccentric calf training programme. Follow-up was at one, two, three and six months. The primary outcome measure was the change in symptoms and function from baseline to six months with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score. Secondary outcomes were the participant's perceived rehabilitation and their ability to return to sport. 26 participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group and 27 to the control group. In total, 50 (94%) completed the six month study, with 25 in each group. Clear and clinically worthwhile improvements in the VISA-A score were evident at six months in both the treatment (change in score 18.7, 95% confidence interval 12.3 to 25.1) and control (19.9, 13.6 to 26.2) groups. The overall effect of treatment was not significant (P=0.689) and the 95% confidence intervals at all points precluded clinically meaningful benefit or harm. There was no significant difference between

  8. Physiochemical Properties and Probiotic Survivability of Symbiotic Corn-Based Yogurt-Like Product.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuina; Zheng, Huajie; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Dawei; Guo, Mingruo

    2017-09-01

    Corn is a major grain produced in northern China. Corn-based functional food products are very limited. In this study, a symbiotic corn-based yogurt-like product was developed. Corn milk was prepared through grinding, extrusion and milling, and hydration processes. Corn extrudate was prepared under the optimized conditions of corn flour particle size <180 μm, moisture content of 15% and extrusion temperature at 130 °C. The corn milk was prepared from 8% corn extrudate suspension and then milled twice with 0.1% glyceryl monostearate and 0.1% sucrose ester as emulsifiers. The corn milk was mixed with sugar (5%), glucose (2%), soy protein isolate (0.75%), inulin (1%), polymerized whey protein (0.3%) and xanthan gum (0.09%) as thickening agents. The mixture was fermented at 35 °C for 6 h using a probiotic starter culture containing L. plantarum. Chemical composition (%) of the symbiotic corn-based yogurt-like product was: total solids (17.13 ± 0.31), protein (1.12 ± 0.03), fat (0.30 ± 0.05), carbohydrates (15.14 ± 0.19), and ash (0.16 ± 0.02), respectively. pH value of this symbiotic product decreased from 4.50 ± 0.03 to 3.88 ± 0.13 and the population of L. plantarum declined from 7.8 ± 0.09 to 7.1 ± 0.14 log CFU/mL during storage at 4 °C. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that there were no changes in protein profile during storage. Texture and consistency were also stable during the period of this study. It can be concluded that a set-type corn-based symbiotic yogurt-like product with good texture and stability was successfully developed that would be a good alternative to the dairy yogurt. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. The effect of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst MnTBAP on aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 nitration by organic nitrates: role in nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Muscoli, Carolina; Dagostino, Concetta; Giancotti, Luigino Antonio; Gliozzi, Micaela; Sacco, Iolanda; Visalli, Valeria; Gratteri, Santo; Palma, Ernesto; Malara, Natalia; Musolino, Vincenzo; Carresi, Cristina; Muscoli, Saverio; Vitale, Cristiana; Salvemini, Daniela; Romeo, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Bioconversion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) into nitric oxide (NO) by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2) is a crucial mechanism which drives vasodilatory and antiplatelet effect of organic nitrates in vitro and in vivo. Oxidative stress generated by overproduction of free radical species, mostly superoxide anions and NO-derived peroxynitrite, has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the development of nitrate tolerance, though the mechanism still remains unclear. Here we studied the free radical-dependent impairment of ALDH-2 in platelets as well as vascular tissues undergoing organic nitrate ester tolerance and potential benefit when using the selective peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst Mn(III) tetrakis (4-Benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP). Washed human platelets were made tolerant to nitrates via incubation with GTN for 4h. This was expressed by attenuation of platelet aggregation induced by thrombin (40U/mL), an effect accompanied by GTN-related induction of cGMP levels in platelets undergoing thrombin-induced aggregation. Both effects were associated to attenuated GTN-induced nitrite formation in platelets supernatants and to prominent nitration of ALDH-2, the GTN to NO metabolizing enzyme, suggesting that GTN tolerance was associated to reduced NO formation via impairment of ALDH-2. These effects were all antagonized by co-incubation of platelets with MnTBAP, which restored GTN-induced responses in tolerant platelets. Comparable effect was found under in in vivo settings. Indeed, MnTBAP (10mg/kg, i.p.) significantly restored the hypotensive effect of bolus injection of GTN in rats made tolerants to organic nitrates via chronic administration of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN), thus confirming the role of peroxynitrite overproduction in the development of tolerance to vascular responses induced by organic nitrates. In conclusion, oxidative stress subsequent to prolonged use of organic nitrates, which occurs via nitration of ALDH-2, represents a key event

