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Sample records for glycogenesis inhibition hypoxia

  1. Gene expression profiling in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy revealed inflammation, glycogenesis inhibition, hypoxia and mitochondrial dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Barrey, Eric; Mucher, Elodie; Jeansoule, Nicolas; Larcher, Thibaut; Guigand, Lydie; Herszberg, Bérénice; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Guérin, Gérard; Mata, Xavier; Benech, Philippe; Canale, Marielle; Alibert, Olivier; Maltere, Péguy; Gidrol, Xavier

    2009-08-07

    ) destabilization. The main disorders observed in PSSM muscles could be related to mitochondrial dysfunctions, glycogenesis inhibition and the chronic hypoxia of the PSSM muscles.

  2. Can hi-jacking hypoxia inhibit extracellular vesicles in cancer?

    PubMed

    Lowry, Michelle C; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2018-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key players in undesirable cell-cell communication in cancer. However, the release of EVs is not unique to cancer cells; normal cells release EVs to perform physiological roles. Thus, selective inhibition of EV release from cancer cells is desirable. Hypoxia contributes to tumour development and aggressiveness. EV quantities and thus undesirable communications are substantially increased in hypoxia. Targeting hypoxia could selectively inhibit EV release from tumour cells without disturbing physiologically relevant EVs. The unfavourable association between hypoxia and EV release is evident in multiple tumour types; therefore, targeting hypoxia could have a broad therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The selective control of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis by temporal insulin patterns.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Rei; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Yugi, Katsuyuki; Toyoshima, Yu; Komori, Yasunori; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Kuroda, Shinya

    2013-05-14

    Insulin governs systemic glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis, through temporal change and absolute concentration. However, how insulin-signalling pathway selectively regulates glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, we experimentally measured metabolites in glucose metabolism in response to insulin. Step stimulation of insulin induced transient response of glycolysis and glycogenesis, and sustained response of gluconeogenesis and extracellular glucose concentration (GLC(ex)). Based on the experimental results, we constructed a simple computational model that characterises response of insulin-signalling-dependent glucose metabolism. The model revealed that the network motifs of glycolysis and glycogenesis pathways constitute a feedforward (FF) with substrate depletion and incoherent feedforward loop (iFFL), respectively, enabling glycolysis and glycogenesis responsive to temporal changes of insulin rather than its absolute concentration. In contrast, the network motifs of gluconeogenesis pathway constituted a FF inhibition, enabling gluconeogenesis responsive to absolute concentration of insulin regardless of its temporal patterns. GLC(ex) was regulated by gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. These results demonstrate the selective control mechanism of glucose metabolism by temporal patterns of insulin.

  4. The selective control of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis by temporal insulin patterns

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Rei; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Yugi, Katsuyuki; Toyoshima, Yu; Komori, Yasunori; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Kuroda, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    Insulin governs systemic glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis, through temporal change and absolute concentration. However, how insulin-signalling pathway selectively regulates glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, we experimentally measured metabolites in glucose metabolism in response to insulin. Step stimulation of insulin induced transient response of glycolysis and glycogenesis, and sustained response of gluconeogenesis and extracellular glucose concentration (GLCex). Based on the experimental results, we constructed a simple computational model that characterises response of insulin-signalling-dependent glucose metabolism. The model revealed that the network motifs of glycolysis and glycogenesis pathways constitute a feedforward (FF) with substrate depletion and incoherent feedforward loop (iFFL), respectively, enabling glycolysis and glycogenesis responsive to temporal changes of insulin rather than its absolute concentration. In contrast, the network motifs of gluconeogenesis pathway constituted a FF inhibition, enabling gluconeogenesis responsive to absolute concentration of insulin regardless of its temporal patterns. GLCex was regulated by gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. These results demonstrate the selective control mechanism of glucose metabolism by temporal patterns of insulin. PMID:23670537

  5. c-MYC inhibition impairs hypoxia response in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Falchetti, Maria Laura; Illi, Barbara; Bozzo, Francesca; Valle, Cristiana; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Nasi, Sergio; Levi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The c-MYC oncoprotein is a DNA binding transcription factor that enhances the expression of many active genes. c-MYC transcriptional signatures vary according to the transcriptional program defined in each cell type during differentiation. Little is known on the involvement of c-MYC in regulation of gene expression programs that are induced by extracellular cues such as a changing microenvironment. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of c-MYC in glioblastoma multiforme cells blunts hypoxia-dependent glycolytic reprogramming and mitochondria fragmentation in hypoxia. This happens because c-MYC inhibition alters the cell transcriptional response to hypoxia and finely tunes the expression of a subset of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-regulated genes. We also show that genes whose expression in hypoxia is affected by c-MYC inhibition are able to distinguish the Proneural subtype of glioblastoma multiforme, thus potentially providing a molecular signature for this class of tumors that are the least tractable among glioblastomas. PMID:27119353

  6. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Zappala, Giovanna, E-mail: zappalag@mail.nih.gov; Rechler, Matthew M.; Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD

    2009-05-15

    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} andmore » inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.« less

  7. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brose, Stephen A; Golovko, Svetlana A; Golovko, Mikhail Y

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FA synthesis maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FA synthesis inhibition on [Formula: see text]/NAD + and [Formula: see text]/NADP + ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FA synthesis inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase), increased [Formula: see text]/NAD + and [Formula: see text]/NADP + ratios under hypoxia. Further, FA synthesis inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke.

  8. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Brose, Stephen A.; Golovko, Svetlana A.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FA synthesis maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FA synthesis inhibition on NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FA synthesis inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase), increased NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios under hypoxia. Further, FA synthesis inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke. PMID:27965531

  9. Pentoxifylline inhibits hypoxia-induced upregulation of tumor cell tissue factor and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Meyer, T; Warnes, G; Amaya, M; Malik, Z; Biggerstaff, J P; Siddiqui, F A; Sherman, P; Francis, J L

    1998-10-01

    Tissue factor (TF), the membrane glycoprotein that initiates blood coagulation, is constitutively expressed by many tumor cells and is implicated in peri-tumor fibrin deposition and hypercoagulability in cancer. Upregulation of tumor TF correlates with enhanced metastatic potential. Furthermore, TF has been colocalized with VEGF in breast cancer, specially at sites of early angiogenesis. There are no data on the effect of hypoxia on tumor cell TF expression. Since hypoxia is known to stimulate VEGF production, we studied whether this also induces tumor cell TF expression. Confluent monolayers of A375 melanoma, MCF-7 breast carcinoma and A549 lung carcinoma were cultured in either 95% air, 5% CO2 (normoxic) or 95% N2, 5% CO2 (hypoxic; 25-30 mmHg) for 24 h. Procoagulant activity (PCA) was measured by amidolytic and clotting assays, surface TF antigen by flow cytometry, early apoptosis by annexin V binding and VEGF levels in culture supernatants by ELISA. Hypoxia significantly increased tumor cell PCA in all three cell lines tested and TF antigen on A375 cells was increased four-fold (P <0.05). Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase in PCA as well as VEGF release in all three cell lines tested. In A375 cells, PTX significantly inhibited TF antigen expression by both normoxic and hypoxic cells. Hypoxia induced a slight (5%) but not significant, increase in early apoptosis. Intravenous injection of hypoxic A375 cells into nude rats produced more pronounced thrombocytopenia (n = 5, P <0.01) and more lung metastases (n = 3, P <0.05) compared to normoxic cells. We conclude that hypoxia increases TF expression by malignant cells which enhances tumor cell-platelet binding and hematogenous metastasis. Hypoxia-induced upregulation of TF appears to parallel that of VEGF, although the mechanism remains unclear.

  10. Influence of hypoxia on excitation and GABAergic inhibition in mature and developing rat neocortex.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, H J; Kral, T; Heinemann, U

    1993-01-01

    To analyze the functional consequences of hypoxia on the efficacy of intracortical inhibitory mechanisms mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), extra- and intracellular recordings were obtained from rat primary somatosensory cortex in vitro. Hypoxia, induced by transient N2 aeration, caused a decrease in stimulus-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), followed by a pronounced anoxic depolarization. Upon reoxygenation, the fast (f-) and long-latency (l-) IPSP showed a positive shift in the reversal potential by 24.4 and 14.9 mV, respectively. The peak conductance of the f- and l-IPSP was reversibly reduced in the postanoxic period by 72% and 94%, respectively. Extracellular field potential recordings and application of a paired-pulse inhibition protocol confirmed the enhanced sensitivity of inhibitory synaptic transmission for transient oxygen deprivation. Intracellular recordings from morphologically or electrophysiologically identified interneurons did not reveal any enhanced susceptibility for hypoxia as compared to pyramidal cells, suggesting that inhibitory neurons are not selectively impaired in their functional properties. Intracellularly recorded spontaneous IPSPs were transiently augmented in the postanoxic period, indicating that presynaptic GABA release was not suppressed. Developmental studies in adult (older than postnatal day 28), juvenile (P14-18), and young (P5-8) neocortical slices revealed a prominent functional resistance of immature tissue for hypoxia. In comparison with adult cortex, the hypoxia-induced reduction in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission was significantly smaller in immature cortex. Our data indicate a hypoxia-induced distinct reduction of postsynaptic GABAergic mechanisms, leading to the manifestation of intracortical hyperexcitability as a possible functional consequence.

  11. JNK1 Inhibition Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Autophagy and Sensitizes to Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vasilevskaya, Irina A; Selvakumaran, Muthu; Roberts, David; O'Dwyer, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Inhibition of hypoxia-induced stress signaling through JNK potentiates the effects of oxaliplatin. The JNK pathway plays a role in both autophagy and apoptosis; therefore, it was determined how much of the effect of JNK inhibition on oxaliplatin sensitivity is dependent on its effect on autophagy. We studied the impact of JNK isoform downregulation in the HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line on hypoxia- and oxaliplatin-induced responses. Electron microscopic analyses demonstrated that both oxaliplatin- and hypoxia-induced formations of autophagosomes were reduced significantly in HT29 cells treated with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. The role of specific JNK isoforms was defined using HT29-derived cell lines stably expressing dominant-negative constructs for JNK1 and JNK2 (HTJ1.3 and HTJ2.2, respectively). These cell lines demonstrated that functional JNK1 is required for hypoxia-induced autophagy and that JNK2 does not substitute for it. Inhibition of autophagy in HTJ1.3 cells also coincided with enhancement of intrinsic apoptosis. Analysis of Bcl2-family proteins revealed hyperphosphorylation of Bcl-XL in the HTJ1.3 cell line, but this did not lead to the expected dissociation from Beclin 1. Consistent with this, knockdown of Bcl-XL in HT29 cells did not significantly affect the induction of autophagy, but abrogated hypoxic resistance to oxaliplatin due to the faster and more robust activation of apoptosis. These data suggest that balance between autophagy and apoptosis is shifted toward apoptosis by downregulation of JNK1, contributing to oxaliplatin sensitization. These findings further support the investigation of JNK inhibition in colorectal cancer treatment. Mol Cancer Res; 14(8); 753-63. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Inhibition of intracellular lipolysis promotes human cancer cell adaptation to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Saarinen, Alicia M; Hitosugi, Taro; Wang, Zhenghe; Wang, Liguo; Ho, Thai H

    2017-01-01

    Tumor tissues are chronically exposed to hypoxia owing to aberrant vascularity. Lipid droplet (LD) accumulation is a hallmark of hypoxic cancer cells, yet how LDs form and function during hypoxia remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that in various cancer cells upon oxygen deprivation, HIF-1 activation down-modulates LD catabolism mediated by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the key enzyme for intracellular lipolysis. Proteomics and functional analyses identified hypoxia-inducible gene 2 (HIG2), a HIF-1 target, as a new inhibitor of ATGL. Knockout of HIG2 enhanced LD breakdown and fatty acid (FA) oxidation, leading to increased ROS production and apoptosis in hypoxic cancer cells as well as impaired growth of tumor xenografts. All of these effects were reversed by co-ablation of ATGL. Thus, by inhibiting ATGL, HIG2 acts downstream of HIF-1 to sequester FAs in LDs away from the mitochondrial pathways for oxidation and ROS generation, thereby sustaining cancer cell survival in hypoxia. PMID:29256392

  13. Hypoxia inhibits the growth, differentiation and bone-forming capacity of rat osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Utting, J.C.; Robins, S.P.; Brandao-Burch, A.

    2006-06-10

    We investigated the effect of hypoxia on rat osteoblast function in long-term primary cultures. Reduction of pO{sub 2} from 20% to 5% and 2% decreased formation of mineralized bone nodules 1.7-fold and 11-fold, respectively. When pO{sub 2} was reduced further to 0.2%, bone nodule formation was almost abolished. The inhibitory effect of hypoxia on bone formation was partly due to decreased osteoblast proliferation, as measured by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. Hypoxia also sharply reduced osteoblast alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expression of mRNAs for ALP and osteocalcin, suggesting inhibition of differentiation to the osteogenic phenotype. Hypoxia did not increase the apoptosismore » of osteoblasts but induced a reversible state of quiescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that collagen fibrils deposited by osteoblasts cultured in 2% O{sub 2} were less organized and much less abundant than in 20% O{sub 2} cultures. Furthermore, collagen produced by hypoxic osteoblasts contained a lower percentage of hydroxylysine residues and exhibited an increased sensitivity to pepsin degradation. These data demonstrate the absolute oxygen requirement of osteoblasts for successful bone formation and emphasize the importance of the vasculature in maintaining bone health. We recently showed that hypoxia also acts in a reciprocal manner as a powerful stimulator of osteoclast formation. Considered together, our results help to explain the bone loss that occurs at the sites of fracture, tumors, inflammation and infection, and in individuals with vascular disease or anemia.« less

  14. Inhibition of autophagy by berberine enhances the survival of H9C2 myocytes following hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhuyin; Lin, Lu; Huang, Shanjun; Zhu, Zhouyang; Huang, Weijian; Huang, Zhouqing

    2017-08-01

    Hypoxia may induce apoptosis and autophagy to promote cardiomyocyte injury. The present study investigated the effect of berberine, a natural extract of Rhizoma Coptidis, on hypoxia‑induced autophagy and apoptosis in the H9c2 rat myocardial cell line. Expression levels of apoptosis and autophagy markers were upregulated in H9c2 myocytes during hypoxia and cell viability was reduced. However, berberine significantly reduced hypoxia‑induced autophagy in H9c2 myocytes, as demonstrated by the ratio of microtubule‑associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3 I/II and the expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein‑interacting protein 3, and promoted cell viability. In addition, expression levels of the Bcl‑2 anti‑apoptotic protein were significantly downregulated, and expression levels of pro‑apoptotic proteins Bcl‑2‑associated X protein and cleaved caspase‑3 were upregulated during hypoxia injury in cardiac myocytes. This was reversed by treatment with berberine or the autophagy inhibitor 3‑methyladenine, whereas the autophagy agonist rapamycin had the opposite effects, suggesting that berberine reduces myocyte cell death via inhibition of autophagy and apoptosis during hypoxia. In addition, Compound C, a 5' adenosine monophosphate‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, reduced apoptosis and autophagy in hypoxic myocytes, suggesting that the activation of the AMPK signaling pathway may be involved in this process. These findings suggested that berberine protects cells from hypoxia‑induced apoptosis via inhibition of autophagy and suppression of AMPK activation. Therefore, berberine may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of patients with cardiac myocyte injury and ischemia.

  15. Overexpression of ERβ is sufficient to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Choa; Lee, YoungJoo, E-mail: yjlee@sejong.ac.kr

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We examined the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition. • DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels in PC3 cells. • DPN did not show additional effect in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. • Our study shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in the prevention of breast cancer development and progression. We have previously shown that ERβ suppresses hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription through aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) degradation via ubiquitination processes. In this study, wemore » attempted to examine the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition in ERβ positive PC3 cells and ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. ERβ specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity in a similar fashion to estradiol in PC3 cells. We observed that DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels leading to an attenuation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene activation in PC3 cells. Treatment of DPN reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and co-treatment with ERβ specific antagonist PHTPP abrogated the effect in PC3 cells. We then examined the effect of DPN in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity repression by ERβ was not further reduced by DPN, as examined by HRE-driven luciferase assays. Expression of ERβ significantly decreased VEGF secretion and ARNT expression under hypoxic conditions. However, DPN did not additionally affect this suppression in MCF-7 cells transfected with ERβ. This result shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression.« less

  16. Sulforaphane inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression and migration of human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Sung, Bokyung; Kang, Yong Jung; Hwang, Seong Yeon; Kim, Min Jeong; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Im, Eunok; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2015-12-01

    The effects of sulforaphane (a natural product commonly found in broccoli) was investigated on hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in HCT116 human colon cancer cells and AGS human gastric cancer cells. We found that hypoxia-induced HIF-1α protein expression in HCT116 and AGS cells, while treatment with sulforaphane markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited HIF-1α expression in both cell lines. Treatment with sulforaphane inhibited hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in HCT116 cells. Treatment with sulforaphane modulated the effect of hypoxia on HIF-1α stability. However, degradation of HIF-1α by sulforaphane was not mediated through the 26S proteasome pathway. We also found that the inhibition of HIF-1α by sulforaphane was not mediated through AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation under hypoxic conditions. Finally, hypoxia-induced HCT116 cell migration was inhibited by sulforaphane. These data suggest that sulforaphane may inhibit human colon cancer progression and cancer cell angiogenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α and VEGF expression. Taken together, these results indicate that sulforaphane is a new and potent chemopreventive drug candidate for treating patients with human colon cancer.

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Hypoxia- But Not Anoxia-Induced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Activation in a von Hippel-Lindau- and Mitochondria-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Daijo, Hiroki; Harada, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Shun; Suzuki, Kengo; Takabuchi, Satoshi; Takenaga, Keizo; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: In addition to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously synthesized gaseous molecule that acts as an important signaling molecule in the living body. Transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is known to respond to intracellular reduced oxygen (O2) availability, which is regulated by an elaborate balance between O2 supply and demand. However, the effect of H2S on HIF-1 activity under hypoxic conditions is largely unknown in mammalian cells. In this study, we tried to elucidate the effect of H2S on hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation adopting cultured cells and mice. Results: The H2S donors sodium hydrosulfide and sodium sulfide in pharmacological concentrations reversibly reduced cellular O2 consumption and inhibited hypoxia- but not anoxia-induced HIF-1α protein accumulation and expression of genes downstream of HIF-1 in established cell lines. H2S did not affect HIF-1 activation induced by the HIF-α hydroxylases inhibitors desferrioxamine or CoCl2. Experimental evidence adopting von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)- or mitochondria-deficient cells indicated that H2S did not affect neosynthesis of HIF-1α protein but destabilized HIF-1α in a VHL- and mitochondria-dependent manner. We also demonstrate that exogenously administered H2S inhibited HIF-1–dependent gene expression in mice. Innovation: For the first time, we show that H2S modulates intracellular O2 homeostasis and regulates activation of HIF-1 and the subsequent gene expression induced by hypoxia by using an in vitro system with established cell lines and an in vivo system in mice. Conclusions: We demonstrate that H2S inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation in a VHL- and mitochondria-dependent manner. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 203–216. PMID:22004513

  18. Shikonin suppresses proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest through the inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming Yue; Mi, Chunliu; Wang, Ke Si; Wang, Zhe; Zuo, Hong Xiang; Piao, Lian Xun; Xu, Guang Hua; Li, Xuezheng; Ma, Juan; Jin, Xuejun

    2017-08-25

    Hypoxia enhances the development of solid tumors. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that is dominantly expressed under hypoxia in solid tumor cells and is a key factor of tumor regulation. HIF-1α regulates several target genes involved in many aspects of cancer progression, including angiogenesis, metastasis, and cell proliferation, as well as imparting resistance to cancer treatment. In this study, we assessed shikonin, which derives from the traditional medical herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, for its anti-cancer effects in hypoxia-induced human colon cancer cell lines. Shikonin showed potent inhibitory activity against hypoxia-induced HIF-1α activation in various human cancer cell lines and efficient scavenging activity of hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species in tumor cells. Further analysis revealed that shikonin inhibited HIF-1α protein synthesis without affecting the expression of HIF-1α mRNA or degrading HIF-1α protein. It was subsequently shown to attenuate the activation of downstream mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1/eIF4E kinase. Shikonin also dose-dependently caused the cell cycle arrest of activated HCT116 cells and inhibited the proliferation of HCT116 and SW620 cells. Moreover, it significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft modal. These findings suggest that shikonin could be considered for use as a potential drug in human colon cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-delivered hypoxia-inducible stanniocalcin-1 expression effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xin; Wang, Jianzhong; Qin, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Ischemia/hypoxia-induced oxidative stress is detrimental for the survival of cardiomyocytes and cardiac function. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1), a glycoprotein, has been found to play an inhibitory role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we speculated that the overexpression of STC-1 might alleviate oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes under conditions of hypoxia. To control the expression of STC-1 in hypoxia, we constructed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) to mediate hypoxia induction. Cardiomyocytes were infected with AAV-HRE-STC-1 and cultured in normoxic or hypoxic conditions, and STC-1 overexpression was only detected in hypoxic cultured cardiomyocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection was shown to significantly enhance cell survival under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis was inhibited by AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection by using the Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide apoptosis assay. Moreover, the proapoptotic protein Caspase-3 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, which were dysregulated by hypoxia, were reversed by AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection. AAV-HRE-STC-1-mediated STC-1 overexpression markedly inhibited ROS production in cardiomyocytes cultured under hypoxic conditions. AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection significantly upregulated uncoupled protein 3 (UCP3), whereas silencing of UCP3 blocked the inhibitory effect of AAV-HRE-STC-1 on ROS production. In contrast, AAV-HRE-STC-1 infection had no effect on UCP2, and knockdown of UCP2 did not block the inhibitory effect of AAV-HRE-STC-1 on ROS production in the cardiomyocytes cultured under hypoxic conditions. Taken together, STC1 activates antioxidant pathway in cardiomyocytes through the induction of UCP3, implying that AAV-HRE-STC-1 has potential in the treatment of ischemic

  20. Enhancement of hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 anti-tumor activity by Chk1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanying; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Sun, Jessica D; Liu, Qian; Ahluwalia, Dharmendra; Wang, Yan; Matteucci, Mark D; Hart, Charles P

    2015-05-21

    The hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 is reduced at its nitroimidazole group and selectively under hypoxic conditions releases the DNA cross-linker bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM). Here, we have explored the effect of Chk1 inhibition on TH-302-mediated pharmacological activities. We employed in vitro cell viability, DNA damage, cellular signaling assays and the in vivo HT29 human tumor xenograft model to study the effect of Chk1inhibition on TH-302 antitumor activities. TH-302 cytotoxicity is greatly enhanced by Chk1 inhibition in p53-deficient but not in p53-proficient human cancer cell lines. Chk1 inhibitors reduced TH-302-induced cell cycle arrest via blocking TH-302-induced decrease of phosphorylation of histone H3 and increasing Cdc2-Y15 phosphorylation. Employing the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, we observed a potentiation of the TH-302 dependent tail moment. TH-302 induced γH2AX and apoptosis were also increased upon the addition of Chk1 inhibitor. Potentiation of TH-302 cytotoxicity by Chk1 inhibitor was only observed in cell lines proficient in, but not deficient in homology-directed DNA repair. We also show that combination treatment led to lowering of Rad51 expression levels as compared to either agent alone. In vivo data demonstrate that Chk1 inhibitor enhances TH-302 anti-tumor activity in p53 mutant HT-29 human tumor xenografts, supporting the hypothesis that these in vitro results can translate to enhanced in vivo efficacy of the combination. TH-302-mediated in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities were greatly enhanced by the addition of Chk1 inhibitors. The preclinical data presented in this study support a new approach for the treatment of p53-deficient hypoxic cancers by combining Chk1 inhibitors with the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

  1. The Factor Inhibiting HIF Asparaginyl Hydroxylase Regulates Oxidative Metabolism and Accelerates Metabolic Adaptation to Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jingwei; Cowburn, Andrew S; Palazon, Asis; Madhu, Basetti; Tyrakis, Petros A; Macías, David; Bargiela, David M; Pietsch, Sandra; Gralla, Michael; Evans, Colin E; Kittipassorn, Thaksaon; Chey, Yu C J; Branco, Cristina M; Rundqvist, Helene; Peet, Daniel J; Johnson, Randall S

    2018-04-03

    Animals require an immediate response to oxygen availability to allow rapid shifts between oxidative and glycolytic metabolism. These metabolic shifts are highly regulated by the HIF transcription factor. The factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) is an asparaginyl hydroxylase that controls HIF transcriptional activity in an oxygen-dependent manner. We show here that FIH loss increases oxidative metabolism, while also increasing glycolytic capacity, and that this gives rise to an increase in oxygen consumption. We further show that the loss of FIH acts to accelerate the cellular metabolic response to hypoxia. Skeletal muscle expresses 50-fold higher levels of FIH than other tissues: we analyzed skeletal muscle FIH mutants and found a decreased metabolic efficiency, correlated with an increased oxidative rate and an increased rate of hypoxic response. We find that FIH, through its regulation of oxidation, acts in concert with the PHD/vHL pathway to accelerate HIF-mediated metabolic responses to hypoxia. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kruppel-like factor 2 inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression and function in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Kawanami, Daiji; Mahabeleshwar, Ganapati H; Lin, Zhiyong; Atkins, G Brandon; Hamik, Anne; Haldar, Saptarsi M; Maemura, Koji; Lamanna, Joseph C; Jain, Mukesh K

    2009-07-31

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a central regulator of the hypoxic response in many cell types. In endothelial cells, HIF-1 induces the expression of key proangiogenic factors to promote angiogenesis. Recent studies have identified Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. However, the role of KLF2 in regulating HIF-1 expression and function has not been evaluated. KLF2 expression was induced acutely by hypoxia in endothelial cells. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF2 inhibited hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1alpha and its target genes such as interleukin 8, angiopoietin-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells. Conversely, knockdown of KLF2 increased expression of HIF-1alpha and its targets. Furthermore, KLF2 inhibited hypoxia-induced endothelial tube formation, whereas endothelial cells from mice with haploinsufficiency of KLF2 showed increased tube formation in response to hypoxia. Consistent with this ex vivo observation, KLF2 heterozygous mice showed increased microvessel density in the brain. Mechanistically, KLF2 promoted HIF-1alpha degradation in a von Hippel-Lindau protein-independent but proteasome-dependent manner. Finally, KLF2 disrupted the interaction between HIF-1alpha and its chaperone Hsp90, suggesting that KLF2 promotes degradation of HIF-1alpha by affecting its folding and maturation. These observations identify KLF2 as a novel inhibitor of HIF-1alpha expression and function. Therefore, KLF2 may be a target for modulating the angiogenic response in disease states.

  3. 3-Bromopyruvate reverses hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension through inhibiting glycolysis: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangzheng; Wang, Heng; Lai, Jiadan; Cai, Shujing; Yuan, Linbo

    2018-05-04

    Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is vital to pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) pathogenesis, and inhibiting PASMC metabolism could serve as a new possible therapy to reverse the process. 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is an effective glycolysis inhibitor with its effect in PAH remains unclear. Our study aims to assess the therapeutic effect of 3-BrPA in PAH rats and investigate the possible mechanism of 3-BrPA in PASMC proliferation and apoptosis. 27 healthy SD rats were grouped and treated with hypoxia/normoxia and administration of 3-BrPA/physiological saline. Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was calculated. Right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) was calculated to evaluate the right ventricular hypertrophy degree. The percentage of medial wall area (WA%) and medial wall thickness (WT%) were measured by image analysis. PASMCs groups received hypoxia/normoxia treatments and 3-BrPA/physiological saline. PASMC proliferation and migration were respectively detected by CCK-8 and cell wound scratch assay. Hexokinase II (HK-2) expression and lactate level were respectively measured by Western Blotting and lactate test kit to detect glycolysis. mPAP, PVR, PVHI, WA% and WT% in rats increased after the hypoxia treatment, but were lower compared to rats received 3-BrPA in hypoxia environment. HK-2 expression, lactate concentration, OD value and scratch areas in PASMCs increased after the hypoxia treatment, but were decreased after the administration of 3-BrPA. 3-BrPA can inhibit PASMC proliferation and migration by inhibiting glycolysis, and is effective in reversing the vascular remodeling in hypoxia-induced PAH rats. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiac Function through Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan-Qing; Teng, Xu; Tian, Si-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Ran; Zhang, Yi

    2017-08-11

    We investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH)-induced cardiac protection. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIHH treatment simulating 5000 m altitude for 28 days, 6 hours per day. The heart was isolated and perfused with Langendorff apparatus and subjected to 30-min ischemia followed by 60-min reperfusion. Cardiac function, infarct size, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were assessed. Expression of ERS molecular chaperones (GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12) was assayed by western blot analysis. CIHH treatment improved the recovery of left ventricular function and decreased cardiac infarct size and activity of LDH after I/R compared to control rats. Furthermore, CIHH treatment inhibited over-expression of ERS-related factors including GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12. CIHH-induced cardioprotection and inhibition of ERS were eliminated by application of dithiothreitol, an ERS inducer, and chelerythrine, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. In conclusion CIHH treatment exerts cardiac protection against I/R injury through inhibition of ERS via PKC signaling pathway.

  5. N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhong, Shuping; Zheng, Fuchun; Zhang, Yanmei; Gao, Fenfei; Chen, Yicun; Lu, Binger; Xu, Han; Shi, Ganggang

    2015-09-22

    N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide (F2), a novel compound derived from haloperidol, protects against the damaging effects of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we hypothesized the myocardial protection of F2 on cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is mediated by inhibiting autophagy in H9c2 cells. The degree of autophagy by treatment with F2 exposed to H/R in H9c2 cell was characterized by monodansylcadaverine, transmission electron microscopy, and expression of autophagy marker protein LC3. Our results indicated that treatment with F2 inhibited autophagy in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R. 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, suppressed H/R-induced autophagy, and decreased apoptosis, whereas rapamycin, a classical autophagy sensitizer, increased autophagy and apoptosis. Mechanistically, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was inhibited by F2 treatment after H/R. Accordingly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated MIF knockdown decreased H/R-induced autophagy. In summary, F2 protects cardiomyocytes during H/R injury through suppressing autophagy activation. Our results provide a new mechanistic insight into a functional role of F2 against H/R-induced cardiomyocyte injury and death.

  6. Alpha-lipoic acid protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xueming; Chen, Aihua, E-mail: aihuachen2012@sina.com; Yang, Pingzhen

    Highlights: •We observed the cell viability and death subjected to H/R in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. •We observed the degree of autophagy subjected to H/R in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. •LA inhibited the degree of autophagy in parallel to the enhanced cell survival. •LA inhibited the autophagy in parallel to the decreased total cell death. •We concluded that LA protected cardiomyocytes against H/R by inhibiting autophagy. -- Abstract: Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) is an important in vitro model for exploring the molecular mechanisms and functions of autophagy during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) plays an important role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. Autophagy ismore » widely implicated in myocardial I/R injury. We assessed the degree of autophagy by pretreatment with LA exposed to H/R in H9c2 cell based on the expression levels of Beclin-1, LC3II/LC3I, and green fluorescent protein-labeled LC3 fusion proteins. Autophagic vacuoles were confirmed in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R using transmission electron microscopy. Our findings indicated that pretreatment with LA inhibited the degree of autophagy in parallel to the enhanced cell survival and decreased total cell death in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R. We conclude that LA protects cardiomyocytes against H/R injury by inhibiting autophagy.« less

  7. [Salidroside inhibits hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Lü, Bo-Dong; Chen, Shi-Tao; Zhang, Shi-Geng; Yang, Ke-Bing

    2013-08-01

    To explore the effects of salidroside on the phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMC) in hypoxic SD rats. CCSMCs were cultured in vitro and identified by immunohistochemistry. The cells were divided into six groups: normal control (21% O2), hypoxia (1% O2), hypoxia + salidroside 1 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 3 mg/L, hypoxia + salidroside 5 mg/L and hypoxia + PGE1 0.4 microg/L, and then cultured for 48 hours. The relative expressions of alpha-actin and osteopontin (OPN) in each group were determined by RT-PCR. The in vitro cultured CCSMCs grew well, with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin monoclonal antibodies immunohistochemically positive. The relative expression of alpha-actin was markedly decreased while that of OPN remarkably increased in the hypoxia group as compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01). The hypoxia + salidroside 5 mg/L group showed a significantly higher expression of alpha-actin and lower expression of OPN than the hypoxia group (P < 0.01), but exhibited no significant differences from the hypoxia + PGE group (P > 0.05). Hypoxia can reduce the relative expression level of alpha-actin and increase that of OPN in the CCSMCs of SD rats, namely, induce their phenotypic modulation from the contraction to the non-contraction type. Salidroside can restrain hypoxia-induced phenotypic modulation of CCSMCs, and its inhibitory effect at 5 mg/L is similar to that of PGE1.

  8. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Pathway Inhibition Resolves Tumor Hypoxia and Improves Local Tumor Control After Single-Dose Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Helbig, Linda; Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden; Koi, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effects of BAY-84-7296, a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activity, on hypoxia, microenvironment, and radiation response of tumors. Methods and Materials: UT-SCC-5 and UT-SCC-14 human squamous cell carcinomas were transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice. When tumors reached 4 mm in diameter BAY-84-7296 (Bayer Pharma AG) or carrier was daily administered to the animals. At 7 mm tumors were either excised for Western blot and immunohistologic investigations or were irradiated with single doses. After irradiation animals were randomized to receive BAY-84-7296 maintenance or carrier. Local tumor control was evaluatedmore » 150 days after irradiation, and the dose to control 50% of tumors (TCD{sub 50}) was calculated. Results: BAY-84-7296 decreased nuclear HIF-1α expression. Daily administration of inhibitor for approximately 2 weeks resulted in a marked decrease of pimonidazole hypoxic fraction in UT-SCC-5 (0.5% vs 21%, P<.0001) and in UT-SCC-14 (0.3% vs 19%, P<.0001). This decrease was accompanied by a significant increase in fraction of perfused vessels in UT-SCC-14 but not in UT-SCC-5. Bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 labeling indices were significantly reduced only in UT-SCC-5. No significant changes were observed in vascular area or necrosis. BAY-84-7296 before single-dose irradiation significantly decreased TCD{sub 50}, with an enhancement ratio of 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.72) in UT-SCC-5 and of 1.55 (95% CI 1.26-1.94) in UT-SCC-14. BAY-84-7296 maintenance after irradiation did not further decrease TCD{sub 50}. Conclusions: BAY-84-7296 resulted in a marked decrease in tumor hypoxia and substantially reduced radioresistance of tumor cells with the capacity to cause a local recurrence after irradiation. The data suggest that reduction of cellular hypoxia tolerance by BAY-84-7296 may represent the primary biological mechanism underlying the observed enhancement

  9. XuefuZhuyu decoction protected cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaowen; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Mingmei; Tang, Danli; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-06-19

    XuefuZhuyu decoction (XFZY) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, such as unstable angina pectoris and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism by which XFZY contributes to the amelioration of cardiac injury remains unclear. H9C2 cells were cultured under the hypoxic condition for 10 h and reoxygenated for 2 h. In the presence of various concentrations of XFZY for 12 h, the cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The protective effect of XFZY in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) cell model was confirmed by measuring the amount of LDH released into the extracellular fluid. Cell apoptosis was measured by western blotting. The autophagy level of H9C2 cells and the correlative pathway were determined by transmission electron microscopy, Cyto-ID® Autophagy Detection Kit, and western blotting. In this study, we investigated the effects of XFZY on H/R induced cardiac injury. The results showed that treatment with XFZY significantly inhibited autophagy induced by H/R, with decreased formation of autophagosomes as well as the expression of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and Beclin 1 after H/R. Importantly, inhibition of autophagy by XFZY resulted in enhanced cell viability and decreased apoptosis. XFZY also inhibited the activation of AMPK and upregulated the phosphorylation of mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR). The cardioprotective effects of XFZY during H/R were mediated by inhibiting autophagy via regulating AMPK-mTOR signaling pathways.

  10. Emodin Decreases Hepatic Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1[Formula: see text] by Inhibiting its Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feifei; Hu, Lijuan; Yu, Ming; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is an [Formula: see text] dimeric transcription factor. Because HIF-1[Formula: see text] is instable with oxygen, HIF-1 is scarce in normal mammalian cells. However, HIF-1[Formula: see text] is expressed in pathological conditions such as cancer and obesity. Inhibiting HIF-1[Formula: see text] may be of therapeutic value for these pathologies. Here, we investigated whether emodin, derived from the herb of Rheum palmatum L, which is also known as Chinese rhubarb, and is native to China, regulates HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression. Male C57BL/6 mice without or with diet-induced obesity were treated with emodin for two weeks, while control mice were treated with vehicle. HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression was determined by Western blot. We found that emodin inhibited obesity-induced HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in liver and skeletal muscle but did not regulate HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in the kidneys or in intra-abdominal fat. In vitro, emodin inhibited HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in human HepG2 hepatic cells and Y1 adrenocortical cells. Further, we investigated the mechanisms of HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in emodin-treated HepG2 cells. First, we found that HIF-1[Formula: see text] had normal stability in the presence of emodin. Thus, emodin did not decrease HIF-1[Formula: see text] by stimulating its degradation. Importantly, emodin decreased the activity of the signaling pathways that led to HIF-1[Formula: see text] biosynthesis. Interestingly, emodin increased HIF-1[Formula: see text] mRNA in HepG2 cells. This may be a result of feedback in response to the emodin-induced decrease in the protein of HIF-1[Formula: see text]. In conclusion, emodin decreases hepatic HIF-1[Formula: see text] by inhibiting its biosynthesis.

  11. Berberine protects HK-2 cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation induced apoptosis via inhibiting SPHK1 expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianrao; Yi, Yang; Pan, Ronghua; Zhang, Chuanfu; Han, Haiyan; Chen, Jie; Liu, Wenrui

    2018-03-01

    Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIRI) refers to the irreversible damage for renal function when blood perfusion is recovered after ischemia for an extended period, which is common in clinical surgeries and has been regarded as a major risk for acute renal failures (ARF) that is accompanied with unimaginably high morbidity and mortality. Hypoxia during ischemia followed by reoxygenation via reperfusion serves as a major event contributing to cell apoptosis, which has been widely accepted as the vital pathogenesis in RIRI. Preventing apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cell has been considered as effective method for blocking RIRI. In this paper, we established a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model in human proximal tubular epithelial HK-2 cells. Here, we found increased SPHK1 levels in H/R injured HK-2 cells, which could be significantly down regulated after berberine treatment. Berberine has been reported to exert a protective effect on H/R-induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells. So, in our present study, we planned to investigate whether SPHK1 participated in the anti-apoptosis process of berberine in H/R injured HK-2 cells. Our study confirmed the protective effect of berberine against H/R-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells through promoting cells viability, inhibiting cells apoptosis, and down-regulating p-P38, caspase-3, caspase-9 as well as SPHK1, while up regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. However, SPHK1 overexpression in HK-2 cells induced severe apoptosis, which can be significantly ameliorated with additional berberine treatment. We concluded that berberine could remarkably prevent H/R-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells through down-regulating SPHK1 expression levels, and the mechanisms included the suppression of p38 MAPK activation and mitochondrial stress pathways.

  12. Acetylcholine protects mesenteric arteries against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; He, Xi; Yang, Yong-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Bi, Xue-Yuan; Yang, Yang; Xu, Man; Lu, Xing-Zhu; Sun, Qiang; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in regulating vascular tone. In the present study, we investigated the positive effects of the vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine by suppressing CaSR activation in mesenteric arteries exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). The artery rings were exposed to a modified 'ischemia mimetic' solution and an anaerobic environment to simulate an H/R model. Our results showed that acetylcholine (10(-6) mol/L) significantly reduced the contractions induced by KCl and phenylephrine and enhanced the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine. Additionally, acetylcholine reduced CaSR mRNA expression and activity when the rings were subjected to 4 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. Notably, the CaSR antagonist NPS2143 significantly reduced the contractions but did not improve the endothelium-dependent relaxation. When a contractile response was achieved with extracellular Ca(2+), both acetylcholine and NPS2143 reversed the H/R-induced abnormal vascular vasoconstriction, and acetylcholine reversed the calcimimetic R568-induced abnormal vascular vasoconstriction in the artery rings. In conclusion, this study suggests that acetylcholine ameliorates the dysfunctional vasoconstriction of the arteries after H/R, most likely by decreasing CaSR expression and activity, thereby inhibiting the increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Our findings may be indicative of a novel mechanism underlying ACh-induced vascular protection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chlorogenic acid inhibits hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation via c-Src and Shc/Grb2/ERK2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhu, Ying-Feng; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhen; Du, Yong-Li; Ren, Guo-Qiang; Tang, Jian-Min; Zhong, Ming-Kang; Shi, Xiao-Jin

    2015-03-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), abundant in coffee and particular fruits, can modulate hypertension and vascular dysfunction. Hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation has been tightly linked to vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of CGA on hypoxia-induced proliferation in cultured rat PASMCs. The data showed that CGA potently inhibited PASMCs proliferation and DNA synthesis induced by hypoxia. These inhibitory effects were associated with G1 cell cycle arrest and down-regulation of cell cycle proteins. Treatment with CGA reduced hypoxia-induced hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression and trans-activation. Furthermore, hypoxia-evoked c-Src phosphorylation was inhibited by CGA. In vitro ELISA-based tyrosine kinase assay indicated that CGA was a direct inhibitor of c-Src. Moreover, CGA attenuated physical co-association of c-Src/Shc/Grb2 and ERK2 phosphorylation in PASMCs. These results suggest that CGA inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation in PASMCs via regulating c-Src-mediated signaling pathway. In vivo investigation showed that chronic CGA treatment inhibits monocrotaline-induced PAH in rats. These findings presented here highlight the possible therapeutic use of CGA in hypoxia-related PAH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypoxia-activated chemotherapeutic TH-302 enhances the effects of VEGF-A inhibition and radiation on sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Yoon, C; Lee, H-J; Park, D J; Lee, Y-J; Tap, W D; Eisinger-Mathason, T S K; Hart, C P; Choy, E; Simon, M C; Yoon, S S

    2015-06-30

    Human sarcomas with a poor response to vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) inhibition and radiation therapy (RT) have upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and HIF-1α target genes. This study examines the addition of the hypoxia-activated chemotherapy TH-302 to VEGF-A inhibition and RT (a.k.a. trimodality therapy). Trimodality therapy was examined in two xenograft models and in vitro in tumour endothelial cells and sarcoma cell lines. In both mouse models, VEGF-A inhibition and radiation showed greater efficacy than either therapy alone in slowing sarcoma growth. When TH-302 was added, this trimodality therapy completely blocked tumour growth with tumours remaining dormant for over 3 months after cessation of therapy. Trimodality therapy caused 2.6- to 6.2-fold more endothelial cell-specific apoptosis than bimodality therapies, and microvessel density and HIF-1α activity were reduced to 11-13% and 13-20% of control, respectively. When trimodality therapy was examined in vitro, increases in DNA damage and apoptosis were much more pronounced in tumour endothelial cells compared with that in sarcoma cells, especially under hypoxia. The combination of TH-302, VEGF-A inhibition, and RT is highly effective in preclinical models of sarcoma and is associated with increased DNA damage and apoptosis in endothelial cells and decreased HIF-1α activity.

  15. Chronic Hypoxia Inhibits Sex Steroid Hormone-Mediated Attenuation of Ovine Uterine Arterial Myogenic Tone in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Katherine; Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Xue, Zhice; Yang, Shumei; Longo, Lawrence D.; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in ovine uterine arteries have demonstrated that sex steroid hormones upregulate ERK1/2 expression and downregulate PKC signaling pathway, resulting in the attenuated myogenic tone in pregnancy. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia during gesttation inhibits the sex steroid-mediated adaptation of ERK1/2 and PKC signaling pathways and increases the myogenic tone of uterine arteries. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep that had been maintained at sea level (~300 m) or exposed to high altitude (3,801 m) hypoxia for 110 days. In contrast to the previous findings in normoxic animals, 17β-estradiol and progesterone failed to suppress PKC-induced contractions and the pressure-induced myogenic tone in uterine arteries from hypoxic animals. Western analyses showed that the sex steroids lost their effects on ERK1/2 expression and phospho-ERK1/2 levels, as well as the activation of PKC isozymes in uterine arteries of hypoxic ewes. In normoxic animals, pregnancy and the sex steroid treatments significantly increased uterine artery estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor B expression. Chronic hypoxia selectively downregulated estrogen receptor α expression in uterine arteries of pregnant animals, and eliminated the upregulation of estrogen receptor α in pregnancy or by the steroid treatments observed in normoxic animals. The results demonstrate that in the ovine uterine artery chronic hypoxia in pregnancy inhibits the sex steroid hormone-mediated adaptation of decreased myogenic tone by downregulating estrogen receptor α expression, providing a mechanism linking hypoxia and maladaptation of uteroplacental circulation, and an increased risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy. PMID:20660818

  16. PTEN inhibition prevents rat cortical neuron injury after hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Qu, Y; Wu, J; Cao, M; Ferriero, D M; Zhang, L; Mu, D

    2013-05-15

    Alterations in axon-dendrite polarity impair functional recovery in the developing CNS after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injury. PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) signaling pathway mediates the formation of neuronal polarity. However, its role in cerebral HI injury is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of PTEN pathway in regulation of axon-dendrite polarity using an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model with rat cortical neurons. We found that the activity of PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) was increased after OGD, along with the decrease of the activity in protein kinase B (Akt) and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2). Pretreatment with bpv, a potent inhibitor of PTEN, caused a decrease of the activity in PTEN and GSK-3β, and a significant increase of the activity in Akt and CRMP-2. Simultaneously, the morphological polarity of neurons was maintained and neuronal apoptosis was reduced. Moreover, inhibition of PTEN rescued vesicle recycling in axons. These findings suggested that the PTEN/Akt/GSK-3β/CRMP-2 pathway is involved in the regulation of axon-dendrite polarity, providing a novel route for protecting neurons following neonatal HI. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitochondrial targeting of HIF-1α inhibits hypoxia-induced apoptosis independently of its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Ni; Li, Lu; Li, Sheng-Fu; Long, Dan; Chen, Xue-Lu; Zhang, Jia-Bi; Li, You-Ping; Feng, Li

    2018-04-25

    The transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mediates adaptive responses to hypoxia by nuclear translocation and regulation of gene expression. Mitochondrial changes are critical for the adaptive response to hypoxia. However, the transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms by which HIF-1α regulates mitochondria under hypoxia are poorly understood. Here, we examined the subcellular localization of HIF-1α in human cells and identified a small fraction of HIF-1α that translocated to the mitochondria after exposure to hypoxia or hypoxia-mimicking pharmacological agents. To probe the function of this HIF-1α population, we ectopically expressed a mitochondrial-targeted form of HIF-1α (mito-HIF-1α). Expression of mito-HIF-1α was sufficient to attenuate apoptosis induced by exposure to hypoxia or H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress. Moreover, mito-HIF-1α expression reduced the production of reactive oxygen species, the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and the expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded mRNA in response to hypoxia. However, these functions of mito-HIF-1α were independent of its conventional transcriptional activity. Finally, the livers of mice with CCl 4 -induced fibrosis showed a progressive increase in HIF-1α association with the mitochondria, indicating the clinical relevance of this finding. These data suggested that mitochondrial HIF-1α protects against apoptosis independently of its well-known role as a transcription factor. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Inhibition of Siah2 ubiquitin ligase by vitamin K3 (menadione) attenuates hypoxia and MAPK signaling and blocks melanoma tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Meera; Stebbins, John L.; Dewing, Antimone; Qi, Jianfei; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Ronai, Ze’ev A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 has been implicated in the regulation of the hypoxia response, as well as in the control of Ras, JNK/p38/NF-κB signaling pathways. Both Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and hypoxia pathways are important for melanoma development and progression, pointing to the possible use of Siah2 as target for treatment of this tumor type. In the present study, we have established a high-throughput electro-chemiluninescent-based assay in order to screen and identify inhibitors of Siah2 ubiquitin ligase activity. Of 1840 compounds screened, we identified and characterized menadione (MEN) as a specific inhibitor of Siah2 ligase activity. MEN attenuated Siah2 self-ubiquitination, and increased expression of its substrates PHD3 and Sprouty2, with concomitant decrease in levels of HIF-1α and pERK, the respective downstream effectors. MEN treatment no longer affected PHD3 or Sprouty2 in Siah-KO cells, pointing to its Siah-dependent effects. Further, MEN inhibition of Siah2 was not attenuated by free radical scavenger, suggesting it is ROS-independent. Significantly, growth of xenograft melanoma tumors was inhibited following the administration of MEN or its derivative. These findings reveal an efficient platform for the identification of Siah inhibitors while identifying and characterizing MEN as Siah inhibitor that attenuates hypoxia and MAPK signaling, and inhibits melanoma tumorigenesis. PMID:19712206

  19. Inhibition of Siah2 ubiquitin ligase by vitamin K3 (menadione) attenuates hypoxia and MAPK signaling and blocks melanoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Meera; Stebbins, John L; Dewing, Antimone; Qi, Jianfei; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Ronai, Ze'ev A

    2009-12-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 has been implicated in the regulation of the hypoxia response, as well as in the control of Ras, JNK/p38/NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Both Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and hypoxia pathways are important for melanoma development and progression, pointing to the possible use of Siah2 as target for treatment of this tumor type. In the present study, we have established a high-throughput electro-chemiluninescent-based assay in order to screen and identify inhibitors of Siah2 ubiquitin ligase activity. Of 1840 compounds screened, we identified and characterized menadione (MEN) as a specific inhibitor of Siah2 ligase activity. MEN attenuated Siah2 self-ubiquitination, and increased expression of its substrates PHD3 and Sprouty2, with concomitant decrease in levels of HIF-1alpha and pERK, the respective downstream effectors. MEN treatment no longer affected PHD3 or Sprouty2 in Siah-KO cells, pointing to its Siah-dependent effects. Further, MEN inhibition of Siah2 was not attenuated by free radical scavenger, suggesting it is ROS-independent. Significantly, growth of xenograft melanoma tumors was inhibited following the administration of MEN or its derivative. These findings reveal an efficient platform for the identification of Siah inhibitors while identifying and characterizing MEN as Siah inhibitor that attenuates hypoxia and MAPK signaling, and inhibits melanoma tumorigenesis.

