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Sample records for glycine sodium nitrate

  1. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  2. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  3. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  4. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and...

  5. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued... potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and cured poultry products. ...

  6. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  7. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed...

  8. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified foods in accordance with the...

  9. Surface properties of aqueous amino acid solutions. I. Surface tension of hydrochloric acid-glycine and glycine-sodium hydroxide systems.

    PubMed

    Matubayasi, Norihiro; Namihira, Junji; Yoshida, Masao

    2003-11-01

    The surface tensions of aqueous solutions of four mixtures (hydrochloric acid-glycine hydrochloride, glycine hydrochloride-glycine, glycine-sodium glycinate, and sodium glycinate-sodium hydroxide) were measured as a function of total molality and mole fraction. The measurements correspond to the change in surface tension with variation of pH. The contribution of glycine hydrochloride to the increments in surface tension is equivalent to that observed for the aqueous solution of glycine, while the contribution of sodium glycinate is much larger than that of glycine. The variations in surface tension on mixing in the surface region are discussed using comparisons with mixtures of simple salts.

  10. Nitrate and amino acid availability affects glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine in response to changes of salinity in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Fukaya, Minoru; Rai, Vandna; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-12-01

    A halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica thrives in extreme salinity with accumulation of a potent osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Recently, this cyanobacterium was shown to accumulate sunscreen molecule mycosporine-2-glycine significantly at high salinity. In this study, we investigated effects of nitrate and amino acid provision on the accumulation of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine. With elevated nitrate concentrations at high salinity, intracellular levels of both metabolites were enhanced. Six-fold high nitrate concentration increased the relative amounts of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine to be 1.5 and 2.0 folds compared with control condition : Increased levels were time- and dose-dependent manner. Exogenous supply of glycine/serine at high salinity resulted in the similar trends as observed in excess nitrate experiment. Intracellular level of glycine betaine increased ∼1.6 folds with glycine/serine supplementation. These supplementations also caused the increased level of mycosporine-2-glycine, namely 1.4 and 2 folds by glycine and serine, respectively. The transcription of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine biosynthetic genes was strongly induced under high-nitrate-salt condition. These results suggest the dependence of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine productions on substrate availability, and the effect of nitrate was possibly associated with stimulation of osmoprotectant increment in this extremophile.

  11. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a..., packaging, transporting, or holding food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Sodium...

  12. Dislocations, microhardness and optical studies on glycine potassium nitrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Nagaraju, D.; Shekar, P. V. Raja; Rao, T. Tirumal; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN), a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal, of dimensions 15×12×4 mm3 were grown in a period of 10 days. The defect content present in the crystals was estimated by chemical etching technique. The results indicate that the average dislocation density is about 4.1×103/cm2. The UV-Vis. studies indicate that the crystal has a wide transmission range. The Kurtz powder test indicates that the second harmonic generation efficiency of GPN is 2.5 times that of KDP. The load-hardness curves for GPN were studied over the load range 10-100 g. The anisotropy in hardness was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  13. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in...

  14. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in...

  15. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in...

  16. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in...

  17. Sodium nitrate ingestion increases skeletal muscle nitrate content in humans.

    PubMed

    Nyakayiru, Jean; Kouw, Imre W K; Cermak, Naomi M; Senden, Joan M; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-09-01

    Nitrate ([Formula: see text]) ingestion has been shown to have vasoactive and ergogenic effects that have been attributed to increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Recent observations in rodents suggest that skeletal muscle tissue serves as an endogenous [Formula: see text] "reservoir." The present study determined [Formula: see text] contents in human skeletal muscle tissue in a postabsorptive state and following ingestion of a sodium nitrate bolus (NaNO3). Seventeen male, type 2 diabetes patients (age 72 ± 1 yr; body mass index 26.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2); means ± SE) were randomized to ingest a dose of NaNO3 (NIT; 9.3 mg [Formula: see text]/kg body wt) or placebo (PLA; 8.8 mg NaCl/kg body wt). Blood and muscle biopsy samples were taken before and up to 7 h following [Formula: see text] or placebo ingestion to assess [Formula: see text] [and plasma nitrite ([Formula: see text])] concentrations. Additionally, basal plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations were assessed in 10 healthy young (CON-Y; age 21 ± 1 yr) and 10 healthy older (CON-O; age 75 ± 1 yr) control subjects. In all groups, baseline [Formula: see text] concentrations were higher in muscle (NIT, 57 ± 7; PLA, 61 ± 7; CON-Y, 80 ± 10; CON-O, 54 ± 6 µmol/l) than in plasma (NIT, 35 ± 3; PLA, 32 ± 3; CON-Y, 38 ± 3; CON-O, 33 ± 3 µmol/l; P ≤ 0.011). Ingestion of NaNO3 resulted in a sustained increase in plasma [Formula: see text], plasma [Formula: see text], and muscle [Formula: see text] concentrations (up to 185 ± 25 µmol/l) in the NIT group (time effect P < 0.001) compared with PLA (treatment effect P < 0.05). In conclusion, basal [Formula: see text] concentrations are substantially higher in human skeletal muscle tissue compared with plasma. Ingestion of a bolus of dietary [Formula: see text] increases both plasma and muscle [Formula: see text] contents in humans.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Literature of the pharmacokinetics following dietary nitrate ingestion is usually limited to the changes

  18. Compounds of glycine with metal sulfates and thiosulfates: glycine cobalt sulfate pentahydrate, glycine sodium thiosulfate dihydrate and glycine potassium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Michel; Bohatý, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    In the crystal structures of the title compounds, hexaaquacobalt(II) tetraaquadiglycinatocobalt(II) bis(sulfate), [Co(H2O)6][Co(C2H5NO2)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, (I), poly[diaqua-mu3-glycinato-di-mu4-thiosulfato-tetrasodium(I)], [Na4(C2H5NO2)(S2O3)2(H2O)2]n, (II), and poly[mu2-glycinato-mu4-thiosulfato-dipotassium(I)], [K2(C2H5NO2)(S2O3)]n, (III), all atoms are located on general positions, except the Co atoms in (I), which are located on inversion centres. In (I), hydrogen bonds play an important role, while the alkali thiosulfate compounds are characterized by three-dimensional frameworks of polyhedra. Relations to other compounds of glycine and metal sulfates are commented on.

  19. Sodium nitrate supplementation does not enhance performance of endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Bescós, Raúl; Ferrer-Roca, Ventura; Galilea, Pedro A; Roig, Andreu; Drobnic, Franchek; Sureda, Antoni; Martorell, Miquel; Cordova, Alfredo; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2012-12-01

    Supplementation with inorganic nitrate has been suggested to be an ergogenic aid for athletes as nitric oxide donor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ingestion of inorganic sodium nitrate benefits well-trained athletes performing a 40-min exercise test in laboratory conditions. In addition, we investigated the effect of this supplement on plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and in nitrated proteins. Thirteen trained athletes participated in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They performed a 40-min cycle ergometer distance-trial test after two 3-d periods of dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (10 mg·kg of body mass) or placebo. Concentration of plasma nitrate (256 ± 35 μM) and nitrite (334 ± 86 nM) increased significantly (P < 0.05) after nitrate supplementation compared with placebo (nitrate: 44 ± 11 μM; nitrite: 187 ± 43 nM). In terms of exercise performance, there were no differences in either the mean distance (nitrate: 26.4 ± 1.1 km; placebo: 26.3 ± 1.2 km; P = 0.61) or mean power output (nitrate: 258 ± 28 W; placebo: 257 ± 28 W; P = 0.89) between treatments. Plasma ET-1 increased significantly (P < 0.05) just after exercise in nitrate (4.0 ± 0.8 pg·mL) and placebo (2.4 ± 0.4 pg·mL) conditions. This increase was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the nitrate group. Levels of nitrated proteins did not differ between treatments (nitrate: preexercise, 91% ± 23%; postexercise, 81% ± 23%; placebo: preexercise, 95% ± 20%; postexercise, 99% ± 19%). Sodium nitrate supplementation did not improve a 40-min distance-trial performance in endurance athletes. In addition, concentration of plasma ET-1 increased significantly after exercise after supplementation with sodium nitrate.

  20. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth, structural, optical and electrical behavior of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN) crystal with non-linear optical response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandpekar, M. M.; Pati, S. P.

    2011-02-01

    New trapezoidal, non-linear optical crystals of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN) have been grown by slow cooling from solutions with an initial pH of 4.3. Chemical composition, phase formation and functional groups have been verified by CHN, EDAX, XRF, NMR, XRD, FTIR and Raman studies. UV studies show a much lower cut off wavelength (195 nm) compared to the much investigated glycine sodium nitrate (GSN). The powder SHG efficiency of GPN is found to be 0.6 times compared to that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Cut and polished crystals exposed to light indicate positive photoconductivity. Electrical conductivity studies show an activation energy of 0.16 eV and the dielectric loss is found to decay drastically at higher frequencies (1 MHz) which is desirable in electronic applications. Vickers microhardness studies indicate a Mayer's index value of 2.78. Well resolved, elongated and oriented etch pits have been observed on the side habit face (220) treated in glacial acetic acid for 5 s. Typical circular features resisting the formation of etch pits representing impurity elements have been observed on the cleavage faces. Moisture has been traced on the surface of the crystals subjected to heat treatment.

  2. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  3. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  4. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarati, Vivek P.; Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  5. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Gujarati, Vivek P. Deshpande, M. P. Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-06

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  6. Potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Abo-Salem, Osama M; Abd-Ellah, Hala F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-02-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater aquifers. Current study aimed at evaluating the potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in rats. Sodium nitrate was given orally to rats at doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 60 consecutive days. Sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight were significantly decreased specially at high doses. Testicular activity of lactate dehydrogenase-X, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were inhibited in a dose-related manner. Lipid peroxides and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly increased in all treated animals. This was accompanied by inhibition of testicular activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Fifty mg/kg of sodium nitrate did not significantly alter catalase or glutathione reductase activity. Glutathione was significantly decreased by sodium nitrate in a dose-related manner. The decrease in sperm count and motility and daily sperm production was confirmed by histopathological studies which indicated chromatolysis, pyknosis and necrosis in spermatocytes. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of rats to sodium nitrate results in testicular toxicity as evidenced by decreased sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight, inhibited activity of enzyme markers of spermatogenesis and induction of histopathological changes. These effects are attributed, at least partly, to testicular oxidative stress. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Solubility of sodium tungstate in nitrate-nitrite melts

    SciTech Connect

    Yurkinskii, V.P.; Firsova, E.G.; Morachevskii, A.G.; Sazanova, O.B.

    1988-10-10

    Nitrate melts are employed as electrolytes for the electrochemical oxidation of tungsten. The authors studied the solubility of sodium tungstate in a number of nitrate-nitrite melts. The investigations were carried out in individual melts of NaNO/sub 3/ and NaNO/sub 2/ and in LiNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ and NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ eutectic mixtures in the 440-690 K temperature range in an atmosphere of argon. The solubility of sodium tungstate increases slightly upon the transition from an LiNO/sub 3/-NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ melt to an NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ melt. The solubility of Na/sub 2/WO/sub 4/ in sodium nitrite is considerably higher than that in sodium nitrate.

  8. Immobilization of sodium nitrate waste with polymers: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes the development of solidification systems for sodium nitrate waste. Sodium nitrate waste was solidified in the polymers polyethylene, polyester-styrene (PES), and water-extendible polyester-styrene (WEP). Evaluations were made of the properties of waste forms containing various amounts of sodium nitrate by leaching immersion in water, measuring compressive strengths and by the EPA Extraction Procedure. Results of the leaching test are presented as cumulative fraction leached (CFL), incremental leaching rate, and average leaching indices (LI). For waste forms containing 30 to 70 wt% sodium nitrate, the CFL ranged from 9.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 7.3 x 10/sup -1/ and the LI from 11 to 7.8. After ninety days immersion in water, the compressive strengths ranged from 720 psi to 2550 psi. The nitrate releases from these samples using the EPA Extraction Procedure were below 500 ppM. The nitrate releases from PES waste forms were similar to those from polyethylene waste forms at the same waste loadings. The compressive yield strengths, measured after ninety-day immersion in water, ranged between 2070 and 7710 psi. In the case of WEP waste forms, only 30 wt% loaded samples passed the immersion test. 23 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions... finished meat product and the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the...

  10. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... finished product. (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions... finished meat product and the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the...

  11. Removal of brownish-black tarnish on silver-copper alloy objects with sodium glycinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Figueiredo, João Cura D.'Ars; Asevedo, Samara Santos; Barbosa, João Henrique Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    This article has the principal aim of presenting a new method of chemical cleaning of tarnished silver-copper alloy objects. The chemical cleaning must be harmless to the health, selective to tarnish removal, and easy to use. Sodium glycinate was selected for the study. The reactions of sodium glycinate with tarnish and the silver-copper alloy were evaluated. Products of the reaction, the lixiviated material, and the esthetics of silver-copper alloy coins (used as prototypes) were studied to evaluate if the proposed method can be applied to the cleaning of silver objects. Silver-copper alloys can be deteriorated through a uniform and superficial corrosion process that produces brownish-black tarnish. This tarnish alters the esthetic of the object. The cleaning of artistic and archeological objects requires more caution than regular cleaning, and it must take into account the procedures for the conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. There are different methods for cleaning silver-copper alloy objects, chemical cleaning is one of them. We studied two chemical cleaning methods that use sodium glycinate and sodium acetylglycinate solutions. Silver-copper alloy coins were artificially corroded in a basic thiourea solution and immersed in solutions of sodium glycinate and sodium acetylglycinate. After immersion, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the surfaces were studied. The sodium glycinate solution was shown to be very efficient in removing the brownish-black tarnish. Absorption spectroscopy measured the percentage of silver and copper lixiviated in immersion baths, and very small quantities of these metals were detected. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence characterized the obtained products. The greater efficiency of the sodium glycinate solution compared to the sodium acetylglycinate solution was explained by chelation and Hard-Soft Acid-Base Theory with the aid of quantum chemical calculations.

  12. Is beetroot juice more effective than sodium nitrate? The effects of equimolar nitrate dosages of nitrate-rich beetroot juice and sodium nitrate on oxygen consumption during exercise.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Bogdanova, Anna; Mettler, Samuel; Perret, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Dietary nitrate has been reported to lower oxygen consumption in moderate- and severe-intensity exercise. To date, it is unproven that sodium nitrate (NaNO3(-); NIT) and nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) have the same effects on oxygen consumption, blood pressure, and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations or not. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different dosages of NIT and BR on oxygen consumption in male athletes. Twelve healthy, well-trained men (median [minimum; maximum]; peak oxygen consumption: 59.4 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1) [40.5; 67.0]) performed 7 trials on different days, ingesting different nitrate dosages and placebo (PLC). Dosages were 3, 6, and 12 mmol nitrate as concentrated BR or NIT dissolved in plain water. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured before, 3 h after ingestion, and postexercise. Participants cycled for 5 min at moderate intensity and further 8 min at severe intensity. End-exercise oxygen consumption at moderate intensity was not significantly different between the 7 trials (p = 0.08). At severe-intensity exercise, end-exercise oxygen consumption was ~4% lower in the 6-mmol BR trial compared with the 6-mmol NIT (p = 0.003) trial as well as compared with PLC (p = 0.010). Plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations were significantly increased after the ingestion of BR and NIT with the highest concentrations in the 12-mmol trials. Plasma nitrite concentration between NIT and BR did not significantly differ in the 6-mmol (p = 0.27) and in the 12-mmol (p = 0.75) trials. In conclusion, BR might reduce oxygen consumption to a greater extent compared with NIT.

  13. Diffusion of phosgene (1); water (2); sodium nitrate (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) phosgene; (2) water; (3) sodium nitrate

  14. Crystallization of sodium nitrate from radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Krapukhin, V.B.; Krasavina, E.P. Pikaev, A.K.

    1997-07-01

    From the 1940s to the 1980s, the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) conducted research and development on processes to separate acetate and nitrate salts and acetic acid from radioactive wastes by crystallization. The research objective was to decrease waste volumes and produce the separated decontaminated materials for recycle. This report presents an account of the IPC/RAS experience in this field. Details on operating conditions, waste and product compositions, decontamination factors, and process equipment are described. The research and development was generally related to the management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The waste solutions resulted from recovery and processing of uranium, plutonium, and other products from irradiated nuclear fuel, neutralization of nuclear process solutions after extractant recovery, regeneration of process nitric acid, equipment decontamination, and other radiochemical processes. Waste components include nitric acid, metal nitrate and acetate salts, organic impurities, and surfactants. Waste management operations generally consist of two stages: volume reduction and processing of the concentrates for storage, solidification, and disposal. Filtration, coprecipitation, coagulation, evaporation, and sorption were used to reduce waste volume. 28 figs., 40 tabs.

  15. NdFeO3 nanocrystals under glycine nitrate combustion formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugova, Ekaterina; Yastrebov, Sergey; Karpov, Oleg; Smith, Roger

    2017-06-01

    Nanocrystalline perovskite NdFeO3 with the orthorhombic structure was prepared by a glycine nitrate combustion method under different technological conditions. The starting materials Fe(NO3)3 · 9H2O,Nd(NO3)3 · 6H2O in stoichiometric amounts and H2NCH2COOH were used. These quantities were varied by changing the ratio of glycine moles to metal nitrate moles (G/N) in the range between 0.25 and 0.75. The prepared NdFeO3 nanocrystals were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopy. Decomposition of the XRD diffraction profile using Voigt contours was exploited for analysis of the pattern in the area where the most prominent diffraction peak was situated. We demonstrate that Voigt functions reduce to Lorentzians for G / N = 0.75 and 0.55 . A volume-weighted diameter distribution function was derived using the width of the Lorentzians. The log-normal shape of the distribution is discussed in terms of the model, assuming exponential growth of cluster size in the time available for the NdFeO3 nanograin to grow.

  16. Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H.; Kato, T.

    2006-07-01

    Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

  17. Synthesis, growth and characterisations of semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal glycine barium nitrate (GBN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varalakshmi, S.; Ravi Kumar, S. M.; Elango, G.; Ravisankar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent crystal of glycine barium nitrate (GBN) has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Powder XRD study reveals the crystalline nature of the grown sample. Single crystal XRD study shows that the GBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. FTIR spectral study confirms the presence of the functional groups in the grown crystal. The presence of wide transparency window in the UV-visible region makes GBN crystal suitable for opto-electronic device applications. The grown sample has SHG efficiency is 0.8 times that of standard KDP crystal. Dielectric studies reveal that both dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreases with increase in frequency. Photoconductivity study confirms the negative photoconducting nature of the crystal.

  18. Synthesis, growth and characterisations of semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal glycine barium nitrate (GBN).

    PubMed

    Varalakshmi, S; Ravi Kumar, S M; Elango, G; Ravisankar, R

    2014-12-10

    Transparent crystal of glycine barium nitrate (GBN) has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Powder XRD study reveals the crystalline nature of the grown sample. Single crystal XRD study shows that the GBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. FTIR spectral study confirms the presence of the functional groups in the grown crystal. The presence of wide transparency window in the UV-visible region makes GBN crystal suitable for opto-electronic device applications. The grown sample has SHG efficiency is 0.8 times that of standard KDP crystal. Dielectric studies reveal that both dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreases with increase in frequency. Photoconductivity study confirms the negative photoconducting nature of the crystal.

  19. Synthesis and magnetic properties of nanostructured spinel ferrites using a glycine-nitrate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikukawa, Nobuyuki; Takemori, Makoto; Nagano, Yoshinobu; Sugasawa, Masami; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2004-12-01

    To prepare zinc-substituted spinel-type ferrite fine particles of M1-xZnxFe2O4 (M=Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, (Li, Fe) x=0-1) with good crystallinity and stoichiometry, the authors investigated a glycine-nitrate process. The product powder was an agglomerate of fine particles whose typical diameter was several tens of nanometers. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the produced particles were mono-phase in almost all reaction systems. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis of the product particles (Mn-Zn-Fe-O) revealed that the distributions of Mn/Fe ratio and Zn/Fe ratio were highly sharp both within the agglomerate and between agglomerates.

  20. Anisotropic terahertz dielectric responses of sodium nitrate crystals.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaojian; Song, Youting; Sun, Changqing; Zhou, Ji

    2014-04-21

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has become an effective tool to characterize the low-frequency rotational and vibrational modes of molecules. In addition, novel THz dielectric responses and optical properties on the basis of molecular rotation and vibration have attracted lots of attention because of their potential application in THz devices. In this paper, the dielectric response of low-symmetric sodium nitrate crystals in the frequency range of 0.2-1.5 THz was experimentally demonstrated. Four absorption bands at 0.23, 0.47, 0.92, and 1.15 THz were observed in the dielectric spectra and were tentatively ascribed to the rotational motion of nitrate ions. Based on the molecular rotation mechanism, the dielectric anisotropy and dielectric resonance of the crystal were discussed in detail.

  1. Impact of ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate on tadpoles of Alytes obstetricans.

    PubMed

    Garriga, Núria; Montori, A; Llorente, G A

    2017-07-01

    The presence of pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers negatively affect aquatic communities in general, and particularly amphibians in their larval phase, even though sensitivity to pollutants is highly variable among species. The Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) has experienced a decline of amphibian populations, possibly related to the reduction in water quality due to the high levels of farming activity, but also to habitat loss and alteration. We studied the effects of increasing ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate levels on the survival and growth rate of Alytes obstetricans tadpoles under experimental conditions. We exposed larvae to increasing concentrations of nitrate and ammonium for 14 days and then exposed them to water without pollutants for a further 14 days. Only the higher concentrations of ammonium (>33.75 mg/L) caused larval mortality. The growth rate of larvae was reduced at ≥22.5 mg/L NH4(+), although individuals recovered and even increased their growth rate once exposure to the pollutant ended. The effect of nitrate on growth rate was detected at ≥80 mg/L concentrations, and the growth rate reduction in tadpoles was even observed during the post-exposure phase. The concentrations of ammonium with adverse effects on larvae are within the range levels found in the study area, while the nitrate concentrations with some adverse effect are close to the upper range limit of current concentrations in the study area. Therefore, only the presence of ammonium in the study area is likely to be considered of concern for the population of this species, even though the presence of nitrate could cause some sublethal effects. These negative effects could have an impact on population dynamics, which in this species is highly sensitive to larval mortality due to its small clutch size and prolonged larval period compared to other anuran amphibians.

  2. Effect of Sodium Nitrate and Nitrate Reducing Bacteria on In vitro Methane Production and Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Pillanatham Civalingam; Kamra, Devki Nandan; Agarwal, Neeta; Chaudhary, Lal Chandra

    2012-06-01

    Nitrate can serve as a terminal electron acceptor in place of carbon dioxide and inhibit methane emission in the rumen and nitrate reducing bacteria might help enhance the reduction of nitrate/nitrite, which depends on the type of feed offered to animals. In this study the effects of three levels of sodium nitrate (0, 5, 10 mM) on fermentation of three diets varying in their wheat straw to concentrate ratio (700:300, low concentrate, LC; 500:500, medium concentrate, MC and 300:700, high concentrate, HC diet) were investigated in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum. Nitrate reducing bacteria, isolated from the rumen of buffalo were tested as a probiotic to study if it could help in enhancing methane inhibition in vitro. Inclusion of sodium nitrate at 5 or 10 mM reduced (p<0.01) methane production (9.56, 7.93 vs. 21.76 ml/g DM; 12.20, 10.42 vs. 25.76 ml/g DM; 15.49, 12.33 vs. 26.86 ml/g DM) in LC, MC and HC diets, respectively. Inclusion of nitrate at both 5 and 10 mM also reduced (p<0.01) gas production in all the diets, but in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of feed reduced (p<0.05) only in LC and MC diets. In the medium at 10 mM sodium nitrate level, there was 0.76 to 1.18 mM of residual nitrate and nitrite (p<0.01) also accumulated. In an attempt to eliminate residual nitrate and nitrite in the medium, the nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated from buffalo adapted to nitrate feeding and introduced individually (3 ml containing 1.2 to 2.3×10(6) cfu/ml) into in vitro incubations containing the MC diet with 10 mM sodium nitrate. Addition of live culture of NRBB 57 resulted in complete removal of nitrate and nitrite from the medium with a further reduction in methane and no effect on IVTD compared to the control treatments containing nitrate with autoclaved cultures or nitrate without any culture. The data revealed that nitrate reducing bacteria can be used as probiotic to prevent the accumulation of nitrite when sodium nitrate is used to reduce in vitro

  3. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 89. Alkali Metal Nitrates. Part 2. Sodium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eysseltová, Jitka; Zbranek, Vladimír; Skripkin, Mikhail Yurievich; Sawada, Kiyoshi; Tepavitcharova, Stefka

    2017-03-01

    The solubility data at 1 bar or saturation pressure for sodium nitrate are reviewed. Where appropriate, binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems are critically evaluated. The solubility results were obtained in water or aqueous solutions. All data were critically examined for their reliability. The best values were selected on the basis of critical evaluations and presented in tabular form. Fitting equations and plots are also provided. The quantities, units, and symbols used are in accord with IUPAC recommendations. The original data have been reported and, if necessary, transferred into the units and symbols recommended by IUPAC. The literature on solubility data was researched through 2014.

  4. Nanostructured Cu-CGO anodes fabricated using a microwave-assisted glycine-nitrate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shabana P. S.; Somalu, Mahendra R.; Muchtar, Andanastuti

    2016-11-01

    This work reports a study of nanostructured copper-doped gadolinium cermet (Cu-CGO) composite anodes prepared via conventional synthesis (CS) and microwave-synthesis (MS) involving the glycine-nitrate process (GNP). A detailed investigation on the mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of prepared Cu0.5(Ce0.9Gd0.1)0.5O2-δ anodes is included. The prepared samples were characterized by techniques, such as XRD, EDX, SEM and electrical characterizations. After reduction in 10% H2 and 90% N2, the DC conductivities of the Cu-CGO anodes prepared via CS-GNP and MS-GNP are found to be 5.43×103 and 1.09×104 S cm-1 at 700 °C, respectively. The electrochemical performances of the spin-coated anode symmetrical cells sintered at 700 °C are evaluated at cell operating temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 °C. The lowest area specific resistance (ASR) values for the Cu-CGO/CGO/Cu-CGO symmetrical cells prepared via the MS-GNP route at operating temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 °C are found to be 0.34, 0.71 and 1.10 Ω cm2, respectively. The as-prepared (via MS-GNP) Cu-CGO anode exhibits excellent electrical and electrochemical performance consistent with the uniform nanostructured morphology compared with the anode prepared via CS-GNP.

  5. Magnetic characteristics of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by glycine-nitrate synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhernovoi, A. I.; Komlev, A. A.; D'yachenko, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic properties of magnesium-iron spinel (MgFe2O4) powdered nanoparticles obtained by glycine-nitrate synthesis are investigated by X-ray phase analysis and the NMR method. According to the results of X-ray phase analysis, the average size of the crystalline part of nanoparticles of the powder under investigation is 45 ± 4 nm. Magnetization J is determined using the formula J = (B/μ0)- H, where B and H are the induction and strength of the magnetic field in the sample, which are measured by the NMR method. The magnetic characteristics of MgFe2O4 are as follows: specific saturation magnetization J sat = 17.52 A m2/kg, specific residual magnetization J r = 5.73 A m2/kg, coercive force H c = 4600 A/m, and magnetic moment P sat = 371 × 10-20 A m2 in the magnetic saturation state and P r = 121 × 10-20 A m2 in the residual magnetization state.

  6. Hexavalent chromium stress enhances the uptake of nitrate but reduces the uptake of ammonium and glycine in pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Jinzhao; Tan, Xiaoli; Xie, Yinan; Xiao, Han; Wu, Lianghuan

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) pollution affects plant growth and biochemical processes, so, the relative uptake of glycine, nitrate, and ammonium by pak choi (Brassica chinensis) seedlings in treatments with 0mgL(-1) and 10mgL(-1) Cr (VI) were detected by substrate-specific (15)N-labelling in a sterile environment. The short-term uptake of (15)N-labelled sources and (15)N-enriched amino acids were detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to explore the mechanism by which Cr stress affects glycine uptake and metabolism, which showing that Cr stress hindered the uptake of ammonium and glycine but increased significantly the uptake of nitrate. Cr stress did not decrease the active or passive uptake of glycine, but it inhibited the conversion of glycine to serine in pak choi roots, indicating that the metabolism of glycine to serine in roots, rather than the root uptake, was the limiting step in glycine contribution to total N uptake in pak choi. Since Cr affects the relative uptake of different N sources, a feasible way to reduce Cr-induced stress is application of selective fertilization, in particular nitrate, in pak choi cultivation on Cr-polluted soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and stable nitrogen isotope analysis of ammonium ions in ammonium nitrate prills using sodium tetraphenylborate.

    PubMed

    Howa, John D; Lott, Michael J; Ehleringer, James R

    2014-07-15

    Because of the threat of bombings using improvised explosives containing ammonium nitrate (AN), law enforcement and intelligence communities have been interested in stable isotope techniques for tracking and discriminating AN sources. Separate analysis of the AN component ions ammonium and nitrate would add discriminatory power to these techniques. Ammonium ions in dissolved AN solution were isolated from samples by precipitation using sodium tetraphenylborate solution. We tested the isolation of ammonium from nitrates using solutions of ammonium and nitrate salts with different (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios. Ammonium tetraphenylborate and AN were separately analyzed for their (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios using EA-ConFlo-IRMS, and the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of the nitrate ions were calculated using mass balance. Ammonium and nitrate nitrogen isotope ratios were plotted as two separate variables. Isolation of ammonium precipitate from solutions containing dissolved nitrates did not influence the nitrogen isotope ratios of test ammonium salts. A survey set of 42 AN samples showed that the ammonium and nitrate (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios were not significantly correlated, and the paired mean differences were not statistically significant. Both ammonium and nitrate were depleted in (15)N relative to their theoretical atmospheric sources. Isolation of the ammonium ion from AN adds another dimension for the discrimination of forensic AN samples. This technique using sodium tetraphenylborate is robust and does not require specialized equipment. Our observations indicated that ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen have independent sources of isotopic variation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effect of nitrate on nodule and root growth of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    PubMed

    Saito, Akinori; Tanabata, Sayuri; Tanabata, Takanari; Tajima, Seiya; Ueno, Manabu; Ishikawa, Shinji; Ohtake, Norikuni; Sueyoshi, Kuni; Ohyama, Takuji

    2014-03-13

    The application of combined nitrogen, especially nitrate, to soybean plants is known to strongly inhibit nodule formation, growth and nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we measured the effects of supplying 5 mM nitrate on the growth of nodules, primary root, and lateral roots under light at 28 °C or dark at 18 °C conditions. Photographs of the nodulated roots were periodically taken by a digital camera at 1-h intervals, and the size of the nodules was measured with newly developed computer software. Nodule growth was depressed approximately 7 h after the addition of nitrate under light conditions. The nodule growth rate under dark conditions was almost half that under light conditions, and nodule growth was further suppressed by the addition of 5 mM nitrate. Similar results were observed for the extending growth rate of the primary root as those for nodule growth supplied with 5 mM nitrate under light/dark conditions. In contrast, the growth of lateral roots was promoted by the addition of 5 mM nitrate. The 2D-PAGE profiles of nodule protein showed similar patterns between the 0 and 5 mM nitrate treatments, which suggested that metabolic integrity may be maintained with the 5 mM nitrate treatment. Further studies are required to confirm whether light or temperature condition may give the primary effect on the growth of nodules and roots.

  9. Efficiency of Nitrogen Assimilation by N2-Fixing and Nitrate-Grown Soybean Plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr.)

    PubMed Central

    Finke, Robert L.; Harper, James E.; Hageman, Richard H.

    1982-01-01

    Nodulated and non-nodulated (not inoculated) soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Wells) were grown in controlled environments with N2 or nonlimiting levels of NO3−, respectively, serving as sole source of nitrogen. The efficiency of the N2-fixing plants was compared with that of the nitrate-supplied plants on the basis of both plant age and plant size. Efficiency evaluations of the plants were expressed as the ratio of moles of carbon respired by the whole plant to the moles of nitrogen incorporated into plant material. Continuous 24-hour CO2 exchange measurements on shoot and root systems made at the beginning of flowering (28 days after planting) indicated that N2-fixing plants respired 8.28 moles of carbon per mole of N, fixed from dinitrogen, while nitrate-supplied plants respired only 4.99 moles of carbon per mole of nitrate reduced. Twenty-one-day-old nitrate-supplied plants were even more efficient, respiring only 3.18 moles of carbon per mole of nitrate reduced. The decreased efficiency of the N2-fixing plants was not due to plant size since, on a dry weight basis, the 28-day-old N2-fixing plants were intermediate between the 28- and 21-day-old nitrate-supplied plants. The calculated efficiencies were predominantly a reflection of root-system respiration. N2-fixing plants lost 25% of their daily net photosynthetic input of carbon through root-system respiration, compared with 16% for 28-day-old nitrate-supplied plants and 12% for 21-day-old nitrate-supplied plants. Shoot dark respiration was similar for all three plant groups, varying between 7.9% and 9.0% of the apparent photosynthate. The increased respiratory loss by the roots of the N2-fixing plants was not compensated for by increased net photosynthetic effectiveness. Canopy photosynthesis expressed on a leaf area basis was similar for 28-day-old N2-fixing plants (15.5 milligrams CO2 square decimeter per hour) and 21-day-old nitrate-supplied plants (14.5 milligrams CO2 square decimeter per hour

  10. Characterization of nanocrystalline Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 soft ferrites synthesized by glycine-nitrate combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajarpour, S.; Gheisari, Kh.; Honarbakhsh Raouf, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, Mg-Zn ferrite with the chemical formula of Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 is synthesized through a modified combustion synthesis using glycine as fuel and metal (Mg, Zn and Fe) nitrates as reactants. The technique, known as glycine-nitrate process, involves exothermic decomposition of a viscous liquid, prepared by thermal dehydration of an aqueous solution containing metal nitrates and glycine. The product powders produced at seven different molar ratios of glycine to nitrate (G/N ratio), varying from 0.37 to 0.75, are agglomerates of fine particles whose typical diameter are several tens of nanometers. Thermodynamic modeling of the combustion reaction indicates that as the fuel-to-oxidant ratio increases, the amount of gases produced and the adiabatic flame temperature rise. X-ray diffraction shows that samples crystallize in a spinel-type structure in all reactions. The morphology of the powders is examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Through magnetic measurements conducted by a vibrating sample magnetometer, the maximum saturation magnetization (46 emu/g) is found to occur at the highest G/N ratio.

  11. Effect of glycine and glucose on sodium and water absorption in patients with cholera

    PubMed Central

    Nalin, D. R.; Cash, R. A.; Rahman, M.; Yunus, Md.

    1970-01-01

    Electrolyte solutions containing glucose, glycine, or a combination of the two were absorbed sufficiently well from the intestine to supply maintenance fluid and the electrolytes required by cholera patients. Data on net absorption and duration and volume of diarrhoea show that a solution containing both glucose and glycine provides more effective therapy than solutions containing either glucose or glycine alone. PMID:5473608

  12. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Levine, L. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of plants to sodium (Na) and salinity may increase glycine betaine accumulation in tissues. To study this, red-beet cvs. Scarlet Supreme and Ruby Queen, were grown for 42 days in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0.25 mmol/L K and either 4.75 mmol/L (control) or 54.75 mmol/L (saline) Na (as NaCl). Plants were harvested at weekly intervals and measurements were taken on leaf water relations, leaf photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll levels, glycine betaine levels, and tissue elemental composition. Glycine betaine accumulation increased under salinity and this accumulation correlated with higher tissue levels of Na in both cultivars. Na accounted for 80 to 90% of the total cation uptake under the saline treatment. At final harvest (42 days), K concentrations in laminae ranged from approximately 65-95 micromoles g-1 dry matter (DM), whereas Na in shoot tissue ranged from approximately 3000-4000 micromoles g-1. Leaf sap osmotic potential at full turgor [psi(s100)] increased as lamina Na content increased. Glycine betaine levels of leaf laminae showed a linear relationship with leaf sap [psi(s100)]. Chlorophyll levels, leaf photosynthetic rates, and chlorophyll fluorescence were not affected by Na levels. These results suggest that the metabolic tolerance to high levels of tissue Na in red-beet could be due to its ability to synthesize and regulate glycine betaine production, and to control partitioning of Na and glycine betaine between the vacuole and the cytoplasm.

  13. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Levine, L. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of plants to sodium (Na) and salinity may increase glycine betaine accumulation in tissues. To study this, red-beet cvs. Scarlet Supreme and Ruby Queen, were grown for 42 days in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0.25 mmol/L K and either 4.75 mmol/L (control) or 54.75 mmol/L (saline) Na (as NaCl). Plants were harvested at weekly intervals and measurements were taken on leaf water relations, leaf photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll levels, glycine betaine levels, and tissue elemental composition. Glycine betaine accumulation increased under salinity and this accumulation correlated with higher tissue levels of Na in both cultivars. Na accounted for 80 to 90% of the total cation uptake under the saline treatment. At final harvest (42 days), K concentrations in laminae ranged from approximately 65-95 micromoles g-1 dry matter (DM), whereas Na in shoot tissue ranged from approximately 3000-4000 micromoles g-1. Leaf sap osmotic potential at full turgor [psi(s100)] increased as lamina Na content increased. Glycine betaine levels of leaf laminae showed a linear relationship with leaf sap [psi(s100)]. Chlorophyll levels, leaf photosynthetic rates, and chlorophyll fluorescence were not affected by Na levels. These results suggest that the metabolic tolerance to high levels of tissue Na in red-beet could be due to its ability to synthesize and regulate glycine betaine production, and to control partitioning of Na and glycine betaine between the vacuole and the cytoplasm.

  14. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, G V; Wheeler, R M; Levine, L H; Stutte, G W

    2001-06-01

    Exposure of plants to sodium (Na) and salinity may increase glycine betaine accumulation in tissues. To study this, red-beet cvs. Scarlet Supreme and Ruby Queen, were grown for 42 days in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0.25 mmol/L K and either 4.75 mmol/L (control) or 54.75 mmol/L (saline) Na (as NaCl). Plants were harvested at weekly intervals and measurements were taken on leaf water relations, leaf photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll levels, glycine betaine levels, and tissue elemental composition. Glycine betaine accumulation increased under salinity and this accumulation correlated with higher tissue levels of Na in both cultivars. Na accounted for 80 to 90% of the total cation uptake under the saline treatment. At final harvest (42 days), K concentrations in laminae ranged from approximately 65-95 micromoles g-1 dry matter (DM), whereas Na in shoot tissue ranged from approximately 3000-4000 micromoles g-1. Leaf sap osmotic potential at full turgor [psi(s100)] increased as lamina Na content increased. Glycine betaine levels of leaf laminae showed a linear relationship with leaf sap [psi(s100)]. Chlorophyll levels, leaf photosynthetic rates, and chlorophyll fluorescence were not affected by Na levels. These results suggest that the metabolic tolerance to high levels of tissue Na in red-beet could be due to its ability to synthesize and regulate glycine betaine production, and to control partitioning of Na and glycine betaine between the vacuole and the cytoplasm.

  15. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF PERCHLORATE IN SAMPLES OF SODIUM NITRATE (CHILE SALTPETER) FERTILIZER DERIVED FROM NATURAL CALICHE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two lots of sodium nitrate fertilizer derived from Chilean caliche were analyzed to determine the distribution of perchlorate throughout the material. Although our samples represent a limited amount, we found that distribution was essentially homogeneous in any 100-g portion. Whe...

  17. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  18. PERCHLORATE LEVELS IN SAMPLES OF SODIUM NITRATE FERTILIZER DERIVED FROM CHILEAN CALICHE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paleogeochemical deposits in northern Chile are a rich source of naturally occurring sodium nitrate. These caliche ores are mined and processed to isolate NaNO3 (16-0-0) for use in fertilizers. Coincidentally, these very same deposits are a natural soure of perchlorate anion (C...

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF PERCHLORATE IN SAMPLES OF SODIUM NITRATE (CHILE SALTPETER) FERTILIZER DERIVED FROM NATURAL CALICHE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two lots of sodium nitrate fertilizer derived from Chilean caliche were analyzed to determine the distribution of perchlorate throughout the material. Although our samples represent a limited amount, we found that distribution was essentially homogeneous in any 100-g portion. Whe...

  20. PERCHLORATE LEVELS IN SAMPLES OF SODIUM NITRATE FERTILIZER DERIVED FROM CHILEAN CALICHE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paleogeochemical deposits in northern Chile are a rich source of naturally occurring sodium nitrate. These caliche ores are mined and processed to isolate NaNO3 (16-0-0) for use in fertilizers. Coincidentally, these very same deposits are a natural soure of perchlorate anion (C...

  1. Investigations on the growth and characterization of γ-glycine single crystal in the presence of sodium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizhi, R. Ezhil; Yogambal, C.

    2016-10-01

    A nonlinear optical material γ-glycine single crystal was grown for the first time in the presence of sodium bromide by slow cooling method. The solubility of the material was analyzed gravimetrically. Metastable zonewidth was studied by the polythermal method. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal of γ-glycine were found to crystallize in hexagonal crystal system. The presence of all the functional groups of the γ-glycine was confirmed by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral analysis. Thermal properties of the grown crystal were determined by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), which indicated the thermal stability (up to 210 °C) and the melting point (257 °C). The grown crystal was subjected to Vickers microhardness test. The dielectric response of the sample is studied as a function of frequency and temperature. The optical transparency and lower cut-off value of UV transmission (223 nm) were ascertained by recording a UV-visible spectrum of γ-glycine crystal. The second-order nonlinear optical property was confirmed by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

  2. Protective effects of sodium selenite on lead nitrate-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Suna; Apaydin, Fatma Gökçe; Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Yusuf

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of sodium selenite on lead induced toxicity was studied in Wistar rats. Sodium selenite and lead nitrate were administered orally for 28 days to streptozotocin induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Eight groups of rats were used in the study: control, sodium selenite, lead nitrate, lead nitrate+sodium selenite, streptozotocin-induced diabetic-control, diabetic-sodium selenite, diabetic-lead nitrate, diabetic-lead nitrate+sodium selenite groups. Serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and histopathological changes in liver tissues were investigated in all groups. There were statistically significant changes in liver function tests, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in lead nitrate and sodium selenite+lead nitrate treated groups, also in diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Furthermore, histopathological alterations were demonstrated in same groups. In the present study we found that sodium selenite treatment did not show completely protective effect on diabetes mellitus caused damages, but diabetic rats are more susceptible to lead toxicity than non-diabetic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Beetroot and Sodium Nitrate Ameliorate Cardiometabolic Changes in Diet-Induced Obese Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Brown, Lindsay; McAinch, Andrew J; Mathai, Michael L

    2017-09-27

    Dietary intake of beetroot by humans reduces blood pressure but whether this is caused by nitrate or betanin is not well-defined; neither are effects on other signs of metabolic syndrome. Rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, altered cardiovascular and liver structure and function, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to rats fed a corn starch diet (C). H rats treated with ∼16 mg/kg/day of nitrate either from beetroot juice (H+B) or sodium nitrate (H+N) for the last 8 weeks reduced systolic blood pressure by ∼25 mmHg, improved cardiac structure and function, plasma lipid profile and plasma markers of liver function, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in heart and liver and decreased left ventricular fibrosis. In the left ventricle, H rats increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-alpha (AMPK-α) and decreased mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α); both beetroot and sodium nitrate diet-fed rats decreased CTGF three-fold, MCP-1 and MMP-2 two-fold, and doubled PPAR-α mRNA expression in left ventricular tissue. The similar functional and molecular responses to beetroot and sodium nitrate indicate that the nitrate content of beetroot reduced inflammation and improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic function in rats with metabolic syndrome, rather than betanin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. A non-fatal intoxication with a high-dose sodium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Dorien; Stolk, Leo; Henry, Ronald

    2014-05-30

    A 67-year-old man accidentally ingested 75 g of sodium nitrate. He had instant gastrointestinal symptoms. On physical examination, he was respiratorily and haemodynamically stable and there were no signs of central or peripheral cyanosis. Repeated methaemoglobin levels were normal and he made an uneventful recovery. Sodium nitrate intoxication is rare. Serious effects can occur, mainly through formation of nitrite and nitric oxide, which can cause methaemoglobinaemia and vasodilation. Even if the presenting symptoms are mild, it is important to remain cautious since more serious symptoms can occur later. Monitoring of respiratory and haemodynamic status and repeated blood gas analysis in order to detect methaemoglobinaemia are recommended. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Changes of sodium nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitrosodiethylamine during in vitro human digestion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-06-15

    This study aimed to determine the changes in sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) during in vitro human digestion, and the effect of enterobacteria on the changes in these compounds. The concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and NDEA were significantly reduced from 150, 150, and 1ppm to 42.8, 63.2, and 0.85ppm, respectively, during in vitro human digestion (p<0.05). The enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei reduced the amount of these compounds present during in vitro human digestion. This study is the first to report that E. coli can dramatically reduce the amount of nitrite during in vitro human digestion and this may be due to the effect of nitrite reductase present in E. coli. We therefore conclude that the amounts of potentially harmful substances and their toxicity can be decreased during human digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Influence of silver/silicon dioxide on infrared absorption spectroscopy of sodium nitrate].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Ling; Yue, Li; Jia, Zhi-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Quickly detecting of ocean nutrient was one important task in marine pollution monitoring. We discovered the application of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy in the detection of ocean nutrient through researching the evaporation of sodium nitrate solution. The silicon dioxide (SiO2) with highly dispersion was prepared by Stober method, The silver/silica (Ag/SiO2) composite materials were prepared by mixing ammonia solution and silicon dioxide aqueous solution. Three kinds of composite materials with different surface morphology were fabricated through optimizing the experimental parameter and changing the experimental process. The surface morphology, crystal orientation and surface plasmon resonance were investigated by means of the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible absorption spectrum and infrared ab- sorption spectroscopy. The SEM images showed that the sample A was purified SiO2, sample B and sample C were mixture of silver nanoparticle and silicon dioxide, while sample D was completed nanoshell structure. The absorption spectroscopy showed that there was surface plasmon resonance in the UV-visible region, while there was possibility of surface plasmon resonance in the Infrared absorption region. The effect of Ag/SiO2 composite material on the infrared absorption spectra of sodium nitrite solution was investigated through systematically analyzing the infrared absorption spectroscopy of sodium nitrate solution during its evaporation, i. e. the peak integration area of nitrate and the peak integration area of water molecule. The experimental results show that the integration area of nitrate was enhanced greatly during the evaporation process while the integration area of water molecule decreased continuously. The integration area of nitrate comes from the anti-symmetric stretch vibration and the enhancement of the vibration is attributed to the interface effect of Ag/SiO2 which is consistent with Jensen T

  7. Reduction in Dental Hypersensitivity with Nano-Hydroxyapatite, Potassium Nitrate, Sodium Monoflurophosphate and Antioxidants#

    PubMed Central

    B. Low, Samuel; Allen, Edward P.; Kontogiorgos, Elias D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This clinical study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of a commercially available toothpaste containing potassium nitrate, sodium monoflurophosphate, and nano-hydroxyapatite as well as antioxidants phloretin, ferulic acid and silymarin in reducing dental hypersensitivity in adults. Methods: The clinical trial enrolled patients with a history of dentin hypersensitivity. A test toothpaste was introduced into the daily routine, which included initial instruction on usage. Patients completed a five-question visual analog scale (VAS) at the inception/baseline, after two days and after two weeks of using the toothpaste to determine their level of tooth sensitivity at baseline with the use of the toothpaste over time. Results: Patients that had significant sensitivity at baseline had a range of 52% to 76 % improvement after 48 hours and a range of 70% to 84% improvement after two weeks. Conclusion: A toothpaste containing potassium nitrate, sodium monoflurophosphate, and nano-hydroxyapatite plus antioxidants phloretin, ferulic acid and silymarin applied daily significantly decreased tooth pain of dentin hypersensitivity within a two-day and two-week time period. Clinical Significance: Based on the clinical study results, a daily application of a toothpaste containing potassium nitrate, sodium monofluorophosphate, and nano-hydroxyapatite plus antioxidants phloretin, ferulic acid and silymarin can significantly and quickly reduce tooth pain of dentin hypersensitivity. PMID:25834655

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Solution-Air Interface of Aqueous Sodium Nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Jennie L.; Roeselova, Martina; Dang, Liem X.; Tobias, Douglas J.

    2007-04-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the behavior of aqueous sodium nitrate in interfacial environments. Polarizable potentials for the water molecules and the nitrate ion in solution were employed. Calculated surface tension data at several concentrations are in good agreement with measured surface tension data. The surface potential of NaNO3 solutions at two concentrations also compare favorably with experimental measurements. Density profiles suggest that NO3 - resides primarily below the surface of the solutions over a wide range of concentrations. When the nitrate anions approach the surface of the solution, they are significantly undercoordinated compared to in the bulk, and this may be important for reactions where solvent cage effects play a role, such as photochemical processes. Surface water orientation is perturbed by the presence of nitrate ions, and this has implications for experimental studies that probe interfacial water orientation. Nitrate ions near the surface also have a preferred orientation that places the oxygen atoms in the plane of the interface. The availability of NO3 - for reaction at the surface of aerosols in the atmosphere is discussed. The work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was performed under the auspices of the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the Department of Energy.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of the solution-air interface of aqueous sodium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennie L; Roeselová, Martina; Dang, Liem X; Tobias, Douglas J

    2007-04-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the behavior of aqueous sodium nitrate in interfacial environments. Polarizable potentials for the water molecules and the nitrate ion in solution were employed. Calculated surface tension data at several concentrations are in good agreement with measured surface tension data. The surface potential of NaNO3 solutions at two concentrations also compare favorably with experimental measurements. Density profiles suggest that NO3- resides primarily below the surface of the solutions over a wide range of concentrations. When the nitrate anions approach the surface of the solution, they are significantly undercoordinated compared to in the bulk, and this may be important for reactions where solvent cage effects play a role such as photochemical processes. Surface water orientation is perturbed by the presence of nitrate ions, and this has implications for experimental studies that probe interfacial water orientation. Nitrate ions near the surface also have a preferred orientation that places the oxygen atoms in the plane of the interface.

  10. DNA content alterations in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronucleus after exposure to food preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate.

    PubMed

    Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chasapis, C T; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Stefanidou, Maria E

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity, in terms of changes in the DNA content, of two food preservatives, sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis using DNA image analysis technology. For this purpose, selected doses of both food additives were administered for 2 h to protozoa cultures and DNA image analysis of T. pyriformis nuclei was performed. The analysis was based on the measurement of the Mean Optical Density which represents the cellular DNA content. The results have shown that after exposure of the protozoan cultures to doses equivalent to ADI, a statistically significant increase in the macronuclear DNA content compared to the unexposed control samples was observed. The observed increase in the macronuclear DNA content is indicative of the stimulation of the mitotic process and the observed increase in MOD, accompanied by a stimulation of the protozoan proliferation activity is in consistence with this assumption. Since alterations at the DNA level such as DNA content and uncontrolled mitogenic stimulation have been linked with chemical carcinogenesis, the results of the present study add information on the toxicogenomic profile of the selected chemicals and may potentially lead to reconsideration of the excessive use of nitrates aiming to protect public health.

  11. Experimental carcinogenesis on the oropharyngeal mucosa of rats with hydrochloric acid, sodium nitrate and pepsin.

    PubMed

    Del Negro, André; Araújo, Marina Raquel; Tincani, Alfio José; Meirelles, Luciana; Martins, Antônio Santos; Andreollo, Nelson Adami

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the carcinogenic action of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and sodium nitrate on the oropharyngeal mucosa of rats, simulating the reflux of gastric contents. Eighty-two Wistar rats were divided in seven groups and submitted to 2 or 3 weekly applications of hydrochloric acid, pepsin and sodium nitrate on the pharyngeal mucosa during six months. Study groups comprised 12 animals each. Rats in groups I and II were submitted to 2 (GI) or 3 (GII) weekly applications of 0.1N hydrochloric acid. Groups III and IV were submitted to 2 (GIII) or 3 (GIV) weekly applications of 0.1N hydrochloric acid solution with pepsin. Groups V and VI were submitted to 2 (GV) or 3 (GVI) weekly applications of 0.1N hydrochloric acid and treated with daily nitrate diluted in water. Group VII consisted of 10 animals submitted to 2 weekly applications of filtered water. No dysplasia, intra-epithelial neoplasia or invasive carcinomas were detected. Inflammatory changes were observed in varying degrees and mast cells were more common in Groups V and VI (p=0.006). The data of the current study could not corroborate the hypothesis that gastroesophageal and pharyngolaryngeal refluxes are carcinogenic factors to the laryngopharyngeal mucosa, and more studies are necessary in the future.