  10. Impaired vasodilator response to organic nitrates in isolated basilar arteries

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Dorothee; Kojda, Georg

    2001-01-01

    The differential responsiveness of various sections and regions in the vascular system to the vasodilator activity of organic nitrates is important for the beneficial antiischaemic effects of these drugs. In this study we examined the vasodilator activity of organic nitrates in cerebral arteries, where vasodilation causes substantial nitrate induced headache. Isolated porcine basilar and coronary arteries were subjected to increasing concentrations of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), isosorbide-5-nitrate (ISMN) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) and endothelium-dependent vasodilation was investigated for comparison purpose. The vasodilator potency (halfmaximal effective concentration in −logM) of GTN (4.33±0.1, n=8), ISMN (1.61±0.07, n=7) and PETN (>10 μM, n=7) in basilar arteries was more than 100 fold lower than that of GTN (6.52±0.06, n=12), ISMN (3.66±0.08, n=10) and PETN (6.3±0.13, n=8) observed in coronary arteries. In striking contrast, the vasodilator potency of SNAP (halfmaximal effective concentration in −logM) was almost similar in basilar (7.76±0.05, n=7) and coronary arteries (7.59±0.05, n=9). Likewise, no difference in endothelium dependent relaxation was observed. Denudation of the endothelium resulted in a small increase of the vasodilator potency (halfmaximal effective concentration in −logM) of GTN (4.84±0.09, n=7, P<0.03) in basilar arteries and similar results were obtained in the presence of the NO-synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (4.59±0.05, n=9, P<0.03). These results suggest that cerebral conductance blood vessels such as porcine basilar arteries seems to have a reduced expression and/or activity of certain cellular enzymatic electron transport systems such as cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are necessary to bioconvert organic nitrates to NO. PMID:11156558

  11. Phase 2 Comparison of A Novel Ammonia Scavenging Agent With Sodium Phenylbutyrate In Patients With Urea Cycle Disorders: Safety, Pharmacokinetics And Ammonia Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Brendan; Rhead, William; Diaz, George A.; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mian, Asad; Shchelochkov, Oleg; Marier, JF; Beliveau, Martin; Mauney, Joseph; Dickinson, Klara; Martinez, Antonia; Gargosky, Sharron; Mokhtarani, Masoud; Berry, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol phenylbutyrate (glyceryl tri (4-phenylbutyrate)) (GPB) is being studied as an alternative to sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) for the treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs). This phase 2 study explored the hypothesis that GPB offers similar safety and ammonia control as NaPBA, which is currently approved as adjunctive therapy in the chronic management of UCDs, and examined correlates of 24-hour blood ammonia. Methods An open-label, fixed sequence switch-over study was conducted in adult UCD patients taking maintenance NaPBA. Blood ammonia and blood and urine metabolites were compared after 7 days (steady state) of TID dosing on either drug, both dosed to deliver the same amount of phenylbutyric acid (PBA). Results Ten subjects completed the study. Adverse events were comparable for the two drugs; two subjects experienced hyperammonemic events on NaPBA while none occurred on GPB. Ammonia values on GPB were ~30% lower than on NaPBA (time normalized AUC = 26.2 vs. 38.4 μmol/L; Cmax = 56.3 vs. 79.1 μmol/L; not statistically significant), and GPB achieved non-inferiority to NaPBA with respect to ammonia (time normalized AUC) by post hoc analysis. Systemic exposure (AUC0-24) to PBA on GPB was 27% lower than on NaPBA (540 vs. 739 μg•h/mL), whereas exposure to phenylacetic acid (PAA) (575 vs. 596 μg•h/mL) and phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) (1098 vs. 1133 μg•h/mL) were similar. Urinary PAGN excretion accounted for ~54% of PBA administered for both NaPBA and GPB; other metabolites accounted for < 1%. Intact GPB was generally undetectable in blood and urine. Blood ammonia correlated strongly and inversely with urinary PAGN (r=−0.82; p<0.0001) but weakly or not at all with blood metabolite levels. Conclusions Safety and ammonia control with GPB appear at least equal to NaPBA. Urinary PAGN, which is stoichiometrically related to nitrogen scavenging, may be a useful biomarker for both dose selection and adjustment for optimal control of venous ammonia. PMID