  20. Vitamin E supplementation inhibits muscle damage and inflammation after moderate exercise in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Santos, S A; Silva, E T; Caris, A V; Lira, F S; Tufik, S; Dos Santos, R V T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise under hypoxic conditions represents an additional stress in relation to exercise in normoxia. Hypoxia induces oxidative stress and inflammation as mediated through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α release that might be exacerbated through exercise. In addition, vitamin E supplementation might attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation resulting from hypoxia during exercise. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E supplementation (250 mg) on inflammatory parameters and cellular damage after exercise under hypoxia simulating an altitude of 4200 m. Nine volunteers performed three sessions of 60 min of exercise (70% maximal oxygen uptake) interspersed for 1 week under normoxia, hypoxia and hypoxia after vitamin E supplementation 1 h before exercise. Blood was collected before, immediately after and at 1 h after exercise to measure inflammatory parameters and cell damage. Percentage oxygen saturation of haemoglobin decreased after exercise and recovered 1 h later in the hypoxia + vitamin condition (P < 0.05). Supplementation decreased creatine kinase (CK)-TOTAL, CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase 1 h after exercise (P < 0.05). The exercise in hypoxia increased interleukin (IL)-6, TNF-α, IL-1ra and IL-10 immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Supplementation reversed the changes observed after exercise in hypoxia without supplementation (P < 0.05). We conclude that 250 mg of vitamin E supplementation at 1 h before exercise reduces cell damage markers after exercise in hypoxia and changes the concentration of cytokines, suggesting a possible protective effect against inflammation induced by hypoxia during exercise. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ: a potential link between chronic maternal hypoxia and impaired fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Colleen G.; Yang, Ivana V.; Browne, Vaughn A.; Vargas, Enrique; Rodriguez, Carmelo; Pedersen, Brent S.; Moore, Lorna G.; Schwartz, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to hypoxia raises the risk of pregnancy disorders characterized by maternal vascular dysfunction and diminished fetal growth. In an effort to identify novel pathways for these hypoxia-related effects, we assessed gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 43 female, high-altitude or sea-level residents in the nonpregnant state or during pregnancy (20 or 36 wk). Hypoxia-related fetal growth restriction becomes apparent between 25 and 29 wk of gestation and continues until delivery. Our sampling strategy was designed to capture changes occurring before (20 wk) and during (36 wk) the time frame of slowed fetal growth. PBMC gene expression profiles were generated using human gene expression microarrays and compared between altitudes. Biological pathways were identified using pathway analysis. Modest transcriptional differences were observed between altitudes in the nonpregnant state. Of the genes that were differentially expressed at high altitude vs. sea level during pregnancy (20 wk: 59 probes mapped to 41 genes; 36 wk: 985 probes mapped to 700 genes), several are of pathological relevance for fetal growth restriction. In particular, transcriptional changes were consistent with the negative regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) at high altitude; such effects were accompanied by reduced birth weight (P <0.05) and head circumference (P <0.01) at high altitude vs. sea level. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to hypoxia during pregnancy alters maternal gene expression patterns in general and, in particular, expression of key genes involved in metabolic homeostasis that have been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction.—Julian, C. G., Yang, I. V., Browne, V. A., Vargas, E., Rodriguez, C., Pedersen, B. S., Moore, L. G., Schwartz, D. A. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ: a potential link between chronic maternal

  2. MiR224-3p inhibits hypoxia-induced autophagy by targeting autophagy-related genes in human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xing; Xue, Hao; Guo, Xiaofan; Gao, Xiao; Xu, Shugang; Yan, Shaofeng; Han, Xiao; Li, Tong; Shen, Jie; Li, Gang

    2015-12-08

    Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant solid tumor characterized by severe hypoxia. Autophagy plays a protective role in cancer cells under hypoxia. However, the microRNA (miRNA)-related molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxia-reduced autophagy remain poorly understood in GBM. In this study, we performed a miRNA microarray analysis on GBM cells and found that numerous miRNAs were differentially expressed under hypoxic conditions. Further research showed that miR224-3p, one of the significantly down-regulated miRNAs, was involved in regulating hypoxia-induced autophagy in GBM cells. Overexpression of miR224-3p abolished hypoxia-induced autophagy, whereas knocking down endogenous miR224-3p increased autophagic activity under normoxia. In addition, we demonstrated that miR224-3p inhibited autophagy by directly suppressing the expression of two autophagy-related genes (ATGs), ATG5 and FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200). Furthermore, in vitro, miR224-3p attenuated cell proliferation and promoted hypoxia-induced apoptosis, and in vivo, overexpression of miR224-3p inhibited tumorigenesis of GBM cells. Collectively, our study identified a novel hypoxia-down-regulated miRNA, miR224-3p, as a key modulator of autophagy by inhibiting ATGs in GBM cells.

  3. KATP channel inhibition blunts electromechanical decline during hypoxia in left ventricular working rabbit hearts

    PubMed Central

    Garrott, Kara; Kuzmiak‐Glancy, Sarah; Wengrowski, Anastasia; Zhang, Hanyu; Rogers, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Key points Heart function is critically dependent upon the balance of energy production and utilization. Sarcolemmal ATP‐sensitive potassium channels (KATP channels) in cardiac myocytes adjust contractile function to compensate for the level of available energy.Understanding the activation of KATP channels in working myocardium during high‐stress situations is crucial to the treatment of cardiovascular disease, especially ischaemic heart disease.Using a new optical mapping approach, we measured action potentials from the surface of excised contracting rabbit hearts to assess when sarcolemmal KATP channels were activated during physiologically relevant workloads and during gradual reductions in myocardial oxygenation.We demonstrate that left ventricular pressure is closely linked to KATP channel activation and that KATP channel inhibition with a low concentration of tolbutamide prevents electromechanical decline when oxygen availability is reduced. As a result, KATP channel inhibition probably exacerbates a mismatch between energy demand and energy production when myocardial oxygenation is low. Abstract Sarcolemmal ATP‐sensitive potassium channel (KATP channel) activation in isolated cells is generally understood, although the relationship between myocardial oxygenation and KATP activation in excised working rabbit hearts remains unknown. We optically mapped action potentials (APs) in excised rabbit hearts to test the hypothesis that hypoxic changes would be more severe in left ventricular (LV) working hearts (LWHs) than Langendorff (LANG) perfused hearts. We further hypothesized that KATP inhibition would prevent those changes. Optical APs were mapped when measuring LV developed pressure (LVDP), coronary flow rate and oxygen consumption in LANG and LWHs. Hearts were paced to increase workload and perfusate was deoxygenated to study the effects of myocardial hypoxia. A subset of hearts was perfused with 1 μm tolbutamide (TOLB) to identify the level of AP

  4. Protein-bound Polysaccharide-K Inhibits Hedgehog Signaling Through Down-regulation of MAML3 and RBPJ Transcription Under Hypoxia, Suppressing the Malignant Phenotype in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akio; Onishi, Hideya; Imaizumi, Akira; Kawamoto, Makoto; Fujimura, Akiko; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Katano, Mitsuo

    2016-08-01

    Hedgehog signaling is activated in pancreatic cancer and could be a therapeutic target. We previously demonstrated that recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin-kappa-J region (RBPJ) and mastermind-like 3 (MAML3) contribute to the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of Smoothened (SMO) transcription. We have also shown that protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) could be effective for refractory pancreatic cancer that down-regulates SMO transcription under hypoxia. In this study, we evaluated whether the anticancer mechanism of PSK involves inhibiting RBPJ and MAML3 expression under hypoxia. PSK reduced SMO, MAML3 and RBPJ expression in pancreatic cancer cells under hypoxia. PSK also blocked RBPJ-induced invasiveness under hypoxia by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase expression. Lastly, we showed that PSK attenuated RBPJ-induced proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that PSK suppresses Hedgehog signaling through down-regulation of MAML3 and RBPJ transcription under hypoxia, inhibiting the induction of a malignant phenotype in pancreatic cancer. Our results may lead to development of new treatments for refractory pancreatic cancer using PSK as a Hedgehog inhibitor. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. MiR-130a inhibition protects rat cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-triggered apoptosis by targeting Smad4.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanshi; Du, Yingrong; Cao, Junxian; Gao, Qianping; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Yangjun; Lu, Nihong

    2018-02-05

    Cardiomyocyte death facilitates the pathological process underlying ischemic heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs play a critical role in the pathological process underlying myocardial infarction by regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the relevance of miR-130a in regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the mechanism of regulation is still uncertain. This study aimed to explore the regulatory effect of miR-130a on hypoxic cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The expression of miR-130a was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Cell survival was determined by the MTT assay. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was performed to determine the severity of hypoxia-induced cell injury. Apoptosis was assessed via caspase-3 analysis. Protein expression level was determined by Western blotting. The genes targeted by miR-130a were predicted using bioinformatics and were validated via the dual-luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-130a expression was greatly increased in hypoxic cardiac myocytes, and that the downregulation of miR-130a effectively shielded cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-triggered apoptosis. The results of our bioinformatic analysis predicted the Smad4 gene to be the target of miR-130a. This finding was validated through the Western blot assay, dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, and qRT-PCR. MiR-130a inhibition significantly promoted the activation of Smad4 in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, knockdown of Smad4 markedly reversed the protective effects induced by miR-130a inhibition. Moreover, we found that the inhibition of miR-130a promoted the activation of TGF-β signaling. Blocking Smad4 signaling significantly abrogated the protective effects of miR-130a inhibition. Overall, these findings indicate that inhibition of miR-130a, which targets the Smad4 gene, shields cardiac myocytes from hypoxic apoptosis. This study offers a novel perspective of the

  6. Hypoxia-induced autophagy is inhibited by PADI4 knockdown, which promotes apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Tingting; Zhang, Changsong; Zong, Ming; Fan, Lieying

    2018-01-01

    Impaired apoptosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) is pivotal in the process of RA. Peptidyl arginine deiminase type IV (PADI4) is associated with autoantibody regulation via histone citrullination in RA. The present study aimed to investigate the role of PADI4 in the apoptosis of RA-FLS. FLS were isolated from patients with RA and a rat model. The effects of PADI4 on RA-FLS were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Hypoxia-induced autophagy was induced by 1% O2 and was detected by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analysis; in addition, apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. RA-FLS obtained from RA rat model exhibited significant proliferation under severe hypoxia conditions. Hypoxia also significantly induced autophagy and elevated the expression of PADI4. Subsequently, short hairpin RNA-mediated PADI4 knockdown was demonstrated to significantly inhibit hypoxia-induced autophagy and promote apoptosis in RA-FLS. The results of these in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that PADI4 may be closely associated with hypoxia-induced autophagy, and the inhibition of hypoxia-induced autophagy by PADI4 knockdown may contribute to an increase in the apoptosis of RA-FLS. PMID:29393388

  7. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K.; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K.; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1–5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47phox). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity. PMID:26979487

  8. Silibinin inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α-mediated signaling, angiogenesis and lipogenesis in prostate cancer cells: In vitro evidence and in vivo functional imaging and metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Nambiar, Dhanya K.; Jain, Anil K.; Ramteke, Anand M.; Serkova, Natalie J.; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa) patients suggesting that PCa growth and progression could be controlled via targeting hypoxia-induced signaling and biological effects. Here, we analyzed silibinin (a natural flavonoid) efficacy to target cell growth, angiogenesis and metabolic changes in human PCa, LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells under hypoxic condition. Silibinin treatment inhibited the proliferation, clonogenicity and endothelial cells tube formation by hypoxic (1% O2) PCa cells. Interestingly, hypoxia promoted a lipogenic phenotype in PCa cells via activating acetyl-Co A carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) that was inhibited by silibinin treatment. Importantly, silibinin treatment strongly decreased hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression in PCa cells together with a strong reduction in hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. HIF-1α overexpression in LNCaP cells significantly increased the lipid accumulation and NOX activity; however, silibinin treatment reduced HIF-1α expression, lipid levels, clonogenicity and NOX activity even in HIF-1α overexpressing LNCaP cells. In vivo, silibinin feeding (200 mg/kg body weight) to male nude mice with 22Rv1 tumors, specifically inhibited tumor vascularity (measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) resulting in tumor growth inhibition without directly inducing necrosis (as revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI). Silibinin feeding did not significantly affect tumor glucose uptake measured by FDG-PET; however, reduced the lipid synthesis measured by quantitative 1H-NMR metabolomics. IHC analyses of tumor tissues confirmed that silibinin feeding decreased proliferation and angiogenesis as well as reduced HIF-1α, FASN and ACC levels. Together, these findings further support silibinin usefulness against PCa through inhibiting hypoxia-induced signaling. PMID:27533043

  9. Silibinin inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α-mediated signaling, angiogenesis and lipogenesis in prostate cancer cells: In vitro evidence and in vivo functional imaging and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Nambiar, Dhanya K; Jain, Anil K; Ramteke, Anand M; Serkova, Natalie J; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in prostate cancer (PCa) patients suggesting that PCa growth and progression could be controlled via targeting hypoxia-induced signaling and biological effects. Here, we analyzed silibinin (a natural flavonoid) efficacy to target cell growth, angiogenesis, and metabolic changes in human PCa, LNCaP, and 22Rv1 cells under hypoxic condition. Silibinin treatment inhibited the proliferation, clonogenicity, and endothelial cells tube formation by hypoxic (1% O 2 ) PCa cells. Interestingly, hypoxia promoted a lipogenic phenotype in PCa cells via activating acetyl-Co A carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) that was inhibited by silibinin treatment. Importantly, silibinin treatment strongly decreased hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression in PCa cells together with a strong reduction in hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. HIF-1α overexpression in LNCaP cells significantly increased the lipid accumulation and NOX activity; however, silibinin treatment reduced HIF-1α expression, lipid levels, clonogenicity, and NOX activity even in HIF-1α overexpressing LNCaP cells. In vivo, silibinin feeding (200 mg/kg body weight) to male nude mice with 22Rv1 tumors, specifically inhibited tumor vascularity (measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) resulting in tumor growth inhibition without directly inducing necrosis (as revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI). Silibinin feeding did not significantly affect tumor glucose uptake measured by FDG-PET; however, reduced the lipid synthesis measured by quantitative 1 H-NMR metabolomics. IHC analyses of tumor tissues confirmed that silibinin feeding decreased proliferation and angiogenesis as well as reduced HIF-1α, FASN, and ACC levels. Together, these findings further support silibinin usefulness against PCa through inhibiting hypoxia-induced signaling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Newborn Hypoxia/Anoxia Inhibits Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Decreases Cardiomyocyte Endowment in the Developing Heart: Role of Endothelin-1

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Alexandra N.; Gay, Maresha S.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-01-01

    In the developing heart, cardiomyocytes undergo terminal differentiation during a critical window around birth. Hypoxia is a major stress to preterm infants, yet its effect on the development and maturation of the heart remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis in a rat model that newborn anoxia accelerates cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation and results in reduced cardiomyocyte endowment in the developing heart via an endothelin-1-dependent mechanism. Newborn rats were exposed to anoxia twice daily from postnatal day 1 to 3, and hearts were isolated and studied at postnatal day 4 (P4), 7 (P7), and 14 (P14). Anoxia significantly increased HIF-1α protein expression and pre-proET-1 mRNA abundance in P4 neonatal hearts. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was significantly decreased by anoxia in P4 and P7, resulting in a significant reduction of cardiomyocyte number per heart weight in the P14 neonates. Furthermore, the expression of cyclin D2 was significantly decreased due to anoxia, while p27 expression was increased. Anoxia has no significant effect on cardiomyocyte binucleation or myocyte size. Consistently, prenatal hypoxia significantly decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation but had no effect on binucleation in the fetal heart. Newborn administration of PD156707, an ETA-receptor antagonist, significantly increased cardiomyocyte proliferation at P4 and cell size at P7, resulting in an increase in the heart to body weight ratio in P7 neonates. In addition, PD156707 abrogated the anoxia-mediated effects. The results suggest that hypoxia and anoxia via activation of endothelin-1 at the critical window of heart development inhibits cardiomyocyte proliferation and decreases myocyte endowment in the developing heart, which may negatively impact cardiac function later in life. PMID:25692855

  11. The unidirectional hypoxia-activated prodrug OCT1002 inhibits growth and vascular development in castrate-resistant prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Heather; Worthington, Jenny; Errington, Rachel J; Patterson, Laurence H; Smith, Paul J; McKeown, Stephanie R; McKenna, Declan J

    2017-11-01

    OCT1002 is a unidirectional hypoxia-activated prodrug (uHAP) OCT1002 that can target hypoxic tumor cells. Hypoxia is a common feature in prostate tumors and is known to drive disease progression and metastasis. It is, therefore, a rational therapeutic strategy to directly target hypoxic tumor cells in an attempt to improve treatment for this disease. Here we tested OCT1002 alone and in combination with standard-of-care agents in hypoxic models of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The effect of OCT1002 on tumor growth and vasculature was measured using murine PC3 xenograft and dorsal skin fold (DSF) window chamber models. The effects of abiraterone, docetaxel, and cabazitaxel, both singly and in combination with OCT1002, were also compared. The hypoxia-targeting ability of OCT1002 effectively controls PC3 tumor growth. The effect was evident for at least 42 days after exposure to a single dose (30 mg/kg) and was comparable to, or better than, drugs currently used in the clinic. In DSF experiments OCT1002 caused vascular collapse in the PC3 tumors and inhibited the revascularization seen in controls. In this model OCT1002 also enhanced the anti-tumor effects of abiraterone, cabazitaxel, and docetaxel; an effect which was accompanied by a more prolonged reduction in tumor vasculature density. These studies provide the first evidence that OCT1002 can be an effective agent in treating hypoxic, castrate-resistant prostate tumors, either singly or in combination with established chemotherapeutics for prostate cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Inhibition of autophagy and glycolysis by nitric oxide during hypoxia-reoxygenation impairs cellular bioenergetics and promotes cell death in primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Gloria A; Liang, Qiuli; Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-12-01

    Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production is known to damage mitochondrial proteins and the autophagy repair pathway and so can potentially contribute to neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that protection against protein damage from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species under conditions of low oxygen by the autophagy pathway in neurons would be impaired by NO and enhance bioenergetic dysfunction. Rat primary cortical neurons had the same basal cellular respiration in hypoxia as in normoxia, whereas NO-exposed cells exhibited a gradual decrease in mitochondrial respiration in hypoxia. Upon reoxygenation, the respiration in NO-treated cells did not recover to prehypoxic levels. Hypoxia-reoxygenation in the presence of NO was associated with inhibition of autophagy, and the inability to recover during reoxygenation was exacerbated by an inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine. The effects of hypoxia could be recapitulated by inhibiting glycolytic flux under normoxic conditions. Under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions NO exposure induced immediate stimulation of glycolysis, but prolonged NO exposure, associated with irreversible inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in hypoxia, inhibited glycolysis. Importantly, we found that NO inhibited basal respiration under normoxic conditions only when glucose was absent from the medium or glycolysis was inhibited by 2-deoxy-d-glucose, revealing a novel NO-dependent mechanism for the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration that is modulated by glycolysis. Taken together these data suggest an oxygen-dependent interaction between mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis, and autophagy in protecting neuronal cells exposed to NO. Importantly, they indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction is intimately linked to a failure of glycolytic flux induced by exposure to NO. In addition, these studies provide new insights into the understanding of how autophagy and NO may play interactive roles in neuroinflammation-induced cellular

  13. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factors combined with all-trans retinoic acid treatment enhances glial transdifferentiation of neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Flora; Pezone, Lucia; Avitabile, Marianna; Acierno, Giovanni; Andolfo, Immacolata; Capasso, Mario; Iolascon, Achille

    2015-06-09

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a heterogeneous tumor characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations. A high tumor cell differentiation grade correlates to a favorable stage and positive outcome. Expression of the hypoxia inducible factors HIF1-α (HIF1A gene) and HIF2-α (EPAS1 gene) and/or hypoxia-regulated pathways has been shown to promote the undifferentiated phenotype of NBL cells. Our hypothesis is that HIF1A and EPAS1 expression represent one of the mechanisms responsible for the lack of responsiveness of NBL to differentiation therapy. Clinically, high levels of HIF1A and EPAS1 expression were associated with inferior survival in two NBL microarray datasets, and patient subgroups with lower expression of HIF1A and EPAS1 showed significant enrichment of pathways related to neuronal differentiation. In NBL cell lines, the combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with HIF1A or EPAS1 silencing led to an acquired glial-cell phenotype and enhanced expression of glial-cell differentiation markers. Furthermore, HIF1A or EPAS1 silencing might promote cell senescence independent of ATRA treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that HIF inhibition coupled with ATRA treatment promotes differentiation into a more benign phenotype and cell senescence in vitro. These findings open the way for additional lines of attack in the treatment of NBL minimal residue disease.

  14. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factors combined with all-trans retinoic acid treatment enhances glial transdifferentiation of neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Cimmino, Flora; Pezone, Lucia; Avitabile, Marianna; Acierno, Giovanni; Andolfo, Immacolata; Capasso, Mario; Iolascon, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a heterogeneous tumor characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations. A high tumor cell differentiation grade correlates to a favorable stage and positive outcome. Expression of the hypoxia inducible factors HIF1-α (HIF1A gene) and HIF2-α (EPAS1 gene) and/or hypoxia-regulated pathways has been shown to promote the undifferentiated phenotype of NBL cells. Our hypothesis is that HIF1A and EPAS1 expression represent one of the mechanisms responsible for the lack of responsiveness of NBL to differentiation therapy. Clinically, high levels of HIF1A and EPAS1 expression were associated with inferior survival in two NBL microarray datasets, and patient subgroups with lower expression of HIF1A and EPAS1 showed significant enrichment of pathways related to neuronal differentiation. In NBL cell lines, the combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with HIF1A or EPAS1 silencing led to an acquired glial-cell phenotype and enhanced expression of glial-cell differentiation markers. Furthermore, HIF1A or EPAS1 silencing might promote cell senescence independent of ATRA treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that HIF inhibition coupled with ATRA treatment promotes differentiation into a more benign phenotype and cell senescence in vitro. These findings open the way for additional lines of attack in the treatment of NBL minimal residue disease. PMID:26057707

  15. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, P276-00, inhibits HIF-1α and induces G2/M arrest under hypoxia in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Manohar, S M; Padgaonkar, A A; Jalota-Badhwar, A; Rao, S V; Joshi, K S

    2012-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to oxygen deprivation and controls genes involved in glycolysis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion. Overexpression of HIF-1α has been demonstrated in many common human cancers. Luciferase reporter gene assay under hypoxia and normoxia was used to demonstrate transcriptional inhibition of HIF-1 by P276-00. Detailed studies such as western blotting, reverse-transcriptase-PCR and immunofluorescence were carried out to elucidate its mechanism of action. Cytotoxic potential of P276-00 under normoxia and hypoxia was determined on prostate cancer cells using CCK-8 assay, and cell-cycle analysis was carried out using flow cytometry. Antiangiogenic activity of P276-00 was demonstrated by migration assay and tube-formation assay. Efficacy study of P276-00 was performed in a PC-3 xenograft model. P276-00 inhibits transcriptional activation of HIF-1 under hypoxia. It suppressed hypoxia-mediated nuclear HIF-1α expression, as well as phosphorylation of Akt and 4E-BP1 and abrogated expression of HIF-1-inducible gene viz. vascular endothelial growth factor. Under hypoxia, P276-00 did not exhibit enhanced cytotoxic activity in prostate cancer cells but arrested them in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The tubular formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and migration of prostate cancer cells were also inhibited by P276-00 in vitro. In addition, it demonstrated significant in vivo efficacy in the PC-3 xenograft model. Given its low toxicity profile, its demonstrated antitumor activity and its potential to inhibit the HIF-1 pathway, P276-00 should be considered as antiangiogenic chemotherapy for prostate cancer.

  16. MicroRNA-210 Modulates Endothelial Cell Response to Hypoxia and Inhibits the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ligand Ephrin-A3*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Fasanaro, Pasquale; D'Alessandra, Yuri; Di Stefano, Valeria; Melchionna, Roberta; Romani, Sveva; Pompilio, Giulio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Martelli, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein-coding RNAs that function as negative gene expression regulators. In the present study, we investigated miRNAs role in endothelial cell response to hypoxia. We found that the expression of miR-210 progressively increased upon exposure to hypoxia. miR-210 overexpression in normoxic endothelial cells stimulated the formation of capillary-like structures on Matrigel and vascular endothelial growth factor-driven cell migration. Conversely, miR-210 blockade via anti-miRNA transfection inhibited the formation of capillary-like structures stimulated by hypoxia and decreased cell migration in response to vascular endothelial growth factor. miR-210 overexpression did not affect endothelial cell growth in both normoxia and hypoxia. However, anti-miR-210 transfection inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis, in both normoxia and hypoxia. We determined that one relevant target of miR-210 in hypoxia was Ephrin-A3 since miR-210 was necessary and sufficient to down-modulate its expression. Moreover, luciferase reporter assays showed that Ephrin-A3 was a direct target of miR-210. Ephrin-A3 modulation by miR-210 had significant functional consequences; indeed, the expression of an Ephrin-A3 allele that is not targeted by miR-210 prevented miR-210-mediated stimulation of both tubulogenesis and chemotaxis. We conclude that miR-210 up-regulation is a crucial element of endothelial cell response to hypoxia, affecting cell survival, migration, and differentiation. PMID:18417479

  17. Mitochondrial-derived hydrogen peroxide inhibits relaxation of bovine coronary arterial smooth muscle to hypoxia through stimulation of ERK MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qun; Zhao, Xiangmin; Ahmad, Mansoor; Wolin, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potentially important in vascular oxygen-sensing mechanisms because hypoxia appears to be a stimulus for mitochondrial ROS generation; however, scavenging of endogenous ROS does not alter relaxation of endothelium-denuded bovine coronary arteries (BCA) to hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of increasing mitochondrial ROS on the relaxation of BCA to hypoxia. Increasing mitochondrial superoxide with inhibitors of electron transport (10 microM rotenone and antimycin) and by opening mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channels with 100 microM diazoxide were observed in this study to attenuate relaxation of BCA precontracted with 30 mM KCl to hypoxia by 68-76% and 38%, respectively. This effect of rotenone is not prevented by inhibiting NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation or scavenging superoxide with Peg-SOD; however, it is reversed 85% and 26% by increasing the consumption of intracellular peroxide by 0.1 mM ebselen and 32.5 U/ml Peg-catalase. Because inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (10 microM PD-98059), but not src kinase or rho kinase, also reverses the effects of rotenone by 69%, the peroxide-elicited force-enhancing effects of ERK appear to be attenuating the response to hypoxia. Rotenone increased the phosphorylation of ERK (by 163%). Activation of ERK in BCA with 0.1 mM peroxide or endogenous peroxide generated by stimulating Nox2 with a stretch treatment or contraction with 100 nM U-46619 also attenuated relaxation to hypoxia. Thus coronary arterial relaxation to hypoxia may be attenuated by pathophysiological conditions associated with increased peroxide generation by mitochondria or other sources that stimulate ERK.

  18. Hypoxia-mediated sorafenib resistance can be overcome by EF24 through Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor-dependent HIF-1α inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yingjian; Zheng, Tongsen; Song, Ruipeng; Wang, Jiabei; Yin, Dalong; Wang, Luoluo; Liu, Haitao; Tian, Lantian; Fang, Xiang; Meng, Xianzhi; Jiang, Hongchi; Liu, Jiaren; Liu, Lianxin

    2013-05-01

    The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is of great concern not only in the United States but throughout the world. Although sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects, currently sets the new standard for advanced HCC, tumor response rates are usually quite low. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms for sorafenib resistance is critical if outcomes are to be improved. In this study we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia caused by the antiangiogenic effects of sustained sorafenib therapy could induce sorafenib resistance as a cytoprotective adaptive response, thereby limiting sorafenib efficiency. We found that HCCs, clinically resistant to sorafenib, exhibit increased intratumor hypoxia compared with HCCs before treatment or HCCs sensitive to sorafenib. Hypoxia protected HCC cells against sorafenib and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) was required for the process. HCC cells acquired increased P-gp expression, enhanced glycolytic metabolism, and increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity under hypoxia. EF24, a molecule having structural similarity to curcumin, could synergistically enhance the antitumor effects of sorafenib and overcome sorafenib resistance through inhibiting HIF-1α by sequestering it in cytoplasm and promoting degradation by way of up-regulating Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL). Furthermore, we found that sustained sorafenib therapy led to increased intratumor hypoxia, which was associated with sorafenib sensitivity in HCC subcutaneous mice tumor models. The combination of EF24 and sorafenib showed synergistically effects against metastasis both in vivo and in vitro. Synergistic tumor growth inhibition effects were also observed in subcutaneous and orthotopic hepatic tumors. Hypoxia induced by sustained sorafenib treatment confers sorafenib resistance to HCC through HIF-1α and NF-κB activation. EF24 overcomes sorafenib resistance through VHL-dependent HIF-1

  19. Herpes simplex virus amplicon delivery of a hypoxia-inducible soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (sFlk-1) inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reinblatt, Maura; Pin, Richard H; Bowers, William J; Federoff, Howard J; Fong, Yuman

    2005-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, which stimulates angiogenesis and tumor proliferation. The VEGF signaling pathway is inhibited by soluble VEGF receptors (soluble fetal liver kinase 1; sFlk-1), which bind VEGF and block its interaction with endothelial cells. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicons are replication-incompetent viruses used for gene delivery. We attempted to attenuate angiogenesis and inhibit pancreatic tumor growth through HSV amplicon-mediated expression of sFlk-1 under hypoxic control. A multimerized hypoxia-responsive enhancer (10 x HRE) was cloned upstream of the sFlk-1 gene (10 x HRE/sFlk-1). A novel HSV amplicon expressing 10 x HRE/sFlk-1 was genetically engineered (HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1).Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells (AsPC1) were transduced with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1 and incubated in normoxia (21% oxygen) or hypoxia (1% oxygen). Capillary inhibition was evaluated by human umbilical vein endothelial cell assay. Western blot assessed sFlk-1 expression. AsPC1 flank tumor xenografts (n = 24) were transduced with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1. Media from normoxic AsPC1 transduced with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1 yielded a 36% reduction in capillary formation versus controls (P < .05), whereas hypoxic AsPC1 yielded a 76% reduction (P < .005). Western blot of AsPC1 transduced with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1 demonstrated greater sFlk-1 expression in hypoxia versus normoxia. AsPC1 flank tumors treated with HSV10 x HRE/sFlk-1 exhibited a 59% reduction in volume versus controls (P < .000001). HSV amplicon delivery of a hypoxia-inducible soluble VEGF receptor significantly reduces new vessel formation and tumor growth. Tumor hypoxia can thus be used to direct antiangiogenic therapy to pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  20. Schedule-dependent inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein accumulation, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by topotecan in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Annamaria; Zalek, Jessica; Hollingshead, Melinda; Braunschweig, Till; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Bonomi, Carrie A; Borgel, Suzanne D; Carter, John P; Hewitt, Stephen M; Shoemaker, Robert H; Melillo, Giovanni

    2004-10-01

    We have previously shown that topotecan, a topoisomerase I poison, inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha protein accumulation by a DNA damage-independent mechanism. Here, we report that daily administration of topotecan inhibits HIF-1alpha protein expression in U251-HRE glioblastoma xenografts. Concomitant with HIF-1alpha inhibition, topotecan caused a significant tumor growth inhibition associated with a marked decrease of angiogenesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in tumor tissue. These results provide a compelling rationale for testing topotecan in clinical trials to target HIF-1 in cancer patients.

  1. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) as a model for studying inhibition of protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Burslem, George M.; Kyle, Hannah F.; Nelson, Adam; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    The modulation of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) represents a major challenge in modern chemical biology. Current approaches (e.g. high-throughput screening, computer aided ligand design) are recognised as having limitations in terms of identification of hit matter. Considerable success has been achieved in terms of developing new approaches to PPI modulator discovery using the p53/hDM2 and Bcl-2 family of PPIs. However these important targets in oncology might be considered as “low-hanging-fruit”. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is an emerging, but not yet fully validated target for cancer chemotherapy. Its role is to regulate the hypoxic response and it does so through a plethora of protein–protein interactions of varying topology, topography and complexity: its modulation represents an attractive approach to prevent development of new vasculature by hypoxic tumours. PMID:28878873

  2. Baicalin Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation via the AKT/HIF-1α/p27-Associated Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Pu, Zhichen; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Hu, Dongmei; Wang, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid compound purified from the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to possess various pharmacological actions. Previous studies have revealed that baicalin inhibits the growth of cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by enhanced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMCs) proliferation and suppressed apoptosis. However, the potential mechanism of baicalin in the regulation of PASMC proliferation and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases remains unexplored. To test the effects of baicalin on hypoxia, we used rats treated with or without baicalin (100 mg·kg−1 each rat) at the beginning of the third week after hypoxia. Hemodynamic and pulmonary pathomorphology data showed that right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP), the weight of the right ventricle/left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV + S) ratio and the medial width of pulmonary arterioles were much higher in chronic hypoxia. However, baicalin treatment repressed the elevation of RVSP, RV/LV + S and attenuated the pulmonary vascular structure remodeling (PVSR) of pulmonary arterioles induced by chronic hypoxia. Additionally, baicalin (10 and 20 μmol·L−1) treatment suppressed the proliferation of PASMCs and attenuated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α) under hypoxia exposure. Meanwhile, baicalin reversed the hypoxia-induced reduction of p27 and increased AKT/protein kinase B phosphorylation p-AKT both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggested that baicalin could effectively attenuate PVSR and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24821539

  3. Ghrelin protected neonatal rat cardiomyocyte against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting apoptosis through Akt-mTOR signal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Lu, Yingjie; Liu, Xian; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2017-04-01

    Reducing reperfusion period myocardial cell damage is efficient to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ghrelin can increase myocardial contractility, improve heart failure caused by myocardial infarction. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Ghrelin on myocardial hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and to explore the mechanisms. We isolated the NRCMs, established myocardial H/R model, blocked growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) by siRNA technique, examined cell activity by MTT and LDH assay, detected apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry and determined the expression levels of apoptosis related proteins and signaling pathway proteins by western blot. We found that Ghrelin can significantly improve cell activity and decrease apoptosis after H/R, however this effect was abolished by GHSR-siRNA. In addition, we found that Ghrelin can significantly increase the expression of Bcl-2 but inhibit the level of Bax and caspase-3. Further mechanism study found that the phosphorylation level of signaling pathway protein Akt and mTOR in Ghrelin treated group were significantly higher than that in other groups. In conclusion, Ghrelin can reduce the H/R damage on NRCMs and inhibit the apoptosis by activating Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.

  4. Hypoxia and alkalinization inhibit endothelium-derived nitric oxide but not endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor responses in porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, S; Paul, R J

    1999-10-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which hypoxia and alkalinization inhibit the endothelium-dependent relaxation to Substance P (SP) in porcine coronary artery. In a KCl contracture, the major component of the SP response is endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO), whereas with receptor-mediated 9,11-dideoxy-llalpha, 9alpha-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619) stimulation, the SP response is dependent on both EDNO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor. Intracellular alkalinization by NH(4)Cl reduced the peak of SP responses when arteries were contracted with KCl, whereas with U46619 stimulation, the peak was little effected but the duration was shortened. In endothelial cell-denuded arteries, alkalinization with NH(4)Cl shifted the sodium nitroprusside concentration-relaxation relations rightward. The effects of NH(4)Cl in SP- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations were attenuated by decreasing extracellular pH (pH(o)) from 7.4 to 7.2, which normalized intracellular pH (pH(i)) to control levels. In contrast, in U46619 contractures, the SP response in the presence of a NO synthase inhibitor was unaffected by NH(4)Cl. Moreover, hypoxia blunted but did not abolish the responses to SP for U46619 contractures; addition of KCl, however, abolished the SP response under hypoxia. Endothelial [Ca(2+)](i) was measured with fura-2 differentially loaded only into endothelial cells on intact arteries. Despite the attenuation of the SP response in KCl contractures by NH(4)Cl or hypoxia, endothelial [Ca(2+)](i) responses were unchanged. Our results suggest that hypoxia and alkalinization inhibit EDNO but not endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor relaxations through a mechanism(s) not involving endothelial cell [Ca(2+)](i). Inhibition of EDNO relaxation by alkalinization with NH(4)Cl is likely to occur at the level of activation of guanylate cyclase and/or at a step downstream in smooth muscle.

  5. Selective Class I HDAC Inhibition Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Cardiopulmonary Remodeling Through an Anti-Proliferative Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cavasin, Maria A.; Demos-Davies, Kim; Horn, Todd R.; Walker, Lori A.; Lemon, Douglas D.; Birdsey, Nicholas; Weiser-Evans, Mary C. M.; Harral, Jules; Irwin, David C.; Anwar, Adil; Yeager, Michael E.; Li, Min; Watson, Peter A.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.; Buttrick, Peter M.; Stenmark, Kurt R.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are efficacious in models of hypertension-induced left ventricular (LV) heart failure. The consequences of HDAC inhibition in the context of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with associated right ventricular (RV) cardiac remodeling are poorly understood. Objective This study was performed to assess the utility of selective small molecule inhibitors of class I HDACs in a pre-clinical model of PH. Methods and Results Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 3 weeks in the absence or presence of a benzamide HDAC inhibitor, MGCD0103, which selectively inhibits class I HDACs −1, −2 and −3. The compound reduced pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) more dramatically than tadalafil, a standard-of-care therapy for human PH that functions as a vasodilator. MGCD0103 improved pulmonary artery (PA) acceleration time (PAAT) and reduced systolic notching of the PA flow envelope, suggesting a positive impact of the HDAC inhibitor on pulmonary vascular remodeling and stiffening. Similar results were obtained with an independent class I HDAC-selective inhibitor, MS-275. Reduced PAP in MGCD0103-treated animals was associated with blunted pulmonary arterial wall thickening due to suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. RV function was maintained in MGCD0103 treated animals. Although the class I HDAC inhibitor only modestly reduced RV hypertrophy, it had multiple beneficial effects on the RV, which included suppression of pathological gene expression, inhibition of pro-apoptotic caspase activity, and repression of pro-inflammatory protein expression. Conclusions By targeting distinct pathogenic mechanisms, isoform-selective HDAC inhibitors have potential as novel therapeutics for PH that will complement vasodilator standards-of-care. PMID:22282194

  6. Molecular-targeted antitumor agents. 19. Furospongolide from a marine Lendenfeldia sp. sponge inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activation in breast tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Rui; Mao, Shui-Chun; Morgan, J Brian; Jekabsons, Mika B; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

    2008-11-01

    A natural product chemistry-based approach was employed to discover small-molecule inhibitors of the important tumor-selective molecular target hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Bioassay-guided isolation of an active lipid extract of a Saipan collection of the marine sponge Lendenfeldia sp. afforded the terpene-derived furanolipid furospongolide as the primary inhibitor of hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC(50) 2.9 μM, T47D breast tumor cells). The active component of the extract also contained one new cytotoxic scalarane sesterterpene and two previously reported scalaranes. Furospongolide blocked the induction of the downstream HIF-1 target secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and was shown to suppress HIF-1 activation by inhibiting the hypoxic induction of HIF-1α protein. Mechanistic studies indicate that furospongolide inhibits HIF-1 activity primarily by suppressing tumor cell respiration via the blockade of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I)-mediated mitochondrial electron transfer.

  7. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor A and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α maximizes the effects of radiation in sarcoma mouse models through destruction of tumor vasculature.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-June; Yoon, Changhwan; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Yeo-Jung; Schmidt, Benjamin; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Tap, William D; Eisinger-Mathason, T S Karin; Choy, Edwin; Kirsch, David G; Simon, M Celeste; Yoon, Sam S

    2015-03-01

    To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm(3) within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm(3) for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June; Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul; Yoon, Changhwan

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumormore » growth beyond 250 mm{sup 3} within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm{sup 3} for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature.« less

  9. Involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) in inhibition of benzene on mouse hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xing; Zhang, Juan; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is an occupational and environmental pollutant that damages the hematopoietic system through oxidant mechanisms. The aims of this study were to assess the role of oxidation in benzene-mediated damage by determination of the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to evaluate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in this process. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to benzene at varying concentrations of 60, 150, or 300 mg/kg/d for 15 d. Mice in the benzene groups displayed weight loss, and hematologic consequences including decreased red and white blood cell counts, reduced platelet count, diminished hemoglobin content, and lower number of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow (BM). There was an elevated proportional neutrophil count and decrease in relative thymus weight. In BM there was a significant increase in ROS levels at 150 mg/kg benzene. However, as a result of diminished cellular viability, ROS levels were not markedly different between the 300-mg/kg benzene dose and the control, as the number of hematopoietic stem cells was reduced. HIF-1α expression and protein levels were decreased in BM cells at all doses of benzene. In conclusion, data indicated that HIF-1α may be involved in benzene-induced inhibition of mouse hematopoiesis and that oxidative stress may play a role in the observed toxicity.