  12. Nitrate-dependent shoot sodium accumulation and osmotic functions of sodium in Arabidopsis under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Aragón, Rocío; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso

    2017-04-02

    Improving crop plants to be productive in saline soils or under irrigation with saline water would be an important technological advance in overcoming the food and freshwater crises that threaten the world population. However, even if the transformation of a glycophyte into a plant that thrives under seawater irrigation were biologically feasible, current knowledge about Na(+) effects would be insufficient to support this technical advance. Intriguingly, crucial details about Na(+) uptake and its function in the plant have not yet been well established. We here propose that under saline conditions two nitrate-dependent transport systems in series that take up and load Na(+) into the xylem constitute the major pathway for the accumulation of Na(+) in Arabidopsis shoots; this pathway can also function with chloride at high concentrations. In nrt1.1 nitrate transport mutants, plant Na(+) accumulation was partially defective, which suggests that NRT1.1 either partially mediates or modulates the nitrate-dependent Na(+) transport. Arabidopsis plants exposed to an osmotic potential of -1.0 MPa (400 mOsm) for 24 h showed high water loss and wilting in sorbitol or Na/MES, where Na(+) could not be accumulated. In contrast, in NaCl the plants accumulated Na(+) , lost a low amount of water, and only suffered transitory wilting. We discuss that in Arabidopsis plants exposed to high NaCl concentrations, root Na(+) uptake and tissue accumulation fulfill the primary function of osmotic adjustment, even if these processes lead to long-term toxicity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of intensive horticulture practices on groundwater content of nitrates, sodium, potassium, and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Melo, Armindo; Pinto, Edgar; Aguiar, Ana; Mansilha, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-07-01

    A monitoring program of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, sodium, and pesticides was carried out in water samples from an intensive horticulture area in a vulnerable zone from north of Portugal. Eight collecting points were selected and water-analyzed in five sampling campaigns, during 1 year. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis, were used in order to understand the impact of intensive horticulture practices on dug and drilled wells groundwater and to study variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. PCA performed on pesticide data matrix yielded seven significant PCs explaining 77.67% of the data variance. Although PCA rendered considerable data reduction, it could not clearly group and distinguish the sample types. However, a visible differentiation between the water samples was obtained. Cluster and discriminant analysis grouped the eight collecting points into three clusters of similar characteristics pertaining to water contamination, indicating that it is necessary to improve the use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Inorganic fertilizers such as potassium nitrate were suspected to be the most important factors for nitrate contamination since highly significant Pearson correlation (r = 0.691, P < 0.01) was obtained between groundwater nitrate and potassium contents. Water from dug wells is especially prone to contamination from the grower and their closer neighbor's practices. Water from drilled wells is also contaminated from distant practices.

  14. The influence of tensile strain on the growth of crystals of potash alum and sodium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, R. I.; Sherwood, J. N.; Shripathi, T.

    1997-08-01

    Using a specially designed growth cell in which the crystal could be subjected to tensile stain during growth, studies have been made of the influence of strain on the growth rates of the habit faces of potash alum and sodium nitrate. These materials are, respectively, typical of brittle and ductile materials. In both cases, the application of strain led to a reduction in growth rate. In the case of brittle potash alum the reduction in growth rate of the {1 0 0} and {1 1 0} habit faces was directly proportional to the applied stress. On removal of the constraint, the growth rate returned to its initial value. The growth rate of the {1 1 1} faces was influenced by strain, but to a much lesser extent. In contrast, sodium nitrate showed a time dependent decrease in growth rate consistent with the gradual partial release of strain by plastic deformation. On release of the strain, the growth rate of the unconstrained crystal was higher than that observed initially. X-ray topographic analysis of the crystals showed that potash alum had undergone only limited plastic deformation during straining to produce few dislocations the orientation of which could not influence growth of the {1 0 0} and {1 1 0} faces. In contrast, sodium nitrate had undergone massive plastic deformation to form large numbers of dislocations many of which intersected the growing interface. Where this had occurred some of these dislocations converted to growth dislocations in the subsequent growth, thus contributing to the noted increase in growth rate. The results are extended to consider the equivalent behaviour of micro crystals and are discussed in the context of growth rate dispersion in industrial crystallisation.

  15. Comparison of plasma generated nitrogen fertilizer to conventional fertilizers ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate for pre-emergent and seedling growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andhavarapu, A.; King, W.; Lindsay, A.; Byrns, B.; Knappe, D.; Fonteno, W.; Shannon, S.

    2014-10-01

    Plasma source generated nitrogen fertilizer is compared to conventional nitrogen fertilizers in water for plant growth. Root, shoot sizes, and weights are used to examine differences between plant treatment groups. With a simple coaxial structure creating a large-volume atmospheric glow discharge, a 162 MHz generator drives the air plasma. The VHF plasma source emits a steady state glow; the high drive frequency is believed to inhibit the glow-to-arc transition for non-thermal discharge generation. To create the plasma activated water (PAW) solutions used for plant treatment, the discharge is held over distilled water until a 100 ppm nitrate aqueous concentration is achieved. The discharge is used to incorporate nitrogen species into aqueous solution, which is used to fertilize radishes, marigolds, and tomatoes. In a four week experiment, these plants are watered with four different solutions: tap water, dissolved ammonium nitrate DI water, dissolved sodium nitrate DI water, and PAW. Ammonium nitrate solution has the same amount of total nitrogen as PAW; sodium nitrate solution has the same amount of nitrate as PAW. T-tests are used to determine statistical significance in plant group growth differences. PAW fertilization chemical mechanisms are presented.

  16. Measuring the enthalpies of interaction between glycine, L-cysteine, glycylglycine, and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badelin, V. G.; Mezhevoi, I. N.; Tyunina, E. Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of solution Δsol H m for glycine, L-cysteine, and glycylglycine in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with concentrations of up to 0.05 mol kg-1 are made. Standard enthalpy of solution Δsol H 0 and enthalpy of transfer Δtr H 0 of the dipeptide from water into mixed solvent are calculated. The calculated enthalpy coefficients of paired interactions of amino acids and dipeptide with SDS prove to be positive. Hydrophobic interactions between the biomolecules and SDS are found to have a major impact on the enthalpies of interaction in the three-component systems under study, within the indicated range of concentrations.

  17. Axial vibration control of melt structure of sodium nitrate in crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskiy, Andrey; Sukhanova, Ekaterina; Belov, Stanislav; Kostikov, Vladimir; Zykova, Marina; Artyushenko, Maxim; Zharikov, Evgeny; Avetissov, Igor

    2015-05-01

    The melt structure evolution under the action of the low-frequency axial vibration control (AVC) technique was studied in situ by Raman spectroscopy for several complex chemical compound melts: sodium nitrate, margarine acid, paraffin mixture (C17-C20). The measurements were conducted in the temperature range from the melting point up to 60 °C above. Comparison of crystallization heats for AVC activated and steady melts with melting heats of AVC-CZ and conventional CZ produced powders allowed to propose the energy diagram of NaNO3 states for activated and non-activated melts and crystals based on DTA, XRD, DSC and Raman experimental data.

  18. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOEpatents

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  19. Zinc Oxide-Containing Porous Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Sheets from Glycine-Nitrate Combustion: Synthesis, Self-Cleaning, and Sunlight-Driven Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Bharathidasan, T; Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M; Dhandapani, P; Sathiyanarayanan, S; Mayavan, Sundar

    2015-08-26

    We developed a single-step thermal method that enables successful inclusion of ZnO components in the porous boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) framework to form a new class of functional hybrid. ZnO-containing BCN hybrids were prepared by treating a mixture of B2O3, glycine, and zinc nitrate at 500 °C. Glycine-nitrate decomposition along with B2O3 acts as a source for ZnO-BCN formation. The incorporation of ZnO onto BCN has extended the photoresponse of ZnO in the visible region, which makes ZnO-BCN a preferable photocatalyst relative to ZnO upon sunlight exposure. It is interesting to note that as-prepared 2D ZnO-BCN sheets dispersed in PDMS form a stable coating over aluminum alloys. The surface exhibited a water contact angle (CA) of 157.6° with 66.6 wt % ZnO-BCN in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a water droplet (7 μL) roll-off angle of <6° and also demonstrates oil fouling resistant superhydrophobicity. In brief, the present study focuses on the gram scale synthesis of a new class of sunlight-driven photocatalyst and also its application toward the development of superhydrophobic and oleophobic coating.

  20. INFLUENCE OF CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUM AND LUTROL ON THE SWELLING INDEX AND DISINTEGRATION TIME OF BIOMUCOADHESIVE TABLETS WITH MICONAZOLE NITRATE.

    PubMed

    Birsan, Magdalena; Scutariu, Monica Mihaela; Cojocaru, Ileana

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE. To develop original pharmaceutical formulation with miconazole nitrate, biomucoadhesive tablets, used in antifungal medication. The oral biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate were developed by direct compression of the excipient mixture: carboxymethylcellulose sodium and lutrol 6000, excipients used for bioadhesivity, mannitol as a sugar substitute and aerosil as a lubricant. The main goal of the study is to determine the disintegration time and the swelling index of biomucoadhesive tablets with miconazole nitrate in order to estimate the time of contact with mucosa, respectively the prolongation of drug substance release. The swelling index was calculated depending on time in all the 5 formulations that included the carboxymethylcellulose sodium and Lutrol 6000 as matrix-forming, and the studied were time and association ratio between polymers. Analysing the results, we noticed that out of the four excipients we used, carboxymethylcellulose sodium had the higher influence on the swelling index and disintegration time.

  1. Hyparrhenia hirta: A potential protective agent against hematotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz-Ketata, Hanen; Salah, Ghada Ben; Mahjoubi, Amira; Aidi, Zied; Kallel, Choumous; Kammoun, Hassen; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the adverse hematotoxic and genotoxic effects of water nitrate pollution on male adult rats and the use of hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract in alleviating these effects. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3 ) was administered to adult rats by oral gavage at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) bw daily for 50 days, while hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract was given by drinking water at a dose of 1.5 mg mL(-1) (200 mg kg(-1) bw). The NaNO3 -treated group showed a significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and a significant increase in total white blood cell, in neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration remained unchanged in treated groups compared to those of controls. Meanwhile, the results showed a marked reduction in the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, along with an elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation and a reduction in the total glutathione content, indicating the induction of oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of NaNO3 -treated group. Interestingly, NaNO3 treatment showed a significant increase in the frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations, aberrant metaphases and micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. The oxidative stress induced by nitrate treatment might be the major cause for chromosomal rearrangements as free radicals leading to DNA damage. Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract appeared to be effective against hematotoxic and genotoxic changes induced by nitrate, as evidenced by the improvement of the markers cited above. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A literature review of radiolytic gas generation as a result of the decomposition of sodium nitrate wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this literature review is to determine expected chemical reactions and the gas generation associated with radiolytic decomposition of radioactive sodium nitrate wastes such as the wastes stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The literature survey summarizes expected chemical reactions and identifies the gases expected to be generated as a result of the radiolytic decomposition. The literature survey also identifies G values, which are the expression for radiation chemical yields as molecules of gas formed per 100 eV of absorbed energy, obtained from experimental studies of the radiolytic decomposition of water and sodium nitrate. 2 tabs., 32 refs.

  3. Glycine Betaine, Carnitine, and Choline Enhance Salinity Tolerance and Prevent the Accumulation of Sodium to a Level Inhibiting Growth of Tetragenococcus halophila

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Hervé; Le Marrec, Claire; Blanco, Carlos; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Natural-abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance was used to probe the intracellular organic solute content of the moderately halophilic bacterium Tetragenococcus halophila. When grown in complex growth media supplemented or not with NaCl, T. halophila accumulates glycine betaine and carnitine. Unlike other moderate halophiles, T. halophila was not able to produce potent osmoprotectants (such as ectoines and glycine betaine) through de novo synthesis when cultured in defined medium under hyperosmotic constraint. Addition of 2 mM carnitine, glycine betaine, or choline to defined medium improved growth parameters, not only at high salinity (up to 2.5 M NaCl) but also in media lacking NaCl. These compounds were taken up when available in the surrounding medium. The transport activity occurred at low and high salinities and seems to be constitutive. Glycine betaine and carnitine were accumulated by T. halophila in an unmodified form, while exogenously provided choline led to an intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine. This is the first evidence of the existence of a choline-glycine betaine pathway in a lactic acid bacterium. An assay showed that the compatible solutes strikingly repressed the accumulation of glutamate and slightly increased the intracellular potassium level only at high salinity. Interestingly, osmoprotectant-treated cells were able to maintain the intracellular sodium concentration at a relatively constant level (200 to 300 nmol/mg [dry weight]), independent of the NaCl concentration of the medium. In contrast, in the absence of osmoprotectant, the intracellular sodium content increased sharply from 200 to 2,060 nmol/mg (dry weight) when the salinity of the medium was raised from 1 to 2 M. Indeed, the imported compatible solutes play an actual role in regulating the intracellular Na+ content and confer a much higher salt tolerance to T. halophila. PMID:10653711

  4. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties of lithium, sodium, and potassium nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korabel'nikov, D. V.; Zhuravlev, Yu. N.

    2013-08-01

    The thermal properties of lithium, sodium, and potassium nitrates have been studied in a gradient approximation of the density functional theory using the method of linear combination of atomic orbitals of the CRYSTAL09 program package. The long-wave frequencies and corresponding mode Grüneisen parameters are calculated. The quasi-harmonic Debye-Einstein model is used to calculate the parameters of the equation of states and also the dependences of the thermodynamic potentials, the entropy, the heat capacity, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the Grüneisen parameter on pressure and temperature. The role of external and intramolecular vibrations in the interpretation of thermodynamic properties is determined. The obtained results agree well with the available experimental data.

  5. The effects of varying the cellular and extracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium ions on the uptake of glycine by mouse ascites-tumour cells in the presence and absence of sodium cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, A. A.

    1968-01-01

    1. Tumour cells were starved to deplete them of ATP and transferred to 0·9mm-glycine in Ringer solutions containing 2mm-sodium cyanide and various Na+ and K+ concentrations. The uptake of glycine then usually reached a peak by about 10min. 2. When cellular [Na+] and extracellular [Na+] were each about 30m-equiv./l., the maximum amount of glycine absorbed increased between 1·2- and 3·0-fold on lowering extracellular [K+] from 128 to 10m-equiv./l. 3. When extracellular [Na+] was 150m-equiv./l., the ratio, R, of the cellular to extracellular glycine concentrations increased progressively, from near 1 to about 9, when cellular [Na+] was lowered from 120 to 40m-equiv./l. 4. When cellular [Na+] was almost constant, either at 45 or 70m-equiv./l., R fell about 14-fold when extracellular [Na+] varied from 150 to 16m-equiv./l. 5. Values of R near 0·2 were found when cellular [Na+] was about four times as large as extracellular [Na+]. 6. R fell about threefold when the cells were put with 12mm- instead of 0·9mm-glycine. 7. The results were taken to imply that, under these conditions, the spontaneous movements of both Na+ and K+ across the cell membrane, down their respective concentration gradients, served to concentrate the glycine in the tumour cells (Christensen's hypothesis). PMID:5667259

  6. Nitrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrate ; CASRN 14797 - 55 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  7. Sodium nitrate alleviates functional muscle ischaemia in patients with Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D; Rosenberry, Ryan; Barresi, Rita; Tsimerinov, Evgeny I; Rader, Florian; Tang, Xiu; Mason, O'Neil; Schwartz, Avery; Stabler, Thomas; Shidban, Sarah; Mobaligh, Neigena; Hogan, Shomari; Elashoff, Robert; Allen, Jason D; Victor, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive X-linked muscle wasting disease for which there is no treatment. BMD is caused by in-frame mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a structural cytoskeletal protein that also targets other proteins to the sarcolemma. Among these is neuronal nitric oxide synthase mu (nNOSμ), which requires specific spectrin-like repeats (SR16/17) in dystrophin's rod domain and the adaptor protein α-syntrophin for sarcolemmal targeting. When healthy skeletal muscle is exercised, sarcolemmal nNOSμ-derived nitric oxide (NO) attenuates α-adrenergic vasoconstriction, thus optimizing perfusion. In the mdx mouse model of dystrophinopathy, this protective mechanism (functional sympatholysis) is defective, resulting in functional muscle ischaemia. Treatment with a NO-donating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) alleviates this ischaemia and improves the murine dystrophic phenotype. In the present study, we report that, in 13 men with BMD, sympatholysis is defective mainly in patients whose mutations disrupt sarcolemmal targeting of nNOSμ, with the vasoconstrictor response measured as a decrease in muscle oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) to reflex sympathetic activation. Then, in a single-arm, open-label trial in 11 BMD patients and a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in six patients, we show that acute treatment with oral sodium nitrate, an inorganic NO donor without a NSIAD moiety, restores sympatholysis and improves post-exercise hyperaemia (Doppler ultrasound). By contrast, sodium nitrate improves neither sympatholysis, nor hyperaemia in healthy controls. Thus, a simple NO donor recapitulates the vasoregulatory actions of sarcolemmal nNOS in BMD patients, and constitutes a putative novel therapy for this disease. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  8. Efficient frequency conversion by stimulated Raman scattering in a sodium nitrate aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ganot, Yuval E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il; Bar, Ilana E-mail: ibar@bgu.ac.il

    2015-09-28

    Frequency conversion of laser beams, based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is an appealing technique for generating radiation at new wavelengths. Here, we investigated experimentally the SRS due to a single pass of a collimated frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) through a saturated aqueous solution of sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}), filling a 50 cm long cell. These experiments resulted in simultaneous generation of 1st (564 nm) and 2nd (599 nm) Stokes beams, corresponding to the symmetric stretching mode of the nitrate ion, ν{sub 1}(NO{sub 3}{sup −}), with 40 and 12 mJ/pulse maximal converted energies, equivalent to 12% and 4% efficiencies, respectively, for a 340 mJ/pulse pump energy. The results indicate that the pump and SRS beams were thermally defocused and that four-wave mixing was responsible for the second order Stokes process onset.

  9. From sodium intake restriction to nitrate supplementation: Different measures with converging mechanistic pathways?

    PubMed

    Clifton, P

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is at the centre of endothelial physiology producing nitric oxide which dilates blood vessels, inhibits platelet aggregation and smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduces adhesion molecule production. The laminar shear stress is a common test used usually as the flow mediated dilatation test (FMD) which is sensitive to saturated fat, sodium and potassium although with the latter ion it is possible potassium has direct effects on ion channels in the smooth muscle cell as well as the endothelial cell. High blood pressure and blood cholesterol both reduce nitric oxide production, the latter probably by increasing caveolin-1 which binds nitric oxide synthase. Saturated fat reduces nitric oxide by elevating LDL cholesterol and caveolin-1 while insulin stimulates nitric oxide synthase activity by serine phosphorylation. Polyphenols from tea, coffee and cocoa and virgin olive oil enhance FMD and eNOS activity is essential for this activity. Wine polyphenols produce mixed results and it is not clear at present that they are beneficial. Blackberries and other polyphenol-rich fruit also enhance FMD. Dietary nitrate from beetroot and green leafy vegetables is converted to nitrite by salivary microbes and then to nitric oxide and this acts directly on the smooth muscle to lower blood pressure particularly in a low oxygen environment. Dietary nitrate also improves work efficiency and improves flow mediated dilatation.

  10. Continuing assessment of the 5 day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay as an indicator test for silicon fertilizers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The five day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay has been proposed by the AAFPCO as a standard test to identify fertilizers that provide plant-available Si. A single-lab validation test was previously performed; however, the analysis lacked any correlation to a grow-out study. To do...

  11. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-10-01

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO{sub 3} solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO{sub 3} solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO{sub 3}, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary

  12. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) degradation by nitrate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Ana M S; Aydin, Rozelin; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Vreeling, Harm; Cavaleiro, Ana J; García-Encina, Pedro A; Stams, Alfons J M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-06-01

    The surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is widely used in the composition of detergents and frequently ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). While aerobic SLES degradation is well studied, little is known about the fate of this compound in anoxic environments, such as denitrification tanks of WWTPs, nor about the bacteria involved in the anoxic biodegradation. Here, we used SLES as sole carbon and energy source, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 mg L(-1), to enrich and isolate nitrate-reducing bacteria from activated sludge of a WWTP with the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) concept. In the 50 mg L(-1) enrichment, Comamonas (50%), Pseudomonas (24%), and Alicycliphilus (12%) were present at higher relative abundance, while Pseudomonas (53%) became dominant in the 1000 mg L(-1) enrichment. Aeromonas hydrophila strain S7, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain S8, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens strain S11 were isolated from the enriched cultures. Under denitrifying conditions, strains S8 and S11 degraded 500 mg L(-1) SLES in less than 1 day, while strain S7 required more than 6 days. Strains S8 and S11 also showed a remarkable resistance to SLES, being able to grow and reduce nitrate with SLES concentrations up to 40 g L(-1). Strain S11 turned out to be the best anoxic SLES degrader, degrading up to 41% of 500 mg L(-1). The comparison between SLES anoxic and oxic degradation by strain S11 revealed differences in SLES cleavage, degradation, and sulfate accumulation; both ester and ether cleavage were probably employed in SLES anoxic degradation by strain S11.

  13. Thermodynamic characteristics of the dissolution of glycine, glycylglycine, and glycylglycylglycine in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate at T = 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.

    2017-09-01

    the enthalpies of dissolution of glycine (Gly), glycylglycine (GlyGly), and glycylglycylglycine (GlyGlyGly) are measured in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at SDS concentrations m = 0-0.7 mol kg-1 and T = 298.15 K by means of calorimetry. The obtained data are used to calculate the standard values of enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H m ) and enthalpies of transfer (Δtr H m ) of glycine and its oligomers from water to SDS aqueous solutions. The dependences of Δsol H m and Δtr H m on SDS concentration in an aqueous solution at a constant concentration of glycine and its oligomers are determined. A comparative analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of Gly, GlyGly, and GlyGlyGly transfer within the studied range of SDS concentrations is performed. The results are interpreted in terms of ion-ion, ion-polar, and hydrophobic interactions between SDS and molecules of glycine and its oligomers.

  14. [Effect of silver/zinc selenide core-shell structure spheres on the infrared absorption properties of sodium nitrate].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Chun; Jia, Zhi-Jun; Yuan, Guang

    2013-10-01

    Silver/zinc selenide (Ag/ZnSe) core-shell structure spheres were made through the method of silver mirror reaction on zinc selenide micro spheres. Surface morphology of the spheres was depicted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier infrared absorption spectrum. This paper studies the effect of Ag/ZnSe core-shell structure spheres on the infrared absorption properties of sodium nitrate solution. The results show that, the anti-symmetric vibration absorption peaks of nitrate are blue-shifted, and the intensity are improved obviously by the effect of core-shell structure spheres.

  15. Reductimetric determination of peroxydisulphate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, nitrate and nitrite in concentrated phosphoric acid medium with iron(II).

    PubMed

    Murty, N K; Satyanarayana, V; Rao, Y F

    1977-12-01

    A direct reductimetric method for the determination of peroxydisulphate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, nitrate and nitrite in fairly concentrated phosphoric acid medium with iron(II) has been developed, with both potentiometric and visual end-point detection. Cacotheline, Methylene Blue, thionine, Azure A, Azure B, Azure C, Toluidine Blue, new Methylene Blue, ferroin, N-phenylanthranilic acid, p-ethoxychrysoidine and barium diphenylaminesulphonate are used as indicators. The method is useful in the analysis of binary mixtures of peroxydisulphate and peroxide or perborate and in the estimation of the nitrate content of fertilizers.

  16. The presence of sodium nitrate in generator eluate decreases the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-sestamibi.

    PubMed

    Métayé, Thierry; Rosenberg, Thierry; Guilhot, Joëlle; Bouin-Pineau, Marie-Hélène; Perdrisot, Rémy

    2012-09-01

    A high radiochemical purity (RCP) is recommended for radiopharmaceutical compounds used in the clinical practice of nuclear medicine. However, some preparations of (99m)Tc-sestamibi contain excess impurities (>6%). To understand the origin of these impurities, we investigated the effect of sodium nitrate on the RCP of sestamibi preparations by testing eluates from 3 commercially available (99m)Tc generators. The sestamibi kits (Stamicis) were reconstituted with (99m)Tc eluate from nitrate-containing wet-column (NCWC), nitrate-free wet-column (NFWC), and nitrate-free dry-column (NFDC) generators. Sodium nitrate was 0.05 mg/mL in eluates from the NCWC generators. The RCP was determined using aluminum oxide sheets as the stationary phase and absolute ethanol as the mobile phase. Succimer, tetrofosmin, oxidronate, exametazine, albumin nanocolloid, and soluble albumin were also tested for their RCP values with eluates from the 3 different (99m)Tc generators. The RCP assessment of (99m)Tc-sestamibi was performed on 127 Stamicis preparations. Significantly lower RCP values were found for Stamicis kits prepared with the NCWC generator than for Stamicis prepared with the NFWC (P < 0.0001) and NFDC (P < 0.0001) generators. The number of Stamicis preparations with an RCP under 94% was greater with the NCWC generator (32 of 53 kits) than with the NFDC (2 of 51 kits) or NFWC (0 of 23 kits) generator. Furthermore, the addition of a 0.05 mg/mL concentration of nitrate in NFWC generator eluates significantly decreased the RCP of the Stamicis preparation. In the absence of nitrate in (99m)Tc eluate, no difference was observed between the RCP values of Stamicis kits prepared with the NFWC and NFDC generators. The (99m)Tc impurities generated by nitrates did not modify the quality of myocardial imaging (normal heart-to-lung ratio, 2.2), probably because these impurities are not in the heart field of view. No other tested (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceutical interfered with nitrates. We

  17. [Mechanisms of nitroxide-ergic dysregulation in tissues of parodontium in rats under combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake].

    PubMed

    Богданов, Алексей В; Гришко, Юлия М; Костенко, Виталий А

    intake of inorganic nitrates is typically accompanied by production of excessive amount of nitric oxide (NO), which level is maintained by the mechanism of autoregulation known as the NO cycle. Hypothetically, this process may be disrupted with fluorides that are able to suppress arginase pathway of L-arginine metabolism, which competes with NO-synthase pathway. to study mechanisms of disregulation of oxidative (NO-synthase) and non-oxidative (arginase) metabolic pathways of L-arginine in the tissues of periodontium under combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake. these investigations were carried out on 90 white Wistar rats. Homogenates of parodontium soft tissues were used to assess spectrophotometrically the total activities of NO-synthase (NOS), arginase, ornithine decarboxylase as well as the peroxynitrite concentration. typical for the isolated sodium nitrate administration inhibition of total NOS activity varies under combined administration of nitrate and sodium fluoride and is usually manifested by its hyperactivation that is accompanied by an increase in peroxynitrite concentration. At this time arginase and ornithine decarboxylase activity is observed to be substantially reduced. The administration of aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, (20 mg/kg, twice a week during the experiment) increases arginase and ornithine decarboxylase activities, and the administration of L-arginine (500 mg/kg, twice a week) results in the increase of arginase activity. The administration of L-selenomethionine, a peroxynitrite scavenger (3 mg/kg, twice a week), and JSH-23 (4-methyl-N-(3-phenylpropyl) benzene-1,2-diamine, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation (1 mg/kg, twice a week) for modeling binary nitrate and fluoride intoxication reduces the total concentration of NOS activity and peroxynitrite concentration, and increases ornithine decarboxylase activity. the combined effect of nitrate and sodium fluoride for 30 days leads to disregulatory increased activity of NO

  18. [Mechanisms of nitroxide-ergic dysregulation in tissues of parodontium in rats under combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake].

    PubMed

    Богданов, Алексей В; Гришко, Юлия М; Костенко, Виталий А

    2016-01-01

    intake of inorganic nitrates is typically accompanied by production of excessive amount of nitric oxide (NO), which level is maintained by the mechanism of autoregulation known as the NO cycle. Hypothetically, this process may be disrupted with fluorides that are able to suppress arginase pathway of L-arginine metabolism, which competes with NO-synthase pathway. to study mechanisms of disregulation of oxidative (NO-synthase) and non-oxidative (arginase) metabolic pathways of L-arginine in the tissues of periodontium under combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake. these investigations were carried out on 90 white Wistar rats. Homogenates of parodontium soft tissues were used to assess spectrophotometrically the total activities of NO-synthase (NOS), arginase, ornithine decarboxylase as well as the peroxynitrite concentration. typical for the isolated sodium nitrate administration inhibition of total NOS activity varies under combined administration of nitrate and sodium fluoride and is usually manifested by its hyperactivation that is accompanied by an increase in peroxynitrite concentration. At this time arginase and ornithine decarboxylase activity is observed to be substantially reduced. The administration of aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, (20 mg/kg, twice a week during the experiment) increases arginase and ornithine decarboxylase activities, and the administration of L-arginine (500 mg/kg, twice a week) results in the increase of arginase activity. The administration of L-selenomethionine, a peroxynitrite scavenger (3 mg/kg, twice a week), and JSH-23 (4-methyl-N-(3-phenylpropyl) benzene-1,2-diamine, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation (1 mg/kg, twice a week) for modeling binary nitrate and fluoride intoxication reduces the total concentration of NOS activity and peroxynitrite concentration, and increases ornithine decarboxylase activity. the combined effect of nitrate and sodium fluoride for 30 days leads to disregulatory increased activity of NO

  19. A randomised in situ trial, measuring the anti-erosive properties of a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice compared with a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Susan; Seong, Joon; Macdonald, Emma; Claydon, Nicholas; Hellin, Nicola; Barker, Matthew L; He, Tao; West, Nicola X

    2014-03-01

    To determine if a stabilised, stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice provides greater enamel protection in situ against intraoral dietary erosive challenges compared with a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice. A single-centre, investigator blind, randomised, supervised, two-treatment, non-brushing, four-period crossover in situ study was undertaken, with each test period being 15 days. Thirty-five healthy adult subjects were recruited to participate in the study, which included four erosive acid challenges per day. Subjects were randomised to product treatment, which included either: (1) a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice (Oral-B(®) Pro-Expert Sensitive) or (2) a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice (Sensodyne(®) Pronamel(®) ). Each study subject wore an intraoral appliance retaining two sterilised, polished human enamel samples for 6 hours/day. Subjects swished with an allocated dentifrice slurry twice a day and with 250 ml of orange juice for 10 minutes (25 ml/minute over a 10-minute period) four times per day. The primary and secondary outcomes for this study were enamel loss measured using contact profilometry at days 15 and 5, respectively, using parametric analysis methods. At day 15, a 38% lower enamel loss (P < 0.0001) was observed, with estimated medians of 2.03 μm (SE 0.247) and 3.30 μm (SE 0.379), in favour of the stannous-containing dentifrice. At day 5, specimens treated with the stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice demonstrated 25% less enamel loss than those treated with the sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice. Treatment differences at day 5 were also statistically significant (P < 0.05), with estimated medians of 1.37 μm (SE 0.177) and 1.83 μm (SE 0.223), respectively. Results of this in situ study suggest the stabilised, stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice could be used to provide significantly greater protection to enamel from erosive acid challenge compared with that

  20. Growth, structural and optical studies on mixed glycine nitrate (d-GBC) crystals of non linear optical origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongare, Shailesh S.; Patil, S. B.; Khandpekar, M. M.

    2015-06-01

    A semi organic crystal of mixed amino-nitrate d-GBC having non linear optical characteristics has been grown from solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Transparent crystals (11 × 9 × 4 mm3) have been obtained in 3-4 weeks time. The solubility of d-GBC has been determined in water. The new d-GBC crystals have been characterized by powder XRD, FTIR and UV Spectra. The grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with cell parameters a=8.110 A.U, b=17.666 A.U, c=7.476 A.U and unit cell volume of 1071.14 A.U3. The presence of fundamental groups has been verified. A wide transparency window useful for optoelectronic applications is indicated by the UV Studies. The optical second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of d-GBC using characteristic 1064nm Nd-YAG laser (Kurtz and Perry method) is found to be 0.919 times that of KDP. Vickers Microhardness studies shows work hardening coefficient (n= 4.23) indicating soft category of Crystals.

  1. Developmental stage- and concentration-specific sodium nitroprusside application results in nitrate reductase regulation and the modification of nitrate metabolism in leaves of Medicago truncatula plants

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Filippou, Panagiota; Mylona, Photini; Fasoula, Dionysia; Ioannides, Ioannis; Polidoros, Alexios; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule involved in numerous biological events that has been reported to display both pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties in plants. Several reports exist which demonstrate the protective action of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a widely used NO donor, which acts as a signal molecule in plants responsible for the expression regulation of many antioxidant enzymes. This study attempts to provide a novel insight into the effect of application of low (100 μΜ) and high (2.5 mM) concentrations of SNP on the nitrosative status and nitrate metabolism of mature (40 d) and senescing (65 d) Medicago truncatula plants. Higher concentrations of SNP resulted in increased NO content, cellular damage levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, further induced in older tissues. Senescing M. truncatula plants demonstrated greater sensitivity to SNP-induced oxidative and nitrosative damage, suggesting a developmental stage-dependent suppression in the plant’s capacity to cope with free oxygen and nitrogen radicals. In addition, measurements of the activity of nitrate reductase (NR), a key enzyme involved in the generation of NO in plants, indicated a differential regulation in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression levels of NO-responsive genes (NR, nitrate/nitrite transporters) involved in nitrogen assimilation and NO production revealed significant induction of NR and nitrate transporter during long-term 2.5 mM SNP application in mature plants and overall gene suppression in senescing plants, supporting the differential nitrosative response of M. truncatula plants treated with different concentrations of SNP. PMID:23838961

  2. Developmental stage- and concentration-specific sodium nitroprusside application results in nitrate reductase regulation and the modification of nitrate metabolism in leaves of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Filippou, Panagiota; Mylona, Photini; Fasoula, Dionysia; Ioannides, Ioannis; Polidoros, Alexios; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule involved in numerous biological events that has been reported to display both pro-oxidant and antioxidant properties in plants. Several reports exist which demonstrate the protective action of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a widely used NO donor, which acts as a signal molecule in plants responsible for the expression regulation of many antioxidant enzymes. This study attempts to provide a novel insight into the effect of application of low (100 μΜ) and high (2.5 mM) concentrations of SNP on the nitrosative status and nitrate metabolism of mature (40 d) and senescing (65 d) Medicago truncatula plants. Higher concentrations of SNP resulted in increased NO content, cellular damage levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, further induced in older tissues. Senescing M. truncatula plants demonstrated greater sensitivity to SNP-induced oxidative and nitrosative damage, suggesting a developmental stage-dependent suppression in the plant's capacity to cope with free oxygen and nitrogen radicals. In addition, measurements of the activity of nitrate reductase (NR), a key enzyme involved in the generation of NO in plants, indicated a differential regulation in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression levels of NO-responsive genes (NR, nitrate/nitrite transporters) involved in nitrogen assimilation and NO production revealed significant induction of NR and nitrate transporter during long-term 2.5 mM SNP application in mature plants and overall gene suppression in senescing plants, supporting the differential nitrosative response of M. truncatula plants treated with different concentrations of SNP.

  3. Development of separation technique of sodium nitrate from low-level radioactive liquid waste using electrodialysis with selective ion-exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Keita Irisawa; Akinori Nakagawa; Takashi Onizawa; Takafumi Kogawara; Keiji Hanada; Yoshihiro Meguro

    2013-07-01

    An advanced method, in which electrodialysis separation of sodium nitrate and decomposition of nitrate ion are combined, has been developed to remove nitrate ion from low-level radioactive liquid wastes including nitrate salts of high concentration. An engineering scale apparatus with two electro-dialytic devices, in which the sodium and nitrate ions were separately removed by each device, was produced on the basis of the results of fundamental investigation previously reported, and the performance of the apparatus was tested. Both the ions were successfully removed at the same time, though these ions were separately transferred using two electro-dialytic devices. And also effect of several experimental parameters such as current and temperature on current efficiency of both the ions of each device was investigated. (authors)

  4. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate and nitrite at Nafion-coated electrodes in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H. |; Chambers, J.Q.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1988-12-31

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions in alkaline solution has been studied using various cathode materials and is the basis for a patent describing the conversion of nitrate into hydroxide ion in carbonate solutions. Recently, Taniguchi et al. have reported that certain well studied transition metal cyclic amine complexes, namely Co(III)-cyclam and Ni(II)-cyclam where cyclam is 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, efficiently electrocatalyze the reduction of nitrate and nitrite to hydroxylamine at mercury electrodes. Here the authors report that the metal cyclam catalyst can be incorporated into a Nafion film electrode, and that the reduction of nitrate and nitrite proceeds efficiently at these electrodes in concentrated NaOH solution. Nafion is a perfluoroalkanesulfonated cation exchange material that has been widely used to immobilize redox couples at electrode surfaces, including electrocatalysis species.

  5. Facile synthesis of graphite nitrate-like ammonium vanadium bronzes and their graphene composites for sodium-ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Fei, Hailong; Li, Huan; Li, Zhiwei; Feng, Wenjing; Liu, Xin; Wei, Mingdeng

    2014-11-21

    A simple and versatile method for preparation of new crystalline graphite nitrate-like ammonium vanadium bronze (NH4)0.19V2O5·0.44H2O nano-microstructures is developed via a simple hydrothermal route following heat treatment. (NH4)0.19V2O5·0.44H2O platelets are tested as a novel high-energy cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. The enhancement of electrochemical performance for a (NH4)0.19V2O5·0.44H2O platelet electrode is offered by addition of graphene and using graphite nitrate-like ammonium vanadium bronze microflowers. A graphene-based graphite nitrate-like vanadium bronze microflower composite shows a higher discharge capacity of 208.9 A h g(-1) for the second cycle in a 1.5-3.4 V voltage limit at a discharge current density of 20 mA g(-1). The reversible capacity of 141.5 A h g(-1) remained after 40 cycles.

  6. Inhibition of bacterial adhesion on PVC endotracheal tubes by RF-oxygen glow discharge, sodium hydroxide and silver nitrate treatments.

    PubMed

    Balazs, D J; Triandafillu, K; Wood, P; Chevolot, Y; van Delden, C; Harms, H; Hollenstein, C; Mathieu, H J

    2004-05-01

    Medical-grade poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was chemically modified to study how the incorporation of monovalent silver influences Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion and colonization. The modification investigated consisted of a radio frequency-oxygen (RF-O(2)) glow discharge pre-functionalization, followed by a two-step wet-treatment in sodium hydroxide and silver nitrate solutions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and contact angle measurements were used to investigate the chemical nature and surface wettability of the films following each step of the modification. XPS analysis proved that the RF-O(2) plasma pre-functionalization of native PVC reproducibly increased the amount of functional groups representative of PVC additives, including ether/alcohol, esters and carboxyl groups. More specifically, we demonstrated that the O-C=O groups representative of the phthalic ester and zinc carboxylate additives identified for native PVC increased by two-fold following the RF-O(2) plasma pre-functionalization step. Although RF-O(2) pre-functionalization did not have an effect on the silver content of the NaOH/AgNO(3) treated substrates, such a modification was necessary for biomaterial products that did not have reproducible surfaces amongst production lots. XPS analysis also demonstrated that saponification with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of esters, like those of the phthalic ester additives of PVC is a simple, irreversible method of hydrolysis, which produced sodium carboxylate and sodium phthalate salts. Exposure of native PVC to NaOH resulted in an increased surface hydrophilicity (from ca 90 degrees to ca 60 degrees ) due to dechlorination. XPS analysis following further incubation in silver nitrate demonstrated that silver ions can be trapped when the sodium of sodium carboxylate is replaced by silver after performing a second treatment with a monovalent silver-containing solution. The creation of silver salt on native PVC resulted in an ultra

  7. The effect of inhibitor sodium nitrate on pitting corrosion of dissimilar material weldment joint of stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400

    SciTech Connect

    Hilca, B. R. Triyono

    2016-03-29

    This study experimentally evaluated the effect of Sodium Nitrate inhibitor (NaNO{sub 3}) of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% on NaCl 3.5% toward pitting corrosion of dissimilar metal welding joint between stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400. Electrochemical corrosion was tested using potentiodynamic polarization. Further the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) conducted to analyze the specimen. Chemical composition analysis used Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS). The highest efficiency of sodium nitrate for ER 308 attained 63.8% and 64.89%for ER 309L. The specimen surface which observed through SEM showed decrease of pitting corrosion respectively with the addition of sodium nitrate content as inhibitor.

  8. The effect of inhibitor sodium nitrate on pitting corrosion of dissimilar material weldment joint of stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilca, B. R.; Triyono

    2016-03-01

    This study experimentally evaluated the effect of Sodium Nitrate inhibitor (NaNO3) of 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% on NaCl 3.5% toward pitting corrosion of dissimilar metal welding joint between stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel SS 400. Electrochemical corrosion was tested using potentiodynamic polarization. Further the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) conducted to analyze the specimen. Chemical composition analysis used Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS). The highest efficiency of sodium nitrate for ER 308 attained 63.8% and 64.89%for ER 309L. The specimen surface which observed through SEM showed decrease of pitting corrosion respectively with the addition of sodium nitrate content as inhibitor.

  9. Energy metabolism disorders in rat salivary glands tissues in connection with chronic sodium nitrate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Avetikov, D; Bondarenko, V; Danylchenko, S; Pronina, E; Stavytskyi, S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the research was the study of nitrite impact on energy metabolism in salivary gland tissues in connection with chronic nitrate intoxication. The study has been carried out on 100 Wistar rats, weighing 160-250 g, which were divided into following groups: the 1st group consisted of intact rodents (control); the 2nd group consisted of experimental rodents, where chronic nitrate intoxication has been reproduced during 14, 30, 60 and 90 days. Intoxication leads to hypoxia, which complications cause tissue hypoxia. Has been established that prolonged intake of nitrates in low doses leads to their accumulation in salivary glands tissues all these result in derangement of metabolism at the intermembrane cellular level. At the same time energy metabolism in salivary glands is inhibited, resulting in their dysfunction at the excretory and endocrine levels.

  10. Beetroot juice is more beneficial than sodium nitrate for attenuating muscle pain after strenuous eccentric-bias exercise.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Tom; Howatson, Glyn; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma J

    2017-07-18

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of beetroot juice (BTJ) and a nitrate only drink (sodium nitrate; SN) on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Thirty recreationally active males consumed either BTJ (n = 10), a nitrate-matched SN drink (n = 10), or an isocaloric placebo (PLA; n = 10) immediately and at 24 and 48 h after performing 100 drop jumps. To assess muscle damage, maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVCs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), creatine kinase (CK), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured before, immediately after and at 24, 48, and 72 h following the drop jumps. BTJ and SN increased serum nitric oxide, which peaked at 2 h post-ingestion (136 ± 78 and 189 ± 79 μmol·L(-1), respectively). PPT decreased in all groups postexercise (P = 0.001), but was attenuated with BTJ compared with SN and PLA (P = 0.043). PPT was 104% ± 26% of baseline values at 72 h after BTJ, 94% ± 16% after SN, and 91% ± 19% after PLA. MIVC and CMJ were reduced following exercise (-15% to 25%) and did not recover to baseline by 72 h in all groups; however, no group differences were observed (P > 0.05). Serum CK increased after exercise but no group differences were present (P > 0.05). hsCRP levels were unaltered by the exercise protocol (P > 0.05). These data suggest that BTJ supplementation is more effective than SN for attenuating muscle pain associated with EIMD, and that any analgesic effects are likely due to phytonutrients in BTJ other than nitrate, or interactions between them.

  11. [Effect of silver/silcon dioxide film on the infrared absorption properties of sodium nitrate].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Jun; Kong, Xiang-Fei; Guo, Qiang; Yuan, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Silver/silicon dioxide (Ag/SiO2) film, which was used for surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, was made by mixing ammonia solution and SiO2 solution. Surface morphology of thin films was depicted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum. The present paper studies the spectroscopy of Ag/SiO2 film during the evaporation of water. Research results show that the anti-symmetric vibration absorption peak of nitrate is the function of solution concentration and the distances. Influence of surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy in nitrate absorption peak is via the electromagnetic mechanism and increasing the effective surface area.

  12. Determination of heavy metals in foods by anodic stripping voltammetry after sample decomposition with sodium and potassium nitrate fusion.

    PubMed

    Holak, W

    1975-07-01

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of several heavy metals in foods. The sample is predigested with nitric acid and decomposed completely by heating with a mixture of sodium and potassium nitrates. The resultant melt containing the metals is then dissolved in dilute nitric acid. After the pH is adjusted to an appropriate value, the metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, are determined by anodic stripping voltammetry. The average recoveries of these metals added to 5 commodities were 98, 98,96, and 104%, respectively. The relative standard deviations, based on data from analyses of a commodity containing measurable levels of copper, lead, and zinc, were 12.0, 13.0, and 9.7%, respectively.

  13. Sodium nitroprusside, cyanide, nitrite, and nitrate break Arabidopsis seed dormancy in a nitric oxide-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Paul C; Libourel, Igor G L; Reinöhl, Vilem; Jones, Russell L

    2006-03-01

    The seeds of many plant species are dormant at maturity and dormancy loss is a prerequisite for germination. Numerous environmental and chemical treatments are known to lessen or remove seed dormancy, but the biochemical changes that occur during this change of state are poorly understood. Several lines of research have implicated nitric oxide (NO) as a participant in this process. Here, we show that dormant seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. will germinate following treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), cyanide (CN), nitrite or nitrate. In all cases, the NO scavenger c-PTIO effectively promotes the maintenance of seed dormancy. c-PTIO does not, however, inhibit germination of fully after-ripened seeds, and c-PTIO does not interact directly with nitrite, nitrate or CN. We also show that volatile CN effectively breaks dormancy of Arabidopsis seeds, and that CN is the volatile compound in SNP that promotes dormancy loss. Our data support the hypothesis that NO is a signaling molecule that plays an important role in the loss of seed dormancy.

  14. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Cady, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  15. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D. ); Cady, H.H. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  16. The Effects of Gaseous Atmospheres on the Performance Characteristics of Aluminum-Sodium Nitrate Flares

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ALUMINUM-SODIUM NTRAn FURES PATRICIA L. FARNELL FRANCIS R. TAYLOR ANTHONY J. BEARDELL AUGUST 1981 US ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH...composition and of atmospheric content. Also studied were the -^^-^^^ f loading pressure upon the combustion process. The gaseous_ atmospheres... combustion process. The gaseous atmospheres Investigated were mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen, argon, or helium. For all systems, except those in which

  17. Differential sensitivity to chloride and sodium ions in seedlings of Glycine max and G. soja under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingyun; Yu, Bingjun; Liu, Youliang

    2005-09-01

    High Na+ and Cl- concentrations in soil cause hyperionic and hyperosmotic stress effects, the consequence of which can be plant demise. Ion-specific stress effects of Na+ and Cl- on seedlings of cultivated (Glycine max (L.) Merr) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) were evaluated and compared in isoosmotic solutions of Cl-, Na+ and NaCl. Results showed that under NaCl stress, Cl- was more toxic than Na+ to seedlings of G. max. Injury of six G. max cultivars, including 'Jackson' (salt sensitive) and 'Lee 68' (salt tolerant), was positively correlated with the content of Cl- in the leaves, and negatively with that in the roots. In subsequent research, seedlings of two G. max cultivars (salt-tolerant Nannong 1138-2, and salt-sensitive Zhongzihuangdou-yi) and two G. soja populations (BB52 and N23232) were subjected to isoosmotic solutions of 150mM Na+, Cl- and NaCl, respectively. G. max cv. Nannong 1138-2 and Zhongzihuangdou-yi were damaged much more heavily in the solution of Cl- than in that of Na+. Their Leaves were found to be more sensitive to Cl- than to Na+, and salt tolerance of these two G. max cultivars was mainly due to successful withholding of Cl- in the roots and stems to decrease its content in the leaves. The reverse response to isoosmotic stress of 150 mM Na+ and Cl- was shown in G. soja populations of BB52 and N23232; their leaves were not as susceptible to toxicity of Cl- as that of Na+. Salt tolerance of BB52 and N23232 was mainly due to successful withholding of Na+ in the roots and stems to decrease its content in the leaves. These results indicate that G. soja have advantages over G. max in those traits associated with the mechanism of Cl-tolerance, such as its withholding in roots and vacuoles of leaves. It is possible to use G. soja to improve the salt tolerance of G. max.

  18. Improvement of organoleptic quality of retted cassava products by alkali pretreatment of roots and addition of sodium nitrate during retting.

    PubMed

    Ogbo, Frank C

    2003-12-15

    Alkali pretreatment of cassava roots before retting and addition of sodium nitrate during retting were used to manipulate the metabolism of microorganisms involved in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) retting, as a method for removing the characteristic offensive odour of retted cassava products. Odour was assessed by organoleptic methods. The characteristics of fermentation of cassava by the traditional method (control) were as follows; aerobic mesophilic count (APC) on nutrient agar (NA) at 30 degrees C/48 h, attained a maximum of 2.3 x 10(7)/ml retting juice while counts on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS) at 30 degrees C/48 h were 1.6 x 10(8)/ml. Maximum titrable acidity was 0.062% lactic acid by weight of retting juice. Cassava was retted in 3 days and the product exhibited characteristic offensive odour. Addition of NaNO3 into retting water effectively removed odour at a concentration of 0.3 g/l. Maximum APC on NA/30 degrees C/48 h was 6.8 x 10(6)/ml. Counts on MRS/30 degrees C/48 h exceeded 2.4 x 10(9)/ml. Retting was complete in 3 days with a final titrable acidity of 0.068% of retting juice. Removal of odour likely resulted from selection of homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria, thus producing mostly odourless lactic acid. Alkali pretreatment of roots before retting was efficacious in removing odour at a concentration of 10 g/l for 30 min. This fermentation was characterized by APC on NA/30 degrees C/48 h of 5.4 x 10(6)/ml; MRS/30 degrees C/48 h reached a maximum of only 10 x 10(4)/ml and correspondingly low titrable acidity of 0.003%. Low counts of lactic acid bacteria correlate well with the absence of odour in this sample. Both treatments did not adversely affect the detoxification process, yielding "foo-foo" with HCN levels lower than 10 mg/kg. Residual nitrates and nitrites of 30 mg/kg in the sodium nitrate-treated sample were also within the safe limits of 156 mg/kg allowed in many countries. Organoleptically improved samples were acceptable to

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride as desensitizing agents during tooth bleaching treatment—A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yining; Gao, Jinxia; Jiang, Tao; Liang, Shanshan; Zhou, Yi; Matis, Bruce A

    2015-08-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride as desensitizing agents during tooth bleaching treatment. An electronic systematic literature search was conducted in Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed) and EmBase in April, 2014 in English and without time restrictions. Study information extraction and methodological quality assessments were accomplished by two reviewers independently. Methodological quality was assessed by using the "Criteria for judging risk of bias in the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool". Dichotomous data was summarized by odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and continuous data was summarized by mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical analyses were carried out by using Review Manager 5.2. For evaluation of percent of patients experiencing tooth sensitivity (POTS), the pooled OR of desensitizers vs. placebo was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.28-0.73, P=0.29). The pooled SMD of desensitizers vs. placebo was -0.47 (95% CI: -0.77 to -0.18, P=0.13) in evaluation of level of tooth sensitivity (LOTS). The results of shade evaluation remained inconsistent by evaluating subjective shade guide unit difference (ΔSGU or SGU) and objective colour difference (ΔE). This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of desensitizing agents, potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride, for tooth bleaching treatments. Potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride reduce tooth sensitivity while no consistent conclusion of tooth colour change was found. Tooth sensitivity is a typical side effect associated with tooth bleaching procedures. Potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride are used widely to treat tooth sensitivity. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride as desensitizing agents during tooth bleaching treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Comparative evaluation of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate to a dentifrice containing potassium nitrate for dentinal hypersensitivity: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Satyapal, Tanya; Mali, Rohini; Mali, Amita; Patil, Vishakha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calcium sodium phosphosilicate is a recently introduced desensitizing agent which acts by occluding the dentinal tubules and also resists acid decalcification. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of a new toothpaste containing 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity and also compare it with 5% potassium nitrate. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with the chief complaint of dentinal hypersensitivity were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The visual analog scale (VAS) scores were taken for water and air stimuli at baseline, 3 weeks after usage of the respective toothpaste, and 3 weeks after discontinuation of the respective toothpaste. Results: Both the groups showed reduction in hypersensitivity scores at 3 weeks and 6 weeks for air stimulus and cold water. The calcium sodium phosphosilicate group, however, showed significantly reduction in hypersensitivity compared to the potassium nitrate group at any time point for both measures of hypersensitivity. Conclusion: The 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate group showed immense reduction in dentinal hypersensitivity symptoms. The 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate showed prolonged effects even after discontinuation as compared to 5% potassium nitrate, due to its dentinal tubular occlusion property. PMID:25425819

  1. Effects of lead nitrate and sodium selenite on DNA damage and oxidative stress in diabetic and non-diabetic rat erythrocytes and leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Yusuf; Pandir, Dilek; Kalender, Suna

    2015-05-01

    The adverse effects of lead nitrate (LN) and the preventive role of sodium selenite were investigated in diabetic and non-diabetic rat blood by measuring trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) also by evaluating DNA damage with comet assay. LN increased the levels of MDA, tail DNA%, mean tail length and tail moment, decreased the enzymes activities, FRAP and TEAC values. In sodium selenite+LN group, we observed the protective effect of sodium selenite on examining parameters. Diabetes caused alterations on these parameters, too. We found that sodium selenite did not protect against diabetes caused damages. As a result, LN caused toxic effects on blood cells and sodium selenite alleviated this toxicity but it did not show preventive effect against diabetes. Also, LN caused more harmfull effects in diabetic groups than non-diabetic groups.