  12. The role of therapeutic optimism in recruitment to a clinical trial in a peripartum setting: balancing hope and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Hallowell, Nina; Snowdon, Claire; Morrow, Susan; Norman, Jane E; Denison, Fiona C; Lawton, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Hope has therapeutic value because it enables people to cope with uncertainty about their future health. Indeed, hope, or therapeutic optimism (TO), is seen as an essential aspect of the provision and experience of medical care. The role of TO in clinical research has been briefly discussed, but the concept, and whether it can be transferred from care to research and from patients to clinicians, has not been fully investigated. The role played by TO in research emerged during interviews with staff involved in a peripartum trial. This paper unpacks the concept of TO in this setting and considers the role it may play in the wider delivery of clinical trials. The Got-it trial is a UK-based, randomised placebo-controlled trial that investigates the use of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) spray to treat retained placenta. Qualitative data were collected in open-ended interviews with obstetricians, research and clinical midwives (n =27) involved in trial recruitment. Data were analysed using the method of constant comparison. TO influenced staff engagement with Got-it at different points in the trial and in different ways. Prior knowledge of, and familiarity with, GTN meant that from the outset staff perceived the trial as low risk. TO facilitated staff involvement in the trial; staff who already understood GTN's effects were optimistic that it would work, and staff collaborated because they hoped that the trial would address what they identified as an important clinical need. TO could fluctuate over the course of the trial, and was sustained or undermined by unofficial observation of clinical outcomes and speculations about treatment allocation. Thus, TO appeared to be influenced by key situational factors: prior knowledge and experience, clinical need and observed participant outcomes. Situational TO plays a role in facilitating staff engagement with clinical research. TO may affect trial recruitment by enabling staff to sustain the levels of uncertainty, or

  13. Design of lipid-based delivery systems for improving lymphatic transport and bioavailability of delta-tocopherol and nobiletin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chunxin

    Lymphatic drug transport can confer bioavailability advantage by avoiding the first-pass metabolism normally observed in the portal vein hepatic route. It was reported that long chain lipid-based delivery systems can stimulate the formation of chylomicron and thus promote the lymphatic transport of drugs. In this study, a novel delta-tocopherol (delta-T) loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle (SLN) system was developed to investigate its effect on promoting the lymphatic transport of delta-T. The delta-T SLN was prepared with hot melt emulsification method by using glyceryl behenate (compritol RTM888) as the lipid phase and lecithin (PC75) as the emulsifier. Formula configuration, processing condition and loading capacity were carefully optimized. Physicochemical properties (particle size, surface charge, morphology) were also characterized. Moreover, excellent stability of the developed delta-T SLN in the gastrointestinal environment was observed by using an in vitro digestion model. Further investigations of the SLN in stimulating delta-T lymphatic transport were performed on mice without cannulation. Compared with the control group (delta-T corn oil dispersion), much lower delta-T levels in both blood and liver indicated reduced portal vein and hepatic transport of delta-T in the form of SLN. On the other hand, significantly higher concentrations of delta-T were observed in thymus, a major lymphatic tissue, indicating improved lymphatic transport of delta-T with the SLN delivery system. Finally, the far less excreted delta-T level in feces further confirmed improved lymphatic transport and overall bioavailability of delta-T by using SLN system. Nobiletin (NOB), one of most abundant polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) found in Citrus genus, has a low solubility in both water and oil at ambient temperatures. Thus it tends to form crystals when the loading exceeds its saturation level in the carrier system. This character greatly impaired its bioavailability and application. To

  14. Topical Delivery of Erythromycin Through Cubosomes for Acne.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sana; Jain, Poorva; Jain, Sourabh; Jain, Richa; Bhargava, Saurabh; Jain, Aakanchha