  10. Inhibition of Breast Cancer by Repression of Angiogenic Hypoxia-Inducible Transcription Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    cancer cells to death receptor-induced apoptosis by inhibition ofNF-KB: Synergistic action of Apo2L/TRAIL, Interferon-y, Aspirin and Apigenin . (Abstract...of !KK0 (with ::leety! ,~81iCy!iC ::H~irl" ASA), and CK2 (with the plant flavonoid, apigenin ), results in loss of NF-KB-dependent expression of BcI...reduction of NF-KS-induced survival proteins by ASA and apigenin synergizes with interferon-y-mediated elevation of death signaling proteins to

  11. Magnolol suppresses hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Chuan; Lee, Chi-Feng; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2013-05-01

    The hypoxic environment in tumors is an important factor causing tumor angiogenesis by activating the key transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factors-1α (HIF-1α). Magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis has been reported to exhibit an anticancer activity via elevation of apoptosis. However, whether magnolol inhibits tumor angiogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that magnolol significantly inhibited angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo evidenced by the attenuation of hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, vasculature generation in chicken chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug. In hypoxic human bladder cancer cells (T24), treatment with magnolol inhibited hypoxia-stimulated H2O2 formation, HIF-1α induction including mRNA, protein expression, and transcriptional activity as well as VEGF secretion. Additionally, the enhanced degradation of HIF-1α protein via enhancing prolyl hydroxylase activity and the decreased newly-synthesized HIF-1α protein in hypoxic T24 cells may involve the reduction of HIF-1α protein accumulation by magnolol. Interestingly, magnolol also acts as a VEGFR2 antagonist, and subsequently attenuates the down-stream AKT/mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP-1 kinase activation both in hypoxic T24 cells and tumor tissues. As expected, administration of magnolol greatly attenuated tumor growth, angiogenesis and the protein expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, CD31, a marker of endothelial cells, and carbonic anhydrase IX, an endogenous marker for hypoxia, in the T24 xenograft mouse model. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that the anti-agngiogenic activity of magnolol is, at least in part, mediated by suppressing HIF-1α/VEGF-dependent pathways, and suggest that magnolol may be a potential drug for human bladder cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 by sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate rapidly corrects metabolism and restores function in the diabetic heart following hypoxia/reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Mansor, Latt S.; Sousa Fialho, Maria da Luz; Yea, Georgina; Coumans, Will A.; West, James A.; Kerr, Matthew; Carr, Carolyn A.; Luiken, Joost J.F.P.; Glatz, Jan F.C.; Evans, Rhys D.; Griffin, Julian L.; Tyler, Damian J.; Clarke, Kieran

    2017-01-01

    Aims The type 2 diabetic heart oxidizes more fat and less glucose, which can impair metabolic flexibility and function. Increased sarcolemmal fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) imports more fatty acid into the diabetic myocardium, feeding increased fatty acid oxidation and elevated lipid deposition. Unlike other metabolic modulators that target mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we proposed that pharmacologically inhibiting fatty acid uptake, as the primary step in the pathway, would provide an alternative mechanism to rebalance metabolism and prevent lipid accumulation following hypoxic stress. Methods and results Hearts from type 2 diabetic and control male Wistar rats were perfused in normoxia, hypoxia and reoxygenation, with the FAT/CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO) infused 4 min before hypoxia. SSO infusion into diabetic hearts decreased the fatty acid oxidation rate by 29% and myocardial triglyceride concentration by 48% compared with untreated diabetic hearts, restoring fatty acid metabolism to control levels following hypoxia-reoxygenation. SSO infusion increased the glycolytic rate by 46% in diabetic hearts during hypoxia, increased pyruvate dehydrogenase activity by 53% and decreased lactate efflux rate by 56% compared with untreated diabetic hearts during reoxygenation. In addition, SSO treatment of diabetic hearts increased intermediates within the second span of the Krebs cycle, namely fumarate, oxaloacetate, and the FAD total pool. The cardiac dysfunction in diabetic hearts following decreased oxygen availability was prevented by SSO-infusion prior to the hypoxic stress. Infusing SSO into diabetic hearts increased rate pressure product by 60% during hypoxia and by 32% following reoxygenation, restoring function to control levels. Conclusions Diabetic hearts have limited metabolic flexibility and cardiac dysfunction when stressed, which can be rapidly rectified by reducing fatty acid uptake with the FAT/CD36 inhibitor, SSO. This novel

  13. The Rate-Limiting Step of O2 Activation in the α-Ketoglutarate Oxygenase Factor Inhibiting Hypoxia Inducible Factor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) is a cellular O2-sensing enzyme, which hydroxylates the hypoxia inducible factor-1α. Previously reported inverse solvent kinetic isotope effects indicated that FIH limits its overall turnover through an O2 activation step (HangaskyJ. A., SabanE., and KnappM. J. (2013) Biochemistry52, 1594−160223351038). Here we characterize the rate-limiting step for O2 activation by FIH using a suite of mechanistic probes on the second order rate constant kcat/KM(O2). Steady-state kinetics showed that the rate constant for O2 activation was slow (kcat/KM(O2)app = 3500 M–1 s–1) compared with other non-heme iron oxygenases, and solvent viscosity assays further excluded diffusional encounter with O2 from being rate limiting on kcat/KM(O2). Competitive oxygen-18 kinetic isotope effect measurements (18kcat/KM(O2) = 1.0114(5)) indicated that the transition state for O2 activation resembled a cyclic peroxohemiketal, which precedes the formation of the ferryl intermediate observed in related enzymes. We interpret this data to indicate that FIH limits its overall activity at the point of the nucleophilic attack of Fe-bound O2— on the C-2 carbon of αKG. Overall, these results show that FIH follows the consensus mechanism for αKG oxygenases, suggesting that FIH may be an ideal enzyme to directly access steps involved in O2 activation among the broad family of αKG oxygenases. PMID:25423620

  14. Minocycline and doxycycline, but not other tetracycline-derived compounds, protect liver cells from chemical hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibition of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Justin; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Zhang, Xun

    Minocycline, a tetracycline-derived compound, mitigates damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here, 19 tetracycline-derived compounds were screened in comparison to minocycline for their ability to protect hepatocytes against damage from chemical hypoxia and I/R injury. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated with 50 μM of each tetracycline-derived compound 20 min prior to exposure to 500 μM iodoacetic acid plus 1 mM KCN (chemical hypoxia). In other experiments, hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs–Ringer–HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 h prior to reoxygenation at pH 7.4 (simulated I/R). Tetracycline-derived compounds were added 20 min prior to reperfusion. Ca{sup 2+} uptake wasmore » measured in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated with Fluo-5N. Cell killing after 120 min of chemical hypoxia measured by propidium iodide (PI) fluorometry was 87%, which decreased to 28% and 42% with minocycline and doxycycline, respectively. After I/R, cell killing at 120 min decreased from 79% with vehicle to 43% and 49% with minocycline and doxycycline. No other tested compound decreased killing. Minocycline and doxycycline also inhibited mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and suppressed the Ca{sup 2+}-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the penultimate cause of cell death in reperfusion injury. Ru360, a specific inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), also decreased cell killing after hypoxia and I/R and blocked mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake and the MPT. Other proposed mechanisms, including mitochondrial depolarization and matrix metalloprotease inhibition, could not account for cytoprotection. Taken together, these results indicate that minocycline and doxycycline are cytoprotective by way of inhibition of MCU. - Highlights: • Minocycline and doxycycline are the only cytoprotective tetracyclines of those tested • Cytoprotective tetracyclines inhibit the MPT and mitochondrial calcium and iron uptake.

  15. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Kotaro, E-mail: hif.panc@gmail.com; Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru

    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearingmore » subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX

  16. Chemical Activation of the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Reversibly Reduces Tendon Stem Cell Proliferation, Inhibits Their Differentiation, and Maintains Cell Undifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Menon, Alessandra; Creo, Pasquale; Piccoli, Marco; Bergante, Sonia; Conforti, Erika; Banfi, Giuseppe; Randelli, Pietro; Anastasia, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Adult stem cell-based therapeutic approaches for tissue regeneration have been proposed for several years. However, adult stem cells are usually limited in number and difficult to be expanded in vitro, and they usually tend to quickly lose their potency with passages, as they differentiate and become senescent. Culturing stem cells under reduced oxygen tensions (below 21%) has been proposed as a tool to increase cell proliferation, but many studies reported opposite effects. In particular, cell response to hypoxia seems to be very stem cell type specific. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major role in this process is played by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), the master regulator of cell response to oxygen deprivation, which affects cell metabolism and differentiation. Herein, we report that a chemical activation of HIF in human tendon stem cells reduces their proliferation and inhibits their differentiation in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. These results support the notion that hypoxia, by activating HIF, plays a crucial role in preserving stem cells in an undifferentiated state in the "hypoxic niches" present in the tissue in which they reside before migrating in more oxygenated areas to heal a damaged tissue.

  17. Chemical Activation of the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Reversibly Reduces Tendon Stem Cell Proliferation, Inhibits Their Differentiation, and Maintains Cell Undifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Conforti, Erika; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Adult stem cell-based therapeutic approaches for tissue regeneration have been proposed for several years. However, adult stem cells are usually limited in number and difficult to be expanded in vitro, and they usually tend to quickly lose their potency with passages, as they differentiate and become senescent. Culturing stem cells under reduced oxygen tensions (below 21%) has been proposed as a tool to increase cell proliferation, but many studies reported opposite effects. In particular, cell response to hypoxia seems to be very stem cell type specific. Nonetheless, it is clear that a major role in this process is played by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), the master regulator of cell response to oxygen deprivation, which affects cell metabolism and differentiation. Herein, we report that a chemical activation of HIF in human tendon stem cells reduces their proliferation and inhibits their differentiation in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. These results support the notion that hypoxia, by activating HIF, plays a crucial role in preserving stem cells in an undifferentiated state in the “hypoxic niches” present in the tissue in which they reside before migrating in more oxygenated areas to heal a damaged tissue. PMID:29713352

  18. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevents hypoxia-induced metabolic shift and cellular proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Parra, Valentina; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Hernández-Fuentes, Carolina P; Gómez-Contreras, Andrés G; Verdejo, Hugo E; Mellado, Rosemarie; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio; Castro, Pablo F

    2017-11-01

    Chronic hypoxia exacerbates proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), thereby reducing the lumen of pulmonary arteries. This leads to poor blood oxygenation and cardiac work overload, which are the basis of diseases such as pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Recent studies revealed an emerging role of mitochondria in PAH pathogenesis, as key regulators of cell survival and metabolism. In this work, we assessed whether hypoxia-induced mitochondrial fragmentation contributes to the alterations of both PASMC death and proliferation. In previous work in cardiac myocytes, we showed that trimetazidine (TMZ), a partial inhibitor of lipid oxidation, stimulates mitochondrial fusion and preserves mitochondrial function. Thus, here we evaluated whether TMZ-induced mitochondrial fusion can prevent human PASMC proliferation in an in vitro hypoxic model. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we showed that prolonged hypoxia (48h) induces mitochondrial fragmentation along with higher levels of the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1. Concomitantly, both mitochondrial potential and respiratory rates decreased, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. In accordance with a metabolic shift towards non-mitochondrial ATP generation, mRNA levels of glycolytic markers HK2, PFKFB2 and GLUT1 increased during hypoxia. Incubation of PASMC with TMZ, prior to hypoxia, prevented all these changes and precluded the increase in PASMC proliferation. These findings were also observed using Mdivi-1 (a pharmacological DRP1 inhibitor) or a dominant negative DRP1 K38A as pre-treatments. Altogether, our data indicate that TMZ exerts a protective role against hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation, by preserving mitochondrial function, thus highlighting DRP1-dependent morphology as a novel therapeutic approach for diseases such as PAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Promising effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol on autonomic heart regulation estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in rats exposed to hypoxia and hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ziółkowski, Wiesław; Badtke, Piotr; Zajączkowski, Miłosz A.; Flis, Damian J.; Figarski, Adam; Smolińska-Bylańska, Maria; Wierzba, Tomasz H.

    2018-01-01

    Background It has long been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in oxygen sensing via peripheral chemoreceptors, which would imply their involvement in chemoreflex activation and autonomic regulation of heart rate. We hypothesize that antioxidant affect neurogenic cardiovascular regulation through activation of chemoreflex which results in increased control of sympathetic mechanism regulating heart rhythm. Activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), which is among the major endogenous sources of ROS in the rat has been shown to increase during hypoxia promote oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of how XO inhibition affects neurogenic regulation of heart rhythm is still unclear. Aim The study aimed to evaluate effects of allopurinol-driven inhibition of XO on autonomic heart regulation in rats exposed to hypoxia followed by hyperoxia, using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Material and methods 16 conscious male Wistar rats (350 g): control-untreated (N = 8) and pretreated with Allopurinol-XO inhibitor (5 mg/kg, followed by 50 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally (N = 8), were exposed to controlled hypobaric hypoxia (1h) in order to activate chemoreflex. The treatment was followed by 1h hyperoxia (chemoreflex suppression). Time-series of 1024 RR-intervals were extracted from 4kHz ECG recording for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in order to calculate the following time-domain parameters: mean RR interval (RRi), SDNN (standard deviation of all normal NN intervals), rMSSD (square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals), frequency-domain parameters (FFT method): TSP (total spectral power) as well as low and high frequency band powers (LF and HF). At the end of experiment we used rat plasma to evaluate enzymatic activity of XO and markers of oxidative stress: protein carbonyl group and 8-isoprostane concentrations. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione

  20. Promising effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol on autonomic heart regulation estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in rats exposed to hypoxia and hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Zajączkowski, Stanisław; Ziółkowski, Wiesław; Badtke, Piotr; Zajączkowski, Miłosz A; Flis, Damian J; Figarski, Adam; Smolińska-Bylańska, Maria; Wierzba, Tomasz H

    2018-01-01

    It has long been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in oxygen sensing via peripheral chemoreceptors, which would imply their involvement in chemoreflex activation and autonomic regulation of heart rate. We hypothesize that antioxidant affect neurogenic cardiovascular regulation through activation of chemoreflex which results in increased control of sympathetic mechanism regulating heart rhythm. Activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), which is among the major endogenous sources of ROS in the rat has been shown to increase during hypoxia promote oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of how XO inhibition affects neurogenic regulation of heart rhythm is still unclear. The study aimed to evaluate effects of allopurinol-driven inhibition of XO on autonomic heart regulation in rats exposed to hypoxia followed by hyperoxia, using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. 16 conscious male Wistar rats (350 g): control-untreated (N = 8) and pretreated with Allopurinol-XO inhibitor (5 mg/kg, followed by 50 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally (N = 8), were exposed to controlled hypobaric hypoxia (1h) in order to activate chemoreflex. The treatment was followed by 1h hyperoxia (chemoreflex suppression). Time-series of 1024 RR-intervals were extracted from 4kHz ECG recording for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in order to calculate the following time-domain parameters: mean RR interval (RRi), SDNN (standard deviation of all normal NN intervals), rMSSD (square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals), frequency-domain parameters (FFT method): TSP (total spectral power) as well as low and high frequency band powers (LF and HF). At the end of experiment we used rat plasma to evaluate enzymatic activity of XO and markers of oxidative stress: protein carbonyl group and 8-isoprostane concentrations. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measures in

  1. Adenosine 2A Receptor Inhibition Enhances Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Diaphragm but Not Intercostal Long-Term Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela A.; Vinit, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) elicits diaphragm (Dia) and second external intercostal (T2 EIC) long-term facilitation (LTF) in normal unanesthetized rats. Although AIH-induced phrenic LTF is serotonin dependent, adenosine constrained in anesthetized rats, this has not been tested in unanesthetized animals. Cervical (C2) spinal hemisection (C2HS) abolishes phrenic LTF because of loss of serotonergic inputs 2 weeks post-injury, but LTF returns 8 weeks post-injury. We tested three hypotheses in unanesthetized rats: (1) systemic adenosine 2aA (A2A) receptor inhibition with intraperitoneal (IP) KW6002 enhances Dia and T2 EIC LTF in normal rats; (2) Dia and T2 EIC LTF are expressed after chronic (8 weeks), but not acute (1 week) C2HS; and (3) KW6002 enhances Dia and T2 EIC LTF after chronic (not acute) C2HS. Electromyography radiotelemetry was used to record Dia and T2 EIC activity during normoxia (21% O2), before and after AIH (10, 5-min 10.5% O2, 5-min intervals). In normal rats, KW6002 enhanced DiaLTF versus AIH alone (33.1±4.6% vs. 22.1±6.4% baseline, respectively; p<0.001), but had no effect on T2 EIC LTF (p>0.05). Although Dia and T2 EIC LTF were not observed 2 weeks post-C2HS, LTF was observed in contralateral (uninjured) Dia and T2 EIC 8 weeks post-C2HS (18.7±2.7% and 34.9±4.9% baseline, respectively; p<0.05), with variable ipsilateral expression. KW6002 had no significant effects on contralateral Dia (p=0.447) or T2 EIC LTF (p=0.796). We conclude that moderate AIH induces Dia and T2 EIC LTF after chronic, but not acute cervical spinal injuries. A single A2A receptor antagonist dose enhances AIH-induced Dia LTF in normal rats, but this effect is not significant in chronic (8 weeks) C2HS unanesthetized rats. PMID:25003645

  2. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2013-10-20

    Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549 invasion and migration.

  3. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and Hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Methods Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Results Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Conclusions Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549

  4. Berberine Reverses Hypoxia-induced Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer through the Inhibition of AMPK- HIF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yue; Shao, Dan; Zhao, Yawei; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Xiao; Tan, Yongfei; He, Kan; Li, Jing; Chen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women. Chemoresistance is common and inevitable after a variable period of time. Therefore, chemosensitization is a necessary strategy on drug-resistant breast cancer. In this study, MCF-7 breast cancer cell was cultured under hypoxia for a week to induce the resistance to doxorubincin (DOX). The effect of different doses of berberine, a traditional Chinese medicine, on DOX sensitivity to MFC-7/hypoxia cells was observed. We found that hypoxia increased DOX resistance on breast cancer cells with the AMPK activation. Low-dose berberine could resensitize DOX chemosensitivity in MCF-7/hypoxia cell, however, high-dose berberine directly induced apoptosis. The intriguing fact was that the protein expressions of AMPK and HIF-1α were down-regulated by berberine, either low dose or high dose. But the downstream of HIF-1α occurred the bifurcation dependent on the dosage of berberine: AMPK-HIF-1α-P-gp inactivation played a crucial role on the DOX chemosensitivity of low-dose berberine, while AMPK-HIF-1α downregulaton inducing p53 activation led to apoptosis in high-dose berberine. These results were consistent to the transplanted mice model bearing MCF-7 drug-resistance tumor treated by berberine combined with DOX or high-dose berberine alone. This work shed light on a potentially therapeutic attempt to overcome drug-resistant breast cancer. PMID:28656004

  5. Berberine Reverses Hypoxia-induced Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer through the Inhibition of AMPK- HIF-1α.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Shao, Dan; Zhao, Yawei; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Xiao; Tan, Yongfei; He, Kan; Li, Jing; Chen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women. Chemoresistance is common and inevitable after a variable period of time. Therefore, chemosensitization is a necessary strategy on drug-resistant breast cancer. In this study, MCF-7 breast cancer cell was cultured under hypoxia for a week to induce the resistance to doxorubincin (DOX). The effect of different doses of berberine, a traditional Chinese medicine, on DOX sensitivity to MFC-7/hypoxia cells was observed. We found that hypoxia increased DOX resistance on breast cancer cells with the AMPK activation. Low-dose berberine could resensitize DOX chemosensitivity in MCF-7/hypoxia cell, however, high-dose berberine directly induced apoptosis. The intriguing fact was that the protein expressions of AMPK and HIF-1α were down-regulated by berberine, either low dose or high dose. But the downstream of HIF-1α occurred the bifurcation dependent on the dosage of berberine: AMPK-HIF-1α-P-gp inactivation played a crucial role on the DOX chemosensitivity of low-dose berberine, while AMPK-HIF-1α downregulaton inducing p53 activation led to apoptosis in high-dose berberine. These results were consistent to the transplanted mice model bearing MCF-7 drug-resistance tumor treated by berberine combined with DOX or high-dose berberine alone. This work shed light on a potentially therapeutic attempt to overcome drug-resistant breast cancer.

  6. Apigenin inhibited hypoxia induced stem cell marker expression in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ketkaew, Yuwaporn; Osathanon, Thanaphum; Pavasant, Prasit; Sooampon, Sireerat

    2017-02-01

    Cancer stem cells contribute to tumor recurrence, and a hypoxic environment is critical for maintaining cancer stem cells. Apigenin is a natural product with anticancer activity. However, the effect of apigenin on cancer stem cells remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of apigenin on cancer stem cell marker expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells under hypoxia. We used three head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines; HN-8, HN-30, and HSC-3. The mRNA expression of cancer stem cell markers was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Real-time PCR. The cytotoxic effect of apigenin was determined by MTT colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry was used to reveal the number of cells expressing cancer stem cell surface markers. HN-30 cells, a cancer cell line from the pharynx, showed the greatest response to hypoxia by increasing their expression of CD44, CD105, NANOG, OCT-4, REX-1, and VEGF. Apigenin significantly decreased HN-30 cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, 40μM apigenin significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of CD44, NANOG, and CD105. Consistent with these results, the hypoxia-induced increase in CD44 + cells, CD105 + cells, and STRO-1 + cells was significantly abolished by apigenin. Apigenin suppresses cancer stem cell marker expression and the number of cells expressing cell surface markers under hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of hypoxia-associated response and kynurenine production in response to hyperbaric oxygen as mechanisms involved in protection against experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Marcele F; Kayano, Ana Carolina A V; Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Dos-Santos, João Conrado K; Judice, Carla; Blanco, Yara C; Shryock, Nathaniel; Sercundes, Michelle K; Ortolan, Luana S; Francelin, Carolina; Leite, Juliana A; Oliveira, Rafaella; Elias, Rosa M; Câmara, Niels O S; Lopes, Stefanie C P; Albrecht, Letusa; Farias, Alessandro S; Vicente, Cristina P; Werneck, Claudio C; Giorgio, Selma; Verinaud, Liana; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Marinho, Claudio R F; Lalwani, Pritesh; Amino, Rogerio; Aliberti, Julio; Costa, Fabio T M

    2018-03-20

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a multifactorial syndrome involving an exacerbated proinflammatory status, endothelial cell activation, coagulopathy, hypoxia, and accumulation of leukocytes and parasites in the brain microvasculature. Despite significant improvements in malaria control, 15% of mortality is still observed in CM cases, and 25% of survivors develop neurologic sequelae for life-even after appropriate antimalarial therapy. A treatment that ameliorates CM clinical signs, resulting in complete healing, is urgently needed. Previously, we showed a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO)-protective effect against experimental CM. Here, we provide molecular evidence that HBO targets brain endothelial cells by decreasing their activation and inhibits parasite and leukocyte accumulation, thus improving cerebral microcirculatory blood flow. HBO treatment increased the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor over hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α), an oxygen-sensitive cytosolic receptor, along with decreased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 expression and kynurenine levels. Moreover, ablation of HIF-1α expression in endothelial cells in mice conferred protection against CM and improved survival. We propose that HBO should be pursued as an adjunctive therapy in CM patients to prolong survival and diminish deleterious proinflammatory reaction. Furthermore, our data support the use of HBO in therapeutic strategies to improve outcomes of non-CM disorders affecting the brain.-Bastos, M. F., Kayano, A. C. A. V., Silva-Filho, J. L., Dos-Santos, J. C. K., Judice, C., Blanco, Y. C., Shryock, N., Sercundes, M. K., Ortolan, L. S., Francelin, C., Leite, J. A., Oliveira, R., Elias, R. M., Câmara, N. O. S., Lopes, S. C. P., Albrecht, L., Farias, A. S., Vicente, C. P., Werneck, C. C., Giorgio, S., Verinaud, L., Epiphanio, S., Marinho, C. R. F., Lalwani, P., Amino, R., Aliberti, J., Costa, F. T. M. Inhibition of hypoxia-associated response and kynurenine production in response to hyperbaric oxygen

  8. Formononetin, an active compound of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge, inhibits hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization via the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianming; Ke, Xiao; Ma, Na; Wang, Wei; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Hongcheng; Zhao, Manxi; Gao, Xiaoping; Hao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been reported that formononetin (FMN), one of the main ingredients from famous traditional Chinese medicine “Huang-qi” (Astragalus membranaceus [Fisch] Bunge) for Qi-tonifying, exhibits the effects of immunomodulation and tumor growth inhibition via antiangiogenesis. Furthermore, A. membranaceus may alleviate the retinal neovascularization (NV) of diabetic retinopathy. However, the information of FMN on retinal NV is limited so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FMN on the hypoxia-induced retinal NV and the possible related mechanisms. Materials and methods The VEGF secretion model of acute retinal pigment epithelial-19 (ARPE-19) cells under chemical hypoxia was established by the exposure of cells to 150 μM CoCl2 and then cells were treated with 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1, a potent HIF-1α inhibitor, 1.0 μg/mL) or different concentrations of FMN (0.2 μg/mL, 1.0 μg/mL, and 5.0 μg/mL). The supernatants of cells were collected 48 hours later to measure the VEGF concentrations, following the manufacturer’s instruction. The mRNA expressions of VEGF, HIF-1α, PHD-2, and β-actin were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expressions of HIF-1α and PHD-2 were determined by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the rats with retinopathy were treated by intraperitoneal administration of conbercept injection (1.0 mg/kg) or FMN (5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg) in an 80% oxygen atmosphere. The retinal avascular areas were assessed through visualization of the retinal vasculature by adenosine diphosphatase staining and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results FMN can indeed inhibit the VEGF secretion of ARPE-19 cells under hypoxia, downregulate the mRNA expression of VEGFA and PHD-2, and decrease the protein expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, and PHD-2 in vitro. Furthermore, FMN can prevent hypoxia-induced retinal NV in vivo. Conclusion FMN can ameliorate

  9. Formononetin, an active compound of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bunge, inhibits hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization via the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianming; Ke, Xiao; Ma, Na; Wang, Wei; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Hongcheng; Zhao, Manxi; Gao, Xiaoping; Hao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that formononetin (FMN), one of the main ingredients from famous traditional Chinese medicine "Huang-qi" ( Astragalus membranaceus [Fisch] Bunge) for Qi-tonifying, exhibits the effects of immunomodulation and tumor growth inhibition via antiangiogenesis. Furthermore, A. membranaceus may alleviate the retinal neovascularization (NV) of diabetic retinopathy. However, the information of FMN on retinal NV is limited so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FMN on the hypoxia-induced retinal NV and the possible related mechanisms. The VEGF secretion model of acute retinal pigment epithelial-19 (ARPE-19) cells under chemical hypoxia was established by the exposure of cells to 150 μM CoCl 2 and then cells were treated with 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1, a potent HIF-1α inhibitor, 1.0 μg/mL) or different concentrations of FMN (0.2 μg/mL, 1.0 μg/mL, and 5.0 μg/mL). The supernatants of cells were collected 48 hours later to measure the VEGF concentrations, following the manufacturer's instruction. The mRNA expressions of VEGF, HIF-1α, PHD-2, and β-actin were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expressions of HIF-1α and PHD-2 were determined by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the rats with retinopathy were treated by intraperitoneal administration of conbercept injection (1.0 mg/kg) or FMN (5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg) in an 80% oxygen atmosphere. The retinal avascular areas were assessed through visualization of the retinal vasculature by adenosine diphosphatase staining and hematoxylin and eosin staining. FMN can indeed inhibit the VEGF secretion of ARPE-19 cells under hypoxia, downregulate the mRNA expression of VEGFA and PHD-2, and decrease the protein expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, and PHD-2 in vitro. Furthermore, FMN can prevent hypoxia-induced retinal NV in vivo. FMN can ameliorate retinal NV via the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway, and it may

  10. Effects of NOS inhibition on the cardiopulmonary system and brain microvascular markers after intermittent hypoxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Barer, G R; Fairlie, J; Slade, J Y; Ahmed, S; Laude, E A; Emery, C J; Thwaites-Bee, D; Oakley, A E; Barer, D H; Kalaria, R N

    2006-07-07

    We previously demonstrated that rats subjected to intermittent hypoxia (IH) by exposure to 10% O(2) for 4 h daily for 56 days in a normobaric chamber, developed pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and wall-thickening in pulmonary arterioles, compared with normoxic (N) controls. These changes were greater in rats subjected to continuous hypoxia (CH breathing 10% O(2) for 56 days). Cerebral angiogenesis was demonstrated by immunostaining with glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) antibody, in viable vessels, in CH and to a lesser degree in IH. In this study, adult Wistar rats were subjected to the same hypoxic regimes and given the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(6)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in drinking water (NLN, IHLN and CHLN regimes) to induce hypertension. There was significant systemic hypertension in NLN and IHLN rats, compared with N and IH, but surprisingly not in CHLN compared with CH. Hematocrit rose in all hypoxic groups (up to 79% in CHLN). There was no significant pulmonary hypertension in IHLN versus NLN rats, although there was asymmetric wall thickening in pulmonary arterioles. Cerebral GLUT1 immunoreactivity increased with L-NAME, with or without hypoxia, especially in CHLN rats, but conspicuously there was no evidence of angiogenesis in brains of IHLN compared with NLN rats. NOS blockade may attenuate the cerebral and pulmonary vascular changes of IH while augmenting cerebral angiogenesis in continuous hypoxia. However, whether cerebral effects are due to systemic hypertension or changes in cerebral nitric oxide production needs to be evaluated.

  11. Hypoxia reduces testosterone synthesis in mouse Leydig cells by inhibiting NRF1-activated StAR expression

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiran; Wang, Dan; Lu, Yapeng; Dong, Zhangji; Zhu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Male fertility disorders play a key role in half of all infertility cases. Reduction in testosterone induced by hypoxia might cause diseases in reproductive system and other organs. Hypoxic exposure caused a significant decrease of NRF1. Software analysis reported that the promoter region of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) contained NRF1 binding sites, indicating NRF1 promoted testicular steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine NRF1 is involved in testosterone synthesis; and under hypoxia, the decrease of testosterone synthesis is caused by lower expression of NRF1. We designed both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Under hypoxia, the expressions of NRF1 in Leydig cells and testosterone level were significantly decreased both in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression and interference NRF1 could induced StAR and testosterone increased and decreased respectively. ChIP results confirmed the binding of NRF1 to StAR promoter region. In conclusion, decline of NRF1 expression downregulated the level of StAR, which ultimately resulted in a reduction in testosterone synthesis. PMID:28146428

  12. 1-[N, O-bis-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4- phenylpiperazine (KN-62), an inhibitor of calcium-dependent camodulin protein kinase II, inhibits both insulin- and hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Brozinick, J T; Reynolds, T H; Dean, D; Cartee, G; Cushman, S W

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a role for calmodulin in hypoxia-and insulin-stimulated glucose transport. However, since calmodulin interacts with multiple protein targets, it is unknown which of these targets is involved in the regulation of glucose transport. In the present study, we have used the calcium-dependent calmodulin protein kinase II (CAMKII) inhibitor 1-[N, O-bis-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl) -N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (KN-62) to investigate the possible role of this enzyme in the regulation of glucose transport in isolated rat soleus and epitrochlearis muscles. KN-62 did not affect basal 2-deoxyglucose transport, but it did inhibit both insulin- and hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport activity by 46 and 40% respectively. 1-[N,O-Bis-(1, 5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-N-methyl-l-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (KN-04), a structural analogue of KN-62 that does not inhibit CAMKII, had no effect on hypoxia-or insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Accordingly, KN-62 decreased the stimulated cell-surface GLUT4 labelling by a similar extent as the inhibition of glucose transport (insulin, 49% and hypoxia, 54%). Additional experiments showed that KN-62 also inhibited insulin- and hypoxia-stimulated transport by 37 and 40% respectively in isolated rat epitrochlearis (a fast-twitch muscle), indicating that the effect of KN-62 was not limited to the slow-twitch fibres of the soleus. The inhibitory effect of KN-62 on hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport appears to be specific to CAMKII, since KN-62 did not inhibit hypoxia-stimulated 45Ca efflux from muscles pre-loaded with 45Ca, or hypoxia-stimulated glycogen breakdown. Additionally, KN-62 affected neither insulin-stimulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase nor Akt activity, suggesting that the effects of KN-62 are not due to non-specific effects of this inhibitor on these regions of the insulin-signalling cascade. The results of the present study suggest that CAMKII might have a distinct role in insulin- and hypoxia

  13. Edaravone inhibits hypoxia-induced trophoblast-soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 expression: a possible therapeutic approach to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Zheng, Y F; Luo, Q Q; Yan, T; Liu, X X; Han, L; Zou, L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger used clinically, on hypoxia-induced trophoblast-soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) expression. A trophoblast cell line (HRT-8/SVneo) impaired by cobalt chloride (CoCl2) was used as the cell model under hypoxic conditions. 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to measure the viability of cells exposed to CoCl2 and edaravone. The levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow cytometry. mRNA expression of sFlt-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and placental growth factor (PlGF) in trophoblasts was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the secretion of sFlt-1, VEGF, and PlGF proteins was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube-formation assay was performed to identify the effects of CoCl2 and edaravone on vascular development. CoCl2 treatment caused the loss of trophoblast viability, the formation of ROS, and sFlt-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with edaravone significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced oxidative stress formation and sFlt-1 expression in trophoblasts. Neither PlGF nor VEGF mRNA or protein expression was increased by CoCl2. In the in vitro tube formation assay, edaravone showed a protective role in vascular development under hypoxic conditions. This study demonstrated that hypoxia leading to increased sFlt-1 release in trophoblasts may contribute to the placental vascular formation abnormalities observed in preeclampsia and suggested that the free radical scavenger edaravone could be a candidate for the effective treatment of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prodigiosin inhibits gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression to protect mice against the oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chia-Che; Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

    2011-11-15

    This study aimed to explore the mechanisms by which prodigiosin protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAo/r) injury in mice. Hypoxia in vitro was modeled using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation of BV-2 microglial cells. Our results showed that treatment of mice that have undergone MCAo/r injury with prodigiosin (10 and 100 {mu}g/kg, i.v.) at 1 h after hypoxia ameliorated MCAo/r-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, brain infarction, and neurological deficits in the mice, and enhanced their survival rate. MCAo/r induced a remarkable production in the mouse brains of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a significantmore » increase in protein nitrosylation; this primarily resulted from enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (gp91{sup phox}), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the infiltration of CD11b leukocytes due to breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) by activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). All these changes were significantly diminished by prodigiosin. In BV-2 cells, OGD induced ROS and nitric oxide production by up-regulating gp91{sup phox} and iNOS via activation of the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and these changes were suppressed by prodigiosin. In conclusion, our results indicate that prodigiosin reduces gp91{sup phox} and iNOS expression possibly by impairing NF-{kappa}B activation. This compromises the activation of microglial and/or inflammatory cells, which then, in turn, mediates prodigiosin's protective effect in the MCAo/r mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin ameliorated brain infarction and deficits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin protected against hypoxia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin diminished oxidative/nitrosativestress and leukocytes infiltration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prodigiosin reduced BBB breakdown. Black

  15. Inhibiting the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase pathway blocks radiation-induced metastasis associated with Rho-GTPase and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Natalie; Telfer, Brian; Brabant, Georg; Williams, Kaye J

    2013-09-01

    Undifferentiated follicular and anaplastic thyroid tumours often respond poorly to radiotherapy and show increased metastatic potential. We evaluated radiation-induced effects on metastasis in thyroid carcinoma cells and tumours, mechanistically focusing on phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and associated pathways. Migration was analysed in follicular (FTC133) and anaplastic (8505c) cells following radiotherapy (0-6 Gray) with concomitant pharmacological (GDC-0941) or genetic inhibition of PI3K. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-activity was measured using luciferase reporter assays and was inhibited using a dominant-negative variant. Activation and subcellular localisation of target proteins were assessed via Western blot and immunofluorescence. In vivo studies used FTC133 xenografts with metastatic lung dissemination assessed ex vivo. Radiation induced migration in a HIF-dependent manner in FTC133 cells but decreased migration in 8505c's. Post-radiation HIF-activity correlated with migratory phenotype. PI3K-targeting inhibited migration under basal and irradiated conditions through inhibition of HIF-1α, Rho-GTPase expression/activity and localisation whilst having little effect on src/FAK. In vivo, radiation induced PI3K, HIF, Rho-GTPases and src but only PI3K, HIF and Rho-GTPases were inhibited by GDC-0941. Co-treatment with GDC-0941 and radiation significantly reduced metastatic dissemination versus radiotherapy alone. Radiation modifies metastatic characteristics of thyroid carcinoma cells, which can be successfully inhibited by targeting PI3K using GDC-0941 in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Curcumin attenuates chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced brain injuries by inhibiting AQP4 and p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Wenyang; Jin, Hongyu; Nie, Xinshi; Shen, Hui; Li, Erran; Wang, Wei

    2018-09-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is one of the main features of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is also commonly associated with neurocognitive impairments. The present study aimed to elucidate the beneficial effect of curcumin on CIH-induced brain injuries. Male balb/c mice (6 ∼ 8 weeks) were exposed to normoxia or a pattern of CIH (8 h/day, cycles of 180 s each, hypoxia: 5% O 2 for 50 s, reoxygenation: 21% O 2 for 50 s) for 10 weeks, along with daily curcumin treatment (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, intragastrically) or its vehicle. The results showed that CIH induced significant brain edema, as well as neuronal apoptosis and astrogliosis in the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and cerebellum regions of brain. In addition, increased astrocytic AQP4 expression and activation of p38 MAPK pathway were observed after CIH exposure. Curcumin dose-dependently mitigated the brain edema and relevant cell alterations, showing a neuroprotective effect in CIH-induced brain injury. Together, these results suggest curcumin ameliorates the CIH-induced brain injuries, including brain edema, neuronal death and astrogliosis. The beneficial role of curcumin is mediated partially by regulating AQP4 and p38 MAPK pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression through induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Han, Eun Hee; Im, Ji Hye

    2015-09-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural component of propolis, is reported to have anticarcinogenic properties, although its precise chemopreventive mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of CAPE on 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-induced CYP1A1 expression and activities. CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. Moreover, CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 activity, mRNA expression, protein level, and promoter activity. CAPE treatment also decreased 3-MC-inducible xenobiotic-response element (XRE)-linked luciferase, aryl hydrocarbons receptor (AhR) transactivation and nuclear localization. CAPE induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein level and HIF-1α responsible element (HRE) transcriptional activity. CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 protein expression. Takenmore » together, CAPE decreases 3-MC-mediated CYP1A1 expression, and this inhibitory response is associated with inhibition of AhR and HIF-1α induction. - Highlights: • CAPE reduced the formation of the benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct. • CAPE inhibited 3-MC-induced CYP1A1 expression. • CAPE induced HIF-1α induction. • CAPE-mediated HIF-1α reduced 3-MC-inducible CYP1A1 expression.« less

  18. GDC-0941 inhibits metastatic characteristics of thyroid carcinomas by targeting both the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) pathways.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Natalie; Babur, Muhammad; Resch, Julia; Ridsdale, Sophie; Mejin, Melissa; Rowling, Emily J; Brabant, Georg; Williams, Kaye J

    2011-12-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in thyroid carcinoma cells. Both pathways are associated with aggressive phenotype in thyroid carcinomas. Our objective was to assess the effects of the clinical PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 and genetic inhibition of PI3K and HIF on metastatic behavior of thyroid carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Vascular endothelial growth factor ELISA, HIF activity assays, proliferation studies, and scratch-wound migration and cell spreading assays were performed under various O(2) tensions [normoxia, hypoxia (1 and 0.1% O(2)), and anoxia] with or without GDC-0941 in a panel of four thyroid carcinoma cell lines (BcPAP, WRO, FTC133, and 8505c). Genetic inhibition was achieved by overexpressing phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) into PTEN-null cells and by using a dominant-negative variant of HIF-1α (dnHIF). In vivo, human enhanced green fluorescence protein-expressing follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) were treated with GDC-0941 (orally). Spontaneous lung metastasis was confirmed by viewing enhanced green fluorescence protein-positive colonies cultured from lung tissue. GDC-0941 inhibited hypoxia/anoxia-induced HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression and HIF activity in thyroid carcinoma cells. Basal (three of four cell lines) and/or hypoxia-induced (four of four) secreted vascular endothelial growth factor was inhibited by GDC-0941, whereas selective HIF targeting predominantly affected hypoxia/anoxia-mediated secretion (P < 0.05-0.0001). Antiproliferative effects of GDC-0941 were more pronounced in PTEN mutant compared with PTEN-restored cells (P < 0.05). Hypoxia increased migration in papillary cells and cell spreading/migration in FTC cells (P < 0.01). GDC-0941 reduced spreading and migration in all O(2) conditions, whereas dnHIF had an impact only on hypoxia-induced migration (P < 0.001). In vivo, GDC-0941 reduced expression of HIF-1α, phospho-AKT, GLUT-1, and lactate

  19. Inhibition of microRNA-1 attenuates hypoxia/re-oxygenation-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by directly targeting Bcl-2 but not GADD45Beta

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Changlin; Tang, Guanmin; Peng, Lei; Hu, Huilin; Qian, Gang; Wang, Shijun; Yao, Jiankang; Zhang, Xiaoping; Fang, Ying; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression and play important roles in some biological and pathological processes, including the myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Recent findings demonstrated that miR-1 exacerbated I/R-induced injury. This study was to investigate theanti-apoptotic property of miR-1 inhibition and the potential regulatory mechanism. Results showed miR-1 expression reduced in the heart of rats undergoing myocardial I/R and the cardiomyocytes receiving hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, but the serum miR-1 expression increased. The targets of miR-1 were predicted by cDNA microarray, and Bcl-2 and GADD45β were selected as candidate targets. Western blot assay and qPCR showed Bcl-2 and GADD45β protein and mRNA expressions increased after I/R injury and H/R injury. Bcl-2 was a direct target of miR-1 as shown in previous studies. Luciferase assay and Western blot assay revealed GADD45β was a direct target of miR-1, and miR-1 suppressed GADD45β expression via binding to its 3’UTR. Furthermore, miR-1 inhibition increased Bcl-2 expression and reduced IA/AAR (infarct area/area at risk) ratio and cell apoptosis in rats undergoing myocardial I/R as well as in cardiomyocytes receiving H/R injury. Importantly, Bcl-2 knockdown restored these consequences following miR-1 inhibition. However, GADD45β knockdown reduced IA/AAR ratio and cell apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, but failed torestore above consequences after miR-1 inhibition. In conclusion miR-1 inhibition protects against H/R-induced apoptosis of myocytes by directly targeting Bcl-2 but not GADD45β. PMID:26692938

  20. Adaptive Myogenesis under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Zhong; Lin, Qun; Giaccia, Amato J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that myoblasts can differentiate and repair muscle injury after an ischemic insult. However, it is unclear how hypoxia or glucose deprivation in the ischemic microenvironment affects myoblast differentiation. We have found that myogenesis can adapt to hypoxic conditions. This adaptive mechanism is accompanied by initial inhibition of the myoD, E2A, and myogenin genes followed by resumption of their expression in an oxygen-dependent manner. The regulation of myoD transcription by hypoxia is correlated with transient deacetylation of histones associated with the myoD promoter. It is noteworthy that, unlike the differentiation of other cell types such as preadipocytes or chondroblasts, the effect of hypoxia on myogenesis is independent of HIF-1, a ubiquitous regulator of transcription under hypoxia. While myogenesis can also adapt to glucose deprivation, the combination of severe hypoxia and glucose deprivation found in an ischemic environment results in pronounced loss of myoblasts. Our studies indicate that the ischemic muscle can be repaired via the adaptive differentiation of myogenic precursors, which depends on the levels of oxygen and glucose in the ischemic microenvironment. PMID:15798192

  1. Sestrin2 Induced by Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha protects the Blood-Brain Barrier via Inhibiting VEGF after Severe Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xudan; Doycheva, Desislava Met; Xu, Liang; Tang, Jiping; Yan, Min; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy remains the leading cause of perinatal brain injury resulting in long term disabilities. Stabilization of blood brain barrier (BBB) after HI is an important target, therefore, in this study we aim to determine the role of sestrin2, a stress inducible protein which is elevated after various insults, on BBB stabilization after moderate and severe HI injury. Methods Rat pups underwent common carotid artery ligation followed by either 150 min (severe model) or 100 min (moderate model) of hypoxia. 1h post HI, rats were intranasally administered with recombinant human sestrin2 (rh-sestrin2) and sacrificed for infarct area, brain water content, righting reflex and geotaxis reflex. Sestrin2 was silenced using siRNA and an activator/inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor1α (HIF1α) were used to examine their roles on BBB permeability. Results Rats subjected to severe HI exhibited larger infarct area and higher sestrin2 expression compared to rats in the moderate HI group. rh-sestrin2 attenuated brain infarct and edema, while silencing sestrin2 reversed these protective effects after severe HI. HIF1α induced sestrin2 activation in severe HI but not in moderate HI groups. A HIF1a agonist was shown to increase permeability of the BBB via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after moderate HI. However, after severe HI, HIF1α activated both VEGF and sestrin2. But HIF1α dependent sestrin2 activation was the predominant pathway after severe HI which inhibited VEGF and attenuated BBB permeability. Conclusions rh-sestrin2 attenuated BBB permeability via upregulation of endogenous sestrin2 which was induced by HIF1α after severe HI. However, HIF1α’s effects as a prodeath or prosurvival signal were influenced by the severity of HI injury. PMID:27425892

  2. [The miR-21 attenuates hepatocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuxian; Sun, Chao; Zheng, Daofeng; Liu, Rui; Wei, Xufu; Wu, Zhongjun

    2017-04-01

    Objective To study the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-treated primary hepatocytes from C57BL/6J mice and analyze its possible molecular mechanism. Methods The H/R model of primary hepatocytes was established and the expression of miR-21 was detected by the quantitative real-time PCR. Western blotting was used to detect protein expression levels of phosphatase and tension homology deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), Bcl-2 and Bax. Flow cytometry was performed to observe the hepatocyte apoptosis. Results The expression of miR-21 in primary hepatocytes decreased after H/R injury. After transfected with exogenous miR-21 mimics, the expression of PTEN decreased, while the expressions of p-AKT and Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax increased in hepatocytes; the apoptotic level of hepatocytes was downregulated. The inhibition of AKT phosphorylation could downregulate the expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and upregulate the level of hepatocyte apoptosis. Conclusion The miR-21 can alleviate the hepatocyte apoptosis by inhibiting the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in the process of H/R.

  3. MicroRNA-300 targets hypoxia inducible factor-3 alpha to inhibit tumorigenesis of human non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Guo, Y; Yang, C; Zhang, S; Zhu, X; Cao, L; Nie, W; Yu, H

    2017-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most deadly human cancers. MicroRNA-300 acts as both tumor promoter and suppressor in different types of cancer. Here, we try to identify the function of microRNA-300 in human NSCLC. We compared MicroRNA-300 levels between tumor tissues versus paired adjacent non-tumor lung tissues from NSCLC patients, and in NSCLC versus normal lung cell lines. Effects of microRNA-300 on cell proliferation, invasion and migration were examined in vitro, and on tumor growth in vivo using a xenograft mouse model. Potential mRNA targets of microRNA-300 were predicted and underlying mechanism was explored. MicroRNA-300 expression was lower in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of microRNA-300 inhibited proliferation, invasion and migration of NSCLC cells in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. MicroRNA-300 could directly bind to the 3'-UTR of hypoxia inducible factor-3 alpha (HIF3α) mRNA, and inhibit both its mRNA and protein expressions. Restoring HIF3α expression could rescue the inhibitory effects of microRNA-300 on tumorigenesis of NSCLC both in vitro and in vivo. MicroRNA-300 is a tumor suppressor microRNA in NSCLC by downregulating HIF3α expression. Both microRNA-300 and HIF3α may serve as potential therapeutic targets in NSCLC treatment.

  4. Hypoxia induces pulmonary fibroblast proliferation through NFAT signaling.

    PubMed

    Senavirathna, Lakmini Kumari; Huang, Chaoqun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Sathiaseelan, Roshini; Xu, Dao; Henke, Craig A; Liu, Lin

    2018-02-09

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and typically fatal lung disease with a very low survival rate. Excess accumulation of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and extracellular matrix creates hypoxic conditions within the lungs, causing asphyxiation. Hypoxia is, therefore, one of the prominent features of IPF. However, there have been few studies concerning the effects of hypoxia on pulmonary fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia-induced lung fibroblast proliferation. Hypoxia increased the proliferation of normal human pulmonary fibroblasts and IPF fibroblasts after exposure for 3-6 days. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that hypoxia promoted the G1/S phase transition. Hypoxia downregulated cyclin D1 and A2 levels, while it upregulated cyclin E1 protein levels. However, hypoxia had no effect on the protein expression levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, 4, and 6. Chemical inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2 reduced hypoxia-induced fibroblast proliferation. Moreover, silencing of Nuclear Factor Activated T cell (NFAT) c2 attenuated the hypoxia-mediated fibroblasts proliferation. Hypoxia also induced the nuclear translocation of NFATc2, as determined by immunofluorescence staining. NFAT reporter assays showed that hypoxia-induced NFAT signaling activation is dependent on HIF-2, but not HIF-1. Furthermore, the inhibition or silencing of HIF-2, but not HIF-1, reduced the hypoxia-mediated NFATc2 nuclear translocation. Our studies suggest that hypoxia induces the proliferation of human pulmonary fibroblasts through NFAT signaling and HIF-2.