  2. Study of the interactions of molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate 50 mol % mixture with water vapor and carbon dioxide in air. Final report, June 2, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

    1981-09-01

    The interactions of aerial components such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen with the binary 50 mol % mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have been studied in the temperature range 300 to 600/sup 0/C using electrochemical methods. In addition, the behavior of nitrite ions in this melt was investigated electrochemically. By judicious choice of techniques, in situ electroanalysis was possible and the necessary relevant data to accomplish this is presented, as well as insight into the corresponding electrochemical mechanisms associated with the electroactive species. The influence of each atmospheric component was examined separately. At temperatures above 300/sup 0/C, nitrite ions are found to accumulate due to thermal decomposition of the nitrate. Water is highly soluble in the salt mixture, but no hydrolytic reactions were observed. Two methods of in situ analysis for water are described. Pure carbon dioxide is found to attack the melt at all temperatures above 250/sup 0/C producing carbonate. (LEW)

  3. Selective strontium removal from a sodium nitrate aqueous medium by nanofiltration-complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubert, E.; Barnier, H.; Maurel, A.

    1997-01-01

    In aqueous medium, selective complexation increases the ionic separation by nanofiltration. The combination of nanofiltration and complexation can be applied to the nuclear effluents treatment. To separate radioelements from a sodium salt medium, poly(acrylic acid) is associated to the FILMTEC NF 70 membrane. Effects of transmembrane pressure, pH, ligand concentration and ionic strength on salts retention are described, and the complexation constants are estimated. Finally, to reach the objectives, a strontium two-stages concentration by nanofiltration-complexation with a control of retentate salinity is investigated in a nonactive solution case.

  4. Effects of oral sodium nitrate on forearm blood flow, oxygenation and exercise performance during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (4300 m).

    PubMed

    Gasier, Heath G; Reinhold, Anthony R; Loiselle, Allison R; Soutiere, Shawn E; Fothergill, David M

    2017-09-30

    A reduction in oxygen transport contributes to impaired exercise capacity at high altitude. Since blood flow is mediated, in part, by nitric oxide (NO), we hypothesized that sodium nitrate provided before forearm grip exercise performed at a simulated altitude of 4300 m (hypobaric hypoxia (HH)) would increase forearm blood flow and oxygenation, and decrease the decrement in grip performance. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 10 healthy subjects (9 males and 1 female) performed continuous (CGrip) and repeated rhythmic (RGrip) isometric forearm exercise until task failure in normobaric normoxia (NN), 2.5 h following consumption of placebo and sodium nitrate (15 mmol) in HH, and then again post-HH at sea-level pressure. Measurements included forearm blood flow (FBF) and anterior forearm tissue oxygenation (StO2), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial blood O2 saturation (SpO2), plasma NO reaction products (NOx) and nitrite, and exhaled NO (PENO). Compared to baseline testing in NN, performing CGrip and RGrip exercise in HH resulted in significant reductions in forearm blood flow, SaO2 and StO2, responses that were accompanied by significant performance decrements (∼10%) in both CGrip and RGrip exercise. In spite of a 10-fold increase in plasma NOx levels and a significant decrease in MAP during CGrip exercise following nitrate consumption, there were no significant main effects of treatment (placebo vs. sodium nitrate) for forearm blood flow, SpO2, StO2, or grip performance. PENO remained unchanged between NN, HH and post-HH conditions with placebo, but increased (∼24%) following nitrate supplementation in HH and post-HH. These data do not support a benefit in consuming a single dose of supplemental nitrate on forearm blood flow and isometric exercise in healthy adults at a simulated altitude of 4300 m. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A randomized clinical trial to compare plaque inhibition of a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice versus a stabilized stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Philip G; Khera, Nichelle; Day, Trevor N; Barker, Matthew L; Mussett, Andrew J

    2009-03-01

    To compare the plaque inhibition efficacy of a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate (NaF/KNO3 with 1450 ppm F) test dentifrice to a 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate/sodium fluoride positive control dentifrice (SnF2/SHMP with 1450 ppm F). Twenty-five subjects were randomized to a two-period, two-treatment, double blind crossover sequence using NaF/KNO3 (Sensodyne ProNamel dentifrice) and SnF2/SHMP (blend-a-med* EXPERT GUMS PROTECTION dentifrice). Each treatment was conducted with a standard manual toothbrush (Oral-B P35 Indicator). Digital plaque image analysis (DPIA) was used on three consecutive days to evaluate: (a) overnight plaque formation (A.M. pre-brushing); (b) following 40 seconds of brushing with the test product (A.M. post-brushing); and (c) mid-afternoon (P.M.). Images were analysed using an objective computer algorithm to calculate the total area of visible plaque. A four-day washout period was instituted for the crossover phase. All 25 subjects completed the study. The SnF2/SHMP positive control dentifrice provided statistically significantly lower levels of plaque area coverage versus the NaF/KNO3 test dentifrice at each timepoint. For the SnF2/SHMP dentifrice, plaque coverage was 23.0% lower (p< 0.0001) at A.M. pre-brushing, 17.3% (p= 0.0163) lower at A.M. post-brushing, and 22.6% (p= 0.0004) lower at the P.M. measure relative to the NaF/KNO3 dentifrice. The SnF2/SHMP dentifrice (blend-a-med EXPERT GUMS PROTECTION) inhibits plaque regrowth both overnight and during the day to a significantly greater degree than the NaF/KNO3 dentifrice (Sensodyne ProNamel). Dentists recommending an effective home use dentifrice for patients experiencing dentinal hypersensitivity and/or dental erosion may previously have needed to compromise on other key benefits, such as plaque control. blend-a-med EXPERT GUMS PROTECTION is a dentifrice when integrated into an oral hygiene routine can provide a proven treatment for hypersensitivity, dental erosion, and

  6. Nephrotoxic effects of lead nitrate exposure in diabetic and nondiabetic rats: Involvement of oxidative stress and the protective role of sodium selenite.

    PubMed

    Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Yusuf

    2016-10-01

    Heavy metals are known to be toxic to organisms. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against lead nitrate (LN)-induced nephrotoxicity in diabetic and nondiabetic rats. Animals were divided into eight groups where the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups were treated with sodium selenite (1 mg/kg b.w.), LN (22.5 mg/kg b.w.) and a combination of LN and sodium selenite and diabetic forms of these groups. Changes in antioxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehide levels, serum urea, uric acid, creatinine levels, body, and kidney weights and histopathological changes were determined after 28 days. LN caused severe histopathological changes, increment in urea, uric acid, creatinine, and MDA levels, also decreasing in antioxidant enzyme activities, body, and kidney weights. In sodium selenite + LN group, we observed the protective effect of sodium selenite on examining parameters. Also diabetes caused alterations on these parameters compared with nondiabetic animals. We found that sodium selenite did not show protective effect on diabetes caused damages. As a result, LN caused nephrotoxicity and sodium selenite alleviated this toxicity but sodium selenite did not protect kidneys against diabetes mediated toxicity. Also, LN caused more harmfull effects in diabetic groups compared with nondiabetic groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1229-1240, 2016.

  7. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  8. Effect of Sodium Sulfate, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Nitrate, and Salt Mixtures on Aqueous Phase Partitioning of Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2016-12-06

    Dissolved inorganic salts influence the partitioning of organic compounds into the aqueous phase. This influence is especially significant in atmospheric aerosol, which usually contains large amounts of ions, including sodium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. However, empirical data on this salt effect are very sparse. Here, the partitioning of numerous organic compounds into solutions of Na2SO4, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3 was measured and compared with existing data for NaCl and (NH4)2SO4. Salt mixtures were also tested to establish whether the salt effect is additive. In general, the salt effect showed a decreasing trend of Na2SO4 > (NH)2SO4 > NaCl > NH4Cl > NH4NO3 for the studied organic compounds, implying the following relative strength of the salt effect of individual anions: SO4(2-) > Cl(-) > NO3(-) and of cations: Na(+) > NH4(+). The salt effect of different salts is moderately correlated. Predictive models for the salt effect were developed based on the experimental data. The experimental data indicate that the salt effect of mixtures may not be entirely additive. However, the deviation from additivity, if it exists, is small. Data of very high quality are required to establish whether the effect of constituent ions or salts is additive or not.

  9. Experiments on Suppression of Thermocapillary Oscillations in Sodium Nitrate Floating Half-Zones by High-frequency End-wall Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anilkumar, A.; Grugel, R. N.; Bhowmick, J.; Wang, T.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments to suppress thermocapillary oscillations using high-frequency vibrations were carried out in sodium nitrate floating half-zones. Such a half-zone is formed by melting one end of a vertically held sodium nitrate crystal rod in contact with a hot surface at the top. Thermocapillary convection occurs in the melt because of the temperature gradient at the free surface of the melt. In the experiments, when thermocapillary oscillations occurred, the bottom end of the crystal rod was vibrated at a high frequency to generate a streaming flow in a direction opposite to that of the thermocapillary convection. It is observed that, by generating a sufficiently strong streaming flow, the thermocapillary flow can be offset enough such that the associated thermocapillary oscillations can be quenched.

  10. Experiments on Suppression of Thermocapillary Oscillations in Sodium Nitrate Floating Half-Zones by High-frequency End-wall Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anilkumar, A.; Grugel, R. N.; Bhowmick, J.; Wang, T.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments to suppress thermocapillary oscillations using high-frequency vibrations were carried out in sodium nitrate floating half-zones. Such a half-zone is formed by melting one end of a vertically held sodium nitrate crystal rod in contact with a hot surface at the top. Thermocapillary convection occurs in the melt because of the temperature gradient at the free surface of the melt. In the experiments, when thermocapillary oscillations occurred, the bottom end of the crystal rod was vibrated at a high frequency to generate a streaming flow in a direction opposite to that of the thermocapillary convection. It is observed that, by generating a sufficiently strong streaming flow, the thermocapillary flow can be offset enough such that the associated thermocapillary oscillations can be quenched.

  11. In situ observation on the dynamic process of evaporation and crystallization of sodium nitrate droplets on a ZnSe substrate by FTIR-ATR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Nuan; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Chen; Guo, Yu-Cong; Reid, Jonathan P; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2014-04-17

    Sodium nitrate is a main component of aging sea salt aerosol, and its phase behavior has been studied repeatedly with wide ranges observed in the efflorescence relative humidity (RH) in particular. Studies of the efflorescence dynamics of NaNO3 droplets deposited on a ZnSe substrate are reported, using an in situ Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) technique. The time-dependence of the infrared spectra of NaNO3 aerosols accompanying step changes in RH have been measured with high signal-to-noise ratio. From the IR difference spectra recorded, changes of the time-dependent absorption peak area of the O-H stretching band (ν-OH, ∼3400 cm(-1)) and the nitrate out-of-plane bending band (ν2-NO3(-), ∼836 cm(-1)) are obtained. From these measurements, changes in the IR signatures can be attributed to crystalline and solution phase nitrate ions, allowing the volume fraction of the solution droplets that have crystallized to be determined. Then, using these clear signatures of the volume fraction of droplets that have yet to crystallize, the homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation kinetics can be studied from conventional measurements using a steady decline in RH. The nucleation rate measurements confirm that the rate of crystallization in sodium nitrate droplets is considerably less than in ammonium sulfate droplets at any particular degree of solute supersaturation, explaining the wide range of efflorescence RHs observed for sodium nitrate in previous studies. We demonstrate that studying nucleation kinetics using the FTIR-ATR approach has many advantages over brightfield imaging studies on smaller numbers of larger droplets or measurements made on single levitated particles.

  12. Effect of dietary sodium nitrate consumption on egg production, egg quality characteristics and some blood indices in native hens of west azarbaijan province.

    PubMed

    Safary, H; Daneshyar, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn't affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p<0.05). Furthermore, a treatment effect was observed for yolk colour (p<0.05). Both the egg production and egg mass were increased over time (p<0.05). No significant treatment×time interaction was observed for egg weight, egg production and egg mass (p>0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p<0.05). None of the blood TP and TG or the activity of ALT, AST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass).

  13. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    PubMed Central

    Safary, H.; Daneshyar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn’t affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p<0.05). Furthermore, a treatment effect was observed for yolk colour (p<0.05). Both the egg production and egg mass were increased over time (p<0.05). No significant treatment×time interaction was observed for egg weight, egg production and egg mass (p>0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p<0.05). None of the blood TP and TG or the activity of ALT, AST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass). PMID:25049524

  14. Continuing Assessment of the 5-Day Sodium Carbonate-Ammonium Nitrate Extraction Assay as an Indicator Test for Silicon Fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Zellner, Wendy; Friedrich, Russell L; Kim, Sujin; Sturtz, Douglas; Frantz, Jonathan; Altland, James; Krause, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The 5-day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay (5-day method) has been recognized by the American Association of Plant Food Control Officials as a validated test method to identify fertilizers or beneficial substances that provide plant-available silicon (Si). The test method used the molybdenum blue colorimetric assay to quantify percentage Si; however, laboratories may use inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for elemental analysis. To examine the use of either colorimetric or ICP-OES methods for Si determination, the 5-day method was performed on the following Si-containing compounds; wollastonite, sand, biochar, and a basic oven furnace (BOF) slag. Grow-out studies using Zinnia elegans were also performed using varying rates of the wollastonite, biochar, and BOF slag. Our results show using the 5-day method, wollastonite had the highest extracted amounts of silicic acid (H4SiO4) at 4% followed by biochar (2%), BOF slag (1%), and sand (0%). Extraction values calculated using either the molybdenum blue colorimetric assay or ICP-OES for detection of the H4SiO4 had a significant correlation, supporting the application of either detection method for this type of analysis. However, when extracted values were compared to amounts of Si taken up by the plants, the 5-day method overestimated both wollastonite and biochar. While this method is a valid indicator test for determining a soluble Si source, other plant species and methods should be perused to potentially provide more quantitative analyses for plant-available Si content of all materials.

  15. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  17. Comparison of clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate to a dentifrice containing potassium nitrate and to a placebo on dentinal hypersensitivity: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A R; Sharma, Anuj

    2010-08-01

    A considerable number of agents are effective in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. This 6-week randomized clinical trial compares a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate to potassium nitrate and to a placebo. A total of 110 subjects (58 males and 52 females; aged 20 to 60 years) were entered into the study. The volunteers selected at baseline had a history of dentin hypersensitivity caused by gingival recession or cervical erosion. Patients were required to have at least two teeth with a visual analog scale score of > or =4 to be included in the study. After sensitivity scores for controlled air stimulus (evaporative stimulus) and cold water (thermal stimulus) at baseline were recorded, subjects were given toothpastes randomly, and sensitivity scores were measured again at 2- and 6-week follow-ups. All three groups showed reduction in sensitivity scores at 2 weeks and 6 weeks for air stimulus and cold water. The calcium sodium phosphosilicate group, however, was found to be significantly better in reducing the visual analog scale score compared to the potassium nitrate group and the placebo group at any time point for both measures of sensitivity. Under the conditions of a clinical trial, the calcium sodium phosphosilicate group showed comparable reduction in the symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity.

  18. Synergism between cerium nitrate and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 3 wt.% NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Dapeng; Gao, Lixin; Zhang, Daquan

    2016-12-01

    The synergistic inhibition effect of rare earth cerium nitrate and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) on corrosion of AA5052 aluminium alloy in 3 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization curve, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results show that the single cerium nitrate or DBS has a limited inhibition effect against corrosion of AA5052 alloy. The combination cerium ions with DBS produced strong synergistic effect on corrosion inhibition for AA5052 alloy and rendered a negaitve shift of the corrosion potential. The formation of the complex of Al(DBS)3 and Ce(DBS)3 stabilized the passive film of Al2O3 and CeO2, retarding both the cathodic and anodic processes of AA5052 alloy corrosion reaction significantly.

  19. Efficacy of a mouthwash containing 0.8% arginine, PVM/MA copolymer, pyrophosphates, and 0.05% sodium fluoride compared to a commercial mouthwash containing 2.4% potassium nitrate and 0.022% sodium fluoride and a control mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride on dentine hypersensitivity: a six-week randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Elías Boneta, Augusto R; Galán Salás, Rafael M; Mateo, Luis R; Stewart, Bernal; Mello, Sarita; Arvanitidou, Lia S; Panagakos, Foti; DeVizio, William

    2013-03-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of 0.8% arginine, potassium nitrate and sodium fluoride mouthwashes on dentine hypersensitivity reduction. Six week randomized, double blinded, two cell, parallel single centre clinical study in the Dominican Republic; subjects were randomized into three treatment groups: mouthwash containing 0.8% arginine, PVM/MA copolymer, pyrophosphates, and 0.05% sodium fluoride in an alcohol-free base (arginine); mouthwash containing 2.4% potassium nitrate and 0.022% sodium fluoride (potassium nitrate); a control mouthwash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride (negative control). Tactile and air-blast dentine hypersensitivity assessments were conducted at baseline, thirty minutes post rinsing and two, four, and six weeks of twice-daily product use. For treatment group comparisons, ANCOVA and post hoc Tukey's pair-wise comparisons (α=0.05) were done. Seventy-five subjects were enrolled; 69 subjects completed the study. There were no differences after thirty minutes of a single use, among the three groups with respect to mean tactile and air blast hypersensitivity scores compared to potassium nitrate and negative control mouthwashes (p<0.05). The arginine group presented a statistically significant improvement in the mean tactile scores compared to potassium nitrate and negative control groups after two, four, and six weeks (p<0.001) of product use; the arginine group showed a statistically significant enhancement in air blast hypersensitivity mean scores compared to potassium nitrate and negative control groups after two (p=0.001), four (p<0.001), and six weeks (p<0.001) of product use. A mouthwash containing arginine provides a significant and superior reduction in dentine hypersensitivity compared to potassium nitrate and a negative control mouthwash after two weeks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

    2006-01-17

    Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack

  1. Arresting simulated dentine caries with adjunctive application of silver nitrate solution and sodium fluoride varnish: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Irene Shuping; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the ability of silver nitrate solution, followed by sodium fluoride varnish, to arrest caries. Dentine slices were prepared and demineralised. Each slice was cut into three specimens for three groups (SF, SDF and W). Specimens of the SF group received topical application of 25% silver nitrate solution followed by 5% sodium fluoride varnish. The SDF group received topical application of 38% silver diamine fluoride solution (positive control). Specimens of the W group received deionised water (negative control). All specimens were subjected to pH cycling for 8 days. Dentine surface morphology, crystal characteristics, carious lesion depth and collagen matrix degradation were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray microtomography and spectrophotometry with a hydroxyproline assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that dentine collagen was exposed in group W, but not in groups SF and SDF, while clusters of granular spherical grains were formed in groups SF and SDF. The mean lesion depths (±standard deviation) of groups SF, SDF and W were 128 ± 19, 135 ± 24 and 258 ± 53 μm, respectively (SF, SDF < W; P < 0.001). The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that silver chloride was formed in groups SF and SDF. The concentration of hydroxyproline released from the dentine matrix was significantly lower in groups SF and SDF than in group W (P < 0.05). The results of this in vitro study indicate that the use of silver nitrate solution and sodium fluoride varnish is effective in inhibiting dentine demineralisation and dentine collagen degradation. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  2. Effect of electric field to infrared absorption properties of sodium nitrate on silver/diamond powder (Ag/DP) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingchan; Wang, Jiesheng; Li, Chun; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yufang; Yuan, Guang

    2014-10-01

    Silver/diamond powder (Ag/DP) composites have been prepared via pyrolysis of silver nitrate (AgNO3) on silicon substrate. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectra shows that the infrared absorption of nitrate (NO3-) is enhanced by the as-grown composites and increased further by the employment of an external electric field, which not only makes the Ag/DP composites improve the NO3- vibration strength considerably, but also induces significant differences in absorption intensity and frequency between the two individual antisymmetric stretching modes of NO3-. These features will expand the reach of infrared spectroscopy to a new class of nitrate salt detections.

  3. The effect of 100 MeV oxygen ion on electrical and optical properties of nonlinear optical l-alanine sodium nitrate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlam, M. A.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana

    2012-06-05

    Single crystals of nonlinear optical (NLO) L-alanine Sodium Nitrate (LASN) were grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were irradiated by 100 MeV oxygen ions with the cumulative doses of 1Mrad, 6 Mrad and 10 Mrad. The dielectric properties, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and second harmonic generation (SHG) of the crystals were studied before and after irradiation. The dielectric constant was found to increase after irradiation. The DSC reveals that the melting point remains unaffected due to irradiation. The SHG efficiency of LASN was found to decrease with increase in radiation dose.

  4. The effect of 100 MeV oxygen ion on electrical and optical properties of nonlinear optical l-alanine sodium nitrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlam, M. A.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of nonlinear optical (NLO) L-alanine Sodium Nitrate (LASN) were grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were irradiated by 100 MeV oxygen ions with the cumulative doses of 1Mrad, 6 Mrad and 10 Mrad. The dielectric properties, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and second harmonic generation (SHG) of the crystals were studied before and after irradiation. The dielectric constant was found to increase after irradiation. The DSC reveals that the melting point remains unaffected due to irradiation. The SHG efficiency of LASN was found to decrease with increase in radiation dose.

  5. Comparisons of Curative Effects of Chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr Leaf Extract and Cu-Chlorophyllin on Sodium Nitrate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fasitasari, Minidian; Martosupono, Martanto; Mangimbulude, Jubhar Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sodium nitrate (NaNO2) widely used as food additive for coloring and preserving meat has been reported to induce oxidative stress and cause histopathologic changes, nitrosative tissue damage, and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney. Therefore, the present study compared the curative effect of chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr and Cu-chlorophyllin as antioxidant in NaNO2-induced female Wistar rats based on haematological, serum biochemical, and histological evaluation. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into six groups of five rats each. NaNO2 were given at a subacute dose of 50 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally for 10 days. Chlorophyll from S. androgynus and Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liquid™ were given in the following 14 days at the two doses: 0,016 mg/mL and 0.008 mg/mL. NaNO2 exposure resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05) in values of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and red blood cell (RBC) count, transferrin, and ferritin and elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and schistocytes percentage with insignificant reductions in serum albumin and transferrin levels. Histology of kidney and liver were changed insignificantly (p > 0.05) to normal values. Chlorophyll from S. androgynus and Cu-chlorophyllin possess antioxidant potentials to protect against toxicities induced by sodium nitrate. PMID:28053604

  6. Comparisons of Curative Effects of Chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr Leaf Extract and Cu-Chlorophyllin on Sodium Nitrate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Suparmi, Suparmi; Fasitasari, Minidian; Martosupono, Martanto; Mangimbulude, Jubhar Christian

    2016-01-01

    Sodium nitrate (NaNO2) widely used as food additive for coloring and preserving meat has been reported to induce oxidative stress and cause histopathologic changes, nitrosative tissue damage, and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney. Therefore, the present study compared the curative effect of chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr and Cu-chlorophyllin as antioxidant in NaNO2-induced female Wistar rats based on haematological, serum biochemical, and histological evaluation. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into six groups of five rats each. NaNO2 were given at a subacute dose of 50 mg/kg bw intraperitoneally for 10 days. Chlorophyll from S. androgynus and Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liquid™ were given in the following 14 days at the two doses: 0,016 mg/mL and 0.008 mg/mL. NaNO2 exposure resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05) in values of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and red blood cell (RBC) count, transferrin, and ferritin and elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and schistocytes percentage with insignificant reductions in serum albumin and transferrin levels. Histology of kidney and liver were changed insignificantly (p > 0.05) to normal values. Chlorophyll from S. androgynus and Cu-chlorophyllin possess antioxidant potentials to protect against toxicities induced by sodium nitrate.

  7. Kinetics analysis of a salt-tolerant perchlorate-reducing bacterium: effects of sodium, magnesium, and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2013-08-06

    Salt-tolerant perchlorate-reducing bacteria can be used to regenerate ion-exchange brines or resins exhausted with perchlorate. A salt-tolerant perchlorate-reducing Marinobacter vinifirmus strain P4B1 was recently purified. This study determined the effects of Na(+) and Mg(2+) concentrations on the perchlorate reduction rate of P4B1. The results showed that strain P4B1 could utilize perchlorate and grow in the presence of 1.8% to 10.2% NaCl. Lower NaCl concentrations allowed faster perchlorate reduction. The addition of Mg(2+) to the culture showed significant effects on perchlorate reduction when perchlorate was the sole electron acceptor. A molar Mg(2+)/Na(+) ratio of ∼0.11 optimized perchlorate degradation and cell growth. When perchlorate and nitrate were both present, nitrate reduction did not start significantly until perchlorate was below 100 mg/L. Tests with washed cell suspensions indicated that strain P4B1 had both perchlorate and nitrate reduction enzymes. When the culture was exposed to both perchlorate and nitrate, the nitrate reduction enzyme activity was low. The maximum specific substrate utilization rate (Vm) and the half saturation coefficient (KS) for P4B1 (30 g/L NaCl) determined in this study were 0.049 ± 0.003 mg ClO4(-)/mg VSS-h and 18 ± 4 mg ClO4(-)/L, respectively.

  8. Sodium Nitrate Induces Reactive Oxygen Species That Lower the Antioxidant Power, Damage the Membrane, and Alter Pathways of Glucose Metabolism in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fariheen Aisha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-12-09

    Nitrate salts are widely used as food additives and nitrogenous fertilizers and are present as contaminants in drinking water supplies. The effect of different concentrations (1-15 mM) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) on human erythrocytes was studied under in vitro conditions. Treatment of erythrocytes with NaNO3 resulted in increases in methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation and a decrease in glutathione content. There were changes in the activities of all major antioxidant defense enzymes, and the pathways of glucose metabolism were also affected. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) took place while the antioxidant power was impaired. The osmotic fragility of cells was increased, and membrane-bound enzymes were greatly inhibited. All changes were statistically significant at a probability level of P < 0.05 at all concentrations of NaNO3 except the lowest (1 mM). Thus, NaNO3 generates ROS that cause significant damage to human erythrocytes and interfere in normal cellular pathways.

  9. Speciation of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite using kiloelectronvolt energy atomic and polyatomic and megaelectronvolt energy atomic projectiles with secondary ion mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Van Stipdonk MJ; Justes; Force; Schweikert

    2000-06-01

    The negative-ion mass spectra produced by kiloelectronvolt energy (CsI)nCs+ (n = 0-2) and megaelectronvolt energy 252Cf fission fragment projectile impacts on NaNO3 and NaNO2 were collected and compared. The mass spectra generated by impacts of the kiloelectronvolt polyatomic primary ions on NaNO3 were markedly different from those derived from the fission fragment impacts, featuring higher relative intensities of nitrate (NO3-) specific secondary ions (those that reflect the sample stoichiometry). The most prominent secondary ion (SI) peaks produced from NaNO3 by the kiloelectronvolt energy projectiles were NO3- and Na(NO3)2-, both of which relate directly back to the chemical composition of the staring material. Likewise, the most prominent peaks produced by the kiloelectronvolt energy polyatomic projectile impacts on NaNO2 were NO2- and Na(NO2)2-. The fission fragment projectiles produced SI spectra from NaNO3 that were dominated by signals characteristic more of NaNO2, indicating that the megaelectronvolt energy ions induce considerable degradation of the nitrate solid. In addition, the fission fragment projectile produced relative negative SI intensity distributions that are remarkably similar to those reported in earlier studies of the use of laser desorption to produce SI signals from NaNO3. Of the projectiles examined in this study, the 20 keV (CsI)Cs+ projectile generated negative-ion mass spectra that best differentiated NaNO3 and NaNO2, primarily by producing a base peak in the NaNO3 spectrum that was unambiguously representative of the original sample stoichiometry.

  10. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not... sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products (including...

  11. Regulated partitioning of fixed carbon ((14)C), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)) and glycine betaine determined salinity stress tolerance of gamma irradiated pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp].

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Sharma, Vasundhara; Atmaram, Chobhe Kapil; Singh, Bhupinder

    2017-03-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint that limits legume productivity. Pigeonpea is a salt sensitive crop. Seed gamma irradiation at a very low dose (2.5 Gy) is known to enhance seedling establishment, plant growth and yield of cereals and other crops. The present study conducted using two genetically diverse varieties of pigeonpea viz., Pusa-991 and Pusa-992 aimed at establishing the role of pre-sowing seed gamma irradiation at 0, 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1 kGy on plant growth, seed yield and seed quality under salt stress at 0, 80 and 100 mM NaCl (soil solution EC equivalent 1.92, 5.86 and 8.02 dS/m, respectively) imposed right from the beginning of the experiment. Changes in carbon flow dynamics between shoot and root and concentration of osmolyte, glycine betaine, plant uptake and shoot and root partitioning of Na(+) and K(+) and activity of protein degrading enzyme protease were measured under the combined effect of gamma irradiation and salt stress. Positive affect of pre-sowing exposure of seed to low dose of gamma irradiation (<0.01 kGy) under salt stress was evident in pigeonpea. Pigeonpea variety, Pusa-992 showed a better salt tolerance response than Pusa-991 and that the radiated plants performed better than the unirradiated plants even at increasing salinity level. Seed yield and seed protein and iron content were also positively affected by the low dose gamma irradiation under NaCl stress. Multiple factors interacted to determine physiological salt tolerance response of pigeonpea varieties. Gamma irradiation caused a favourable alteration in the source-sink (shoot-root) partitioning of recently fixed carbon ((14)C) under salt stress in pigeonpea. Gamma irradiation of seeds prior to sowing enhanced glycine betaine content and reduced protease activity at 60-day stage under various salt stress regimes. Lower partitioning of Na(+)and relatively higher accumulation of K(+) under irradiation treatment was the other important determinants

  12. Sodium nitrate co-ingestion with protein does not augment postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates in older, type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Kouw, Imre W K; Cermak, Naomi M; Burd, Nicholas A; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Senden, Joan M; Gijsen, Annemarie P; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-08-01

    The age-related anabolic resistance to protein ingestion is suggested to be associated with impairments in insulin-mediated capillary recruitment and postprandial muscle tissue perfusion. The present study investigated whether dietary nitrate co-ingestion with protein improves muscle protein synthesis in older, type 2 diabetes patients. Twenty-four men with type 2 diabetes (72 ± 1 yr, 26.7 ± 1.4 m/kg(2) body mass index, 7.3 ± 0.4% HbA1C) received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and l-[1-(13)C]leucine and ingested 20 g of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine- and l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled protein with (PRONO3) or without (PRO) sodium nitrate (0.15 mmol/kg). Blood and muscle samples were collected to assess protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. Upon protein ingestion, exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased in both groups (P < 0.001), resulting in 55 ± 2% and 53 ± 2% of dietary protein-derived amino acids becoming available in the circulation over the 5h postprandial period in the PRO and PRONO3 groups, respectively. Postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates based on l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine did not differ between groups (0.025 ± 0.004 and 0.021 ± 0.007%/h over 0-2 h and 0.032 ± 0.004 and 0.030 ± 0.003%/h over 2-5 h in PRO and PRONO3, respectively, P = 0.7). No differences in incorporation of dietary protein-derived l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine into de novo myofibrillar protein were observed at 5 h (0.016 ± 0.002 and 0.014 ± 0.002 mole percent excess in PRO and PRONO3, respectively, P = 0.8). Dietary nitrate co-ingestion with protein does not modulate protein digestion and absorption kinetics, nor does it further increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates or the incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into de novo myofibrillar protein in older, type 2 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Glass transition dynamics and conductivity scaling in ionic deep eutectic solvents: The case of (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Satya N.; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Knapik, Justyna; Shirota, Hideaki; Biswas, Ranjit; Paluch, Marian

    2015-05-01

    A detailed investigation on the molecular dynamics of ionic deep eutectic solvents (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) is reported. The study was carried out employing dielectric relaxation spectroscopy covering seven decades in frequency (10-1-106 Hz) and in a wide temperature range from 373 K down to 173 K, accessing the dynamic observables both in liquid and glassy state. The dielectric response of the ionic system has been presented in the dynamic window of modulus formalism to understand the conductivity relaxation and its possible connection to the origin of localized motion. Two secondary relaxation processes appear below glass transition temperature. Our findings provide suitable interpretation on the nature of secondary Johari-Goldstein process describing the ion translation and orientation of dipoles in a combined approach using Ngai's coupling model. A nearly constant loss feature is witnessed at shorter times/lower temperatures. We also discuss the ac conductivity scaling behavior using Summerfield approach and random free energy barrier model which establish the time-temperature superposition principle. These experimental observations have fundamental importance on theoretical elucidation of the conductivity relaxation and glass transition phenomena in molten ionic conductors.

  14. Glass transition dynamics and conductivity scaling in ionic deep eutectic solvents: The case of (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) melts

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, Satya N. Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Knapik, Justyna; Paluch, Marian; Shirota, Hideaki; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-05-14

    A detailed investigation on the molecular dynamics of ionic deep eutectic solvents (acetamide + lithium nitrate/sodium thiocyanate) is reported. The study was carried out employing dielectric relaxation spectroscopy covering seven decades in frequency (10{sup −1}-10{sup 6} Hz) and in a wide temperature range from 373 K down to 173 K, accessing the dynamic observables both in liquid and glassy state. The dielectric response of the ionic system has been presented in the dynamic window of modulus formalism to understand the conductivity relaxation and its possible connection to the origin of localized motion. Two secondary relaxation processes appear below glass transition temperature. Our findings provide suitable interpretation on the nature of secondary Johari-Goldstein process describing the ion translation and orientation of dipoles in a combined approach using Ngai’s coupling model. A nearly constant loss feature is witnessed at shorter times/lower temperatures. We also discuss the ac conductivity scaling behavior using Summerfield approach and random free energy barrier model which establish the time-temperature superposition principle. These experimental observations have fundamental importance on theoretical elucidation of the conductivity relaxation and glass transition phenomena in molten ionic conductors.

  15. The amino-terminal fusion domain peptide of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 inserts into the sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle primarily as a helix with a conserved glycine at the micelle-water interface.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D K; Cheng, S F; Chien, W J

    1997-01-01

    A peptide based on the N-terminal fusion domain of gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and its tryptophan analog were synthesized to examine the secondary structure in the micellar environment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments indicated that the gp41 fusion peptide inserted into the micelle primarily as a helix (59%), with substantial beta-structure (26.7%). Deep penetration of the peptide into the apolar hydrocarbon core was supported by the results of fluorescence experiments in which the tryptophan analog exhibited a blue shift of about 30 nm in the presence of a sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle, in 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and in 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine vesicular solutions. The results of spin label-attenuated 1H resonance experiments show that the region C-terminal to G16, which contains a turn structure, exhibited substantial interaction with the micelle, suggesting that it lies on the surface of micelle. Molecular simulation based on data from NMR experiments revealed a flexible hinge at residues 15 and 16 (alanine and glycine, respectively) from the N terminus of the peptide located at the micelle-solution interface. The highly conserved A15-G16 dipeptide may play a role in the function of fusion domain of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. PMID:9261381

  16. Thermodynamic and molecular basis for dissimilar cholesterol-solubilizing capacities by micellar solutions of bile salts: cases of sodium chenodeoxycholate and sodium ursodeoxycholate and their glycine and taurine conjugates.

    PubMed

    Carey, M C; Montet, J C; Phillips, M C; Armstrong, M J; Mazer, N A

    1981-06-09

    The bile salts chenodeoxycholate (CDC) and its 7 beta-hydroxy epimer ursodeoxycholate (UDC) are administered therapeutically (as acids) to dissolve cholesterol gallstones in man. Since their micellarr solutions and those of their physiological conjugates differ strikingly in their capacities to solubilize cholesterol, we studied the interfacial and micellar properties of the epimers by a number of complimentary physical--chemical methods and correlated these with their solubilizing capacities. The critical micella concentrations (cmc) estimated by surface tension, dye titration, and turbidimetry were similar (1-5 mM), varying slightly with the bile salt species, the method employed, NaCl concentration (0-1 M), and temperature (10-50 degrees C). The weight-average aggregation number (number of monomers per micelle, nw) at the cmc, derived from Debye plots of conventional light-scattering data and from the mean hydrodynamic radii of the micelles obtained by quasi-elastic light-scattering spectroscopy, revealed no appreciable differences between the UDC-CDC epimers or between their conjugates. From the mean hydrodynamic radii, the taurine conjugates were found to form larger micelles (nw = 15-17) than the glycine conjugates (nw = 13) which in turn were larger than the free species (n w = 5), respectively. Consistent with previous experimental deductions, free and conjugated CDC micelles grew slightly in size with increases in total lipid concentration, but UDC micelles did not. With solubilization of cholesterol monohydrate, the mean sizes of UDC (13.4 A) and of CDC (13 A) micelles in 10 g/dL solutions did not change appreciably, even as the cholesterol saturation limit was reached. At the air-5 M NaCl (pH 2) interface, the glycine conjugates formed more expanded monomolecular films than the free acid, and both UDC and its glycine conjugate collapsed at surface pressures that were 10-20 mN m-1 lower than the collapse pressures of monolayers of CDC and its glycine

  17. A clinical study comparing oral formulations containing 7.5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin), 5% potassium nitrate, and 0.4% stannous fluoride for the management of dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeru; Roy, Subrata; Kakar, Ajay; Greenspan, David C; Scott, Randy

    2010-01-01

    To determine and compare the clinical performance of formulations containing 7.5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin), 5% potassium nitrate, and 0.4% stannous fluoride for the management of dentin hypersensitivity. This was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design with a duration of 12 weeks. The study included a total of 120 subjects and measured sensitivity to cold water and air blast by the use of a visual analogue scale. Measurements were taken at baseline, two, four, and 12 weeks. All three products significantly reduced sensitivity versus baseline at each time point, although the calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin) dentifrice reduced sensitivity significantly more than the others at the two- and four-week time points. At the two-week time point, for air and water, respectively, the dentifrice containing NovaMin reduced sensitivity 45% and 49%, the stannous fluoride gel 30% and 26%, and the potassium nitrate dentifrice 35% and 34%. At the 12-week time point, the dentifrice containing NovaMin reduced sensitivity 87% and 91%, stannous fluoride gel 87% and 85%, and potassium nitrate dentifrice 84% and 79%. In this study, all three products were effective. Compared to the potassium nitrate and stannous fluoride formulations, the dentifrice containing NovaMin provided more substantial and significant improvements at the early time points.

  18. Role of hematin and sodium nitroprusside in regulating Brassica nigra seed germination under nanosilver and silver nitrate stresses.

    PubMed

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Ahadi, Ali-Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterials, although the mechanisms of AgNP toxicity in terrestrial plants is still unclear. We compared the toxic effects of AgNPs and AgNO3 on Brassica nigra seed germination at physiological and molecular levels. Both AgNPs and AgNO3 inhibited seed germination, lipase activity, soluble and reducing sugar contents in germinating seeds and seedlings. These reductions were more pronounced in AgNP treatments than AgNO3 treatments. Application of 200-400mg/L both AgNPs and AgNO3 increased transcription of heme oxygenase-1. However, at 800, 1600 mg/L, AgNPs or AgNO3 suppressed HO-1 expression. At 400mg/L, AgNPs or AgNO3-induced inhibitory effects on seed germination and were ameliorated by the HO-1 inducer, hematin, or NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Additionally, 4 μM hematin and 400 μM SNP were able to markedly boost the HO/NO system. However, the addition of the HO-1 inhibitor (ZnPPIX) or the specific scavenger of NO (cPTIO) not only reversed the protective effects conferred by hematin, but also blocked the up-regulation of HO activity. In addition, hematin-drived NO production in B. niger seeds under AgNPs was confirmed. Our results at physiological and molecular levels suggested that AgNPs were more toxic than AgNO3. Based on these results, for the first time, we suggest that endogenous HO is needed to alleviate AgNPs-induced germination inhibition, which might have a possible interaction with NO.

  19. Somatic Crossing over in GLYCINE MAX (L.) Merrill: Mutagenicity of Sodium Azide and Lack of Synergistic Effect with Caffeine and Mitomycin C

    PubMed Central

    Vig, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    Glycine max (soybean) is one angiosperm which lends itself to the study of somatic crossing over. This is made possible because some varieties have gene combinations Y11Y11, Y11y11 and y11y11 in the segregating populations from Y11y11 plants. The gene in question is responsible for chlorophyll synthesis. The Y11Y11 plants have dark green leaves, Y11y11 are light green and y11y11 plants are golden yellow. The heterozygous plants have dark green, yellow and dark green-yellow (double) spots on the leaves of the untreated control material, whereas the two homozygotes are almost always devoid of somatic sectoring. Application of caffeine, or mitomycin C, to the seeds increased the frequency of double, dark green and yellow spots on the Y11y11 background. Possibly, some dark green or yellow spots originate by failure of one of the two components of what might start as a double spot due to somatic crossing over. The application of NaN3 increases the frequency of dark green or yellow spots, almost exclusively. The two spots increase in equal frequency. The y11y11 plants so treated do not have any light green sectors, but dark green, Y11Y11, plants do develop a few light green or very dark green spots. The data indicate that NaN3 is capable of inducing nondisjunction, but does not cause mutations (at this locus), chromosome fragmentations (segmental losses) or somatic crossing over to an appreciable degree. It has previously been shown that caffeine-induced chromosome rejoining in Vicia faba can be inhibited by treating the roots with NaN3. In the present experiments NaN3 did not affect the processes of somatic crossing over as induced by caffeine or mitomycin C. The effect was additive. This system offers advantages for studying chemical mutagens in that somatic crossing over, point mutations, segmental losses through chromosome breakage and nondisjunction can all be studied in a single treatment to the seeds. PMID:4797661

  20. Somatic crossing over in Glycine max (L.) Merrill: mutagenicity of sodium azide and lack of synergistic effect with caffeine and mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Vig, B K

    1973-10-01

    Glycine max (soybean) is one angiosperm which lends itself to the study of somatic crossing over. This is made possible because some varieties have gene combinations Y(11)Y(11), Y(11)y(11) and y(11)y(11) in the segregating populations from Y(11)y(11) plants. The gene in question is responsible for chlorophyll synthesis. The Y(11)Y(11) plants have dark green leaves, Y(11)y(11) are light green and y(11)y(11) plants are golden yellow. The heterozygous plants have dark green, yellow and dark green-yellow (double) spots on the leaves of the untreated control material, whereas the two homozygotes are almost always devoid of somatic sectoring. Application of caffeine, or mitomycin C, to the seeds increased the frequency of double, dark green and yellow spots on the Y(11)y(11) background. Possibly, some dark green or yellow spots originate by failure of one of the two components of what might start as a double spot due to somatic crossing over. The application of NaN(3) increases the frequency of dark green or yellow spots, almost exclusively. The two spots increase in equal frequency. The y(11)y(11) plants so treated do not have any light green sectors, but dark green, Y(11)Y(11), plants do develop a few light green or very dark green spots. The data indicate that NaN(3) is capable of inducing nondisjunction, but does not cause mutations (at this locus), chromosome fragmentations (segmental losses) or somatic crossing over to an appreciable degree. It has previously been shown that caffeine-induced chromosome rejoining in Vicia faba can be inhibited by treating the roots with NaN(3). In the present experiments NaN(3) did not affect the processes of somatic crossing over as induced by caffeine or mitomycin C. The effect was additive. This system offers advantages for studying chemical mutagens in that somatic crossing over, point mutations, segmental losses through chromosome breakage and nondisjunction can all be studied in a single treatment to the seeds.

  1. Towards a better understanding of the nucleation behavior of α and γ polymorphs of glycine from aqueous solution in the presence of selective additives by charge compensation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuka Devi, K.; Srinivasan, K.

    2014-09-01

    The type of polymorphic nucleation of glycine observed at any instant of time mainly depends on the charge environment of the experimental solution and this is discussed based on the perspective of charge compensation mechanism among the molecular species. The nucleation of α takes place due to self-charge compensation by glycine molecules whereas, γ nucleation occurs by overcoming of self-charge compensation by induced charge compensation in smaller proportions through the charged ions of the externally added induced charge compensators sodium nitrate (ICCNaNO3) and sodium hydroxide (ICCNaOH). The overcoming of self-charge compensation occurs at the critical concentration of the induced charge compensators. Nucleation behaviour of the glycine polymorphs obtained in the present work has been compared with that obtained in our previous work with sodium acetate as ICC. Influence of these ICC charged ions on the solubility, pH, supersaturation, induction time, nucleation and growth of the nucleated polymorphs were studied. Structural conformation and probability nucleation ratio of the nucleated polymorphs were confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction.

  2. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat...

  3. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and... level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million in the finished product. (3) As a preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat...

  4. Effects of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate, sodium fluoride, and cetylpyridinium chloride on dentin hypersensitivity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the efficacy of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate (KNO3) as its main component, along with sodium fluoride (NaF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The primary endpoint was the relief of dentin hypersensitivity (DH) against the cold stimuli. The effects on other DH tests and periodontal inflammation were also evaluated. Methods We used a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design. A total of 82 patients with DH (40 in the test group, 42 placebo controls) were analyzed using visual analog scales (VASs) for a cold test, a tactile test, a compressive air test, and self-reported pain during daily activities, as well as clinical parameters including plaque index, gingival index, modified sulcular bleeding index (mSBI), gingival recession, and probing depth, which were collected at baseline and after four and six weeks of mouthwash use. Results VAS scores for cold sensations, tactile sensations, the compressive air test, and self-reported pain significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks in both groups (P<0.01), and no significant differences between the groups were found. In male patients (10 in the test group and 7 in the control group), both groups showed significant reductions in VAS scores for the cold test over the six weeks, and greater reductions were found in the test group than in the control group between four and six weeks (P=0.01) and between baseline and six weeks (P<0.01). In addition, the mSBI in the test group significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks (P<0.01), and the changes at four and six weeks from baseline were significantly greater in the test group compared to the control group (P=0.03 and P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions A mouthwash containing a mixture of KNO3, NaF, and CPC reduced DH and gingival inflammation, however, the efficacy was comparable to the control group. PMID:26937293

  5. Catalyzed reduction of nitrate in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Sodium nitrate and other nitrate salts in wastes is a major source of difficulty for permanent disposal. Reduction of nitrate using aluminum metal has been demonstrated, but NH{sub 3}, hydrazine, or organic compounds containing oxygen would be advantageous for reduction of nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions. Objective of this seed money study was to determine minimum conditions for reduction. Proposed procedure was batchwise heating of aqueous solutions in closed vessels with monitoring of temperatures and pressures. A simple, convenient apparatus and procedure were demonstrated for observing formation of gaseous products and collecting samples for analyses. The test conditions were 250{degree}C and 1000 psi max. Any useful reduction of sodium nitrate to sodium hydroxide as the primary product was not found. The nitrate present at pHs < 4 as HNO{sub 3} or NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is easily decomposed, and the effect of nitromethane at these low pHs was confirmed. When acetic acid or formic acid was added, 21 to 56% of the nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions was reduced by methanol or formaldehyde. With hydrazine and acetic acid, 73 % of the nitrate was decomposed to convert NaNO{sub 3} to sodium acetate. With hydrazine and formic acid, 36% of the nitrate was decomposed. If these products are more acceptable for final disposal than sodium nitrate, the reagents are cheap and the conversion conditions would be practical for easy use. Ammonium acetate or formate salts did not significantly reduce nitrate in sodium nitrate solutions.

  6. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  7. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-17

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower (15)N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher (15)N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most (15)N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  8. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m−2 s−1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution. PMID:26882864

  9. Growth of gamma glycine crystal and its characterisation.

    PubMed

    Peter, M Esthaku; Ramasamy, P

    2010-05-01

    Single crystal of gamma-glycine, an organic nonlinear optical material, has been grown by solvent evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solutions of glycine and potassium nitrate, lithium nitrate at room temperature. Gamma glycine crystals have been grown up to the dimension of 20mmx15mmx12mm. Powder X-ray diffraction of the grown crystal was recorded and indexed. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies were carried out and the unit cell parameters were compared with the literature values. The gamma-phase of glycine is confirmed by single crystal XRD and FTIR spectral analysis. The crystals were characterised by UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum in the range 200-1100nm. The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of gamma-glycine crystal was twice the efficiency of KDP crystal. Thermal characteristics of gamma-glycine crystals were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis, which shows the thermal stability of the grown crystals. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies. The microhardness of the grown crystals has been studied using Vicker's microhardness tester.

  10. Nitrate destruction in an elutriated fluid-bed calciner

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, R.G.; Cash, R.J.; Owen, T.J.; Shook, G.E.

    1987-09-01

    Nitrate destruction was demonstrated using an elutriated fluid-bed calciner process developed for nuclear fuel mixed-oxide conversion. Testing was directed to treatment of sodium nitrate, a major waste component at the Hanford Site. One test was also performed with copper nitrate. All tests produced low concentrations of NO/sub x/ in the offgas. The chemistry developed for uranium and plutonium nitrate appears to apply to other metal nitrates. The copper nitrate test was successful, with over 90% of the nitrate converted to elemental nitrogen and water and with recovery of a granular, free-flowing copper product. Tests with sodium nitrate were not successful due to fusion of sodium carbonate in the calciner bed and plugging of the calciner. Further development of the elutriated fluid-bed system would be required to process high sodium nitrate waste solutions.

  11. Glycine affects valproate hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Junius, Lara; Brune, Thomas; Deters, Michael; Schulze, Johannes; Siegers, Claus-Peter

    Valproate is a widely used anticonvulsant drug. Valproate is linked to hepatotoxicity which is rare but potentially lethal. The pathomechanism is not yet completely understood. Previous studies have shown a protective effect of glycine on this toxicity in rat hepatocytes (Vance et al., 1994). In the present study we investigated the hepatoxicity of 1-4 mM valproate in combination with glycine through absorption of neutral red from human hepatoma cells (Hep G2) in monolayer cell culture. Cell toxicity was measured by enzyme release with standard photometric test kits. In addition, a histomorphological evaluation was performed. A significant increase in the IC50 value of valproate cytotoxicity after addition of 12 mmol/l glycine was found. The average release of mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase as indicator of cell membrane damage decreased after addition of glycine. Cells treated with valproate in combination with 12 mmol/l glycine showed less histomorphological deformation of the nucleus and improved cell adherence. In conclusion a hepatoprotective effect of glycine on valproate-induced toxicity is also given in human hepatocytes. A nonspecific hepatoprotective effect of glycine can be assumed at least in vitro.

  12. Histochemical localization of nitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, K C; Duke, S O

    1981-01-01

    NADH-dependent nitrate reductase (E.C. 1.6.6.1) was ultrastructurally localized in norflurazon-treated and control soybean cotyledons [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by a method based upon the increase in osmiophilia due to the formation of an azo dye. The reaction product was observed in small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. An apparent transport of nitrite to the plastid, the site of nitrite reduction, may occur through fusion of the nitrite-containing vesicles with the chloroplast envelope. Plants grown in tungstate lacked nitrate reductase activity as measured by standard assay procedures, and showed no increase in osmiophilia, suggesting a degree of specificity of this cytochemical procedure.