    2018-01-01

    Topical delivery is an attractive route for local and systemic treatment. The novel topical application has many advantages like averting the GI-irritation, preventing the metabolism of drugs in the liver and increasing the bioavailability of the drug over the conventional dosage forms. The aim of present work was to prepare and characterized erythromycin encapsulated cubosomes using different concentrations of glyceryl monooleate and poloxamer 407 by the emulsification method. The prepared dispersion of cubosomes was characterized for surface morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. Further, optimized formulation was converted to cubosomal gel by incorporating carbopol 934 at different concentrations. The prepared gel was characterized for homogeneity, pH, viscosity, spreadibility, drug content and in vitro drug release study. The result of optimized cubosomes showed average particle size of 264.5±2.84nm and entrapment efficiency about 95.29±1.32 % and the pH of optimized cubosomal was found to be 6.5, viscosity 2475-8901(cp), drug content 95.29% and the spreadability was found to be 11.74 gm.cm/sec. The in vitro drug release kinetics of optimized formulation was found to follow Korsmeyer peppas model having highest R2 value 0.835 and in vitro drug release of optimized erythromycin loaded cubosomal gel and plain drug gel in 24 hr was found to be 89.91±0.73 and 88.64±2.16, while in 36 hr plain drug gel and cubosomal gel showed drug release about 87.64±0.97 and 91.55±1.09, and sustained release was obtained after 24 hr in case of cubosomal gel. Thus, as a whole it can be concluded that erythromycin loaded cubosomes are effective in topically delivering drug in sustained and non-invasive manner for treatment and prevention of acne. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Episodic Dural Stimulation in Awake Rats: A Model for Recurrent Headache

    PubMed Central

    Oshinsky, Michael L.; Gomonchareonsiri, Sumittra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To model, in rats, the development of chronic trigeminal nociceptive hypersensitivity seen in patients with recurrent headache. Background Pathophysiology studies suggest that patients with recurrent migraine headache experience repeated bouts of dural nociceptor activation. In some patients, the severity and frequency of headache attacks increase over time. Patients with recurrent headache are hypersensitive to nitric oxide donors, such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Current trigeminal pain models do not reflect the repeated episodic nature of dural nociceptor activation in patients with recurrent headache. Repeated nociceptor activation creates long-lasting changes in the periphery and brain due to activity-dependent neuronal plasticity. An animal model of repeated activation of dural nociceptors will facilitate the study of the physiological changes caused by repeated, episodic pain and the factors important for the transition of episodic to chronic migraine. Methods We induced dural inflammation by infusing an inflammatory soup (IS) through a cannula on the dura in awake behaving rats. This was repeated 3 times per week for up to 4 weeks. Periorbital pressure sensory testing was used to monitor the change in trigeminal sensitivity. Rats were challenged with GTN to test the hypothesis that many dural stimulations are required to model the hypersensitivity of migraine patients. Quantitative trigeminal sensory testing and microdialysis in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) were used to measure GTN hypersensitivity. Results Multiple infusions of IS (>8), over weeks, induced a long-lasting decrease in periorbital pressure thresholds that lasted >3 weeks after the last infusion. In contrast, IS infusion in IS-naive rats and those that received 3 IS infusions produced only short-lasting decreases in periorbital pressure thresholds. Rats that received more than 8 IS infusions showed a marked increase in their neurochemical and behavioral responses to GTN

  16. Morbidity associated with treatment of chronic anal fissure

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Ansar; Ansar, Anila; Butt, Muhammad Qasim

    2013-01-01

    diagnosis were excluded. Sixty six patients i.e. 51% were those who directly reported to surgical OPD and had no previous treatment. With surgical treatment, pain, bleeding per rectum and constipation showed significant improvement as compared to GTN ointment application. Fissure healing was 100% in surgical group as compared to 74% in medical group. Complications were recorded and were found to be headache with medical treatment; while the most feared complication with surgical treatment i.e. permanent incontinence was not encountered in our study. Conclusion: Topical glyceryl trinitrate is economical, has a good healing rate, and faecal incontinence has not been reported. Its effectiveness, however, depends on patients’ compliance which may be poor in view of associated headaches and a local burning sensation. It is first line of treatment for anal fissure but lateral internal sphincterotomy is superior, more effective and curative than the chemical sphincterotomy. Surgery is reserved for people with anal fissure who have tried medical therapy for at least one to three months but failed. PMID:24353726

  17. Pharmacodynamic action and mechanism of Du Liang soft capsule, a traditional Chinese medicine capsule, on treating nitroglycerin-induced migraine.