  5. Silencing of galectin-1 inhibits retinal neovascularization and ameliorates retinal hypoxia in a murine model of oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Zhang, Wenxi; He, Tao; Xing, Yiqiao

    2017-06-01

    Aberrant neovascularization is a consequence of inappropriate angiogenic signaling and contributes to several diseases. Although many regulators of pathogenic angiogenesis have been identified, the understanding of this process remains incomplete. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), as a homodimeric protein with a single carbohydrate-recognition domain, is implicated in several pathologic processes, including angiogenesis; however, its involvement in retinal neovascularization (RNV) remains unknown. Here, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of silencing Gal-1 through intravitreal injection in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Our results revealed that Gal-1 was overexpressed and closely related to retinal neo-vessels in OIR retinas. After silencing Gal-1 via intravitreal injection of adenoviral-Gal-1-RNA interference (Ad-Gal-1-RNAi), RNV and retinal hypoxia were significantly attenuated, indicating the anti-angiogenic effect of Gal-1 inhibition. Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that the expression of both neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) decreased after intravitreal injection of Ad-Gal-1-RNAi, implying the possible involvement of Nrp-1 and Bcl-2 in Gal-1-related angiogenic processes. Additionally, whole-mount fluorescence and hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that intravitreal injection of Ad-Gal-1-RNAi did not significantly disrupt the retinal vasculature and neuronal structure of room air mice. Moreover, Ad-Gal-1-RNAi transfer promoted retinal vascular sprouting and increased retinal vascular perfusion, likely through decreased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target protein-1. Collectively, our results demonstrated that Gal-1 functions as an important regulator in RNV and offers a promising strategy for the treatment of RNV diseases, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNA-449a Inhibition Protects H9C2 Cells Against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury by Targeting the Notch-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Wu, Qianfu; Lv, Rong; Huang, Li; Xu, Banglong; Wang, Xianbao; Chen, Aihua; He, Fei

    2018-05-07

    The present study aimed to detect the expression of miR-449a and investigate the effect of miR-449a on cell injury in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/ reoxygenation (H/R) and its underlying mechanisms. The expression of miR-449a was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in both neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and H9C2 cells. For gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, H9C2 cells were transfected with either miR-449a mimics or miR-449a inhibitor. The target gene of miR-449a was confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by both flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide and transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Necrosis was confirmed by the detection of lactate dehydrogenase release. The cell viability was measured using the methylthiotetrazole method. The protein levels of Notch-1, Notch-1 intracellular domain, hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes-1), and apoptosis-related genes were measured by Western blot analysis. MiR-449a was significantly upregulated in both neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and H9C2 cells subjected to H/R. However, H/R-induced cell apoptosis and necrosis were markedly reduced by miR-449a inhibition. By targeting Notch-1, miR-449a regulated the Notch-1/ Hes-1 signaling pathway. The blockade of the Notch signaling pathway partly abolished the protective effect of miR-449a suppression against H/R injury, whereas the overexpression of Notch-1 intracellular domain partly reversed the effect of miR-449a overexpression on H/R-induced cell injury. The present study suggested that miR-449a inhibition protected H9C2 cells against H/R-induced cell injury by targeting the Notch-1 signaling pathway, providing a novel insight into the molecular basis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and a potential therapeutic target. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Defective glycogenesis contributes toward the inability to suppress hepatic glucose production in response to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Torres, Tracy P; Fujimoto, Yuka; Donahue, E P; Printz, Richard L; Houseknecht, Karen L; Treadway, Judith L; Shiota, Masakazu

    2011-09-01

    Examine whether normalizing net hepatic glycogenesis restores endogenous glucose production and hepatic glucose phosphorylation in response to diabetic levels of plasma glucose and insulin in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF). Hepatic glucose and intermediate fluxes (µmol · kg(-1) · min(-1)) were measured with and without a glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor (GPI) using [2-(3)H]glucose, [3-(3)H]glucose, and [U-(14)C]alanine in 20 h-fasted conscious ZDF and their lean littermates (ZCL) under clamp conditions designed to maintain diabetic levels of plasma glucose and insulin. With infusion of GPI into ZDF (ZDF-GPI+G), compared with vehicle infused ZDF (ZDF-V), high glycogen phosphorylase a activity was decreased and low synthase I activity was increased to that of ZCL. Low net glycogenesis from plasma glucose rose to 75% of ZCL levels (4 ± 1 in ZDF-V, 18 ± 1 in ZDF-GPI+G, and 24 ± 2 in ZCL) and phosphoenolpyruvate 260% (4 ± 2 in ZDF-V, 16 ± 1 in ZDF+GPI-G, and 6 ± 2 in ZCL). High endogenous glucose production was suppressed with GPI infusion but not to that of ZCL (46 ± 4 in ZDF-V, 18 ± 4 in ZDF-GPI+G, and -8 ± 3 in ZCL). This was accompanied by reduction of the higher glucose-6-phosphatase flux (75 ± 4 in ZDF-V, 41 ± 4 in ZDF-GPI+G, and 86 ± 12 in ZCL) and no change in low glucose phosphorylation or total gluconeogenesis. In the presence of hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemia in ZDF, reduced glycogenic flux partially contributes to a lack of suppression of hepatic glucose production by failing to redirect glucose-6-phosphate flux from production of glucose to glycogen but is not responsible for a lower rate of glucose phosphorylation.

  8. Menadione and ethacrynic acid inhibit the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway by disrupting HIF-1α interaction with p300.

    PubMed

    Na, Yu-Ran; Han, Ki-Cheol; Park, Hyunsung; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2013-05-17

    Hypoxia is a general characteristic of most solid malignancies and intimately related to neoplastic diseases and cancer progression. Homeostatic response to hypoxia is primarily mediated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α that elicits transcriptional activity through recruitment of the CREB binding protein (CBP)/p300 coactivator. Targeted blockade of HIF-1α binding to CBP/p300 would thus constitute a novel approach for cancer treatment by suppressing tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Here, we identified inhibitors against the interaction between HIF-1α and p300 by a fluorescence polarization-based assay employing a fluorescently-labeled peptide containing the C-terminal activation domain of HIF-1α. Two small molecule inhibitors, menadione (MD) and ethacrynic acid (EA), were found to decrease expression of luciferase under the control of hypoxia-responsive elements in hypoxic cells as well as to efficiently block the interaction between the full-length HIF-1α and p300. While these compounds did not alter the expression level of HIF-1α, they down-regulated expression of a HIF-1α target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene. Considering hypoxia-induced VEGF expression leading to highly aggressive tumor growth, MD and EA may provide new scaffolds for development of tumor therapeutic reagents as well as tools for a better understanding of HIF-1α-mediated hypoxic regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypoxia-inducible miR-152 suppresses the expression of WNT1 and ERBB3, and inhibits the proliferation of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xue-Lei; Lin, Li; Song, Li-Na; Tang, Xue-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Hypoxia has been a research focus in cancer because of its important role in maintaining tumor microenvironments. Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of several miRNAs was altered under hypoxic conditions, suggesting their crucial roles in the development of cancer. In the present study, the expression of 22 miRNAs reported to be significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues was examined. We found that four of these miRNAs were upregulated in response to hypoxia in HeLa cervical cancer cells. MiR-152 was upregulated to the greatest extent and was also found to be upregulated by hypoxia in C33A cells and tumor, but not in non-tumor cervical tissues. Moreover, we found that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulated the expression of miR-152 in HeLa cells through a hypoxia-responsive element. A bioinformatic tool predicted that WNT1 and ERBB3 were target genes of miR-152. This was confirmed by dual luciferase assays and Western blots. Overexpression of miR-152 repressed WNT1 and ERBB3 expression and decreased proliferation of HeLa cells. Collectively, these data indicate an important role for miR-152 in regulating the hypoxic response of tumor cells. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  10. Inhibition of histone/lysine acetyltransferase activity kills CoCl2-treated and hypoxia-exposed gastric cancer cells and reduces their invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Suvasmita; Das, Lopamudra; Kokate, Shrikant Babanrao; Ghosh, Nilabh; Dixit, Pragyesh; Rout, Niranjan; Singh, Shivaram P.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Ashktorab, Hassan; Smoot, Duane T.; Swamy, Mahadeva M.; Kundu, Tapas K.; Crowe, Sheila E.; Bhattacharyya, Asima

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia enhances immortality and metastatic properties of solid tumors. Deregulation of histone acetylation has been associated with several metastatic cancers but its effect on hypoxic responses of cancer cells is not known. This study aimed at understanding the effectiveness of the hydrazinocurcumin, CTK7A, an inhibitor of p300 lysine/histone acetyltransferase (KAT/HAT) activity, in inducing apoptosis of gastric cancer cells (GCCs) exposed to cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a hypoxia-mimetic chemical, or 1% O2. Here, we show that CTK7A-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation in CoCl2-exposed and invasive gastric cancer cells (GCCs) leads to p38 MAPK-mediated Noxa expression and thereafter, mitochondrial apoptotic events. Noxa induction in normal immortalized gastric epithelial cells after CTK7A and hypoxia-exposure is remarkably less in comparison to similarly-treated GCCs. Moreover, hypoxia-exposed GCCs, which have acquired invasive properties, become apoptotic after CTK7A treatment to a significantly higher extent than normoxic cells. Thus, we show the potential of CTK7A in sensitizing hypoxic and metastatic GCCs to apoptosis induction. PMID:27890795

  11. The effect of ACE inhibition on the pulmonary vasculature in combined model of chronic hypoxia and pulmonary arterial banding in Sprague Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Shanelle; Baumgardt, Shelley; Molthen, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Microfocal CT was used to image the pulmonary arterial (PA) tree in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension (PH). CT images were used to measure the arterial tree diameter along the main arterial trunk at several hydrostatic intravascular pressures and calculate distensibility. High-resolution planar angiographic imaging was also used to examine distal PA microstructure. Data on pulmonary artery tree morphology improves our understanding of vascular remodeling and response to treatments. Angiotensin II (ATII) has been identified as a mediator of vasoconstriction and proliferative mitotic function. ATII has been shown to promote vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia as well as stimulate synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. Available ATII is targeted through angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), a method that has been used in animal models of PH to attenuate vascular remodeling and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance. In this study, we used rat models of chronic hypoxia to induce PH combined with partial left pulmonary artery occlusion (arterial banding, PLPAO) to evaluate effects of the ACEI, captopril, on pulmonary vascular hemodynamic and morphology. Male Sprague Dawley rats were placed in hypoxia (FiO2 0.1), with one group having underwent PLPAO three days prior to the chronic hypoxia. After the twenty-first day of hypoxia exposure, treatment was started with captopril (20 mg/kg/day) for an additional twenty-one days. At the endpoint, lungs were excised and isolated to examine: pulmonary vascular resistance, ACE activity, pulmonary vessel morphology and biomechanics. Hematocrit and RV/LV+septum ratio was also measured. CT planar images showed less vessel dropout in rats treated with captopril versus the non-treatment lungs. Distensibility data shows no change in rats treated with captopril in both chronic hypoxia (CH) and CH with PLPAO (CH+PLPAO) models. Hemodynamic measurements also show no change in the pulmonary vascular

  12. Hypoxia: From Placental Development to Fetal Programming.

    PubMed

    Fajersztajn, Lais; Veras, Mariana Matera

    2017-10-16

    Hypoxia may influence normal and different pathological processes. Low oxygenation activates a variety of responses, many of them regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex, which is mostly involved in cellular control of O 2 consumption and delivery, inhibition of growth and development, and promotion of anaerobic metabolism. Hypoxia plays a significant physiological role in fetal development; it is involved in different embryonic processes, for example, placentation, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. More recently, fetal hypoxia has been associated directly or indirectly with fetal programming of heart, brain, and kidney function and metabolism in adulthood. In this review, the role of hypoxia in fetal development, placentation, and fetal programming is summarized. Hypoxia is a basic mechanism involved in different pregnancy disorders and fetal health developmental complications. Although there are scientific data showing that hypoxia mediates changes in the growth trajectory of the fetus, modulates gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms, and determines the health status later in adulthood, more mechanistic studies are needed. Furthermore, if we consider that intrauterine hypoxia is not a rare event, and can be a consequence of unavoidable exposures to air pollution, nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and other very common conditions (drug addiction and stress), the health of future generations may be damaged and the incidence of some diseases will markedly increase as a consequence of disturbed fetal programming. Birth Defects Research 109:1377-1385, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. trans-Resveratrol Protects Ischemic PC12 Cells by Inhibiting the Hypoxia Associated Transcription Factors and Increasing the Levels of Antioxidant Defense Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro model of ischemic cerebral stroke [oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 6 h followed by 24 h reoxygenation (R)] with PC12 cells increases Ca2+ influx by upregulating native L-type Ca2+ channels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. This reactive oxygen species generation and increase in intracellular Ca2+ triggers the expression of hypoxic homeostasis transcription factors such as hypoxia induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), Cav-beta 3 (Cav β3), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), heat shock protein 27 (hsp-27), and cationic channel transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7). OGD insulted PC12 cells were subjected to biologically safe doses (5, 10, and 25 μM) of trans-resveratrol in three different treatment groups: 24 h prior to OGD (pre-treatment); 24 h post OGD (post-treatment); and from 24 h before OGD to end of reoxygenation period (whole-treatment). Here, we demonstrated that OGD-R-induced neuronal injury/death is by reactive oxygen species generation, increase in intracellular calcium levels, and decrease in antioxidant defense enzymes. trans-Resveratrol increases the viability of OGD-R insulted PC12 cells, which was assessed by using MTT, NRU, and LDH release assay. In addition, trans-resveratrol significantly decreases reactive oxygen species generation, intracellular Ca2+ levels, and hypoxia associated transcription factors and also increases the level of antioxidant defense enzymes. Our data shows that the whole-treatment group of trans-resveratrol is most efficient in decreasing hypoxia induced cell death through its antioxidant properties. PMID:23421680

  14. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes.more » We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.« less

  15. Inhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupperman, Joel J.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the use of the concept of inhibition in moral philosophy. Argues that there are strong practical reasons for basing moral teaching on simple moral rules and for inculcating inhibitions about breaking these rules. (Author)

  16. Mitochondrial Respiratory Function Induces Endogenous Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Sara; Kim, Ara; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Takeuchi, Toshiyuki; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia influences many key biological functions. In cancer, it is generally believed that hypoxic condition is generated deep inside the tumor because of the lack of oxygen supply. However, consumption of oxygen by cancer should be one of the key means of regulating oxygen concentration to induce hypoxia but has not been well studied. Here, we provide direct evidence of the mitochondrial role in the induction of intracellular hypoxia. We used Acetylacetonatobis [2-(2′-benzothienyl) pyridinato-kN, kC3’] iridium (III) (BTP), a novel oxygen sensor, to detect intracellular hypoxia in living cells via microscopy. The well-differentiated cancer cell lines, LNCaP and MCF-7, showed intracellular hypoxia without exogenous hypoxia in an open environment. This may be caused by high oxygen consumption, low oxygen diffusion in water, and low oxygen incorporation to the cells. In contrast, the poorly-differentiated cancer cell lines: PC-3 and MDAMB231 exhibited intracellular normoxia by low oxygen consumption. The specific complex I inhibitor, rotenone, and the reduction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content reduced intracellular hypoxia, indicating that intracellular oxygen concentration is regulated by the consumption of oxygen by mitochondria. HIF-1α was activated in endogenously hypoxic LNCaP and the activation was dependent on mitochondrial respiratory function. Intracellular hypoxic status is regulated by glucose by parabolic dose response. The low concentration of glucose (0.045 mg/ml) induced strongest intracellular hypoxia possibly because of the Crabtree effect. Addition of FCS to the media induced intracellular hypoxia in LNCaP, and this effect was partially mimicked by an androgen analog, R1881, and inhibited by the anti-androgen, flutamide. These results indicate that mitochondrial respiratory function determines intracellular hypoxic status and may regulate oxygen-dependent biological functions. PMID:24586439

  17. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha by dihydroxyphenylethanol, a product from olive oil, blocks microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1/vascular endothelial growth factor expression and reduces tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Giachetti, Antonio; Iñiguez, Miguel A; Fresno, Manuel; Melillo, Giovanni; Ziche, Marina

    2010-08-15

    2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenil)-ethanol (DPE), a polyphenol present in olive oil, has been found to attenuate the growth of colon cancer cells, an effect presumably related to its anti-inflammatory activity. To further explore the effects of DPE on angiogenesis and tumor growth we investigated the in vivo efficacy of DPE in a HT-29 xenograft model and in vitro activities in colon cancer cells exposed to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2). DPE (10 mg/kg/day for 14 days) inhibited tumor growth, reducing vessel lumina and blood perfusion to tumor, and diminished expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1 (mPGEs-1). In vitro, DPE (100 mumol/L) neither affected cell proliferation nor induced apoptosis in HT-29 and WiDr cells. DPE prevented the IL-1beta-mediated increase of mPGEs-1 expression and PGE-2 generation, as it did the silencing of HIF-1alpha. Moreover, DPE blocked mPGEs-1-dependent expression of VEGF and inhibited endothelial sprouting induced by tumor cells in a coculture system. PGE-2 triggers a feed-forward loop involving HIF-1alpha, which impinges on mPGEs-1 and VEGF expression, events prevented by DPE via extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2. The reduction of PGE-2 and VEGF levels, caused by DPE, was invariably associated with a marked decrease in HIF-1alpha expression and activity, independent of proteasome activity, indicating that the DPE effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis are dependent on the inhibition of HIF-1alpha translation. We show that the in vivo DPE antitumor effect is associated with anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities resulting from the downregulation of the HIF-1alpha/mPGEs-1/VEGF axis.

  18. Knockdown of CkrL by shRNA deteriorates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced H9C2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis and survival inhibition Via Bax and downregulation of P-Erk1/2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Yang, Dong-Yan; Fu, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Qian-Ping; Li, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Integrin β1 subunit and its downstream molecule integrin-linked kinase and focal adhesion kinase have been confirmed to be essential to cell survival and inhibition of apoptosis and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injuries in cardiomyocytes. However, it is still unclear whether CrkL [v-crk avian sarcoma virus CT-10 oncogene homolog (Crk)-like], which acts also as a component of the integrin pathway, could also affect H/R-induced injuries in the cardiomyocytes. The rat-derived H9C2 cardiomyocytes were infected with a CrkL small hairpin RNA interference recombinant lentivirus, which knockdowns the endogenous CrkL expression in the cardiomyocytes. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival were examined in the H9C2 cardiomyocytes treated with either H/R or not. Results showed that knockdown of CrkL could significantly increase apoptosis and inhibition of the cell proliferation and survival and deteriorate the previously mentioned injuries induced by H/R. In contrast, overexpression of human CrkL could relieve the exacerbation of the previously mentioned injuries induced by CrkL knockdown in the H9C2 cardiomyocytes via regulation of Bax and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2). In conclusion, these results confirmed that knockdown of CrkL could deteriorate H/R-induced apoptosis and cell survival inhibition in rat-derived H9C2 cardiomyocytes via Bax and downregulation of p-ERK1/2. It implies that CrkL could mitigate H/R-induced injuries in the cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Yap-Hippo pathway regulates cerebral hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in neuroblastoma N2a cells via inhibiting ROCK1/F-actin/mitochondrial fission pathways.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chizi; Wei, Jianchao; Wu, Chengsi

    2018-05-23

    Yes-associated protein (Yap), a regulator of cellular apoptosis, has been demonstrated to be involved in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury through poorly defined mechanisms. The present study aimed to explore the role of Yap in regulating cerebral IR injury in vitro, with a focus on mitochondrial fission and ROCK1/F-actin pathways. Our data demonstrated that Yap was actually downregulated in N2a cells after cerebral hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) injury, and that lower expression of Yap was closely associated with increased cell death. However, the reintroduction of Yap was able to suppress the HR-mediated N2a cells death via blocking the mitochondria-related apoptotic signal. At the molecular levels, Yap overexpression sustained mitochondrial potential, normalized the mitochondrial respiratory function, reduced ROS overproduction, limited HtrA2/Omi release from mitochondria into the nucleus, and suppressed pro-apoptotic proteins activation. Subsequently, functional studies have further illustrated that HR-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis was highly regulated by mitochondrial fission, whereas Yap overexpression was able to attenuate HR-mediated mitochondrial fission and, thus, promote N2a cell survival in the context of HR injury. At last, we demonstrated that Yap handled mitochondrial fission via closing ROCK1/F-actin signaling pathways. Activation of ROCK1/F-actin pathways abrogated the protective role of Yap overexpression on mitochondrial homeostasis and N2a cell survival in the setting of HR injury. Altogether, our data identified Yap as the endogenous defender to relieve HR-mediated nerve damage via antagonizing ROCK1/F-actin/mitochondrial fission pathways.

  20. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition Prevents Cerebral Palsy following Hypoxia-Ischemia in Fetal Rabbits: Comparison between JI-8 and 7-Nitroindazole

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Derrick, Matthew; Ji, Haitao; Silverman, Richard B.; Whitsett, Jennifer; Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Tan, Sidhartha

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy and death are serious consequences of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Important concepts can now be tested using an animal model of cerebral palsy. We have previously shown that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced in antenatal HI. A novel class of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors have been designed, and they ameliorate postnatal motor deficits when administered prior to the hypoxic-ischemic insult. This study asks how the new class of inhibitors, using JI-8 (Ki for nNOS: 0.014 μM) as a representative, compare with the frequently used nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; Ki: 0.09 ± 0.024 μM). A theoretical dose equivalent to 75 Ki of JI-8 or equimolar 7-NI was administered to pregnant rabbit dams 30 min prior to and immediately after 40 min of uterine ischemia at 22 days gestation (70% term). JI-8 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in NOS activity (39%) in fetal brain homogenates acutely after HI, without affecting maternal blood pressure and heart rate. JI-8 treatment resulted in 33 normal kits, 2 moderately and 13 severely affected kits and 5 stillbirths, compared with 8 normal, 3 moderately affected and 5 severely affected kits and 10 stillbirths in the 7-NI group. In terms of neurobehavioral outcome, 7-NI was not different from saline treatment, while JI-8 was superior to saline and 7-NI in its protective effect (p < 0.05). In the surviving kits, JI-8 significantly improved the locomotion score over both saline and 7-NI scores. JI-8 was also significantly superior to saline in preserving smell, muscle tone and righting reflex function, but 7-NI did not show significant improvement. Furthermore, a 100-fold increase in the dose (15.75 μmol/kg) of 7-NI significantly decreased systolic blood pressure in the dam, while JI-8 did not. The new class of inhibitors such as JI-8 shows promise in the prevention of cerebral palsy and is superior to the previously more commonly used nNOS inhibitor. PMID:21659718

  1. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition prevents cerebral palsy following hypoxia-ischemia in fetal rabbits: comparison between JI-8 and 7-nitroindazole.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Derrick, Matthew; Ji, Haitao; Silverman, Richard B; Whitsett, Jennifer; Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Tan, Sidhartha

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy and death are serious consequences of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Important concepts can now be tested using an animal model of cerebral palsy. We have previously shown that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced in antenatal HI. A novel class of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors have been designed, and they ameliorate postnatal motor deficits when administered prior to the hypoxic-ischemic insult. This study asks how the new class of inhibitors, using JI-8 (K(i) for nNOS: 0.014 μM) as a representative, compare with the frequently used nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; K(i): 0.09 ± 0.024 μM). A theoretical dose equivalent to 75 K(i) of JI-8 or equimolar 7-NI was administered to pregnant rabbit dams 30 min prior to and immediately after 40 min of uterine ischemia at 22 days gestation (70% term). JI-8 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in NOS activity (39%) in fetal brain homogenates acutely after HI, without affecting maternal blood pressure and heart rate. JI-8 treatment resulted in 33 normal kits, 2 moderately and 13 severely affected kits and 5 stillbirths, compared with 8 normal, 3 moderately affected and 5 severely affected kits and 10 stillbirths in the 7-NI group. In terms of neurobehavioral outcome, 7-NI was not different from saline treatment, while JI-8 was superior to saline and 7-NI in its protective effect (p < 0.05). In the surviving kits, JI-8 significantly improved the locomotion score over both saline and 7-NI scores. JI-8 was also significantly superior to saline in preserving smell, muscle tone and righting reflex function, but 7-NI did not show significant improvement. Furthermore, a 100-fold increase in the dose (15.75 μmol/kg) of 7-NI significantly decreased systolic blood pressure in the dam, while JI-8 did not. The new class of inhibitors such as JI-8 shows promise in the prevention of cerebral palsy and is superior to the previously more commonly used nNOS inhibitor. Copyright

  2. Hypoxia and Mucosal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Sean P.; Campbell, Eric L.; Kominsky, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Sites of inflammation are defined by significant changes in metabolic activity. Recent studies have suggested that O2 metabolism and hypoxia play a prominent role in inflammation so-called “inflammatory hypoxia,” which results from a combination of recruited inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils and monocytes), the local proliferation of multiple cell types, and the activation of multiple O2-consuming enzymes during inflammation. These shifts in energy supply and demand result in localized regions of hypoxia and have revealed the important function off the transcription factor HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) in the regulation of key target genes that promote inflammatory resolution. Analysis of these pathways has provided multiple opportunities for understanding basic mechanisms of inflammation and has defined new targets for intervention. Here, we review recent work addressing tissue hypoxia and metabolic control of inflammation and immunity. PMID:27193451

  3. Hypoxia as a therapy for mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, Isha H; Zazzeron, Luca; Goli, Rahul; Alexa, Kristen; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Dhillon, Harveen; Goldberger, Olga; Peng, Jun; Shalem, Ophir; Sanjana, Neville E; Zhang, Feng; Goessling, Wolfram; Zapol, Warren M; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2016-04-01

    Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) underlie a spectrum of human conditions, ranging from devastating inborn errors of metabolism to aging. We performed a genome-wide Cas9-mediated screen to identify factors that are protective during RC inhibition. Our results highlight the hypoxia response, an endogenous program evolved to adapt to limited oxygen availability. Genetic or small-molecule activation of the hypoxia response is protective against mitochondrial toxicity in cultured cells and zebrafish models. Chronic hypoxia leads to a marked improvement in survival, body weight, body temperature, behavior, neuropathology, and disease biomarkers in a genetic mouse model of Leigh syndrome, the most common pediatric manifestation of mitochondrial disease. Further preclinical studies are required to assess whether hypoxic exposure can be developed into a safe and effective treatment for human diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Neuromuscular Fatigue during Prolonged Exercise in Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Jubeau, Marc; Rupp, Thomas; Temesi, John; Perrey, Stéphane; Wuyam, Bernard; Millet, Guillaume Y; Verges, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    Prolonged cycling exercise performance in normoxia is limited because of both peripheral and central neuromuscular impairments. It has been reported that cerebral perturbations are greater during short-duration exercise in hypoxia compared with normoxia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that central deficits are accentuated in hypoxia compared with normoxia during prolonged (three bouts of 80 min separated by 25 min) whole-body exercise at the same relative intensity. Ten subjects performed two sessions consisting of three 80-min cycling bouts at 45% of their relative maximal aerobic power in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.12). Before exercise and after each bout, maximal voluntary force, voluntary activation assessed with nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, corticospinal excitability (motor evoked potential), intracortical inhibition (cortical silent period), and electrical (M-wave) and contractile (twitch and doublet peak forces) properties of the knee extensors were measured. Prefrontal and motor cortical oxygenation was also recorded during each cycling bout in both conditions. A significant but similar force reduction (≈-22%) was observed at the end of exercise in normoxia and hypoxia. The modifications of voluntary activation assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation and nerve stimulation, motor evoked potential, cortical silent period, and M-wave were also similar in both conditions. However, cerebral oxygenation was reduced in hypoxia compared with normoxia. These findings show that when performed at the same relative low intensity, prolonged exercise does not induce greater supraspinal fatigue in hypoxia compared with normoxia. Despite lower absolute exercise intensities in hypoxia, reduced brain O2 availability might contribute to similar amounts of central fatigue compared with normoxia.

  5. PTEN inhibition enhances angiogenesis in an in vitro model of ischemic injury by promoting Akt phosphorylation and subsequent hypoxia inducible factor-1α upregulation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lixia; Huang, Jiankang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xiuzhe; Fu, Jianliang; Geng, Zhi; Zhao, Yuwu; Chen, Hao

    2018-06-24

    Angiogenesis is an important pathophysiological response to cerebral ischemia. PTEN is a lipid phosphatase whose loss activates PI3K/Akt signaling, which is related to HIF-1α upregulation and enhanced angiogenesis in human cancer cells. However, the specific roles of PTEN in endothelial cell functions and angiogenesis after cerebral ischemia remain unknown. Therefore, we sought to examine the potential effects of PTEN inhibition on post-ischemic angiogenesis in human blood vessel cells and to determine the underlying mechanism. In this present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis, in vitro tube formation and expression of PTEN/Akt pathway and angiogenic factors were examined in HUVECs after treatment with PTEN inhibitor bisperoxovanadium (bpV) at different doses. The results showed that bpV significantly increased the cell proliferation and reduced cell apoptosis indicating that the drug exerts a cytoprotective effect on HUVECs with OGD exposure. bpV also enhanced cell migration and tube formation in HUVECs following OGD, and upregulated HIF-1α and VEGF expressions, but attenuated endostatin expression. Additionally, western blotting analysis demonstrated that Akt phosphorylation in HUVECs was significantly increased after bpV treatment. These findings suggest that PTEN inhibition promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis in HUVECs after exposure to OGD and this enhancing effect might be achieved through activation of the Akt signal cascade.

  6. Hypoxia Increases Sirtuin 1 Expression in a Hypoxia-inducible Factor-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Dioum, Elhadji M.; Hogg, Richard T.; Gerard, Robert D.; Garcia, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are stress-responsive transcriptional regulators of cellular and physiological processes involved in oxygen metabolism. Although much is understood about the molecular machinery that confers HIF responsiveness to oxygen, far less is known about HIF isoform-specific mechanisms of regulation, despite the fact that HIF-1 and HIF-2 exhibit distinct biological roles. We recently determined that the stress-responsive genetic regulator sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) selectively augments HIF-2 signaling during hypoxia. However, the mechanism by which Sirt1 maintains activity during hypoxia is unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that Sirt1 gene expression increases in a HIF-dependent manner during hypoxia in Hep3B and in HT1080 cells. Impairment of HIF signaling affects Sirt1 deacetylase activity as decreased HIF-1 signaling results in the appearance of acetylated HIF-2α, which is detected without pharmacological inhibition of Sirt1. We also find that Sirt1 augments HIF-2 mediated, but not HIF-1 mediated, transcriptional activation of the isolated Sirt1 promoter. These data in summary reveal a bidirectional link of HIF and Sirt1 signaling during hypoxia. PMID:21345792

  7. Glucocorticoids suppress hypoxia-induced COX-2 and hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression through the induction of glucocorticoidinduced leucine zipper

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wonchung; Park, Choa; Shim, Myeong Kuk; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, You Mie; Lee, YoungJoo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The COX-2/PGE2 pathway in hypoxic cancer cells has important implications for stimulation of inflammation and tumourigenesis. However, the mechanism by which glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) inhibit COX-2 during hypoxia has not been elucidated. Hence, we explored the mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 in human distal lung epithelial A549 cells. Experimental Approach The expressions of COX-2 and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in A549 cells were determined by Western blot and/or quantitative real time-PCR respectively. The anti-invasive effect of GILZ on A549 cells was evaluated using the matrigel invasion assay. Key Results The hypoxia-induced increase in COX-2 protein and mRNA levels and promoter activity were suppressed by dexamethasone, and this effect of dexamethasone was antagonized by the GR antagonist RU486. Overexpression of GILZ in A549 cells also inhibited hypoxia-induced COX-2 expression levels and knockdown of GILZ reduced the glucocorticoid-mediated inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 expression, indicating that the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on hypoxia-induced COX-2 are mediated by GILZ. GILZ suppressed the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α at the protein level and affected its signalling pathway. Hypoxia-induced cell invasion was also dramatically reduced by GILZ expression. Conclusion and Implications Dexamethasone-induced upregulation of GILZ not only inhibits the hypoxic-evoked induction of COX-2 expression and cell invasion but further blocks the HIF-1 pathway by destabilizing HIF-1α expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that the suppression of hypoxia-induced COX-2 by glucocorticoids is mediated by GILZ. Hence, GILZ is a potential key therapeutic target for suppression of inflammation under hypoxia. PMID:24172143

  8. Dexamethasone mimics aspects of physiological acclimatization to 8 hours of hypoxia but suppresses plasma erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun; Croft, Quentin P. P.; Kalidhar, Swati; Brooks, Jerome T.; Herigstad, Mari; Smith, Thomas G.; Dorrington, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    Dexamethasone ameliorates the severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) but it is unknown whether it obtunds normal physiological responses to hypoxia. We studied whether dexamethasone enhanced or inhibited the ventilatory, cardiovascular, and pulmonary vascular responses to sustained (8 h) hypoxia. Eight healthy volunteers were studied, each on four separate occasions, permitting four different protocols. These were: dexamethasone (20 mg orally) beginning 2 h before a control period of 8 h of air breathing; dexamethasone with 8 h of isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal Po2 = 50 Torr); placebo with 8 h of air breathing; and placebo with 8 h of isocapnic hypoxia. Before and after each protocol, the following were determined under both euoxic and hypoxic conditions: ventilation; pulmonary artery pressure (estimated using echocardiography to assess maximum tricuspid pressure difference); heart rate; and cardiac output. Plasma concentrations of erythropoietin (EPO) were also determined. Dexamethasone had no early (2-h) effect on any variable. Both dexamethasone and 8 h of hypoxia increased euoxic values of ventilation, pulmonary artery pressure, and heart rate, together with the ventilatory sensitivity to acute hypoxia. These effects were independent and additive. Eight hours of hypoxia, but not dexamethasone, increased the sensitivity of pulmonary artery pressure to acute hypoxia. Dexamethasone, but not 8 h of hypoxia, increased both cardiac output and systemic arterial pressure. Dexamethasone abolished the rise in EPO induced by 8 h of hypoxia. In summary, dexamethasone enhances ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. Thus, dexamethasone in AMS may improve oxygenation and thereby indirectly lower pulmonary artery pressure. PMID:23393065

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Respond to Hypoxia by Increasing Diacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Kinga; Kalomoiris, Stefanos; Merkely, Béla; Nolta, Jan A; Fierro, Fernando A

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are currently being tested clinically for a plethora of conditions, with most approaches relying on the secretion of paracrine signals by MSC to modulate the immune system, promote wound healing, and induce angiogenesis. Hypoxia has been shown to affect MSC proliferation, differentiation, survival and secretory profile. Here, we investigate changes in the lipid composition of human bone marrow-derived MSC after exposure to hypoxia. Using mass spectrometry, we compared the lipid profiles of MSC derived from five different donors, cultured for two days in either normoxia (control) or hypoxia (1% oxygen). Hypoxia induced a significant increase of total triglycerides, fatty acids and diacylglycerols (DG). Remarkably, reduction of DG levels using the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor D609 inhibited the secretion of VEGF and Angiopoietin-2, but increased the secretion of interleukin-8, without affecting significantly their respective mRNA levels. Functionally, incubation of MSC in hypoxia with D609 inhibited the potential of the cells to promote migration of human endothelial cells in a wound/scratch assay. Hence, we show that hypoxia induces in MSC an increase of DG that may affect the angiogenic potential of these cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Hypoxia in paradise: widespread hypoxia tolerance in coral reef fishes.

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Göran E; Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara

    2004-01-01

    Using respirometry, we examined the hypoxia tolerance of 31 teleost fish species (seven families) inhabiting coral reefs at a 2-5 m depth in the lagoon at Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). All fishes studied maintained their rate of oxygen consumption down to relatively severe hypoxia (20-30% air saturation). Indeed, most fishes appeared unaffected by hypoxia until the oxygen level fell below 10% of air saturation. This, hitherto unrecognized, hypoxia tolerance among coral reef fishes could reflect adaptations to nocturnal hypoxia in tide pools. It may also be needed to enable fishes to reside deep within branching coral at night to avoid predation. Widespread hypoxia tolerance in a habitat with such an extreme biodiversity as coral reefs indicate that there is a wealth of hypoxia related adaptations to be discovered in reef fishes. PMID:15101411

  11. Hypoxia in paradise: widespread hypoxia tolerance in coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Göran E; Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara

    2004-02-07

    Using respirometry, we examined the hypoxia tolerance of 31 teleost fish species (seven families) inhabiting coral reefs at a 2-5 m depth in the lagoon at Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). All fishes studied maintained their rate of oxygen consumption down to relatively severe hypoxia (20-30% air saturation). Indeed, most fishes appeared unaffected by hypoxia until the oxygen level fell below 10% of air saturation. This, hitherto unrecognized, hypoxia tolerance among coral reef fishes could reflect adaptations to nocturnal hypoxia in tide pools. It may also be needed to enable fishes to reside deep within branching coral at night to avoid predation. Widespread hypoxia tolerance in a habitat with such an extreme biodiversity as coral reefs indicate that there is a wealth of hypoxia related adaptations to be discovered in reef fishes.

  12. Concepts in hypoxia reborn

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The human fetus develops in a profoundly hypoxic environment. Thus, the foundations of our physiology are built in the most hypoxic conditions that we are ever likely to experience: the womb. This magnitude of exposure to hypoxia in utero is rarely experienced in adult life, with few exceptions, including severe pathophysiology in critical illness and environmental hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude. Indeed, the lowest recorded levels of arterial oxygen in adult humans are similar to those of a fetus and were recorded just below the highest attainable elevation on the Earth's surface: the summit of Mount Everest. We propose that the hypoxic intrauterine environment exerts a profound effect on human tolerance to hypoxia. Cellular mechanisms that facilitate fetal well-being may be amenable to manipulation in adults to promote survival advantage in severe hypoxemic stress. Many of these mechanisms act to modify the process of oxygen consumption rather than oxygen delivery in order to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation. The successful activation of such processes may provide a new chapter in the clinical management of hypoxemia. Thus, strategies employed to endure the relative hypoxia in utero may provide insights for the management of severe hypoxemia in adult life and ventures to high altitude may yield clues to the means by which to investigate those strategies. PMID:20727228

  13. HypoxiaDB: a database of hypoxia-regulated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Pankaj; Sugadev, Ragumani; Jain, Jaspreet; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-01-01

    There has been intense interest in the cellular response to hypoxia, and a large number of differentially expressed proteins have been identified through various high-throughput experiments. These valuable data are scattered, and there have been no systematic attempts to document the various proteins regulated by hypoxia. Compilation, curation and annotation of these data are important in deciphering their role in hypoxia and hypoxia-related disorders. Therefore, we have compiled HypoxiaDB, a database of hypoxia-regulated proteins. It is a comprehensive, manually-curated, non-redundant catalog of proteins whose expressions are shown experimentally to be altered at different levels and durations of hypoxia. The database currently contains 72 000 manually curated entries taken on 3500 proteins extracted from 73 peer-reviewed publications selected from PubMed. HypoxiaDB is distinctive from other generalized databases: (i) it compiles tissue-specific protein expression changes under different levels and duration of hypoxia. Also, it provides manually curated literature references to support the inclusion of the protein in the database and establish its association with hypoxia. (ii) For each protein, HypoxiaDB integrates data on gene ontology, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway, protein–protein interactions, protein family (Pfam), OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), PDB (Protein Data Bank) structures and homology to other sequenced genomes. (iii) It also provides pre-compiled information on hypoxia-proteins, which otherwise requires tedious computational analysis. This includes information like chromosomal location, identifiers like Entrez, HGNC, Unigene, Uniprot, Ensembl, Vega, GI numbers and Genbank accession numbers associated with the protein. These are further cross-linked to respective public databases augmenting HypoxiaDB to the external repositories. (iv) In addition, HypoxiaDB provides an online sequence-similarity search tool for

  14. Hypoxia affects cellular responses to plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Liew, Sien-Yei; Stanbridge, Eric J; Yusoff, Khatijah; Shafee, Norazizah

    2012-11-21

    inhibition. Hypoxia variably alters the cytotoxic effects of TCM plant extracts on cancer cells. Carica papaya showed enhanced cytotoxic effect on hypoxic cancer cells by inhibiting HIF activities. These findings provide a plausible approach to killing hypoxic cancer cells in solid tumors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of hypoxia-induced autophagy in glioblastoma involves ATG9A.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahim, Siti Aminah; Dirkse, Anne; Oudin, Anais; Schuster, Anne; Bohler, Jill; Barthelemy, Vanessa; Muller, Arnaud; Vallar, Laurent; Janji, Bassam; Golebiewska, Anna; Niclou, Simone P

    2017-09-05

    Hypoxia is negatively associated with glioblastoma (GBM) patient survival and contributes to tumour resistance. Anti-angiogenic therapy in GBM further increases hypoxia and activates survival pathways. The aim of this study was to determine the role of hypoxia-induced autophagy in GBM. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy was applied in combination with bevacizumab in GBM patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Sensitivity towards inhibitors was further tested in vitro under normoxia and hypoxia, followed by transcriptomic analysis. Genetic interference was done using ATG9A-depleted cells. We find that GBM cells activate autophagy as a survival mechanism to hypoxia, although basic autophagy appears active under normoxic conditions. Although single agent chloroquine treatment in vivo significantly increased survival of PDXs, the combination with bevacizumab resulted in a synergistic effect at low non-effective chloroquine dose. ATG9A was consistently induced by hypoxia, and silencing of ATG9A led to decreased proliferation in vitro and delayed tumour growth in vivo. Hypoxia-induced activation of autophagy was compromised upon ATG9A depletion. This work shows that inhibition of autophagy is a promising strategy against GBM and identifies ATG9 as a novel target in hypoxia-induced autophagy. Combination with hypoxia-inducing agents may provide benefit by allowing to decrease the effective dose of autophagy inhibitors.

  16. Autophagic degradation of the androgen receptor mediated by increased phosphorylation of p62 suppresses apoptosis in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Takakazu; Minami, Masato; Harada, Naoki; Ashida, Hitoshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2015-10-01

    Prostate cancer grows under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia decreases androgen receptor (AR) protein levels. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report that p62-mediated autophagy degrades AR protein and suppresses apoptosis in prostate cancer LNCaP cells in hypoxia. In LNCaP cells, hypoxia decreased AR at the protein level, but not at the mRNA level. Hypoxia-induced AR degradation was inhibited not only by knockdown of LC3, a key component of the autophagy machinery, but also by knockdown of p62. Depletion of p62 enhanced hypoxia-induced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and caspase-3 cleavage, markers of apoptosis, whereas simultaneous knockdown of p62 and AR suppressed hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Hypoxia increased the formation of a cytosolic p62-AR complex and enhanced sequestration of AR from the nucleus. Formation of this complex was promoted by the increased phosphorylation of serine 403 in the ubiquitin-associated domain of p62 during hypoxia. An antioxidant and an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor reduced hypoxia-induced p62 phosphorylation at serine 403 and suppressed hypoxia-induced complex formation between AR and p62. These results demonstrate that hypoxia enhances the complex formation between p62 and AR by promoting phosphorylation of p62 at serine 403, probably through activating AMPK, and that p62-mediated autophagy degrades AR protein for cell survival in hypoxia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of prenatal hypoxia on fetal bone growth and osteoporosis in ovariectomized offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuxian; Fan, Xiaorong; Tao, Jianying; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Wenna; Li, Lingjun; Li, Xiang; Ding, Hongmei; Sun, Miao; Gao, Qinqin; Xu, Zhice

    2018-03-07

    Prenatal hypoxia causes intrauterine growth retardation. It is unclear whether/how hypoxia affects the bone in fetal and offspring life. This study showed that prenatal hypoxia retarded fetal skeletal growth in rats, inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and down-regulated of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling in fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. In addition, ovariectomized (OVX) was used for study of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Compared with the control, OVX offspring in prenatal hypoxic group showed an enhanced osteoporosis in the femurs, associated with reduced proteoglycan and IGF1 signaling. The results indicated prenatal hypoxia not only delayed fetal skeletal growth, but also increased OVX-induced osteoporosis in the elder offspring probably through down-regulated IGF1 signaling and inhibition of ECM synthesis, providing important information of prenatal hypoxia on functional and molecular bone growth and metabolism in fetal and offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intermittent hypoxia and neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J.; Lee, Kun-Ze; Dale, Erica A.; Reier, Paul J.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that brief, repeated presentations of hypoxia [i.e., acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH)] can boost the efficacy of more traditional therapeutic strategies in certain cases of neurologic dysfunction. This hypothesis derives from a series of studies in animal models and human subjects performed over the past 35 yr. In 1980, Millhorn et al. (Millhorn DE, Eldridge FL, Waldrop TG. Respir Physiol 41: 87-103, 1980) showed that electrical stimulation of carotid chemoafferent neurons produced a persistent, serotonin-dependent increase in phrenic motor output that outlasts the stimulus for more than 90 min (i.e., a “respiratory memory”). AIH elicits similar phrenic “long-term facilitation” (LTF) by a mechanism that requires cervical spinal serotonin receptor activation and de novo protein synthesis. From 2003 to present, a series of studies demonstrated that AIH can induce neuroplasticity in the injured spinal cord, causing functional recovery of breathing capacity after cervical spinal injury. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that repeated AIH (rAIH) can induce recovery of limb function, and the functional benefits of rAIH are greatest when paired with task-specific training. Since uncontrolled and/or prolonged intermittent hypoxia can elicit pathophysiology, a challenge of intermittent hypoxia research is to ensure that therapeutic protocols are well below the threshold for pathogenesis. This is possible since many low dose rAIH protocols have induced functional benefits without evidence of pathology. We propose that carefully controlled rAIH is a safe and noninvasive modality that can be paired with other neurorehabilitative strategies including traditional activity-based physical therapy or cell-based therapies such as intraspinal transplantation of neural progenitors. PMID:25997947

  19. Hypoxia in Invasion and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    hypoxia and activating HIF-1 downregulate the DNA mismatch repair proteins ( mlh1 and/or msh2), a group of important proteins for maintaining genetic...Investigate the hypoxia and activating HIF-1 downregulate the DNA mismatch repair proteins ( mlh1 and/or msh2) (Month 7-12) Methods: We performed a parallel...inducible factors from invasive tumor cells. Changes in the level of multiple hypoxia related factor (HIF-1) and DNA mismatch repair proteins ( MLH1 , MSH2

  20. Hypoxia and fetal heart development.

    PubMed

    Patterson, A J; Zhang, L

    2010-10-01

    Fetal hearts show a remarkable ability to develop under hypoxic conditions. The metabolic flexibility of fetal hearts allows sustained development under low oxygen conditions. In fact, hypoxia is critical for proper myocardial formation. Particularly, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor play central roles in hypoxia-dependent signaling in fetal heart formation, impacting embryonic outflow track remodeling and coronary vessel growth. Although HIF is not the only gene involved in adaptation to hypoxia, its role places it as a central figure in orchestrating events needed for adaptation to hypoxic stress. Although "normal" hypoxia (lower oxygen tension in the fetus as compared with the adult) is essential in heart formation, further abnormal hypoxia in utero adversely affects cardiogenesis. Prenatal hypoxia alters myocardial structure and causes a decline in cardiac performance. Not only are the effects of hypoxia apparent during the perinatal period, but prolonged hypoxia in utero also causes fetal programming of abnormality in the heart's development. The altered expression pattern of cardioprotective genes such as protein kinase c epsilon, heat shock protein 70, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, likely predispose the developing heart to increased vulnerability to ischemia and reperfusion injury later in life. The events underlying the long-term changes in gene expression are not clear, but likely involve variation in epigenetic regulation.