  13. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  14. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  15. Gastric S-nitrosothiol formation drives the antihypertensive effects of oral sodium nitrite and nitrate in a rat model of renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Lucas C; Amaral, Jefferson H; Ferreira, Graziele C; Portella, Rafael L; Ceron, Carla S; Montenegro, Marcelo F; Toledo, Jose Carlos; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2015-10-01

    Many effects of nitrite and nitrate are attributed to increased circulating concentrations of nitrite, ultimately converted into nitric oxide (NO(•)) in the circulation or in tissues by mechanisms associated with nitrite reductase activity. However, nitrite generates NO(•) , nitrous anhydride, and other nitrosating species at low pH, and these reactions promote S-nitrosothiol formation when nitrites are in the stomach. We hypothesized that the antihypertensive effects of orally administered nitrite or nitrate involve the formation of S-nitrosothiols, and that those effects depend on gastric pH. The chronic effects of oral nitrite or nitrate were studied in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats treated with omeprazole (or vehicle). Oral nitrite lowered blood pressure and increased plasma S-nitrosothiol concentrations independently of circulating nitrite levels. Increasing gastric pH with omeprazole did not affect the increases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels found after treatment with nitrite. However, treatment with omeprazole severely attenuated the increases in plasma S-nitrosothiol concentrations and completely blunted the antihypertensive effects of nitrite. Confirming these findings, very similar results were found with oral nitrate. To further confirm the role of gastric S-nitrosothiol formation, we studied the effects of oral nitrite in hypertensive rats treated with the glutathione synthase inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to induce partial thiol depletion. BSO treatment attenuated the increases in S-nitrosothiol concentrations and antihypertensive effects of oral nitrite. These data show that gastric S-nitrosothiol formation drives the antihypertensive effects of oral nitrite or nitrate and has major implications, particularly to patients taking proton pump inhibitors.

  16. Nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Parker, J O

    1987-11-16

    The organic nitrates are the most widely used agents in the management of patients with angina pectoris. When initially administered by the oral route, the nitrates produce profound changes in systemic hemodynamics and significant and prolonged improvement in exercise duration. It has been shown that during short periods of regular oral nitrate administration, the hemodynamic, antiischemic and antianginal effects of the nitrates are greatly reduced. Thus, when initially administered, oral isosorbide dinitrate prolongs exercise duration for a period of several hours, but during sustained 4-times-daily therapy, exercise tolerance is improved for only 2 hours after administration. Studies with transdermal preparations of isosorbide dinitrate and nitroglycerin also show improvement during short-term administration for up to 8 hours, but after several days of once-daily therapy, the effects of these agents are similar to placebo. It is apparent that nitrate tolerance is a clinically relevant problem. Although tolerance develops rapidly during nitrate therapy, it is reversed promptly during nitrate-free periods. Oral nitrates maintain their antianginal effects when given 2 or 3 times daily with provision of a nitrate-free period. Studies are currently underway to investigate the effects of intermittent administration schedules with transdermal nitrate preparations.

  17. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOEpatents

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: glycine encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a molecule called glycine. This molecule is an amino acid , which is a building block of proteins. Glycine ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Health Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Genetic Brain Disorders Health ...

  19. Zinc Modulation of Glycine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Trombley, Paul Q.; Blakemore, Laura J.; Hill, Brook J.

    2011-01-01

    Glycine receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, and previous studies have demonstrated that glycine receptors are modulated by endogenous zinc. Zinc is concentrated in synaptic vesicles in several brain regions but is particularly abundant in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. In the present study, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology of rat hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurons in primary culture to examine the effects of zinc on glycine receptors. Although glycine has been reported to reach millimolar concentrations during synaptic transmission, most previous studies on the effects of zinc on glycine receptors have used relatively low concentrations of glycine. High concentrations of glycine cause receptor desensitization. Our current results extend our previous demonstration that the modulatory actions of zinc are largely prevented when co-applied with desensitizing concentrations of glycine (300 μM), suggesting that the effects of zinc are dependent on the state of the receptor. In contrast, pre-application of 300 μM zinc, prior to glycine (300 μM) application, causes a slowly developing inhibition with a slow rate of recovery, suggesting that the timing of zinc and glycine release also influences the effects of zinc. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that synaptically released zinc can gain intracellular access, and we provide the first demonstration that low concentrations of intracellular zinc can potentiate glycine receptors. These results support the notion that zinc has complex effects on glycine receptors and multiple factors may interact to influence the efficacy of glycinergic transmission. PMID:21530619

  20. GLYCINE RESISTANCE IN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Robert E.

    1962-01-01

    Beardsley, Robert E. (Manhattan College, New York, N. Y.). Glycine resistance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 83:6–13. 1962.—The application of the fluctuation test of Luria and Delbrück to the distribution of glycine-resistant bacteria among cultures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6 indicates that resistance arises by mutation in the absence of glycine. On glycine-supplemented medium, additional resistant colonies arise during prolonged periods of incubation. Their appearance is proceded by L-form growth. In general, the number of generations over which glycine resistance is inherited in the absence of glycine is increased by serial transfers on the selection medium. In liquid medium containing glycine, sensitive bacteria form spheroplasts. Resistant bacteria continue to grow as rod forms. In the medium employed, spheroplasts are unstable. Images PMID:13866159

  1. Effects of glucose on the uptake and metabolism of glycine in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) exposed to various nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Xie, Yinan; Xiao, Han; Tan, Xiaoli; Wu, Lianghuan

    2017-03-02

    Plants can absorb amino acids as a nitrogen (N) source, and glucose is an important part of root rhizodeposition and the soil sugar pool, which participates in the regulation of plant growth and uptake. In pakchoi, the effect of glucose concentration on the glycine N uptake from a nutrient mixture composed of glycine, ammonium, and nitrate, or from a single N solution of glycine alone was studied using specific substrate (15)N-labeling and (15)N-gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The optimal glucose concentration for plant growth was 4.5 μM or 25 μM when supplied with glycine alone or the N mixture, respectively, and resulted in a >25% increase in seedling biomass. The addition of glucose affected the relative contribution from organic or inorganic sources to overall N uptake. When glucose was added at optimal concentrations, glycine was preferentially used as an N source, while the relative contribution from nitrate was reduced. The limiting step for glycine N contribution was active uptake in the roots in high glucose and single-N-source conditions; however, root metabolism of glycine to serine was limiting in high-glucose and mixed-N-source conditions. The addition of low concentrations of glucose increased the relative uptake of organic nitrogen and reduced the uptake of nitrate, suggesting a feasible way to decrease nitrate content and increase the edible quality of vegetables.

  2. Glycine and Glycine Receptor Signalling in Non-Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    den Eynden, Jimmy Van; Ali, Sheen Saheb; Horwood, Nikki; Carmans, Sofie; Brône, Bert; Hellings, Niels; Steels, Paul; Harvey, Robert J.; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting mainly in the caudal part of the central nervous system. Besides this neurotransmitter function, glycine has cytoprotective and modulatory effects in different non-neuronal cell types. Modulatory effects were mainly described in immune cells, endothelial cells and macroglial cells, where glycine modulates proliferation, differentiation, migration and cytokine production. Activation of glycine receptors (GlyRs) causes membrane potential changes that in turn modulate calcium flux and downstream effects in these cells. Cytoprotective effects were mainly described in renal cells, hepatocytes and endothelial cells, where glycine protects cells from ischemic cell death. In these cell types, glycine has been suggested to stabilize porous defects that develop in the plasma membranes of ischemic cells, leading to leakage of macromolecules and subsequent cell death. Although there is some evidence linking these effects to the activation of GlyRs, they seem to operate in an entirely different mode from classical neuronal subtypes. PMID:19738917

  3. Nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study

    SciTech Connect

    Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L.

    1995-10-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. A process to reduce the nitrates to ammonia has been developed at ORNL. This technology creates a sludge lower in nitrates. This report describes stabilization possibilities of the sludge.

  4. Glycine-Urea Combustion Synthesis for γ- LiAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. M.; Wen, Z. Y.; Fan, Z. Z.; Lin, Z. X.

    γ- LiAlO2, is a potential candidate for the use as ceramic separator in molten carbonate fuel cells. A combustion synthesis technique, the glycine-urea-nitrate process was described and investigated in this paper. A combination of the aqueous solution of glycine-urea and metal nitrates was employed as a precursor for the process. Gels were formed while the solutions were evaporated. Further heating caused the precursor to autoignite. The experimental results of phase analysis, particle morphology and particle size analysis indicated that pure γ- LiAlO2 with fine crystalline and high reactivity could be obtained by the combustion technique.

  5. Physiological evidence for a sodium-dependent high-affinity phosphate and nitrate transport at the plasma membrane of leaf and root cells of Zostera marina L.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L; Linares-Rueda, A; García-Sánchez, M J; Fernández, J A

    2005-02-01

    Zostera marina L. is an angiosperm that grows in a medium in which inorganic phosphate (P(i)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) are present in micromolar concentrations and must be absorbed against a steep electrochemical potential gradient. The operation of a Na(+)-dependent NO(3)(-) transport was previously demonstrated in leaf cells of this plant, suggesting that other Na(+)-coupled systems could mediate the uptake of anions. To address this question, P(i) transport was studied in leaves and roots of Z. marina, as well as NO(3)(-) uptake in roots. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that micromolar concentrations of P(i) induced depolarizations of the plasma membrane of root cells. However, this effect was not observed in leaf cells. P(i)-induced depolarizations showed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(m)=1.5+/-0.6 microM P(i); D(max)=7.8+/-0.8 mV), and were not observed in the absence of Na(+). However, depolarizations were restored when Na(+) was resupplied. NO(3)(-) additions also evoked depolarizations of the plasma membrane of root cells only in the presence of Na(+). Both NO(3)(-)- and P(i)-induced depolarizations were accompanied by an increase in cytoplasmic Na(+) activity, detected by Na(+)-sensitive microelectrodes. P(i) net uptake (measured in depletion experiments) was stimulated by Na(+). These results strongly suggest that P(i) uptake in roots of Z. marina is mediated by a high-affinity Na(+)-dependent transport system. Both NO(3)(-) and P(i) transport systems exploit the steep inwardly directed electrochemical potential gradient for Na(+), considering the low cytoplasmic Na(+) activity (10.7+/-3.3 mM Na(+)) and the high external Na(+) concentration (500 mM Na(+)).

  6. Glycine-coated photoluminescent silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, Vira V.; Culhane, Kyle; Dmitruk, Igor M.; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2012-03-01

    We present experimental results on the multicolor (blue and green) photoluminescence from glycine-coated silver nanoclusters and small nanoparticles which can be used as novel probes for bio-imaging. Glycine-coated silver nanoclusters and nanoparticles were synthesized using thermal reduction of silver nitrate in a glycine matrix, according to a modified procedure described in literature. The size characterization with mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that the diameters of luminescent silver nanoclusters and small nanoparticles vary from 0.5 nm to 17 nm. Extinction spectroscopy revealed that the absorption band of the luminescent nanoclusters and nanoparticles was blue-shifted as compared to the nonluminescent larger silver nanoparticles. This effect indicated the well-known size dependence of the surface plasmon resonance in silver. The most pronounced photoluminescence peak was observed around 410 nm (characteristic SPR wavelength for silver) which strongly suggests the enhancement of the photoluminescence from silver nanoparticles by the SPR. The relative quantum yield of the photoluminescence of silver nanoclusters and nanoparticles was evaluated to be 0.09. In terms of their small size, brightness and photostability, noble metal nanoclusters and nanoparticles hold the most promise as candidates for biological cell imaging, competing with commonly used semiconductor quantum dots, fluorescent proteins and organic dyes. When applied to the problem of intracellular imaging, metal nanoclusters and small nanoparticles offer advantages over their much larger sized semiconductor counterparts in terms of ease of biological delivery. In addition, noble metal nanoparticles and nanoclusters are photostable. The high quantum yield (QY) of the photoluminescence emission signal enables the isolation of their photoluminescence from the cellular autofluorescence in cell imaging, improving the image contrast.

  7. Glycine transport by intestinal brush border vesicles of the amphibian Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Saidane, D; Boge, G; Tritar, B; Peres, G

    1991-01-01

    1. In order to determine the different components of glycine uptake by the intestine of the frog, Discoglossus pictus, we have used brush border membrane vesicles isolated by a classical precipitation technique. 2. Enzymatic tests showed that a good purification was obtained. The concentration ratio of alkaline phosphatase was 14.8. 3. Glycine entry in vesicles as a function of time, in presence or absence of sodium, indicated an overshoot which decreased when incubation time was prolonged. The overshoot was dependent on the presence of sodium. 4. The nature of the anion associated to sodium had little effect on glycine uptake. Nevertheless, chloride and thiocyanate appeared more efficient than glutarate. 5. The effect of transmembrane potential was studied by using valinomycin associated with a potassium gradient. The addition of this substance stimulated glycine transport by 43%. 6. The transport at different glycine concentrations showed two components: one non-saturable with weak affinity and the other saturable with strong affinity (Kt = 0.338 mM). 7. In conclusion, glycine transport by the brush border of D. pictus intestine presents a saturable component depending on sodium and on transmembrane electrical potential.

  8. Synthesis of Diopside by Solution Combustion Process Using Glycine Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherikar, Baburao N.; Umarji, A. M.

    Nano ceramic Diopside (CaMgSi2O6) powders are synthesized by Solution Combustion Process(SCS) using Calcium nitrate, Magnesium nitrate as oxidizer and glycine as fuel, fumed silica as silica source. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used as extra oxidizer. Effect of AN on Diopside phase formation is investigated. The adiabatic flame temperatures are calculated theoretically for varying amount of AN according to thermodynamic concept and correlated with the observed flame temperatures. A “Multi channel thermocouple setup connected to computer interfaced Keithley multi voltmeter 2700” is used to monitor the thermal events during the process. An interpretation based on maximum combustion temperature and the amount of gases produced during reaction for various AN compositions has been proposed for the nature of combustion and its correlation with the characteristics of as synthesized powder. These powders are characterized by XRD, SEM showing that the powders are composed of polycrystalline oxides with crystallite size of 58nm to 74nm.

  9. Estimation of inorganic food additive (nitrite, nitrate and sulfur dioxide), antioxidant (BHA and BHT), processing agent (propylene glycol) and sweetener (sodium saccharin) concentrations in foods and their daily intake based on official inspection results in Japan in fiscal year 1998.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Hajimu; Nishijima, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Yoshinobu

    2003-04-01

    The mean concentration and daily intake of inorganic food additives (nitrite, nitrate, and sulfur dioxide), antioxidants (BHA and BHT), a processing agent (propylene glycol), and a sweetener (sodium saccharin) were estimated based on the results of an analysis of 34,489 food samples obtained in official inspections by 106 local governments in Japan in fiscal year 1998. The ratios of mean concentrations of these seven food additives to each allowable limit were 20.0%, 53.9%, 15.5%, 6.2%, 0.4%, 18.5%, and 5.7%, respectively. The daily intakes of these food additives estimated from their concentrations in foods and the daily consumption of foods were 0.205, 0.532, 4.31, 0.119, 0.109, 77.5, and 7.27 mg per person, respectively. These amounts were 6.8%, 0.3%, 12.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 6.2%, and 2.6% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), respectively, when body weight was assumed to be 50 kg. No remarkable differences in the daily intakes of these seven food additives or the ratios to the ADI were observed compared with the results based on the official inspections in fiscal years 1994 and 1996.

  10. A 5-day method for determination of soluble silicon concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer materials using a sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Dennis; Rodrigues, Hugh; Kinsey, Charles; Korndörfer, Gaspar; Pereira, Hamilton; Buck, Guilherme; Datnoff, Lawrence; Miranda, Stephen; Provance-Bowley, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A 5-day method for determining the soluble silicon (Si) concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer products was developed using a sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)-ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis at 660 nm. The 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method can be applied to quantify the plant-available Si in solid fertilizer products at levels ranging from 0.2 to 8.4% Si with an LOD of 0.06%, and LOQ of 0.20%. This Si extraction method for fertilizers correlates well with plant uptake of Si (r2 = 0.96 for a range of solid fertilizers) and is applicable to solid Si fertilizer products including blended products and beneficial substances. Fertilizer materials can be processed as received using commercially available laboratory chemicals and materials at ambient laboratory temperatures. The single-laboratory validation of the 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method has been approved by The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials for testing nonliquid Si fertilizer products.

  11. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. II. Short term studies with high nitrate supply

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr) were grown in sand culture with 2 millimolar nitrate for 37 days and then supplied with 15 millimolar nitrate for 7 days. Control plants received 2 millimolar nitrate and 13 millimolar chloride and, after the 7-day treatment period, all plants were supplied with nil nitrate. The temporary treatment with high nitrate inhibited nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity by 80% whether or not Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids had nitrate reductase (NR) activity. The pattern of nitrite accumulation in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ rhizobia was inversely related to the decrease and recovery of nitrogenase activity. However, nitrite concentration in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ rhizobia appeared to be too low to explain the inhibition of nitrogenase. Nodules on plants treated with 15 millimolar nitrate contained higher concentrations of amino N and, especially, ureide N than control nodules and, after withdrawal of nitrate, reduced N content of treated and control nodules returned to similar levels. The accumulation of N/sub 2/ fixation products in nodules in response to high nitrate treatment was observed with three R. japonicum strains, two NR/sup +/ and one NR/sup -/.

  12. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  13. Insensitive Ammonium Nitrate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    is reduced by replacing the ammonium nitrate with a solid solution of potassium nitrate in form III ammonium nitrate wherein the potassium nitrate...constitutes from more than zero to less than 50 weight percent of the solid solution . (Author)

  14. Microinjection of glycine into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus produces diuresis, natriuresis, and inhibition of central sympathetic outflow.

    PubMed

    Krowicki, Zbigniew K; Kapusta, Daniel R

    2011-04-01

    Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and glycine-immunoreactive fibers are expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), yet the functional significance of this innervation is unclear. Therefore, these studies examined the changes in cardiovascular and renal function and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) produced by the microinjection of glycine (5 and 50 nmol) into the PVN of conscious Sprague-Dawley rats. Microinjection of glycine into, but not outside of, the PVN dose-dependently increased urine flow rate and urinary sodium excretion and decreased RSNA. At the higher dose, PVN glycine also decreased heart rate; neither 5 nor 50 nmol PVN glycine altered mean arterial pressure. The glycine (50 nmol)-evoked diuresis and natriuresis were abolished in rats continuously infused intravenously with [Arg(8)]-vasopressin. Furthermore, chronic bilateral renal denervation prevented the bradycardia and diuresis to PVN glycine and blunted the natriuresis. In other studies, unilateral PVN pretreatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (1.6 nmol) prevented the effects of PVN glycine (50 nmol) on heart rate, RSNA, and renal excretory function. When microinjected bilaterally, PVN strychnine (1.6 nmol per site) evoked a significant increase in heart rate and RSNA without altering renal excretory function. These findings demonstrate that in conscious rats glycine acts in the PVN to enhance the renal excretion of water and sodium and decrease central sympathetic outflow to the heart and kidneys. Although endogenous PVN glycine inputs elicit a tonic control of heart rate and RSNA, the renal excretory responses to PVN glycine seem to be caused primarily by the inhibition of arginine vasopressin secretion.

  15. Glycine increases cold tolerance in rice via the regulation of N uptake, physiological characteristics, and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xiaochuang, Cao; Chu, Zhong; Lianfeng, Zhu; Junhua, Zhang; Hussain, Sajid; Lianghuan, Wu; Qianyu, Jin

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the response of rice growth and photosynthesis to different nitrogen (N) sources under cold stress, hydroponic cultivation of rice was done in greenhouse, with glycine, ammonium, and nitrate as the sole N sources. The results demonstrate that exposure to low temperature reduced the rice biomass and leaf chlorophyll content, but their values in the glycine-treated plants were significantly higher than in the ammonium- and nitrate-treated plants. This might be attributed to the higher N uptake rate and root area and activity in the glycine-treated plants. The glycine-treated plants also maintained high contents of soluble proteins, soluble sugars, and proline as well as enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities to protect themselves against chilling injury. Under cold stress, reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and effective quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) significantly inhibited the leaf photosynthesis; however, glycine treatment alleviated these effects compared to the ammonium and nitrate treatments. The high non-photochemical quenching (qN) and excess energy dissipative energy (Ex) in the glycine-treated plants were beneficial for the release of extra energy, thereby, strengthening their photochemical efficiency. We, therefore, conclude that the strengthened cold tolerance of glycine-treated rice plants was closely associated with the higher accumulation of dry matter and photosynthesis through the up-regulation of N-uptake, and increase in the content of osmoprotectants, activities of the antioxidant defense enzymes, and photochemical efficiency. The results of the present study provide new ideas for improving the plant tolerance to extreme temperatures by nutrient resource management in the cold regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of the mechanism of chlorination of glyphosate and glycine in water.

    PubMed

    Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Bleeke, Marian; Brosillon, Stephan; Laplanche, Alain; Roche, Pascal

    2006-09-01

    The chlorination reactions of glyphosate and glycine in water were thoroughly studied. Utilizing isotopically enriched (13C and 15N) samples of glycine and glyphosate and 1H, 13C, 31P, and 15N NMR spectroscopy we were able to identify all significant terminal chlorination products of glycine and glyphosate, and show that glyphosate degradation closely parallels that of glycine. We have determined that the C1 carboxylic acid carbon of glycine/glyphosate is quantitatively converted to CO2 upon chlorination. The C2 methylene carbon of glycine/glyphosate is converted to CO2 and methanediol. The relative abundance of these two products is a function of the pH of the chlorination reactions. Under near neutral to basic reaction conditions (pH 6-9), CO2 is the predominant product, whereas, under acidic reaction conditions (pH < 6) the formation of methanediol is favored. The C3 phosphonomethylene carbon of glyphosate is quantitatively converted to methanediol under all conditions tested. The nitrogen atom of glycine/glyphosate is transformed into nitrogen gas and nitrate, and the phosphorus moiety of glyphosate produces phosphoric acid upon chlorination. In addition to these terminal chlorination products, a number of labile intermediates were also identified including N-chloromethanimine, N-chloroaminomethanol, and cyanogen chloride. The chlorination products identified in this study are not unique to glyphosate and are similar to those expected from chlorination of amino acids, proteins, peptides, and many other natural organic matters present in drinking water.

  17. Glycine Transporter Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomäus, Ingo; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Nicke, Annette; Dutertre, Sébastien; Hastrup, Hanne; Jha, Alok; Gether, Ulrik; Sitte, Harald H.; Betz, Heinrich; Eulenburg, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Different Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6a family have been shown to form dimers or oligomers in both intracellular compartments and at the cell surface. In contrast, the glycine transporters (GlyTs) GlyT1 and -2 have been reported to exist as monomers in the plasma membrane based on hydrodynamic and native gel electrophoretic studies. Here, we used cysteine substitution and oxidative cross-linking to show that of GlyT1 and GlyT2 also form dimeric complexes within the plasma membrane. GlyT oligomerization at the cell surface was confirmed for both GlyT1 and GlyT2 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy. Endoglycosidase treatment and surface biotinylation further revealed that complex-glycosylated GlyTs form dimers located at the cell surface. Furthermore, substitution of tryptophan 469 of GlyT2 by an arginine generated a transporter deficient in dimerization that was retained intracellulary. Based on these results and GlyT structures modeled by using the crystal structure of the bacterial homolog LeuTAa, as a template, residues located within the extracellular loop 3 and at the beginning of transmembrane domain 6 are proposed to contribute to the dimerization interface of GlyTs. PMID:18252709

  18. Possible Transfer of Resistance to Heterodera glycines from Glycine tomentella to Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, R. D.; Wang, S.; Singh, R. J.; Hymowitz, T.

    1998-01-01

    Eight wild perennial Glycine species (G. argyrea, G. canescens, G. curvata, G. cyrtoloba, G. latifolia, G. microphylla, G. tabacina, and G. tomentella) were evaluated for resistance to isolates of races 1, 3, and 14 of Heterodera glycines. In a second experiment, reproduction of isolates of races 3, 5, and 14 of H. glycines on five of the wild perennial species was determined. Seventy-one derived fertile lines (2n = 40) that were hybrids between G. max cv Clark 63 and G. tomentella also were evaluated for resistance to isolates of races 3, 5, and 14. All of the wild perennial Glycine species were resistant (Female Indices [FI] less than 10) to all of the isolates that were tested on them. In most cases no females matured. The soybean cvs. Clark 63 and Altona, which were tested at the same time as the hybrids, were susceptible to all isolates of H. glycines tested. When the tests were combined and a single FI calculated with the average number of females on Lee 74, one derived fertile line was resistant to race 3, three derived fertile lines were resistant to race 5, and five derived fertile lines were resistant to race 14. Thus, transfer of resistance to H. glycines from G. tomentella to G. max apparently occurred. PMID:19274245

  19. Some History of Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  20. Influence of high glycine diets on the activity of glycine-catabolizing enzymes and on glycine catabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Przybilski, H.

    1986-05-01

    Male albino rats were adapted to isocaloric purified diets that differed mainly in their glycine and casein contents. Controls received a 30% casein diet. In experimental diets gelatin or gelatin hydrolysate was substituted for half of the 30% casein. An additional group was fed a glycine-supplemented diet, which corresponded in glycine level to the gelatin diet but in which the protein level was nearly the same as that of the casein control diet. Another group received a 15% casein diet. Rat liver glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and serine dehydratase activities were measured. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from the catabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled glycine was measured in vivo and in vitro (from isolated hepatocytes). Serine dehydratase and glycine cleavage system activities were higher in animals fed 30% casein diets than in those fed 15% casein diets. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was highest when a high glycine diet (glycine administered as pure, protein bound in gelatin or peptide bound in gelatin hydrolysate) was fed. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ formation from (1-/sup 14/C)- and (2-/sup 14/C)glycine both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes was higher when a high glycine diet was fed than when a casein diet was fed. These results suggest that glycine catabolism is dependent on and adaptable to the glycine content of the diet. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase appears to play a major role in the regulation of glycine degradation via serine and pyruvate.

  1. The effectiveness of the biannual application of silver nitrate solution followed by sodium fluoride varnish in arresting early childhood caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Li, Samantha Ky; Wong, May Cm; Lo, Edward Cm

    2015-09-25

    The application of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been shown to be effective in arresting early childhood caries (ECC). Since SDF is not available in certain countries, some dentists use adjunctive application of 25 % silver nitrate (AgNO3) and 5 % sodium fluoride (NaF) to arrest ECC. This randomised controlled trial will systematically compare the efficacy of a 25 % AgNO3 solution followed by 5 % NaF varnish with that of a 38 % SDF solution in arresting ECC when applied at half-yearly intervals over a 30-month period. This study is a randomised, double-blinded, non-inferiority clinical trial. The hypothesis tested is that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 followed by 5 % NaF is at least not appreciably worse than a 38 % SDF in arresting ECC. Approximately 3100 kindergarten children aged 3-4 years will be screened and at least 1070 children with caries will be recruited. This sample size is sufficient for an appropriate statistical analysis (power at 90 % (β = 0.10) with a 2-sided type-I error of α = 0.05), allowing for an overall 20 % drop-out rate. The children will be randomly allocated into 2 groups to treat their caries over a 30-month period: Group A - biannual adjunctive application of a 25 % AgNO3 solution and a 5 % NaF varnish, and Group B - biannual adjunctive application of a 38 % SDF solution followed by a placebo varnish. Clinical examinations will be conducted at 6-month intervals. Primary outcome measured is the number of active caries surfaces which are arrested. Information on confounding factors such as oral hygiene habits will be collected through a parental questionnaire. We expect that adjunctive application of 25 % AgNO3 solution and 5 % NaF varnish and of 38 % SDF solution can both effectively arrest ECC. Lower concentrations of silver and fluoride are contained in 25 % AgNO3 and 5 % NaF, respectively, than in 38 % SDF; therefore, AgNO3/NaF are more favourable for use in young children. Because its use for caries management is

  2. The effect of glycine on the growth of calcium carbonate in alkaline silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiong; He, Kunhuan; Qian, Baosong; Deng, Qin; Lu, Laixian; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Calcium carbonate was crystallized in alkaline silica gel with the presence of glycine. The crystallization proceeded with a counterdiffusion method by the reaction of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate. Optical microscopy observation showed a significant effect of glycine on the morphology control of calcite crystals. When the initial concentration of glycine was high enough (10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL), spherical vaterite particles formed in alkaline silica gel concomitantly together with dumbbell shaped calcite particles. The in situ study by micro-Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that both vaterite and the concomitant calcite were stable phases during their growth processes since the initial appearance. A possible mechanism has been discussed to emphasize the effect of glycine on the nucleation of vaterite and the morphological control of calcite.

  3. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat...

  4. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat...

  5. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat...

  6. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat...

  7. P2Y Purinergic Regulation of the Glycine Neurotransmitter Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Esperanza; Zafra, Francisco; Pérez-Sen, Raquel; Delicado, Esmerilda G.; Miras-Portugal, Maria Teresa; Aragón, Carmen; López-Corcuera, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine neurotransmitter transporters (GLYTs) control the availability of glycine at glycine-mediated synapses. The mainly glial GLYT1 is the key regulator of the glycine levels in glycinergic and glutamatergic pathways, whereas the neuronal GLYT2 is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft. In this study, we report that stimulation of P2Y purinergic receptors with 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate in rat brainstem/spinal cord primary neuronal cultures and adult rat synaptosomes leads to the inhibition of GLYT2 and the stimulation of GLYT1 by a paracrine regulation. These effects are mainly mediated by the ADP-preferring subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y13 because the effects are partially reversed by the specific antagonists N6-methyl-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-6-azo(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)-2,4-disulfonate and are totally blocked by suramin. P2Y12 receptor is additionally involved in GLYT1 stimulation. Using pharmacological approaches and siRNA-mediated protein knockdown methodology, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GLYT regulation. Modulation takes place through a signaling cascade involving phospholipase C activation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, protein kinase C stimulation, nitric oxide formation, cyclic guanosine monophosphate production, and protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) activation. GLYT1 and GLYT2 are differentially sensitive to NO/cGMP/PKG-I both in brain-derived preparations and in heterologous systems expressing the recombinant transporters and P2Y1 receptor. Sensitivity to 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate by GLYT1 and GLYT2 was abolished by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nitric-oxide synthase. Our data may help define the role of GLYTs in nociception and pain sensitization. PMID:21245148

  8. 76 FR 55109 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... glycine from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... 2011), entitled Glycine from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-718 (Third Review). By order of the...

  9. Glycine crystallization in frozen and freeze-dried systems: effect of pH and buffer concentration.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Dushyant B; Kumar, Satyendra; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Kang, Shin-Woong; Gatlin, Larry A; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2007-03-01

    (1) To determine the effect of solution pH before lyophilization, over the range of 1.5 to 10, on the salt and polymorphic forms of glycine crystallizing in frozen solutions and in lyophiles. (2) To quantify glycine crystallization during freezing and annealing as a function of solution pH before lyophilization. (3) To study the effect of phosphate buffer concentration on the extent of glycine crystallization before and after annealing. Glycine solutions (10% w/v), with initial pH ranging from 1.5 to 10, were cooled to -50 degrees C, and the crystallized glycine phases were identified using a laboratory X-ray source. Over the same pH range, glycine phases in lyophiles obtained from annealed solutions (0.25, 2 and 10% w/v glycine), were characterized by synchrotron X-ray diffractometry (SXRD). In the pH range of 3.0 to 5.9, the extent of glycine crystallization during annealing was monitored by SXRD. Additionally, the effect of phosphate buffer concentration (50 to 200 mM) on the extent of glycine crystallization during freezing, followed by annealing, was determined. In frozen solutions, beta-glycine was detected when the initial solution pH was < or =4. In the lyophiles, in addition to beta- and gamma-glycine, glycine HCl, diglycine HCl, and sodium glycinate were also identified. In the pH range of 3.0 to 5.9, decreasing the pH reduced the extent of glycine crystallization in the frozen solution. When the initial pH was fixed at 7.4, and the buffer concentration was increased from 50 to 200 mM, the extent of glycine crystallization in frozen solutions decreased with an increase in buffer concentration. Both solution pH and solute concentration before lyophilization influenced the salt and polymorphic forms of glycine crystallizing in frozen solutions and in lyophiles. The extent of glycine crystallization in frozen solutions was affected by the initial pH and buffer concentration of solutions. The high sensitivity of SXRD allowed simultaneous detection and

  10. Standard thermodynamic functions of complexation between copper(II) and glycine and L-histidine in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The Cu2+-glycine-L-histidine system is studied calorimetrically at 298.15 K and an ionic strength of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 in aqueous solutions containing potassium nitrate. The standard thermodynamic parameters (Δr H°, Δr G°, Δr S°) of complexation processes are determined.

  11. Induction of Glutamine Synthetase Activity in Nonnodulated Roots of Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Pisum sativum1

    PubMed Central

    Hoelzle, Inger; Finer, John J.; McMullen, Michael D.; Streeter, John G.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate or ammonium fertilization significantly increased glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in nonnodulated roots of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soybean (Glycine max), and pea (Pisum sativum). Western analysis revealed substantial GS antibody-positive protein in root extracts that had minimal GS activity, indicating that an inactive form of GS may be present in nonfertilized plants. Images Figure 1 PMID:16652993

  12. Standard thermodynamic functions of complex formation between Cu2+ and glycine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2013-05-01

    Heat effects of the interaction of copper(II) solutions with aminoacetic acid (glycine) are measured by the direct calorimetry at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 against a background of potassium nitrate. Standard enthalpy values for reactions of the formation of aminoacetic acid copper complexes in aqueous solutions are obtained using an equation with a single individual parameter by extrapolating it to zero ionic strength. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of complex formation in the Cu2+-glycine system are calculated. It is shown that glycine-like coordination is most likely in Cu(II) complexes with L-asparagine, L-glutamine, and L-valine.

  13. Purification and Properties of Arginase from Soybean, Glycine max, Axes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Hoon; Cho, Young Dong

    1990-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) was purified to homogeneity from cytosol of soybean, Glycine max, axes by chromatographic separations on Sephadex G-200, DEAE-sephacel, hydroxyapatite, and arginine-affinity columns. The molecular weight of the enzyme estimated by pore gradient gel electrophoresis was 240,000, while sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gave a single band at the molecular weight of 60,000. The optimal pH for activity was 9.5 and the Km value was 83 millimolar. The enzyme was stimulated by polyamines such as putrescine. Images Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:16667583

  14. N-[[(Mercaptoacetyl)amino]benzoyl]glycines as mucolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, T A; Comer, W T

    1985-07-01

    m- and p-aminobenzoic acids were converted to the title compounds by sequential use of ClCH2COCl, SOCl2, glycine methyl or ethyl ester, AcSK, and hydrolysis. The title compounds and a number of salts were compared for mucolytic activity, toxicity, stability, and hygroscopicity. When compared to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the compounds exhibit several times the in vitro mucolytic activity of NAC on a molar basis. The most promising candidate appears to be the sodium salt 3.5H2O 2 of the meta series.

  15. Effect of glycine on pH changes and protein stability during freeze-thawing in phosphate buffer systems.

    PubMed

    Pikal-Cleland, Katherine A; Cleland, Jeffrey L; Anchordoquy, Thomas J; Carpenter, John F

    2002-09-01

    Previous studies have established that the selective precipitation of a less soluble buffer component during freezing can induce a significant pH shift in the freeze concentrate. During freezing of sodium phosphate solutions, crystallization of the disodium salt can produce a pH decrease as great as 3 pH units which can dramatically affect protein stability. The objective of our study was to determine how the presence of glycine (0-500 mM), a commonly used bulking agent in pharmaceutical protein formulations, affects the pH changes normally observed during freezing in sodium phosphate buffer solutions and to determine whether these pH changes contribute to instability of model proteins in glycine/phosphate formulations. During freezing in sodium phosphate buffers, the presence of glycine significantly influenced the pH. Glycine at the lower concentrations (< or = 50 mM) suppressed the pH decrease normally observed during freezing in 10 and 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer, possibly by reducing the nucleation rate of salt and thereby decreasing the extent of buffer salt crystallization. The presence of glycine at higher concentration (> 100 mM) in the sodium phosphate buffer resulted in a more complete crystallization of the disodium salt as indicated by the frozen pH values closer to the equilibrium value (pH 3.6). Although high concentrations of glycine can facilitate more buffer salt crystallization and these pH shifts may prove to be potentially damaging to the protein, glycine, in its amorphous state, can also act to stabilize a protein via the preferential exclusion mechanism.

  16. Effects of structure of nitrator on nitration reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shiying, Yin; Benli, Yin

    1995-12-01

    It is well-known that nitration of dinitrotoluene (DNT) proceeds quite slowly. Unsatisfactory structure of nitrator could cause an incomplete nitration in the nitrator, and nitration continues in the separator. This, in turn, increases the temperature difference between nitrator and separator. It was found that the nitration degree of DNT in nitrator could be estimated by this temperature difference. We investigated the relationship between the nitrator`s structure and the above temperature difference, and based on the research results obtained we could make nitration complete in nitrator, improve the quality of trinitrotoluene (TNT), lower the consumption of raw materials, especially sulfuric acid, and increase the safety of production.

  17. Aboveground Feeding by Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Reproduction Belowground

    PubMed Central

    McCarville, Michael T.; Soh, David H.; Tylka, Gregory L.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27–52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females) and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity. PMID:24466080

  18. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  19. Characterisation of L-alanine and glycine absorption across the gut of an ancient vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M

    2011-08-01

    This study utilised an in vitro technique to characterise absorption of two amino acids across the intestinal epithelium of Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. Uptake of L-alanine and glycine conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An uptake affinity (K(m); substrate concentration required to attain a 50% uptake saturation) of 7.0 mM and an uptake capacity (J (max)) of 83 nmol cm(-2) h(-1) were described for L-alanine. The K(m) and J(max) for glycine were 2.2 mM and 11.9 nmol cm(-2) h(-1), respectively. Evidence suggested that the pathways of L-alanine and glycine absorption were shared, and sodium dependent. Further analysis indicated that glycine uptake was independent of luminal pH and proline, but a component of uptake was significantly impaired by 100-fold excesses of threonine or asparagine. The presence of a short-term (24 h) exposure to waterborne glycine, similar in nature to that which may be expected to occur when feeding inside an animal carcass, had no significant impact on gastrointestinal glycine uptake. This may indicate a lack of cross talk between absorptive epithelia. These results are the first published data to describe gastrointestinal uptake of an organic nutrient in the oldest extant vertebrate and may provide potential insight into the evolution of nutrient transport systems.

  20. Beneficial Effects of the Amino Acid Glycine.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zuniga-Munoz, Alejandra María; Guarner-Lans, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is the smallest non-essential, neutral and metabolically inert amino acid, with a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms, and to an amino and a carboxyl group. This amino acid is an essential substrate for the synthesis of several biologically important biomolecules and compounds. It participates in the synthesis of proteins, of the tripeptide glutathione and in detoxification reactions. It has a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties. To exert its actions, glycine binds to different receptors. The GlyR anion channel is the most studied receptor for glycine. However, there are GlyR-independent mechanisms for glycine cytoprotection and other possible binding molecules of glycine are the NMDA receptor and receptors GlyT1 and GlyT2. Although, in humans, the normal serum level of glycine is approximately 300 μM, increasing glycine intake can lead to blood levels of more than 900 μM that increase its benefic actions without having harmful side effects. The herbal pesticide glyphosate might disrupt glycine homeostasis. Many in vitro studies involving different cell types have demonstrated beneficial effects of the addition of glycine. Glycine also improved conditions of isolated perfused or stored organs. In vivo studies in experimental animals have also tested glycine as a protector molecule and some studies on the beneficial effects of glycine after its clinical application have been done. Although at high-doses, glycine may cause toxic effects, further studies are needed to investigate the safe range of usage of this aminoacid and to test the diverse routes of administration.

  1. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of sodium nitrate to not more than 500 parts per million in the finished meat product. (b) To assure safe...

  2. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and meat products (including poultry and wild game), with directions for use which limit the amount of sodium nitrite to not more than 200 parts per million in the finished meat product, and the amount of sodium nitrate to not more than 500 parts per million in the finished meat product. (b) To assure safe...

  3. Loss of Glycine Transporter 1 Causes a Subtype of Glycine Encephalopathy with Arthrogryposis and Mildly Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid Glycine.

    PubMed

    Kurolap, Alina; Armbruster, Anja; Hershkovitz, Tova; Hauf, Katharina; Mory, Adi; Paperna, Tamar; Hannappel, Ewald; Tal, Galit; Nijem, Yusif; Sella, Ella; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Ilivitzki, Anat; Hershkovitz, Dov; Ekhilevitch, Nina; Mandel, Hanna; Eulenburg, Volker; Baris, Hagit N

    2016-11-03

    Glycine is a major neurotransmitter that activates inhibitory glycine receptors and is a co-agonist for excitatory glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Two transporters, GLYT1 and GLYT2, regulate extracellular glycine concentrations within the CNS. Dysregulation of the extracellular glycine has been associated with hyperekplexia and nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Here, we report four individuals from two families who presented at birth with facial dysmorphism, encephalopathy, arthrogryposis, hypotonia progressing to hypertonicity with startle-like clonus, and respiratory failure. Only one individual survived the respiratory failure and was weaned off ventilation but has significant global developmental delay. Mildly elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glycine and normal serum glycine were observed in two individuals. In both families, we identified truncating mutations in SLC6A9, encoding GLYT1. We demonstrate that pharmacologic or genetic abolishment of GlyT1 activity in mice leads to mildly elevated glycine in the CSF but not in blood. Additionally, previously reported slc6a9-null mice and zebrafish mutants also display phenotypes consistent with the affected individuals we examined. Our data suggest that truncating SLC6A9 mutations lead to a distinct human neurological syndrome hallmarked by mildly elevated CSF glycine and normal serum glycine. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  5. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  6. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34... nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued... without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products. ...

  7. Nitrate Concentration near the Surface of Frozen Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Harley A; Michelsen, Rebecca R H

    2014-12-26

    Photolysis of nitrate plays an important role in the emission of nitrogen oxides from snow and ice, which affects the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to quantify these reactions, it is necessary to know how much nitrate is available for photolysis near the surfaces of snow and ice. The concentration of nitrate excluded from frozen solutions of nitric acid, sodium nitrate, and magnesium nitrate was measured with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Liquid water and nitrate were observed at and near the bottom surface of frozen aqueous solutions during annealing from -18 to -2 °C. At -2 °C, the nitrate concentration was determined to be ∼1.0 mol/L for frozen NaNO(3) and Mg(NO(3))(2) solutions and ∼0.8 mol/L for frozen HNO(3) solutions. At lower temperatures, nitrate concentration ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 mol/L. Ideal thermodynamics overestimates nitrate concentration at colder temperatures where the brine is highly concentrated for all solutions. The nitrate concentration at ice surfaces is well described by bulk freezing point depression data close to the melting point of ice and for nitric acid at colder temperatures. Effects of temperature and counterions and implications for modeling snow chemistry are discussed.

  8. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  9. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  10. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  11. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126..., ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. (a) When any item of ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  12. Effects of isosmotic and hyperosmotic glycine solutions on the fluid balance in conscious sheep.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R; Hjelmqvist, H; Rundgren, M

    1989-01-01

    Glycine 0.55 g.kg-1 was given as an isosmotic (285 mosmol.kg-1) and a hyperosmotic (approx. 3,000 mosmol.kg-1) solution by intravenous infusion during 30 min to six euhydrated ewes. Urine and blood samples were collected, and the distribution of the administered water between the intra- and extracellular fluids (ICF and ECF) was calculated for up to 150 min after the infusions. Both solutions produced an osmotic diuresis with a marked increase of the urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and amino acids. A paradoxical increase of the plasma vasopressin concentration occurred from the isosmotic but not from the hyperosmotic glycine solution. At the end of the follow-up period, the isosmotic glycine solution had resulted in hyperhydration of the ICF and the hyperosmotic solution in dehydration of the ICF, whereas with both fluids, the ECF resumed the same volume as before the experiments.

  13. Osmotic and Chill Activation of Glycine Betaine Porter II in Listeria monocytogenes Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Paul N. M.; Tombras Smith, Linda; Smith, Gary M.

    2000-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen known for its tolerance to conditions of osmotic and chill stress. Accumulation of glycine betaine has been found to be important in the organism's tolerance to both of these stresses. A procedure was developed for the purification of membranes from L. monocytogenes cells in which the putative ATP-driven glycine betaine permease glycine betaine porter II (Gbu) is functional. As is the case for the L. monocytogenes sodium-driven glycine betaine uptake system (glycine betaine porter I), uptake in this vesicle system was dependent on energization by ascorbate-phenazine methosulfate. Vesicles lacking the gbu gene product had no uptake activity. Transport by this porter did not require sodium ion and could be driven only weakly by artificial gradients. Uptake rates could be manipulated under conditions not affecting secondary transport but known to affect ATPase activity. The system was shown to be both osmotically activated and cryoactivated. Under conditions of osmotic activation, the system exhibited Arrhenius-type behavior although the uptake rates were profoundly affected by the physical state of the membrane, with breaks in Arrhenius curves at approximately 10 and 18°C. In the absence of osmotic activation, the permease could be activated by decreasing temperature within the range of 15 to 4°C. Kinetic analyses of the permease at 30°C revealed Km values for glycine betaine of 1.2 and 2.9 μM with Vmax values of 2,200 and 3,700 pmol/min · mg of protein under conditions of optimal osmotic activation as mediated by KCl and sucrose, respectively. PMID:10762257

  14. 76 FR 8771 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably...

  15. 75 FR 62141 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission... (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on glycine... March 29, 1995, the Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued an antidumping duty order on imports of...

  16. 21 CFR 172.812 - Glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.812 Glycine. The food additive glycine may be safely used for technological purposes in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive complies with...

  17. The effect of prolonged dietary nitrate supplementation on atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Elke; Theelen, Thomas L; Janssen, Ben J A; Briede, Jacco J; Haenen, Guido R; Senden, Joan M G; van Loon, Lucas J C; Poeze, Martijn; Bierau, Jörgen; Gijbels, Marion J; Daemen, Mat J A P; Sluimer, Judith C

    2016-02-01

    Short term dietary nitrate or nitrite supplementation has nitric oxide (NO)-mediated beneficial effects on blood pressure and inflammation and reduces mitochondrial oxygen consumption, possibly preventing hypoxia. As these processes are implicated in atherogenesis, dietary nitrate was hypothesized to prevent plaque initiation, hypoxia and inflammation. Study prolonged nitrate supplementation on atherogenesis, hypoxia and inflammation in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice (LDLr(-/-)). LDLr(-/-) mice were administered sodium-nitrate or equimolar sodium-chloride in drinking water alongside a western-type diet for 14 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. Plasma nitrate, nitrite and hemoglobin-bound nitric oxide were measured by chemiluminescence and electron parametric resonance, respectively. Plasma nitrate levels were elevated after 14 weeks of nitrate supplementation (NaCl: 40.29 ± 2.985, NaNO3: 78.19 ± 6.837, p < 0.0001). However, prolonged dietary nitrate did not affect systemic inflammation, hematopoiesis, erythropoiesis and plasma cholesterol levels, suggesting no severe side effects. Surprisingly, neither blood pressure, nor atherogenesis were altered. Mechanistically, plasma nitrate and nitrite were elevated after two weeks (NaCl: 1.0 ± 0.2114, NaNO3: 3.977 ± 0.7371, p < 0.0001), but decreased over time (6, 10 and 14 weeks). Plasma nitrite levels even reached baseline levels at 14 weeks (NaCl: 0.7188 ± 0.1072, NaNO3: 0.9723 ± 0.1279 p = 0.12). Also hemoglobin-bound NO levels were unaltered after 14 weeks. This compensation was not due to altered eNOS activity or conversion into peroxynitrite and other RNI, suggesting reduced nitrite formation or enhanced nitrate/nitrite clearance. Prolonged dietary nitrate supplementation resulted in compensation of nitrite and NO levels and did not affect atherogenesis or exert systemic side effects. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Conformational Structure of Tyrosine, Tyrosyl-Glycine, and Tyrosyl-Glycyl-Glycine by Double Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abo-Riziq, Ali; Grace, Louis; Crews, Bridgit; Callahan, Michael P,; van Mourik, Tanja; de Vries, Mattanjah S,

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the variation in conformation for the amino acid tyrosine (Y), alone and in the small peptides tyrosine-glycine (YC) and tyrosine-glycine-glycine (YGG), in the gas phase by using UV-UV and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. For tyrosine we found seven different conformations, for YG we found four different conformations, and for YGG we found three different conformations. As the peptides get larger, we observe fewer stable conformers, despite the increasing complexity and number of degrees of freedom. We find structural trends similar to those in phenylalanine-glycine glycine (FGG) and tryptophan-glycine-glycine (WGG)j however) the effect of dispersive forces in FGG for stabilizing a folded structure is replaced by that of hydrogen bonding in YGG.

  19. Conformational structure of tyrosine, tyrosyl-glycine, and tyrosyl-glycyl-glycine by double resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abo-Riziq, Ali; Grace, Louis; Crews, Bridgit; Callahan, Michael P; van Mourik, Tanja; de Vries, Mattanjah S

    2011-06-16

    We investigated the variation in conformation for the amino acid tyrosine (Y), alone and in the small peptides tyrosine-glycine (YG) and tyrosine-glycine-glycine (YGG), in the gas phase by using UV-UV and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. For tyrosine we found seven different conformations, for YG we found four different conformations, and for YGG we found three different conformations. As the peptides get larger, we observe fewer stable conformers, despite the increasing complexity and number of degrees of freedom. We find structural trends similar to those in phenylalanine-glycine-glycine (FGG) and tryptophan-glycine-glycine (WGG); however, the effect of dispersive forces in FGG for stabilizing a folded structure is replaced by that of hydrogen bonding in YGG. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Nonaqueous purification of mixed nitrate heat transfer media

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1983-12-20

    A nonaqueous, in-line method for removing carbonate and hydroxide contamination from a molten mixed sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate heat transfer salt. The method comprises dissolving a stoichiometric quantity of anhydrous Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2 in the melt whereby an insoluble CaCO.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2 precipitate is formed. The precipitate can be removed by settling, filtration or floatation techniques.

  1. Comment on Egami's concept of the evolution of nitrate respiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambler, M.; Margulis, L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent results suggest that the presence of common nitrogen salts (sodium nitrite and nitrate) in the irradiation medium can markedly protect filamentous blue-green algae from potentially lethal ultraviolet irradiation. The present results as well as general biological arguments of Egami support and extend Egami's original view that anaerobic respiratory pathways using nitrite and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors evolved prior to oxygen requiring aerobic respiratory pathways.

  2. Comment on Egami's concept of the evolution of nitrate respiration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambler, M.; Margulis, L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent results suggest that the presence of common nitrogen salts (sodium nitrite and nitrate) in the irradiation medium can markedly protect filamentous blue-green algae from potentially lethal ultraviolet irradiation. The present results as well as general biological arguments of Egami support and extend Egami's original view that anaerobic respiratory pathways using nitrite and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors evolved prior to oxygen requiring aerobic respiratory pathways.

  3. Salicylate, an aspirin metabolite, specifically inhibits the current mediated by glycine receptors containing α1-subunits

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y-G; Tang, Z-Q; Ye, Z-Y; Wang, H-T; Huang, Y-N; Zhou, K-Q; Zhang, M; Xu, T-L; Chen, L

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Aspirin or its metabolite sodium salicylate is widely prescribed and has many side effects. Previous studies suggest that targeting neuronal receptors/ion channels is one of the pathways by which salicylate causes side effects in the nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate the functional action of salicylate on glycine receptors at a molecular level. Experimental approach: Whole-cell patch-clamp and site-directed mutagenesis were deployed to examine the effects of salicylate on the currents mediated by native glycine receptors in cultured neurones of rat inferior colliculus and by glycine receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. Key results: Salicylate effectively inhibited the maximal current mediated by native glycine receptors without altering the EC50 and the Hill coefficient, demonstrating a non-competitive action of salicylate. Only when applied simultaneously with glycine and extracellularly, could salicylate produce this antagonism. In HEK293T cells transfected with either α1-, α2-, α3-, α1β-, α2β- or α3β-glycine receptors, salicylate only inhibited the current mediated by those receptors that contained the α1-subunit. A single site mutation of I240V in the α1-subunit abolished inhibition by salicylate. Conclusions and implications: Salicylate is a non-competitive antagonist specifically on glycine receptors containing α1-subunits. This action critically involves the isoleucine-240 in the first transmembrane segment of the α1-subunit. Our findings may increase our understanding of the receptors involved in the side effects of salicylate on the central nervous system, such as seizures and tinnitus. PMID:19594751

  4. Salt adaptation in Acinetobacter baylyi: identification and characterization of a secondary glycine betaine transporter.