    PubMed

    Hou, Min; Tang, Qing; Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaona; Liu, Yang; Yang, Sheng; Chen, Liechun; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-04

    Du Liang soft capsule (DL) is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating migraines; it is made from two Chinese herbs, including LigusticumstriatumDC., root; Angelica dahurica (Hoffm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Franch. & Sav., root. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the pharmacodynamic action of DL and its mechanism in an animal model of migraines induced by glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups, including a normal control group, model control group, positive group (Sumatriptan 0.006gkg -1 ), and three DL groups (0.44, 1.31 and 3.93gkg -1 ). All rats were intragastrically treated with the corresponding treatment for 7 consecutive days, and they were subcutaneously injected with GTN (10mgkg -1 ) 30min after the last treatment, except in the normal control group. After model establishment, the behaviors of all rats, including head scratching, cage climbing, and the development of red ears were observed continuously by digital camera every 30min for 3h. Four hours after GTN treatment, all rats were anaesthetized and the blood and tissue samples were collected. Plasma calcitonin gene related to peptide (CGRP) and endothelin (ET) levels were measured using the radioimmunoassay method, and serum NO was determined by the colorimetric method. Afterwards, the brainstem tissues were dissected and washed with physiological saline, and divided evenly into two parts. One part was used to test the monoamine levels, including levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), by the fluorometric method, and the other part was used to determine the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) p65, nuclear c-fos, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels by Western blot analysis. In the pharmacodynamic action assay, DL (1.31 and 3.93gkg -1 ) greatly improved the abnormal behaviors of migraine rats, including head scratching and cage climbing, and the development

  18. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora rhizomes dichloromethane extract on vascular functions in middle-aged male rat.

    PubMed

    Yorsin, Somruedee; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt; Radenahmad, Nisaudah; Jansakul, Chaweewan

    2014-10-28

    In Thai traditional medicine, rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) have been used for treating hypertension and for the promotion of longevity with good health and well being. Ageing is one of the most important risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease. To investigate whether a 6 weeks oral administration of a dichloromethane extract of fresh rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora (KPD) had any effects on vascular functions, on the accumulation of lipid, as well as on any signs of gross organ toxicity in middle-aged rats. Fresh rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora were first macerated twice with 95% ethanol to remove the dark color before extracting three times with 100% dichloromethane. The dichloromethane extract was evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain the dried Kaempferia parviflora dichloromethane extract (KPD). The rats were orally administered with the KPD at a dosage of 100mg/kg body weight, or with the same volume of the vehicle (tween 80, 0.2g: carboxy-methylcellulose sodium, 0.2g: distilled water 10 ml) once or twice a day for 6 weeks. Vascular functions were studied on isolated thoracic aorta and the mesenteric artery. The vascular eNOS enzyme was measured by Western blot analysis. Blood chemistry was measured by enzymatic methods. Liver cell lipid accumulation was measured using oil red O staining. A 6 weeks treatment of KPD once a day had no significant effects on any of the studied parameters. When the KPD was given twice a day, the contractile responses to phenylephrine of the thoracic aorta and mesenteric artery were lower than the vehicle control group, and this effect was abolished by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine or by removal of the vascular endothelium. Vasorelaxation to acetylcholine, but not to glyceryl trinitrate, by the thoracic aortic and mesenteric ring precontracted with phenylephrine was higher from the KPD treated rats than those from the vehicle control groups. Western blot analysis showed a higher quantity of thoracic- and

  19. Cyclic GMP-dependent but G-kinase-independent inhibition of Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents by NO donors in cat tracheal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Waniishi, Yoshiki; Inoue, Ryuji; Morita, Hiromitsu; Teramoto, Noriyoshi; Abe, Kihachiro; Ito, Yushi