  1. Hypoxia activates muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC) expression via transforming growth factor-β in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Kou-Gi; Cheng, Wen-Pin; Wang, Bao-Wei; Chang, Hang

    2014-03-01

    The expression of MURC (muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein), a hypertrophy-regulated gene, increases during pressure overload. Hypoxia can cause myocardial hypertrophy; however, how hypoxia affects the regulation of MURC in cardiomyocytes undergoing hypertrophy is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that hypoxia induces MURC expression in cardiomyocytes during hypertrophy. The expression of MURC was evaluated in cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in an in vivo model of AMI (acute myocardial infarction) to induce myocardial hypoxia in adult rats. MURC protein and mRNA expression were significantly enhanced by hypoxia. MURC proteins induced by hypoxia were significantly blocked after the addition of PD98059 or ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) siRNA 30 min before hypoxia. Gel-shift assay showed increased DNA-binding activity of SRF (serum response factor) after hypoxia. PD98059, ERK siRNA and an anti-TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) antibody abolished the SRF-binding activity enhanced by hypoxia or exogenous administration of TGF-β. A luciferase promoter assay demonstrated increased transcriptional activity of SRF in cardiomyocytes by hypoxia. Increased βMHC (β-myosin heavy chain) and BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) protein expression and increased protein synthesis was identified after hypoxia with the presence of MURC in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. MURC siRNA inhibited the hypertrophic marker protein expression and protein synthesis induced by hypoxia. AMI in adult rats also demonstrated increased MURC protein expression in the left ventricular myocardium. In conclusion, hypoxia in cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes increased MURC expression via the induction of TGF-β, SRF and the ERK pathway. These findings suggest that MURC plays a role in hypoxia-induced hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes.

  2. [Effects of exogenous spermidine on Cucumis sativus L. seedlings photosynthesis under root zone hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Wang, Suping; Guo, Shirong; Sun, Yanjun

    2006-09-01

    With water culture, this paper studied the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), apparent quantum yield (phi c), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of cucumber seedlings tinder hypoxia stress. The results showed that the Pn decreased gradually under hypoxia stress, and reached the minimum 10 days after by 63. 33% of the control. Compared with that of hypoxia-stressed plants, the Pn after 10 days application of exogenous Spd increased 1.25 times. A negative correlation (R2 = 0.4730 - 0.7118) was found between Pn and Ci. Gs and Tr changed in wider ranges, which decreased under hypoxia-stress, but increased under hypoxia-stress plus exogenous Spd application. There was a significant positive correlation between Gs and Tr (R2 = 0.7821 - 0.9458), but these two parameters had no significant correlation with Pn; Hypoxia stress induced a decrease of phi c and CE by 63.01% and 72.33%, respectively, while hypoxia stress plus exogenous Spd application made phi c and CE increase by 23% and 14%, respectively. The photo-inhibition of cucumber seedlings under hypoxia stress was mainly caused by non-stomatal limitation, while exogenous Spd alleviated the hypoxia stress by repairing photosynthesis system.

  3. Impact of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pak, Oleg; Scheibe, Susan; Esfandiary, Azadeh; Gierhardt, Mareike; Sydykov, Akylbek; Logan, Angela; Fysikopoulos, Athanasios; Veit, Florian; Hecker, Matthias; Kroschel, Florian; Quanz, Karin; Erb, Alexandra; Schäfer, Katharina; Fassbinder, Mirja; Alebrahimdehkordi, Nasim; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Brandes, Ralf P; Seeger, Werner; Murphy, Michael P; Weissmann, Norbert; Sommer, Natascha

    2018-02-01

    Increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide have been suggested to mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) remodelling.We determined ROS in acute, chronic hypoxia and investigated the effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ under these conditions.The effect of MitoQ or its inactive carrier substance, decyltriphenylphosphonium (TPP + ), on acute HPV (1% O 2 for 10 minutes) was investigated in isolated blood-free perfused mouse lungs. Mice exposed for 4 weeks to chronic hypoxia (10% O 2 ) or after banding of the main pulmonary artery (PAB) were treated with MitoQ or TPP + (50 mg/kg/day).Total cellular superoxide and mitochondrial ROS levels were increased in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), but decreased in pulmonary fibroblasts in acute hypoxia. MitoQ significantly inhibited HPV and acute hypoxia-induced rise in superoxide concentration. ROS was decreased in PASMC, while it increased in the RV after chronic hypoxia. Correspondingly, MitoQ did not affect the development of chronic hypoxia-induced PH, but attenuated RV remodelling after chronic hypoxia as well as after PAB.Increased mitochondrial ROS of PASMC mediate acute HPV, but not chronic hypoxia-induced PH. MitoQ may be beneficial under conditions of exaggerated acute HPV. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  4. Autophagy degrades hypoxia inducible factors

    PubMed Central

    DePavia, Adela; Jonasch, Eric; Liu, Xian-De

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hypoxia inducible factors are subjected to degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), macroautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy. The E3 ligases, ubiquitination, autophagy receptor proteins, and oxygen are determinants that direct hypoxia-inducible factors to different degradation pathways. PMID:27308629

  5. The expanding universe of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huafeng; Semenza, Gregg L

    2008-07-01

    Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) is sensed and transduced into changes in the activity or expression of cellular macromolecules. These responses impact on virtually all areas of biology and medicine. In this meeting report, we summarize major developments in the field that were presented at the 2008 Keystone Symposium on Cellular, Physiological, and Pathogenic Responses to Hypoxia.

  6. Regulation of wound healing and fibrosis by hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

    PubMed

    Ruthenborg, Robin J; Ban, Jae-Jun; Wazir, Anum; Takeda, Norihiko; Kim, Jung-Whan

    2014-09-01

    Wound healing is a complex multi-step process that requires spatial and temporal orchestration of cellular and non-cellular components. Hypoxia is one of the prominent microenvironmental factors in tissue injury and wound healing. Hypoxic responses, mainly mediated by a master transcription factor of oxygen homeostasis, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), have been shown to be critically involved in virtually all processes of wound healing and remodeling. Yet, mechanisms underlying hypoxic regulation of wound healing are still poorly understood. Better understanding of how the wound healing process is regulated by the hypoxic microenvironment and HIF-1 signaling pathway will provide insight into the development of a novel therapeutic strategy for impaired wound healing conditions such as diabetic wound and fibrosis. In this review, we will discuss recent studies illuminating the roles of HIF-1 in physiologic and pathologic wound repair and further, the therapeutic potentials of HIF-1 stabilization or inhibition.

  7. Hypoxia Silences Retrotrapezoid Nucleus Respiratory Chemoreceptors via Alkalosis

    PubMed Central

    Basting, Tyler M.; Burke, Peter G.R.; Kanbar, Roy; Viar, Kenneth E.; Stornetta, Daniel S.; Stornetta, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    In conscious mammals, hypoxia or hypercapnia stimulates breathing while theoretically exerting opposite effects on central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs). We tested this theory by examining how hypoxia and hypercapnia change the activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a putative CRC and chemoreflex integrator. Archaerhodopsin-(Arch)-transduced RTN neurons were reversibly silenced by light in anesthetized rats. We bilaterally transduced RTN and nearby C1 neurons with Arch (PRSx8-ArchT-EYFP-LVV) and measured the cardiorespiratory consequences of Arch activation (10 s) in conscious rats during normoxia, hypoxia, or hyperoxia. RTN photoinhibition reduced breathing equally during non-REM sleep and quiet wake. Compared with normoxia, the breathing frequency reduction (ΔfR) was larger in hyperoxia (65% FiO2), smaller in 15% FiO2, and absent in 12% FiO2. Tidal volume changes (ΔVT) followed the same trend. The effect of hypoxia on ΔfR was not arousal-dependent but was reversed by reacidifying the blood (acetazolamide; 3% FiCO2). ΔfR was highly correlated with arterial pH up to arterial pH (pHa) 7.5 with no frequency inhibition occurring above pHa 7.53. Blood pressure was minimally reduced suggesting that C1 neurons were very modestly inhibited. In conclusion, RTN neurons regulate eupneic breathing about equally during both sleep and wake. RTN neurons are the first putative CRCs demonstrably silenced by hypocapnic hypoxia in conscious mammals. RTN neurons are silent above pHa 7.5 and increasingly active below this value. During hyperoxia, RTN activation maintains breathing despite the inactivity of the carotid bodies. Finally, during hypocapnic hypoxia, carotid body stimulation increases breathing frequency via pathways that bypass RTN. PMID:25589748

  8. Hypoxia silences retrotrapezoid nucleus respiratory chemoreceptors via alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Basting, Tyler M; Burke, Peter G R; Kanbar, Roy; Viar, Kenneth E; Stornetta, Daniel S; Stornetta, Ruth L; Guyenet, Patrice G

    2015-01-14

    In conscious mammals, hypoxia or hypercapnia stimulates breathing while theoretically exerting opposite effects on central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs). We tested this theory by examining how hypoxia and hypercapnia change the activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a putative CRC and chemoreflex integrator. Archaerhodopsin-(Arch)-transduced RTN neurons were reversibly silenced by light in anesthetized rats. We bilaterally transduced RTN and nearby C1 neurons with Arch (PRSx8-ArchT-EYFP-LVV) and measured the cardiorespiratory consequences of Arch activation (10 s) in conscious rats during normoxia, hypoxia, or hyperoxia. RTN photoinhibition reduced breathing equally during non-REM sleep and quiet wake. Compared with normoxia, the breathing frequency reduction (Δf(R)) was larger in hyperoxia (65% FiO2), smaller in 15% FiO2, and absent in 12% FiO2. Tidal volume changes (ΔV(T)) followed the same trend. The effect of hypoxia on Δf(R) was not arousal-dependent but was reversed by reacidifying the blood (acetazolamide; 3% FiCO2). Δf(R) was highly correlated with arterial pH up to arterial pH (pHa) 7.5 with no frequency inhibition occurring above pHa 7.53. Blood pressure was minimally reduced suggesting that C1 neurons were very modestly inhibited. In conclusion, RTN neurons regulate eupneic breathing about equally during both sleep and wake. RTN neurons are the first putative CRCs demonstrably silenced by hypocapnic hypoxia in conscious mammals. RTN neurons are silent above pHa 7.5 and increasingly active below this value. During hyperoxia, RTN activation maintains breathing despite the inactivity of the carotid bodies. Finally, during hypocapnic hypoxia, carotid body stimulation increases breathing frequency via pathways that bypass RTN. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350527-17$15.00/0.

  9. Hypoxia-driven angiogenesis: role of tip cells and extracellular matrix scaffolding.

    PubMed

    Germain, Stéphane; Monnot, Catherine; Muller, Laurent; Eichmann, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly coordinated tissue remodeling process leading to blood vessel formation. Hypoxia triggers angiogenesis via induction of expression of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF instructs endothelial cells to form tip cells, which lead outgrowing capillary sprouts, whereas Notch signaling inhibits sprout formation. Basement membrane deposition and mechanical cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) induced by hypoxia may participate to coordinated vessel sprouting in conjunction with the VEGF and Notch signaling pathways. Hypoxia regulates ECM composition, deposition, posttranslational modifications and rearrangement. In particular, hypoxia-driven vascular remodeling is dynamically regulated through modulation of ECM-modifying enzyme activities that eventually affect both matricellular proteins and growth factor availability. Better understanding of the complex interplay between endothelial cells and soluble growth factors and mechanical factors from the ECM will certainly have significant implications for understanding the regulation of developmental and pathological angiogenesis driven by hypoxia.

  10. Hypoxia inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu; Lou, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers with limited therapeutic options. Pathogenesis of this disease involves tumor hypoxia and the activation of hypoxia inducible factors. In this review, we describe the current understanding of hypoxia signaling pathway and summarize the expression, function and target genes of hypoxia inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma. We also highlight the recent progress in hypoxia-targeted therapeutic strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma and discuss further the future efforts for the study of hypoxia and/or hypoxia inducible factors in this deadly disease. PMID:28493839

  11. Hypoxia preconditioning protection of corneal stromal cells requires HIF1alpha but not VEGF.

    PubMed

    Xing, Dongmei; Bonanno, Joseph A

    2009-05-18

    Hypoxia preconditioning protects corneal stromal cells from stress-induced death. This study determined whether the transcription factor HIF-1alpha (Hypoxia Inducible Factor) is responsible and whether this is promulgated by VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor). Cultured bovine stromal cells were preconditioned with hypoxia in the presence of cadmium chloride, a chemical inhibitor of HIF-1alpha, and HIF-1alpha siRNA to test if HIF-1alpha activity is needed for hypoxia preconditioning protection from UV-irradiation induced cell death. TUNEL assay was used to detect cell apoptosis after UV-irradiation. RT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the presence of HIF-1alpha and VEGF in transcriptional and translational levels. During hypoxia (0.5% O2), 5 muM cadmium chloride completely inhibited HIF-1alpha expression and reversed the protection by hypoxia preconditioning. HIF-1alpha siRNA (15 nM) reduced HIF-1alpha expression by 90% and produced a complete loss of protection provided by hypoxia preconditioning. Since VEGF is induced by hypoxia, can be HIF-1alpha dependent, and is often protective, we examined the changes in transcription of VEGF and its receptors after 4 h of hypoxia preconditioning. VEGF and its receptors Flt-1 and Flk-1 are up-regulated after hypoxia preconditioning. However, the transcription and translation of VEGF were paradoxically increased by siHIF-1alpha, suggesting that VEGF expression in stromal cells is not down-stream of HIF-1alpha. These findings demonstrate that hypoxia preconditioning protection in corneal stromal cells requires HIF-1alpha, but that VEGF is not a component of the protection.

  12. Hypoxia-induced p53 modulates both apoptosis and radiosensitivity via AKT.

    PubMed

    Leszczynska, Katarzyna B; Foskolou, Iosifina P; Abraham, Aswin G; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Tellier, Céline; Haider, Syed; Span, Paul N; O'Neill, Eric E; Buffa, Francesca M; Hammond, Ester M

    2015-06-01

    Restoration of hypoxia-induced apoptosis in tumors harboring p53 mutations has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy; however, the transcriptional targets that mediate hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis is reliant on the DNA-binding and transactivation domains of p53 but not on the acetylation sites K120 and K164, which, in contrast, are essential for DNA damage-induced, p53-dependent apoptosis. Evaluation of hypoxia-induced transcripts in multiple cell lines identified a group of genes that are hypoxia-inducible proapoptotic targets of p53, including inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5D), pleckstrin domain-containing A3 (PHLDA3), sulfatase 2 (SULF2), B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2), cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2), and KN motif and ankyrin repeat domains 3 (KANK3). These targets were also regulated by p53 in human cancers, including breast, brain, colorectal, kidney, bladder, and melanoma cancers. Downregulation of these hypoxia-inducible targets associated with poor prognosis, suggesting that hypoxia-induced apoptosis contributes to p53-mediated tumor suppression and treatment response. Induction of p53 targets, PHLDA3, and a specific INPP5D transcript mediated apoptosis in response to hypoxia through AKT inhibition. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of AKT led to apoptosis in the hypoxic regions of p53-deficient tumors and consequently increased radiosensitivity. Together, these results identify mediators of hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis and suggest AKT inhibition may improve radiotherapy response in p53-deficient tumors.

  13. Hypoxia-induced p53 modulates both apoptosis and radiosensitivity via AKT

    PubMed Central

    Leszczynska, Katarzyna B.; Foskolou, Iosifina P.; Abraham, Aswin G.; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Tellier, Céline; Haider, Syed; Span, Paul N.; O’Neill, Eric E.; Buffa, Francesca M.; Hammond, Ester M.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of hypoxia-induced apoptosis in tumors harboring p53 mutations has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy; however, the transcriptional targets that mediate hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis is reliant on the DNA-binding and transactivation domains of p53 but not on the acetylation sites K120 and K164, which, in contrast, are essential for DNA damage–induced, p53-dependent apoptosis. Evaluation of hypoxia-induced transcripts in multiple cell lines identified a group of genes that are hypoxia-inducible proapoptotic targets of p53, including inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5D), pleckstrin domain–containing A3 (PHLDA3), sulfatase 2 (SULF2), B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2), cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2), and KN motif and ankyrin repeat domains 3 (KANK3). These targets were also regulated by p53 in human cancers, including breast, brain, colorectal, kidney, bladder, and melanoma cancers. Downregulation of these hypoxia-inducible targets associated with poor prognosis, suggesting that hypoxia-induced apoptosis contributes to p53-mediated tumor suppression and treatment response. Induction of p53 targets, PHLDA3, and a specific INPP5D transcript mediated apoptosis in response to hypoxia through AKT inhibition. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of AKT led to apoptosis in the hypoxic regions of p53-deficient tumors and consequently increased radiosensitivity. Together, these results identify mediators of hypoxia-induced p53-dependent apoptosis and suggest AKT inhibition may improve radiotherapy response in p53-deficient tumors. PMID:25961455

  14. Iron is associated with the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in mice.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yoshiro; Hosokawa, Manami; Sawada, Hisashi; Oboshi, Makiko; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Soyama, Yuko; Hirotani, Shinichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2016-12-01

    Several recent observations provide the association of iron deficiency with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in human and animal studies. However, it remains completely unknown whether PH leads to iron deficiency or iron deficiency enhances the development of PH. In addition, it is obscure whether iron is associated with the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling in PH. In this study, we investigate the impacts of dietary iron restriction on the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in mice. Eight- to ten-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for 4 weeks. Mice exposed to hypoxia were randomly divided into two groups and were given a normal diet or an iron-restricted diet. Mice maintained in room air served as normoxic controls. Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary vascular remodeling, while iron restriction led a modest attenuation of this change. In addition, chronic hypoxia exhibited increased RV systolic pressure, which was attenuated by iron restriction. Moreover, the increase in RV cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and RV interstitial fibrosis was observed in mice exposed to chronic hypoxia. In contrast, iron restriction suppressed these changes. Consistent with these changes, RV weight to left ventricular + interventricular septum weight ratio was increased in mice exposed to chronic hypoxia, while this increment was inhibited by iron restriction. Taken together, these results suggest that iron is associated with the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in mice.

  15. Role of Hypoxia-Induced Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, William; Helan, Martin; Smelter, Dan; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael; Pabelick, Christina M.; Johnson, Bruce; Prakash, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypoxia effects on pulmonary artery structure and function are key to diseases such as pulmonary hypertension. Recent studies suggest that growth factors called neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), can influence lung structure and function, and their role in the pulmonary artery warrants further investigation. In this study, we examined the effect of hypoxia on BDNF in humans, and the influence of hypoxia-enhanced BDNF expression and signaling in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Methods and Results 48h of 1% hypoxia enhanced BDNF and TrkB expression, as well as release of BDNF. In arteries of patients with pulmonary hypertension, BDNF expression and release was higher at baseline. In isolated PASMCs, hypoxia-induced BDNF increased intracellular Ca2+ responses to serotonin: an effect altered by HIF1α inhibition or by neutralization of extracellular BDNF via chimeric TrkB-Fc. Enhanced BDNF/TrkB signaling increased PASMC survival and proliferation, and decreased apoptosis following hypoxia. Conclusions Enhanced expression and signaling of the BDNF-TrkB system in PASMCs is a potential mechanism by which hypoxia can promote changes in pulmonary artery structure and function. Accordingly, the BDNF-TrkB system could be a key player in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular diseases, and thus a potential target for therapy. PMID:26192455

  16. Effect of intermittent hypoxia on neuro-functional recovery post brain ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yanxiang; Liu, Zhenfang; Yan, Xianliang; Luo, Chuanming

    2015-04-01

    Intermittent hypoxia was a simulation of a high-altitude environment. Neuro-inflammation post brain ischemia was considered as a vital impact which contributed to cognitive-functional deficit. The isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was an inflammation factor secreted by microglias in neuro-inflammation. In this study, we established a high-altitude environment as the hypoxic condition. Twenty mice were selected and randomized into a hypoxia group (n = 10) or a normoxia group (n = 10) post three vessel occlusion-induced brain ischemia. An enhancement of cognitive-functional recovery was presented in the hypoxia group by survival neuron counting and revealed by the Morris water maze test. Meanwhile, a high level of hypoxia-inducable factor 1 (HIF-1) expression associated with a lower expression of iNOS was observed in the border between infarcts and normal tissue of the hippocampus in the hypoxia group. However, these phenomenons were blocked by HIF-1 inhibition. This suggested that the acceleration of cognitive-functional recovery induced by intermittent hypoxia may depend on HIF-1 activating. An imitation of the hypoxic condition with or without HIF-1 inhibition was operated on the BV-2 cell. A high level of HIF-1 expression associated with a lower-level expression of iNOS was performed in the hypoxic condition. These data suggested that intermittent hypoxia can accelerate cognitive function recovery through attenuating neuro-inflammation.

  17. Chronic Hypoxia Suppresses Pregnancy-Induced Upregulation of Large-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel Activity in Uterine Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Xiao, Daliao; Zhu, Ronghui; Huang, Xiaohui; Yang, Shumei; Wilson, Sean M.; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that increased Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel activity played a key role in the normal adaptation of reduced myogenic tone of uterine arteries in pregnancy. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia during gestation inhibits pregnancy-induced upregulation of BKCa channel function in uterine arteries. Resistance-sized uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep maintained at sea level (≈300 m) or exposed to high-altitude (3801 m) hypoxia for 110 days. Hypoxia during gestation significantly inhibited pregnancy-induced upregulation of BKCa channel activity and suppressed BKCa channel current density in pregnant uterine arteries. This was mediated by a selective downregulation of BKCa channel β1 subunit in the uterine arteries. In accordance, hypoxia abrogated the role of the BKCa channel in regulating pressure-induced myogenic tone of uterine arteries that was significantly elevated in pregnant animals acclimatized to chronic hypoxia. In addition, hypoxia abolished the steroid hormone-mediated increase in the β1 subunit and BKCa channel current density observed in nonpregnant uterine arteries. Although the activation of protein kinase C inhibited BKCa channel current density in pregnant uterine arteries of normoxic sheep, this effect was ablated in the hypoxic animals. The results demonstrate that selectively targeting BKCa channel β1 subunit plays a critical role in the maladaption of uteroplacental circulation caused by chronic hypoxia, which contributes to the increased incidence of preeclampsia and fetal intrauterine growth restriction associated with gestational hypoxia. PMID:22665123

  18. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hong; The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107, Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012; Wu, Xinyi, E-mail: xywu8868@163.com

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cellsmore » has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response

  19. Phyllanthus Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell, PC-3, Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis through Multiple Signalling Pathways (MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, NFκB, and Hypoxia).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yin-Quan; Jaganath, Indubala; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2013-01-01

    Phyllanthus is a traditional medicinal plant that has been found to have antihepatitis, antibacterial, and anticancer properties. The present studies were to investigate the in vitro molecular mechanisms of anticancer effects of Phyllanthus (P. amarus, P. niruri, P. urinaria, and P. watsonii) plant extracts in human prostate adenocarcinoma. The cancer ten-pathway reporter array was performed and revealed that the expression of six pathway reporters were significantly decreased (Wnt, NFκB, Myc/Max, hypoxia, MAPK/ERK, and MAPK/JNK) in PC-3 cells after treatment with Phyllanthus extracts. Western blot was conducted and identified several signalling molecules that were affected in the signalling pathways including pan-Ras, c-Raf, RSK, Elk1, c-Jun, JNK1/2, p38 MAPK, c-myc, DSH, β-catenin, Akt, HIF-1α, GSK3β, NFκB p50 and p52, Bcl-2, Bax, and VEGF, in treated PC-3 cells. A proteomics-based approach, 2D gel electrophoresis, was performed, and mass spectrometry (MS/MS) results revealed that there were 72 differentially expressed proteins identified in treated PC-3 cells and were involved in tumour cell adhesion, apoptosis, glycogenesis and glycolysis, metastasis, angiogenesis, and protein synthesis and energy metabolism. Overall, these findings suggest that Phyllanthus can interfere with multiple signalling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and be used as a potential therapeutic candidate for treatment of cancer.

  20. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell [Ca2+]i and contraction: responses to diphenyleneiodonium and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Carson, R C; Zhang, H; Gibson, G; Thomas, H M

    1997-09-01

    To investigate mechanisms of inhibition of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), we studied pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) responses to hypoxia, utilizing diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), which blocks HPV. We measured cell contraction in primary cultures of rat PASMC grown on collagen gels and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in PASMC grown on glass. DPI (5 and 20 microM) caused contraction of PASMC and increased [Ca2+]i. Omission of extracellular Ca2+ diminished the DPI-induced PASMC contraction and greatly reduced the increase in [Ca2+]i. DPI substantially inhibited KCl-induced PASMC contraction (1 microM DPI) and the increase in [Ca2+]i (5 microM DPI). Severe hypoxia contracted PASMC and quadrupled [Ca2+]i. DPI, 1 microM, substantially inhibited hypoxic contraction, but neither 1 nor 5 microM DPI diminished the hypoxia-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, which was greatly attenuated by 20 microM DPI. These data show 1) that DPI increases [Ca2+]i, accounting for DPI-induced PASMC contraction and 2) that 1 and 5 microM DPI inhibit the hypoxia-induced contraction but not the hypoxia-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that DPI inhibits hypoxic PASMC contraction downstream of the Ca2+ signal by desensitizing the contractile apparatus and indicating a potential control point for modulation of HPV.

  1. Oxygen nanobubbles revert hypoxia by methylation programming.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Pushpak N; Cui, Yi; Elzey, Bennett D; Goergen, Craig J; Long, Christopher M; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2017-08-24

    Targeting the hypoxic tumor microenvironment has a broad impact in cancer epigenetics and therapeutics. Oxygen encapsulated nanosize carboxymethyl cellulosic nanobubbles were developed for mitigating the hypoxic regions of tumors to weaken the hypoxia-driven pathways and inhibit tumor growth. We show that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) hypomethylation in hypoxic regions of a tumor can be reverted to enhance cancer treatment by epigenetic regulation, using oxygen nanobubbles in the sub-100 nm size range, both, in vitro and in vivo. Oxygen nanobubbles were effective in significantly delaying tumor progression and improving survival rates in mice models. Further, significant hypermethylation was observed in promoter DNA region of BRCA1 due to oxygen nanobubble (ONB) treatment. The nanobubbles can also reprogram several hypoxia associated and tumor suppressor genes such as MAT2A and PDK-1, in addition to serving as an ultrasound contrast agent. Our approach to develop nanosized oxygen encapsulated bubbles as an ultrasound contrast agent for methylation reversal is expected to have a significant impact in epigenetic programming and to serve as an adjuvant to cancer treatment.

  2. Hypoxia promotes apoptosis of neuronal cells through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-microRNA-204-B-cell lymphoma-2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuwen; Li, Ji; Wu, Dongjin; Bu, Xiangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal cells are highly sensitive to hypoxia and may be subjected to apoptosis when exposed to hypoxia. Several apoptosis-related genes and miRNAs involve in hypoxia-induced apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the role of HIF1α-miR-204-BCL-2 pathway in hypoxia-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide assay was performed to analyze cell apoptosis in AGE1.HN and PC12 cells under hypoxic or normoxic conditions. The expression of BCL-2 and miR-204 were determined by Western blot and qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-204 overexpression or knockdown on the expression of BCL-2 were evaluated by luciferase assay and Western blot under hypoxic or normoxic conditions. HIF-1α inhibitor YC-1 and siHIF-1α were employed to determine the effect of HIF-1α on the up-regulation of miR-204 and down-regulation of BCL-2 induced by hypoxia. Apoptosis assay showed the presence of apoptosis induced by hypoxia in neuronal cells. Moreover, we found that hypoxia significantly down-regulated the expression of BCL-2, and increased the mRNA level of miR-204 in neuronal cells than that in control. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-204 directly targeted and regulated the expression of BCL-2. Specifically, the expression of BCL-2 was inhibited by miR-204 mimic and enhanced by miR-204 inhibitor. Furthermore, we detected that hypoxia induced cell apoptosis via HIF-1α/miR-204/BCL-2 in neuronal cells. This study demonstrated that HIF-1α-miR-204-BCL-2 pathway contributed to apoptosis of neuronal cells induced by hypoxia, which could potentially be exploited to prevent spinal cord ischemia–reperfusion injury. PMID:26350953

  3. Hypoxia induces mucin expression and secretion in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangdong; Tu, Jing; Li, Qi; Kolosov, Victor P; Perelman, Juliy M

    2012-12-01

    The study objective was to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in the transcriptional activation of MUC5AC in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) 16 cells under hypoxia conditions and the effect of hypoxia on expression and secretion of MUC5AC. Cells were incubated in hypoxia medium. Serial deletions or mutations of the MUC5AC promoter were cloned in the reporter pGL3-basic plasmid (Promega Biotech Co, Ltd, Beijing, China). These reporter plasmids were cotransfected with HIF-1α small interfering RNA. Hypoxia markedly increased the level of MUC5AC secretion and the transcriptional activity of MUC5AC promoters. Western blot analysis showed that HIF-1α and MUC5AC proteins were strongly increased after HBE16 cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions. Treatment of HBE16 cells with HIF-1α inhibitor (YC-1) or HIF-1α small interfering RNA significantly inhibited the expression of HIF-1α and MUC5AC, and the secretion of MUC5AC. Depletion of the promoter sequence did not reduce the MUC5AC promoter activity to hypoxia. Luciferase assay indicated that HRE in the MUC5AC promoter was in the region from -120 to +54. Promoter sequence analysis showed that 1 HRE site at -65 plays an important role in hypoxia activation of the MUC5AC. The inactivation of the HRE site using site-directed mutagenesis led to the complete loss of induction by hypoxia, which further confirmed the key role of the HRE site. MUC5AC expression and secretion are upregulated in response to hypoxia. The HRE site at -65 in the MUC5AC promoter and the HIF-1α are the major regulators for the cellular response against hypoxia in human bronchial epithelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological effects of intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Powell, F L; Garcia, N

    2000-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH), or periodic exposure to hypoxia interrupted by return to normoxia or less hypoxic conditions, occurs in many circumstances. In high altitude mountaineering, IH is used to optimize acclimatization although laboratory studies have not generally revealed physiologically significant benefits. IH enhances athletic performance at sea level if blood oxygen capacity increases and the usual level of training is not decreased significantly. IH for high altitude workers who commute from low altitude homes is of considerable practical interest and the ideal commuting schedule for physical and mental performance is being studied. The effect of oxygen enrichment at altitude (i.e., intermittent normoxia on a background of chronic hypoxia) on human performance is under study also. Physiological mechanisms of IH, and specifically the differences between effects of IH and acute or chronic continuous hypoxia remains to be determined. Biomedical researchers are defining the molecular and cellular mechanisms for effects of hypoxia on the body in health and disease. A comparative approach may provide additional insight about the biological significance of these effects.

  5. Lung Oxidative Damage by Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Araneda, O. F.; Tuesta, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important functions of lungs is to maintain an adequate oxygenation in the organism. This organ can be affected by hypoxia facing both physiological and pathological situations. Exposure to this condition favors the increase of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, as from NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase/reductase, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, as well as establishing an inflammatory process. In lungs, hypoxia also modifies the levels of antioxidant substances causing pulmonary oxidative damage. Imbalance of redox state in lungs induced by hypoxia has been suggested as a participant in the changes observed in lung function in the hypoxic context, such as hypoxic vasoconstriction and pulmonary edema, in addition to vascular remodeling and chronic pulmonary hypertension. In this work, experimental evidence that shows the implied mechanisms in pulmonary redox state by hypoxia is reviewed. Herein, studies of cultures of different lung cells and complete isolated lung and tests conducted in vivo in the different forms of hypoxia, conducted in both animal models and humans, are described. PMID:22966417

  6. Minocycline blocks glial cell activation and ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer A; Arbogast, Tara E; Moya, Esteban A; Fu, Zhenxing; Powell, Frank L

    2017-04-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) is the time-dependent increase in ventilation, which persists upon return to normoxia and involves plasticity in both central nervous system respiratory centers and peripheral chemoreceptors. We investigated the role of glial cells in VAH in male Sprague-Dawley rats using minocycline, an antibiotic that inhibits microglia activation and has anti-inflammatory properties, and barometric pressure plethysmography to measure ventilation. Rats received either minocycline (45mg/kg ip daily) or saline beginning 1 day before and during 7 days of chronic hypoxia (CH, Pi O 2  = 70 Torr). Minocycline had no effect on normoxic control rats or the hypercapnic ventilatory response in CH rats, but minocycline significantly ( P < 0.001) decreased ventilation during acute hypoxia in CH rats. However, minocycline administration during only the last 3 days of CH did not reverse VAH. Microglia and astrocyte activation in the nucleus tractus solitarius was quantified from 30 min to 7 days of CH. Microglia showed an active morphology (shorter and fewer branches) after 1 h of hypoxia and returned to the control state (longer filaments and extensive branching) after 4 h of CH. Astrocytes increased glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody immunofluorescent intensity, indicating activation, at both 4 and 24 h of CH. Minocycline had no effect on glia in normoxia but significantly decreased microglia activation at 1 h of CH and astrocyte activation at 24 h of CH. These results support a role for glial cells, providing an early signal for the induction but not maintenance of neural plasticity underlying ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The signals for neural plasticity in medullary respiratory centers underlying ventilatory acclimatization to chronic hypoxia are unknown. We show that chronic hypoxia activates microglia and subsequently astrocytes. Minocycline, an antibiotic that blocks microglial activation and has anti

  7. Minocycline blocks glial cell activation and ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Tara E.; Moya, Esteban A.; Fu, Zhenxing; Powell, Frank L.

    2017-01-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) is the time-dependent increase in ventilation, which persists upon return to normoxia and involves plasticity in both central nervous system respiratory centers and peripheral chemoreceptors. We investigated the role of glial cells in VAH in male Sprague-Dawley rats using minocycline, an antibiotic that inhibits microglia activation and has anti-inflammatory properties, and barometric pressure plethysmography to measure ventilation. Rats received either minocycline (45mg/kg ip daily) or saline beginning 1 day before and during 7 days of chronic hypoxia (CH, PiO2 = 70 Torr). Minocycline had no effect on normoxic control rats or the hypercapnic ventilatory response in CH rats, but minocycline significantly (P < 0.001) decreased ventilation during acute hypoxia in CH rats. However, minocycline administration during only the last 3 days of CH did not reverse VAH. Microglia and astrocyte activation in the nucleus tractus solitarius was quantified from 30 min to 7 days of CH. Microglia showed an active morphology (shorter and fewer branches) after 1 h of hypoxia and returned to the control state (longer filaments and extensive branching) after 4 h of CH. Astrocytes increased glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody immunofluorescent intensity, indicating activation, at both 4 and 24 h of CH. Minocycline had no effect on glia in normoxia but significantly decreased microglia activation at 1 h of CH and astrocyte activation at 24 h of CH. These results support a role for glial cells, providing an early signal for the induction but not maintenance of neural plasticity underlying ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The signals for neural plasticity in medullary respiratory centers underlying ventilatory acclimatization to chronic hypoxia are unknown. We show that chronic hypoxia activates microglia and subsequently astrocytes. Minocycline, an antibiotic that blocks microglial activation and has anti

  8. Hypoxia induces arginase II expression and increases viable human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell numbers via AMPKα1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jianjing; Nelin, Leif D.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is one of the hallmark features of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. With only supportive treatment options available for this life-threatening disease, treating and preventing the proliferation of PASMCs is a viable therapeutic option. A key promoter of hypoxia-induced increases in the number of viable human PASMCs is arginase II, with attenuation of viable cell numbers following pharmacologic inhibition or siRNA knockdown of the enzyme. Additionally, increased levels of arginase have been demonstrated in the pulmonary vasculature of patients with pulmonary hypertension. The signaling pathways responsible for the hypoxic induction of arginase II in PASMCs, however, remain unknown. Hypoxia is a recognized activator of AMPK, which is known to be expressed in human PASMCs (hPASMCs). Activation of AMPK by hypoxia has been shown to promote cell survival in PASMCs. In addition, pharmacologic agents targeting AMPK have been shown to attenuate chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The present studies tested the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced arginase II expression in hPASMCs is mediated through AMPK signaling. We found that pharmacologic inhibitors of AMPK, as well as siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1, prevented hypoxia-induced arginase II. The hypoxia-induced increase in viable hPASMC numbers was also prevented following both pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown of AMPK. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of AMPK induced arginase II protein expression and viable cells numbers in hPASMCs. PMID:28213467

  9. Physiological determinants of human acute hypoxia tolerance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-11-01

    AbstractIntroduction. We investigated possible physiological determinants of variability in hypoxia tolerance in subjects given a 5-minute normobaric exposure to 25,000 ft equivalent. Physiological tolerance to hypoxia was defined as the magnitude of...

  10. Differential regulation of the slow and rapid components of guinea-pig cardiac delayed rectifier K+ channels by hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Hool, Livia C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of acute hypoxia on the slow (IKs) and rapid (IKr) components of the native delayed rectifier K+ channel in the absence and presence of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (isoprenaline; Iso) using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Hypoxia reversibly inhibited basal IKs. The effect could be mimicked by exposing the cells to the thiol-specific reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) and attenuated upon exposure of cells to the membrane-impermeant thiol-specific oxidizing compound 5,5′-dithio-bis[2-nitrobenzoic acid] (DTNB). In the presence of hypoxia, the K0.5 for activation of IKs by Iso was significantly decreased from 18.3 to 1.9 nm. DTT mimicked the effect of hypoxia on the sensitivity of IKs to Iso while DTNB had no effect. Hypoxia increased the sensitivity of IKs to histamine and forskolin suggesting that the effect of hypoxia is not occurring at the β-adrenergic receptor. The increase in sensitivity of IKs to Iso could be attenuated with addition of PKCβ peptide to the pipette solution. While hypoxia and DTT inhibited basal IKs they were without effect on IKr. In addition, Iso did not appear to alter the magnitude of IKr in the absence or presence of hypoxia. These data suggest that hypoxia regulates native IKs through two distinct mechanisms: direct inhibition of basal IKs and an increase in sensitivity to Iso that occurs downstream from the β-adrenergic receptor. Both mechanisms appear to involve redox modification of thiol groups. In contrast native IKr does not appear to be regulated by Iso, hypoxia or redox state. PMID:14634203

  11. Sensors, transmitters, and targets in mitochondrial oxygen shortage-a hypoxia-inducible factor relay story.

    PubMed

    Dehne, Nathalie; Brüne, Bernhard

    2014-01-10

    Cells sense and respond to a shortage of oxygen by activating the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 and evoking adaptive responses. Mitochondria are at the center of a hypoxia sensing and responding relay system. Under normoxia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are HIF activators. As their individual flux rates determine their diffusion-controlled interaction, predictions how these radicals affect HIF appear context-dependent. Considering that the oxygen requirement for NO formation limits its role in activating HIF to conditions of ambient oxygen tension. Given the central role of mitochondrial complex IV as a NO target, especially under hypoxia, allows inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by NO to spare oxygen thus, raising the threshold for HIF activation. HIF targets seem to configure a feedback-signaling circuit aimed at gradually adjusting mitochondrial function. In hypoxic cancer cells, mitochondria redirect Krebs cycle intermediates to preserve their biosynthetic ability. Persistent HIF activation lowers the entry of electron-delivering compounds into mitochondria to reduce Krebs cycle fueling and β-oxidation, attenuates the expression of electron transport chain components, limits mitochondria biosynthesis, and provokes their removal by autophagy. Mitochondria can be placed central in a hypoxia sensing-hypoxia responding circuit. We need to determine to which extent and how mitochondria contribute to sense hypoxia, explore whether modulating their oxygen-consuming capacity redirects hypoxic responses in in vivo relevant disease conditions, and elucidate how the multiple HIF targets in mitochondria shape conditions of acute versus chronic hypoxia.

  12. Nicotinamide pre-treatment ameliorates NAD(H) hyperoxidation and improves neuronal function after severe hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Pavan K; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged hypoxia leads to irreversible loss of neuronal function and metabolic impairment of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide recycling (between NAD+ and NADH) immediately after reoxygenation, resulting in NADH hyperoxidation. We test whether addition of nicotinamide (to enhance NAD+ levels) or PARP-1 inhibition (to prevent consumption of NAD+) can be effective in improving either loss of neuronal function or hyperoxidation following severe hypoxic injury in hippocampal slices. After severe, prolonged hypoxia (maintained for 3 min after spreading depression) there was hyperoxidation of NADH following reoxygenation, an increased soluble NAD+/NADH ratio, loss of neuronal field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) and decreased ATP content. Nicotinamide incubation (5 mM) 2 hr prior to hypoxia significantly increased total NAD(H) content, improved neuronal recovery, enhanced ATP content, and prevented NADH hyperoxidation. The nicotinamide-induced increase in total soluble NAD(H) was more significant in the cytosolic compartment than within mitochondria. Prolonged incubation with PJ-34 (>1hr) led to enhanced baseline NADH fluorescence prior to hypoxia, as well as improved neuronal recovery, NADH hyperoxidation and ATP content on recovery from severe hypoxia and reoxygenation. In this acute model of severe neuronal dysfunction prolonged incubation with either nicotinamide or PJ-34 prior to hypoxia improved recovery of neuronal function, enhanced NADH reduction and ATP content, but neither treatment restored function when administered during or after prolonged hypoxia and reoxygenation. PMID:24184921

  13. Mechanisms of hypoxia-induced cerebrovascular dilation in the newborn pig.

    PubMed

    Leffler, C W; Smith, J S; Edrington, J L; Zuckerman, S L; Parfenova, H

    1997-03-01

    The hypothesis that endothelium-dependent components contribute to the cerebromicrovascular dilation to hypoxia in the newborn pig was addressed. Piglets anesthetized with ketamine-acepromazine and maintained on alpha-chloralose were equipped with closed cranial windows. Injury to the endothelium of pial arterioles was produced by light activation of fluorescein dye. Light/dye injury reduced the pial arteriolar dilation to hypoxia (5 min, arterial PO2 approximately 30 mmHg) from 57 +/- 9 to 19 +/- 5%. Light/dye injury abolished the pial arteriolar dilation to hypercapnia but did not affect dilation to sodium nitroprusside. The pial arteriolar dilation to hypoxia was not affected by tetrodotoxin, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine, glibenclamide, iberiotoxin, charybdotoxin, tetraethylammonium, or 8-phenyltheophylline. Hypoxia caused increases in the cerebral cortical production of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. Cerebral vasodilation to hypoxia was inhibited by 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid but was not greatly affected by cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase inhibitors. In contrast, the cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase inhibitor miconazol decreased cerebral vasodilation to hypoxia from 45 +/- 5 to 17 +/- 4%. Therefore, the vascular endothelium appears to participate in cerebral microvascular dilation to hypoxia in newborn pigs. The mechanism may include cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid.

  14. Overexpression of BAG3 Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis by Inducing Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiankai; He, Zhangyou; Xiao, Wenjian; Na, Qingqing; Wu, Tianxiu; Su, Kaixin; Cui, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a well-known factor in the promotion of apoptosis, which contributes to the development of numerous cardiac diseases, such as heart failure and myocardial infarction. Inhibiting apoptosis is an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of related heart diseases caused by ischemia/hypoxic injury. Previous studies have demonstrated that BAG3 plays an important role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and survival. However, the role of BAG3 in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains to be clarified. Here, we demonstrate that BAG3 is induced by hypoxia stimuli in cultured cardiomyocytes. BAG3 expression level was measured in H9c2 cells treated with hypoxia for 48 h. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were tested using MTT assay and Annexin V FITC-PI staining assay, respectively. The mRNA or protein expression level of BAG3, LC3-I, LC3-II, Atg5, NF-x03BA;B p65 and phosphorylated NF-x03BA;B p65 were assessed by qRT-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. Resluts: Overexpression of BAG3 inhibited cell apoptosis and promoted proliferation in hypoxia-injured H9c2 cells. Furthermore, autophagy and NF-x03BA;B were activated by BAG3 overexpression, and the NF-x03BA;B inhibitor PDTC could inhibit the activation of autophagy induced by BAG3 overexpression. In addition, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA partly impeded the inhibitory effect of BAG3 on hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. these results suggested that overexpression of BAG3 promoted cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis by activating autophagy though the NF-x03BA;B signaling pathway in hypoxia-injured cardiomyocytes. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Hypoxia-induced oxidative base modifications in the VEGF hypoxia-response element are associated with transcriptionally active nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Ruchko, Mykhaylo V; Gorodnya, Olena M; Pastukh, Viktor M; Swiger, Brad M; Middleton, Natavia S; Wilson, Glenn L; Gillespie, Mark N

    2009-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in hypoxic pulmonary artery endothelial cells cause transient oxidative base modifications in the hypoxia-response element (HRE) of the VEGF gene that bear a conspicuous relationship to induction of VEGF mRNA expression (K.A. Ziel et al., FASEB J. 19, 387-394, 2005). If such base modifications are indeed linked to transcriptional regulation, then they should be detected in HRE sequences associated with transcriptionally active nucleosomes. Southern blot analysis of the VEGF HRE associated with nucleosome fractions prepared by micrococcal nuclease digestion indicated that hypoxia redistributed some HRE sequences from multinucleosomes to transcriptionally active mono- and dinucleosome fractions. A simple PCR method revealed that VEGF HRE sequences harboring oxidative base modifications were found exclusively in mononucleosomes. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced ROS generation with myxathiozol prevented formation of oxidative base modifications but not the redistribution of HRE sequences into mono- and dinucleosome fractions. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A caused retention of HRE sequences in compacted nucleosome fractions and prevented formation of oxidative base modifications. These findings suggest that the hypoxia-induced oxidant stress directed at the VEGF HRE requires the sequence to be repositioned into mononucleosomes and support the prospect that oxidative modifications in this sequence are an important step in transcriptional activation.