    PubMed

    Sand, Miriam; de Berardinis, Veronique; Mingote, Ana; Santos, Helena; Göttig, Stephan; Müller, Volker; Averhoff, Beate

    2011-10-01

    Members of the genus Acinetobacter are well known for their metabolic versatility that allows them to adapt to different ecological niches. Here, we have addressed how the model strain Acinetobacter baylyi copes with different salinities and low water activities. A. baylyi tolerates up to 900 mM sodium salts and even higher concentrations of potassium chloride. Growth at high salinities was better in complex than in mineral medium and addition of glycine betaine stimulated growth at high salinities in mineral medium. Cells grown at high salinities took up glycine betaine from the medium. Uptake of glycine betaine was energy dependent and dependent on a salinity gradient across the membrane. Inspection of the genome sequence revealed two potential candidates for glycine betaine transport, both encoding potential secondary transporters, one of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class (ACIAD2280) and one of the betaine/choline/carnitine transporter (BCCT) family (ACIAD3460). The latter is essential for glycine betaine transport in A. baylyi. The broad distribution of ACIAD3460 homologues indicates the essential role of secondary transporters in the adaptation of Acinetobacter species to osmotic stress.

  5. Cylodextrin Polymer Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosowski, Bernard; Ruebner, Anja; Statton, Gary; Robitelle, Danielle; Meyers, Curtis

    2000-01-01

    The development of the use of cyclodextrin nitrates as possible components of insensitive, high-energy energetics is outlined over a time period of 12 years. Four different types of cyclodextrin polymers were synthesized, nitrated, and evaluated regarding their potential use for the military and aerospace community. The synthesis of these novel cyclodextrin polymers and different nitration techniques are shown and the potential of these new materials is discussed.

  6. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L.; Hallen, Richard T.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  7. Glycine receptors and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Ariel; Nguyen, Laurent; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride ion channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and the brainstem. There, they are mainly involved in motor control and pain perception in the adult. However, these receptors are also expressed in upper regions of the central nervous system, where they participate in different processes including synaptic neurotransmission. Moreover, GlyRs are present since early stages of brain development and might influence this process. Here, we discuss the current state of the art regarding GlyRs during embryonic and postnatal brain development in light of recent findings about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control brain development. PMID:24155690

  8. Exclusion of Nitrate from Frozen Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocco, H. A.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reactions occurring at the surface of ice, sea ice, and snow in Earth's cryosphere have an impact on the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and model their contributions to atmospheric processes, the morphology of frozen aqueous surfaces and amounts of reactants contained therein must be determined. To this end, the exclusion of nitrate ions to the surface of frozen aqueous solutions has been studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). In this technique the near-surface region of the frozen films are interrogated to a depth of a few hundred nanometers from the film-crystal interface. Aqueous solutions (0.001 to 0.01 M) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3), magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2), and nitric acid (HNO3) were quickly frozen on the germanium ATR crystal and observed at a constant temperature of about -18°C. In addition to ice and the solutes, liquid water in varying amounts was observed in the spectra. The amount of nitrate in the surface liquid is three to four orders of magnitude higher than in the unfrozen solution. While all the nitrate salts exhibit exclusion to the unfrozen surface, the dynamics are different for different counter-ions. Results are compared to freezing point depression data and the predictions of equilibrium thermodynamics.

  9. IR manifestation of water intermediates formation with sodium hydroxide and sodium salts in KBr matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinvald, I. I.; Vorotyntsev, V. M.; Vorotyntsev, I. V.; Kalagaev, I. Yu.; Vorotyntsev, A. V.; Salkina, S. V.; Petukhov, A. N.; Spirin, I. A.; Grushevskaya, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The association of water with sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium nitrate in a KBr matrix at room temperature, exhibited by FTIR data, was established. It was found that water intermediates form due to the intermolecular hydrogen bond and can be stabilized in the solid phase. The revealed clusters can exist in several shape of hydrates shell with different geometry and number of involved water molecules.

  10. Influence of Heterodera glycines on Interspecific and Intraspecific Competition Associated with Glycine max and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Bird, G W; Renner, K A

    1995-03-01

    The influence of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) on the interspecific and intraspecific competition associated with Glycine max (soybean) and Chenopodium album (common lambsquarters) was studied in 1988 and 1989 in three de Wit replacement series experiments in growth chambers and microplots. Glycine max was grown alone (1 plant/experimental unit), in intraspecific competition (2 plants/experimental unit), in interspecific competition with C. album, and in presence or absence of H. glycines. No significant effects of H. glycines and C. album on G. max growth were observed 14 days after planting. By 42 days after planting, both H. glycines and C. album had a negative (P = 0.05) influence on the growth of G. max. Relative crowding coefficients for G. max were lower and deviated (P = 0.05 and P = 0.001) from 1.0 in the presence of H. glycines, compared to that of C. album and early emerged C. album in the absence of the nematode, respectively. Glycine max, therefore, became less competitive than C. album. There was a trend that the presence of H. glycines decreased the competitiveness of G. max on measures of the aggressivity and relative mixture response. Heterodera glycines decreased the aggressivity of G. max (ca. 150-350%) and increased the relative effects of intraspecific interference on G. max (ca. 10-50%) and interspecific interference (ca. 60-350%) after 42 days of plant growth, compared with plants grown in the absence of H. glycines. No H. glycines x C. album interactions were detected. Observations showed that H. glycines and early emerged C. album inhibited the growth of G. max 5-13%, as measured by plant dry weight.

  11. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. I. Long term studies with a continuous supply of nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    The synthesis and accumulation of nitrite has been suggested as a causative factor in the inhibition of legume nodules supplied with nitrate. Plants were grown in sand culture with a moderate level of nitrate (2.1 to 6.4 millimolar) supplied continuously from seed germination to 30 to 50 days after planting. In a comparison of nitrate treatments, a highly significant negative correlation between nitrite concentration in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) nodules and nodule fresh weight per shoot dry weight was found even when bacteroids lacked nitrate reductase (NR). However, in a comparison of two Rhizobium japonicum strains, there was only 12% as much nitrite in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ R. japonicum as in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ R. japonicum, and growth and acetylene reduction activity of both types of nodules was about equally inhibited. The very small concentration of nitrite found in P. vulgaris nodules was probably below that required for the inhibition of nitrogenase based on published in vitro experiments, and yet the specific acetylene reduction activity was inhibited 83% by nitrate. The overall results do not support the idea that nitrite plays a role in the inhibition of nodule growth and nitrogenase activity by nitrate.

  12. Unique Immunogenic Proteins in Heterodera glycines Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M. J.; Schoelz, J. E.; Donald, P. A.; Niblack, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against Heterodera glycines eggshells to determine the feasibility of developing an immunoassay for H. glycines eggs. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed from anfisera collected 10 weeks after the initial injection. From serial dilutions of sonicated eggshells or whole eggs, a sensitivity of detection to 5 ng/ml sonicated eggshells or 1 egg of H. glycines was determined. The method of eggshell preparation had no effect on the antibodies produced; however, the antibodies cross-reacted with sonicated J2 of H. glycines and eggs of Meloidogyne incognita and H. schachtii. Most of the proteins in both life stages of H. glycines and eggs of M. incognita and H. schachtii had similar migration properties when separated on SDS-PAGE gels and stained with Coomassie blue. Western blot analysis, with antisera adsorbed with homogenized J2 of H. glycines, showed proteins that were specifically localized to eggshells of H. glycines. Monoclonal antibodies might provide a useful immunoassay where polyclonal antibodies lack sufficient specificity. PMID:19274159

  13. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves revascularization in chronic ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Luedike, Peter; Totzeck, Matthias; Kropp, Martina; Schicho, Andreas; Stock, Pia; Rammos, Christos; Niessen, Michael; Heiss, Christian; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2012-10-16

    Revascularization is an adaptive repair mechanism that restores blood flow to undersupplied ischemic tissue. Nitric oxide plays an important role in this process. Whether dietary nitrate, serially reduced to nitrite by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity and subsequently to nitric oxide and other nitrogen oxides, enhances ischemia-induced remodeling of the vascular network is not known. Mice were treated with either nitrate (1 g/L sodium nitrate in drinking water) or sodium chloride (control) for 14 days. At day 7, unilateral hind-limb surgery with excision of the left femoral artery was conducted. Blood flow was determined by laser Doppler. Capillary density, myoblast apoptosis, mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+), migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-), plasma S-nitrosothiols, nitrite, and skeletal tissue cGMP levels were assessed. Enhanced green fluorescence protein transgenic mice were used for bone marrow transplantation. Dietary nitrate increased plasma S-nitrosothiols and nitrite, enhanced revascularization, increased mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) and migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-) cells to the site of ischemia, and attenuated apoptosis of potentially regenerative myoblasts in chronically ischemic tissue. The regenerative effects of nitrate treatment were abolished by eradication of the nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity through the use of an antiseptic mouthwash. Long-term dietary nitrate supplementation may represent a novel nutrition-based strategy to enhance ischemia-induced revascularization.

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Eutectic Nitrates and Nitrates/Expanded Graphite Composite as Phase Change Materials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Meng, Zhao-Nan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Nitrates and eutectic nitrate mixtures are considered as potential phase change materials (PCMs) for the middle-temperature-range solar energy storage applications. But the extensive utilization is restricted by the poor thermal conductivity and thermal stability. In the present study, sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate eutectic mixture was used as the base PCM, and expanded graphite (EG) was added to the mixture so as to improve the thermal conductivities. The elaboration method consists of a physically mixing of salt powders with or without EG, and the composite PCMs were cold-compressed to form shape-stabilized PCMs at room temperature. The thermal conductivities of the composite PCMs fabricated by cold-compression were investigated at different temperatures by the steady state method. The results showed that the addition of EG significantly enhanced the thermal conductivities. The thermal conductivities of pure nitrates and nitrates/EG composite PCMs in solid state showed the behavior of temperature dependant, and they slightly decreased with the increase of the temperature.

  15. Nitrate leaching index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  16. Sodium - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... naproxen Lower than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due to: Use of medicines ... overview Hepatorenal syndrome Hyperaldosteronism - primary and secondary Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Ions Low sodium level Nephrotic syndrome Sweating Review ...

  17. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... low levels of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones ( Addison disease ) Drinking too much water as might occur during ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  18. 68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. Plasma nitrate clearance in mice: modeling of the systemic production of nitrate following the induction of nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Veszelovsky, E; Holford, N H; Thomsen, L L; Knowles, R G; Baguley, B C

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in mammals by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS) in response to a number of agents, including the experimental antitumour agent flavone acetic acid (FAA) and the cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). NO is converted rapidly in the presence of oxygen, water and haemoglobin to oxidation products, largely nitrate. To quantitate the production of nitric oxide it is necessary to know the clearance of nitrate. The concentration of nitrite and nitrate ion in the plasma of C3H and BDF1 (C57BL6 x DBA2) mice was assessed before and after injection of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Nitrite was covered rapidly to nitrate and the kinetics of elimination of nitrate were determined. There was no significant difference between results obtained with different mouse strains, between levels of nitrite and nitrate, or between i.p. and i.v. administration, and the observations were therefore combined. The volume of distribution of nitrate was 0.71 +/- 0.04 l/kg and the clearance was 0.32 +/- 0.02 l/h-1/kg-1 (plasma half-life, 1.54 h). Using previously published data, we developed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model that relates the production of TNF in response to administration of FAA, the enhancement of NOS activity in response to TNF, and the elevation of plasma nitrate in response to NO production. This information permits the prediction from observed plasma nitrate values of the amount of NOS induced in vivo.

  20. The glycine deportation system and its pharmacological consequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The glycine deportation system is an essential component of glycine catabolism in man whereby 400 to 800 mg glycine per day are deported into urine as hippuric acid. The molecular escort for this deportation is benzoic acid, which derives from the diet and from gut microbiota metabolism of dietary precursors. Three components of this system, involving hepatic and renal metabolism, and renal active tubular secretion help regulate systemic and central nervous system levels of glycine. When glycine levels are pathologically high, as in congenital nonketotic hyperglycinemia, the glycine deportation system can be upregulated with pharmacological doses of benzoic acid to assist in normalization of glycine homeostasis. In congenital urea cycle enzymopathies, similar activation of the glycine deportation system with benzoic acid is useful for the excretion of excess nitrogen in the form of glycine. Drugs which can substitute for benzoic acid as substrates for the glycine deportation system have adverse reactions that may involve perturbations of glycine homeostasis. The cancer chemotherapeutic agent ifosfamide has an unacceptably high incidence of encephalopathy. This would appear to arise as a result of the production of toxic aldehyde metabolites which deplete ATP production and sequester NADH in the mitochondrial matrix, thereby inhibiting the glycine deportation system and causing de novo glycine synthesis by the glycine cleavage system. We hypothesize that this would result in hyperglycinemia and encephalopathy. This understanding may lead to novel prophylactic strategies for ifosfamide encephalopathy. Thus, the glycine deportation system plays multiple key roles in physiological and neurotoxicological processes involving glycine. PMID:22584143

  1. Effect of composition on the density of multi-component molten nitrate salts.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2009-12-01

    The density of molten nitrate salts was measured to determine the effects of the constituents on the density of multi-component mixtures. The molten salts consisted of various proportions of the nitrates of potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium. Density measurements ere performed using an Archimedean method and the results were compared to data reported in the literature for the individual constituent salts or simple combinations, such as the binary Solar Salt mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3. The addition of calcium nitrate generally ncreased density, relative to potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, while lithium nitrate decreased density. The temperature dependence of density is described by a linear equation regardless of composition. The molar volume, and thereby, density of multi-component mixtures an be calculated as a function of temperature using a linear additivity rule based on the properties of the individual constituents.

  2. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2 hours after meals, with a full glass of water. If you are using sodium bicarbonate for another reason, it may be taken with or without food. Do not take sodium bicarbonate on an overly full stomach.Dissolve sodium bicarbonate powder in at least 4 ounces (120 milliliters) of ...

  3. Sodium Azide

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposed to sodium azide by drinking the contaminated water. Following contamination of food with sodium azide, you could be exposed to sodium azide by eating the contaminated food. Following release of ... with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible. ...

  4. The glycine transport inhibitor sarcosine is an NMDA receptor co-agonist that differs from glycine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Sarcosine is an amino acid involved in one-carbon metabolism and a promising therapy for schizophrenia because it enhances NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function by inhibiting glycine uptake. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine led us to hypothesize that sarcosine is also an agonist like glycine. We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that sarcosine is an NMDAR co-agonist at the glycine binding site. However, sarcosine differed from glycine because less NMDAR desensitization occurred with sarcosine than with glycine as the co-agonist. This finding led us to examine whether the physiological effects of NMDAR activation with these two co-agonists are the same. The difference in desensitization probably accounts for rises in intracellular Ca2+, as assessed by the fluorescent indicator fura-FF, being larger when NMDAR activation occurred with sarcosine than with glycine. In addition, Ca2+-activated K+ currents following NMDAR activation were larger with sarcosine than with glycine. Compared to glycine, NMDAR-mediated autaptic currents decayed faster with sarcosine suggesting that NMDAR deactivation also differs with these two co-agonists. Despite these differences, NMDAR-dependent neuronal death as assessed by propidium iodide was similar with both co-agonists. The same was true for neuronal bursting. Thus, sarcosine may enhance NMDAR function by more than one mechanism and may have different effects from other NMDAR co-agonists. PMID:19433577

  5. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate in water with a palladium-modified copper electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Qu, Jiuhui

    2006-07-01

    A highly active electrocatalytic electrode for nitrate reduction was prepared by the electro-deposition of palladium onto a copper electrode. The capacity of nitrate reduction by a palladium-modified copper electrode has been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The existence of a reduction peak at -0.605 V versus saturated calomel electrode in 0.1-M sodium nitrate + 0.1-M perchloric acid solution (pH = 0.86) can be found in the CV measurement. The influence of solution properties, such as pH, nitrate concentration, and other anions in solution, on nitrate reduction was determined in detail. Results showed that nitrate reduction was suppressed in alkaline solution, while it was beneficial to nitrate reduction in acid or neutral solution. At low nitrate concentrations (0.01 to 0.5 M), nitrate reduction current increased with increasing nitrate concentration, but was hindered by sulfate. At high nitrate concentrations (1 to 5 M), no significant difference on nitrate reduction was observed. Compared with other different electrodes prepared in our work (copper, titanium, and palladium-modified titanium electrodes), the palladium-modified copper electrode showed the highest electrocatalytic capacity and stability in the nitrate-reduction process.

  6. Application of classification-tree methods to identify nitrate sources in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.; Showers, W.J.; Howe, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if nitrate sources in ground water (fertilizer on crops, fertilizer on golf courses, irrigation spray from hog (Sus scrofa) wastes, and leachate from poultry litter and septic systems) could be classified with 80% or greater success. Two statistical classification-tree models were devised from 48 water samples containing nitrate from five source categories. Model I was constructed by evaluating 32 variables and selecting four primary predictor variables (??15N, nitrate to ammonia ratio, sodium to potassium ratio, and zinc) to identify nitrate sources. A ??15N value of nitrate plus potassium 18.2 indicated inorganic or soil organic N. A nitrate to ammonia ratio 575 indicated nitrate from golf courses. A sodium to potassium ratio 3.2 indicated spray or poultry wastes. A value for zinc 2.8 indicated poultry wastes. Model 2 was devised by using all variables except ??15N. This model also included four variables (sodium plus potassium, nitrate to ammonia ratio, calcium to magnesium ratio, and sodium to potassium ratio) to distinguish categories. Both models were able to distinguish all five source categories with better than 80% overall success and with 71 to 100% success in individual categories using the learning samples. Seventeen water samples that were not used in model development were tested using Model 2 for three categories, and all were correctly classified. Classification-tree models show great potential in identifying sources of contamination and variables important in the source-identification process.

  7. Glycine-assisted combustion synthesis and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline La0.8Ca0.2MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, K. P.; Oh, S. S.; Baik, S. K.; Kim, H. S.; Sinha, B. B.; Chung, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    A facile and rapid glycine-assisted combustion method was developed to synthesize polycrystalline La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 (LCMO) powder by dissolving lanthanum nitrate, calcium nitrate, manganese nitrate (oxidant) and glycine (fuel) as the starting materials and water as solvent and then heating the resulting solution on a heating plate. The X-ray diffraction and FTIR analyses confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure, and a morphological study showed the polycrystalline form of the LCMO powder. The calculated lattice constants a = 5.46, b = 7.73, and c = 5.49 Å agreed well with the standard values. The magnetic measurements showed a paramagnetic behavior of LCMO at room temperature. The maximum change in entropy observed for the LCMO sample was -1.95 J/kgK at an applied magnetic field of 2 T at the Curie temperature of 165 K.

  8. Dietary inorganic nitrate mobilizes circulating angiogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Christian; Meyer, Christian; Totzeck, Matthias; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Heinen, Yvonne; Luedike, Peter; Keymel, Stefanie; Ayoub, Nassim; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2012-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) was implicated in the regulation of mobilization and function of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). The supposedly inert anion nitrate, abundant in vegetables, can be stepwise reduced in vivo to form nitrite, and consecutively NO, representing an alternative to endogenous NO formation by NO synthases. This study investigated whether inorganic dietary nitrate influences mobilization of CACs. In a randomized double-blind fashion, healthy volunteers ingested 150 ml water with 0.15 mmol/kg (12.7 mg/kg) of sodium nitrate, an amount corresponding to 100-300 g of a nitrate-rich vegetable, or water alone as control. Mobilization of CACs was determined by the number of CD34(+)/KDR(+) and CD133(+)/KDR(+) cells using flow cytometry and the mobilization markers stem cell factor (SCF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1a (SDF-1α) were determined in plasma via ELISA. Nitrite and nitrate were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence, respectively. NOS-dependent vasodilation was measured as flow-mediated vasodilation. Further mechanistic studies were performed in mice after intravenous application of nitrite together with an NO scavenger to identify the role of nitrite and NO in CAC mobilization. Nitrate ingestion led to a rise in plasma nitrite together with an acute increase in CD34(+)/KDR(+) and CD133(+)/KDR(+)-CACs along with increased NOS-dependent vasodilation. This was paralleled by an increase in SCF and SDF-1α and the maximal increase in plasma nitrite correlated with CD133(+)/KDR(+)-CACs (r=0.73, P=0.016). In mice, nitrate given per gavage and direct intravenous injection of nitrite led to CAC mobilization, which was abolished by the NO scavenger cPTIO, suggesting that nitrite mediated its effect via formation of NO. Dietary inorganic nitrate acutely mobilizes CACs via serial reduction to nitrite and NO. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway could offer a novel nutritional approach for regulation of

  9. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  10. The Chilean nitrate deposits.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nitrate deposits in the arid Atacama desert of northern Chile consist of saline-cemented surficial material, apparently formed in and near a playa lake that formerly covered the area. Many features of their distribution and chemical composition are unique. The author believes the principal sources of the saline constituents were the volcanic rocks of late Tertiary and Quaternary age in the Andes and that the nitrate is of organic origin. Possible sources of the nitrate, iodate, perchlorate and chromate are discussed. -J.J.Robertson

  11. Interaction of Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines and Heterodera glycines in Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    ABSTRACT Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean is caused by the soilborne Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (synonym F. virguliforme). In a sequential approach, two multifactor factorial-design microplot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fungal infestation levels and soil moisture on both root necrosis and foliar SDS severity, and the interaction between F. solani f. sp. glycines and Heterodera glycines in fumigated versus nonfumigated soil. In 2003, soybean cv. Spencer was grown in nonfumigated or methyl bromide-fumigated soil and infested with increasing levels of F. solani f. sp. glycines, either under rainfall or irrigated after growth stage V6/R1. In 2004, interactions between F. solani f. sp. glycines and H. glycines were explored in a factorial inoculation design in fumigated or nonfumigated soil, planted to Williams 82 or Cyst-X20-18. In both years, higher levels of foliar SDS severity and root necrosis were found in F. solani f. sp. glycines-infested soils with H. glycines than in soils without the nematode on the soybean cultivars susceptible to both pathogens. Both natural infestations of H. glycines in 2003 and artificially amended populations of H. glycines in 2004 contributed to higher foliar SDS severity. More severe foliar SDS symptoms always were associated with more root necrosis, but elevated levels of root necrosis did not predict severe leaf symptoms. In contrast to the critical role of H. glycines, increasing fungal infestation levels had no significant effects on increasing either foliar SDS symptoms or root necrosis. Effects of moisture regime and fungal infestation levels also were examined in factorial greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. High soil moisture resulted in higher levels of SDS root necrosis. In the greenhouse, root necrosis increased at a higher rate in low soil moisture than the rate in high soil moisture. The two pathogens acted as a complex and the disease development was strongly dependent on

  12. A double-blind randomized-controlled trial comparing the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice containing carbonate/hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Giovanna; Procaccini, Maurizio; Manzoli, Lamberto; Giuliodori, Francesca; Lorenzini, Alessandro; Putignano, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    Several dentifrices have shown to be effective in reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH), but more effective products are needed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice based on zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanocrystals. Using a double-blind, randomized design, the new dentifrice was compared with potassium nitrate/fluoride dentifrice (active control). The participant's DH was evaluated at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks using airblast (primary outcome), tactile, cold water and subjective tests (secondary outcomes). The final sample consisted of 70 subjects with baseline DH; 36 received the new dentifrice and 34 the control one. Both dentifrices were largely effective; the percentage of score reduction from baseline to 8 weeks was greater than 28% for all tests (and greater than 55% for the cold water test) in both groups. As compared with controls, experimental subjects had a significantly greater improvement in the airblast test score (mean percentage of reduction of 46.0%versus 29.4% in controls) and the subjective test score (47.5%versus 28.1%, respectively), with both differences already being significant after 4 weeks. In contrast, there was no significant difference between groups for either the tactile or cold water tests at any time point and with any outcome. This study documented that the new dentifrice containing zinc-CHA nanocrystals significantly reduced dentinal hypersensitivity after 4 and 8 weeks, supporting its utility in clinical practice.

  13. Thermodynamic characteristics of acid-base equilibria of glycyl-glycyl-glycine in water-ethanol solutions at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham Thi, L.; Usacheva, T. R.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    The enthalpies of the acid dissociation of glycyl-glycyl-glycine zwitterions and triglycinium ions are determined calorimetrically in water-ethanol solvents containing 0.0, 0.10, 0.30, and 0.50 molar fractions of ethanol at ionic strengths of 0.1 (maintained by sodium perchlorate) and T = 298.15 K. It is found that increasing the ethanol content in the solvent enhances the endothermic effect of triglycinium ion dissociation and reduces the endothermic effect of glycyl-glycyl-glycine dissociation. The results are discussed in terms of the solvation thermodynamics.

  14. Bioactivation of organic nitrates and the mechanism of nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Klemenska, Emila; Beresewicz, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Organic nitrates, such as nitroglycerin, are commonly used in the therapy of cardiovascular disease. Long-term therapy with these drugs, however, results in the rapid development of nitrate tolerance, limiting their hemodynamic and anti-ischemic efficacy. In addition, nitrate tolerance is associated with the expression of potentially deleterious modifications such as increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic activation. In this review we discuss current concepts regarding the mechanisms of organic nitrate bioactivation, nitrate tolerance, and nitrate-mediated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. We also examine how hydralazine may prevent nitrate tolerance and related endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Determination of intracellular nitrate.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, J M; Lara, C; Guerrero, M G

    1989-01-01

    A sensitive procedure has been developed for the determination of intracellular nitrate. The method includes: (i) preparation of cell lysates in 2 M-H3PO4 after separation of cells from the outer medium by rapid centrifugation through a layer of silicone oil, and (ii) subsequent nitrate analysis by ion-exchange h.p.l.c. with, as mobile phase, a solution containing 50 mM-H3PO4 and 2% (v/v) tetrahydrofuran, adjusted to pH 1.9 with NaOH. The determination of nitrate is subjected to interference by chloride and sulphate when present in the samples at high concentrations. Nitrite also interferes, but it is easily eliminated by treatment of the samples with sulphamic acid. The method has been successfully applied to the study of nitrate transport in the unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. PMID:2497740

  16. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    DOE PAGES

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, D. J.; Girosky, K. E.; ...

    2014-10-13

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptorsmore » such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. Additionally, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. Lastly, they are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.« less

  17. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, D. J.; Girosky, K. E.; Krzycki, J. A.; Ferguson, D. J.

    2014-10-13

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. Additionally, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. Lastly, they are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  18. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J; Girosky, Kimberly E; Krzycki, Joseph A; Ferguson, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  19. Changes in Heterodera glycines Egg Population Density in Continuous Glycine max over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Donald, P. A.; Donald, W. W.; Keaster, A. J.; Kremer, R. J.; Kendig, J. A.; Sims, B. S.; Mihail, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is found throughout soybean production areas of the United States, but the nematode's distribution is not uniform within states, counties, and individual fields. The goal of this research was to determine the spatial pattern of H. glycines population density in a field in southeastern Missouri and whether it changed over time in the absence of management practices. Geostatistical methods were used to describe and map the distribution of H. glycines over 4 years in a soybean (Glycine max) field in southeastern Missouri. Semivariograms and kriging, an interpolation method, were used to prepare isoarithmic contour maps and associated error maps. In the field studied, fall H. glycines population density (Pf) was poorly related to density the following spring (Pi). The distribution of peak H. glycines population density within the field changed from year to year, although high densities were often detected in the same general region of the field. The patchiness of H. glycines distribution within a field was verified. Yield was not related to H. glycines egg population density at planting, indicating that unmeasured variables were also reducing yield. PMID:19270874

  20. Organic foliar Milstop shows efficacy against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) on soybean (Glycine max)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been produced in the United States since 1765. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) were first detected on soybean in the United States in 2000 and now cause an estimated yield loss of up to US$4.9 billion annually. Organic soybean producers have few insecti...

  1. Reactivity of Metal Nitrates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-20

    amines, where nitration would not be a competing process. Acetanilide . Despite the complexity encountered with aniline, the corresponding amide... acetanilide , though having an N-hydrogen atom, was nitrated without tar formation, although this was not accomplished efficiently. After reaction for 24 h... acetanilide , in the absence of a N-hydrogen atom. However, the reverse proved to be the case, for after one day at room temperature nearly 60% of starting

  2. Protein tyrosine nitration

    PubMed Central

    Chaki, Mounira; Leterrier, Marina; Barroso, Juan B

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide metabolism in plant cells has a relative short history. Nitration is a chemical process which consists of introducing a nitro group (-NO2) into a chemical compound. in biological systems, this process has been found in different molecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids that can affect its function. This mini-review offers an overview of this process with special emphasis on protein tyrosine nitration in plants and its involvement in the process of nitrosative stress. PMID:19826215

  3. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  4. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  5. Glycine metabolism by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: hydrogen cyanide biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Castric, P A

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a synthetic medium is stimulated by the presence of glycine. Methionine enhances this stimulation but will not substitute for glycine as a stimulator of cyanogenesis. Threonine and phenylalanine are effective substitutes for glycine in the stimulation of HCN production. Glycine, threonine, and serine are good radioisotope precursors of HCN, but methionine and phenylalanine are not. Cell extracts of P. aeruginosa convert [14C]threonine to [14C]glycine. H14CN is produced with low dilution of label from either [1-14C]glycine or [2-14C]glycine, indicating a randomization of label either in the primary or secondary metabolism of glycine. When whole cells were fed [1,2-14C]glycine, cyanide and bicarbonate were the only radioactive extracellular products observed. PMID:233722

  6. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with {approximately}3 wt% NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia {approx} methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics.

  7. The effects of taking chronic nitrate by drinking water on thyroid functions and morphology.

    PubMed

    Eskiocak, S; Dundar, C; Basoglu, T; Altaner, S

    2005-07-01

    Nitrate incorporation in humans takes place via drinking water and food. The water used for drinking and cooking in the goitrous areas is high in nitrate content. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both chronic effects and the dose-response relationship of nitrate on thyroid functions. A total of rats were divided into 5 work groups and sodium nitrate was added to their drinking water in different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/l) over a 30-week period. The radioiodine uptake of thyroid was decreased in the 50 mg/l nitrate group, whereas it was increased in the 250 and 500 mg/l nitrate groups as compared to control. All hormones of thyroid gland except total thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone were decreased in the 50, 250 and 500 mg/l nitrate groups. However, the level of total thyroxin was increased in the 100 mg/l nitrate group. Thyroid gland weights were increased in all experimental groups. Histomorphological changes were observed in the 250 and 500 mg/l nitrate groups. These findings suggest that nitrate impairs thyroid function involving the hypothalamo-hypophysio-thyroid axis. This observation could contribute to the current discussion about the acceptable daily intake of nitrate, as well as drinking water nitrate standard safety margins.

  8. A Rigorous Attempt to Verify Interstellar Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Hollis, J. M.; Friedel, D. N.; Jewell, P. R.; Remijan, A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, Kuan, Charnley, and co-workers reported the detection of interstellar glycine (NH2CH2COOH) based on observations of 27 lines in 19 different spectral bands in one or more of the sources Sgr BP(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2. They supported their detection report with rotational temperature diagrams for all three sources. In this paper, we present essential criteria which can be used in a straightforward analysis technique to confirm the identity of an interstellar asymmetric rotor such as glycine. We use new laboratory measurements of glycine as a basis for applying this analysis technique, both to our previously unpublished 12 m telescope data and to the previously published SEST data of Nummelin and colleagues. We conclude that key lines necessary for an interstellar glycine identification have not yet been found. We identify several common molecular candidates that should be examined further as more likely carriers of the lines reported as glycine. Finally, we illustrate that rotational temperature diagrams used without the support of correct spectroscopic assignments are not a reliable tool for the identification of interstellar molecules. Subject headings: ISM: abundances - ISM: clouds - ISM: individual (Sagittarius B2[N-

  9. Use of a hydrogen anode for nitrate waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, E.E.; White, R.E.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1996-10-01

    Processes are being evaluated to separate the high-level radioactive species from the waste and store them permanently in the form of durable solids. The remaining low-level radioactive waste contains species such as nitrites and nitrates that are capable of contaminating ground water. The use of a hydrogen gas-fed anode and an acid analyte in an electrochemical cell used to destroy nitrate is demonstrated. A mixed Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} anolyte is shown to favor nitrate cell performance and the generation of a higher hydroxide ion concentration in the catholyte. The suggested scheme is an apparent method of sodium sulfate disposal and a possible means through which ammonia (to ammonium sulfate, fertilizer) and hydrogen gas could be recycled through the anode side of the reactor. This could result in a substantial savings in the operation of a nitrate destruction cell.

  10. Salt tolerance in Astragalus cicer microsymbionts: the role of glycine betaine in osmoprotection.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Leszcz, Agnieszka; Małek, Wanda

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we have investigated intrinsic salt tolerance of Astragalus cicer microsymbionts (USDA3350, ACMP18) and the role of exogenous glycine betaine in osmoprotection in these bacteria. Salt stress was imposed by NaCl concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2 %. A. cicer mesorhizobia were capable of tolerating up to 2 % sodium chloride with a population count that was inversely proportional to the salt content. When the extracellular concentration of NaCl was raised to 2 %, the generation time of the UDSA3350 strain in the mid-exponential phase of growth was 3.9-times greater than that in the no-salt control medium, whereas the ACMP18 strain survived under the same conditions but did not multiply. Application of 1 mM glycine betaine into the salt-stressed rhizobium cultures increased the number of culturable bacteria, pointing out that this molecule was involved in restoration of osmotic balance. The decline in A. cicer symbiont viability in the medium with sodium chloride and the osmoprotective role of glycine betaine for these bacteria was confirmed in the experiment using the live/dead Bac Light Bacterial Vibility Kit. Data presented in this study showed the presence of proU-like genes in the genomes of A. cicer rhizobia with high sequence similarity to the genes of the ProU-like system in Sinorhizobium meliloti and the proU operon of Escherichia coli.

  11. Dietary nitrite induces occludin nitration in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Correia, Mariana G; Fernandes, Rita C; Gonçalves, João S; Laranjinha, João

    2016-01-01

    The clinical implications of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway have been extensively studied in recent years. However, the physiological impact of bioactive nitrogen oxides produced from dietary nitrate has remained largely elusive. Here, we report a hitherto unrecognized nitrite-dependent nitrating pathway that targets tight junction proteins in the stomach. Inorganic nitrate, nitrite or saliva obtained after the consumption of lettuce were administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats. The enterosalivary circulation of nitrate was allowed to occur for 4 h after which the animals were euthanized and the stomach collected. Nitrated occludin was detected by immunoprecipitation in the gastric epithelium upon inorganic nitrite administration (p < .05) but was not observed in the case of inorganic nitrate or human saliva administration. This observation, along with differences in (•)NO production rates from inorganic and salivary nitrite under simulated gastric conditions, suggests that competing reactions at acidic pH determine the production of nitrating agents ((•)NO2) or other, more stable, oxides. Accordingly, it is shown in vitro that salivary nitrite yields higher steady state concentrations of (•)NO (0.37 ± 0.01 μM) than sodium nitrite (0.12 ± 0.03 μM). Dietary-dependent reactions involving the production of nitrogen oxides should be further investigated as, in the context of occludin nitration, the consumption of green leafy vegetables (with high nitrate content), if able to modulate gut barrier function, may have important implications in the context of leaky gut disorders.

  12. Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: A comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    He, Q.; He, Z.; Joyner, D.C.; Joachimiak, M.; Price, M.N.; Yang, Z.K.; Yen, H.-C. B.; Hemme, C. L.; Chen, W.; Fields, M.; Stahl, D. A.; Keasling, J. D.; Keller, M.; Arkin, A. P.; Hazen, T. C.; Wall, J. D.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO{sub 3} but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.

  13. Impact of elevated nitrate on sulfate-reducing bacteria: a comparative study of Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Joyner, Dominique C; Joachimiak, Marcin; Price, Morgan N; Yang, Zamin K; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L; Chen, Wenqiong; Fields, Matthew M; Stahl, David A; Keasling, Jay D; Keller, Martin; Arkin, Adam P; Hazen, Terry C; Wall, Judy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-11-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been extensively studied for their potential in heavy-metal bioremediation. However, the occurrence of elevated nitrate in contaminated environments has been shown to inhibit sulfate reduction activity. Although the inhibition has been suggested to result from the competition with nitrate-reducing bacteria, the possibility of direct inhibition of sulfate reducers by elevated nitrate needs to be explored. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model sulfate-reducing bacterium, functional genomics analysis reveals that osmotic stress contributed to growth inhibition by nitrate as shown by the upregulation of the glycine/betaine transporter genes and the relief of nitrate inhibition by osmoprotectants. The observation that significant growth inhibition was effected by 70 mM NaNO(3) but not by 70 mM NaCl suggests the presence of inhibitory mechanisms in addition to osmotic stress. The differential expression of genes characteristic of nitrite stress responses, such as the hybrid cluster protein gene, under nitrate stress condition further indicates that nitrate stress response by D. vulgaris was linked to components of both osmotic and nitrite stress responses. The involvement of the oxidative stress response pathway, however, might be the result of a more general stress response. Given the low similarities between the response profiles to nitrate and other stresses, less-defined stress response pathways could also be important in nitrate stress, which might involve the shift in energy metabolism. The involvement of nitrite stress response upon exposure to nitrate may provide detoxification mechanisms for nitrite, which is inhibitory to sulfate-reducing bacteria, produced by microbial nitrate reduction as a metabolic intermediate and may enhance the survival of sulfate-reducing bacteria in environments with elevated nitrate level.

  14. Differential Light Induction of Nitrate Reductases in Greening and Photobleached Soybean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Kakefuda, Genichi; Duke, Stanley H.; Duke, Stephen O.

    1983-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seeds were imbibed and germinated with or without NO3−, tungstate, and norflurazon (San 9789). Norflurazon is a herbicide which causes photobleaching of chlorophyll by inhibiting carotenoid synthesis and which impairs normal chloroplast development. After 3 days in the dark, seedlings were placed in white light to induce extractable nitrate reductase activity. The induction of maximal nitrate reductase activity in greening cotyledons did not require NO3− and was not inhibited by tungstate. Induction of nitrate reductase activity in norflurazon-treated cotyledons had an absolute requirement for NO3− and was completely inhibited by tungstate. Nitrate was not detected in seeds or seedlings which had not been treated with NO3−. The optimum pH for cotyledon nitrate reductase activity from norflurazon-treated seedlings was at pH 7.5, and near that for root nitrate reductase activity, whereas the optimum pH for nitrate reductase activity from greening cotyledons was pH 6.5. Induction of root nitrate reductase activity was also inhibited by tungstate and was dependent on the presence of NO3−, further indicating that the isoform of nitrate reductase induced in norflurazon-treated cotyledons is the same or similar to that found in roots. Nitrate reductases with and without a NO3− requirement for light induction appear to be present in developing leaves. In vivo kinetics (light induction and dark decay rates) and in vitro kinetics (Arrhenius energies of activation and NADH:NADPH specificities) of nitrate reductases with and without a NO3− requirement for induction were quite different. Km values for NO3− were identical for both nitrate reductases. PMID:16663185

  15. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current. PMID:26730381

  16. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current.

  17. Bioremediation of nitrated organics

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, D.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.; Jass, J.

    1994-12-31

    In the manufacture of nitrated aromatic and heterocyclic compounds intermediates are produced as well as the final products, e.g. TNT (trinitrotoluene), and RDX (cyclotri-methylene trinitramine). The red water produced is a dilute effluent containing TNT and other nitrated intermediates. Many of the intermediates are also to be found in contaminated land areas as well as the primary manufacturing products as contaminants in ground adjacent to production and storage areas. Two intermediates included as by-products are p-nitrophenol and resorcinol; both are hydroxylated aromatics and one (the former) is also nitrated. If these rings can be hydroxylated and oxidized by pure or mixed microbial cultures then the notion of using microbes for the detoxification of a wide range of nitrated aromatics and heterocyclics is possible. It is proposed in the study to accelerate this degradative process in the first instance for p-nitrophenol and resorcinol, and secondly for TNT and RDX. The use of microbes to degrade nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzenes, and mono-nitro phenols, have been described. In order to determine how aromatic degrading bacteria can also degrade substituted and nitrated aromatics several pure and mixed cultures have been utilized to demonstrate enzyme adaptation.

  18. Mechanisms of glycine release, which build up synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine levels: the role of synaptic and non-synaptic glycine transporters.

    PubMed

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Matyus, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Glycine is an amino acid neurotransmitter that is involved in both inhibitory and excitatory neurochemical transmission in the central nervous system. The role of glycine in excitatory neurotransmission is related to its coagonist action at glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The glycine levels in the synaptic cleft rise many times higher during synaptic activation assuring that glycine spills over into the extrasynaptic space. Another possible origin of extrasynaptic glycine is the efflux of glycine occurring from astrocytes associated with glutamatergic synapses. The release of glycine from neuronal or glial origins exhibits several differences compared to that of biogenic amines or other amino acid neurotransmitters. These differences appear in an external Ca(2+)- and temperature-dependent manner, conferring unique characteristics on glycine as a neurotransmitter. Glycine transporter type-1 at synapses may exhibit neural and glial forms and plays a role in controlling synaptic glycine levels and the spill over rate of glycine from the synaptic cleft into the extrasynaptic biophase. Non-synaptic glycine transporter type-1 regulates extrasynaptic glycine concentrations, either increasing or decreasing them depending on the reverse or normal mode operation of the carrier molecule. While we can, at best, only estimate synaptic glycine levels at rest and during synaptic activation, glycine concentrations are readily measurable via brain microdialysis technique applied in the extrasynaptic space. The non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor may obtain glycine for activation following its spill over from highly active synapses or from its release mediated by the reverse operation of non-synaptic glycine transporter-1. The sensitivity of non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors to glutamate and glycine is many times higher than that of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors making the former type of receptor the primary target for drug action. Synaptic

  19. Anticoagulant Effects of Heparin Complexes with Prolyl-Glycine Peptide and Glycine and Proline Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, M E; Obergan, T Yu; Maystrenko, E S; Kalugina, M D

    2016-05-01

    The study demonstrates the formation of heparin complexes with prolyl-glycine peptide and proline and glycine amino acids. The method was developed for in vitro production of these complexes at 1:1 dipeptide to heparin molar ratio and 2:1 amino acid to heparin molar ratio. These complexes, unlike the constituents, proline and glycine, exhibited significant anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and fibrin-depolymerization activities of varying degree in vitro and in vivo. The heparin-dipeptide complex produced maximum effect. The dipeptide by itself also showed anticoagulant properties, but less pronounced than in the complex with heparin.

  20. Dalteparin sodium.

    PubMed

    Pineo, G F; Hull, R D

    2001-08-01

    Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin, Pharmacia Corporation) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a mean molecular weight of approximately 5000 Da. As with the other LMWHs, dalteparin sodium has certain advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH), most important of which are improved bio-availability by sc. injection, a prolonged antithrombotic activity which is highly correlated with body weight permitting the o.d. administration of the drug. Dalteparin sodium has been subjected to a large number of well-designed randomised clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. Based on data from the randomised clinical trials, dalteparin sodium has been approved internationally for a wide spectrum of clinical indications (e.g., prevention of thromboembolic events after surgery). Dalteparin sodium has also been studied in randomised controlled trials in the maintenance of graft patentcy following peripheral vascular surgery, in place of warfarin for the long-term treatment of patients presenting with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in the prevention of upper extremity thrombosis in patients with indwelling portacath devices and in pregnant patients with a history of previous venous thromboembolism with or without thrombophilia. Dalteparin sodium has been compared with heparin for the prevention of thrombotic complications during haemodyalisis and haemofiltration. These studies have shown promising results but further work is required before dalteparin sodium can be recommended for these indications.

  1. Sodium MRI.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Sodium ((23)Na) imaging has a place somewhere between (1)H-MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS). Like MRS it potentially provides information on metabolic processes, but only one single resonance of ionic (23)Na is observed. Therefore pulse sequences do not need to code for a chemical shift dimension, allowing (23)Na images to be obtained at high resolutions as compared to MRS. In this chapter the biological significance of sodium in the brain will be discussed, as well as methods for observing it with (23)Na-MRI. Many vital cellular processes and interactions in excitable tissues depend on the maintenance of a low intracellular and high extracellular sodium concentration. Healthy cells maintain this concentration gradient at the cost of energy. Leaky cell membranes or an impaired energy metabolism immediately leads to an increase in cytosolic total tissue sodium. This makes sodium a biomarker for ischemia, cancer, excessive tissue activation, or tissue damage as might be caused by ablation therapy. Special techniques allow quantification of tissue sodium for the monitoring of disease or therapy in longitudinal studies or preferential observation of the intracellular component of the tissue sodium. New methods and high-field magnet technology provide new opportunities for (23)Na-MRI in clinical and biomedical research.

  2. Regulation of the glycine cleavage system in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Catabolism of glycine, via the glycine cleavage system was investigated in isolated, fully functional, rat liver mitochondria, and the isolated perfused rat liver. Metabolic flux through the glycine cleavage system, which catalyzes the tetrahydrofolate-dependent cleavage of glycine yielding carbon dioxide, ammonia, N/sup 5/,N/sup 10/-methylenetetrahydrofolate, and NADH + H/sup +/, was monitored by measuring the production of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (1-/sup 14/C)glycine. The glycine cleavage system was demonstrated to be responsible for nearly all /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from (1-/sup 14/C)glycine in both isolated mitochondria and the perfused rat liver. Glycine decarboxylation by rat liver mitochondria was highly sensitive to the metabolic state in which the mitochondria were maintained. Production of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (1-/sup 14/C)glycine was stimulated in State 3 over State 4 and was maximal in the uncoupled state. Alternatively, respiratory inhibitors, such as rotenone, and reducing substrates, inhibited mitochondrial glycine decarboxylation strongly. Propionate stimulated glycine decarboxylation by rat liver mitochondria with a concomitant decrease in the measured intramitochondrial NADPH content. Incubation of mitochondria with propionate evoked a large decrease in the measured intramitochondrial ATP content and a large increase in AMP content. Manipulation of the intramitochondrial adenine nucleotide profile demonstrated that no direct correlation existed between rates of mitochondrial glycine decarboxylation and the intramitochondrial content of either ATP, ADP, or AMP.

  3. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor. See...

  4. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor. See...

  5. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor. See...

  6. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor. See...

  7. Dietary nitrate improves cardiac contractility via enhanced cellular Ca²⁺ signaling.

    PubMed

    Pironti, Gianluigi; Ivarsson, Niklas; Yang, Jiangning; Farinotti, Alex Bersellini; Jonsson, William; Zhang, Shi-Jin; Bas, Duygu; Svensson, Camilla I; Westerblad, Håkan; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O; Pernow, John; Lanner, Johanna; Andersson, Daniel C

    2016-05-01

    The inorganic anion nitrate (NO3 (-)), which is naturally enriched in certain vegetables (e.g., spinach and beetroot), has emerged as a dietary component that can regulate diverse bodily functions, including blood pressure, mitochondrial efficiency, and skeletal muscle force. It is not known if dietary nitrate improves cardiac contractility. To test this, mice were supplemented for 1-2 weeks with sodium nitrate in the drinking water at a dose similar to a green diet. The hearts from nitrate-treated mice showed increased left ventricular pressure and peak rate of pressure development as measured with the Langendorff heart technique. Cardiomyocytes from hearts of nitrate-treated and control animals were incubated with the fluorescent indicator Fluo-3 to measure cytoplasmic free [Ca(2+)] and fractional shortening. Cardiomyocytes from nitrate-treated mice displayed increased fractional shortening, which was linked to larger Ca(2+) transients. Moreover, nitrate hearts displayed increased protein expression of the L-type Ca(2+) channel/dihydropyridine receptor and peak L-type Ca(2+) channel currents. The nitrate-treated hearts displayed increased concentration of cAMP but unchanged levels of cGMP compared with controls. These findings provide the first evidence that dietary nitrate can affect the expression of important Ca(2+) handling proteins in the heart, resulting in increased cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) signaling and improved left ventricular contractile function. Our observation shows that dietary nitrate impacts cardiac function and adds understanding to inorganic nitrate as a physiological modulator.

  8. Engineering and characterization of fluorogenic glycine riboswitches

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, Simon; Gladis, Lukas; Kozica, Adnan; Meier, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A set of 12 fluorogenic glycine riboswitches with different thermodynamic and kinetic response properties was engineered. For the design of functional riboswitches, a three-part RNA approach was applied based on the idea of linking a RNA sensor, transmitter and actuator part together. For the RNA sensor and actuator part, we used the tandem glycine aptamer structure from Bacillus subtillis, and fluorogenic aptamer Spinach, respectively. To achieve optimal signal transduction from the sensor to the actuator, a riboswitch library with variable transmitter was screened with a microfluidic large-scale integration chip. This allowed us to establish the complete thermodynamic binding profiles of the riboswitch library. Glycine dissociation constants of the 12 strong fluorescence response riboswitches varied between 99.7 and 570 μM. Furthermore, the kinetic glycine binding (kon), and dissociation (koff) rates, and corresponding energy barriers of the 10 strongest fluorescence response riboswitches were determined with the same chip platform. kon and koff were in the order of 10−3s−1 and 10−2s−1, respectively. Conclusively, we demonstrate that systematic screening of synthetic and natural linked RNA parts with microfluidic chip technology is an effective approach to rapidly generate fluorogenic metabolite riboswitches with a broad range of biophysical response properties. PMID:27220466

  9. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  10. GABA and glycine actions on spinal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Krnjević, K; Puil, E; Werman, R

    1977-06-01

    Applied microiontophoretically in the spinal cord of cats, glycine is consistently more powerful than gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in raising the membrane conductance of lumbosacral motoneurons (mean ratio of equipotent iontophoretic currents tested on same cells is 5.6:1). This is the reverse of the situation in cerebral cortex. The effect of glycine is well maintained during applications lasting about 1 min, but that of GABA, after an early peak, drops to a much lower plateau (mean plateau-over-peak ratio is 0.23). The reversal potentials for the action of GABA and glycine are initially similar but they behave differently during a prolonged application; that for glycine usually remains constant or becomes more negative whereas that for GABA tends to shift in the positive direction. Various explanations of these phenomena are considered. It is suggested that a single process, electrogenic uptake of GABA, may account for both desensitization (by removing GABA from its site of action) and the positive shift in GABA reversal potential (became uptake is probably associated with an influx of Na+).

  11. Thermodynamic quantities of surface formation of aqueous electrolyte solutions VII. Aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates LiNO3, NaNO3, and KNO3.

    PubMed

    Matubayasi, Norihiro; Yoshikawa, Ryuji

    2007-11-15

    To compare the effect of nitrate anions on the surface tension increments of aqueous solutions with that of halide anions, the surface tension of aqueous solutions of lithium nitrate, sodium nitrate, and potassium nitrate was measured as a function of temperature and concentration. It is shown that the surface tension of aqueous alkali metal nitrate solutions is determined primarily by the kinds of anions, since the surface tension increments of these nitrates were of the same magnitude. The importance of the electrical double layer at the surface is discussed in relation to these surface tension increments.

  12. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves

  13. Nitrates and Nitrites TNC Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Nitrates and Nitrites Presentation gives an overview of nitrates and nitrites in drinking water, why it is important to monitor them and what to do in cases where the results exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL).

  14. Nitrate Leaching Management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrate (NO3) leaching is a significant nitrogen (N) loss process for agriculture that must be managed to minimize NO3 enrichment of groundwater and surface waters. Managing NO3 leaching should involve the application of basic principles of understanding the site’s hydrologic cycle, avoiding excess ...