    1998-01-01

    The effects of NO donors on Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents (ICl(Ca)) were investigated in freshly isolated cat tracheal myocytes using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. With nystatin-perforated whole-cell recording, carbachol (CCh, ≥ 1 μm) induced a transient inward current (ICCh) with a reversal potential of about -20 mV. Activation of ICCh probably occurred through the M3 muscarinic receptor, since nanomolar concentrations of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide (4-DAMP) greatly inhibited this current, while 11-(2-(diethylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinylacetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido (2,3β) (1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116) or pirenzepine at concentrations of up to 1 μm were almost ineffective. Chloride channel/transporter blockers such as DIDS (100 μm), anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC, 100 μm) and niflumic acid (100 μm) greatly inhibited ICCh, but cation channel blockers, such as nifedipine (10 μm), Zn2+ (500 μm) or Gd3+ (500 μm), were without effect. Activation of ICCh was strongly attenuated by pretreatment with ryanodine (4 μm) plus caffeine (10 mM). Addition of neomycin (1 mM) into the bath or inclusion of heparin (3 mg ml−1) in the pipette abolished a substantial part of ICCh. These results suggest that ICCh is ICl(Ca), which is activated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca2+ release. The nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) reduced the amplitude of ICCh dose dependently (IC50, ≈10 μm). Similar inhibition was also exerted by other types of NO donor such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and (±)-E-methyl-2-(E-hydroxyimitol)-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexeneamide (NO-R). SNAP-induced ICCh inhibition was effectively antagonized by Methylene Blue (1-100 nM), and mimicked by dibutyryl cGMP (db-cGMP) (0.5-1 mM), whereas two structurally distinct types of cGMP-dependent (G)-kinase inhibitor, N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinilinesulphonamide (H-8, 2.5 μm) and KT5823 (1 μm), failed to counteract the inhibitory

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the treatment of anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R L; Manuel, D; Gumienny, C; Spencer, B; Patel, K; Schmitt, K; Castillo, D; Bravo, A; Yeboah-Sampong, A

    2017-08-01

    Anal fissure has a very large number of treatment options. The choice is difficult. In an effort to assist in that, choice presented here is a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published treatments for anal fissure that have been studied in randomized controlled trials. Randomized trials were sought in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, EMBASE and the trials registry sites clinicaltrials.gov and who/int/ictrp/search/en. Abstracts were screened, full-text studies chosen, and finally eligible studies selected and abstracted. The review was then divided into those studies that compared two or more surgical procedures and those that had at least one arm that was non-surgical. Studies were further categorized by the specific interventions and comparisons. The outcome assessed was treatment failure. Negative effects of treatment assessed were headache and anal incontinence. Risk of bias was assessed for each study, and the strength of the evidence of each comparison was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. One hundred and forty-eight eligible trials were found and assessed, 31 in the surgical group and 117 in the non-surgical group. There were 14 different operations described in the surgical group and 29 different non-surgical treatments in the non-surgical group along with partial lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS). There were 61 different comparisons. Of these, 47 were reported in 2 or fewer studies, usually with quite small patient samples. The largest single comparison was glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) versus control with 19 studies. GTN was more effective than control in sustained cure (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.63-0.77), but the quality of evidence was very poor because of severe heterogeneity, and risk of bias due to inadequate clinical follow-up. The only comparison to have a GRADE quality of evidence of high was a subgroup analysis of LIS versus any medical therapy (OR 0.12; CI 0

  1. A new method of preparing embeddment-free sections for transmission electron microscopy: applications to the cytoskeletal framework and other three-dimensional networks

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Diethylene glycol distearate is used as a removable embedding medium to produce embeddment -free sections for transmission electron microscopy. The easily cut sections of this material float and form ribbons in a water-filled knife trough and exhibit interference colors that aid in the selection of sections of equal thickness. The images obtained with embeddment -free sections are compared with those from the more conventional epoxy-embedded sections, and illustrate that embedding medium can obscure important biological structures, especially protein filament networks. The embeddment -free section methodology is well suited for morphological studies of cytoskeletal preparations obtained by extraction of cells with nonionic detergent in cytoskeletal stabilizing medium. The embeddment -free section also serves to bridge the very different images afforded by embedded sections and unembedded whole mounts. PMID:6539336

  2. A new method of preparing embeddment-free sections for transmission electron microscopy: applications to the cytoskeletal framework and other three-dimensional networks.