  16. Tumor suppressor p53 negatively regulates glycolysis stimulated by hypoxia through its target RRAD

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Rui; Liang, Yingjian; Lin, Meihua; Liu, Jia; Chan, Chang S.; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells display enhanced glycolysis to meet their energetic and biosynthetic demands even under normal oxygen concentrations. Recent studies have revealed that tumor suppressor p53 represses glycolysis under normoxia as a novel mechanism for tumor suppression. As the common microenvironmental stress for tumors, hypoxia drives the metabolic switch from the oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, which is crucial for survival and proliferation of cancer cells under hypoxia. The p53's role and mechanism in regulating glycolysis under hypoxia is poorly understood. Here, we found that p53 represses hypoxia-stimulated glycolysis in cancer cells through RRAD, a newly-identified p53 target. RRAD expression is frequently decreased in lung cancer. Ectopic expression of RRAD greatly reduces glycolysis whereas knockdown of RRAD promotes glycolysis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, RRAD represses glycolysis mainly through inhibition of GLUT1 translocation to the plasma membrane. Under hypoxic conditions, p53 induces RRAD, which in turn inhibits the translocation of GLUT1 and represses glycolysis in lung cancer cells. Blocking RRAD by siRNA greatly abolishes p53's function in repressing glycolysis under hypoxia. Taken together, our results revealed an important role and mechanism of p53 in antagonizing the stimulating effect of hypoxia on glycolysis, which contributes to p53's function in tumor suppression. PMID:25114038

  17. Inhibitory effect of a redox-silent analogue of tocotrienol on hypoxia adaptation in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Nobuya; Sugahara, Ryosuke; Namiki, Kozue; Sato, Chiaki; Ando, Akira; Sato, Ayami; Virgona, Nantiga; Yano, Tomohiro

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in Western countries and acquires a malignant phenotype, androgen-independent growth. PCa under hypoxia often has resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, an effective therapy against PCa under hypoxia has not yet been established. In this report, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a redox-silent analogue of tocotrienol on the survival of a human androgen-independent PCa cell line (PC3) under hypoxia. We found that the redox-silent analogue exerted a cytotoxic effect on PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner irrespective of either hypoxia or normoxia. Moreover, under hypoxia, the analogue dose dependently reduced the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α. In addition, a specific inhibitor toward HIF-1α induced cytotoxicity on PC3 cells, whereas selective inhibition of HIF-2α exerted no effect. Furthermore, suppression of HIFs levels by the analogue in hypoxic PC3 cells was closely associated with the inactivation of Fyn, a member of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase family, as confirmed by the action of a specific inhibitor toward the kinase (PP2). Taken together, these results suggest that the tocotrienol analogue could inhibit the survival of PC3 cells under hypoxia, mainly by the inhibition of Fyn/HIF-1α signaling, and this may lead to the establishment of a new effective therapy for androgen-independent PCa.

  18. Coastal hypoxia responses to remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, W. M.; Testa, J. M.; Conley, D. J.; Gilbert, D.; Hagy, J. D.

    2009-07-01

    The incidence and intensity of hypoxic waters in coastal aquatic ecosystems has been expanding in recent decades coincident with eutrophication of the coastal zone. Because of the negative effects hypoxia has on many organisms, extensive efforts have been made to reduce the size and duration of hypoxia in many coastal waters. Although it has been broadly assumed that reductions in nutrient loading rates would reverse eutrophication and consequently, hypoxia, recent analyses of historical data from European and North American coastal systems suggest little evidence for simple linear response trajectories. We review existing data, analyses, and models that relate variations in the extent and intensity of hypoxia to changes in loading rates for inorganic nutrients and labile organic matter. We also assess existing knowledge of physical and ecological factors regulating oxygen in coastal marine waters and examine a broad range of examples where hypoxia responses to reductions in nutrient (or organic matter) inputs have been documented. Of the 22 systems identified where concurrent time series of loading and O2 were available, half displayed relatively clear and direct recoveries following remediation. We explored in detail 5 well-studied systems that have exhibited complex, non-linear responses to loading, including apparent "regime shifts." A summary of these analyses suggests that O2 conditions improved rapidly and linearly in systems where remediation focused on organic inputs from sewage plants, which were the primary drivers of hypoxia. In larger more open systems where diffuse nutrient loads are more important in fueling O2 depletion and where climatic influences are pronounced, responses to remediation tend to follow non-linear trends that may include hysteresis and time-lags. Improved understanding of hypoxia remediation requires that future studies use comparative approaches and consider multiple regulating factors including: (1) the dominant temporal scales

  19. [Protective effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids pretreatment on hippocampal neurons after acute hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhao-qin; Zhao, Xiao-min; Gao, Yun-sheng

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla total alkaloids (RTA) pretreatment on the voltage-gated sodium currents of the rat hippocampal neurons after acute hypoxia. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were divided into RTA pre-treated and non-pretreated groups. Patch clamp whole-cell recording was used to compare the voltage-gated sodium current amplitude and threshold with those before hypoxia. After acute hypoxia, sodium current amplitude was significantly decreased and its threshold was upside. RTA pretreatment could inhibit the reduction of sodium current amplitude. RTA pretreatment alleviates the acute hypoxia-induced change of sodium currents, which may be one of the mechanisms for protective effect of RTA on cells.

  20. Snail/beta-catenin signaling protects breast cancer cells from hypoxia attack

    SciTech Connect

    Scherbakov, Alexander M., E-mail: alex.scherbakov@gmail.com; Stefanova, Lidia B.; Sorokin, Danila V.

    2013-12-10

    The tolerance of cancer cells to hypoxia depends on the combination of different factors – from increase of glycolysis (Warburg Effect) to activation of intracellular growth/apoptotic pathways. Less is known about the influence of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and EMT-associated pathways on the cell sensitivity to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Snail signaling, one of the key EMT pathways, in the mediating of hypoxia response and regulation of cell sensitivity to hypoxia, using as a model in vitro cultured breast cancer cells. Earlier we have shown that estrogen-independent HBL-100 breast cancer cells differ frommore » estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells with increased expression of Snail1, and demonstrated Snail1 involvement into formation of hormone-resistant phenotype. Because Snail1 belongs to hypoxia-activated proteins, here we studied the influence of Snail1 signaling on the cell tolerance to hypoxia. We found that Snail1-enriched HBL-100 cells were less sensitive to hypoxia-induced growth suppression if compared with MCF-7 line (31% MCF-7 vs. 71% HBL-100 cell viability after 1% O{sub 2} atmosphere for 3 days). Snail1 knock-down enhanced the hypoxia-induced inhibition of cell proliferation giving the direct evidence of Snail1 involvement into cell protection from hypoxia attack. The protective effect of Snail1 was shown to be mediated, at least in a part, via beta-catenin which positively regulated expression of HIF-1-dependent genes. Finally, we found that cell tolerance to hypoxia was accompanied with the failure in the phosphorylation of AMPK – the key energy sensor, and demonstrated an inverse relationship between AMPK and Snail/beta-catenin signaling. Totally, our data show that Snail1 and beta-catenin, besides association with loss of hormone dependence, protect cancer cells from hypoxia and may serve as an important target in the treatment of breast cancer. Moreover, we suggest that the level of these proteins as

  1. Antioxidant responses of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii exposed to harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Menghong; Wu, Fangli; Yuan, Mingzhe; Li, Qiongzhen; Gu, Yedan; Wang, Youji; Liu, Qigen

    2015-11-01

    Bloom forming algae and hypoxia are considered to be two main co-occurred stressors associated with eutrophication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia on an ecologically important mussel species inhabiting lakes and reservoirs, the triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii, which is generally considered as a bio-management tool for eutrophication. A set of antioxidant enzymes involved in immune defence mechanisms and detoxification processes, i.e. glutathione-S-transferases (GST), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lysozyme (LZM) in mussel haemolymph were analyzed during 14days exposure along with 7days depuration duration period. GST, GSH, SOD, GPX and LZM were elevated by toxic M. aeruginosa exposure, while CAT activities were inhibited by such exposure. Hypoxia influenced the immune mechanisms through the activation of GSH and GPX, and the inhibition of SOD, CAT, and LZM activities. Meanwhile, some interactive effects of M. aeruginosa, hypoxia and time were observed. Independently of the presence or absence of hypoxia, toxic algal exposure generally increased the five tested enzyme activities of haemolymph, except CAT. Although half of microcystin could be eliminated after 7days depuration, toxic M. aeruginosa or hypoxia exposure history showed some latent effects on most parameters. These results revealed that toxic algae play an important role on haemolymph parameters alterations and its toxic effects could be affected by hypoxia. Although the microcystin depuration rate of H. cumingii is quick, toxic M. aeruginosa and/or hypoxia exposure history influenced its immunological mechanism recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypoxia-mediated upregulation of MCT1 expression supports the glycolytic phenotype of glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Granja, Sara; Martinho, Olga; Honavar, Mrinalini; Pojo, Marta; Costa, Bruno M; Pires, Manuel M; Pinheiro, Célia; Cordeiro, Michelle; Bebiano, Gil; Costa, Paulo; Reis, Rui M; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-07-19

    Glioblastomas (GBM) present a high cellular heterogeneity with conspicuous necrotic regions associated with hypoxia, which is related to tumor aggressiveness. GBM tumors exhibit high glycolytic metabolism with increased lactate production that is extruded to the tumor microenvironment through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). While hypoxia-mediated regulation of MCT4 has been characterized, the role of MCT1 is still controversial. Thus, we aimed to understand the role of hypoxia in the regulation of MCT expression and function in GBM, MCT1 in particular. Expression of hypoxia- and glycolytic-related markers, as well as MCT1 and MCT4 isoforms was assessed in in vitro and in vivo orthotopic glioma models, and also in human GBM tissues by immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Following MCT1 inhibition, either pharmacologically with CHC (α-cyano-4-hydroxynnamic acid) or genetically with siRNAs, we assessed GBM cell viability, proliferation, metabolism, migration and invasion, under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. Hypoxia induced an increase in MCT1 plasma membrane expression in glioma cells, both in in vitro and in vivo models. Additionally, treatment with CHC and downregulation of MCT1 in glioma cells decreased lactate production, cell proliferation and invasion under hypoxia. Moreover, in the in vivo orthotopic model and in human GBM tissues, there was extensive co-expression of MCT1, but not MCT4, with the GBM hypoxia marker CAIX. Hypoxia-induced MCT1 supports GBM glycolytic phenotype, being responsible for lactate efflux and an important mediator of cell survival and aggressiveness. Therefore, MCT1 constitutes a promising therapeutic target in GBM.

  3. Hypoxia-mediated upregulation of MCT1 expression supports the glycolytic phenotype of glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Granja, Sara; Martinho, Olga; Honavar, Mrinalini; Pojo, Marta; Costa, Bruno M.; Pires, Manuel M.; Pinheiro, Célia; Cordeiro, Michelle; Bebiano, Gil; Costa, Paulo; Reis, Rui M.; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Background Glioblastomas (GBM) present a high cellular heterogeneity with conspicuous necrotic regions associated with hypoxia, which is related to tumor aggressiveness. GBM tumors exhibit high glycolytic metabolism with increased lactate production that is extruded to the tumor microenvironment through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). While hypoxia-mediated regulation of MCT4 has been characterized, the role of MCT1 is still controversial. Thus, we aimed to understand the role of hypoxia in the regulation of MCT expression and function in GBM, MCT1 in particular. Methods Expression of hypoxia- and glycolytic-related markers, as well as MCT1 and MCT4 isoforms was assessed in in vitro and in vivo orthotopic glioma models, and also in human GBM tissues by immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Following MCT1 inhibition, either pharmacologically with CHC (α-cyano-4-hydroxynnamic acid) or genetically with siRNAs, we assessed GBM cell viability, proliferation, metabolism, migration and invasion, under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. Results Hypoxia induced an increase in MCT1 plasma membrane expression in glioma cells, both in in vitro and in vivo models. Additionally, treatment with CHC and downregulation of MCT1 in glioma cells decreased lactate production, cell proliferation and invasion under hypoxia. Moreover, in the in vivo orthotopic model and in human GBM tissues, there was extensive co-expression of MCT1, but not MCT4, with the GBM hypoxia marker CAIX. Conclusion Hypoxia-induced MCT1 supports GBM glycolytic phenotype, being responsible for lactate efflux and an important mediator of cell survival and aggressiveness. Therefore, MCT1 constitutes a promising therapeutic target in GBM. PMID:27331625

  4. Hypoxia-Dependent Modification of Collagen Networks Promotes Sarcoma Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin; Zhang, Minsi; Qiu, Qiong; Skuli, Nicolas; Nakazawa, Michael S.; Karakasheva, Tatiana; Mucaj, Vera; Shay, Jessica E.S.; Stangenberg, Lars; Sadri, Navid; Puré, Ellen; Yoon, Sam S.; Kirsch, David G.; Simon, M. Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia and expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) correlate with metastasis and poor survival in sarcoma patients. We demonstrate here that hypoxia controls sarcoma metastasis through a novel mechanism wherein HIF1α enhances expression of the intracellular enzyme procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2). We show that loss of HIF1α or PLOD2 expression disrupts collagen modification, cell migration and pulmonary metastasis (but not primary tumor growth) in allograft and autochthonous LSLKrasG12D/+; Trp53fl/fl murine sarcoma models. Furthermore, ectopic PLOD2 expression restores migration and metastatic potential in HIF1α-deficient tumors, and analysis of human sarcomas reveal elevated HIF1α and PLOD2 expression in metastatic primary lesions. Pharmacological inhibition of PLOD enzymatic activity suppresses metastases. Collectively, these data indicate that HIF1α controls sarcoma metastasis through PLOD2-dependent collagen modification and organization in primary tumors. We conclude that PLOD2 is a novel therapeutic target in sarcomas and successful inhibition of this enzyme may reduce tumor cell dissemination. PMID:23906982

  5. The hypoxia signalling pathway in haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Irigoyen, Marta; García-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Berra, Edurne

    2017-01-01

    Haematological malignancies are tumours that affect the haematopoietic and the lymphatic systems. Despite the huge efforts to eradicate these tumours, the percentage of patients suffering resistance to therapies and relapse still remains significant. The tumour environment favours drug resistance of cancer cells, and particularly of cancer stem/initiating cells. Hypoxia promotes aggressiveness, metastatic spread and relapse in most of the solid tumours. Furthermore, hypoxia is associated with worse prognosis and resistance to conventional treatments through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factors. Haematological malignancies are not considered solid tumours, and therefore, the role of hypoxia in these diseases was initially presumed to be inconsequential. However, hypoxia is a hallmark of the haematopoietic niche. Here, we will review the current understanding of the role of both hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors in different haematological tumours. PMID:28415662

  6. Sequential activation of JAKs, STATs and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase by hypoxia in lung microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guansong; Qian, Pin; Jackson, Fannie R; Qian, Guisheng; Wu, Guangyu

    2008-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) is associated with various pathological conditions related to the endothelial injury. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the activation of XDH/XO by hypoxia remains largely unknown. In this report, we determined whether the Janus kinases (JAKs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) signaling pathway is involved in hypoxia-induced activation of XDH/XO in primary cultures of lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMVEC). We found that hypoxia significantly increased interleukin 6 (IL6) production in a time-dependent manner in LMVEC. Hypoxia also markedly augmented phosphorylation/activation of JAKs (JAK1, JAK2 and JAK3) and the JAK downstream effectors STATs (STAT3 and STAT5). Hypoxia-induced activation of STAT3 was blocked by IL6 antibodies, the JAK inhibitor AG490 and the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), implying that hypoxia-promoted IL6 secretion activates the JAK/STAT pathway in LMVEC. Phosphorylation and DNA-binding activity of STAT3 were also inhibited by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, suggesting that multiple signaling pathways involved in STAT activation by hypoxia. Importantly, hypoxia promoted XDH/XO activation in LMVEC, which was markedly reversed by inhibiting the JAK-STAT pathway using IL6 antibodies, AG490 and SOCS3. These data demonstrated that JAKs, STATs and XDH/XO were sequentially activated by hypoxia. These data provide the first evidence indicating that the JAK-STAT pathway is involved in hypoxia-mediated XDH/XO activation in LMVEC.

  7. HIF-1-driven skeletal muscle adaptations to chronic hypoxia: molecular insights into muscle physiology.

    PubMed

    Favier, F B; Britto, F A; Freyssenet, D G; Bigard, X A; Benoit, H

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is a metabolically active tissue and the major body protein reservoir. Drop in ambient oxygen pressure likely results in a decrease in muscle cells oxygenation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and stabilization of the oxygen-sensitive hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. However, skeletal muscle seems to be quite resistant to hypoxia compared to other organs, probably because it is accustomed to hypoxic episodes during physical exercise. Few studies have observed HIF-1α accumulation in skeletal muscle during ambient hypoxia probably because of its transient stabilization. Nevertheless, skeletal muscle presents adaptations to hypoxia that fit with HIF-1 activation, although the exact contribution of HIF-2, I kappa B kinase and activating transcription factors, all potentially activated by hypoxia, needs to be determined. Metabolic alterations result in the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation, while activation of anaerobic glycolysis is less evident. Hypoxia causes mitochondrial remodeling and enhanced mitophagy that ultimately lead to a decrease in ROS production, and this acclimatization in turn contributes to HIF-1α destabilization. Likewise, hypoxia has structural consequences with muscle fiber atrophy due to mTOR-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and transient activation of proteolysis. The decrease in muscle fiber area improves oxygen diffusion into muscle cells, while inhibition of protein synthesis, an ATP-consuming process, and reduction in muscle mass decreases energy demand. Amino acids released from muscle cells may also have protective and metabolic effects. Collectively, these results demonstrate that skeletal muscle copes with the energetic challenge imposed by O2 rarefaction via metabolic optimization.

  8. The role of hypoxia and HIF1α in the regulation of STAR-mediated steroidogenesis in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel; Gram, Aykut; Boos, Alois

    2015-02-05

    The adaptive responses to hypoxia are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α). Its role, however, in regulating steroidogenesis remains poorly understood. We examined the role of hypoxia and HIF1α in regulating steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR) expression and steroidogenesis in immortalized (KK1) mouse granulosa cells under progressively lowering O2 concentrations (20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%). Basal and dbcAMP-stimulated progesterone synthesis was decreased under severe hypoxia (1% and 5% O2). The partial hypoxia revealed opposing effects, with a significant increase in steroidogenic response at 10% O2 in dbcAMP-treated cells: Star-promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression were increased. The hypoxia-stimulated STAR expression was PKA-dependent. Binding of HIF1α to the Star-promoter was potentiated under partial hypoxia. Inhibition of the transcriptional activity or expression of HIF1α suppressed STAR-expression. HIF1α appears to be a positive regulator of basal and stimulated STAR-expression, which under partial hypoxia is capable of increasing the steroidogenic capacity of granulosa cells. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise Improves Mood State in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yongsuk; Fennell, Curtis; Burns, Keith; Pollock, Brandon S; Gunstad, John; McDaniel, John; Glickman, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of using exercise to alleviate the impairments in mood state associated with hypoxic exposure. Nineteen young, healthy men completed Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4(th) Edition (ANAM4) versions of the mood state test before hypoxia exposure, after 60 min of hypoxia exposure (12.5% O(2)), and during and after two intensities of cycling exercise (40% and 60% adjusted Vo(2max)) under the same hypoxic conditions. Peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSo(2)) were continuously monitored. At rest in hypoxia, Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) was significantly increased compared to baseline in both the 40% and 60% groups. TMD was significantly decreased during exercise compared to rest in hypoxia. TMD was also significantly decreased during recovery compared to rest in hypoxia. Spo(2) significantly decreased at 60 min rest in hypoxia, during exercise, and recovery compared to baseline. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation was also reduced at 60 min rest in hypoxia, during exercise, and recovery compared to baseline. The current study demonstrated that exercise at 40% and 60% of adjusted Vo(2max) attenuated the adverse effects of hypoxia on mood. These findings may have significant applied value, as negative mood states are known to impair performance in hypoxia. Further studies are needed to replicate the current finding and to clarify the possible mechanisms associated with the potential benefits of exercise on mood state in normobaric hypoxia.

  10. Ageing and cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lhuissier, François J; Canouï-Poitrine, Florence; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2012-11-01

    The risk of severe altitude-induced diseases is related to ventilatory and cardiac responses to hypoxia and is dependent on sex, age and exercise training status. However, it remains unclear how ageing modifies these physiological adaptations to hypoxia. We assessed the physiological responses to hypoxia with ageing through a cross-sectional 20 year study including 4675 subjects (2789 men, 1886 women; 14-85 years old) and a longitudinal study including 30 subjects explored at a mean 10.4 year interval. The influence of sex, training status and menopause was evaluated. The hypoxia-induced desaturation and the ventilatory and cardiac responses to hypoxia at rest and exercise were measured. In men, ventilatory response to hypoxia increased (P < 0.002), while desaturation was less pronounced (P < 0.001) with ageing. Cardiac response to hypoxia was blunted with ageing in both sexes (P < 0.001). Similar results were found in the longitudinal study, with a decrease in cardiac and an increase in ventilatory response to hypoxia with ageing. These adaptive responses were less pronounced or absent in post-menopausal women (P < 0.01). At exercise, desaturation was greater in trained subjects but cardiac and ventilatory responses to hypoxia were preserved by training, especially in elderly people. In conclusion, respiratory response to hypoxia and blood oxygenation improve with ageing in men while cardiac response is blunted with ageing in both sexes. Training aggravates desaturation at exercise in hypoxia, improves the ventilatory response and limits the ageing-induced blunting of cardiac response to hypoxia. Training limits the negative effects of menopause in cardiorespiratory adaptations to hypoxia.

  11. Hypoxia-induced IL-32β increases glycolysis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Su; Lee, Sunyi; Jeong, Ae Lee; Han, Sora; Ka, Hye In; Lim, Jong-Seok; Lee, Myung Sok; Yoon, Do-Young; Lee, Jeong-Hyung; Yang, Young

    2015-01-28

    IL-32β is highly expressed and increases the migration and invasion of gastric, lung, and breast cancer cells. Since IL-32 enhances VEGF production under hypoxic conditions, whether IL-32β is regulated by hypoxia was examined. Hypoxic conditions and a mimetic chemical CoCl2 enhanced IL-32β production. When cells were treated with various inhibitors of ROS generation to prevent hypoxia-induced ROS function, IL-32β production was suppressed by both NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial ROS inhibitors. IL-32β translocated to the mitochondria under hypoxic conditions, where it was associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, whether hypoxia-induced IL-32β is associated with oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) or glycolysis was examined. Glycolysis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is impaired in IL-32β-depleted cells, and the hypoxia-induced IL-32β increased glycolysis through activation of lactate dehydrogenase. Src is also known to increase lactate dehydrogenase activity, and the hypoxia-induced IL-32β was found to stimulate Src activation by inhibiting the dephosphorylation of Src. These findings revealed that a hypoxia-ROS-IL-32β-Src-glycolysis pathway is associated with the regulation of cancer cell metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inducible NOS inhibitor 1400W reduces hypoxia/re-oxygenation injury in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Rus, Alma; Castro, Lourdes; Del Moral, Maria Luisa; Peinado, Angeles

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO(*)) from inducible NO(*) synthase (iNOS) has been reported to either protect against, or contribute to, hypoxia/re-oxygenation lung injury. The present work aimed to clarify this double role in the hypoxic lung. With this objective, a follow-up study was made in Wistar rats submitted to hypoxia/re-oxygenation (hypoxia for 30 min; re-oxygenation of 0 h, 48 h, and 5 days), with or without prior treatment with the selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W (10 mg/kg). NO(*) levels (NOx), lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and protein nitration were analysed. This is the first time-course study which investigates the effects of 1400W during hypoxia/re-oxygenation in the rat lung. The results showed that the administration of 1400W lowered NOx levels in all the experimental groups. In addition, lipid peroxidation, the percentage of apoptotic cells, and nitrated protein expression fell in the late post-hypoxia period (48 h and 5 days). Our results reveal that the inhibition of iNOS in the hypoxic lung reduced the damage observed before the treatment with 1400W, suggesting that iNOS-derived NO(*) may exert a negative effect on this organ during hypoxia/re-oxygenation. These findings are notable, since they indicate that any therapeutic strategy aimed at controlling excess generation of NO(*) from iNOS may be useful in alleviating NO(*)-mediated adverse effects in hypoxic lungs.

  13. Combination effects of sorafenib with PI3K inhibitors under hypoxia in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Dimple R; Thiagarajan, Padma

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the influence of hypoxia on response of colorectal cancer cells to anticancer effects of sorafenib in combination with PI3K inhibitors GDC-0941 and BEZ-235. All hypoxic exposures were carried out at 1% O 2 /5% CO 2 . Antiproliferation activity was evaluated by 48 hours propidium iodide and 14 days clonogenic assay. Protein levels were evaluated by fluorescence ELISA. Metabolites lactate and glucose were evaluated biochemically. In the 48-hour proliferation assay, sorafenib acted synergistically with GDC-0941 but not with BEZ-235. In long-term colony-forming assays, both GDC-0941 and BEZ-235 were shown to potentiate the antiproliferative activity of sorafenib. At the molecular level, the synergism is mediated through inhibition of pAKT, pS6, p4EBP1, pERK, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2. No change in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels was observed in cells treated with the combination of compounds under hypoxia. A significant reduction in glucose uptake and lactate release was observed in cells treated with the combination of compounds under normoxia and hypoxia. Combinations of sorafenib with PI3K inhibitors BEZ-235 and GDC-0941 are efficacious under hypoxia. Thus, these anticancer combinations have a potential to overcome the hypoxia-mediated resistance mechanisms to antiproliferative agents in cancer therapy.

  14. The biochemical consequences of hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Alberti, K G

    1977-01-01

    The various phases of energy production have been described. These include glycolysis which is unique in its ability to produce ATP anaerobically, the tricarboxylic acid cycle with its major contribution to ATP production coming through the generation of NADH, and the cytochrome system at which reducing equivalents are converted to water, the released energy being incorporated into high-energy phosphates. The regulation of these pathways has been briefly described and the importance of the small amount of ATP generated anaerobically emphasized. The adaptation of muscle to periods of hypoxia through the presence of myoglobin, creatine phosphate and large amounts of glycogen is then discussed. The role of pH in limiting anaerobic glycolysis in muscle and the importance of the circulation in providing oxygen for exercising muscle are outlined. The effects of hypoxia on certain other tissues such as liver and brain have been detailed and finally methods for assessment of tissue hypoxia in man such as the measurement of the lactate:pyruvate ratio in blood are presented. PMID:198434

  15. Persisting mild hypothermia suppresses hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein synthesis and hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomoharu; Wakamatsu, Takuhiko; Daijo, Hiroki; Oda, Seiko; Kai, Shinichi; Adachi, Takehiko; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Kiichi

    2010-03-01

    The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an essential role in regulating gene expression in response to hypoxia-ischemia. Ischemia causes the tissue not only to be hypoxic but also to be hypothermic because of the hypoperfusion under certain circumstances. On the other hand, the induced hypothermia is one of the most common therapeutic modalities to extend tolerance to hypoxia. Although hypoxia elicits a variety of cellular and systemic responses at different organizational levels in the body, little is known about how hypoxia-induced responses are affected by low temperature. We examined the influence of mild hypothermic conditions (28-32 degrees C) on HIF-1 in both in vitro and in vivo settings. In vitro experiments adopting cultured cells elucidated that hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation was resistant to 4-h exposure to the low temperature. In contrast, exposure to the low temperature as long as 24 h suppressed HIF-1 activation and the subsequent upregulation of HIF-1 target genes such as VEGF or GLUT-1. HIF-1alpha protein stability in the cell was not affected by hypothermic treatment. Furthermore, intracellular ATP content was reduced under 1% O(2) conditions but was not largely affected by hypothermic treatment. The evidence indicates that reduction of oxygen consumption is not largely involved in suppression of HIF-1. In addition, we demonstrated that HIF-1 DNA-binding activity and HIF-1-dependent gene expressions induced under 10% O(2) atmosphere in mouse brain were not influenced by treatment under 3-h hypothermic temperature but were inhibited under 5-h treatment. On the other hand, we indicated that warming ischemic legs of mice for 24 h preserved HIF-1 activity. In this report we describe for the first time that persisting low temperature significantly reduced HIF-1alpha neosynthesis under hypoxic conditions, leading to a decrease in gene expression for adaptation to hypoxia in both in vitro and in vivo settings.

  16. Trichostatin A enhances estrogen receptor-alpha repression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells under hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Hyunggyun; Park, Joonwoo; Shim, Myeongguk

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is a crucial determinant of resistance to endocrine therapy, which may change during the progression of breast cancer. We previously showed that hypoxia induces ESR1 gene repression and ERα protein degradation via proteasome-mediated pathway in breast cancer cells. HDAC plays important roles in the regulation of histone and non-histone protein post-translational modification. HDAC inhibitors can induce epigenetic changes and have therapeutic potential for targeting various cancers. Trichostatin A exerts potent antitumor activities against breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we show that TSA augments ESR1 gene repression at the transcriptional level and downregulates ERαmore » protein expression under hypoxic conditions through a proteasome-mediated pathway. TSA-induced estrogen response element-driven reporter activity in the absence of estrogen was synergistically enhanced under hypoxia; however, TSA inhibited cell proliferation under both normoxia and hypoxia. Our data show that the hypoxia-induced repression of ESR1 and degradation of ERα are enhanced by concomitant treatment with TSA. These findings expand our understanding of hormone responsiveness in the tumor microenvironment; however, additional in-depth studies are required to elucidate the detailed mechanisms of TSA-induced ERα regulation under hypoxia. - Highlights: • TSA augments ESR1 gene repression at the transcriptional level under hypoxia. • TSA downregulates ERα protein expression under hypoxia. • TSA-induced ERα regulation under hypoxia is essential for understanding the behavior and progression of breast cancer.« less

  17. Defect of Adaptation to Hypoxia in Patients With COPD Due to Reduction of Histone Deacetylase 7

    PubMed Central

    To, Masako; Yamamura, Satoshi; Akashi, Kenichi; Charron, Catherine E.; Barnes, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays an important role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia by activating oxygen-regulated genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin. Sputum VEGF levels are reported to be decreased in COPD, despite hypoxia. Here we show that patients with COPD fail to induce HIF-1α and VEGF under hypoxic condition because of a reduction in histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from patients with moderate to severe COPD (n = 21), smokers without COPD (n = 12), and nonsmokers (n = 15). PBMCs were exposed to hypoxia (1% oxygen, 5% CO2, and 94% N2) for 24 h, and HIF-1α and HDAC7 protein expression in nuclear extracts were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)/Western blotting. Results: HIF-1α was significantly induced by hypoxia in each group when compared with the normoxic condition (12-fold induction in nonsmokers, 24-fold induction in smokers without COPD, fourfold induction in COPD), but induction of HIF-1α under hypoxia was significantly lower in patients with COPD than in nonsmokers and smokers without COPD (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). VEGF messenger RNA detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was correlated with HIF-1α protein in nuclei (r = 0.79, P < .05), and HDAC7 protein expression was correlated with HIF-1α protein in nuclei (r = 0.46, P < .05). HDAC7 knockdown inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α activity in U937 cells, and HIF-1α nuclear translocation and HIF-1α binding to the VEGF promoter in A549 cells. Conclusions: HDAC7 reduction in COPD causes a defect of HIF-1α induction response to hypoxia with impaired VEGF gene expression. This poor cellular adaptation might play a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:22172637

  18. Chronic hypoxia alters maternal uterine and fetal hemodynamics in the full-term pregnant guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Turan, Sifa; Aberdeen, Graham W; Thompson, Loren P

    2017-10-01

    Placental hypoxia is associated with maternal hypertension, placental insufficiency, and fetal growth restriction. In the pregnant guinea pig, prenatal hypoxia during early gestation inhibits cytotrophoblast invasion of spiral arteries, increases maternal blood pressure, and induces fetal growth restriction. In this study the impact of chronic maternal hypoxia on fetal heart structure was evaluated using four-dimensional echocardiography with spatiotemporal image correlation and tomographic ultrasound, and uterine and umbilical artery resistance/pulsatility indexes and fetal heart function were evaluated using pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to normoxia ( n = 7) or hypoxia (10.5% O 2 , n = 9) at 28-30 days gestation, which was maintained until full term (65 days). At full term, fetal heart structure and outflow tracts were evaluated in the four-chamber view. Fetal heart diastolic function was assessed by E wave-to-A wave diastolic filling ratios (E/A ratios) of both ventricles and systolic function by the myocardial performance index (or Tie) of left ventricles of normoxic ( n = 21) and hypoxic ( n = 17) fetuses. There were no structural abnormalities in fetal hearts. However, hypoxia induced asymmetric fetal growth restriction and increased the placental/fetal weight compared with normoxic controls. Hypoxia increased Doppler resistance and pulsatility indexes in the uterine, but not umbilical, arteries, had no effect on the Tie index, and increased the E/A ratio in left, but not right, ventricles. Thus, prolonged hypoxia, starting at midgestation, increases uterine artery resistance and generates fetal growth restriction at full term. Furthermore, the enhanced cardiac diastolic filling with no changes in systolic function or umbilical artery resistance suggests that the fetal guinea pig systemic circulation undergoes a compensated, adaptive response to prolonged hypoxia exposure. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological

  19. Effects of Extended Hypoxia on Night Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    Continue on reverse aide it necessary and identify by block number) hypoxia, anoxia , night vision, dark adaptation, extended hypoxia /y虦 SABDST’RACT M=t...and his colleagues, who not only quantified significant aspects of the dark adaptation function due to anoxia (hypoxia) (12,13,14,16), but also...and his co-workers (7) conducted related and very significant research on bright- ness discrimination, and concluded that anoxia acts mainly on the

  20. Activity of the hypoxia-activated prodrug, TH-302, in preclinical human acute myeloid leukemia models.

    PubMed

    Portwood, Scott; Lal, Deepika; Hsu, Yung-Chun; Vargas, Rodrigo; Johnson, Megan K; Wetzler, Meir; Hart, Charles P; Wang, Eunice S

    2013-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematologic neoplasm. Recent evidence has shown the bone marrow microenvironment in patients with AML to be intrinsically hypoxic. Adaptive cellular responses by leukemia cells to survive under low oxygenation also confer chemoresistance. We therefore asked whether therapeutic exploitation of marrow hypoxia via the hypoxia-activated nitrogen mustard prodrug, TH-302, could effectively inhibit AML growth. We assessed the effects of hypoxia and TH-302 on human AML cells, primary samples, and systemic xenograft models. We observed that human AML cells and primary AML colonies cultured under chronic hypoxia (1% O2, 72 hours) exhibited reduced sensitivity to cytarabine-induced apoptosis as compared with normoxic controls. TH-302 treatment resulted in dose- and hypoxia-dependent apoptosis and cell death in diverse AML cells. TH-302 preferentially decreased proliferation, reduced HIF-1α expression, induced cell-cycle arrest, and enhanced double-stranded DNA breaks in hypoxic AML cells. Hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species by AML cells were also diminished. In systemic human AML xenografts (HEL, HL60), TH-302 [50 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) 5 times per week] inhibited disease progression and prolonged overall survival. TH-302 treatment reduced the number of hypoxic cells within leukemic bone marrows and was not associated with hematologic toxicities in nonleukemic or leukemic mice. Later initiation of TH-302 treatment in advanced AML disease was as effective as earlier TH-302 treatment in xenograft models. Our results establish the preclinical activity of TH-302 in AML and provide the rationale for further clinical studies of this and other hypoxia-activated agents for leukemia therapy. ©2013 AACR.

  1. Coenzyme Q10 protects neural stem cells against hypoxia by enhancing survival signals.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinse; Park, Hyun-Hee; Choi, Hojin; Kim, Young Seo; Yu, Hyun-Jeung; Lee, Kyu-Yong; Lee, Young Joo; Kim, Seung Hyun; Koh, Seong-Ho

    2012-10-10

    Recanalization and secondary prevention are the main therapeutic strategies for acute ischemic stroke. Neuroprotective therapies have also been investigated despite unsuccessful clinical results. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is an essential cofactor for electron transport in mitochondria, is known to have an antioxidant effect. We investigated the protective effects of CoQ10 against hypoxia in neural stem cells (NSCs). We measured cell viability and levels of intracellular signaling proteins after treatment with several concentrations of CoQ10 under hypoxia-reperfusion. CoQ10 protected NSCs against hypoxia-reperfusion in a concentration-dependent manner by reducing growth inhibition and inhibiting free radical formation. It increased the expression of a number of survival-related proteins such as phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (pGSK3-β), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in NSCs injured by hypoxia-reperfusion and reduced the expression of death-related proteins such as cleaved caspase-3. We conclude that CoQ10 has effects against hypoxia-reperfusion induced damage to NSCs by enhancing survival signals and decreasing death signals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Apelin Protects Primary Rat Retinal Pericytes from Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Tao, Yong; Feng, Jing; Jiang, Yan Rong

    2015-01-01

    Pericytes are a population of cells that participate in normal vessel architecture and regulate permeability. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ, participates in a number of physiological and pathological processes. To date, the effect of apelin on pericyte is not clear. Our study aimed to investigate the potential protection mechanisms of apelin, with regard to primary rat retinal pericytes under hypoxia. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that pericytes colocalized with APJ in the fibrovascular membranes dissected from proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients. In the in vitro studies, we first demonstrated that the expression of apelin/APJ was upregulated in pericytes under hypoxia, and apelin increased pericytes proliferation and migration. Moreover, knockdown of apelin in pericyte was achieved via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference. After the inhibition of apelin, pericytes proliferation was inhibited significantly in hypoxia culture condition. Furthermore, exogenous recombinant apelin effectively prevented hypoxia-induced apoptosis through downregulating active-caspase 3 expression and increasing the ratio of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) in pericytes. These results suggest that apelin suppressed hypoxia-induced pericytes injury, which indicated that apelin could be a potential therapeutic target for retinal angiogenic diseases. PMID:26491547

  3. Analysis of the hypoxia-sensing pathway in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Arquier, Nathalie; Vigne, Paul; Duplan, Eric; Hsu, Tien; Therond, Pascal P.; Frelin, Christian; D'Angelo, Gisela

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism by which hypoxia induces gene transcription involves the inhibition of HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α subunit) PHD (prolyl hydroxylase) activity, which prevents the VHL (von Hippel-Lindau)-dependent targeting of HIF-1α to the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. HIF-1α thus accumulates and promotes gene transcription. In the present study, first we provide direct biochemical evidence for the presence of a conserved hypoxic signalling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster. An assay for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases was developed using Drosophila embryonic and larval homogenates as a source of enzyme. Drosophila PHD has a low substrate specificity and hydroxylates key proline residues in the ODD (oxygen-dependent degradation) domains of human HIF-1α and Similar, the Drosophila homologue of HIF-1α. The enzyme promotes human and Drosophila [35S]VHL binding to GST (glutathione S-transferase)–ODD-domain fusion protein. Hydroxylation is enhanced by proteasomal inhibitors and was ascertained using an anti-hydroxyproline antibody. Secondly, by using transgenic flies expressing a fusion protein that combined an ODD domain and the green fluorescent protein (ODD–GFP), we analysed the hypoxic cascade in different embryonic and larval tissues. Hypoxic accumulation of the reporter protein was observed in the whole tracheal tree, but not in the ectoderm. Hypoxic stabilization of ODD–GFP in the ectoderm was restored by inducing VHL expression in these cells. These results show that Drosophila tissues exhibit different sensitivities to hypoxia. PMID:16176182

  4. Red ginseng represses hypoxia-induced cyclooxygenase-2 through sirtuin1 activation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wonchung; Shim, Myeong Kuk; Kim, Sikwan; Lee, YoungJoo

    2015-06-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) is a traditional herbal medicine made by steaming and drying the fresh ginseng, leading to chemical transformation of some components by heat. It ameliorates various inflammatory diseases and strengthens the endocrine, immune, and central nervous systems. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 pathway in hypoxic cancer cells has important implications for stimulation of inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study we examined the effects and the mechanism underlying Korean red ginseng water extract (KRG-WE) inhibition of hypoxia-induced COX-2 in human distal lung epithelial A549 cells. The effect of the KRG on suppression of hypoxia-induced COX-2 in A549 cells were determined by Western blot and/or qRT-PCR. The anti-invasive effect of KRG-WE was evaluated on A549 cells using matrigel invasion assay. The activation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and sirtuin1 (Sirt1) was examined by using specific inhibitors. We first observed that hypoxia induced COX-2 protein and mRNA levels and promoter activity were suppressed by KRG-WE. Second, we observed that hypoxia-induced cell migration is dramatically reduced by KRG-WE. Third, we found that the effect of KRG-WE was not antagonized by the GR antagonist RU486 implying that the effect is mediated other than GR pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of Sirt1 abolished the effect of KRG-WE on hypoxia-induced COX-2 suppression and cell-invasion indicating that the suppression is mediated by Sirt1. Taken together, KRG-WE inhibits the hypoxic induction of COX-2 expression and cell invasion through Sirt1 activation. Our results imply that KRG-WE could be effective for suppression of inflammation under hypoxia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct effects of hypoxia and nitric oxide on ecdysone secretion by insect prothoracic glands.

    PubMed

    DeLalio, Leon J; Dion, Sara M; Bootes, Abigail M; Smith, Wendy A

    2015-05-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are controlled by the molt stimulating hormone ecdysone. A recent study suggests that reduced tissue oxygenation correlates with the size-sensing mechanism responsible for triggering molting. When reared in hypoxia, larvae of Manduca sexta and Drosophila melanogaster initiate molting at lower weights than do larvae reared in normoxia. Furthermore, in Drosophila, the signaling gas nitric oxide (NO) appears to be required for normal developmental timing. As observed in Drosophila, NO signaling targets the nuclear hormone receptor beta fushi tarazu transcription factor 1 (βFTZ-F1) through activation of Drosophila hormone receptor 3 (DHR3), two key regulators of ecdysone production and metamorphic tissue progression. We set out to directly examine the effects of hypoxia and NO on ecdysone secretion using prothoracic glands from feeding fifth (last) larval stage M. sexta. Our results indicate that in vitro treatment of prothoracic glands with hypoxia (2% oxygen) or the NO donor DETA-NONOate significantly inhibit ecdysone secretion. Protein markers of glandular activity were also in keeping with an initial inhibition, measured a decrease in phosphorylated ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase) and an increase in non-phosphorylated 4EBP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein). Additionally, gene expression levels of Manduca hormone receptor 3 (mhr3), βftz-f1, nitric oxide synthase (nos), and the PTTH receptor torso, were quantified using real-time PCR. NO treatment increased mhr3 expression and decreased nos expression. Hypoxia increased mhr3 transcription after 2 hr, but decreased transcription after 12 hr, with no effect on nos expression. Both NO and hypoxia had small effects on βftz-f1 expression, yet strongly increased torso transcription. Our results demonstrate that, in isolated prothoracic glands, hypoxia and NO signaling directly inhibit ecdysteroid secretion, but at the same time alter aspects of prothoracic

  6. Reducing Tumour Hypoxia via Oral Administration of Oxygen Nanobubbles

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Joshua; McEwan, Conor; Nesbitt, Heather; Bovornchutichai, Phurit; Averre, Raymond; Borden, Mark; McHale, Anthony P.; Callan, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to be a key factor inhibiting the successful treatment of solid tumours. Existing strategies for reducing hypoxia, however, have shown limited efficacy and/or adverse side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for reducing tumour hypoxia using an orally delivered suspension of surfactant-stabilised oxygen nanobubbles. Experiments were carried out in a mouse xenograft tumour model for human pancreatic cancer (BxPc-3 cells in male SCID mice). A single dose of 100 μL of oxygen saturated water, oxygen nanobubbles or argon nanobubbles was administered via gavage. Animals were sacrificed 30 minutes post-treatment (3 per group) and expression of hypoxia-inducible-factor-1α (HIF1α) protein measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis of the excised tumour tissue. Neither the oxygen saturated water nor argon nanobubbles produced a statistically significant change in HIF1α expression at the transcriptional level. In contrast, a reduction of 75% and 25% in the transcriptional and translational expression of HIF1α respectively (p<0.001) was found for the animals receiving the oxygen nanobubbles. This magnitude of reduction has been shown in previous studies to be commensurate with an improvement in outcome with both radiation and drug-based treatments. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in this group and corresponding increase in the expression of arrest-defective protein 1 homolog A (ARD1A). PMID:28036332

  7. Reducing Tumour Hypoxia via Oral Administration of Oxygen Nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Owen, Joshua; McEwan, Conor; Nesbitt, Heather; Bovornchutichai, Phurit; Averre, Raymond; Borden, Mark; McHale, Anthony P; Callan, John F; Stride, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to be a key factor inhibiting the successful treatment of solid tumours. Existing strategies for reducing hypoxia, however, have shown limited efficacy and/or adverse side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for reducing tumour hypoxia using an orally delivered suspension of surfactant-stabilised oxygen nanobubbles. Experiments were carried out in a mouse xenograft tumour model for human pancreatic cancer (BxPc-3 cells in male SCID mice). A single dose of 100 μL of oxygen saturated water, oxygen nanobubbles or argon nanobubbles was administered via gavage. Animals were sacrificed 30 minutes post-treatment (3 per group) and expression of hypoxia-inducible-factor-1α (HIF1α) protein measured by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis of the excised tumour tissue. Neither the oxygen saturated water nor argon nanobubbles produced a statistically significant change in HIF1α expression at the transcriptional level. In contrast, a reduction of 75% and 25% in the transcriptional and translational expression of HIF1α respectively (p<0.001) was found for the animals receiving the oxygen nanobubbles. This magnitude of reduction has been shown in previous studies to be commensurate with an improvement in outcome with both radiation and drug-based treatments. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in this group and corresponding increase in the expression of arrest-defective protein 1 homolog A (ARD1A).

  8. Approximate Simulation of Acute Hypobaric Hypoxia with Normobaric Hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Some manufacturers of reduced oxygen (O2) breathing devices claim a comparable hypobaric hypoxia (HH) training experience by providing F(sub I) O2 < 0.209 at or near sea level pressure to match the ambient O2 partial pressure (iso-pO2) of the target altitude. METHODS. Literature from investigators and manufacturers indicate that these devices may not properly account for the 47 mmHg of water vapor partial pressure that reduces the inspired partial pressure of O2 (P(sub I) O2). Nor do they account for the complex reality of alveolar gas composition as defined by the Alveolar Gas Equation. In essence, by providing iso-pO2 conditions for normobaric hypoxia (NH) as for HH exposures the devices ignore P(sub A)O2 and P(sub A)CO2 as more direct agents to induce signs and symptoms of hypoxia during acute training exposures. RESULTS. There is not a sufficient integrated physiological understanding of the determinants of P(sub A)O2 and P(sub A)CO2 under acute NH and HH given the same hypoxic pO2 to claim a device that provides isohypoxia. Isohypoxia is defined as the same distribution of hypoxia signs and symptoms under any circumstances of equivalent hypoxic dose, and hypoxic pO2 is an incomplete hypoxic dose. Some devices that claim an equivalent HH experience under NH conditions significantly overestimate the HH condition, especially when simulating altitudes above 10,000 feet (3,048 m). CONCLUSIONS. At best, the claim should be that the devices provide an approximate HH experience since they only duplicate the ambient pO2 at sea level as at altitude (iso-pO2 machines). An approach to reduce the overestimation is to at least provide machines that create the same P(sub I)O2 (iso-P(sub I)O2 machines) conditions at sea level as at the target altitude, a simple software upgrade.