  15. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  16. Oral glycine administration increases brain glycine/creatine ratios in men: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Marc J.; Prescot, Andrew P.; Ongur, Dost; Evins, A. Eden; Barros, Tanya L.; Medeiros, Carissa L.; Covell, Julie; Wang, Liqun; Fava, Maurizio; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2009-01-01

    Oral high-dose glycine administration has been used as an adjuvant treatment for schizophrenia to enhance glutamate neurotransmission and mitigate glutamate system hypofunction thought to contribute to the disorder. Prior studies in schizophrenia subjects documented clinical improvements after 2 weeks of oral glycine administration, suggesting that brain glycine levels are sufficiently elevated to evoke a clinical response within that time frame. However, no human study has reported on brain glycine changes induced by its administration. We utilized a noninvasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique termed echo time-averaged (TEAV) 1H-MRS, which permits noninvasive quantification of brain glycine in vivo, to determine whether 2 weeks of oral glycine administration (peak dose of 0.8g/kg/day) increased brain glycine/creatine (Gly/Cr) ratios in 11 healthy adult men. In scans obtained 17 hours after the last glycine dose, brain (Gly/Cr) ratios were significantly increased. The data indicate that it is possible to measure brain glycine changes with proton spectroscopy. Developing a more comprehensive understanding of human brain glycine dynamics may lead to optimized use of glycine site agonists and glycine transporter inhibitors to treat schizophrenia, and possibly to treat other disorders associated with glutamate system dysfunction. PMID:19556112

  17. Characterization of nitrated phenolic compounds for their anti-oxidant, pro-oxidant, and nitration activities.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nomoto, Maki; Oda, Momoko; Mochizuki, Keisuke; Nakano, Yuki; Ishii, Yuji; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi; Umemura, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Evidence of the health benefits and the important contribution of coffee brew to the intake of anti-oxidants in the diet has increased coffee consumption. Chlorogenic acid (ChA) and caffeic acid (CaA) are the major phenolic compounds in coffee. However, phenolic compounds, which are generally effective anti-oxidants, can become pro-oxidants in the presence of Cu(2+) to induce DNA damage under certain conditions. On the other hand, sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) is widely used as a food additive to preserve and tinge color on cured meat and fish. It is possible that phenolic compounds react with NaNO(2) under acidic conditions, such as gastric juice. In this study, we identified compounds produced by the reaction between ChA or CaA in coffee and NaNO(2) in artificial gastric juice. The identified phenolic compounds and nitrated phenolic compounds were assessed for their anti-oxidant, pro-oxidant, and nitration activities by performing an in vitro assay. The nitrated phenolic compounds seemed to show increased anti-oxidant activity and decreased pro-oxidant activity. However, one nitrated CaA compound that has a furoxan ring showed the ability to release NO(2)(-) in the neutral condition.

  18. Characterization of the rat oral microbiome and the effects of dietary nitrate.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Luk, Berkley; Cron, Stanley; Kusic, Lenka; McCue, Tyler; Bauch, Tonya; Kaplan, Heidi; Tribble, Gena; Petrosino, Joseph F; Bryan, Nathan S

    2014-12-01

    The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway to nitric oxide (NO) production is a symbiotic pathway in mammals that is dependent on nitrate reducing oral commensal bacteria. Studies suggest that by contributing NO to the mammalian host, the oral microbiome helps maintain cardiovascular health. To begin to understand how changes in oral microbiota affect physiological functions such as blood pressure, we have characterized the Wistar rat nitrate reducing oral microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis we compare the native Wistar rat tongue microbiome to that of healthy humans and to that of rats with sodium nitrate and chlorhexidine mouthwash treatments. We demonstrate that the rat tongue microbiome is less diverse than the human tongue microbiome, but that the physiological activity is comparable, as sodium nitrate supplementation significantly lowered diastolic blood pressure in Wistar rats and also lowers blood pressure (diastolic and systolic) in humans. We also show for the first time that sodium nitrate supplementation alters the abundance of specific bacterial species on the tongue. Our results suggest that the changes in oral nitrate reducing bacteria may affect nitric oxide availability and physiological functions such as blood pressure. Understanding individual changes in human oral microbiome may offer novel dietary approaches to restore NO availability and blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Limited proteolysis of the nitrate reductase from spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Y; Ogura, N; Nakagawa, H

    1988-12-25

    The functional structure of assimilatory NADH-nitrate reductase from spinach leaves was studied by limited proteolysis experiments. After incubation of purified nitrate reductase with trypsin, two stable products of 59 and 45 kDa were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The fragment of 45 kDa was purified by Blue Sepharose chromatography. NADH-ferricyanide reductase and NADH-cytochrome c reductase activities were associated with this 45-kDa fragment which contains FAD, heme, and NADH binding fragment. After incubation of purified nitrate reductase with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, two major peaks were observed by high performance liquid chromatography size exclusion gel filtration. FMNH2-nitrate reductase and reduced methyl viologen-nitrate reductase activities were associated with the first peak of 170 kDa which consists of two noncovalently associated (75-90-kDa) fragments. NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity, however, was associated with the second peak which consisted of FAD and NADH binding sites. Incubation of the 45-kDa fragment with S. aureus V8 protease produced two major fragments of 28 and 14 kDa which contained FAD and heme, respectively. These results indicate that the molybdenum, heme, and FAD components of spinach nitrate reductase are contained in distinct domains which are covalently linked by exposed hinge regions. The molybdenum domain appears to be important in the maintenance of subunit interactions in the enzyme complex.

  20. Global modeling of nitrate and ammonium aerosols using EQSAM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Penner, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, particles suspending in air, are important as they affect human health, air quality, and visibility as well as climate. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride and sodium are among the most important inorganic aerosol species in the atmosphere. These compounds are hygroscopic and absorb water under almost all ambient environmental conditions. The uptake of water alters the aerosol size, and causes water to become the constituent with the largest atmospheric aerosol mass, especially when the aerosols grow into fog, haze or clouds. Furthermore, several global model studies have demonstrated that rapid increases in nitrogen emissions could produce enough nitrate in aerosols to offset the expected decline in sulfate forcing by 2100 for the extreme IPCC A2 scenario (Bauer et al., 2007). Although nitrate and ammonium were identified as significant anthropogenic sources of aerosols by a number of modeling studies, most global aerosol models still exclude ammonium-nitrate when the direct aerosol forcing is studied. In this study, the computationally efficient equilibrium model, EQSAM3, is incorporated into the UMICH-IMPACT-nitrate model using the hybrid dynamical solution method (Feng and Penner, 2007). The partitioning of nitrate and ammonium along with the corresponding water uptake is evaluated by comparing the model to the EQUISOLVE II method used in Feng and Penner (2007). The model is also evaluated by comparison with the AERONET data base and satellite-based aerosol optical depths.

  1. Can supplemental nitrate in cured meats be used as a means of increasing residual and dietary nitrate and subsequent potential for physiological nitric oxide without affecting product properties?

    PubMed

    Usinger, Emily L; Larson, Elaine M; Niebuhr, Steven E; Fedler, Christine A; Prusa, Kenneth J; Dickson, James S; Tarté, Rodrigo; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2016-11-01

    The effects of formulated sodium nitrate plus supplemental nitrate (SN) from celery juice powder on residual nitrite, residual nitrate, rancidity, microbial growth, color, sensory properties, and proximate composition of frankfurters, cotto salami and boneless ham during storage (1°C) were studied. The products were assigned one of two treatments, which were each replicated twice: control (156ppm sodium nitrite) or SN (156ppm sodium nitrite and 1718ppm sodium nitrate in combination with 2% VegStable 502). Sensory parameters and proximate composition were measured once for each replication. All other analytical measurements were conducted at regular intervals for 97-98days. The SN showed no increase in residual nitrite compared to the control. No changes (P>0.05) were observed in residual nitrate during storage for any of the products. The results showed that addition of SN did not significantly alter most physical, chemical or microbial properties of cured meat products during refrigerated storage, but some product dependent sensory effects were observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of nitrate adaptation by rumen inocula donors and substrate fiber proportion on in vitro nitrate disappearance, methanogenesis, and rumen fermentation acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, M; Schaefer, D M; Zhao, G Q; Meng, Q X

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the main effects of dietary nitrate adaptation by cattle and alfalfa cell wall to starch ratio in in vitro substrates on nitrate disappearance and nitrite and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, as well as hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) accumulations. Rumen fluid from steers fed diets containing urea or nitrate was added into in vitro incubations containing sodium nitrate as the sole nitrogen source and 20 cell wall : 80 starch or 80 cell wall : 20 starch as the carbohydrate source. The results showed that during 24 h incubation, rumen fluid inoculums from steers adapted to dietary nitrate resulted in more rapid nitrate disappearance by 6 h of incubation (P < 0.01), no significant effect on nitrite concentration and diminished CH4 accumulation (P < 0.05). Cell wall to starch ratio did not affect nitrate disappearance, CH4 accumulation and total VFA concentration. The higher cell wall ratio had the lower total gas production and H2 concentration (P < 0.05). Ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration increased because of adaptation of donors to nitrate feeding (P < 0.05). Nitrate adaptation did not alter total VFA concentration, but increased acetate, and decreased propionate and butyrate molar proportions (P < 0.01).

  3. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  4. Structure of Glycine Dihyrate: Its Implications to Crystallization of Glycine from Solution and Modification of Clycine in Space

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wenqian; Zhu, Qiang; Hu, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid, is also the most polymorphous. Herein, we report the structure determination of an unknown phase of glycine which was firstly reported by Pyne and Suryanarayanan in 2001. To date, the new phase has only been prepared at 208 K as nanocrystals within ice. Through computational crystal structure prediction and powder X-ray diffraction methods, we identified this elusive phase as glycine dihydrate (GDH), representing a first report on a hydrated glycine structure. The structure of GDH has important implications for the state of glycine in aqueous solution, and the mechanisms of glycine crystallization. GDH may also be the form of glycine that comes to Earth from extraterrestrial sources.

  5. Dietary nitrate reduces resting metabolic rate: a randomized, crossover study in humans.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Filip J; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ekblom, Björn; Mattsson, Mathias P; Checa, Antonio; Wheelock, Craig E; Nyström, Thomas; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2014-04-01

    Nitrate, which is an inorganic anion abundant in vegetables, increases the efficiency of isolated human mitochondria. Such an effect might be reflected in changes in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and formation of reactive oxygen species. The bioactivation of nitrate involves its active accumulation in saliva followed by a sequential reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide, and other reactive nitrogen species. We studied effects of inorganic nitrate, in amounts that represented a diet rich in vegetables, on the RMR in healthy volunteers. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, we measured the RMR by using indirect calorimetry in 13 healthy volunteers after a 3-d dietary intervention with sodium nitrate (NaNO₃) or a placebo (NaCl). The nitrate dose (0.1 mmol · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) corresponded to the amount in 200-300 g spinach, beetroot, lettuce, or other vegetable that was rich in nitrate. Effects of direct nitrite exposure on cell respiration were studied in cultured human primary myotubes. The RMR was 4.2% lower after nitrate compared with placebo administration, and the change correlated strongly to the degree of nitrate accumulation in saliva (r² = 0.71). The thyroid hormone status, insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake, plasma concentration of isoprostanes, and total antioxidant capacity were unaffected by nitrate. The administration of nitrite to human primary myotubes acutely inhibited respiration. Dietary inorganic nitrate reduces the RMR. This effect may have implications for the regulation of metabolic function in health and disease.

  6. Effect of Nutrient/Carbon Supplements on Biological Phosphate and Nitrate Uptake by Protozoan Isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpor, O. B.; Momba, M. N. B.; Okonkwo, J.

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of nine different nutrient/carbon supplements in mixed liquor on nutrient uptake ability of three wastewater protozoan isolates, which have previously been screened for phosphate and nitrate uptake efficiency. The results revealed that over 50% of phosphate was removed in the presence of sodium acetate, glucose or sucrose. Similarly, nitrate uptake of over 60% was observed in the presence of sodium acetate, sodium succinate, glucose or sucrose. These trends were common in all the isolates. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal in the mixed liquor was only found to be significantly removed in mixed liquors that were supplemented with glucose, sucrose or sodium succinate. In the presence of sodium acetate, COD was observed to increase. The findings of this investigation have revealed that nutrient uptake and COD removal by the test protozoan isolates may be dependent primarily on the initial nutrient supplement in mixed liquor.

  7. Thermodynamics of the formation of the Ni2+-glycine-L-histidine complex in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.; Bychkova, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    The Ni2+-glycine-L-histidine system in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 with potassium nitrate as the supporting electrolyte has been investigated calorimetrically. Standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δr H°, Δr G°, Δr S°) of complexation have been determined. The NiLY complex is highly stable with respect to decomposition into homoligand complexes.

  8. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  9. Nitrate Storage and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction by Eukaryotic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Anja; Høgslund, Signe; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Stief, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The microbial nitrogen cycle is one of the most complex and environmentally important element cycles on Earth and has long been thought to be mediated exclusively by prokaryotic microbes. Rather recently, it was discovered that certain eukaryotic microbes are able to store nitrate intracellularly and use it for dissimilatory nitrate reduction in the absence of oxygen. The paradigm shift that this entailed is ecologically significant because the eukaryotes in question comprise global players like diatoms, foraminifers, and fungi. This review article provides an unprecedented overview of nitrate storage and dissimilatory nitrate reduction by diverse marine eukaryotes placed into an eco-physiological context. The advantage of intracellular nitrate storage for anaerobic energy conservation in oxygen-depleted habitats is explained and the life style enabled by this metabolic trait is described. A first compilation of intracellular nitrate inventories in various marine sediments is presented, indicating that intracellular nitrate pools vastly exceed porewater nitrate pools. The relative contribution by foraminifers to total sedimentary denitrification is estimated for different marine settings, suggesting that eukaryotes may rival prokaryotes in terms of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Finally, this review article sketches some evolutionary perspectives of eukaryotic nitrate metabolism and identifies open questions that need to be addressed in future investigations. PMID:26734001

  10. Compositions containing poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1992-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  11. Compositions containing poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1992-02-18

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting the removal, and the apparatus used in effecting the removal are described. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form. 1 figs.

  12. The Effect of Potassium Nitrate on the Reduction of Phytophthora Stem Rot Disease of Soybeans, the Growth Rate and Zoospore Release of Phytophthora Sojae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of potassium nitrate (KNO3) application on Phytophthora stem rot disease reduction of Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. Chusei-Hikarikuro and Sachiyutaka, and fungal growth and zoospore release of a Phytophthora sojae isolate were investigated under laboratory conditions. The application of 4-...

  13. Distribution of Heterodera glycines Races in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Sikora, E J; Noel, G R

    1991-10-01

    Because the race scheme for Heterodera glycines was expanded recently from 5 to 16 races, the occurrence and distribution of races in Illinois need clarification. Forty-four populations of H. glycines were collected from sites in 23 of the 88 infested counties. Populations were tested using the differential soybean lines Pickett 71, Peking, PI 88788, and PI 90763. Lee 68 and Williams 82 were used as standards. Seedlings were grown in 7.5-cm-d clay pots and inoculated with 1,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles obtained from H. glycines-infested field soil. Plants were maintained in a greenhouse at 22-28 C. After 1 month, the number of first-generation white females that developed on each differential was determined and the race of the population was designated. Twenty-eight populations were race 3, twelve were race 1, two were race 5, one was race 2, and one was race 4. Populations of races 3 and 1 were widely distributed in the state. In 26 of the 28 race determinations, race designations using Williams 82 and Lee 68 were the same, indicating that if Lee 68 is not available, Williams 82 may be a suitable alternative for race tests done in the north central United States.

  14. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Meerza Abdul; Begum, Pathan Shajahan

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states. PMID:28337245

  15. Differentiation of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis by glycine utilization.

    PubMed

    Murai, T; Nakamura, Y; Kano, R; Watanabe, S; Hasegawa, A

    2002-06-01

    The genus Malassezia has been revised to include six lipophilic species and one nonlipophilic species. These Malassezia species have been investigated to differentiate their morphological and physiological characteristics. However, assimilation of amino acids as a nitrogen source by these species was not well elucidated. In the present study, isolates of Malassezia species were examined with a glycine medium (containing 7-266 mmol glycine, 7.4 mmol KH(2)PO(4), 4.1 mmol MgSO(4)7H(2)O, 29.6 mmol thiamine, 0.5% Tween-80 and 2% agar) and a modified Dixon glycine medium (0.6% peptone, 3.6% malt extract, 2% ox-bile, 1% Tween-40, 0.2% glycerol, 0.2% oleic acid, 7 mmol glycine and 2% agar). All M. furfur isolates developed on the glycine medium, assimilating glycine at concentrations of at least 7 mmol l(-1). However, the other six Malassezia species were unable to grow on the glycine medium. Also, many colonies of M. furfur grew rapidly, within 2-3 days on the modified Dixon glycine medium, although the other six species showed slow and poor development. From these results, it was suggested that M. furfur might be able to utilize glycine as a single nitrogen source, which the other Malassezia species could not. Therefore, glycine medium was recommended for the differentiation of M. furfur from other species of Malassezia.

  16. Sources of nitrate yields in the Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    David, Mark B; Drinkwater, Laurie E; McIsaac, Gregory F

    2010-01-01

    Riverine nitrate N in the Mississippi River leads to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Several recent modeling studies estimated major N inputs and suggested source areas that could be targeted for conservation programs. We conducted a similar analysis with more recent and extensive data that demonstrates the importance of hydrology in controlling the percentage of net N inputs (NNI) exported by rivers. The average fraction of annual riverine nitrate N export/NNI ranged from 0.05 for the lower Mississippi subbasin to 0.3 for the upper Mississippi River basin and as high as 1.4 (4.2 in a wet year) for the Embarras River watershed, a mostly tile-drained basin. Intensive corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] watersheds on Mollisols had low NNI values and when combined with riverine N losses suggest a net depletion of soil organic N. We used county-level data to develop a nonlinear model ofN inputs and landscape factors that were related to winter-spring riverine nitrate yields for 153 watersheds within the basin. We found that river runoff times fertilizer N input was the major predictive term, explaining 76% of the variation in the model. Fertilizer inputs were highly correlated with fraction of land area in row crops. Tile drainage explained 17% of the spatial variation in winter-spring nitrate yield, whereas human consumption of N (i.e., sewage effluent) accounted for 7%. Net N inputs were not a good predictor of riverine nitrate N yields, nor were other N balances. We used this model to predict the expected nitrate N yield from each county in the Mississippi River basin; the greatest nitrate N yields corresponded to the highly productive, tile-drained cornbelt from southwest Minnesota across Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. This analysis can be used to guide decisions about where efforts to reduce nitrate N losses can be most effectively targeted to improve local water quality and reduce export to the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Preparation of nitrate-selective porous magnetic resin and assessment of its performance in removing nitrate from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Lifei; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate-selective, porous magnetic anion-exchange resin (NS-PMAER) with enhanced affinity and higher selectivity for nitrate was synthesized, characterized and its performance in nitrate removal was investigated. The results show that NS-PMAER consists of spherical particles with an average size of 200 μm. It has mean pore diameter, total pore volume, and BET specific surface area of 21.38 nm, 0.3605 cm(3)/g, and 67.455 m(2)/g, respectively. The specific saturation magnetization of NS-PMAER was about 10.79 emu/g. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that NS-PMAER has selectivity for nitrate higher than that of MIEX® resin; its coefficients of selectivity toward nitrate for nitrate and sulfate are 20.978 and 6.769, respectively, higher than those of MIEX® resin (1.256 and 4.342, respectively). Its working exchange capacity was 72.41 mg/mL. Column-exchange experiments' results suggest that it could be easily regenerated using 1.5 mol/L sodium chloride solution for a contact time of 30 min. Its recovery rate stayed at > 95% even after five rounds of recycling. Results of the pilot test indicate that NS-PMAER could effectively remove nitrate in groundwater, and ensure that nitrate concentrations of effluent to meet the guideline limit for drinking water by the World Health Organization.

  18. Corrosion-electrochemical properties of the anodic oxide films formed on aluminum in a chloride-nitrate melt in a 0.5 M Aqueous NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshina, L. A.; Malkov, V. B.; Kudyakov, V. Ya.; Gnedenkov, S. V.; Sinebryukhov, S. L.; Egorkin, V. S.; Mashtalyar, D. V.

    2014-02-01

    The corrosion-electrochemical behavior of aluminum is studied in a chloride-nitrate melt containing 50 wt % eutectic mixture of cesium and sodium chlorides and 50 wt % sodium nitrate in the temperature range 790-900 K in an argon atmosphere.

  19. Purification and properties of nitrate reductase from Mitsuokella multiacidus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, I; Shimizu, H; Tsuji, T; Ishimoto, M

    1986-03-01

    Nitrate reductase of Mitsuokella multiacidus (formerly Bacteroides multiacidus) was solublized from the membrane fraction with 1% sodium deoxycholate and purified 40-fold by immunoaffinity chromatography on the antibody-Affi-Gel 10 column. The preparation showed a major band (86% of total protein) with enzyme activity and a minor band on polyacrylamide gel after disc electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% Triton X-100. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gave a major band, the relative mobility of which corresponded to a molecular weight of 160,000, and two minor bands. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined to be 160,000 by gel filtration on Bio-Gel A-1.5 m in the presence of 0.1% deoxycholate. Molybdenum cofactor was detected in the enzyme by fluorescence spectroscopy and by complementation of nitrate reductase from the nit-1 mutant of Neurospora crassa. The M. multiacidus enzyme catalyzed reduction of nitrate, chlorate, and bromate using methyl viologen as an electron donor. The maximal activity was found at pH 6.2-7.5 for nitrate reduction. Either methyl or benzyl viologen served well as the electron donor, but FAD, FMN, and horse heart cytochrome c were not effective. Ferredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum supplied electron to the nitrate reductase. The purified enzyme had Km values of 0.13 mM, 0.12 mM, and 0.22 mM for nitrate, methyl viologen, and ferredoxin, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by cyanide (85% at 1 mM), azide (88% at 0.1 mM), and thiocyanate (75% at 10 mM).

  20. Effect of acute nitrate ingestion on V̇O2 response at different exercise intensity domains.

    PubMed

    Ghiarone, Thaysa; Ataide-Silva, Thays; Bertuzzi, Romulo; McConell, Glenn Kevin; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2017-06-28

    While nitrate supplementation influences oxygen uptake (V̇O2) response to exercise, this effect may be intensity dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute nitrate supplementation on V̇O2 response during different exercise intensity domains in humans. Eleven men ingested 10 mg·kg(-1) body mass (8.76 ± 1.35 mmol) of sodium nitrate or sodium chloride (placebo) 2.5 h before cycling at moderate (90% of gas exchange threshold; GET), heavy (GET + 40% of the difference between GET and peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak), Δ 40) or severe (GET + 80% of the difference between GET and V̇O2peak, Δ 80) exercise intensities. Volunteers performed exercise for 10 min (moderate), 15 min (heavy) or until exhaustion (severe). Acute nitrate supplementation had no effect on any V̇O2 response parameters during moderate and severe exercise intensities. However, the V̇O2 slow amplitude (nitrate: 0.93 ± 0.36 L·min(-1) vs. placebo: 1.13 ± 0.59 L·min(-1), p = 0.04) and V̇O2 slow gain (nitrate: 5.81 ± 2.37 mL·min(-1)·W(-1) vs. placebo: 7.09 ± 3.67 mL·min(-1)·W(-1), p = 0.04) were significantly lower in nitrate than in placebo during the heavy exercise intensity. There was no effect of nitrate on plasma lactate during any exercise intensity (p > 0.05). Time to exhaustion during the severe exercise intensity was also not affected by nitrate (p > 0.05). In conclusion, acute nitrate supplementation reduced the slow component of V̇O2 only when performing heavy-intensity exercise, which might indicate an intensity-dependent effect of nitrate on V̇O2 response.

  1. Protection from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric ulcers by dietary nitrate.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Emmelie A; Petersson, Joel; Reinders, Claudia; Sobko, Tanja; Björne, Håkan; Phillipson, Mia; Weitzberg, Eddie; Holm, Lena; Lundberg, Jon O

    2007-02-15

    Nitrate is abundant in our diet with particularly high levels in many vegetables. Ingested nitrate is concentrated in saliva and reduced to nitrite by bacteria in the oral cavity. We recently reported that application of nitrite-containing saliva to the gastric mucosa increases superficial blood flow and mucus generation via acid-catalyzed formation of bioactive nitrogen oxides including nitric oxide. Here we studied if dietary supplementation with nitrate would protect against gastric damage caused by a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Rats received sodium nitrate in the drinking water for 1 week in daily doses of 0.1 or 1 mmol kg(-1). Control rats received 1 mmol kg(-1) sodium chloride. Diclofenac (30 mg kg(-1)) was then given orally and the animals were examined 4 h later. In separate experiments we studied the effects of dietary nitrate on intragastric NO levels and mucus formation. Luminal levels of NO gas were greatly increased in nitrate-fed animals. The thickness of the mucus layer increased after nitrate supplementation and gene expression of MUC6 was upregulated in the gastric mucosa. Nitrate pretreatment dose dependently and potently reduced diclofenac-induced gastric lesions. Inflammatory activity was reduced in the rats receiving nitrate as indicated by lower mucosal myeloperoxidase activity and expression of inducible NO synthase. We conclude that dietary nitrate protects against diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers likely via enhanced nitrite-dependent intragastric NO formation and concomitant stimulation of mucus formation. Future studies will reveal if a diet rich in nitrate can offer an additional nutritional approach to preventing and treating peptic ulcer disease.

  2. Destruction of nitrates, organics, and ferrocyanides by hydrothermal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.M.; Foy, B.R.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Anderson, G.; Archuleta, F.; Atencio, J.; Breshears, D.; Brewer, R.; Eaton, H.; McFarland, R.; McInroy, R.; Reynolds, T.; Sedillo, M.; Wilmanns, E.; Buelow, S.J.

    1993-03-01

    This work targets the remediation of the aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site in Hanford, Washington via hydrothermal processing. The feasibility of destroying the nitrate, organic, and ferrocyanide components of the wastes under supercritical and near critical conditions (623 {degree}K to 873{degree}K, 22.1 MPa to 103.4 MPa) is addressed. A novel method was developed for determining the solubility of nitrate salts in supercritical water solutions at pressures ranging from 24.8 MPa to 30.3 MPa (3600 psi to 4400 psi) and temperatures from 723 {degree}K to 798 {degree}K. Sodium nitrate solubilities ranged from 293 mg/kg at 24.8 MPa and 798 {degree}K to 1963 mg/kg at 30.3 MPa and 723{degree}K. Solubility was found to vary directly with pressure, and inversely with temperature. An empirical relationship was developed for the estimation of sodium nitrate solubility at water densities between 0.08 and 0.16 kg/L and temperatures between 723{degree}K and 798{degree}K. A small volume batch reactor equipped with optical diagnostics was used to monitor the phase behavior of a diluted variant of a tank 101-SY simulant. Preliminary results suggest that a single phase is formed at 83 MPa at 773 {degree}K.

  3. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  5. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  6. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  7. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  8. Cysteamine inhibition of (/sup 15/N)-glycine turnover in cystinosis and of glycine cleavage system in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yudkoff, M.; Nissim, I.; Schneider, A.; Segal, S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to clarify the hyperglycinemic effect of cysteamine treatment in children with nephropathic cystinosis, we measured (/sup 15/N)-glycine turnover in three affected patients. Administration of cysteamine lowered the glycine flux and the glycine metabolic clearance rate but did not alter the glycine pool size. Formation of (/sup 15/N)-serine from (/sup 15/N)-glycine was lower in untreated patients than in control subjects and was reduced still further by cysteamine. Studies in vitro with isolated rat liver mitochondria and acetone extracts of mitochondria indicated that even low cysteamine concentrations (0.1 mM) inhibited the glycine cleavage system in both the direction of glycine oxidation and glycine synthesis. Cysteamine was a more potent inhibitor of the glycine cleavage system than any other sulfhydryl containing compound. Although no ill effects of cysteamine treatment were immediately apparent, patients receiving cysteamine should be monitored carefully for the appearance of any neurologic symptoms which might be referable to inhibition of the glycine cleavage system.

  9. Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise.

    PubMed

    Larsen, F J; Weitzberg, E; Lundberg, J O; Ekblom, B

    2007-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from l-arginine by NO synthases, plays a role in adaptation to physical exercise by modulating blood flow, muscular contraction and glucose uptake and in the control of cellular respiration. Recent studies show that NO can be formed in vivo also from the reduction of inorganic nitrate (NO(3) (-)) and nitrite (NO(2) (-)). The diet constitutes a major source of nitrate, and vegetables are particularly rich in this anion. The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary nitrate had any effect on metabolic and circulatory parameters during exercise. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, we tested the effect of dietary nitrate on physiological and metabolic parameters during exercise. Nine healthy young well-trained men performed submaximal and maximal work tests on a cycle ergometer after two separate 3-day periods of dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate (0.1 mmol kg(-1) day-1) or an equal amount of sodium chloride (placebo). The oxygen cost at submaximal exercise was reduced after nitrate supplementation compared with placebo. On an average Vo(2) decreased from 2.98 +/- 0.57 during CON to 2.82 +/- 0.58 L min(-1) during NIT (P < 0.02) over the four lowest submaximal work rates. Gross efficiency increased from 19.7 +/- 1.6 during CON to 21.1 +/- 1.3% during NIT (P < 0.01) over the four lowest work rates. There was no difference in heart rate, lactate [Hla], ventilation (VE), VE/Vo(2) or respiratory exchange ratio between nitrate and placebo during any of the submaximal work rates. We conclude that dietary nitrate supplementation, in an amount achievable through a diet rich in vegetables, results in a lower oxygen demand during submaximal work. This highly surprising effect occurred without an accompanying increase in lactate concentration, indicating that the energy production had become more efficient. The mechanism of action needs to be clarified but a likely first step is the in vivo reduction of

  10. Thermoluminescence of novel MgO-CeO2 obtained by a glycine-based solution combustion method.

    PubMed

    Barrón, Victor Ramón Orante; Ochoa, Flor María Escobar; Vázquez, Catalina Cruz; Bernal, Rodolfo

    2016-11-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel MgO-CeO2 obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, are presented for the very first time. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of cubic MgO and cerianite (CeO2) for the annealed powder samples. Dosimetry features such as linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied, as well as asymptotic behaviour of the thermoluminescent signal fading place MgO-CeO2 phosphor as a promising material for low-dose radiation dosimetry applications.

  11. Investigation on second and third order nonlinear optical, phase matching and birefringence properties of γ-glycine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peramaiyan, G.; Pandi, P.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Das, Subhasis; Mohan Kumar, R.

    2012-12-01

    Optical quality γ-glycine single crystal of dimension 9 × 9 × 8 mm3 has been grown by slow cooling method in the presence of lithium nitrate. The third order nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient of the grown crystal were measured by Z-scan studies. The dispersion of birefringence behaviour was studied by modified channelled spectrum method. The relative second harmonic generation efficiency of grown crystal was measured by Kurtz and Perry technique and phase matching angle was also measured using Nd:YAG laser.

  12. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P < 0.001). Peak plasma nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P < 0.001) and rocket salad beverage (from 122 ± 3 to 116 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.007) and 300 min after ingestion of spinach beverage (from 118 ± 2 to 111 ± 3 mm Hg; P < 0.001), but did not change with NaNO3 Diastolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of all

  13. Assimilation of nitrate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Siverio, José M

    2002-08-01

    Nitrate assimilation has received much attention in filamentous fungi and plants but not so much in yeasts. Recently the availability of classical genetic and molecular biology tools for the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has allowed the advance of the study of this metabolic pathway in yeasts. The genes YNT1, YNR1 and YNI1, encoding respectively nitrate transport, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, have been cloned, as well as two other genes encoding transcriptional regulatory factors. All these genes lie closely together in a cluster. Transcriptional regulation is the main regulatory mechanism that controls the levels of the enzymes involved in nitrate metabolism although other mechanisms may also be operative. The process involved in the sensing and signalling of the presence of nitrate in the medium is not well understood. In this article the current state of the studies of nitrate assimilation in yeasts as well as possible venues for future research are reviewed.

  14. Evaluation of mechanical properties of some glycine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju, D.; Raja Shekar, P. V.; Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Rao, K. Kishan; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2014-04-24

    The variation of Vickers hardness with load for (101) glycine zinc chloride (GZC), (001) glycine lithium sulphate (GLS), (001) triglycine sulphate (TGS) and (010) glycine phosphite (GPI) crystals was studied. From the cracks initiated along the corners of the indentation impression, crack lengths were measured and the fracture toughness value and brittle index number were determined. The hardness related parameters viz. yield strength and Young’s modulus were also estimated. The anisotropic nature of the crystals was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  15. Lack of modulation of gastric emptying by dietary nitrate in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Terai, Shiho; Iijima, Katsunori; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Ara, Nobuyuki; Uno, Kaname; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2009-05-01

    Nitric oxide produced endogenously in vagal neurons modulates gastrointestinal motor activity as an important non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurotransmitter. Other than through endogenous biosynthesis, a high concentration of nitric oxide also occurs by chemical reactions within the stomach in the presence of gastric acid through the entero-salivary re-circulation of dietary nitrate. Although dietary nitrate can be a potential source of nitric oxide in the human stomach, there has been no report on the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric motor function. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric emptying, one of the major parameters for the gastric motor function. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a placebo-controlled (310 mg sodium nitrate or placebo), double-blind, crossover trial. Since a sufficient amount of gastric acid is essential for dietary nitrate-derived nitric oxide generation in the stomach, the same protocol was repeated after 1-week treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, rabeprazole. Gastric emptying was evaluated by (13)C-octanoate breath test. The sodium nitrate ingestion did not affect gastric emptying either prior to or during rabeprazole treatment, although rabeprazole treatment itself significantly delayed gastric emptying, being independent of the dietary nitrate load. Confirmation of the delayed gastric emptying with rabeprazole indicates the sensitivity of the breath test employed in the present study. In conclusion, despite the potential nitrogen source of exogenous nitric oxide, the ingestion of 310 mg sodium nitrate, which is equivalent to the average daily intake of Japanese adults, does not affect gastric emptying in healthy volunteers.

  16. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  17. Tubulin nitration in human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Gabriella; Di Cristo, Carlo; Monti, Gianluca; Amoresano, Angela; Columbano, Laura; Pucci, Pietro; Cioffi, Fernando A; Di Cosmo, Anna; Palumbo, Anna; d'Ischia, Marco

    2006-02-06

    Immunohistochemical and biochemical investigations showed that significant protein nitration occurs in human gliomas, especially in grade IV glioblastomas at the level of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and neurones. Enhanced alpha-tubulin immunoreactivity was co-present in the same elements in the glioblastomas. Proteomic methodologies were employed to identify a nitrated protein band at 55 kDa as alpha-tubulin. Peptide mass fingerprinting procedures demonstrated that tubulin is nitrated at Tyr224 in grade IV tumour samples but is unmodified in grade I samples and in non-cancerous brain tissue. These results provide the first characterisation of endogenously nitrated tubulin from human tumour samples.

  18. Nitration Studies in Oxynitrogen Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    the starting pyrene quantities could be accounted for fully in the products. The pyrene nitration yielded a mixture of 1,6-, 1,8- DNP and 1,3,6...trinitropyrene, with a very small quantity of 1,3- DNP . 1-NP in contrast yielded roughly equal quantities of the 3 dinitropyrene isomers. This result clearly...20 El1-NP nitrated 10 / 1,3- DNP 1,6. DNP 1,8- DNP . 1,3,6-TNP Nitration Products JA-61 26-19 FIGURE 1 PRODUCTS OF NITRATION OF PYR ENE AND 1-NITROPYRENE

  19. Managing farming systems for nitrate control: a research review from management systems evaluation areas.

    PubMed

    Power, J F; Wiese, R; Flowerday, D

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture funded the Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) research project in 1990 to evaluate effectiveness of present farming systems in controlling nitrate N in water resources and to develop improved technologies for farming systems. This paper summarizes published research results of a five-year effort. Most research is focused on evaluating the effectiveness of farming system components (fertilizer, tillage, water control, cropping systems, and soil and weather variability). The research results show that current soil nitrate tests reliably predict fertilizer N needed to control environmental and economic risks for crop production. A corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation usually controls risk better than continuous corn, but both may result in unacceptable nitrate leaching. Reduced tillage, especially ridge-till, is better than clean tillage in reducing risk. Tile drainage controls nitrate in ground water, but discharge may increase nitrate in surface waters. Sprinkler irrigation systems provide better water control than furrow irrigation because quantity and spatial variability of applied water is reduced. Present farming systems have two major deficiencies: (i) entire fields are managed uniformly, ignoring inherent soil variability within a field; and (ii) N fertilizer rates and many field practices are selected assuming normal weather for the coming season. Both deficiencies can contribute to nitrate leaching in parts of most fields.

  20. Determination of nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate anions in meat, milk and their products consumed in Hatay region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Şana; Atan, Muhammet Meriç

    2013-01-01

    Nitrates and nitrites added to food can cause formation of cancerous N-nitroso compounds, whereas exposure to perchlorate is especially emphasised as an important risk factor for newborns' health. In this study, nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate concentrations in meat and milk products consumed in the Hatay region of Turkey were determined. Nitrate and nitrite were analysed with a spectrophotometric method, and perchlorate analysed via ion chromatography. The detected sodium nitrate and nitrite amounts in meat consumed in the Hatay region are less than the maximum levels as declared in the Turkish Food Codex. The amount of perchlorate was considered not to pose a threat as well. However, in 50% of the cheese samples, sodium nitrate amounts were found to be more than the maximum acceptable level in the Turkish Food Codex.

  1. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    E Butler; J Wang; Y Xiong; S Strobel

    2011-12-31

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for how the glycine riboswitch cooperatively regulates gene expression.

  2. Functional characterization of a member of alanine or glycine: cation symporter family in halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Bualuang, Aporn; Kageyama, Hakuto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins of amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily transport amino acids and amines across membranes and play important roles in the regulation of cellular processes. The alanine or glycine: cation symporter (AGCS) family belongs to APC superfamily and is found in prokaryotes, but its substrate specificity remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that a halotolerant cyanobacterium, Aphanothece halophytica has two putative ApagcS genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of genes, ApagcS1, exhibited high homology to Pseudomonas AgcS. The ApagcS1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli JW4166 which is deficient in glycine uptake. Kinetics studies in JW4166 revealed that ApAgcS1 is a sodium-dependent glycine transporter. Competition experiments showed the significant inhibition by glutamine, asparagine, and glycine. The level of mRNA for ApagcS1 was induced by NaCl and nitrogen-deficient stresses. Uptake of glutamine by ApAgcS1 was also observed. Based on these data, the physiological role of ApAgcS1 was discussed.

  3. Dietary nitrate increases tetanic [Ca2+]i and contractile force in mouse fast-twitch muscle.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Andrés; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ivarsson, Niklas; Cheng, Arthur J; Bruton, Joseph D; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Westerblad, Håkan

    2012-08-01

    Dietary inorganic nitrate has profound effects on health and physiological responses to exercise. Here, we examined if nitrate, in doses readily achievable via a normal diet, could improve Ca(2+) handling and contractile function using fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles from C57bl/6 male mice given 1 mm sodium nitrate in water for 7 days. Age matched controls were provided water without added nitrate. In fast-twitch muscle fibres dissected from nitrate treated mice, myoplasmic free [Ca(2+)] was significantly greater than in Control fibres at stimulation frequencies from 20 to 150 Hz, which resulted in a major increase in contractile force at ≤ 50 Hz. At 100 Hz stimulation, the rate of force development was ∼35% faster in the nitrate group. These changes in nitrate treated mice were accompanied by increased expression of the Ca(2+) handling proteins calsequestrin 1 and the dihydropyridine receptor. No changes in force or calsequestrin 1 and dihydropyridine receptor expression were measured in slow-twitch muscles. In conclusion, these results show a striking effect of nitrate supplementation on intracellular Ca(2+) handling in fast-twitch muscle resulting in increased force production. A new mechanism is revealed by which nitrate can exert effects on muscle function with applications to performance and a potential therapeutic role in conditions with muscle weakness.

  4. Dietary nitrate increases tetanic [Ca2+]i and contractile force in mouse fast-twitch muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Andrés; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ivarsson, Niklas; Cheng, Arthur J; Bruton, Joseph D; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Westerblad, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary inorganic nitrate has profound effects on health and physiological responses to exercise. Here, we examined if nitrate, in doses readily achievable via a normal diet, could improve Ca2+ handling and contractile function using fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles from C57bl/6 male mice given 1 mm sodium nitrate in water for 7 days. Age matched controls were provided water without added nitrate. In fast-twitch muscle fibres dissected from nitrate treated mice, myoplasmic free [Ca2+] was significantly greater than in Control fibres at stimulation frequencies from 20 to 150 Hz, which resulted in a major increase in contractile force at ≤50 Hz. At 100 Hz stimulation, the rate of force development was ∼35% faster in the nitrate group. These changes in nitrate treated mice were accompanied by increased expression of the Ca2+ handling proteins calsequestrin 1 and the dihydropyridine receptor. No changes in force or calsequestrin 1 and dihydropyridine receptor expression were measured in slow-twitch muscles. In conclusion, these results show a striking effect of nitrate supplementation on intracellular Ca2+ handling in fast-twitch muscle resulting in increased force production. A new mechanism is revealed by which nitrate can exert effects on muscle function with applications to performance and a potential therapeutic role in conditions with muscle weakness. PMID:22687611

  5. Hydrogen anode for nitrate waste destruction. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Kalu, E.E.; White, R.E.

    1996-02-10

    Large quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes have been generated from nuclear materials production during the past fifty years. Processes are under evaluation to separate the high level radioactive species from the waste and store them permanently in the form of durable solids. The schemes proposed will separate the high level radioactive components, cesium-137 and strontium-90, into a small volume for incorporation into a glass wasteform. The remaining low-level radioactive waste contain species such as nitrites and nitrates that are capable of contaminating ground water. Electrochemical destruction of the nitrate and nitrite before permanent storage has been proposed. Not only will the electrochemical processing destroy these species, the volume of the waste could also be reduced. The use of a hydrogen gas-fed anode and an acid anolyte in an electrochemical cell used to destroy nitrate was demonstrated. A mixed Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} anolyte was shown to favor the nitrate cell performance, and the generation of a higher hydroxide ion concentration in the catholyte. The suggested scheme is an apparent method of sodium sulfate disposal and a possible means through which ammonia (to ammonium sulfate, fertilizer) and hydrogen gas could be recycled through the anode side of the reactor. This could result in a substantial savings in the operation of a nitrate destruction cell.

  6. Comparative Behaviour of Nitrite and Nitrate for the Protection of Rebar Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Altaf; Kumar, Anil

    2017-10-01

    Corrosion of rebar steel due to environmental causes has been studied through various approaches, and among the protection techniques use of inhibitors has gained encouragement. Nitrites and nitrates of sodium have gained sufficient scientific coverage. Recently, nitrites and nitrates of calcium have been verified in some studies, which, however, needs further experimentation through different angles. Simple polarization technique has been utilized in the present study to compare inhibitive efficiency of these salts of sodium and calcium, which indicate that calcium salts are more efficient.

  7. Comparative Behaviour of Nitrite and Nitrate for the Protection of Rebar Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Altaf; Kumar, Anil

    2016-10-01

    Corrosion of rebar steel due to environmental causes has been studied through various approaches, and among the protection techniques use of inhibitors has gained encouragement. Nitrites and nitrates of sodium have gained sufficient scientific coverage. Recently, nitrites and nitrates of calcium have been verified in some studies, which, however, needs further experimentation through different angles. Simple polarization technique has been utilized in the present study to compare inhibitive efficiency of these salts of sodium and calcium, which indicate that calcium salts are more efficient.

  8. Viscosity of multi-component molten nitrate salts : liquidus to 200 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2010-03-01

    The viscosity of molten salts comprising ternary and quaternary mixtures of the nitrates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium was determined experimentally. Viscosity was measured over the temperature range from near the relatively low liquidus temperatures of he individual mixtures to 200C. Molten salt mixtures that do not contain calcium nitrate exhibited relatively low viscosity and an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Molten salt mixtures that contained calcium nitrate were relatively more viscous and viscosity increased as the roportion of calcium nitrate increased. The temperature dependence of viscosity of molten salts containing calcium nitrate displayed curvature, rather than linearity, when plotted in Arrhenius format. Viscosity data for these mixtures were correlated by the Vogel-Fulcher- ammann-Hesse equation.

  9. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface water bodies. See below regarding decriptions on how original data was produced. These data will be part of future ReVA publications. The first, https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip, contains the variables used in this study (of which AGSL is one) and is freely available to the public. The second, www.waratah.com/region3edt is available to the general public to learn more about the ReVA program within EPA Region 3. The third, http://www.waratah.com/revanew/Welcome.asp, provides additional information about the tools and variables used in this program, but users must first obtain a user name and password to access it. A user name and password may be obtained from Vasu Kilaru at kilaru.vasu@epa.gov.

  10. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  11. Evaluating Progeny of Glycine max by Glycine tomentella for Novel Disease Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybridization with wild relatives of crops is an important tool for improving traits such as disease resistance and our objective is to expand the use of wild relatives for disease resistance in soybean. Glycine tomentella (2n=78) is a wild, perennial species in the tertiary gene pool of soybean (G....

  12. The Glycine Transport Inhibitor Sarcosine Is an Inhibitory Glycine Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Sarcosine is an endogenous amino acid that is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist, and an important intermediate in one-carbon metabolism. Its therapeutic potential for schizophrenia further underscores its clinical importance. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine and sarcosine's ability to serve as an NMDAR co-agonist led us to examine whether sarcosine is also an agonist at the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR). We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons and found that sarcosine evoked a dose-dependent, strychnine sensitive, Cl- current that cross-inhibited glycine currents. Sarcosine evoked this current with Li+ in the extracellular solution to block GlyT1, in neurons treated with the essentially irreversible GlyT1 inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS), and in neurons plated in the absence of glia. These results indicate that the sarcosine currents did not result from GlyT1 inhibition or heteroexchange. We conclude that sarcosine is a GlyR agonist. PMID:19619564

  13. Acute copper toxicity following copper glycinate injection.

    PubMed

    Oon, S; Yap, C-H; Ihle, B U

    2006-11-01

    We present a patient who developed multi-organ failure due to severe copper toxicity following attempted suicide by s.c. injection of copper glycinate. Acute copper toxicity is rare in the developed world, although it occurs more frequently in developing world countries, where it is a common mode of suicide. Acute toxicity usually results from oral ingestion and there are several local and systemic effects. Specific management can be difficult as there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of chelating agents in acute toxicity.

  14. The increase in plasma nitrite after a dietary nitrate load is markedly attenuated by an antibacterial mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Mirco; Jansson, Emmelie A; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies surprisingly show that dietary inorganic nitrate, abundant in vegetables, can be metabolized in vivo to form nitrite and then bioactive nitric oxide. A reduction in blood pressure was recently noted in healthy volunteers after dietary supplementation with nitrate; an effect consistent with formation of vasodilatory nitric oxide. Oral bacteria have been suggested to play a role in bioactivation of nitrate by first reducing it to the more reactive anion nitrite. In a cross-over designed study in seven healthy volunteers we examined the effects of a commercially available chlorhexidine-containing antibacterial mouthwash on salivary and plasma levels of nitrite measured after an oral intake of sodium nitrate (10mg/kg dissolved in water). In the control situation the salivary and plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite increased greatly after the nitrate load. Rinsing the mouth with the antibacterial mouthwash prior to the nitrate load had no effect on nitrate accumulation in saliva or plasma but abolished its conversion to nitrite in saliva and markedly attenuated the rise in plasma nitrite. We conclude that the acute increase in plasma nitrite seen after a nitrate load is critically dependent on nitrate reduction in the oral cavity by commensal bacteria. The removal of these bacteria with an antibacterial mouthwash will very likely attenuate the NO-dependent biological effects of dietary nitrate.

  15. Nitrate source indicators in ground water of the Scimitar Subdivision, Peters Creek area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Strelakos, Pat M.; Jokela, Brett

    2000-01-01

    A combination of aqueous chemistry, isotopic measurement, and in situ tracers were used to study the possible nitrate sources, the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of nitrate, and possible septic system influence in the ground water in the Scimitar Subdivision, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Two water types were distinguished on the basis of the major ion chemistry: (1) a calcium sodium carbonate water, which was associated with isotopically heavier boron and with chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) that were in the range expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group A water) and (2) a calcium magnesium carbonate water, which was associated with elevated nitrate, chloride, and magnesium concentrations, generally isotopically lighter boron, and CFC's concentrations that were generally in excess of that expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group B water). Water from wells in group B had nitrate concentrations that were greater than 3 milligrams per liter, whereas those in group A had nitrate concentrations of 0.2 milligram per liter or less. Nitrate does not appear to be undergoing extensive transformation in the ground-water system and behaves as a conservative ion. The major ion chemistry trends and the presence of CFC's in excess of an atmospheric source for group B wells are consistent with waste-water influences. The spatial distribution of the nitrate among wells is likely due to the magnitude of this influence on any given well. Using an expanded data set composed of 16 wells sampled only for nitrate concentration, a significant difference in the static water level relative to bedrock was found. Well water samples with less than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels within the bedrock, whereas those samples with greater than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels near or above the top of the bedrock. This observation would be consistent with a conceptual model of a low-nitrate fractured bedrock

  16. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  17. Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

    1982-01-01

    The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

  18. Population genetic structure of Aphis glycines.

    PubMed

    Michel, Andrew P; Zhang, Wei; Kyo Jung, Jin; Kang, Sung-Taeg; Mian, M A Rouf

    2009-08-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean (Glycine max L.) in North America. After the initial invasion in 2000, the aphid has quickly spread across most of the United States and Canada, suggesting large-scale dispersal and rapid adaptation to new environments. Using microsatellite markers from closely related species, we compared the genetic diversity and the amount of genetic differentiation within and among 2 South Korean and 10 North American populations. Overall allelic polymorphism was low, never exceeding four alleles per locus. However, differences in genetic diversity were seen among South Korean and North American populations in terms of heterozygote excesses and genotypic richness. Within North America, two populations (Michigan and Ontario), had lower genetic diversities and exhibited high genetic differentiation compared with the remaining eight populations. The earlier collection time of Michigan and Ontario samples explained the genetic differences better than geographic subdivisions. These data indicate a pattern of small colonizing populations on soybeans, followed by rapid clonal amplification and subsequent large-scale dispersal across North America.

  19. Genome Duplication in Soybean (Glycine Subgenus Soja)

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, R. C.; Polzin, K.; Labate, J.; Specht, J.; Brummer, E. C.; Olson, T.; Young, N.; Concibido, V.; Wilcox, J.; Tamulonis, J. P.; Kochert, G.; Boerma, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping data from nine populations (Glycine max X G. soja and G. max X G. max) of the Glycine subgenus soja genome led to the identification of many duplicated segments of the genome. Linkage groups contained up to 33 markers that were duplicated on other linkage groups. The size of homoeologous regions ranged from 1.5 to 106.4 cM, with an average size of 45.3 cM. We observed segments in the soybean genome that were present in as many as six copies with an average of 2.55 duplications per segment. The presence of nested duplications suggests that at least one of the original genomes may have undergone an additional round of tetraploidization. Tetraploidization, along with large internal duplications, accounts for the highly duplicated nature of the genome of the subgenus. Quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil showed correspondence across homoeologous regions, suggesting that the genes or gene families contributing to seed composition have retained similar functions throughout the evolution of the chromosomes. PMID:8878696

  20. Nitrate transport system in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Schloemen, R H; Garrett, R H

    1974-04-01

    Nitrate uptake in Neurospora crassa has been investigated under various conditions of nitrogen nutrition by measuring the rate of disappearance of nitrate from the medium and by determining mycelial nitrate accumulation. The nitrate transport system is induced by either nitrate or nitrite, but is not present in mycelia grown on ammonia or Casamino Acids. The appearance of nitrate uptake activity is prevented by cycloheximide, puromycin, or 6-methyl purine. The induced nitrate transport system displays a K(m) for nitrate of 0.25 mM. Nitrate uptake is inhibited by metabolic poisons such as 2,4-dinitrophenol, cyanide, and antimycin A. Furthermore, mycelia can concentrate nitrate 50-fold. Ammonia and nitrite are non-competitive inhibitors with respect to nitrate, with K(i) values of 0.13 and 0.17 mM, respectively. Ammonia does not repress the formation of the nitrate transport system. In contrast, the nitrate uptake system is repressed by Casamino Acids. All amino acids individually prevent nitrate accumulation, with the exception of methionine, glutamine, and alanine. The influence of nitrate reduction and the nitrate reductase protein on nitrate transport was investigated in wild-type Neurospora lacking a functional nitrate reductase and in nitrate non-utilizing mutants, nit-1, nit-2, and nit-3. These mycelia contain an inducible nitrate transport system which displays the same characteristics as those found in the wild-type mycelia having the functional nitrate reductase. These findings suggest that nitrate transport is not dependent upon nitrate reduction and that these two processes are separate events in the assimilation of nitrate.