    PubMed

    Capco, D G; Krochmalnic, G; Penman, S

    1984-05-01

    Diethylene glycol distearate is used as a removable embedding medium to produce embeddment -free sections for transmission electron microscopy. The easily cut sections of this material float and form ribbons in a water-filled knife trough and exhibit interference colors that aid in the selection of sections of equal thickness. The images obtained with embeddment -free sections are compared with those from the more conventional epoxy-embedded sections, and illustrate that embedding medium can obscure important biological structures, especially protein filament networks. The embeddment -free section methodology is well suited for morphological studies of cytoskeletal preparations obtained by extraction of cells with nonionic detergent in cytoskeletal stabilizing medium. The embeddment -free section also serves to bridge the very different images afforded by embedded sections and unembedded whole mounts.

  3. Binary lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers for improved oral bioavailability of silymarin.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Mingzhu; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Han, Jin; Tian, Zhiqiang; Xie, Yunchang; Hu, Fuqiang; Yuan, Hailong; Wu, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to prepare binary lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers to improve the oral bioavailability of silymarin, a poorly water-soluble liver protectant. Silymarin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers were prepared by the method of high-pressure homogenization with glycerol distearates (Precirol ATO-5) and oleic acid as the solid and liquid lipids, respectively, and lecithin (Lipoid E 100) and Tween-80 as the emulsifiers. The silymarin-nanostructured lipid carrier prepared under optimum conditions was spherical in shape with mean particle size of ∼78.87 nm, entrapment efficiency of 87.55%, loading capacity of 8.32%, and zeta potential of -65.3 mV, respectively. In vitro release of silymarin-nanostructured lipid carriers was very limited even after 12 h, while in vitro lipolysis showed fast digestion of nanostructured lipid carriers within 1 h. Relative oral bioavailability of silymarin-nanostructured lipid carriers in Beagle dogs was 2.54- and 3.10-fold that of marketed Legalon® and silymarin solid dispersion pellets, respectively. It was concluded that nanostructured lipid carriers were potential drug delivery systems to improve the bioavailability of silymarin. Other than improved dissolution, alternative mechanisms such as facilitated absorption as well as lymphatic transport may contribute to bioavailability enhancement.

  4. Lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for improved oral bioavailability of sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qin; Hu, Xiongwei; Ma, Yuhua; Xie, Yunchang; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Xiang, Li; Li, Fengqian; Wu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of sirolimus (SRL), a poorly water-soluble immunosuppressant, by encapsulating into lipids-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). SRL-loaded NLCs (SRL-NLCs) were prepared by a high-pressure homogenization method with glycerol distearates (PRECIROL ATO-5) as the solid lipid, oleic acid as the liquid lipids, and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. The SRL-NLCs prepared under optimum conditions was spherical in shape with a mean particle size of about 108.3 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 99.81%. In vitro release of SRL-NLCs was very slow, about 2.15% at 12 h, while in vitro lipolysis test showed fast digestion of the NLCs within 1 h. Relative oral bioavailability of SRL-NLCs in Beagle dogs was 1.81-folds that of the commercial nanocrystalline sirolimus tablets Rapamune®. In conclusion, the NLCs show potential to improve the oral bioavailability of SRL.

  5. Production and characterization of nanostructured lipid carriers and solid lipid nanoparticles containing lycopene for food fortification.

    PubMed

    Akhoond Zardini, Ali; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Farhoosh, Reza; Bolurian, Shadi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, lycopene, was loaded on nanostructured lipid carrier and solid lipid nanoparticles using combination of high shear homogenization and ultrasonication method. Effect of applied lipids types, nanocarrier's type and lycopene loading on physicochemical properties of developed nanocarriers were studied. Particle sizes of developed nanocarriers were between 74.93 and 183.40 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of nanostructured lipid carrier was significantly higher than solid lipid nanoparticles. Morphological study of developed nanocarriers using scanning electron microscopy showed spherical nanoparticles with smooth surface. Lycopene was entrapped in nanocarriers without any chemical interaction with coating material according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry thermogram. Glycerol monostearate containing nanoparticles showed phase separation after 30 days in 6 and 25 °C, whereas this event was not observed in nanosuspensions that produced by glycerol distearate. Lycopene release in gastrointestinal condition was studied by the dialysis bag method. To evaluate nanocarrier's potential for food fortification, developed lycopene-loaded nanocarriers were added to orange drink. Results of sensory analysis indicated that nanoencapsulation could obviate the poor solubility and tomato after taste of lycopene. Fortified sample with lycopene nanocarriers didn't show significant difference with blank orange drink sample except in orange odor.