  9. Ursodeoxycholic acid protects cardiomyocytes against cobalt chloride induced hypoxia by regulating transcriptional mediator of cells stress hypoxia inducible factor 1α and p53 protein.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Anis Syamimi; Hanafi, Noorul Izzati; Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Siti Hamimah; Md Noor, Julina; Abdul Hamid Hasani, Narimah; Ab Rahim, Sharaniza; Siran, Rosfaiizah

    2017-10-01

    In hepatocytes, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) activates cell signalling pathways such as p53, intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-receptor via Gα i -coupled-receptor. Recently, UDCA has been shown to protect the heart against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. However, it is not clear whether UDCA cardioprotection against hypoxia acts through a transcriptional mediator of cells stress, HIF-1α and p53. Therefore, in here, we aimed to investigate whether UDCA could protect cardiomyocytes (CMs) against hypoxia by regulating expression of HIF-1α, p53, [Ca 2+ ] i , and S1P-Gα i -coupled-receptor. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from newborn rats (0-2 days), and hypoxia was induced by using cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ). Cardiomyocytes were treated with UDCA and cotreated with either FTY720 (S1P-receptor agonist) or pertussis toxin (PTX; Gα i inhibitor). Cells were subjected for proliferation assay, beating frequency, QuantiGene Plex assay, western blot, immunofluorescence, and calcium imaging. Our findings showed that UDCA counteracted the effects of CoCl 2 on cell viability, beating frequency, HIF-1α, and p53 protein expression. We found that these cardioprotection effects of UDCA were similar to FTY720, S1P agonist. Furthermore, we observed that UDCA protects CMs against CoCl 2 -induced [Ca 2+ ] i dynamic alteration. Pharmacological inhibition of the Gα i -sensitive receptor did not abolish the cardioprotection of UDCA against CoCl 2 detrimental effects, except for cell viability and [Ca 2+ ] i . Pertussis toxin is partially effective in inhibiting UDCA protection against CoCl 2 effects on CM cell viability. Interestingly, PTX fully inhibits UDCA cardioprotection on CoCl 2 -induced [Ca 2+ ] i dynamic changes. We conclude that UDCA cardioprotection against CoCl 2 -induced hypoxia is similar to FTY720, and its actions are not fully mediated by the Gα i -coupled protein sensitive pathways. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the most hydrophilic bile

  10. Role of redox signaling in the autonomous proliferative response of endothelial cells to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M; Schäfer, C; Ewald, N; Piper, H M; Noll, Th

    2003-05-16

    Endothelial cells exhibit an autonomous proliferative response to hypoxia, independent of paracrine effectors. In cultured endothelial cells of porcine aorta, we analyzed the signaling of this response, with a focus on the roles of redox signaling and the MEK/ERK pathway. Transient hypoxia (1 hour) stimulated proliferation by 61+/-4% (n=16; P<0.05 versus control), quantified after 24 hours normoxic postincubation. Hypoxia induced an activation of ERK2 and of NAD(P)H oxidase and a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined by DCF fluorescence. To inhibit the MEK/ERK pathway, we used PD 98059 (PD, 20 micromol/L); to downregulate NAD(P)H oxidase, we applied p22phox antisense oligonucleotides; and to inhibit mitochondrial ROS generation, we used the ubiquinone derivate mitoQ (MQ, 10 micromol/L). All three inhibitions suppressed the proliferative response: PD inhibited NAD(P)H oxidase activation; p22phox antisense transfection did not inhibit ERK2 activation, but suppressed ROS production; and MQ inhibited ERK2 activation and ROS production. The autonomous proliferative response depends on the MEK/ERK pathway and redox signaling steps upstream and downstream of ERK. Located upstream is ROS generation by mitochondria, downstream is NAD(P)H oxidase.

  11. Tyrosine kinase receptor EGFR regulates the switch in cancer cells between cell survival and cell death induced by autophagy in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongqiang; Henson, Elizabeth S; Xiao, Wenyan; Huang, Daniel; McMillan-Ward, Eileen M; Israels, Sara J; Gibson, Spencer B

    2016-06-02

    Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal degradation pathway where its primary function is to allow cells to survive under stressful conditions. Autophagy is, however, a double-edge sword that can either promote cell survival or cell death. In cancer, hypoxic regions contribute to poor prognosis due to the ability of cancer cells to adapt to hypoxia in part through autophagy. In contrast, autophagy could contribute to hypoxia induced cell death in cancer cells. In this study, we showed that autophagy increased during hypoxia. At 4 h of hypoxia, autophagy promoted cell survival whereas, after 48 h of hypoxia, autophagy increased cell death. Furthermore, we found that the tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) decreased after 16 h in hypoxia. Furthermore, EGFR binding to BECN1 in hypoxia was significantly higher at 4 h compared to 72 h. Knocking down or inhibiting EGFR resulted in an increase in autophagy contributing to increased cell death under hypoxia. In contrast, when EGFR was reactivated by the addition of EGF, the level of autophagy was reduced which led to decreased cell death. Hypoxia led to autophagic degradation of the lipid raft protein CAV1 (caveolin 1) that is known to bind and activate EGFR in a ligand-independent manner during hypoxia. By knocking down CAV1, the amount of EGFR phosphorylation was decreased in hypoxia and amount of autophagy and cell death increased. This indicates that the activation of EGFR plays a critical role in the switch between cell survival and cell death induced by autophagy in hypoxia.

  12. Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α promotes myogenesis through the noncanonical Wnt pathway, leading to hypertrophic myotubes.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Federica; Resmini, Giulia; Ghiroldi, Andrea; Piccoli, Marco; Bergante, Sonia; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    Regeneration of skeletal muscle is a complex process that requires the activation of quiescent adult stem cells, called satellite cells, which are resident in hypoxic niches in the tissue. Hypoxia has been recognized as a key factor to maintain stem cells in an undifferentiated state. Herein we report that hypoxia plays a fundamental role also in activating myogenesis. In particular, we found that the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α under hypoxia, in murine skeletal myoblasts, leads to activation of MyoD through the noncanonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Moreover, chemical inhibition of HIF-1α activity significantly reduces differentiation, thus confirming its crucial role in the process. Furthermore, hypoxia-preconditioned myoblasts, once induced to differentiate under normoxic conditions, tend to form hypertrophic myotubes. These results support the notion that hypoxia plays a pivotal role in activating the regeneration process by directly inducing myogenesis through HIF-1α. Although preliminary, these findings may suggest new perspective for novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of several muscle diseases.-Cirillo, F., Resmini, G., Ghiroldi, A., Piccoli, M., Bergante, S., Tettamanti, G., Anastasia, L. Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α promotes myogenesis through the noncanonical Wnt pathway, leading to hypertrophic myotubes. © FASEB.

  13. Hypoxia-induced ANGPTL4 sustains tumour growth and anoikis resistance through different mechanisms in scirrhous gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Baba, Koichi; Kitajima, Yoshihiko; Miyake, Shuusuke; Nakamura, Jun; Wakiyama, Kota; Sato, Hirofumi; Okuyama, Keiichiro; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2017-09-11

    Patients with scirrhous gastric cancer (SGC) frequently develop peritoneal dissemination, which leads to poor prognosis. The secreted protein angiopoietin-like-4 (ANGPTL4), which is induced by hypoxia, exerts diverse effects on cancer progression. Here, we aimed to determine the biological function of ANGPTL4 in SGC cells under hypoxia. ANGPTL4 levels were higher in SGC cells under hypoxia than in other types of gastric cancer cells. Hypoxia-induced ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Under hypoxic conditions, monolayer cultures of ANGPTL4 knockdown (KD) 58As9 SGC (58As9-KD) cells were arrested in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle through downregulation of c-Myc and upregulation of p27, in contrast to control 58As9-SC cells. Moreover, the ability of 58As9-KD xenografts to form tumours in nude mice was strongly suppressed. When 58As9-KD cells were cultured in suspension, hypoxia strongly increased their susceptibility to anoikis through suppression of the FAK/Src/PI3K-Akt/ERK pro-survival pathway, followed by activation of the apoptotic factors caspases-3, -8 and -9. The development of peritoneal dissemination by 58As9-KD cells was completely inhibited compared with that by 58As9-SC cells. In conclusion, ANGPTL4 is uniquely induced by hypoxia in cultured SGC cells and is essential for tumour growth and resistance to anoikis through different mechanisms.

  14. Hypoxia signaling – license to metastasize

    PubMed Central

    Vanharanta, Sakari; Massagué, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) have long been linked to malignant tumor phenotypes in various cancer types, and several downstream mediators of HIF action have been identified in metastatic carcinomas. A new study links hypoxia-induced collagen remodeling to sarcoma progression, providing evidence for unifying mechanisms of carcinoma and sarcoma metastasis. PMID:24124230

  15. Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Påhlman, Sven; Mohlin, Sofie

    2018-05-01

    Hypoxia (i.e., low oxygen levels) is a known feature of aggressive tumors. Cells, including tumor cells, respond to conditions of insufficient oxygen by activating a transcriptional program mainly driven by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1 and HIF-2. Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression levels have been shown to correlate to patient outcome in various tumor forms and in neuroblastoma, a solid childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, in particular, HIF-2α marks a subpopulation of immature neural crest-like perivascularly located cells and associates with aggressive disease and distant metastasis. It has for long been recognized that the HIF-α subunits are oxygen-dependently regulated at the post-translational level, via ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Evidence of oxygen-independent mechanisms of regulation, transcriptional control of EPAS1/HIF2A and possible cytoplasmic activities of HIF-2α has also emerged during recent years. In this review, we discuss these non-conventional actions of HIF-2α, its putative role as a therapeutic target and the constraints it carries, as well as the importance of HIF-2 activity in a vascularized setting, the so-called pseudo-hypoxic state.

  16. Estrogen suppresses breast cancer proliferation through GPER / p38 MAPK axis during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sathya, S; Sudhagar, S; Lakshmi, B S

    2015-12-05

    Breast cancer cells frequently experience hypoxia which is associated with resistance to hormonal therapy and poor clinical prognosis, making it important to understand the function of estrogen under hypoxic condition. Here, we demonstrate that estrogen suppresses breast cancer cell growth under hypoxia, through inhibition at G1/S phase of cell cycle, by elevation of p21 expression. The involvement of GPER in estrogen mediated growth arrest was elucidated using specific ligands and siRNA. Although, estrogen was observed to activate both p44/42 and p38 MAPK signaling, pharmacological inhibition and silencing of p38 MAPK abrogated the induction of p21 expression and growth arrest, during hypoxia. The involvement of estrogen induced ROS in the p38 MAPK mediated p21 expression and cell growth arrest was established by observing that scavenging of ROS by NAC abrogated p38 MAPK activation and p21 expression during hypoxia. In conclusion, Estrogen suppresses breast cancer growth by inhibiting G1/S phase transition through GPER/ROS/p38 MAPK/p21 mediated signaling during hypoxic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer cell-associated cytoplasmic B7–H4 is induced by hypoxia through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and promotes cancer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, You-Kyoung; Advanced Research Center for Multiple Myeloma, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735; Park, Sae-Gwang

    2015-04-03

    Aberrant B7–H4 expression in cancer tissues serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for poor survival in patients with cancer. However, the factor(s) that induce cancer cell-associated B7–H4 remain to be fully elucidated. We herein demonstrate that hypoxia upregulates B7–H4 transcription in primary CD138{sup +} multiple myeloma cells and cancer cell lines. In support of this finding, analysis of the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal (MMGP) data set revealed a positive correlation between the mRNA expression levels of B7–H4 and the endogenous hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrogenase 9. Hypoxia-induced B7–H4 expression was detected in the cytoplasm, but not in cancer cell membranes. Chromatinmore » immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated binding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) to proximal hypoxia-response element (HRE) sites within the B7–H4 promoter. Knockdown of HIF-1α and pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α diminished B7–H4 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of cytoplasmic B7–H4 in MCF-7 decreased the S-phase cell population under hypoxia. Finally, MMGP analysis revealed a positive correlation between the transcript levels of B7–H4 and proliferation-related genes including MKI67, CCNA1, and Myc in several patients with multiple myeloma. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms underlying B7–H4 upregulation and its role in cancer cell proliferation in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment. - Highlights: • Hypoxia upregulates B7–H4 transcription and protein expression. • Hypoxia-induced B7–H4 is detected in the cytoplasm, but not on membrane. • ChIP assay reveals a binding of HIF-1α to B7–H4 promoter at HRE site. • Knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α reduce B7–H4 expression. • B7–H4 knockdown decrease the number of cells in S-phase of cell cycle.« less

  18. Novel Roles for Hypoxia and Prostaglandin E2 in the Regulation of IL-8 During Endometrial Repair

    PubMed Central

    Maybin, Jacqueline A.; Hirani, Nikhil; Jabbour, Henry N.; Critchley, Hilary O.D.

    2011-01-01

    The endometrium has a remarkable capacity for efficient repair; however, factors involved remain undefined. Premenstrual progesterone withdrawal leads to increased prostaglandin (PG) production and local hypoxia. Here we determined human endometrial expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and the roles of PGE2 and hypoxia in its regulation. Endometrial biopsy specimens (n = 51) were collected. Endometrial cells and explants were exposed to 100 nmol/L of PGE2 or 0.5% O2. The endometrial IL-8 concentration peaked during menstruation (P < 0.001) and had a significant proangiogenic effect. IL-8 was increased by PGE2 and hypoxia in secretory but not proliferative explants, which suggests that exposure to progesterone is essential. In vitro progesterone withdrawal induced significant IL-8 up-regulation in proliferative explants primed with progestins, but only in the presence of hypoxia. Epithelial cells treated simultaneously with PGE2 and hypoxia demonstrated synergistic increases in IL-8. Inhibition of HIF-1 by short hairpin RNA abolished hypoxic IL-8 induction, and inhibition of NF-κB by an adenoviral dominant negative inhibitor decreased PGE2-induced IL-8 expression (P > 0.05). Increased menstrual IL-8 is consistent with a role in repair. Progesterone withdrawal, hypoxia, and PGE2 regulate endometrial IL-8 by acting via HIF-1 and NF-κB. Hence, progesterone withdrawal may activate two distinct pathways to initiate endometrial repair. PMID:21356375

  19. The impact of Wnt signalling and hypoxia on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuigen; Shao, Jin; Zhou, Yinghong; Friis, Thor; Yao, Jiangwu; Shi, Bin; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Cementum is a periodontal support tissue that is directly connected to the periodontal ligament. It shares common traits with bone tissues, however, unlike bone, the cementum has a limited capacity for regeneration. As a result, following damage the cementum rarely, if ever, regenerates. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) are able to differentiate into osteoblastic and cementogenic lineages according to specific local environmental conditions, including hypoxia, which is induced by inflammation or activation of the Wnt signalling pathway by local loading. The interactions between the Wnt signalling pathway and hypoxia during cementogenesis are of particular interest to improve the understanding of periodontal tissue regeneration. In the present study, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of PDLCs was investigated under hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of Wnt pathway activation. Protein and gene expression of the osteogenic markers type 1 collagen (COL1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) were used as markers for osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation, respectively. Wnt signalling activation inhibited cementogenesis, whereas hypoxia alone did not affect PDLC differentiation. However, hypoxia reversed the inhibition of cementogenesis that resulted from overexpression of Wnt signalling. Cross-talk between hypoxia and Wnt signalling pathways was, therefore, demonstrated to be involved in the differentiation of PDLCs to the osteogenic and cementogenic lineages. In summary, the present study suggests that the differentiation of PDLCs into osteogenic and cementogenic lineages is partially regulated by the Wnt signalling pathway and that hypoxia is also involved in this process. PMID:27840938

  20. Arabidopsis CML38, a Calcium Sensor That Localizes to Ribonucleoprotein Complexes under Hypoxia Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Carlee; Li, Tian

    2016-01-01

    During waterlogging and the associated oxygen deprivation stress, plants respond by the induction of adaptive programs, including the redirected expression of gene networks toward the synthesis of core hypoxia-response proteins. Among these core response proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is the calcium sensor CML38, a protein related to regulator of gene silencing calmodulin-like proteins (rgsCaMs). CML38 transcripts are up-regulated more than 300-fold in roots within 6 h of hypoxia treatment. Transfer DNA insertional mutants of CML38 show an enhanced sensitivity to hypoxia stress, with lowered survival and more severe inhibition of root and shoot growth. By using yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) translational fusions, CML38 protein was found to be localized to cytosolic granule structures similar in morphology to hypoxia-induced stress granules. Immunoprecipitation of CML38 from the roots of hypoxia-challenged transgenic plants harboring CML38pro::CML38:YFP followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of protein targets associated with messenger RNA ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes including stress granules, which are known to accumulate as messenger RNA storage and triage centers during hypoxia. This finding is further supported by the colocalization of CML38 with the mRNP stress granule marker RNA Binding Protein 47 (RBP47) upon cotransfection of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Ruthenium Red treatment results in the loss of CML38 signal in cytosolic granules, suggesting that calcium is necessary for stress granule association. These results confirm that CML38 is a core hypoxia response calcium sensor protein and suggest that it serves as a potential calcium signaling target within stress granules and other mRNPs that accumulate during flooding stress responses. PMID:26634999

  1. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Exposure Reduces Hypoxia and Inflammation Damage in Neuron-Like and Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Ravani, Annalisa; Pasquini, Silvia; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Setti, Stefania; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of low-frequency, low-energy pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been investigated by using different cell lines derived from neuron-like cells and microglial cells. In particular, the primary aim was to evaluate the effect of PEMF exposure in inflammation- and hypoxia-induced injury in two different neuronal cell models, the human neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells and rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in N9 microglial cells. In neuron-like cells, live/dead and apoptosis assays were performed in hypoxia conditions from 2 to 48 h. Interestingly, PEMF exposure counteracted hypoxia damage significantly reducing cell death and apoptosis. In the same cell lines, PEMFs inhibited the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), the master transcriptional regulator of cellular response to hypoxia. The effect of PEMF exposure on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both neuron-like and microglial cells was investigated considering their key role in ischemic injury. PEMFs significantly decreased hypoxia-induced ROS generation in PC12, SH-SY5Y, and N9 cells after 24 or 48 h of incubation. Moreover, PEMFs were able to reduce some of the most well-known pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 release in N9 microglial cells stimulated with different concentrations of LPS for 24 or 48 h of incubation time. These results show a protective effect of PEMFs on hypoxia damage in neuron-like cells and an anti-inflammatory effect in microglial cells suggesting that PEMFs could represent a potential therapeutic approach in cerebral ischemic conditions. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1200-1208, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Xanthine oxidase and the fetal cardiovascular defence to hypoxia in late gestation ovine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Andrew D; Hansell, Jeremy A; Herrera, Emilio A; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Brain, Kirsty L; Kaandorp, Joepe J; Derks, Jan B; Giussani, Dino A

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common challenge to the fetus, promoting a physiological defence to redistribute blood flow towards the brain and away from peripheral circulations. During acute hypoxia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) interact with nitric oxide (NO) to provide an oxidant tone. This contributes to the mechanisms redistributing the fetal cardiac output, although the source of ROS is unknown. Here, we investigated whether ROS derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) contribute to the fetal peripheral vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia via interaction with NO-dependent mechanisms. Pregnant ewes and their fetuses were surgically prepared for long-term recording at 118 days of gestation (term approximately 145 days). After 5 days of recovery, mothers were infused i.v. for 30 min with either vehicle (n = 11), low dose (30 mg kg−1, n = 5) or high dose (150 mg kg−1, n = 9) allopurinol, or high dose allopurinol with fetal NO blockade (n = 6). Following allopurinol treatment, fetal hypoxia was induced by reducing maternal inspired O2 such that fetal basal decreased approximately by 50% for 30 min. Allopurinol inhibited the increase in fetal plasma uric acid and suppressed the fetal femoral vasoconstrictor, glycaemic and lactate acidaemic responses during hypoxia (all P < 0.05), effects that were restored to control levels with fetal NO blockade. The data provide evidence for the activation of fetal XO in vivo during hypoxia and for XO-derived ROS in contributing to the fetal peripheral vasoconstriction, part of the fetal defence to hypoxia. The data are of significance to the understanding of the physiological control of the fetal cardiovascular system during hypoxic stress. The findings are also of clinical relevance in the context of obstetric trials in which allopurinol is being administered to pregnant women when the fetus shows signs of hypoxic distress. PMID:24247986

  3. Protective role of somatostatin receptor 2 against retinal degeneration in response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Dal Monte, Massimo; Latina, Valentina; Cupisti, Elena; Bagnoli, Paola

    2012-05-01

    In mouse retinal explants, octreotide, a somatostatin [somatotropin release-inhibiting factor (SRIF)] receptor 2 (sst(2)) agonist, prevents the hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor upregulation. In mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), a model of retinopathy of prematurity, either sst(2) overexpression or octreotide have been found to limit hypoxia-induced angiogenic processes. Here, we investigated whether sst(2) influences retinal degeneration in response to hypoxia in wild-type (WT), sst(1)- and sst(2)-knockout (KO) mice. In retinal explants, we determined the role of sst(2) on apoptotic signals. In control condition, caspase-3 activity and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were lower in sst(1)-KO than in WT, but higher in sst(2)-KO than in WT retinas. In all strains, a comparable increase in caspase-3 activity and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was observed after hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced increase in apoptotic signals was recovered by octreotide in both WT and sst(1)-KO retinas. To investigate the role of sst(2) on retinal function, we recorded electroretinogram (ERG) in response to light flashes in OIR mice. ERG responses did not differ between WT and KO mice with the exception of oscillatory potentials (OPs) which, in sst(1)-KO mice, displayed much larger amplitude. In all strains, hypoxia drastically reduced a-, b-waves and OPs. In both WT and sst(1)-KO mice, octreotide recovered a- and b-waves, but did not recover OPs in sst(1)-KO mice. Neither apoptotic signals nor ERG was affected by octreotide in sst(2)-KO mice. These results show that sst(2) may protect retinal cells from hypoxia, thus implementing the background to establish potential pharmacological targets based on sst(2) pharmacology.

  4. Down-regulation of MutS homolog 3 by hypoxia in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Koike, Junichi; Kugoh, Hiroyuki; Arita, Michitsune; Ohhira, Takahito; Kikuchi, Yoshinori; Funahashi, Kimihiko; Takamatsu, Ken; Boland, C. Richard; Koi, Minoru; Hemmi, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    Down-regulation of hMSH3 is associated with elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats and low levels of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism that down-regulates hMSH3 in CRC is not known. In this study, a significant association between over-expression of glucose transporter 1, a marker for hypoxia, and down-regulation of hMSH3 in CRC tissues was observed. Therefore, we examined the effect of hypoxia on the expression of hMSH3 in human cell lines. When cells with wild type p53 (wt-p53) were exposed to hypoxia, rapid down-regulation of both hMSH2 and hMSH3 occurred. In contrast, when null or mutated p53 (null/mut-p53) cells were exposed to hypoxia, only hMSH3 was down-regulated, and at slower rate than wt-p53 cells. Using a reporter assay, we found that disruption of the two putative hypoxia response elements (HREs) located within the promoter region of the hMSH3 abrogated the suppressive effect of hypoxia on reporter activity regardless of p53 status. In an EMSA, two different forms of HIF-1α complexes that specifically bind to these HREs were detected. A larger complex containing HIF-1α predominantly bound to the HREs in hypoxic null/mut-p53 cells whereas a smaller complex predominated in wt-p53 cells. Finally, HIF-1α knockdown by siRNA significantly inhibited down-regulation of hMSH3 by hypoxia in both wt-p53 and mut-p53 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the binding of HIF-1α complexes to HRE sites is necessary for down-regulation of hMSH3 in both wt-p53 and mut-p53 cells. PMID:22343000

  5. NFAT5 Is Activated by Hypoxia: Role in Ischemia and Reperfusion in the Rat Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Sandra; Suazo, Cristian; Santapau, Daniela; Pérez, Francisco; Quiroz, Mariana; Carreño, Juan E.; Illanes, Sebastián; Lavandero, Sergio; Michea, Luis; Irarrazabal, Carlos E.

    2012-01-01

    The current hypothesis postulates that NFAT5 activation in the kidney's inner medulla is due to hypertonicity, resulting in cell protection. Additionally, the renal medulla is hypoxic (10–18 mmHg); however there is no information about the effect of hypoxia on NFAT5. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we evaluated the effect of reducing the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) on NFAT5 activity. We found that 1) Anoxia increased NFAT5 expression and nuclear translocation in primary cultures of IMCD cells from rat kidney. 2) Anoxia increased transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of NFAT5 in HEK293 cells. 3) The dose-response curve demonstrated that HIF-1α peaked at 2.5% and NFAT5 at 1% of O2. 4) At 2.5% of O2, the time-course curve of hypoxia demonstrated earlier induction of HIF-1α gene expression than NFAT5. 5) siRNA knockdown of NFAT5 increased the hypoxia-induced cell death. 6) siRNA knockdown of HIF-1α did not affect the NFAT5 induction by hypoxia. Additionally, HIF-1α was still induced by hypoxia even when NFAT5 was knocked down. 7) NFAT5 and HIF-1α expression were increased in kidney (cortex and medulla) from rats subjected to an experimental model of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). 7) Experimental I/R increased the NFAT5-target gene aldose reductase (AR). 8) NFAT5 activators (ATM and PI3K) were induced in vitro (HEK293 cells) and in vivo (I/R kidneys) with the same timing of NFAT5. 8) Wortmannin, which inhibits ATM and PI3K, reduces hypoxia-induced NFAT5 transcriptional activation in HEK293 cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that NFAT5 is induced by hypoxia and could be a protective factor against ischemic damage. PMID:22768306

  6. Moderate hypoxia influences excitability and blocks dendrotoxin sensitive K+ currents in rat primary sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, Marco; Ettorre, Giovanni; Stehr, Annette Jana; Henrich, Michael; Hempelmann, Gunter; Scholz, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia alters neuronal function and can lead to neuronal injury or death especially in the central nervous system. But little is known about the effects of hypoxia in neurones of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which survive longer hypoxic periods. Additionally, people have experienced unpleasant sensations during ischemia which are dedicated to changes in conduction properties or changes in excitability in the PNS. However, the underlying ionic conductances in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones have not been investigated in detail. Therefore we investigated the influence of moderate hypoxia (27.0 ± 1.5 mmHg) on action potentials, excitability and ionic conductances of small neurones in a slice preparation of DRGs of young rats. The neurones responded within a few minutes non-uniformly to moderate hypoxia: changes of excitability could be assigned to decreased outward currents in most of the neurones (77%) whereas a smaller group (23%) displayed increased outward currents in Ringer solution. We were able to attribute most of the reduction in outward-current to a voltage-gated K+ current which activated at potentials positive to -50 mV and was sensitive to 50 nM α-dendrotoxin (DTX). Other toxins that inhibit subtypes of voltage gated K+ channels, such as margatoxin (MgTX), dendrotoxin-K (DTX-K), r-tityustoxin Kα (TsTX-K) and r-agitoxin (AgTX-2) failed to prevent the hypoxia induced reduction. Therefore we could not assign the hypoxia sensitive K+ current to one homomeric KV channel type in sensory neurones. Functionally this K+ current blockade might underlie the increased action potential (AP) duration in these neurones. Altogether these results, might explain the functional impairment of peripheral neurones under moderate hypoxia. PMID:16579848

  7. Impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adult male and female rats following neonatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lumbroso, Delphine; Joseph, Vincent

    2009-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to hypoxia alters acclimatization to chronic hypoxia later in life. Rat pups were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (12% O(2); nHx group) in a sealed chamber, or to normoxia (21% O(2); nNx group) from the day before birth to postnatal day 10. The animals were then raised in normal conditions until reaching 12 wk of age. At this age, we assessed ventilatory and hematological acclimatization to chronic hypoxia by exposing male and female nHx and nNx rats for 2 wk to 10% O(2). Minute ventilation, metabolic rate, hypoxic ventilatory response, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were measured both before and after acclimatization. We also quantified right ventricular hypertrophy as an index of pulmonary hypertension both before and after acclimatization. There was a significant effect of neonatal hypoxia that decreases ventilatory response (relative to metabolic rate, VE/VCO(2)) to acute hypoxia before acclimatization in males but not in females. nHx rats had an impaired acclimatization to chronic hypoxia characterized by altered respiratory pattern and elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels after acclimatization, in both males and females. Right ventricular hypertrophy was present before and after acclimatization in nHx rats, indicating that neonatal hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension in adults. We conclude that neonatal hypoxia impairs acclimatization to chronic hypoxia in adults and may be a factor contributing to the establishment of chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude.

  8. Pyruvate induces transient tumor hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of a hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

    PubMed

    Takakusagi, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Matsuo, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; DeGraff, William; Kesarwala, Aparna H; Choudhuri, Rajani; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Munasinghe, Jeeva P; Gillies, Robert J; Mitchell, James B; Hart, Charles P; Krishna, Murali C

    2014-01-01

    TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP) of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2), with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2). Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500-1500 mm(3). Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (∼ 550 mm(3)), significantly delayed tumor growth. Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the appropriate tumor size and oxygen concentration.

  9. Hypoxia-induced endothelial NO synthase gene transcriptional activation is mediated through the tax-responsive element in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Jiho; Jin, Yoon-Mi; Moon, Je-Sung; Sung, Min-Sun; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Jo, Inho

    2006-06-01

    Although hypoxia is known to induce upregulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene expression, the underlying mechanism is largely unclear. In this study, we show that hypoxia increases eNOS gene expression through the binding of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein (pCREB) to the eNOS gene promoter. Hypoxia (1% O2) increased both eNOS expression and NO production, peaking at 24 hours, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, and these increases were accompanied by increases in pCREB. Treatment with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 or transfection with dominant-negative inhibitor of CREB reversed the hypoxia-induced increases in eNOS expression and NO production, with concomitant inhibition of the phosphorylation of CREB induced by hypoxia, suggesting an involvement of protein kinase A/pCREB-mediated pathway. To map the regulatory elements of the eNOS gene responsible for pCREB binding under hypoxia, we constructed an eNOS gene promoter (-1600 to +22 nucleotides) fused with a luciferase reporter gene [pGL2-eNOS(-1600)]. Hypoxia (for 24-hour incubation) increased the promoter activity by 2.36+/-0.18-fold in the bovine aortic endothelial cells transfected with pGL2-eNOS(-1600). However, progressive 5'-deletion from -1600 to -873 completely attenuated the hypoxia-induced increase in promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift, anti-pCREB antibody supershift, and site-specific mutation analyses showed that pCREB is bound to the Tax-responsive element (TRE) site, a cAMP-responsive element-like site, located at -924 to -921 of the eNOS promoter. Our data demonstrate that the interaction between pCREB and the Tax-responsive element site within the eNOS promoter may represent a novel mechanism for the mediation of hypoxia-stimulated eNOS gene expression.

  10. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces atherosclerosis via activation of adipose angiopoietin-like 4.

    PubMed

    Drager, Luciano F; Yao, Qiaoling; Hernandez, Karen L; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Gay, Jason; Sussan, Thomas E; Jun, Jonathan C; Myers, Allen C; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Schwartz, Alan R; Halberg, Nils; Scherer, Philipp E; Semenza, Gregg L; Powell, David R; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2013-07-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a risk factor for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis, which have been attributed to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Intermittent hypoxia inhibits a key enzyme of lipoprotein clearance, lipoprotein lipase, and up-regulates a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4), in adipose tissue. The effects and mechanisms of Angptl4 up-regulation in sleep apnea are unknown. To examine whether CIH induces dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis by increasing adipose Angptl4 via hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). ApoE(-/-) mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia or air for 4 weeks while being treated with Angptl4-neutralizing antibody or vehicle. In vehicle-treated mice, hypoxia increased adipose Angptl4 levels, inhibited adipose lipoprotein lipase, increased fasting levels of plasma triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased the size of atherosclerotic plaques. The effects of CIH were abolished by the antibody. Hypoxia-induced increases in plasma fasting triglycerides and adipose Angptl4 were not observed in mice with germline heterozygosity for a HIF-1α knockout allele. Transgenic overexpression of HIF-1α in adipose tissue led to dyslipidemia and increased levels of adipose Angptl4. In cultured adipocytes, constitutive expression of HIF-1α increased Angptl4 levels, which was abolished by siRNA. Finally, in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the severity of nocturnal hypoxemia predicted Angptl4 levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue. HIF-1-mediated increase in adipose Angptl4 and the ensuing lipoprotein lipase inactivation may contribute to atherosclerosis in patients with sleep apnea.

  11. Does inducible NOS have a protective role against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in rat heart?

    PubMed

    Rus, Alma; del Moral, Maria Luisa; Molina, Francisco; Peinado, Maria Angeles

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzes the role of the nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) under cardiac hypoxia/reoxygenation situations. For this, we have designed a follow-up study of different parameters of cell and tissue damage in the heart of Wistar rats submitted for 30 min to acute hypobaric hypoxia, with or without prior treatment with the selective iNOS inhibitor N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl) acetamidine or 1400W (10 mg/kg). The rats were studied at 0 h, 12 h, and 5 days of reoxygenation, analyzing NO production (NOx), lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and protein nitration expression and location. This is the first time-course study which analyzes the effects of the iNOS inhibition by 1400W during hypoxia/reoxygenation in the adult rat heart. The results show that when 1400W was administered before the hypoxic episode, NOx levels fell, while both the lipid peroxidation level and the percentage of apoptotic cells rose throughout the reoxygenation period. Levels of nitrated proteins expression fell only at 12 h post-hypoxia. The inhibition of iNOS raises the peroxidative and apoptotic level in the hypoxic heart indicating that this isoform may have a protective effect on this organ against hypoxia/reoxygenation injuries, and challenging the conventional wisdom that iNOS is deleterious under these conditions. These findings could help in the design of new treatments based on NO pharmacology against hypoxia/reoxygenation dysfunctions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypoxia sensitivity of a voltage-gated potassium current in porcine intrapulmonary vein smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dospinescu, Ciprian; Widmer, Hélène; Rowe, Iain; Wainwright, Cherry; Cruickshank, Stuart F

    2012-09-01

    Hypoxia contracts the pulmonary vein, but the underlying cellular effectors remain unclear. Utilizing contractile studies and whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we report for the first time a hypoxia-sensitive K(+) current in porcine pulmonary vein smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). Hypoxia induced a transient contractile response that was 56 ± 7% of the control response (80 mM KCl). This contraction required extracellular Ca(2+) and was sensitive to Ca(2+) channel blockade. Blockade of K(+) channels by tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) reversibly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated contraction. Single-isolated PVSMC (typically 159.1 ± 2.3 μm long) had mean resting membrane potentials (RMP) of -36 ± 4 mV with a mean membrane capacitance of 108 ± 3.5 pF. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings identified a rapidly activating, partially inactivating K(+) current (I(KH)) that was hypoxia, TEA, and 4-AP sensitive. I(KH) was insensitive to Penitrem A or glyburide in PVSMC and had a time to peak of 14.4 ± 3.3 ms and recovered in 67 ms following inactivation at +80 mV. Peak window current was -32 mV, suggesting that I(KH) may contribute to PVSMC RMP. The molecular identity of the potassium channel is not clear. However, RT-PCR, using porcine pulmonary artery and vein samples, identified Kv(1.5), Kv(2.1), and BK, with all three being more abundant in the PV. Both artery and vein expressed STREX, a highly conserved and hypoxia-sensitive BK channel variant. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that hypoxic inhibition of I(KH) would contribute to hypoxic-induced contraction in PVSMC.

  13. Hypoxia-Induced Mitogenic Factor Promotes Cardiac Hypertrophy via Calcium-Dependent and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Wang, Gang; Liu, Wenjuan; Ding, Wenwen; Dong, Ming; Zheng, Na; Ye, Hongyu; Liu, Jie

    2018-06-11

    HIMF (hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor/found in inflammatory zone 1/resistin like α) is a secretory and cytokine-like protein and serves as a critical stimulator of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. With a role for HIMF in heart disease unknown, we explored the possible roles for HIMF in cardiac hypertrophy by overexpressing and knocking down HIMF in cardiomyocytes and characterizing HIMF gene ( himf ) knockout mice. We found that HIMF mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in phenylephrine-stimulated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and our mouse model of transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy, as well as in human hearts with dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, HIMF overexpression could induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as characterized by elevated protein expression of hypertrophic biomarkers (ANP [atrial natriuretic peptide] and β-MHC [myosin heavy chain-β]) and increased cell-surface area compared with controls. Conversely, HIMF knockdown prevented phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and himf ablation in knockout mice significantly attenuated transverse aortic constriction-induced hypertrophic remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. HIMF overexpression increased the cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration and activated the CaN-NFAT (calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cell) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways; this effect could be prevented by reducing cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration with L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker nifedipine or inhibiting the CaSR (Ca 2+ sensing receptor) with Calhex 231. Furthermore, HIMF overexpression increased HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor) expression in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and HIMF knockout inhibited HIF-1α upregulation in transverse aortic constriction mice. Knockdown of HIF-1α attenuated HIMF-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In conclusion, HIMF has a critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, and targeting HIMF may represent a potential therapeutic

  14. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF A NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARY TO HYPOXIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bottom water hypoxia is a common adverse consequence of nutrient enrichment in estuaries and coastal waters. To protect against hypoxia, it is helpful to know which waters are most susceptible to hypoxia. Hypoxia has been observed regularly in Pensacola Bay, a northeastern Gulf o...

  15. Hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression in endothelial cells via p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cui-Li, E-mail: zhangcuili@hotmail.com; Song, Fei; Zhang, Jing

    Angiogenesis and apoptosis are reciprocal processes in endothelial cells. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, has been found to have angiogenic activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of Bcl-2 in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were exposed to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion mouse model was used and Bcl-2 expression was assessed. Bcl-2 expression increased in a time-dependent manner in response to hypoxia from 2 to 72 h. Peak expression occurred at 12 h (3- to 4-fold, p < 0.05). p38 inhibitor (SB203580)more » blocked hypoxia-induced Bcl-2 expression, whereas PKC, ERK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors did not. Knockdown of Bcl-2 resulted in decreased HAECs' proliferation and migration. Over-expression of Bcl-2 increased HAECs' tubule formation, whereas knockdown of Bcl-2 inhibited this process. In this model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, Bcl-2 expression was increased and was associated with increased p38 MAPK activation. Our results showed that hypoxia induces Bcl-2 expression in HAECs via p38 MAPK pathway.« less

  16. Functional interaction between responses to lactic acidosis and hypoxia regulates genomic transcriptional outputs

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaohu; Lucas, Joseph E.; Chen, Julia Ling-Yu; LaMonte, Gregory; Wu, Jianli; Wang, Michael Changsheng; Koumenis, Constantinos; Chi, Jen-Tsan

    2011-01-01

    Within solid tumor microenvironments, lactic acidosis and hypoxia each have powerful effects on cancer pathophysiology. However, the influence that these processes exert on each other is unknown. Here we report that a significant portion of the transcriptional response to hypoxia elicited in cancer cells is abolished by simultaneous exposure to lactic acidosis. In particular, lactic acidosis abolished stabilization of HIF-1α protein which occurs normally under hypoxic conditions. In contrast, lactic acidosis strongly synergized with hypoxia to activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) and an inflammatory response, displaying a strong similarity to ATF4-driven amino acid deprivation responses (AAR). In certain breast tumors and breast tumor cells examined, an integrative analysis of gene expression and array CGH data revealed DNA copy number alterations at the ATF4 locus, an important activator of the UPR/AAR pathway. In this setting, varying ATF4 levels influenced the survival of cells after exposure to hypoxia and lactic acidosis. Our findings reveal that the condition of lactic acidosis present in solid tumors inhibits canonical hypoxia responses and activates UPR and inflammation responses. Further, they suggest that ATF4 status may be a critical determinant of the ability of cancer cells to adapt to oxygen and acidity fluctuations in the tumor microenvironment, perhaps linking short-term transcriptional responses to long-term selection for copy number alterations in cancer cells. PMID:22135092

  17. GPER in CAFs regulates hypoxia-driven breast cancer invasion in a CTGF-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ren, Juan; Guo, Hui; Wu, Huili; Tian, Tao; Dong, Danfeng; Zhang, Yuelang; Sui, Yanxia; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Dongli; Wang, Shufeng; Li, Zongfang; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Liu, Rui; Qian, Jianshneg; Wei, Hongxia; Jiang, Wenjun; Liu, Ya; Li, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances indicate that cancer‑associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a key role in cancer progression by contributing to invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Solid tumors often experience low oxygen tension environments, which induce gene expression changes and biological features leading to poor outcomes. The G-protein estrogen receptor (GPER) exhibits a stimulatory role in diverse types of cancer cells and in CAFs under hypoxic conditions. We investigated the role of CAFs and hypoxia in breast cancer aggressiveness, and examined the effect of GPER in CAFs on hypoxia-driven breast cancer progression. The results showed that hypoxia upregulated HIF-1α, GPER and α-SMA expression in CAFs, and induced the secretion of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in CAFs. However, GPER silencing abrogated the above hypoxia-driven cytokine expression in CAFs. Moreover, knockdown of GPER in CAFs suppressed breast cancer cell invasion induced by CAF conditioned media (CM). Furthermore, GPER silencing in CAFs inhibited hypoxia-increased CTGF expression in CAFs and breast cancer cells cultured with CM from CAFs under hypoxic conditions. In addition, CTGF is responsible for the observed effects of GPER on CAFs activation and breast cancer invasion. Our findings further extend the molecular mechanisms through which the tumor microenvironment may contribute to cancer progression.

  18. Effect of hypoxia on lung gene expression and proteomic profile: insights into the pulmonary surfactant response

    PubMed Central

    Olmeda, Bárbara; Umstead, Todd M.; Silveyra, Patricia; Pascual, Alberto; López-Barneo, José; Phelps, David S.; Floros, Joanna; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of lung to hypoxia has been previously reported to be associated with significant alterations in the protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue. In the present work we have used a proteomic approach to describe the changes in protein complement induced by moderate long-term hypoxia (rats exposed to 10% O2 for 72 hours) in BAL and lung tissue, with a special focus on the proteins associated with pulmonary surfactant, which could indicate adaptation of this system to limited oxygen availability. The analysis of the general proteomic profile indicates a hypoxia-induced increase in proteins associated with inflammation both in lavage and lung tissue. Analysis at mRNA and protein levels revealed no significant changes induced by hypoxia on the content in surfactant proteins or their apparent oligomeric state. In contrast, we detected a hypoxia-induced significant increase in the expression and accumulation of hemoglobin in lung tissue, at both mRNA and protein levels, as well as an accumulation of hemoglobin both in BAL and associated with surface-active membranes of the pulmonary surfactant complex. Evaluation of pulmonary surfactant surface activity from hypoxic rats showed no alterations in its spreading ability, ruling out inhibition by increased levels of serum or inflammatory proteins. PMID:24576641

  19. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vorrink, Sabine U.; Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Severson, Paul L.

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degreesmore » of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O{sub 2} prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. - Highlights: • Significant crosstalk exists between AhR and HIF-1α signaling. • Hypoxia perturbs PCB 126 induced Ah

  20. Nocturnal Hypoxia and Loss of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sofia B.; Ronksley, Paul E.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Tsai, Willis H.; Manns, Braden J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Klarenbach, Scott W.; Chin, Rick; Clement, Fiona M.; Hanly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in patients with kidney disease, whether nocturnal hypoxia affects kidney function is unknown. Methods We studied all adult subjects referred for diagnostic testing of sleep apnea between July 2005 and December 31 2007 who had serial measurement of their kidney function. Nocturnal hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 90% for ≥12% of the nocturnal monitoring time. The primary outcome, accelerated loss of kidney function, was defined as a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥4 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. Results 858 participants were included and followed for a mean study period of 2.1 years. Overall 374 (44%) had nocturnal hypoxia, and 49 (5.7%) had accelerated loss of kidney function. Compared to controls without hypoxia, patients with nocturnal hypoxia had a significant increase in the adjusted risk of accelerated kidney function loss (odds ratio (OR) 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25, 6.67). Conclusion Nocturnal hypoxia was independently associated with an increased risk of accelerated kidney function loss. Further studies are required to determine whether treatment and correction of nocturnal hypoxia reduces loss of kidney function. PMID:21559506

  1. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vorrink, Sabine U; Severson, Paul L; Kulak, Mikhail V; Futscher, Bernard W; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O2 prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HIF-2α Expression Regulates Sprout Formation into 3D Fibrin Matrices in Prolonged Hypoxia in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Tessa D; Duyndam, Monique C A; Weijers, Ester M; van Hinsbergh, Victor M W; Koolwijk, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    During short-term hypoxia, Hypoxia Inducible Factors (particular their subunits HIF-1α and HIF-2α) regulate the expression of many genes including the potent angiogenesis stimulator VEGF. However, in some pathological conditions chronic hypoxia occurs and is accompanied by reduced angiogenesis. We investigated the effect of prolonged hypoxia on the proliferation and sprouting ability of human microvascular endothelial cells and the involvement of the HIFs and Dll4/Notch signaling. Human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs), cultured at 20% oxygen for 14 days and seeded on top of 3D fibrin matrices, formed sprouts when stimulated with VEGF-A/TNFα. In contrast, hMVECs precultured at 1% oxygen for 14 days were viable and proliferative, but did not form sprouts into fibrin upon VEGF-A/TNFα stimulation at 1% oxygen. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting, whereas HIF-1α or HIF-3α by si-RNA had no effect. No involvement of Dll4/Notch pathway in the inhibitory effect on endothelial sprouting by prolonged hypoxia was found. In addition, hypoxia decreased the production of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), needed for migration and invasion, without a significant effect on its inhibitor PAI-1. This was independent of HIF-2α, as si-HIF-2α did not counteract uPA reduction. Prolonged culturing of hMVECs at 1% oxygen inhibited endothelial sprouting into fibrin. Two independent mechanisms contribute. Silencing of HIF-2α with si-RNA partially restored the inhibition of endothelial sprouting pointing to a HIF-2α-dependent mechanism. In addition, reduction of uPA contributed to reduced endothelial tube formation in a fibrin matrix during prolonged hypoxia.