  1. New soybean accessions evaluated for reaction to Heterodera glycines populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in the USA are estimated to be over $1 billion. These losses have remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over time nematode...

  2. New soybean accessions identified with resistance to Heterodera glycines populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious root-parasite of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in USA are estimated to be nearly $1 billion. These losses have remained stable at current levels with the use of resistant cultivars bu...

  3. Glycine Betaine as a Direct Substrate for Methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Andrew J.; Roussel, Erwan G.; Parkes, R. John

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners. PMID:24162571

  4. Glycine betaine as a direct substrate for methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.).

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew J; Roussel, Erwan G; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners.

  5. Ethanol enhances taurine-activated glycine receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Brian T.; Kirson, Dean; Allen, Hunter M.; Mihic, S. John

    2010-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that taurine acts as a partial agonist at glycine receptors (GlyR) in vitro and in vivo. Ethanol acts as an allosteric modulator at the GlyR producing a leftward shift of the glycine concentration-response curve, with no enhancing effects observed at saturating glycine concentrations. However, to date no electrophysiological studies have been performed on ethanol modulation of taurine-activated GlyR. Methods Wildtype α1 GlyR, or those bearing a serine-267 to isoleucine replacement (S267I), were homomerically expressed in Xenopus oocytes and voltage-clamped at 70 mV. Ethanol was co-applied with varying concentrations of glycine or taurine and the enhancing effects of ethanol compared. Results Ethanol potentiated glycine- and taurine-activated GlyR responses in a concentration-dependent manner. It shifted taurine and glycine concentration-response curves to the left, having no effects at saturating agonist concentrations. Chelation of zinc by tricine decreased ethanol enhancement of taurine-gated GlyR function. The S267I mutation prevented ethanol enhancement of taurine-mediated responses as previously also reported for glycine. Conclusion Ethanol modulates taurine activation of GlyR function by a mechanism similar to that of the full agonist glycine. The lack of effect of ethanol at saturating taurine concentrations provides mechanistic information on alcohol actions at the GlyR. PMID:20586750

  6. Characterization of seed storage proteins of several perennial glycine species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean ...

  7. Thinking outside the synapse: glycine at extrasynaptic NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Gray, John A; Nicoll, Roger A

    2012-08-03

    In this issue, Papouin et al. show that glycine is the endogenous coagonist for extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), unlike at synapses where the coagonist is d-serine. By enzymatically degrading endogenous glycine, they begin to address the enigmatic physiological and pathological roles for extrasynaptic NMDARs.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of aqueous solutions of glycine betaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civera, Monica; Fornili, Arianna; Sironi, Maurizio; Fornili, Sandro L.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate hydration properties of glycine betaine in a large range of solute concentrations. Statistical analyses of the system trajectories evidence microscopic details suggesting an interpretation of experimental results recently obtained for aqueous solutions of trimethylamine- N-oxide, a bioprotectant closely related to glycine betaine.

  9. Quantifying the Temperature Dependence of Glycine Betaine RNA Duplex Destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Menssen, Ryan J.; Kohler, James M.; Schmidt, Elliot C.; Thomas, Alexandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Glycine betaine stabilizes folded protein structure due to its unfavorable thermodynamic interactions with amide oxygen and aliphatic carbon surface area exposed during protein unfolding. However, glycine betaine can attenuate nucleic acid secondary structure stability, although its mechanism of destabilization is not currently understood. In this work we quantify glycine betaine interactions with the surface area exposed during thermal denaturation of nine RNA dodecamer duplexes with guanine-cytosine (GC) contents of 17–100%. Hyperchromicity values indicate increasing glycine betaine molality attenuates stacking. Glycine betaine destabilizes higher GC content RNA duplexes to a greater extent than low GC content duplexes due to greater accumulation at the surface area exposed during unfolding. The accumulation is very sensitive to temperature and displays characteristic entropy-enthalpy compensation. Since the entropic contribution to the m-value (used to quantify GB interaction with the RNA solvent accessible surface area exposed during denaturation) is more dependent on temperature than the enthalpic contribution, higher GC content duplexes with their larger transition temperatures are destabilized to a greater extent than low GC content duplexes. The concentration of glycine betaine at the RNA surface area exposed during unfolding relative to bulk was quantified using the solute partitioning model. Temperature correction predicts a glycine betaine concentration at 25 °C to be nearly independent of GC content, indicating that glycine betaine destabilizes all sequences equally at this temperature. PMID:24219229

  10. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.)] in North America. After the initial invasion in 2000, the aphid has quickly spread across most of the U.S. and Canada, suggesting large scale dispersals and rapid adaptations to new environment...

  11. Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kathryn; Jacob, Sharon E

    2010-01-01

    Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SHMG) is a preservative used in many commercially available products, including shampoos, conditioners, soaps, moisturizers, body sprays, baby wipes, room sprays, cleaning agents, and pesticides. It is in a class of chemicals known as formaldehyde-releasing preservatives. Notably, members of this class have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis, possibly due to the agents themselves, the formaldehyde they release, or both. Studies on SHMG in animals have demonstrated potential for sensitization and dermatitis, and formaldehyde-allergic patients have been reported to improve when products containing SHMG are avoided. Patients and providers need to be aware of this preservative.

  12. Thermodynamics and mechanisms of glycine solvation in aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Hossain, A.; Mahali, K.; Dolui, B. K.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the solubility of glycine in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solution was determined under different experimental conditions using `formol titrimetry' method. The thermodynamic parameters like standard transfer Gibbs energies and entropies have been evaluated at 298.15 K. Other important parameters like molar volume, densities, solvent diameter, etc., of the experimental solutions have also been determined in this study. The above mentioned parameters have been used to determine ∆ t,ch 0 ( i)i.e., chemical effects of the transfer Gibbs energies and T∆ t, ch 0 ( i)i.e., chemical effects of the transfer entropy. The solvation of glycine is influenced by different factors such as nature of the solute, interactions between solute and solvents, etc., which has been explained by different physical and analytical approach.

  13. No Effect of Acute and 6-Day Nitrate Supplementation on VO2 and Time-Trial Performance in Highly Trained Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Nyakayiru, Jean M; Jonvik, Kristin L; Pinckaers, Philippe J M; Senden, Joan; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-02-01

    While the majority of studies reporting ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate have used a multiday supplementation protocol, some studies suggest that a single dose of dietary nitrate before exercise can also improve subsequent performance. We aimed to compare the impact of acute and 6-day sodium nitrate supplementation on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 17 male cyclists (25 ± 4 y, V̇O2peak 65 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), Wmax 411 ± 35 W) were subjected to 3 different trials; 5 days placebo and 1 day sodium nitrate supplementation (1-DAY); 6 days sodium nitrate supplementation (6-DAY); 6 days placebo supplementation (PLA). Nitrate was administered as 1097 mg sodium nitrate providing 800 mg (~12.9 mmol) nitrate per day. Three hours after ingestion of the last supplemental bolus, indirect calorimetry was performed while subjects performed 30 min of exercise at 45% Wmax and 30 min at 65% Wmax on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10 km time-trial. Immediately before exercise, plasma [nitrate] and [nitrite] increased to a similar extent during the 6-DAY and 1-DAY trial, but not with PLA (plasma nitrite: 501 ± 205, 553 ± 278, and 239 ± 74 nM, respectively; p < .001). No differences were observed between interventions in V̇O2 during submaximal exercise, or in time to complete the time-trial (6-DAY: 1004 ± 61, 1-DAY: 1022 ± 72, PLA: 1017 ± 71 s; p = .28). We conclude that both acute and 6-days of sodium nitrate supplementation do not alter V̇O2 during submaximal exercise or improve time-trial performance in highly trained cyclists, despite increasing plasma [nitrate] and [nitrite].

  14. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-11

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo.

  15. Glycine toxicity and unexpected intra-operative death.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Harrison, R; Wells, R; Gilbert, J D

    2001-09-01

    A rare complication of the use of glycine irrigation fluid during prostatic surgery in a 69-year-old man is described. Following cystolithopexy and transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatomegaly, abdominal distension developed with increasing ventilatory pressures. Despite retroperitoneal fluid evacuation at subsequent urgent laparotomy, cardiac arrest occurred that was not amenable to resuscitation. At autopsy a traumatic defect in the posterior bladder wall filled with calculus debris was confirmed that did not communicate with the peritoneal cavity. Hyponatremia with markedly elevated levels of blood, urine, and body fluid glycine were demonstrated. Death was, therefore, attributed to glycine toxicity following tracking of glycine through a surgical defect in the posterior bladder wall. Careful dissection of surgical sites is required in such cases to demonstrate any additional trauma that may be associated with the fatal episode. Analysis of body fluids for glycine and electrolytes is also necessary to assist in the determination of possible mechanisms of death.

  16. Arachidonic acid inhibits glycine transport in cultured glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zafra, F; Alcantara, R; Gomeza, J; Aragon, C; Gimenez, C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of arachidonic acid on glycine uptake, exchange and efflux in C6 glioma cells were investigated. Arachidonic acid produced a dose-dependent inhibition of high-affinity glycine uptake. This effect was not due to a simple detergent-like action on membranes, as the inhibition of glycine transport was most pronounced with cis-unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, whereas saturated and trans-unsaturated fatty acids had relatively little or no effect. Endogenous unsaturated non-esterified fatty acids may exert a similar inhibitory effect on the transport of glycine. The mechanism for this inhibitory effect has been examined in a plasma membrane vesicle preparation derived from C6 cells, which avoids metabolic or compartmentation interferences. The results suggest that part of the selective inhibition of glycine transport by arachidonic acid could be due to the effects of the arachidonic acid on the lipid domain surrounding the carrier. PMID:2121132

  17. Glycine phases formed from frozen aqueous solutions: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovtsev, N. V.; Adichtchev, S. V.; Malinovsky, V. K.; Ogienko, A. G.; Drebushchak, V. A.; Manakov, A. Yu.; Ancharov, A. I.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Boldyreva, E. V.

    2012-08-01

    Glycine phases formed when aqueous solutions were frozen and subsequently heated under different conditions were studied by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Crystallization of ice Ih was observed in all the cases. On cooling at the rates of 0.5 K/min and 5 K/min, glassy glycine was formed as an intermediate phase which lived about 1 min or less only, and then transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. Quench cooling of glycine solutions (15% w/w) in liquid nitrogen resulted in the formation of a mixture of crystalline water ice Ih and a glassy glycine, which could be preserved at cryogenic temperatures (80 K) for an indefinitely long time. This mixture remained also quite stable for some time after heating above the cryogenic temperature. Subsequent heating under various conditions resulted in the transformation of the glycine glass into an unknown crystalline phase (glycine "X-phase") at 209-216 K, which at 218-226 K transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. The "X-phase" was characterized by Raman spectroscopy; it could be obtained in noticeable amounts using a special preparation technique and tentatively characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (P2, a = 6.648 Å, b = 25.867 Å, c = 5.610 Å, β = 113.12°); the formation of "X-phase" from the glycine glassy phase and its transformation into β-polymorph were followed by DSC. Raman scattering technique with its power for unambiguous identification of the crystalline and glassy polymorphs without limitation on the crystallite size helped us to follow the phase transformations during quenching, heating, and annealing. The experimental findings are considered in relation to the problem of control of glycine polymorphism on crystallization.

  18. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  19. Nitrate photolysis in salty snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, D. J.; Morenz, K.; Shi, Q.; Murphy, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate photolysis from snow can have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity of the local atmosphere, but the factors affecting the release of gas phase products are not well understood. Here, we report the first systematic study of the amounts of NO, NO2, and total nitrogen oxides (NOy) emitted from illuminated snow samples as a function of both nitrate and total salt (NaCl and Instant Ocean) concentration. We show that the release of nitrogen oxides to the gas phase is directly related to the expected nitrate concentration in the brine at the surface of the snow crystals, increasing to a plateau value with increasing nitrate, and generally decreasing with increasing NaCl or Instant Ocean (I.O.). In frozen mixed nitrate (25 mM) - salt (0-500 mM) solutions, there is an increase in gas phase NO2 seen at low added salt amounts: NO2 production is enhanced by 35% at low prefreezing [NaCl] and by 70% at similar prefreezing [I.O.]. Raman microscopy of frozen nitrate-salt solutions shows evidence of stronger nitrate exclusion to the air interface in the presence of I.O. than with added NaCl. The enhancement in nitrogen oxides emission in the presence of salts may prove to be important to the atmospheric oxidative capacity in polar regions.

  20. Dietary inorganic nitrate reverses features of metabolic syndrome in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Carlström, Mattias; Larsen, Filip J; Nyström, Thomas; Hezel, Michael; Borniquel, Sara; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O

    2010-10-12

    The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors of metabolic origin that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. A proposed central event in metabolic syndrome is a decrease in the amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Recently, an alternative pathway for NO formation in mammals was described where inorganic nitrate, a supposedly inert NO oxidation product and unwanted dietary constituent, is serially reduced to nitrite and then NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. Here we show that several features of metabolic syndrome that develop in eNOS-deficient mice can be reversed by dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate, in amounts similar to those derived from eNOS under normal conditions. In humans, this dose corresponds to a rich intake of vegetables, the dominant dietary nitrate source. Nitrate administration increased tissue and plasma levels of bioactive nitrogen oxides. Moreover, chronic nitrate treatment reduced visceral fat accumulation and circulating levels of triglycerides and reversed the prediabetic phenotype in these animals. In rats, chronic nitrate treatment reduced blood pressure and this effect was also present during NOS inhibition. Our results show that dietary nitrate fuels a nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway that can partly compensate for disturbances in endogenous NO generation from eNOS. These findings may have implications for novel nutrition-based preventive and therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

  1. Relationship Between Urinary Nitrate Excretion and Blood Pressure in the InChianti Cohort.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Miranda J; Ble, Alessandro; Melzer, David; Winyard, Paul G; Benjamin, Nigel; Shore, Angela C; Gilchrist, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic nitrate from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO) or consumed in the diet can be reduced to NO via a complex enterosalivary circulation pathway. The relationship between total nitrate exposure by measured urinary nitrate excretion and blood pressure in a large population sample has not been assessed previously. For this cross-sectional study, 24-hour urinary nitrate excretion was measured by spectrophotometry in the 919 participants from the InChianti cohort at baseline and blood pressure measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. After adjusting for age and sex only, diastolic blood pressure was 1.9 mm Hg lower in subjects with ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion compared with those excreting <1 mmol nitrate in 24 hours: systolic blood pressure was 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.5 to -0.4) lower in subjects for the same comparison. Effect sizes in fully adjusted models (for age, sex, potassium intake, use of antihypertensive medications, diabetes, HS-CRP, or current smoking status) were marginally larger: systolic blood pressure in the ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion group was 3.9 (CI: -7.1 to -0.7) mm Hg lower than in the comparison <1 mmol excretion group. Modest differences in total nitrate exposure are associated with lower blood pressure. These differences are at least equivalent to those seen from substantial (100 mmol) reductions in sodium intake.

  2. Properties of a thermostable nitrate reductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum.

    PubMed

    Afshar, S; Johnson, E; de Vries, S; Schröder, I

    2001-10-01

    The nitrate reductase of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum was purified 137-fold from the cytoplasmic membrane. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, the enzyme complex consists of three subunits with apparent molecular weights of 130,000, 52,000, and 32,000. The enzyme contained molybdenum (0.8-mol/mol complex), iron (15.4-mol/mol complex) and cytochrome b (0.49-mol/mol complex) as cofactors. The P. aerophilum nitrate reductase distinguishes itself from nitrate reductases of mesophilic bacteria and archaea by its very high specific activity using reduced benzyl viologen as the electron donor (V(max) with nitrate, 1,162 s(-1) (326 U/mg); V(max) with chlorate, 1,348 s(-1) (378 U/mg) [assayed at 75 degrees C]). The K(m) values for nitrate and chlorate were 58 and 140 microM, respectively. Azide was a competitive inhibitor and cyanide was a noncompetitive inhibitor of the nitrate reductase activity. The temperature optimum for activity was > 95 degrees C. When incubated at 100 degrees C, the purified nitrate reductase had a half-life of 1.5 h. This study constitutes the first description of a nitrate reductase from a hyperthermophilic archaeon.

  3. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  4. A NO way to BOLD? Dietary nitrate alters the hemodynamic response to visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Aamand, Rasmus; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Ho, Yi-Ching Lynn; Møller, Arne; Roepstorff, Andreas; Lund, Torben E

    2013-12-01

    Neurovascular coupling links neuronal activity to vasodilation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator, and in neurovascular coupling NO production from NO synthases plays an important role. However, another pathway for NO production also exists, namely the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. On this basis, we hypothesized that dietary nitrate (NO3-) could influence the brain's hemodynamic response to neuronal stimulation. In the present study, 20 healthy male participants were given either sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or sodium chloride (NaCl) (saline placebo) in a crossover study and were shown visual stimuli based on the retinotopic characteristics of the visual cortex. Our primary measure of the hemodynamic response was the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response measured with high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (0.64×0.64×1.8 mm) in the visual cortex. From this response, we made a direct estimate of key parameters characterizing the shape of the BOLD response (i.e. lag and amplitude). During elevated nitrate intake, corresponding to the nitrate content of a large plate of salad, both the hemodynamic lag and the BOLD amplitude decreased significantly (7.0±2% and 7.9±4%, respectively), and the variation across activated voxels of both measures decreased (12.3±4% and 15.3±7%, respectively). The baseline cerebral blood flow was not affected by nitrate. Our experiments demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary nitrate may modulate the local cerebral hemodynamic response to stimuli. A faster and smaller BOLD response, with less variation across local cortex, is consistent with an enhanced hemodynamic coupling during elevated nitrate intake. These findings suggest that dietary patterns, via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, may be a potential way to affect key properties of neurovascular coupling. This could have major clinical implications, which remain to be explored. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Levels of Nitrates and Nitrites in Chili Pepper and Ventricina Salami

    PubMed Central

    Piccirilli, Michele; Iafigliola, Luigi; Amadoro, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Ventricina is a traditional sausage made from pork meat produced in the Abruzzi and Molise regions. The aim of this study was to detect the content of nitrates and nitrites in local cultivars of chilli pepper, and their concentration in ventricina samples spiced with the same chilli pepper. Furthermore, it was examined whether, in the samples of ventricina with nitrate addition, the spicing with chilli pepper could exceed the maximum added dose. The concentration of nitrates and nitrites in the organic chilli pepper was 531.0±94.6 mg/kg and less than 5.0 mg, respectively, in the traditional chilli pepper it was 394.0±39.6 and less than 5.0 mg, while in the commercial it was 325.0±115.0 and less than 5.0 mg. The determination of nitrites and nitrates was carried out by high performance ion chromatography. In ventricina samples produced without added sodium nitrate, nitrates and nitrites were below 5.0 mg/kg at the case-filling time (t0) and after 50 days of aging (t50). In the samples of ventricina with added sodium nitrate, nitrate concentration values were 134.0±20.9 mg/kg at t0 and 129.0±15.4 mg/kg at t50, while the nitrites were below 5.0 mg/kg at t0 and 28.8±15.8 mg/kg at t50. Although in ventricina the amount of chilli pepper is quite relevant, it did not lead to a detectable concentration of nitrates. The maximum allowed amount was never exceeded. PMID:27800331

  6. Nitrate and chloride in Antarctic ice cores - postdepositional effects and the preservation of atmospheric signals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, D.; McConnell, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Isaksson, E. D.; Albert, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous nitrate and chloride measurements have been made from an array of ice cores located in interior Dronning Maud Land that cover the last 2000 years. The average snow accumulation rates at the ice core sites range from 2.7 to 10 cm weq yr-1, which has enabled the study of how accumulation rate affects the preservation and diffusion of nitrate and chloride in the snow. High-resolution dating of the ice cores by tie-point matching with the WAIS Divide ice core has allowed the effects of temporal changes in accumulation rate to also be observed. Results show a strong linear dependence of nitrate concentration on site-average accumulation rate, suggesting that fresh snow concentrations and reemission rates of nitrate from the snowpack are homogenous across the study area. Bulk chloride to sodium ratios over scales greater than 1 m are close to bulk sea salt composition at all of the sites, suggesting that little net gain or loss of volatile chloride has occurred. However, the chloride signal is heavily diffused relative to sodium and the extent of diffusion does not increase with depth in the ice cores, suggesting that it is a near-surface phenomenon. Possible mechanisms behind the observed chloride diffusion pattern will be discussed. Lastly, a sustained decline in nitrate concentration occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1500-1900 C.E.), but the high-resolution snow accumulation records show that it is not caused by a decrease in accumulation rate during that time. The nitrate record is highly correlated with published methane isotope data from Antarctica (δ13CH4), suggesting that the decline during the LIA was caused by a decrease in a biomass burning nitrate source. Average nitrate concentration versus site-average inverse accumulation rate Composite time series of nitrate (thick black line), δ13CH4 (thin red line with diamonds), and black carbon (dashed black line).

  7. Neuroprotective effects of glycine for therapy of acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Dambinova, S A; Raevskiy, K S; Alekseev, A A; Bashkatova, V G; Kovalenko, A V; Kudrin, V S; Yakovleva, E V

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to assess the safety and the efficacy of the pharmaceutic drug glycine in 200 patients with acute (<6 h) ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory. Fifty patients received placebo, 49 glycine 0.5 g/day, 51 glycine 1.0 g/day and 50 glycine 2.0 g/day for 5 days in each group. The efficacy of glycine was assessed by clinical analysis, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of levels of blood serum autoantibodies to NMDA-binding proteines, by detection of excitatory (glutamate, aspartate) and inhibitory (glycine, GABA) amino acid concentrations and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) in CSF. The trial confirmed the safety profile of the glycine treatment. Slight sedation was observed in 9 patients (4. 5%) as a side-effect. Other marked side-effects or adverse events were absent. The glycine treatment at the dose of 1.0-2.0 g/day was accompanied by a tendency to a decreased 30-day mortality (5.9% in 1. 0 g/day glycine and 10% in 2.0 g/day glycine groups vs. 14% in the placebo and 14.3% in 0.5 g/day glycine groups), to an improved clinical outcome on the Orgogozo Stroke Scale (p < 0.01) and the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (p < 0.01) and to a favourable functional outcome on the Barthel index (p < 0.01 in 1.0 g/day glycine vs. placebo group in patients with no or mild disability). An early normalization of autoantibody titres to NMDA-binding proteins in serum was found (p < 0.01 vs. placebo), a reduction of glutamate and aspartate levels (p < 0.05 vs. placebo), an increase in GABA concentrations (p < 0.01 vs. placebo in severe stroke patients) and also a reduction of TBARS levels (p < 0.05 vs. placebo) in CSF by day 3. Thus, the trial suggests that sublingual application of 1.0-2. 0 g/day glycine started within 6 h after the onset of acute ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory is safe and can exert favourable clinical effects. These results will be verified in further trials with a

  8. Effects of Nitrate Intake on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Jeddi, Sajad; Khalifi, Saeedeh; Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Bageripour, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2016-10-01

    Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=7 in each group): control, control+nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes+nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Nitrate (sodium nitrate) was added to drinking water (100 mg/L) for 2 months. The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 2 months and assessed before (baseline) and after myocardial IR for the following parameters: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), minimum and maximum rates of pressure change in the left ventricle (±dP/dt), endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO metabolites (NOx). Recovery of LVDP and ±dP/dt was lower in diabetic rats versus controls, but almost normalized after nitrate intake. Diabetic rats had lower eNOS and higher iNOS expression both at baseline and after IR, and dietary nitrate restored these parameters to normal values after IR. Compared with controls, heart NOx level was lower in diabetic rats at baseline but was higher after IR. Diabetic rats had higher MDA levels both at baseline and after IR, which along with heart NOx levels decreased following nitrate intake. Dietary nitrate in diabetic rats provides cardioprotection against IR injury by regulating eNOS and iNOS expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the heart.

  9. Nitrate reduction to nitrite, nitric oxide and ammonia by gut bacteria under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome

  10. Effects of Nitrate Intake on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Sajad; Khalifi, Saeedeh; Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Bageripour, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. Objective We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Method Rats were divided into four groups (n=7 in each group): control, control+nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes+nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Nitrate (sodium nitrate) was added to drinking water (100 mg/L) for 2 months. The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 2 months and assessed before (baseline) and after myocardial IR for the following parameters: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), minimum and maximum rates of pressure change in the left ventricle (±dP/dt), endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO metabolites (NOx). Results Recovery of LVDP and ±dP/dt was lower in diabetic rats versus controls, but almost normalized after nitrate intake. Diabetic rats had lower eNOS and higher iNOS expression both at baseline and after IR, and dietary nitrate restored these parameters to normal values after IR. Compared with controls, heart NOx level was lower in diabetic rats at baseline but was higher after IR. Diabetic rats had higher MDA levels both at baseline and after IR, which along with heart NOx levels decreased following nitrate intake. Conclusion Dietary nitrate in diabetic rats provides cardioprotection against IR injury by regulating eNOS and iNOS expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the heart. PMID:27849257

  11. Nitrate induction of root hydraulic conductivity in maize is not correlated with aquaporin expression.

    PubMed

    Gorska, Anna; Zwieniecka, Anna; Holbrook, N Michele; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2008-11-01

    Some plant species can increase the mass flow of water from the soil to the root surface in response to the appearance of nitrate in the rhizosphere by increasing root hydraulic conductivity. Such behavior can be seen as a powerful strategy to facilitate the uptake of nitrate in the patchy and dynamically changing soil environment. Despite the significance of such behavior, little is known about the dynamics and mechanism of this phenomenon. Here we examine root hydraulic response of nitrate starved Zea mays (L.) plants after a sudden exposure to 5 mM NO(3)(-) solution. In all cases the treatment resulted in a significant increase in pressure-induced (pressure gradient approximately 0.2 MPa) flow across the root system by approximately 50% within 4 h. Changes in osmotic gradient across the root were approximately 0.016 MPa (or 8.5%) and thus the results could only be explained by a true change in root hydraulic conductance. Anoxia treatment significantly reduced the effect of nitrate on xylem root hydraulic conductivity indicating an important role for aquaporins in this process. Despite a 1 h delay in the hydraulic response to nitrate treatment, we did not detect any change in the expression of six ZmPIP1 and seven ZmPIP2 genes, strongly suggesting that NO(3)(-) ions regulate root hydraulics at the protein level. Treatments with sodium tungstate (nitrate reductase inhibitor) aimed at resolving the information pathway regulating root hydraulic properties resulted in unexpected findings. Although this treatment blocked nitrate reductase activity and eliminated the nitrate-induced hydraulic response, it also produced changes in gene expression and nitrate uptake levels, precluding us from suggesting that nitrate acts on root hydraulic properties via the products of nitrate reductase.

  12. Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, Nitric Oxide and Ammonia by Gut Bacteria under Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N.

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome

  13. Quantum chemical calculations of glycine glutaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arioǧlu, ćaǧla; Tamer, Ömer; Avci, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of glycine glutaric acid were performed by using B3LYP levels with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The theoretical structural parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles are in a good agreement with the experimental values of the title compound. HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated, and the obtained energy gap shows that charge transfer occurs in the title compound. Vibrational frequencies were calculated and compare with experimental ones. 3D molecular surfaces of the title compound were simulated using the same level and basis set. Finally, the 13C and 1H NMR chemical shift values were calculated by the application of the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  14. Uptake and Reduction of [15N]Nitrate by Intact Soybean Plants in the Dark

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Joseph C.; Harper, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if nitrate (15N-labeled) was taken up and assimilated by intact soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) plants during extended periods of dark. Nitrate was taken up by soybean roots throughout a 12-hour dark period. The 15N-labeled nitrogen was also translocated to the plant shoots, but at a slower rate than the rate of accumulation in the roots. Much of the nitrogen (15N-labeled) was present in a nonreduced form, although considerable soluble-reduced nitrogen (15N-labeled) accumulated throughout the dark period. The 15N-labeled, soluble-reduced nitrogen fraction accounted for nearly 30% of the total 15N found in plant roots and more than 63% of the total 15N found in plant tops after 12 hours of dark. This provided evidence that intact soybean plants take up and metabolize significant quantities of nitrate to reduced N forms in the dark. In addition to nitrate influx during the dark, it was shown that there was a concomitant loss of 15N-labeled nitrogen compounds from previously 15N-labeled plants to a natural abundance 15N nutrient solution. Thus, evidence was obtained which indicated that light was not directly essential for flux and reduction of nitrate by intact soybean plants. PMID:16664059

  15. Nitrate Effects on Nodule Oxygen Permeability and Leghemoglobin (Nodule Oximetry and Computer Modeling).

    PubMed Central

    Denison, R. F.; Harter, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Two current hypotheses to explain nitrate inhibition of nodule function both involve decreased O2 supply for respiration in support of N2 fixation. This decrease could result from either (a) decreased O2 permeability (PO) of the nodule cortex, or (b) conversion of leghemoglobin (Lb) to an inactive, nitrosyl form. These hypotheses were tested using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv Weevlchek) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. cv Fergus) plants grown in growth pouches under controlled conditions. Nodulated roots were exposed to 10 mM KNO3 or KCI. Fractional oxygenation of Lb under air (FOLair), relative concentration of functional Lb, apparent PO, and O2-saturated central zone respiration rate were all monitored by nodule oximetry. Apparent PO and FOLair in nitrate-treated nodules decreased to <50% of values for KCI controls within 24 h, but there was no decrease in functional Lb concentration during the first 72 h. In nitrate-treated alfalfa, but not in birdsfoot trefoil, FOLair, apparent PO, and O2-saturated central zone respiration rate decreased during each light period and recovered somewhat during the subsequent dark period. This species difference could be explained by greater reliance on photoreduction of nitrate in alfalfa than in birdsfoot trefoil. Computer simulations extended the experimental results, showing that previously reported decreases in apparent PO of Glycine max nodules with nitrate exposure cannot be explained by hypothetical decreases in the concentration or O2 affinity of Lb. PMID:12228439

  16. [Changes of polyamines level in Glycine soja and Glycine max seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bingjun; Ji, Xiaojia; Liu, Jun; Liu, Youliang

    2004-07-01

    With internationally common-used Glycine max (the salt-tolerant Lee68) and Glycine soja (the salt-sensitive N23232) as reference, this paper studied the polyamines (PAs) contents and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activities in the highly salt-tolerant BB52 (Glycine soja) seedlings, which showed that under 150mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress for 2d, the decrease of Put and Spd contents was more significant, but that of Spd content was less significant in roots of BB52 than in those of Lee68 and N23232. For leaves, the decrease of Put and increase of Spd contents were markedly observed in BB52. The ascent of (Spm + Spd)/Put ratios and descent of Put/PAs ratios showed a positive relation to their salt tolerance. The PAO activity in roots and leaves was all increased, and most obvious in N23232. The relationship between PAs levels in BB52 and its salt tolerance was also discussed.

  17. Positive Modulation of the Glycine Receptor by Means of Glycine Receptor–Binding Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Aneiros, Eduardo; Blank, Michael; Mueller, Johan; Nyman, Eva; Blind, Michael; Dabrowski, Michael A.; Andersson, Christin V.; Sandberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    According to the gate control theory of pain, the glycine receptors (GlyRs) are putative targets for development of therapeutic analgesics. A possible approach for novel analgesics is to develop a positive modulator of the glycine-activated Cl− channels. Unfortunately, there has been limited success in developing drug-like small molecules to study the impact of agonists or positive modulators on GlyRs. Eight RNA aptamers with low nanomolar affinity to GlyRα1 were generated, and their pharmacological properties analyzed. Cytochemistry using fluorescein-labeled aptamers demonstrated GlyRα1-dependent binding to the plasma membrane but also intracellular binding. Using a fluorescent membrane potential assay, we could identify five aptamers to be positive modulators. The positive modulation of one of the aptamers was confirmed by patch-clamp electrophysiology on L(tk) cells expressing GlyRα1 and/or GlyRα1β. This aptamer potentiated whole-cell Cl− currents in the presence of low concentrations of glycine. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration ever of RNA aptamers acting as positive modulators for an ion channel. We believe that these aptamers are unique and valuable tools for further studies of GlyR biology and possibly also as tools for assay development in identifying small-molecule agonists and positive modulators. PMID:26071243

  18. Oxalate synthesis in leaves is associated with root uptake of nitrate and its assimilation in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Xia; Zhou, Kai; Hu, Yan; Jin, Rong; Lu, Ling Li; Jin, Chong Wei; Lin, Xian Yong

    2015-08-15

    Excessive accumulation of oxalate in numerous vegetables adversely affects their quality as food. While it is known that nitrate could effectively stimulate oxalate accumulation in many vegetables, little information is available about the mechanism of nitrate-induced oxalate accumulation. In this study, we examined the association of oxalate synthesis with nitrate uptake and assimilation in two genotypes of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), Heizhenzhu and Weilv. Increasing nitrate levels resulted in enhanced synthesis of oxalate, as well as increased root uptake of nitrate and leaf activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) for both genotypes. Correlation analysis revealed that oxalate accumulation in spinach leaves was positively related with rate of nitrate uptake by roots, as well as leaf activities of NR and GS. Addition of plasmalemma H(+)-ATPase inhibitor sodium vanadate (Na3VO4) significantly decreased leaf oxalate accumulation in both genotypes. Presence of NR or GS inhibitors led to reduction of leaf oxalate contents, GS/NR activities and decreased nitrate uptake rate. Significantly higher levels of nitrate root uptake, leaf NR and GS activities were observed in the high-oxalate genotype Heizhenzhu than in Weilv. Oxalate synthesis in leaves of spinach is not only positively associated with root uptake of nitrate, but also with its assimilation within the plants. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. On corrosivity of sulphate-nitrate-chloride sewage used in catalyst production

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedeva, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    Solutions containing sodium chloride, nitrate, and sulfate are most often used in petroleum processing plants. These solutions are very corrosive to the equipment in the waste processing plants. The corrosivity of the solutions was studied and corrosion resistance was measured as a function of mass loss.

  20. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  1. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  2. Glycine input induces the synaptic facilitation in salamander rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen; Jiang, Zheng; Li, Baoqin

    2008-11-01

    Glycinergic synapses in photoreceptors are made by centrifugal feedback neurons in the network, but the function of the synapses is largely unknown. Here we report that glycinergic input enhances photoreceptor synapses in amphibian retinas. Using specific antibodies against a glycine transporter (GlyT2) and glycine receptor beta subunit, we identified the morphology of glycinergic input in photoreceptor terminals. Electrophysiological recordings indicated that 10 muM glycine depolarized rods and activated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in the neurons. The effects facilitated glutamate vesicle release in photoreceptors, meanwhile increased the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in Off-bipolar cells. Endogenous glycine feedback also enhanced glutamate transmission in photoreceptors. Additionally, inhibition of a Cl(-) uptake transporter NKCC1 with bumetanid effectively eliminated glycine-evoked a weak depolarization in rods, suggesting that NKCC1 maintains a high Cl(-) level in rods, which causes to depolarize in responding to glycine input. This study reveals a new function of glycine in retinal synaptic transmission.

  3. Ivermectin, an unconventional agonist of the glycine receptor chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Shan, Q; Haddrill, J L; Lynch, J W

    2001-04-20

    The effects of the antihelmintic, ivermectin, were investigated in recombinantly expressed human alpha(1) homomeric and alpha(1)beta heteromeric glycine receptors (GlyRs). At low (0.03 microm) concentrations ivermectin potentiated the response to sub-saturating glycine concentrations, and at higher (> or =0.03 microm) concentrations it irreversibly activated both alpha(1) homomeric and alpha(1)beta heteromeric GlyRs. Relative to glycine-gated currents, ivermectin-gated currents exhibited a dramatically reduced sensitivity to inhibition by strychnine, picrotoxin, and zinc. The insensitivity to strychnine could not be explained by ivermectin preventing the access of strychnine to its binding site. Furthermore, the elimination of a known glycine- and strychnine-binding site by site-directed mutagenesis had little effect on ivermectin sensitivity, demonstrating that the ivermectin- and glycine-binding sites were not identical. Ivermectin strongly and irreversibly activated a fast-desensitizing mutant GlyR after it had been completely desensitized by a saturating concentration of glycine. Finally, a mutation known to impair dramatically the glycine signal transduction mechanism had little effect on the apparent affinity or efficacy of ivermectin. Together, these findings indicate that ivermectin activates the GlyR by a novel mechanism.

  4. Molten nitrate salt technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, R. W.; Kramer, C. M.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Nissen, D. A.; Goods, S. H.; Mar, R. W.; Munford, J. W.; Karnowsky, M. M.; Biefeld, R. N.; Norem, N. J.

    1981-03-01

    Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage, molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures were used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use was at temperatures of about 4500 C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 6000 C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program was developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms.

  5. Ammonium nitrate cold pack ingestion.

    PubMed

    Challoner, K R; McCarron, M M

    1988-01-01

    Disposable ammonium nitrate cold packs are widely used in emergency departments instead of ice bags. Five confused or suicidal patients who tore open a pack and ingested from 64 to 234 grams of ammonium nitrate in a single dose, and another patient who attempted to do so, are reported. It is known that chronic ingestion of 6 to 12 grams/day of ammonium nitrate may cause gastritis, acidosis, isosmotic diuresis, and nitrite toxicity manifesting as methemoglobinemia or vasodilatation. None of these patients developed severe toxicity, although three had symptoms of gastritis, three had slight methemoglobinemia, and two had mild hypotension. The product was removed from the stomach promptly in three of the five patients. None had pre-existing renal or intestinal dysfunction, which are known to enhance ammonium nitrate toxicity.

  6. The "silver-nitrate-oma".

    PubMed

    McBride, T J; Rand, B; Dhillon, S S

    2012-01-01

    This case report demonstrates and emphasises the unusual radiographic appearance of silver nitrate treatment in a 30-year-old patient, who subsequently underwent excision biopsy of a presumed potentially malignant lesion.

  7. Solid-liquid phase coexistence of alkali nitrates from molecular dynamics simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman

    2010-03-01

    Alkali nitrate eutectic mixtures are finding application as industrial heat transfer fluids in concentrated solar power generation systems. An important property for such applications is the melting point, or phase coexistence temperature. We have computed melting points for lithium, sodium and potassium nitrate from molecular dynamics simulations using a recently developed method, which uses thermodynamic integration to compute the free energy difference between the solid and liquid phases. The computed melting point for NaNO3 was within 15K of its experimental value, while for LiNO3 and KNO3, the computed melting points were within 100K of the experimental values [4]. We are currently extending the approach to calculate melting temperatures for binary mixtures of lithium and sodium nitrate.

  8. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Dufay, J. Noelia; Steele, Shelby L.; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Coombs, Andrew J.; Liwski, Robert S.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Berman, Jason N.; McMaster, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia. PMID:26821380

  9. Strychnine-sensitive glycine responses of neonatal rat hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S; Cherubini, E

    1991-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings employing current and voltage clamp techniques were used to study the effects of glycine on rat CA3 hippocampal neurones during the first 3 weeks of postnatal (P) life. 2. Glycine (0.3-1 mM) depolarized neurones from rats less than 4 days old (P4). Neurones from older neonates (P5-P7) were hyperpolarized by glycine, whereas adult neurones were unaffected. 3. Both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing responses were associated with large conductance increases; they reversed polarity at a potential which changed with the extracellular chloride concentration. The responses persisted in tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or in a solution with a much reduced calcium concentration. 4. Strychnine (1 microM) but not bicuculline (10-50 microM) antagonized the effects of glycine. The action of strychnine was apparently competitive with a dissociation constant of 350 nM. 5. In voltage clamp experiments, glycine elicited a non-desensitizing outward current at -60 mV. When a maximal concentration of glycine was applied at the same time as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the conductance increase induced by the two agonists was additive, suggesting the activation of different populations of channels. 6. Concentrations of glycine lower than 100 microM did not affect membrane potential. However, at 30-50 microM glycine increased the frequency of spontaneous GABA-mediated synaptic responses; this action was not blocked by strychnine. 7. It is concluded that during the first 2 weeks of life glycine acts at strychnine-sensitive receptors to open chloride channels. PMID:1804982

  10. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Murray, J Pedro; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Dufay, J Noelia; Steele, Shelby L; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Coombs, Andrew J; Liwski, Robert S; Fernandez, Conrad V; Berman, Jason N; McMaster, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  11. Putative glycine receptors in Hydra: a biochemical and behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Pierobon, P; Minei, R; Porcu, P; Sogliano, C; Tino, A; Marino, G; Biggio, G; Concas, A

    2001-11-01

    Glycine acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the lower brain stem and spinal cord of vertebrate species, while very few data are yet available to support a similar role in invertebrate nervous systems. Here we report the identification and characterization of glycine receptors in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) by biochemical and behavioural studies. Saturation experiments revealed the occurrence of one population of binding sites of nanomolar affinity (KD = 33 nm) and low capacity (Bmax = 79 fmol/mg protein) for [(3)H]strychnine. The addition of glycine or taurine (0.1 microm-1 mm) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of [(3)H]strychnine binding. Beta-alanine (0.1-1 mm) did not significantly affect [(3)H]strychnine binding. The pharmacological properties of these receptors compare with those of vertebrate glycine receptors. Stimulation of Hydra polyps by reduced glutathione resulted in a significant increase in the duration of mouth opening in the presence of glycine, taurine or beta-alanine. The enhancement of the response was related both to amino acid (10-100 microm) and to glutathione concentration (1-10 microm). The effects of glycine or its agonists were suppressed by strychnine (1-10 microm). D-serine, a glycine agonist at the vertebrate NMDA receptor, produced opposite effects to those of glycine. The effects of d-serine were suppressed by 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid but not by strychnine. In vitro, [(3)H]strychnine binding was not displaced by d-serine. These results indicate a dual action of glycine in Hydra tissues. The hypothesis that NMDA receptors may also be present in this elementary nervous system is proposed.

  12. DETECTABILITY OF GLYCINE IN SOLAR-TYPE SYSTEM PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Testi, Leonardo; Caselli, Paola; Viti, Serena E-mail: ltesti@eso.org E-mail: sv@star.ucl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH) is the simplest amino acid relevant to life. Its detection in the interstellar medium is key to understanding the formation mechanisms of pre-biotic molecules and their subsequent delivery onto planetary systems. Glycine has been extensively searched for toward hot molecular cores, although these studies did not yield any firm detection. In contrast to hot cores, low-mass star forming regions, in particular their earliest stages represented by cold pre-stellar cores, may be better suited for the detection of glycine as well as more relevant to the study of pre-biotic chemistry in young solar system analogs. We present one-dimensional spherically symmetric radiative transfer calculations of the glycine emission expected to arise from the low-mass pre-stellar core L1544. Water vapor has recently been reported toward this core, indicating that a small fraction of the grain mantles in L1544 (∼0.5%) has been injected into the gas phase. Assuming that glycine is photo-desorbed together with water in L1544, and considering a solid abundance of glycine on ices of ∼10{sup –4} with respect to water, our calculations reveal that several glycine lines between 67 GHz and 80 GHz have peak intensities larger than 10 mK. These results show for the first time that glycine could reach detectable levels in cold objects such as L1544. This opens up the possibility of detecting glycine, and other pre-biotic species, at the coldest and earliest stages in the formation of solar-type systems with near-future instrumentation such as the Band 2 receivers of ALMA.

  13. Vasodilator Therapy: Nitrates and Nicorandil.

    PubMed

    Tarkin, Jason M; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Nitrates have been used to treat symptoms of chronic stable angina for over 135 years. These drugs are known to activate nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine-3',-5'-monophasphate (cGMP) signaling pathways underlying vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation, albeit many questions relating to how nitrates work at the cellular level remain unanswered. Physiologically, the anti-angina effects of nitrates are mostly due to peripheral venous dilatation leading to reduction in preload and therefore left ventricular wall stress, and, to a lesser extent, epicardial coronary artery dilatation and lowering of systemic blood pressure. By counteracting ischemic mechanisms, short-acting nitrates offer rapid relief following an angina attack. Long-acting nitrates, used commonly for angina prophylaxis are recommended second-line, after beta-blockers and calcium channel antagonists. Nicorandil is a balanced vasodilator that acts as both NO donor and arterial K(+) ATP channel opener. Nicorandil might also exhibit cardioprotective properties via mitochondrial ischemic preconditioning. While nitrates and nicorandil are effective pharmacological agents for prevention of angina symptoms, when prescribing these drugs it is important to consider that unwanted and poorly tolerated hemodynamic side-effects such as headache and orthostatic hypotension can often occur owing to systemic vasodilatation. It is also necessary to ensure that a dosing regime is followed that avoids nitrate tolerance, which not only results in loss of drug efficacy, but might also cause endothelial dysfunction and increase long-term cardiovascular risk. Here we provide an update on the pharmacological management of chronic stable angina using nitrates and nicorandil.

  14. Nucleotide Accumulation Induced in Staphylococcus aureus by Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Strominger, Jack L.; Birge, Claire H.

    1965-01-01

    Strominger, Jack L. (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo.), and Claire H. Birge. Nucleotide accumulation induced in Staphylococcus aureus by glycine. J. Bacteriol. 89:1124–1127. 1965.—High concentrations of glycine induce accumulation of four uridine nucleotides in Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations of their structure suggest that these compounds are uridine diphosphate (UDP)-acetylmuramic acid, UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys, UDP-acetylmuramyl-l-ala-d-glu-l-lys and UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys-d-ala-d-ala. The mechanism by which glycine may induce uridine nucleotide accumulation and protoplast formation is discussed. Images PMID:14276106

  15. Cyanide formation from oxidation of glycine of Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Wissing, F

    1974-03-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent K(m) (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 x 10(-4) M.

  16. Structure-activity relationships of strychnine analogs at glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Heller, Eberhard; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Jensen, Anders A; Zlotos, Darius P

    2014-08-01

    Nine strychnine derivatives including neostrychnine, strychnidine, isostrychnine, 21,22-dihydro-21-hydroxy-22-oxo-strychnine, and several hydrogenated analogs were synthesized, and their antagonistic activities at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors were evaluated. Isostrychnine has shown the best pharmacological profile exhibiting an IC50 value of 1.6 μM at α1 glycine receptors and 3.7-fold preference towards the α1 subtype. SAR Analysis indicates that the lactam moiety and the C(21) = C(22) bond in strychnine are essential structural features for its high antagonistic potency at glycine receptors. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Cyanide Formation from Oxidation of Glycine by a Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Frode

    1974-01-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent Km (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 × 10−4 M. PMID:4813896

  18. Glycine receptor heterogeneity in rat spinal cord during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C M; Hoch, W; Betz, H

    1988-01-01

    Two different isoforms of the inhibitory glycine receptor were identified during postnatal development of rat spinal cord. A neonatal form characterized by low strychnine binding affinity, altered antigenicity, and a ligand binding subunit differing in mol. wt (49 kd) from that of the adult receptor (48 kd) predominates at birth (70% of the total receptor protein). Separation from the adult form could be achieved by either use of a selective antibody or glycine gradient elution of 2-aminostrychnine affinity columns. Both isoforms co-purify with the mol. wt 93 kd peripheral membrane protein of the postsynaptic glycine receptor complex. Images PMID:2850172

  19. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    PubMed

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite.

  20. An automated and efficient conformational search of glycine and a glycine-water heterodimer both in vacuum and in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Stable conformers and the conformational isomerization pathways of glycine and the glycine-H2O heterodimer were explored using an efficient automated conformational searching method. The Gibbs energies of the conformers and transition structures of glycine and a glycine-H2O heterodimer at 400, 298, and 150 K were also calculated. In addition, estimated ratios of conformers, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, were calculated and compared with the results of spectroscopic experiments. Solvent effects were introduced into the exploration process using the polarizable continuum model (PCM), and conversion (tautomerization) pathways from neutral to zwitterionic states for both glycine and a glycine-H2O heterodimer in aqueous solution were compared.

  1. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  2. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  3. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  4. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  5. Thermodynamics of the formation of Cu2+-glycyl-glycyl-glycine complex in water-ethanol solutions at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham Thi, L.; Usacheva, T. R.; Tukumova, N. V.; Koryshev, N. E.; Khrenova, T. M.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The stability constants of monoligand complexes of copper(II) ions with glycyl-glycyl-glycine zwitterions (triglycine, HL±) and triglycinate ions (L-) in a water-ethanol solvent with 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mole fractions of ethanol at an ionic strength of 0.1 created by sodium perchlorate and temperature T = 298.15 K are determined by means of potentiometric titration. It is found that an increase of ethanol content improves the stability of the investigated complexes, due mainly to the resolvation of ligands.

  6. Isolation of cucurmoschin, a novel antifungal peptide abundant in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues from black pumpkin seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2003-07-01

    A novel antifungal peptide, with a molecular mass of 8 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in gel filtration on Superdex 75 and designated cucurmoschin, was isolated from the seeds of the black pumpkin. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. Cucurmoschin inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella oxysporum. It inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC50 of 1.2 microM. The N-terminal sequence of cucurmoschin was rich in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues.

  7. Nitrate transport and signalling.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anthony J; Fan, Xiaorong; Orsel, Mathilde; Smith, Susan J; Wells, Darren M

    2007-01-01

    Physiological measurements of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) uptake by roots have defined two systems of high and low affinity uptake. In Arabidopsis, genes encoding both of these two uptake systems have been identified. Most is known about the high affinity transport system (HATS) and its regulation and yet measurements of soil NO(3)(-) show that it is more often available in the low affinity range above 1 mM concentration. Several different regulatory mechanisms have been identified for AtNRT2.1, one of the membrane transporters encoding HATS; these include feedback regulation of expression, a second component protein requirement for membrane targeting and phosphorylation, possibly leading to degradation of the protein. These various changes in the protein may be important for a second function in sensing NO(3)(-) availability at the surface of the root. Another transporter protein, AtNRT1.1 also has a role in NO(3)(-) sensing that, like AtNRT2.1, is independent of their transport function. From the range of concentrations present in the soil it is proposed that the NO(3)(-)-inducible part of HATS functions chiefly as a sensor for root NO(3)(-) availability. Two other key NO(3)(-) transport steps for efficient nitrogen use by crops, efflux across membranes and vacuolar storage and remobilization, are discussed. Genes encoding vacuolar transporters have been isolated and these are important for manipulating storage pools in crops, but the efflux system is yet to be identified. Consideration is given to how well our molecular and physiological knowledge can be integrated as well to some key questions and opportunities for the future.

  8. Tracing Nitrate Sources in a Mixed Land-Use Watershed During Baseflow and Peakflow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buda, A. R.; Dewalle, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Potential sources of stream water nitrate were assessed using a combination of stable isotopic (δ15N and δ18O in nitrate), microbiological (bacteria source tracking with E. coli), and inorganic chemical tracers within Spring Creek, a 78 km2 mixed land-use watershed located in central Pennsylvania. Four storm events were sampled during the spring and summer of 2005 using a nested sampling design (5 sites) representing a downstream progression of forested, agricultural, urban, and mixed land-uses. Stream samples were collected during antecedent baseflow conditions and at or near peakflow for each event. Precipitation was collected sequentially during storm events and effluent from a sewage treatment plant was sampled during baseflow conditions for each event. Preliminary stable nitrate isotope (δ15N and δ18O) results from two spring storms indicated that nitrate changes from baseflow to peakflow shifted slightly towards a varying mix of precipitation and organic sources for the agricultural and mixed land-use catchments. Dilution of nitrate concentrations during storms in these catchments coupled with the subtle changes in δ15N and δ18O from baseflow to stormflow may indicate that flushing of nitrate during the two March storms was dominated by existing groundwater sources as opposed to new nitrate sources derived from overland flow. Increases in nitrate concentrations and changes in δ15N and δ18O from baseflow to stormflow for the forested catchment indicated that soil nitrate was the most likely important new nitrate source. For the urban catchment, depleted δ15N and enriched δ18O in stormflow nitrate clearly indicated that precipitation or urban runoff was the most important new nitrate source. In addition to stable isotope tracing of nitrate sources, chloride and sodium were found to be useful indicators of nitrate from sewage and animal waste sources, especially within the mixed land-use, agricultural, and urban catchments. It is anticipated that

  9. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  10. In vitro evaluation of a new treatment for urinary tract infections caused by nitrate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, S; Govoni, M; Wiklund, N P; Weitzberg, E; Lundberg, J O

    2003-12-01

    Dietary and endogenous nitrates are excreted in urine, and during infection with nitrate-reducing bacteria they are reduced to nitrite. At a low pH nitrite is converted to a variety of nitrogen oxides that are toxic to bacteria. We hypothesized that acidification of nitrite-rich infected urine would result in the killing of the nitrate-reducing bacteria. An Escherichia coli control strain and a mutant lacking nitrate reductase activity were preincubated in urine supplemented with sodium nitrate (0 to 10 mM) at pH 7.0. Then, the nitrite-containing bacterial culture was transferred (and diluted 1/10) to slightly acidic urine (pH 5 and 5.5) containing ascorbic acid (10 mM) and growth was monitored. The control strain produced nitrite in amounts related to the amount of nitrate added. This strain was killed when the culture was transferred to acidic urine. In contrast, the mutant that did not produce nitrite retained full viability. When control bacteria were grown in acidic urine with nitrate and ascorbic acid present from the start of the experiment, no inhibition of growth was noted. The MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations of sodium nitrite-ascorbic acid in acidic urine were comparable to those of conventional antibiotics. Preincubation of nitrate-reducing E. coli in nitrate-rich urine leads to the accumulation of nitrite. Subsequent acidification of the urine results in generation of nitrogen oxides that are bactericidal. Killing, however, requires a sequential procedure in which the bacteria are first allowed to grow in a nitrate-rich neutral environment, later followed by acidification. We speculate that ingestion of nitrate followed some hours later by acidification of urine could be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of urinary tract infections.