  6. Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour and birth.

    PubMed

    Flenady, Vicki; Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Papatsonis, Dimitri N M; Stock, Owen M; Murray, Linda; Jardine, Luke A; Carbonne, Bruno

    2014-06-05

    with placebo or no treatment showed a significant reduction in birth less than 48 hours after trial entry (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.43) and an increase in maternal adverse effects (RR 49.89, 95% CI 3.13 to 795.02, one trial of 89 women). Due to substantial heterogeneity, outcome data for preterm birth (less than 37 weeks) were not combined; one placebo controlled trial showed no difference (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.03) while the other (non-placebo controlled trial) reported a reduction (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.62). No other outcomes were reported.Comparing CCBs (mainly nifedipine) with other tocolytics by type (including betamimetics, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) patch, non-steriodal anti inflammatories (NSAID), magnesium sulphate and ORAs), no significant reductions were shown in primary outcome measures of birth within 48 hours of treatment or perinatal mortality.Comparing CCBs with betamimetics, there were fewer maternal adverse effects (average RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.53) and fewer maternal adverse effects requiring discontinuation of therapy (average RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.48). Calcium channel blockers resulted in an increase in the interval between trial entry and birth (average MD 4.38 days, 95% CI 0.25 to 8.52) and gestational age (MD 0.71 weeks, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.09), while decreasing preterm and very preterm birth (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.98 and RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.93); respiratory distress syndrome (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.86); necrotising enterocolitis (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.96); intraventricular haemorrhage (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.84); neonatal jaundice (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.92); and admissions to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (average RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.87). No difference was shown in one trial of outcomes at nine to twelve years of age.Comparing CCBs with ORA, data from one study (which did blind the intervention) showed an increase in gestational age at birth (MD 1.20 completed weeks, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.15) and

  7. Speciation of Selenium in Selenium-Enriched Sunflower Oil by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry/Electrospray-Orbitrap Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bierla, Katarzyna; Flis-Borsuk, Anna; Suchocki, Piotr; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2016-06-22

    trioleinate), of which the extrapolation allowed for the prediction of the identity [glycerol dioleinate-stearate (OOS) and glycerol oleinate-distearate (OSS)] of the nonpolar species detected by ICP MS in the oil but not detected by electrospray MS.

  8. Polyhydroxy surfactants for the formulation of lipid nanoparticles (SLN and NLC): effects on size, physical stability and particle matrix structure.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, A; Savic, S; Vuleta, G; Müller, R H; Keck, C M

    2011-03-15

    The two polyhydroxy surfactants polyglycerol 6-distearate (Plurol(®)Stearique WL1009 - (PS)) and caprylyl/capryl glucoside (Plantacare(®) 810 - (PL)) are a class of PEG-free stabilizers, made from renewable resources. They were investigated for stabilization of aqueous solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) dispersions. Production was performed by high pressure homogenization, analysis by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser diffraction (LD), zeta potential measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Particles were made from Cutina CP as solid lipid only (SLN) and its blends with Miglyol 812 (NLC, the blends containing increasing amounts of oil from 20% to 60%). The obtained particle sizes were identical for both surfactants, about 200 nm with polydispersity indices below 0.20 (PCS), and unimodal size distribution (LD). All dispersions with both surfactants were physically stable for 3 months at room temperature, but Plantacare (PL) showing a superior stability. The melting behaviour and crystallinity of bulk lipids/lipid blends were compared to the nanoparticles. Both were lower for the nanoparticles. The crystallinity of dispersions stabilized with PS was higher, the zeta potential decreased with storage time associated with this higher crystallinity, and leading to a few, but negligible larger particles. The lower crystallinity particles stabilized with PL remained unchanged in zeta potential (about -50 mV) and in size. These data show that surfactants have a distinct influence on the particle matrix structure (and related stability and drug loading), to which too little attention was given by now. Despite being from the same surfactant class, the differences on the structure are pronounced. They are attributed to the hydrophobic-lipophilic tail structure with one-point anchoring in the interface (PL), and the loop conformation of PS with two hydrophobic anchor points, i.e. their molecular structure and its