  11. In Vitro Evaluation of a New Treatment for Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, S.; Govoni, M.; Wiklund, N. P.; Weitzberg, E.; Lundberg, J. O.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary and endogenous nitrates are excreted in urine, and during infection with nitrate-reducing bacteria they are reduced to nitrite. At a low pH nitrite is converted to a variety of nitrogen oxides that are toxic to bacteria. We hypothesized that acidification of nitrite-rich infected urine would result in the killing of the nitrate-reducing bacteria. An Escherichia coli control strain and a mutant lacking nitrate reductase activity were preincubated in urine supplemented with sodium nitrate (0 to 10 mM) at pH 7.0. Then, the nitrite-containing bacterial culture was transferred (and diluted 1/10) to slightly acidic urine (pH 5 and 5.5) containing ascorbic acid (10 mM) and growth was monitored. The control strain produced nitrite in amounts related to the amount of nitrate added. This strain was killed when the culture was transferred to acidic urine. In contrast, the mutant that did not produce nitrite retained full viability. When control bacteria were grown in acidic urine with nitrate and ascorbic acid present from the start of the experiment, no inhibition of growth was noted. The MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations of sodium nitrite-ascorbic acid in acidic urine were comparable to those of conventional antibiotics. Preincubation of nitrate-reducing E. coli in nitrate-rich urine leads to the accumulation of nitrite. Subsequent acidification of the urine results in generation of nitrogen oxides that are bactericidal. Killing, however, requires a sequential procedure in which the bacteria are first allowed to grow in a nitrate-rich neutral environment, later followed by acidification. We speculate that ingestion of nitrate followed some hours later by acidification of urine could be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of urinary tract infections. PMID:14638471

  12. Evaluation of an experimental sodium chlorate product, with and without nitroethane, on Salmonella in cull dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ruminant animals are natural reservoirs for Salmonella. These bacteria can reduce nitrate to nitrite through the membrane bound enzyme nitrate reductase which also has the ability to reduce chlorate to the cytotoxic end-product chlorite. An experimental product containing sodium chlorate (ECP) has...

  13. Protective effect of dietary nitrate on experimental gastritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Larauche, Muriel; Anton, Pauline M; Garcia-Villar, Rafaël; Theodorou, Vassilia; Frexinos, Jacques; Buéno, Lionel; Fioramonti, Jean

    2003-06-01

    Nitrates have long been considered as harmful dietary components and judged responsible for deleterious effects on human health, leading to stringent regulations concerning their levels in food and water. However, recent studies demonstrate that dietary nitrate may have a major role in human health as a non-immune mechanism for host defence, through its metabolism to NO in the stomach. NO is a versatile molecule and although evidence exists showing that administration of low doses of exogenous NO protects against gastrointestinal inflammation, higher NO doses have been shown to exacerbate injury. So, the effect of an ingestion of nitrates in doses corresponding to a normal diet in human consumers on an experimental gastritis induced by iodoacetamide in rats was investigated. During gastritis one of the following compounds was given orally: water; KNO3; the NO donor sodium nitroprusside; the NO scavenger haemoglobin given with either water or KNO3. N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor, was administered with either water, iodoacetamide alone, or combined with KNO3. After killing, the stomach was resected and microscopic damage scores, myeloperoxidase and NO synthase activities were determined. Iodoacetamide-induced gastritis was significantly reduced by KNO3 administration, an effect which was reproduced by sodium nitroprusside and reversed by haemoglobin. l-NAME induced gastric mucosal damage in itself, and KNO3 did not prevent the gastritis induced by iodoacetamide associated with l-NAME. In conclusion, dietary nitrate exerts a protective effect against an experimental gastritis in rats by releasing NO in the stomach but such an effect requires the production of endogenous NO.

  14. Effect of Phosphate, Fluoride, and Nitrate on Gibbsite Dissolution Rate and Solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, Daniel L.

    2014-01-29

    Laboratory tests have been completed with simulated tank waste samples to investigate the effects of phosphate, fluoride, and nitrate on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility of gibbsite in sodium hydroxide solution at 22 and 40{degrees}C. Results are compared to relevant literature data and to computer model predictions. The presence of sodium nitrate (3 M) caused a reduction in the rate of gibbsite dissolution in NaOH, but a modest increase in the equilibrium solubility of aluminum. The increase in solubility was not as large, though, as the increase predicted by the computer model. The presence of phosphate, either as sodium phosphate or sodium fluoride phosphate, had a negligible effect on the rate of gibbsite dissolution, but caused a slight increase in aluminum solubility. The magnitude of the increased solubility, relative to the increase caused by sodium nitrate, suggests that the increase is due to ionic strength (or water activity) effects, rather than being associated with the specific ion involved. The computer model predicted that phosphate would cause a slight decrease in aluminum solubility, suggesting some Al-PO4 interaction. No evidence was found of such an interaction.

  15. Water soluble styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose binder for ZnFe2O4 anode electrodes in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rongyu; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Dong; Qiu, Hailong; Fu, Qiang; Na, Hui; Guo, Zhendong; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin

    2015-07-01

    ZnFe2O4 nano particles as an anode material for lithium ion batteries are prepared by the glycine-nitrate combustion method. The mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (SBR/CMC) with the weight ratio of 1:1 is used as the binder for ZnFe2O4 electrode. Compared with the conventional polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) binder, the SBR/CMC binder is much cheaper and environment benign. More significantly, this water soluble binder significantly improves the rate capability and cycle stability of ZnFe2O4. A discharge capacity of 873.8 mAh g-1 is obtained after 100 cycles at the 0.1C rate, with a very little capacity fading rate of 0.06% per cycle. Studies show that the SBR/CMC binder enhances the adhesion of the electrode film to the current collector, and constructs an effective three-dimensional network for electrons transport. In addition, the SBR/CMC binder helps to form a uniform SEI film thus prohibiting the formation of lithium dendrite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the SBR/CMC binder lowers the ohmic resistance of the electrode, depresses the formation of SEI film and facilitates the charge transfer reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. These advantages highlight the potential applications of SBR/CMC binder in lithium ion batteries.

  16. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3; Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)) as a tool to study the concerted effects of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide on bacterial flavohemoglobin Hmp: applications and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Denby, Katie J; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E; Hassoubah, Shahira A; Mann, Brian E; Poole, Robert K

    2014-10-24

    CO and NO are small toxic gaseous molecules that play pivotal roles in biology as gasotransmitters. During bacterial infection, NO, produced by the host via the inducible NO synthase, exerts critical antibacterial effects while CO, generated by heme oxygenases, enhances phagocytosis of macrophages. In Escherichia coli, other bacteria and fungi, the flavohemoglobin Hmp is the most important detoxification mechanism converting NO and O2 to the ion nitrate (NO3(-)). The protoheme of Hmp binds not only O2 and NO, but also CO so that this ligand is expected to be an inhibitor of NO detoxification in vivo and in vitro. CORM-3 (Ru(CO)(3)Cl(glycinate)) is a metal carbonyl compound extensively used and recently shown to have potent antibacterial properties. In this study, attenuation of the NO resistance of E. coli by CORM-3 is demonstrated in vivo. However, polarographic measurements showed that CO gas, but not CORM-3, produced inhibition of the NO detoxification activity of Hmp in vitro. Nevertheless, CO release from CORM-3 in the presence of soluble cellular compounds is demonstrated by formation of carboxy-Hmp. We show that the inability of CORM-3 to inhibit the activity of purified Hmp is due to slow release of CO in protein solutions alone i.e. when sodium dithionite, widely used in previous studies of CO release from CORM-3, is excluded. Finally, we measure intracellular CO released from CORM-3 by following the formation of carboxy-Hmp in respiring cells. CORM-3 is a tool to explore the concerted effects of CO and NO in vivo. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Carbon Monoxide-releasing Molecule-3 (CORM-3; Ru(CO)3Cl(Glycinate)) as a Tool to Study the Concerted Effects of Carbon Monoxide and Nitric Oxide on Bacterial Flavohemoglobin Hmp

    PubMed Central

    Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Denby, Katie J.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Hassoubah, Shahira A.; Mann, Brian E.; Poole, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    CO and NO are small toxic gaseous molecules that play pivotal roles in biology as gasotransmitters. During bacterial infection, NO, produced by the host via the inducible NO synthase, exerts critical antibacterial effects while CO, generated by heme oxygenases, enhances phagocytosis of macrophages. In Escherichia coli, other bacteria and fungi, the flavohemoglobin Hmp is the most important detoxification mechanism converting NO and O2 to the ion nitrate (NO3−). The protoheme of Hmp binds not only O2 and NO, but also CO so that this ligand is expected to be an inhibitor of NO detoxification in vivo and in vitro. CORM-3 (Ru(CO)3Cl(glycinate)) is a metal carbonyl compound extensively used and recently shown to have potent antibacterial properties. In this study, attenuation of the NO resistance of E. coli by CORM-3 is demonstrated in vivo. However, polarographic measurements showed that CO gas, but not CORM-3, produced inhibition of the NO detoxification activity of Hmp in vitro. Nevertheless, CO release from CORM-3 in the presence of soluble cellular compounds is demonstrated by formation of carboxy-Hmp. We show that the inability of CORM-3 to inhibit the activity of purified Hmp is due to slow release of CO in protein solutions alone i.e. when sodium dithionite, widely used in previous studies of CO release from CORM-3, is excluded. Finally, we measure intracellular CO released from CORM-3 by following the formation of carboxy-Hmp in respiring cells. CORM-3 is a tool to explore the concerted effects of CO and NO in vivo. PMID:25193663

  18. Free Glycine Accelerates the Autoproteolytic Activation of Human Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ying; Karamitros, Christos S.; Nomme, Julian; McSorley, Theresa; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2013-01-01

    Human asparaginase 3 (hASNase3), which belongs to the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase superfamily, is synthesized as a single polypeptide that is devoid of asparaginase activity. Intramolecular autoproteolytic processing releases the amino group of Thr168, a moiety required for catalyzing asparagine hydrolysis. Recombinant hASNase3 purifies as the uncleaved, asparaginase-inactive form, and undergoes self-cleavage to the active form at a very slow rate. Here we show that the free amino acid glycine selectively acts to accelerate hASNase3 cleavage both in vitro and in human cells. Other small amino acids such as alanine, serine, or the substrate asparagine are not capable of promoting autoproteolysis. Crystal structures of hASNase3 in complex with glycine in the uncleaved and cleaved enzyme states reveal the mechanism of glycine-accelerated post-translational processing, and explain why no other amino acid can substitute for glycine. PMID:23601642

  19. Dietary nitrate supplementation protects against Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by improving mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu-Guang; Kukreja, Rakesh C; Das, Anindita; Chen, Qun; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Xi, Lei

    2011-05-24

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrate supplementation protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy by improving ventricular function and reducing mitochondrial respiratory chain damage. Doxorubicin is a powerful anthracycline antibiotic used to treat divergent human neoplasms. Its clinical use is limited because of severe cardiotoxic side effects. Dietary nitrate and nitrite are essential nutrients for maintenance of steady-state tissue levels of nitric oxide and may play a therapeutic role in diseases associated with nitric oxide insufficiency or dysregulation. Dietary nitrate and nitrite supplementation alleviates myocardial injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion and cardiac arrest-resuscitation. Adult male CF-1 mice were given a single dose of doxorubicin (15 mg/kg intraperitoneally), and left ventricular contractile function was assessed 5 days later using both echocardiography and pressure-volume Millar catheterization. A nitrate supplementation regimen (1 g/l sodium nitrate in drinking water) was started 7 days before doxorubicin injection and continued thereafter. Cardiomyocyte necrosis and apoptosis, tissue lipid peroxidation, and plasma nitrate and nitrite levels were assessed. In addition, mitochondrial complex I activity, oxidative phosphorylation capacity, and hydrogen peroxide generation were determined in parallel experiments. Doxorubicin caused impairment of ventricular contractility and cell death, which were significantly reduced by nitrate supplementation (p < 0.05). These cardioprotective effects were associated with a significant decrease in tissue lipid peroxidation. Nitrate supplementation significantly preserved mitochondrial complex I activity and oxidative phosphorylation and attenuated hydrogen peroxide generation after doxorubicin treatment. Long-term oral intake of inorganic nitrate attenuates doxorubicin-induced ventricular dysfunction, cell death, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial

  20. Dietary nitrate improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in an animal model of hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Khalifi, Saeedeh; Rahimipour, Ali; Jeddi, Sajad; Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Kazerouni, Faranak; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2015-01-30

    Reduction in nitric oxide (NO) production and bioavailability contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Administration of nitrate has strong NO-like outcomes in both animals and humans. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary nitrate on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: controls (C), control+nitrate (CN), diabetes (D), and diabetes+nitrate (DN). For 8 weeks, the CN and DN groups consumed sodium nitrate (100 mg/L in drinking water) while the C and D groups consumed tap water. Serum nitrate+nitrite (NOx), glucose, lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and catalase (CAT) activity were measured before and at the end of the study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured every 10 days. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed at the end of the study. Serum NOx decreased in diabetic rats and dietary nitrate restored it to normal values. Increases in serum glucose levels was significantly lower in the DN group compared to the D group (24.1% vs. 90.2%; p < 0.05). Nitrate therapy in diabetic rats significantly improved lipid profile, glucose tolerance (AUC: 20264 ± 659 vs. 17923 ± 523; p < 0.05 for D and DN groups respectively) and restored elevated SBP to normal values. Diabetic rats had lower TAC and CAT activity and dietary nitrate restored these to normal status. In conclusion, dietary nitrate prevented increase in SBP and serum glucose, improved glucose tolerance and restored dyslipidemia in an animal model of hyperglycemia.

  1. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  2. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings.

    PubMed

    Warner, R L; Huffaker, R C

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  3. Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

  4. Low dose dietary nitrate improves endothelial dysfunction and plaque stability in the ApoE(-/-) mouse fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J R; Bondonno, N P; Gaspari, T A; Kemp-Harper, B K; McCashney, A J; Hodgson, J M; Croft, K D; Ward, N C

    2016-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vascular signalling molecule. NO is synthesised endogenously by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). An alternate pathway is exogenous dietary nitrate, which can be converted to nitrite and then stored or further converted to NO and used immediately. Atherosclerosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent lesion formation. This is thought to arise due to a reduction in the bioavailability and/or bioactivity of endogenous NO. To determine if dietary nitrate can protect against endothelial dysfunction and lesion formation in the ApoE(-/-) mouse fed a high fat diet (HFD). ApoE(-/-) fed a HFD were randomized to receive (i) high nitrate (10mmol/kg/day, n=12), (ii) moderate nitrate (1mmol/kg/day, n=8), (iii) low nitrate (0.1mmol/kg/day, n=8), or (iv) sodium chloride supplemented drinking water (control, n=10) for 10 weeks. A group of C57BL6 mice (n=6) received regular water and served as a healthy reference group. At 10 weeks, ACh-induced vessel relaxation was significantly impaired in ApoE(-/-) mice versus C57BL6. Mice supplemented with low or moderate nitrate showed significant improvements in ACh-induced vessel relaxation compared to ApoE(-/-) mice given the high nitrate or sodium chloride. Plaque collagen expression was increased and lipid deposition reduced following supplementation with low or moderate nitrate compared to sodium chloride, reflecting increased plaque stability with nitrate supplementation. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels were significantly increased in all three groups fed the nitrate-supplemented water. Low and moderate dose nitrate significantly improved endothelial function and atherosclerotic plaque composition in ApoE(-/-) mice fed a HFD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins of Several Perennial Glycine Species.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Oehrle, Nathan W; Liu, Shanshan; Krishnan, Hari B

    2016-11-16

    Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well-adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean pathogens. In spite of the potential of the perennial Glycine species for soybean improvement, very little is known about their storage proteins and their relationship with cultivated soybean seed proteins. We have examined the seed protein composition of nine perennial Glycine species by one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) gel electrophoresis. The relationship between cultivated soybean and perennial soybean seed proteins was examined by immunoblot analyses using antibodies raised against G. max β-conglycinin, glycinin A3 subunit, lipoxygenase, leginsulin, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor. Additionally, we have measured the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities from cultivated soybean and perennial Glycine species and have found marked differences between them. Our 2-D gel and immunoblot analyses demonstrate significant differences in the protein composition and size heterogeneities of the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins of soybean and perennial Glycine species. Perennial Glycine species accumulated a 45 kDa protein that was not detected in G. max and G. soja. This unique 45 kDa protein was immunologically related to the A3 glycinin subunit of G. max. The results of our studies suggest that even though the seed proteins of wild perennial Glycine species and G. max are immunologically related, their genes have diverged from each other during the course of evolution.

  6. Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol: role of phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Paola Mascia, Maria; Wick, Marilee J; Martinez, Larry D; Harris, R Adron

    1998-01-01

    The effects of several kinase inhibitors (staurosporine, GF 109203X, H89, KN62, genistein) and of the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A were studied on the ethanol potentiation and on the function of homomeric α1 glycine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using a two electrode voltage clamp recording technique.The function of the homomeric α1 glycine receptor was not modified in Xenopus oocytes pretreated with kinase inhibitors or with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A.The potentiation of the glycine receptor function induced by ethanol (10–200 mM) was significantly reduced in Xenopus oocytes pretreated with the PKC inhibitors staurosporine or GF 109203X.No differences in propofol (2.5 μM) or halothane (250 μM) actions were found after exposure of Xenopus oocytes to staurosporine.No differences in ethanol sensitivity were found after exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing glycine α1 receptors to H89, KN62, genistein or to the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A.The mutant α1 (S391A), in which the PKC phosphorylation site at serine 391 was mutated to alanine, was less sensitive to the effects of ethanol than was the α1 wild type receptor. Moreover, the ethanol potentiation of the glycine receptor function was not affected by treatment with staurosporine in oocytes expressing α1 (S391A).The splice variant of the α1 glycine receptor subunit, α1ins, containing eight additional amino acids and a potential phosphorylation site for PKA, did not differ from wild type for sensitivity to ethanol.These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of the homomeric α1 glycine receptor subunit modulates ethanol potentiation, but not the function of the glycine receptor. PMID:9786497

  7. Spectral Luminescent Properties of the Glycine Molecule in a Gas Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    General, A. A.; Migovich, M. I.; Kelman, V. A.; Zhmenyak, Yu. V.; Zvenigorodsky, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the luminescence spectra of glycine powder in the plasma of a repetitively pulsed longitudinal discharge in argon-glycine and helium-glycine mixtures. We have identified the main fragments of the glycine molecule emitting in the 200-1000 nm region. The emitting molecules due to fragmentation of glycine and dissociation of the carboxyl (-COOH) and amino (-NH2) groups are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and cyanogen molecules.

  8. Comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from wild soybean (Glycine soja) and nine other Glycine species

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Aaqil Khan, Muhammad; Muhammad Imran, Qari; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Hosni, Khdija; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The plastid genomes of different plant species exhibit significant variation, thereby providing valuable markers for exploring evolutionary relationships and population genetics. Glycine soja (wild soybean) is recognized as the wild ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), representing a valuable genetic resource for soybean breeding programmes. In the present study, the complete plastid genome of G. soja was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing and then compared it for the first time with previously reported plastid genome sequences from nine other Glycine species. The G. soja plastid genome was 152,224 bp in length and possessed a typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 25,574 bp) separated by small (178,963 bp) and large (83,181 bp) single-copy regions, with a 51-kb inversion in the large single-copy region. The genome encoded 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes, and possessed 204 randomly distributed microsatellites, including 15 forward, 25 tandem, and 34 palindromic repeats. Whole-plastid genome comparisons revealed an overall high degree of sequence similarity between G. max and G. gracilis and some divergence in the intergenic spacers of other species. Greater numbers of indels and SNP substitutions were observed compared with G. cyrtoloba. The sequence of the accD gene from G. soja was highly divergent from those of the other species except for G. max and G. gracilis. Phylogenomic analyses of the complete plastid genomes and 76 shared genes yielded an identical topology and indicated that G. soja is closely related to G. max and G. gracilis. The complete G. soja genome sequenced in the present study is a valuable resource for investigating the population and evolutionary genetics of Glycine species and can be used to identify related species. PMID:28763486

  9. A novel derivative for the assessment of urinary and salivary nitrate using gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S.J.; Siervo, M.; Persson, E.; McKenna, L.M.; Bluck, L.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous GCMS methods determining nitrate in biological samples involve either hazardous chemicals or produce multiple isomers that can be difficult to quantitate. Modification of these methods, by the nitration of mesitylene instead of benzene and in the presence of trifluoroacetic anhydride rather than sulphuric acid, should enable simple isotopic quantitation for use in tracer studies, for example, in the measurement of nitric oxide production. Desiccated urine and saliva samples, in addition to aqueous labelled and unlabelled nitrate standards, were treated with trifluoroacetic anhydride and mesitylene at 70 °C for one hour, cooled, then sequentially washed with deionised water and aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The solution of nitromesitylene in mesitylene was separated, dried and analysed by GCMS. Full mass spectra exhibited strong signals at m/z 165 and 166 corresponding to the unlabelled and labelled molecular species of nitromesitylene respectively. Selected ion monitoring of these masses for a series of gravimetrically prepared standards indicated good agreement with isotopic enrichments in the range 0.0625 – 5 mole % excess, and at nitrate concentrations within the physiological range of 0.078 - 2 mmol/L. Derivatised samples were stable with respect to isotopic enrichments and nitrate concentrations at −20 °C for up to 21 days and exhibited excellent repeatability. Nitration of mesitylene proved to be a simple and rapid method for the measurement of isotope ratios in aqueous nitrates by GCMS, which has applications in both tracer studies and concentration determinations by isotope dilution techniques for nitric oxide production. PMID:19039799

  10. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO3- and NO2-. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  11. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Saykally, Richard J.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Prendergast, David

    2015-08-28

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −}. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  12. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacob W; Lam, Royce K; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J

    2015-08-28

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO3 (-) and NO2 (-). The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  13. Dietary inorganic nitrate reverses features of metabolic syndrome in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Mattias; Larsen, Filip J.; Nyström, Thomas; Hezel, Michael; Borniquel, Sara; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O.

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors of metabolic origin that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. A proposed central event in metabolic syndrome is a decrease in the amount of bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Recently, an alternative pathway for NO formation in mammals was described where inorganic nitrate, a supposedly inert NO oxidation product and unwanted dietary constituent, is serially reduced to nitrite and then NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. Here we show that several features of metabolic syndrome that develop in eNOS-deficient mice can be reversed by dietary supplementation with sodium nitrate, in amounts similar to those derived from eNOS under normal conditions. In humans, this dose corresponds to a rich intake of vegetables, the dominant dietary nitrate source. Nitrate administration increased tissue and plasma levels of bioactive nitrogen oxides. Moreover, chronic nitrate treatment reduced visceral fat accumulation and circulating levels of triglycerides and reversed the prediabetic phenotype in these animals. In rats, chronic nitrate treatment reduced blood pressure and this effect was also present during NOS inhibition. Our results show that dietary nitrate fuels a nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway that can partly compensate for disturbances in endogenous NO generation from eNOS. These findings may have implications for novel nutrition-based preventive and therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. PMID:20876122

  14. Crevice Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in High-Nitrate Dust Deliquescence Type Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, T; Gdowski, G E; Hailey, P D; Rebak, R B

    2007-02-08

    The nitrate ion (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) is an inhibitor for crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 (N06022) in chloride (Cl{sup -}) aqueous solutions. Naturally formed electrolytes may contain both chloride and nitrate ions. The higher the ratio R = [NO{sub 3}{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] in the solution the stronger the inhibition of crevice corrosion. Atmospheric desert dust contains both chloride and nitrate salts, generally based on sodium (Na{sup +}) and potassium (K{sup +}). Some of these salts may deliquescence at relatively low humidity at temperatures on the order of 150 C and higher. The resulting deliquescent brines are highly concentrated and especially rich in nitrate. Electrochemical tests have been performed to explore the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in high chloride high nitrate electrolytes at temperatures as high as 150 C at ambient atmospheres. Naturally formed brines at temperatures higher than 120 C do not induce crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 because they contain high levels of nitrate. The inhibitive effect of nitrate on crevice corrosion is still active for temperatures higher than 100 C.

  15. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of conducting polymers. Application to the removal of nitrates from water.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, M Jesús; Sancho-Querol, Sara; Pastor-Blas, M Mercedes; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio

    2017-05-15

    Three different conducting polymers, polythiophene (PT), polypirrol (PPY) and polyaniline (PANI) have been synthesized via oxidative chemical polymerization in aqueous media, in such a way that the synthesis protocol did not involve any toxic solvents. They have been tested in the abatement of nitrates from an aqueous solution without the need of any metal catalyst. The N-containing polymers (PANI and PPy) were able to remove nitrates to a level that accomplishes the European legislation requirements; however, the nature of each polymer greatly influenced the process mechanism. Whereas ion exchange between Cl(-) and SO4(2)(-) counter-ions in the polymer and NO3(-) from water is the main responsible for the effective nitrate removal in PANI, as assessed by FTIR and XPS analyses, the nitrate removal mechanism on PPy is based in an electron transfer from the polymer to nitrate through N sites located in the pyrrolic ring. On the other hand, PT was not able to exchange nitrate unless it was synthesized with FeCl3 as oxidant/dopant and an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate -SDS-) is used. In that case, the electrostatic attraction between sulfate (OSO3(-)) groups from the surfactant and Fe(3+) ions from FeCl3 produced the anchoring of Cl(-) to the oxidized PT growing chain, this favoring ion exchange with nitrate in the aqueous solution, followed by a redox process.

  16. Partitioning of Nitric Acid to Nitrate by NaCl and CaCO3 and Its Effect on Nitrogen Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. C.; Campbell, S. W.; Poor, N. D.

    2003-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides produced by combustion in automobile engines, power plant boilers, and industrial processes are transformed to nitric acid in the atmosphere. This nitric acid then deposits to land or water and may be a significant nitrogen input to sensitive coastal estuaries. The sodium chloride from sea salt spray and calcium carbonate from mineral dust react in the atmosphere with nitric acid to form sodium nitrate or calcium nitrate, respectively. The nitrate particle deposition velocity can be substantially lower than that of nitric acid, which may lower the atmospheric nitrogen deposition rate near the urban sources of nitrogen oxides but raise the deposition rate over the open water. The relative effects of different ambient air concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium carbonate on nitrogen atmospheric deposition rates were examined by using the EQUISOLVII model to estimate the partitioning of nitric acid to nitrate combined with the NOAA buoy model and Williams model to calculate the gas and aerosol deposition velocities.

  17. Glycine betaine uptake after hyperosmotic shift in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed Central

    Farwick, M; Siewe, R M; Krämer, R

    1995-01-01

    Osmoregulatory uptake of glycine betaine in whole cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 (wild type) was studied. The cells actively take up glycine betaine when they are osmotically shocked. The total accumulation and uptake rate were dependent on the osmotic strength of the medium. Kinetic analysis revealed a high-affinity transport system (Km, 8.6 +/- 0.4 microM) with high maximum velocity (110 nmol.min-1.mg [dry weight]-1). Glycine betaine functioned as a compatible solute when added to the medium and allowed growth at an otherwise inhibitory osmotic strength of 1.5 M NaCl. Proline and ectoine could also be used as osmoprotectants. Glycine betaine is neither synthesized nor metabolized by C. glutamicum. The glycine betaine transport system is constitutively expressed at a basal level of activity. It can be induced up to eightfold by osmotic stress and is strongly regulated at the level of activity. The transport system is highly specific and has its pH optimum in the slightly alkaline range at about pH 8. The uptake of the zwitterionic glycine betaine is mediated by a secondary symport system coupled to cotransport of at least two Na+ ions. It is thus driven both by the membrane potential and the Na+ gradient. An extremely high accumulation (internal/external) ratio of up to 4 x 10(6) was measured, which represents the highest accumulation ratio observed for any transport system. PMID:7642496

  18. Effect of temperature and pressure on the protonation of glycine

    PubMed Central

    Izatt, R. M.; Oscarson, J. L.; Gillespie, S. E.; Grimsrud, H.; Renuncio, J. A. R.; Pando, C.

    1992-01-01

    Flow calorimetry has been used to study the interaction of glycine with protons in water at temperatures of 298.15, 323.15, and 348.15 K and pressures up to 12.50 MPa. By combining the measured heat for glycine solutions titrated with NaOH with the heat of ionization for water, the enthalpy of protonation of glycine is obtained. The reaction is exothermic at all temperatures and pressures studied. The effect of pressure on the enthalpy of reaction is very small. The experimental heat data are analyzed to yield equilibrium constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), and entropy change (ΔS) values for the protonation reaction as a function of temperature. These values are compared with those reported previously at 298.15 K. The ΔH and ΔS values increase (become more positive), whereas log K values decrease, as temperature increases. The trends for ΔH and ΔS with temperature are opposite to those reported previously for the protonation of several alkanolamines. However, log K values for proton interaction with both glycine and the alkanolamines decrease with increasing temperature. The effect of the nitrogen atom substituent on log K for protonation of glycine and alkanolamines is discussed in terms of changes in long-range and short-range solvent effects. These effects are used to explain the difference in ΔH and ΔS trends between glycine protonation and those found earlier for alkanolamine protonation. PMID:19431832

  19. Molecular basis for substrate discrimination by glycine transporters.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Robert J; Shaddick, Kim; Ju, Pengchu

    2007-05-11

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brain stem, where it acts on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, and is also an excitatory neurotransmitter throughout the brain and spinal cord, where it acts on the N-methyl-d-aspartate family of receptors. There are two Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent glycine transporters, GLYT1 and GLYT2, which control extracellular glycine concentrations and these transporters show differences in substrate selectivity and blocker sensitivity. A bacterial Na(+)-dependent leucine transporter (LeuT(Aa)) has recently been crystallized and its structure determined. When the amino acid residues within the leucine binding site of LeuT(Aa) are aligned with residues of the two glycine transporters there are a number of identical residues and also some key differences. In this report, we demonstrate that the LeuT(Aa) structure represents a good working model of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitters and that differences in substrate selectivity can be attributed to a single difference of a glycine residue in transmembrane domain 6 of GLYT1 for a serine residue at the corresponding position of GLYT2.

  20. Reduction of nitrate in Shewanella

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Yang, Zamin Koo; Barua, Sumitra; Reed, SB; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrikson, JK; Tiedje, James; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, a napDAGHB gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) and accessory proteins and an nrfA gene encoding periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfA) have been identified. These two systems seem to be atypical because the genome lacks genes encoding cytoplasmic membrane electron transport proteins, NapC for NAP and NrfBCD/NrfH for NRF, respectively. Here, we present evidence that reduction of nitrate to ammonium in S. oneidensis is carried out by these atypical systems in a two-step manner. Transcriptional and mutational analyses suggest that CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane electron transport protein, is likely to be the functional replacement of both NapC and NrfH in S. oneidensis. Surprisingly, a strain devoid of napB encoding the small subunit of nitrate reductase exhibited the maximum cell density sooner than the wild type. Further characterization of this strain showed that nitrite was not detected as a free intermediate in its culture and NapB provides a fitness gain for S. oneidensis to compete for nitrate in the environments. On the basis results from mutational analyses of napA, napB, nrfA and napBnrfA in-frame deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively.

  1. Réduction in situ des ions nitrate dans des eaux par les bactéries indigènes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Deng, Lijun; Nuttall, Eric; Lutze, Werner; Fritz, Bertrand; Crovisier, Jean-Louis

    1999-02-01

    We studied the possibility of cleaning groundwater contaminated with nitrate ions using indigenous bacteria. The groundwater occurs in a site located near a former vegetable farm near Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA) and contains up to 500 mg·L -1 of nitrate ion. Batch and column experiments using groundwater and local sediment showed that indigenous bacteria catalyzed the nitrate ions reduction. Sodium acetate was selected as the best carbon source for the in situ application. As expected, the best conditions for denitrification were encountered in situ. Nitrate ions and their byproducts were reduced to nitrogen gas within 5 days.

  2. Dietary inorganic nitrate alleviates doxorubicin cardiotoxicity: mechanisms and implications.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lei; Zhu, Shu-Guang; Das, Anindita; Chen, Qun; Durrant, David; Hobbs, Daniel C; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2012-05-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most powerful and widely prescribed chemotherapeutic agents to treat divergent human cancers. However, the clinical use of DOX is restricted due to its severe cardiotoxic side-effects. There has been ongoing search for cardioprotectants against DOX toxicity. Inorganic nitrate has emerged as a bioactive compound that can be reduced into nitrite and nitric oxide in vivo and in turn plays a therapeutic role in diseases associated with nitric oxide insufficiency or dysregulation. In this review, we describe a novel concept of using dietary supplementation of inorganic nitrate to reduce DOX-induced cardiac cellular damage and dysfunction, based on our recent promising studies in a mouse model of DOX cardiotoxicity. Our data show that chronic oral ingestion of sodium nitrate, at a dose equivalent to ~400% of the Acceptable Daily Intake of the World Health Organization, alleviated DOX-induced left ventricular dysfunction and mitochondrial respiratory chain damage. Such cardioprotective effects were associated with reduction of cardiomyocyte necrosis/apoptosis, tissue lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial H(2)O(2) generation following DOX treatment. Furthermore, proteomic studies revealed enhanced cardiac expression of mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme - peroxiredoxin 5 in the nitrate-treated animals. These studies suggest that inorganic nitrate could be an inexpensive therapeutic agent for long-term oral administration in preventing DOX-induced cardiac toxicity and myopathy during the prolonged pathological process. Future clinical trials in the cancer patients undergoing DOX chemotherapy are warranted to translate these experimental findings into an effective new therapy in preventing the DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Inorganic Nitrate Alleviates Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity: Mechanisms and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Lei; Zhu, Shu-Guang; Das, Anindita; Chen, Qun; Durrant, David; Hobbs, Daniel C.; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most powerful and widely prescribed chemotherapeutic agents to treat divergent human cancers. However, the clinical use of DOX is restricted due to its severe cardiotoxic side-effects. There has been ongoing search for cardioprotectants against DOX toxicity. Inorganic nitrate has emerged as a bioactive compound that can be reduced into nitrite and nitric oxide in vivo and in turn plays a therapeutic role in diseases associated with nitric oxide insufficiency or dysregulation. In this review, we describe a novel concept of using dietary supplementation of inorganic nitrate to reduce DOX-induced cardiac cellular damage and dysfunction, based on our recent promising studies in a mouse model of DOX cardiotoxicity. Our data show that chronic oral ingestion of sodium nitrate, at a dose equivalent to ~400% of the Acceptable Daily Intake of the World Health Organization, alleviated DOX-induced left ventricular dysfunction and mitochondrial respiratory chain damage. Such cardioprotective effects were associated with reduction of cardiomyocyte necrosis/apoptosis, tissue lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial H2O2 generation following DOX treatment. Furthermore, proteomic studies revealed enhanced cardiac expression of mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme – peroxiredoxin 5 in the nitrate-treated animals. These studies suggest that inorganic nitrate could be an inexpensive therapeutic agent for long-term oral administration in preventing DOX-induced cardiac toxicity and myopathy during the prolonged pathological process. Future clinical trials in the cancer patients undergoing DOX chemotherapy are warranted to translate these experimental findings into an effective new therapy in preventing the DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:22484629

  4. Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of azo dye (Direct Blue 15) using solvothermally synthesized copper hydroxide nitrate as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuzhong; Zhou, Xiang; Fu, Bei; Chen, Yiliang

    2011-03-15

    Copper hydroxide nitrate (Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3)) was synthesized solvothermally in anhydrous ethanol and characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG-DTA and SEM. The peroxide degradation of an azo dye (Direct Blue 15) on this material was evaluated by examining catalyst loading, initial pH, hydrogen peroxide dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature. The leaching of Cu from the copper hydroxide nitrate during the reaction was also measured. The copper hydroxide nitrate synthesized solvothermally, which was of a novel spherical morphology with complex secondary structures and contained high-dispersed Cu(2)O impurity, showed good performance for oxidation degradation of the azo dye, especially high catalytic activity, high utilization of hydrogen peroxide and a wide pH range, whereas the copper hydroxide nitrate synthesized by the direct reaction of copper nitrate and sodium hydroxide showed low catalytic activity.

  5. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production.

  6. Comparative Mapping of the Wild Perennial Glycine latifolia and Soybean (G. max) Reveals Extensive Chromosome Rearrangements in the Genus Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S.; Brown, Patrick J.; Hartman, Glen L.; Lambert, Kris N.; Domier, Leslie L.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production. PMID

  7. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 Ω m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 Ω m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 μV K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 μV K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  8. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of potassium nitrate desensitizing mouthwash and a toothpaste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunita; Shetty, Neetha J; Uppoor, Ashita

    2012-02-01

    Potassium Nitrate has been used as a desensitizing agent to treat dentinal hypersensitivity. The effectiveness of a potassium nitrate is evaluated both in the form of a toothpaste and a mouthwash in a clinical study. Thirty patients were assessed using evaporative stimuli and thermal stimuli and response was evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale at baseline, at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. The patients were divided into. group I: fifteen patients who used toothpaste containing 5% potassium nitrate, sodium fluoride, xylitol and triclosan, group II: Fifteen patients who used mouthwash containing 3% potassium nitrate, sodium fluoride, xylitol and triclosan . The results of both the assessment methods indicated that potassium nitrate toothpaste as well as mouthwash showed statistically significant decrease in the sensitivity score on a Visual Analogue Scale. This was effective in reducing the symptoms of dentinal hypersensitivity when used either as toothpaste or as a mouthwash. But, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups, although both were effective in the treatment of hypersensitivity. Key words:Dentinal hypersensitivity, potassium nitrate toothpaste, potassium nitrate mouthwash, desensitizing agents.

  9. Inoculation Method for Studying Early Responses of Glycine max to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, R.; Knap, H. T.; Lewis, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    An inoculation technique was developed for studying molecular responses of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Effect of inoculum age (0-7 days after eggs were released from cysts) and inoculation site (meristem, elongation, or differentiation zone) on infection were tested on four soybean genotypes. Two genotypes (PI 437654 and cv. Peking) were resistant and two (cv. Essex and cv. Hutcheson) were susceptible to race 3 of H. glycines. Inoculum consisting of second-stage juveniles (J2) was prepared by gently agitating nematode eggs at 75 revolutions per minute at 28 °C for various intervals. Infection rates were monitored cytologically. The most consistent infection rate was obtained with 48-hour-old inoculum containing more than 80% J2. More than 100 juveniles/root were observed after inoculation with the 48-hour-old inoculum placed at the root elongation zone, in both resistant and susceptible soybeans. Horizontal orientation of roots during inoculation, the use of concentrated J2 inoculurn (500 J2 in 125 μl/root), and restriction of inoculum to the root elongation zone facilitated synchronous root infection. PMID:19274216

  10. [Relationship between chloride tolerance and polyamine accumulation in Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid seedlings].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan-Qin; Yu, Bing-Jun; Liu, You-Liang

    2007-02-01

    The seedlings of the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' selected for salt tolerance generation by generation, their parents Glycine max cv. Jackson and Glycine soja population 'BB52' were treated with different NaCl concentrations and iso-osmotic (-0.53 MPa) PEG-6000, NaCl, Na+ (without Cl-) and Cl- (without Na+) solutions for 6 d. The results showed that: (1) The relative electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of the above three soybean seedlings showed an increase trend when the NaCl concentration was elevated, but chlorophyll contents decreased except the significant increase in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under NaCl 50 mmol/L stress. The change in 'JB185' was between its parents. (2) Under different iso-osmotic stresses, the relative electrolyte leakage and MDA contents in leaves of three soybean seedlings also increased mostly, the changes in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under Na+ (without Cl-) stress were more than those under Cl- (without Na+) stress. The free and bound Put, Spd and Spm contents in leaves all increased when compared with the control, the ratios of free (Spd+Spm)/Put and total bound polyamines in 'BB52' and 'JB185' seedlings under Na+ (without Cl-) treatment were the lowest one among three iso-osmotic salt stresses. The results indicate that the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' is more sensitive to Na+ than Cl- as its wild parent 'BB52' population.

  11. Nitrate Trends in Minnesota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, Dave; Christopherson, Dave; Lorenz, Dave; Martin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term trends (30 to 35 years) of flow-adjusted concentrations of nitrite+nitrate-N (hereinafter referred to as nitrate) in a way that would allow us to discern changing trends. Recognizing that these trends are commonly different from one river to another river and from one part of the state to another, our objective was to examine as many river monitoring sites across the state as possible for which sufficient long term streamflow and concentration data were available.

  12. Implications for glycine receptors and astrocytes in ethanol-induced elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Adermark, Louise; Clarke, Rhona B C; Olsson, Torsten; Hansson, Elisabeth; Söderpalm, Bo; Ericson, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Elevated dopamine levels are believed to contribute to the rewarding sensation of ethanol (EtOH), and previous research has shown that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) are involved in regulating dopamine release and in mediating the reinforcing effects of EtOH. Furthermore, the osmoregulator taurine, which is released from astrocytes treated with EtOH, can act as an endogenous ligand for the glycine receptor, and increase extracellular dopamine levels. The aim of this study was to address if EtOH-induced swelling of astrocytes could contribute to elevated dopamine levels by increasing the extracellular concentration of taurine. Cell swelling was estimated by optical sectioning of fluorescently labeled astrocytes in primary cultures from rat, and showed that EtOH (25-150 mM) increased astrocyte cell volumes in a concentration- and ion-dependent manner. The EtOH-induced cell swelling was inhibited in cultures treated with the Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl⁻ cotransporter blocker furosemide (1 mM), Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibitor ouabain (0.1 mM), potassium channel inhibitor BaCl₂ (50 µM) and in cultures containing low extracellular sodium concentration (3 mM). In vivo microdialysis performed in the nAc of awake and freely moving rats showed that local treatment with EtOH enhanced the concentrations of dopamine and taurine in the microdialysate, while glycine and β-alanine levels were not significantly modulated. EtOH-induced dopamine release was antagonized by local treatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (20 µM) or furosemide (100 µM or 1 mM). Furosemide also prevented EtOH-induced taurine release in the nAc. In conclusion, our data suggest that extracellular concentrations of dopamine and taurine are interconnected and that swelling of astrocytes contributes to the acute rewarding sensation of EtOH.

  13. Comparative effects of ammonium and nitrate compounds on Pacific treefrog and African clawed frog embryos.

    PubMed

    Schuytema, G S; Nebeker, A V

    1999-02-01

    The effects of ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and sodium nitrate on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla) and African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) embryos were determined in static-renewal tests. The 10-day LC50s for the three ammonium compounds for P. regilla ranged from 25.0-32. 4 mg/L NH4 -N. The 10-day sodium nitrate LC50 for P. regilla was 578. 0 mg/L NO3-N. LC50s for X. laevis exposed for 4 or 5 days to the three ammonium compounds ranged from 27.5-60.2 mg/L NH4-N. The sodium nitrate LC50 for X. laevis ranged from 438.4-871.6 mg/L NO3-N. The lowest LOAEL based on length or weight was 6.1 mg/L NH4-N for the two species. The lowest LOAELs for NO3-N were 111.1 mg/L for P. regilla and 56.7 mg/L for X. laevis. Calculated unionized NH3 comprised 0.5-1.8% of measured NH4-N concentrations. Potential harm to amphibian populations could occur if NH4-N and NO3-N in agricultural runoff or drainage impacts sensitive life stages for a sufficiently long period.

  14. Study of Nitrate Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough Using iTRAQ Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Joyner, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.

    2006-10-12

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH),a sulphate-reducing bacterium, to nitrate stress was examined usingquantitative proteomic analysis. DvH was stressed with 105 m M sodiumnitrate(NaNO3), a level that caused a 50 percent inhibition in growth.The protein profile of stressed cells was compared with that of cellsgrown in the absence of nitrate using the iTRAQ peptide labellingstrategy and tandem liquid chromatography separation coupled with massspectrometry (quadrupoletime-of-flight) detection. A total of 737 uniqueproteins were identified by two or more peptides, representing 22 percentof the total DvH proteome and spanning every functional category. Theresults indicate that this was a mild stress, as proteins involved incentral metabolism and the sulphate reduction pathway were unperturbed.Proteins involved in the nitrate reduction pathway increased. Increasesseen in transport systems for proline, glycine^ betaineandglutamateindicate that the NaNO3 exposure led to both salt stress and nitratestress.Up-regulation observed in oxidative stress response proteins (Rbr,RbO, etc.) and a large number of ABC transport systems as well as in iron^ sulphur -cluster-containing proteins, however, appear to be specific tonitrate exposure. Finally, a number of hypothetical proteins were amongthe most significant changers, indicating that there may be unknownmechanisms initiated upon nitrate stress in DvH.

  15. Acetaldehyde Oxime, A Product Formed during the In Vivo Nitrate Reductase Assay of Soybean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Charlene S.; Hageman, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Evolution of nitrogen oxides (NO(x), primarily as nitric oxide) from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves during purged in vivo nitrate reductase assays had been reported; however, these reports were based on a method that had been used for determination of NO(x) in air. This method also detects other N compounds. Preliminary work led us to doubt that the evolved N was nitric oxide. Studies were undertaken to identify the N compound evolved from the in vivo assay that had been reported as NO(x). Material for identification was obtained by cryogenic trapping and fractional distillation, and by chemical trapping procedures. Mass spectrometry, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and 15N-labeled nitrate were used to identify the compounds evolved and to determine whether these compounds were derived from nitrate. Acetaldehyde oxime was identified as the predominant N compound evolved and this compound is readily detected by the method for NO(x) determination. Substantial quantities of acetaldehyde oxime (16.2 micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour) were evolved during the in vivo assay. Small amounts of nitrous oxide (0.63 micrograms N per gram fresh weight per hour) were evolved, but this compound is not detected as NO(x). Acetaldehyde oxime and nitrous oxide were both produced as a result of nitrate (15NO3−) reduction during the assay. PMID:16663781

  16. Acetaldehyde Oxime, A Product Formed during the In Vivo Nitrate Reductase Assay of Soybean Leaves.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, C S; Hageman, R H

    1984-09-01

    Evolution of nitrogen oxides (NO((x)), primarily as nitric oxide) from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves during purged in vivo nitrate reductase assays had been reported; however, these reports were based on a method that had been used for determination of NO((x)) in air. This method also detects other N compounds. Preliminary work led us to doubt that the evolved N was nitric oxide. Studies were undertaken to identify the N compound evolved from the in vivo assay that had been reported as NO((x)). Material for identification was obtained by cryogenic trapping and fractional distillation, and by chemical trapping procedures. Mass spectrometry, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and (15)N-labeled nitrate were used to identify the compounds evolved and to determine whether these compounds were derived from nitrate. Acetaldehyde oxime was identified as the predominant N compound evolved and this compound is readily detected by the method for NO((x)) determination. Substantial quantities of acetaldehyde oxime (16.2 micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour) were evolved during the in vivo assay. Small amounts of nitrous oxide (0.63 micrograms N per gram fresh weight per hour) were evolved, but this compound is not detected as NO((x)). Acetaldehyde oxime and nitrous oxide were both produced as a result of nitrate ((15)NO(3) (-)) reduction during the assay.

  17. Anaerobic Nitrate-Dependent Metal Bio-Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, K.; Knox, T.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Direct biological oxidation of reduced metals (Fe(II) and U(IV)) coupled to nitrate reduction at circumneutral pH under anaerobic conditions has been recognized in several environments as well as pure culture. Several phylogentically diverse mesophilic bacteria have been described as capable of anaerobic, nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation (NFOx). Our recent identification of a freshwater mesophilic, lithoautotroph, Ferrutens nitratireducens strain 2002, capable of growth through NFOx presents an opportunity to further study metal bio- oxidation. Continuing physiological studies revealed that in addition to Fe(II) oxidation, strain 2002 is capable of oxidizing U(IV) (4 μM) in washed cell suspensions with nitrate serving as the electron acceptor. Pasteurized cultures exhibited abiotic oxidation of 2 μM U(IV). Under growth conditions, strain 2002 catalyzed the oxidation of 12 μM U(IV) within a two week period. Cultures amended with sodium azide, an electron transport inhibitor, demonstrated limited oxidation (7 μM) similar to pasteurized cultures, supporting the direct role of electron transport in U(IV) bio-oxidation. The oxidation of U(IV) coupled denitrification at circumneutral pH would yield enough energy to support anaerobic microbial growth (ΔG°'= -460.36 kJ/mole). It is currently unknown whether or not strain 2002 can couple this metabolism to growth. The growth of F. nitratireducens strain 2002 utilizing Fe(II) as the sole electron donor was previously demonstrated. The amount of U(IV) (~12 μM) that strain 2002 oxidized under similar autotrophic growth conditions yields 0.0019 kJ, enough energy for the generation of ATP (5.3 x 10-20 kJ ATP-1), but not enough energy for cell replication as calculated for nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing conditions (0.096 kJ) assuming a similar metabolism. In addition to F. nitratireducens strain 2002, a nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidizing bacterium isolated from U contaminated groundwater, Diaphorobacter sp. strain

  18. Nitrate transport and signalling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Anne; David, Laure C; Chardin, Camille; Girin, Thomas; Marmagne, Anne; Leprince, Anne-Sophie; Chaillou, Sylvain; Ferrario-Méry, Sylvie; Meyer, Christian; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise

    2014-03-01

    Plants have developed adaptive responses allowing them to cope with nitrogen (N) fluctuation in the soil and maintain growth despite changes in external N availability. Nitrate is the most important N form in temperate soils. Nitrate uptake by roots and its transport at the whole-plant level involves a large panoply of transporters and impacts plant performance. Four families of nitrate-transporting proteins have been identified so far: nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF), nitrate transporter 2 family (NRT2), the chloride channel family (CLC), and slow anion channel-associated homologues (SLAC/SLAH). Nitrate transporters are also involved in the sensing of nitrate. It is now well established that plants are able to sense external nitrate availability, and hence that nitrate also acts as a signal molecule that regulates many aspects of plant intake, metabolism, and gene expression. This review will focus on a global picture of the nitrate transporters so far identified and the recent advances in the molecular knowledge of the so-called primary nitrate response, the rapid regulation of gene expression in response to nitrate. The recent discovery of the NIN-like proteins as master regulators for nitrate signalling has led to a new understanding of the regulation cascade.

  19. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  20. Short-term effects of a high nitrate diet on nitrate metabolism in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2015-03-12

    Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days increased nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables was determined. Salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite was measured at baseline [D0], end of high nitrate diet [D7], day 9 [+2D], day 14 [+7D] and day 21 [+14D]. Urinary nitrite and nitrate was assessed at D7 and +14D. Increased dietary nitrate for 7 days resulted in a more than fourfold increase in saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite (p < 0.001) measured at [D7]. At [+2D] plasma nitrite and nitrate had returned to baseline while saliva nitrate and nitrite were more than 1.5 times higher than at baseline levels. By [+7D] all metabolites had returned to baseline levels. The pattern of response was similar between men and women. Urinary nitrate and nitrate was sevenfold higher at D7 compared to +14D. These results suggest that daily ingestion of nitrate may be required to maintain the physiological changes associated with high nitrate intake.