  3. Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Gulf of Mexico cruise, nearshore and CTD data collected by the USEPA during 2002 - 2008This dataset is associated with the following publications:Pauer , J., T. Feist, A. Anstead, P. DePetro, W. Melendez, J. Lehrter , M. Murrell , X. Zhang, and D. Ko. A modeling study examining the impact of nutrient boundaries on primary production on the Louisiana Continental Shelf. ECOLOGICAL MODELLING. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS, 328: 136-147, (2016).Feist, T., J. Pauer , W. Melendez, J. Lehrter , P. DePetro, K. Rygwelski , D. Ko, and R. Kreis. Modeling the relative importance of nutrient and carbon loads, boundary fluxes, and sediment fluxes on Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 50(16): 88713-8721, (2016).

  4. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen.

  5. Biliverdin reductase/bilirubin mediates the anti-apoptotic effect of hypoxia in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells through ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Shasha; Wang, Shuang; Biopharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081

    2013-08-01

    Inhibition of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) apoptosis induced by hypoxia plays an important role in pulmonary arterial remodeling leading to aggravate hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the mechanisms of hypoxia acting on PASMC apoptosis remain exclusive. Biliverdin reductase (BVR) has many essential biologic roles in physiological and pathological processes. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the hypoxia-induced inhibition on PASMC apoptosis is mediated by BVR. In the present work, we found BVR majorly localized in PASMCs and was up-regulated in levels of protein and mRNA by hypoxia. Then we studied the contribution of BVR to anti-apoptotic response of hypoxiamore » in PASMCs. Our results showed that siBVR, blocking generation of bilirubin, reversed the effect of hypoxia on enhancing cell survival and apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, procasepase-9, procasepase-3) expression, preventing nuclear shrinkage, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarization in starved PASMCs, which were recovered by exogenous bilirubin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of bilirubin on PASMC apoptosis under hypoxic condition was blocked by the inhibitor of ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that BVR contributes to the inhibitory process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis, which is mediated by bilirubin through ERK1/2 pathway. Highlights: • BVR expresses in PASMC and is up-regulated by hypoxia in protein and mRNA levels. • BVR/bilirubin contribute to the inhibitive process of hypoxia on PASMC apoptosis. • Bilirubin protects PASMC from apoptosis under hypoxia via ERK1/2 pathway.« less

  6. [Regulatory role of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in the changes of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cell induced by hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Liang-ming; Ming, Jia; Yang, Guang-ming; Chen, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To observe the regulatory role and mechanism of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) in the contractile changes of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) induced by hypoxia. Cells were divided into three groups: normal, hypoxia and oligomycin treated groups. VSMC and vascular endothelial cell (VEC) were co-cultured in Transwell models with the hypoxic time of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 hours respectively. The contractile response of VSMC to norepinephrine were determined by measuring the fluorescent infiltration rate in the lower chamber. The mRNA expression of HIF-1 alpha, endothelial-nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible-nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). VSMC contraction was increased at the early stage of hypoxia with the 1.53-fold increase at 0.5 hour as compared to the normal group (P<0 .01), and decreased gradually at the prolonged period of hypoxia with the drop of 30% at 6 hours as compared to the normal group (P<0.05). Oligomycin treatment significantly inhibited the increase of VSMC contraction at early stage, while improved it at late hypoxic period with the 6 hours increase of 12.8% (P<0.05). HIF-1 alpha, iNOS, COX-2 and HO-1 mRNA exhibited a time-dependent increase following hypoxia, and peaked at 6, 2, 3 and 4 hours respectively, they were increased 1.62, 3.23, 2.26 and 2.86-folds as compared with normal group (all P<0.01). iNOS, COX-2 and HO-1 mRNA expression were fluctuated in the normal range following oligomycin administration (all P>0.05). Hypoxia can elicit a biphasic changes of VSMC contraction, and HIF-1 alpha seems to play an important role in the regulation of VSMC contraction induced by hypoxia by regulating eNOS, iNOS, COX-2 and HO-1 expression.

  7. Design and Synthesis of Novel Small-molecule Inhibitors of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mooring, Suazette Reid; Jin, Hui; Devi, Narra S.; Jabbar, Adnan A.; Kaluz, Stefan; Liu, Yuan; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Wang, Binghe

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia, a reduction in partial oxygen pressure, is a salient property of solid tumors. Hypoxia drives malignant progression and metastasis in tumors and participates in tumor resistance to radio- and chemotherapies. Hypoxia activates the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors, which induce target genes that regulate adaptive biological processes such as anaerobic metabolism, cell motility and angiogenesis. Clinical evidence has demonstrated that expression of HIF-1 is strongly associated with poor patient prognosis and activation of HIF-1 contributes to malignant behavior and therapeutic resistance. Consequently, HIF-1 has become an important therapeutic target for inhibition by small molecules. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of small molecules that inhibit the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Many of these compounds exhibit inhibitory activity in the nanomolar range. Separate mechanistic studies indicate that these inhibitors do not alter HIF-1 levels, but interfere with the HIF-1α/HIF-1β/p300/CBP complex formation by interacting with p300 and CBP. PMID:22032632

  8. Influence of acute progressive hypoxia on cardiovascular variability in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Hirose, Yohsuke; Hanamoto, Hiroshi; Okada, Kenji; Boku, Aiji; Morimoto, Yoshinari; Taki, Kunitaka; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of acute progressive hypoxia on cardiovascular variability and striatal dopamine (DA) levels in conscious, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After preparation for measurement, the inspired oxygen concentration of rats was decreased to 10% within 5 min (descent stage), maintained at 10% for 10 min (fixed stage), and then elevated back to 20% over 5 min (recovery stage). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) variability at each stage was calculated to evaluate the autonomic nervous system response using the wavelet method. Striatal DA during each stage was measured using in vivo microdialysis. We found that SHR showed a more profound hemodynamic response to progressive hypoxia as compared to WKY. Cardiac parasympathetic activity in SHR was significantly inhibited by acute progressive hypoxia during all stages, as shown by the decrease in the high frequency band of HR variability (HR-HF), along with transient increase in sympathetic activity during the early hypoxic phase. This decrease in the HR-HF continued even when SBP was elevated. Striatal DA levels showed the transient similar elevation in both groups. These findings suggest that acute progressive hypoxic stress in SHR inhibits cardiac parasympathetic activity through reduction of baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, with potentially severe deleterious effects on circulation, in particular on HR and circulatory control. Furthermore, it is thought that the influence of acute progressive hypoxia on striatal DA levels is similar in SHR and WKY. PMID:18599365

  9. The dual role of autophagy under hypoxia-involvement of interaction between autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Tan, Jin; Miao, Yuyang; Lei, Ping; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Hypoxia is one of severe cellular stress and it is well known to be associated with a worse outcome since a lack of oxygen accelerates the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy, an important and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is closely related to the apoptosis caused by hypoxia. Generally autophagy blocks the induction of apoptosis and inhibits the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase which could reduce cellular injury. However, in special cases, autophagy or autophagy-relevant proteins may help to induce apoptosis, which could aggravate cell damage under hypoxia condition. In addition, the activation of apoptosis-related proteins-caspase can also degrade autophagy-related proteins, such as Atg3, Atg4, Beclin1 protein, inhibiting autophagy. Although the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis has been known for rather complex for more than a decade, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been clearly understood. This short review discusses and summarizes the dual role of autophagy and the interaction and molecular regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and apoptosis under hypoxia.

  10. Pachymic Acid Sensitizes Gastric Cancer Cells to Radiation Therapy by Upregulating Bax through Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunwei; Cai, Dingfang; Ma, Jun

    2018-05-08

    We have previously shown that pachymic acid (PA) inhibited tumorigenesis of gastric cancer (GC) cells. However, the exact mechanism underlying the radiation response of GC was still elusive. To evaluate the effects of PA treatment on radiation response of GC cell lines both in vitro and in vivo, a colony formation assay and xenograft mouse model were employed. Changes in Bax and HIF1[Formula: see text] expressions were assessed in GC cells following PA treatment. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immune-precipitation assays were carried out to investigate the regulation of Bax through HIF1[Formula: see text]. Stable HIF1[Formula: see text] knockdown was introduced into GC cells to further study the mechanism underlying PA-enhanced response to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. PA greatly enhanced the sensitivity of GC cells to radiation in vitro and in vivo, upregulated Bax expression and inhibited hypoxia. Bax expression was under hypoxia inhibition, and PA increased Bax expression through repressing HIF1[Formula: see text]. Stable HIF1[Formula: see text] overexpression in GC cells abolished the sensitizing effect of PA on GC cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo. PA functions as a radiation sensitizing compound in GC. PA treatment induces the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bax by inhibiting hypoxia/HIF1[Formula: see text], supporting the therapeutic potential of PA in radiation therapy against GC.

  11. Sustained Hypoxia Elicits Competing Spinal Mechanisms of Phrenic Motor Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Devinney, Michael J.; Nichols, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal motor plasticity. Competing mechanisms give rise to phrenic motor facilitation (pMF; a general term including pLTF) depending on the severity of hypoxia within episodes. In contrast, moderate acute sustained hypoxia (mASH) does not elicit pMF. By varying the severity of ASH and targeting competing mechanisms of pMF, we sought to illustrate why moderate AIH (mAIH) elicits pMF but mASH does not. Although mAIH elicits serotonin-dependent pLTF, mASH does not; thus, mAIH-induced pLTF is pattern sensitive. In contrast, severe AIH (sAIH) elicits pLTF through adenosine-dependent mechanisms, likely from greater extracellular adenosine accumulation. Because serotonin- and adenosine-dependent pMF interact via cross talk inhibition, we hypothesized that pMF is obscured because the competing mechanisms of pMF are balanced and offsetting during mASH. Here, we demonstrate the following: (1) blocking spinal A2A receptors with MSX-3 reveals mASH-induced pMF; and (2) sASH elicits A2A-dependent pMF. In anesthetized rats pretreated with intrathecal A2A receptor antagonist injections before mASH (PaO2 = 40–54 mmHg) or sASH (PaO2 = 25–36 mmHg), (1) mASH induced a serotonin-dependent pMF and (2) sASH induced an adenosine-dependent pMF, which was enhanced by spinal serotonin receptor inhibition. Thus, competing adenosine- and serotonin-dependent mechanisms contribute differentially to pMF depending on the pattern/severity of hypoxia. Understanding interactions between these mechanisms has clinical relevance as we develop therapies to treat severe neuromuscular disorders that compromise somatic motor behaviors, including breathing. Moreover, these results demonstrate how competing mechanisms of plasticity can give rise to pattern sensitivity in pLTF. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intermittent hypoxia elicits pattern-sensitive spinal plasticity and improves motor function after spinal injury or

  12. Intermittent hypoxia induces hyperlipidemia in lean mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Thorne, Laura N; Punjabi, Naresh M; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Schwartz, Alan R; Smith, Philip L; Marino, Rafael L; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Hubbard, Walter C; O'Donnell, Christopher P; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2005-09-30

    Obstructive sleep apnea, a syndrome leading to recurrent intermittent hypoxia (IH), has been associated previously with hypercholesterolemia, independent of underlying obesity. We examined the effects of experimentally induced IH on serum lipid levels and pathways of lipid metabolism in the absence and presence of obesity. Lean C57BL/6J mice and leptin-deficient obese C57BL/6J-Lep(ob) mice were exposed to IH for five days to determine changes in serum lipid profile, liver lipid content, and expression of key hepatic genes of lipid metabolism. In lean mice, exposure to IH increased fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, phospholipids (PLs), and triglycerides (TGs), as well as liver TG content. These changes were not observed in obese mice, which had hyperlipidemia and fatty liver at baseline. In lean mice, IH increased sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) levels in the liver, increased mRNA and protein levels of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD-1), an important gene of TG and PL biosynthesis controlled by SREBP-1, and increased monounsaturated fatty acid content in serum, which indicated augmented SCD-1 activity. In addition, in lean mice, IH decreased protein levels of scavenger receptor B1, regulating uptake of cholesterol esters and HDL by the liver. We conclude that exposure to IH for five days increases serum cholesterol and PL levels, upregulates pathways of TG and PL biosynthesis, and inhibits pathways of cholesterol uptake in the liver in the lean state but does not exacerbate the pre-existing hyperlipidemia and metabolic disturbances in leptin-deficient obesity.

  13. Irisin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis and increases glycogen synthesis via the PI3K/Akt pathway in type 2 diabetic mice and hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Yan; Shi, Chang-Xiang; Gao, Run; Sun, Hai-Jian; Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Ding, Lei; Chen, Qi; Li, Yue-Hua; Wang, Jue-Jin; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Increased glucose production and reduced hepatic glycogen storage contribute to metabolic abnormalities in diabetes. Irisin, a newly identified myokine, induces the browning of white adipose tissue, but its effects on gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of irisin on gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis in hepatocytes with insulin resistance, and its therapeutic role in type 2 diabetic mice. Insulin resistance was induced by glucosamine (GlcN) or palmitate in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. Type 2 diabetes was induced by streptozotocin/high-fat diet (STZ/HFD) in mice. In HepG2 cells, irisin ameliorated the GlcN-induced increases in glucose production, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) expression, and glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation; it prevented GlcN-induced decreases in glycogen content and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p110α subunit level, and the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B, forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FOXO1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). These effects of irisin were abolished by the inhibition of PI3K or Akt. The effects of irisin were confirmed in mouse primary hepatocytes with GlcN-induced insulin resistance and in human HepG2 cells with palmitate-induced insulin resistance. In diabetic mice, persistent subcutaneous perfusion of irisin improved the insulin sensitivity, reduced fasting blood glucose, increased GSK3 and Akt phosphorylation, glycogen content and irisin level, and suppressed GS phosphorylation and PEPCK and G6Pase expression in the liver. Irisin improves glucose homoeostasis by reducing gluconeogenesis via PI3K/Akt/FOXO1-mediated PEPCK and G6Pase down-regulation and increasing glycogenesis via PI3K/Akt/GSK3-mediated GS activation. Irisin may be regarded as a novel therapeutic strategy for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. © 2015

  14. The long noncoding RNA THRIL knockdown protects hypoxia-induced injuries of H9C2 cells through regulating miR-99a.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jingwen; Jiang, Nianxin; Li, Yansong; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Xuan

    2018-05-10

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent studies have revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in heart disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the effect and the molecular basis of THRIL on hypoxia-injured H9C2 cells. THRIL, miR-99a and Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) expression in H9C2 cells were altered by transient transfections. The cells were subjected to hypoxia for 4 h, and then the levels of THRIL, miR-99a and Brg1 were investigated. Cell viability, migration and invasion, and apoptotic cells were respectively measured by trypan blue exclusion assay, transwell migration assay and flow cytometry assay. Dual luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the interaction between miR-99a and THRIL. Furthermore, levels of apoptosis-, PI3K/AKT and mTOR pathways-related factors were measured by western blotting. Hypoxia induced an increase of THRIL but a reduction of miR-99a and Brg1. THRIL inhibition significantly attenuated hypoxia-induced cell injuries, as increased cell viability, migration and invasion, and decreased cell apoptosis. THRIL negatively regulated miR-99a expression through sponging with miR-99a binding site, and miR-99a inhibition abolished the protective effects of THRIL knockdown against hypoxia-induced injury in H9C2 cells. Furthermore, miR-99a positively regulated the expression of Brg1. Brg1 inhibition promoted hypoxia-induced cell injuries, while Brg1 overexpression alleviated hypoxia-induced cell injuries. Moreover, Brg1 overexpression activated PI3K/AKT and mTOR pathways. This study demonstrates that THRIL inhibition represents a protective effect against hypoxia-induced injuries in H9C2 cells by up-regulating miR-99a expression.

  15. Endothelial microvesicles in hypoxic hypoxia diseases.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fan; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Riping; Yu, Wenqian; Wang, Xianyu; Zhang, Liangqing

    2018-05-29

    Hypoxic hypoxia, including abnormally low partial pressure of inhaled oxygen, external respiratory dysfunction-induced respiratory hypoxia and venous blood flow into the arterial blood, is characterized by decreased arterial oxygen partial pressure, resulting in tissue oxygen deficiency. The specific characteristics include reduced arterial oxygen partial pressure and oxygen content. Hypoxic hypoxia diseases (HHDs) have attracted increased attention due to their high morbidity and mortality and mounting evidence showing that hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, coagulation, inflammation and angiogenesis play extremely important roles in the physiological and pathological processes of HHDs-related vascular endothelial injury. Interestingly, endothelial microvesicles (EMVs), which can be induced by hypoxia, hypoxia-induced oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation in HHDs, have emerged as key mediators of intercellular communication and cellular functions. EMVs shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs) reflect the degree of ECs damage, and elevated EMVs levels are present in several HHDs, including obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Furthermore, EMVs have procoagulant, proinflammatory and angiogenic functions that affect the pathological processes of HHDs. This review summarizes the emerging roles of EMVs in the diagnosis, staging, treatment and clinical prognosis of HHDs. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. The influence of chronic hypoxia upon chemoreception

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Carotid body chemoreceptors are essential for time-dependent changes in ventilatory control during chronic hypoxia. Early theories of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia focused on time-dependent changes in known ventilatory stimuli, such as small changes in arterial pH that may play a significant role in some species. However, plasticity in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of carotid body chemoreception play a major role in ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia in all species studied. Chronic hypoxia causes changes in (a) ion channels (potassium, sodium, calcium) to increase glomus cell excitability, and (b) neurotransmitters (dopamine, acetylcholine, ATP) and neuromodulators (endothelin-1) to increase carotid body afferent activity for a given PO2 and optimize O2-sensitivity. O2-sensing heme-containing molecules in the carotid body have not been studied in chronic hypoxia. Plasticity in medullary respiratory centers processing carotid body afferent input also contributes to ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. It is not known if the same mechanisms occur in patients with chronic hypoxemia from lung disease or high altitude natives. PMID:17291837

  17. Inadequate erythroid response to hypoxia in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vichinsky, E P; Pennathur-Das, R; Nickerson, B; Minor, M; Kleman, K; Higashino, S; Lubin, B

    1984-07-01

    An increase in hemoglobin concentration characterizes the normal compensatory response to chronic tissue hypoxia. We observed no such increase in 42 chronically hypoxic patients with cystic fibrosis, in whom the mean concentration was 12.6 gm/dl; one third of the patients were anemic. Compared with patients with cyanotic heart disease, patients with cystic fibrosis did not have a compensatory increase in P50 or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. Despite anemia, erythropoietin levels in patients with cystic fibrosis were not significantly different from normal control values. The growth of colony-forming units-erythroid in patients with cystic fibrosis was similar to that in control subjects, and there was no inhibition of growth with the addition of autologous serum. Erythropoietin sensitivity, determined by measuring the CFUe dose response curve, was normal in both patients and controls. Results of iron studies were consistent with iron deficiency in the majority of patients. Impaired absorption of iron was observed in six of 13 iron-deficient patients with cystic fibrosis. An inverse correlation between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and peak serum iron was obtained during the iron absorption study. Eight patients who underwent a therapeutic trial of iron demonstrated a 1.8 gm/dl rise in hemoglobin concentration. Two patients with previously documented iron malabsorption responded to parenteral iron therapy after failure to respond to oral supplementation. These studies demonstrate that patients with cystic fibrosis not only have an impaired erythroid response to hypoxia, but are frequently anemic. Their inadequate erythroid response to hypoxia results in part from disturbances in erythropoietin regulation and iron availability.

  18. Global spread of hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems during the last three centuries is caused by rising local human pressure.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Francus, Pierre; Normandeau, Alexandre; Lapointe, François; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Ojala, Antti; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The spread of hypoxia is a threat to aquatic ecosystem functions and services as well as to biodiversity. However, sparse long-term monitoring of lake ecosystems has prevented reconstruction of global hypoxia dynamics while inhibiting investigations into its causes and assessing the resilience capacity of these systems. This study compiles the onset and duration of hypoxia recorded in sediments of 365 lakes worldwide since AD 1700, showing that lacustrine hypoxia started spreading before AD 1900, 70 years prior to hypoxia in coastal zones. This study also shows that the increase of human activities and nutrient release is leading to hypoxia onset. No correlations were found with changes in precipitation or temperature. There is no evidence for a post-1980s return to well-oxygenated lacustrine conditions in industrialized countries despite the implementation of restoration programs. The apparent establishment of stable hypoxic conditions prior to AD 1900 highlights the challenges of a growing nutrient demand, accompanied by increasing global nutrient emissions of our industrialized societies, and climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Microenvironmental oxygen partial pressure in acute myeloid leukemia: Is there really a role for hypoxia?

    PubMed

    Rieger, Christina T; Fiegl, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Reduced oxygen partial pressure (pO2) has been recognized as being relevant in hematopoiesis and the pathophysiology of malignant diseases. Although hypoxic (meaning insufficient supply of oxygen) and anoxic areas are present and of pathophysiologic importance (by hypoxia-induced pathways such as HiF1α) in solid tumors, this may not be true for (malignant) hematologic cells. Hematopoiesis occurs in the stem cell niche, which is characterized, among other things, by extremely low pO2. However, in contrast to solid tumors, in this context, the low pO2 is physiological and this feature, among others, is shared by the malignant stem cell niche harboring leukemia-initiating cells. Upon differentiation, hematopoietic cells are constantly exposed to changes in pO2 as they travel throughout the human body and encounter arterial and venous blood and migrate into oxygen-carrier-free tissue with low pO2. Hematologic malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) make little difference in this respect and, whereas low oxygen is the usual environment of AML cells, recent evidence suggests no role for real hypoxia. Although there is no evidence that AML pathophysiology is related to hypoxia, leukemic blasts still show several distinct biological features when exposed to reduced pO2: they down- or upregulate membrane receptors such as CXCR4 or FLT3, activate or inhibit intracellular signaling pathways such as PI3K, and specifically secrete cytokines (IL-8). In summary, reduced pO2 should not be mistaken for hypoxia (nor should it be so called), and it does not automatically induce hypoxia-response mechanisms; therefore, a strict distinction should be made between physiologically low pO2 (physoxia) and hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms Of Hypoxia-Induced Immune Escape In Cancer And Their Regulation By Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Graham, Charles; Barsoum, Ivraym; Kim, Judy; Black, Madison; Siemens, Robert D

    2015-08-01

    The acquired ability of tumour cells to avoid destruction by immune effector mechanisms (immune escape) is important for malignant progression. Also associated with malignant progression is tumour hypoxia, which induces aggressive phenotypes such as invasion, metastasis and drug resistance in cancer cells. Our studies revealed that hypoxia contributes to escape from innate immunity by increasing tumour cell expression of the metalloproteinase ADAM10 in a manner dependent on accumulation of the alpha subunit of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α). Increased ADAM10 expression leads to shedding of the NK cell-activating ligand, MICA, from the surface of tumour cells, thereby resulting in resistance to NK cell-mediated lysis. Our more recent studies demonstrated that hypoxia, also via HIF-1α accumulation, increases the expression of the inhibitory co-stimulatory ligand PD-L1 on tumour cells. Elevated PD-L1 expression leads to escape from adaptive immunity via increased apoptosis of CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Accumulating evidence indicates that hypoxia-induced acquisition of malignant phenotypes, including immune escape, is in part due to impaired nitric oxide (NO)-mediated activation of cGMP signalling and that restoration of cGMP signalling prevents such hypoxic responses. We have shown that NO/cGMP signalling inhibits hypoxia-induced malignant phenotypes likely in part by interfering with HIF-1α accumulation via a mechanism involving calpain. These findings indicate that activation of NO/cGMP signalling may have useful applications in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor-1α are required for normal endometrial repair during menstruation.

    PubMed

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Murray, Alison A; Saunders, Philippa T K; Hirani, Nikhil; Carmeliet, Peter; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2018-01-23

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and debilitating, and often requires surgery due to hormonal side effects from medical therapies. Here we show that transient, physiological hypoxia occurs in the menstrual endometrium to stabilise hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and drive repair of the denuded surface. We report that women with HMB have decreased endometrial HIF-1α during menstruation and prolonged menstrual bleeding. In a mouse model of simulated menses, physiological endometrial hypoxia occurs during bleeding. Maintenance of mice under hyperoxia during menses decreases HIF-1α induction and delays endometrial repair. The same effects are observed upon genetic or pharmacological reduction of endometrial HIF-1α. Conversely, artificial induction of hypoxia by pharmacological stabilisation of HIF-1α rescues the delayed endometrial repair in hypoxia-deficient mice. These data reveal a role for HIF-1 in the endometrium and suggest its pharmacological stabilisation during menses offers an effective, non-hormonal treatment for women with HMB.

  2. Involvement of substance P in neutral endopeptidase modulation of carotid body sensory responses to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G K; Kou, Y R; Overholt, J L; Prabhakar, N R

    2000-01-01

    Previously, we showed that carotid bodies express neutral endopeptidase (NEP)-like enzyme activity and that phosphoramidon, a potent inhibitor of NEP, potentiates the chemosensory response of the carotid body to hypoxia in vivo. NEP has been shown to hydrolyze methionine enkephalin (Met-Enk) and substance P (SP) in neuronal tissues. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether NEP hydrolyzes Met-Enk and SP in the carotid body and if so whether these peptides contribute to phosphoramidon-induced potentiation of the sensory response to hypoxia. Experiments were performed on carotid bodies excised from anesthetized adult cats (n = 72 carotid bodies). The hydrolysis of Met-Enk and SP was analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that both SP and Met-Enk were hydrolyzed by the carotid body, but the rate of Met-Enk hydrolysis was approximately fourfold higher than that of SP. Phosphoramidon (400 microM) markedly inhibited SP hydrolysis ( approximately 90%) but had only a marginal effect on Met-Enk hydrolysis ( approximately 15% inhibition). Hypoxia (PO(2), 68 +/- 6 Torr) as well as exogenous administration of SP (10 and 20 nmol) increased the sensory discharge of the carotid body in vitro. Sensory responses to hypoxia and SP (10 nmol) were potentiated by approximately 80 and approximately 275%, respectively (P < 0.01), in the presence of phosphoramidon. SP-receptor antagonists Spantide (peptidyl) and CP-96345 (nonpeptidyl) either abolished or markedly attenuated the phosphoramidon-induced potentiation of the sensory response of the carotid body to hypoxia as well as to SP. These results demonstrate that SP is a preferred substrate for NEP in the carotid body and that SP is involved in the potentiation of the hypoxic response of the carotid body by phosphoramidon.

  3. An oxidative DNA “damage” and repair mechanism localized in the VEGF promoter is important for hypoxia-induced VEGF mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Pastukh, Viktor; Roberts, Justin T.; Clark, David W.; Bardwell, Gina C.; Patel, Mita; Al-Mehdi, Abu-Bakr; Borchert, Glen M.

    2015-01-01

    In hypoxia, mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species not only stimulate accumulation of the transcriptional regulator of hypoxic gene expression, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (Hif-1), but also cause oxidative base modifications in hypoxic response elements (HREs) of hypoxia-inducible genes. When the hypoxia-induced base modifications are suppressed, Hif-1 fails to associate with the HRE of the VEGF promoter, and VEGF mRNA accumulation is blunted. The mechanism linking base modifications to transcription is unknown. Here we determined whether recruitment of base excision DNA repair (BER) enzymes in response to hypoxia-induced promoter modifications was required for transcription complex assembly and VEGF mRNA expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses in pulmonary artery endothelial cells, we found that hypoxia-mediated formation of the base oxidation product 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in VEGF HREs was temporally associated with binding of Hif-1α and the BER enzymes 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) and redox effector factor-1 (Ref-1)/apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1) and introduction of DNA strand breaks. Hif-1α colocalized with HRE sequences harboring Ref-1/Ape1, but not Ogg1. Inhibition of BER by small interfering RNA-mediated reduction in Ogg1 augmented hypoxia-induced 8-oxoG accumulation and attenuated Hif-1α and Ref-1/Ape1 binding to VEGF HRE sequences and blunted VEGF mRNA expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequence analysis of 8-oxoG distribution in hypoxic pulmonary artery endothelial cells showed that most of the oxidized base was localized to promoters with virtually no overlap between normoxic and hypoxic data sets. Transcription of genes whose promoters lost 8-oxoG during hypoxia was reduced, while those gaining 8-oxoG was elevated. Collectively, these findings suggest that the BER pathway links hypoxia-induced introduction of oxidative DNA modifications in promoters of hypoxia-inducible genes to transcriptional

  4. c-Jun and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Functionally Cooperate in Hypoxia-Induced Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Alfranca, Arántzazu; Gutiérrez, M. Dolores; Vara, Alicia; Aragonés, Julián; Vidal, Felipe; Landázuri, Manuel O.

    2002-01-01

    Under low-oxygen conditions, cells develop an adaptive program that leads to the induction of several genes, which are transcriptionally regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). On the other hand, there are other factors which modulate the HIF-1-mediated induction of some genes by binding to cis-acting motifs present in their promoters. Here, we show that c-Jun functionally cooperates with HIF-1 transcriptional activity in different cell types. Interestingly, a dominant-negative mutant of c-Jun which lacks its transactivation domain partially inhibits HIF-1-mediated transcription. This cooperative effect is not due to an increase in the nuclear amount of the HIF-1α subunit, nor does it require direct binding of c-Jun to DNA. c-Jun and HIF-1α are able to associate in vivo but not in vitro, suggesting that this interaction involves the participation of additional proteins and/or a posttranslational modification of these factors. In this context, hypoxia induces phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser63 in endothelial cells. This process is involved in its cooperative effect, since specific blockade of the JNK pathway and mutation of c-Jun at Ser63 and Ser73 impair its functional cooperation with HIF-1. The functional interplay between c-Jun and HIF-1 provides a novel insight into the regulation of some genes, such as the one for VEGF, which is a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis. PMID:11739718

  5. Effects of intermittent hypoxia on running economy.

    PubMed

    Burtscher, M; Gatterer, H; Faulhaber, M; Gerstgrasser, W; Schenk, K

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effects of two 5-wk periods of intermittent hypoxia on running economy (RE). 11 male and female middle-distance runners were randomly assigned to the intermittent hypoxia group (IHG) or to the control group (CG). All athletes trained for a 13-wk period starting at pre-season until the competition season. The IHG spent additionally 2 h at rest on 3 days/wk for the first and the last 5 weeks in normobaric hypoxia (15-11% FiO2). RE, haematological parameters and body composition were determined at low altitude (600 m) at baseline, after the 5 (th), the 8 (th) and the 13 (th) week of training. RE, determined by the relative oxygen consumption during submaximal running, (-2.3+/-1.2 vs. -0.3+/-0.7 ml/min/kg, P<0.05) and total running time (+1.0+/-0.9 vs. +0.4+/-0.5 min, P<0.05) changed significantly between the IHG and CG only during the first 5-wk period. Haematological and cardiorespiratory changes indicate that the improved RE was associated with decreased cardiorespiratory costs and greater reliance on carbohydrate. Intermittent hypoxia did not affect RE during the second 5-wk period. These findings suggest that the effects of intermittent hypoxia on RE strongly depend on the training phase. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  6. Hypoxia mediates mutual repression between microRNA-27a and PPARγ in the pulmonary vasculature.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bum-Yong; Park, Kathy K; Green, David E; Bijli, Kaiser M; Searles, Charles D; Sutliff, Roy L; Hart, C Michael

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious disorder that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of PH involves complex derangements in multiple pathways including reductions in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Hypoxia, a common PH stimulus, reduces PPARγ in experimental models. In contrast, activating PPARγ attenuates hypoxia-induced PH and endothelin 1 (ET-1) expression. To further explore mechanisms of hypoxia-induced PH and reductions in PPARγ, we examined the effects of hypoxia on selected microRNA (miRNA or miR) levels that might reduce PPARγ expression leading to increased ET-1 expression and PH. Our results demonstrate that exposure to hypoxia (10% O2) for 3-weeks increased levels of miR-27a and ET-1 in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice and reduced PPARγ levels. Hypoxia-induced increases in miR-27a were attenuated in mice treated with the PPARγ ligand, rosiglitazone (RSG, 10 mg/kg/d) by gavage for the final 10 d of exposure. In parallel studies, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) were exposed to control (21% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions for 72 h. Hypoxia increased HPAEC proliferation, miR-27a and ET-1 expression, and reduced PPARγ expression. These alterations were attenuated by treatment with RSG (10 µM) during the last 24 h of hypoxia exposure. Overexpression of miR-27a or PPARγ knockdown increased HPAEC proliferation and ET-1 expression and decreased PPARγ levels, whereas these effects were reversed by miR-27a inhibition. Further, compared to lungs from littermate control mice, miR-27a levels were upregulated in lungs from endothelial-targeted PPARγ knockout (ePPARγ KO) mice. Knockdown of either SP1 or EGR1 was sufficient to significantly attenuate miR-27a expression in HPAECs. Collectively, these studies provide novel evidence that miR-27a and PPARγ mediate mutually repressive actions in hypoxic pulmonary vasculature and that targeting PPARγ may represent a novel therapeutic approach

  7. Hypoxia-driven mechanism of vemurafenib resistance in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yong; Roszik, Jason; Chattopadhyay, Chandrani; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Liu, Chengwen; Cooper, Zachary A.; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Hwu, Patrick; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is molecularly and structurally heterogeneous, with some tumor cells existing under hypoxic conditions. Our cell growth assays showed that under controlled hypoxic conditions, BRAF(V600E) melanoma cells rapidly became resistant to vemurafenib. By employing both a three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model and a two-dimensional (2D) hypoxic culture system to model hypoxia in vivo, we identified upregulation of HGF/MET signaling as a major mechanism associated with vemurafenib resistance as compared to 2D standard tissue culture in ambient air. We further confirmed that the upregulation of HGF/MET signaling was evident in drug-resistant melanoma patient tissues and mouse xenografts. Pharmacologic inhibition of the c-Met/Akt pathway restored the sensitivity of melanoma spheroids or 2D hypoxic cultures to vemurafenib. PMID:27458138

  8. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. {yields} CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca{sup 2+}-insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. {yields} Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. {yields} Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conducemore » to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl{sub 2} promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl{sub 2} in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free

  9. Hypoxia pathway and hypoxia-mediated extensive extramedullary hematopoiesis are involved in ursolic acid's anti-metastatic effect in 4T1 tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian-Li; Shui, Yan-Mei; Jiang, Wei; Huang, En-Yi; Shou, Qi-Yang; Ji, Xin; He, Bai-Cheng; Lv, Gui-Yuan; He, Tong-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic in the tumor mass is leading to the myeloproliferative-like disease (leukemoid reaction) and anemia of body, which characterized by strong extensive extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in spleen. As the key transcription factor of hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activates the expression of genes essential for EMH processes including enhanced blood cell production and angiogenesis. We found ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, inhibited growth of breast cancer both in vivo and in vitro. The suppression was mediated through the inhibition of multiple cell pathways linked to inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. UA also suppressed the leukemoid reaction and the EMH phenomenon of the tumor bearing mice without any significant suppression on body weight (i.p. by 20 mg/kg for 28 days). This is associated with the significant decrease in white blood cells (WBC), platelets (PLT) and spleen weight. During this process, we also detected the down-regulation of cell proliferative genes (PCNA, and β-catenin), and metastatic genes (VEGF, and HIF-1α), as well as the depression of nuclear protein intensity of HIF-1α. Furthermore, the expression of E2F1, p53 and MDM2 genes were increased in UA group when the VEGF and HIF-1α was over-expressed. Cancer cells were sensitive to UA treating after the silencing of HIF-1α and the response of Hypoxic pathway reporter to UA was suppressed when HIF-1α was over expressed. Overall, our results from experimental and predictive studies suggest that the anticancer activity of UA may be at least in part caused by suppressing the cancer hypoxia and hypoxia-mediated EMH. PMID:27708244

  10. HIF-2α mediates hypoxia-induced LIF expression in human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuhan; Zhang, Cen; Wang, Jiabei; Yue, Xuetian; Yang, Qifeng; Hu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a multi-functional cytokine, has a complex role in cancer. While LIF induces the differentiation of several myeloid leukemia cells and inhibits their growth, it also promotes tumor progression, metastasis and chemoresistance in many solid tumors. LIF is frequently overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and its overexpression is often associated with poor prognosis of patients. Currently, the mechanism for LIF overexpression in tumor cells is not well-understood. Here, we report that hypoxia, a hallmark of solid tumors, induced LIF mRNA expression in human colorectal cancer cells. Analysis of LIF promoter revealed several hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) that can specifically interact with and be transactivated by HIF-2α but not HIF-1α. Consistently, ectopic expression of HIF-2α but not HIF-1α transcriptionally induced LIF expression levels in cells. Knockdown of endogenous HIF-2α but not HIF-1α by siRNA largely abolished the induction of LIF by hypoxia in cells. Furthermore, there is a strong association of HIF-2α overexpression with LIF overexpression in human colorectal cancer specimens. In summary, results from this study demonstrate that hypoxia induces LIF expression in human cancer cells mainly through HIF-2α, which could be an important underlying mechanism for LIF overexpression in human cancers. PMID:25726527

  11. Impact of Fetal Versus Perinatal Hypoxia on Sex Differences in Childhood Outcomes: Developmental Timing Matters

    PubMed Central

    Anastario, Michael; Salafia, Carolyn M.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine how the timing of hypoxic exposure results in specific childhood outcomes and whether there is a differential effect by sex. Methods A sample of 10,879 prospectively followed pregnancies was drawn from the Boston and Providence sites (New England-NE) of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Based on placental pathology, we developed and validated a measure of probable chronic fetal hypoxia (CHP) and contrasted the effects of acute perinatal hypoxia on age 7 emotional, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes. Results Perinatal hypoxia had a significant impact on multiple behavioral and cognitive outcomes in boys and girls by age 7, in contrast to probable CHP which had a differential effect on girls and boys such that there was decreased verbal IQ and increased inhibition in females alone. Conclusions Findings underscore the importance of considering the timing of obstetric complications and offspring sex in investigations of the impact of fetal and perinatal hypoxia on offspring’s outcomes throughout the life course. PMID:21327969

  12. Development of Inhibitors Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 and 2 for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tianchi

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is frequently observed in solid tumors and also one of the major obstacles for effective cancer therapies. Cancer cells take advantage of their ability to adapt hypoxia to initiate a special transcriptional program that renders them more aggressive biological behaviors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the key factors that control hypoxia-inducible pathways by regulating the expression of a vast array of genes involved in cancer progression and treatment resistance. HIFs, mainly HIF-1 and -2, have become potential targets for developing novel cancer therapeutics. This article reviews the updated information in tumor HIF pathways, particularly recent advances in the development of HIF inhibitors. These inhibitors interfere with mRNA expression, protein synthesis, protein degradation and dimerization, DNA binding and transcriptional activity of HIF-1 and -2, or both. Despite efforts in the past two decades, no agents directly inhibiting HIFs have been approved for treating cancer patients. By analyzing results of the published reports, we put the perspectives at the end of the article. The therapeutic efficacy of HIF inhibitors may be improved if more efforts are devoted on developing agents that are able to simultaneously target HIF-1 and -2, increasing the penetrating capacity of HIF inhibitors, and selecting suitable patient subpopulations for clinical trials. PMID:28332352

  13. Hypoxia-responsive miRNAs target argonaute 1 to promote angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Lin, Feng-Mao; Wang, Wei-Chi; Xiao, Han; Wang, Yun-Ting; Sun, Wei; Cui, Xiaopei; Li, Ying-Shiuan; Fang, Tzan; Zhao, Hongwei; Padmanabhan, Chellappan; Sun, Ruobai; Wang, Danny Ling; Jin, Hailing; Chau, Gar-Yang; Huang, Hsien-Da; Hsiao, Michael; Shyy, John Y-J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a general repression of translation under hypoxia, cells selectively upregulate a set of hypoxia-inducible genes. Results from deep sequencing revealed that Let-7 and miR-103/107 are hypoxia-responsive microRNAs (HRMs) that are strongly induced in vascular endothelial cells. In silico bioinformatics and in vitro validation showed that these HRMs are induced by HIF1α and target argonaute 1 (AGO1), which anchors the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). HRM targeting of AGO1 resulted in the translational desuppression of VEGF mRNA. Inhibition of HRM or overexpression of AGO1 without the 3′ untranslated region decreased hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Conversely, AGO1 knockdown increased angiogenesis under normoxia in vivo. In addition, data from tumor xenografts and human cancer specimens indicate that AGO1-mediated translational desuppression of VEGF may be associated with tumor angiogenesis and poor prognosis. These findings provide evidence for an angiogenic pathway involving HRMs that target AGO1 and suggest that this pathway may be a suitable target for anti- or proangiogenesis strategies. PMID:23426184

  14. The morphology, physiology and nutritional quality of lettuce grown under hypobaria and hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongkang; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Li, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the morphological, physiological and nutritional characteristics of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Rome) under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions. Plants were grown under two levels of total pressures (101 and 30 kPa) and three levels of oxygen partial pressures (21, 6 and 2 kPa) for 20 days. Hypoxia (6 or 2 kPa) not only significantly inhibited the growth of lettuce plants by decreasing biomass, leaf area, root/shoot ratio, water content, the contents of minerals and organic compounds (vitamin C, crude protein and crude fat), but also destroyed the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast. The activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of glutathione and the total antioxidant capacity significantly decreased due to hypoxia. Hypobaria (30 kPa) did not markedly enhance the biomass, but it increased leaf area, root/shoot ratio and relative water content. Hypobaria also decreased the contents of total phenols, malondialdehyde and total carbohydrate and protected the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast under hypoxia. Furthermore, the activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of minerals and organic compounds markedly increased under hypobaria. This study demonstrates that hypobaria (30 kPa) does not increase the growth of lettuce plants, but it enhances plant's stress resistance and nutritional quality under hypoxia.

  15. Tumor microenvironment conditions alter Akt and Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 expression in endothelial cells more than hypoxia alone: implications for endothelial cell function in cancer.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, A K; Mendes Lopes de Melo, J; Mørup, N; Tritsaris, K; Pedersen, S F

    2017-08-14

    Chronic angiogenesis is a hallmark of most tumors and takes place in a hostile tumor microenvironment (TME) characterized by hypoxia, low nutrient and glucose levels, elevated lactate and low pH. Despite this, most studies addressing angiogenic signaling use hypoxia as a proxy for tumor conditions. Here, we compared the effects of hypoxia and TME conditions on regulation of the Na + /H + exchanger NHE1, Ser/Thr kinases Akt1-3, and downstream effectors in endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Ea.hy926 endothelial cells were exposed to simulated TME (1% hypoxia, low serum, glucose, pH, high lactate) or 1% hypoxia for 24 or 48 h, with or without NHE1 inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown. mRNA and protein levels of NHE1, Akt1-3, and downstream effectors were assessed by qPCR and Western blotting, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release by ELISA, and motility by scratch assay. Within 24 h, HIF-1α level and VEGF mRNA level were increased robustly by TME and modestly by hypoxia alone. The NHE1 mRNA level was decreased by both hypoxia and TME, and NHE1 protein was reduced by TME in Ea.hy926 cells. Akt1-3 mRNA was detected in HUVEC and Ea.hy926 cells, Akt1 most abundantly. Akt1 protein expression was reduced by TME yet unaffected by hypoxia, while Akt phosphorylation was increased by TME. The Akt loss was partly reversed by MCF-7 human breast cancer cell conditioned medium, suggesting that in vivo, the cancer cell secretome may compensate for adverse effects of TME on endothelial cells. TME, yet not hypoxia, reduced p70S6 kinase activity and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and increased eIF2α phosphorylation, consistent with inhibition of protein translation. Finally, TME reduced Retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and induced poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage consistent with inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. NHE1 knockdown, mimicking the effect of TME on NHE1 expression, reduced Ea.hy926

  16. Rat reaction to hypokinesia after prior adaptation to hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barashova, Z. I.; Tarakanova, O. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prior hypoxia adaptation on body tolerance to hypokinesia was investigated. Rats trained to a 50 day period of hypokinesia and hypoxia with a preliminary month of adaptation to hypoxia showed less weight loss, higher indices for red blood content, heightened reactivity of the overall organism and the central nervous system to acute hypoxia, and decreased modification of the skeletal muscles compared to rats subjected to hypokinesia alone.

  17. Inflammation and hypoxia in the kidney: friends or foes?

    PubMed

    Haase, Volker H

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxic injury is commonly associated with inflammatory-cell infiltration, and inflammation frequently leads to the activation of cellular hypoxia response pathways. The molecular mechanisms underlying this cross-talk during kidney injury are incompletely understood. Yamaguchi and colleagues identify CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ as a cytokine- and hypoxia-regulated transcription factor that fine-tunes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling in renal epithelial cells and thus provide a novel molecular link between hypoxia and inflammation in kidney injury.

  18. Exposure to acute severe hypoxia leads to increased urea loss and disruptions in acid-base and ionoregulatory balance in dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of acute moderate (20% air O2 saturation; 6-h exposure) and severe (5% air O2 saturation; 4-h exposure) hypoxia on N-waste, acid-base, and ion balance in dogfish sharks (Squalus acanthias suckleyi) were evaluated. We predicted that the synthesis and/or retention of urea, which are active processes, would be inhibited by hypoxia. Exposure to moderate hypoxia had negligible effects on N-waste fluxes or systemic physiology, except for a modest rise in plasma lactate. Exposure to severe hypoxia led to a significant increase in urea excretion (Jurea), while plasma, liver, and muscle urea concentrations were unchanged, suggesting a loss of urea retention. Ammonia excretion (Jamm) was elevated during normoxic recovery. Moreover, severe hypoxia led to disruptions in acid-base balance, indicated by a large increase in plasma [lactate] and substantial decreases in arterial pHa and plasma [Formula: see text], as well as loss of ionic homeostasis, indicated by increases in plasma [Mg(2+)], [Ca(2+)], and [Na(+)]. We suggest that severe hypoxia in dogfish sharks leads to a reduction in active gill homeostatic processes, such as urea retention, acid-base regulation and ionoregulation, and/or an osmoregulatory compromise due to increased functional gill surface area. Overall, the results provide a comprehensive picture of the physiological responses to a severe degree of hypoxia in an ancient fish species.

  19. Hypoxia regulates macrophage functions in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Craig; Muthana, Munitta; Lewis, Claire E

    2005-11-15

    The presence of areas of hypoxia is a prominent feature of various inflamed, diseased tissues, including malignant tumors, atherosclerotic plaques, myocardial infarcts, the synovia of joints with rheumatoid arthritis, healing wounds, and sites of bacterial infection. These areas form when the blood supply is occluded and/or unable to keep pace with the growth and/or infiltration of inflammatory cells in a given area. Macrophages are present in all tissues of the body where they normally assist in guarding against invading pathogens and regulate normal cell turnover and tissue remodeling. However, they are also known to accumulate in large numbers in such ischemic/hypoxic sites. Recent studies show that macrophages then respond rapidly to the hypoxia present by altering their expression of a wide array of genes. In the present study, we outline and compare the phenotypic responses of macrophages to hypoxia in different diseased states and the implications of these for their progression and treatment.

  20. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fan; Joergensen, Jesper T; Hansen, Anders E; Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET contains additional valuable information on the temporal changes in tracer distribution. Kinetic modeling can be used to extract relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of tracer behavior in vivo that reflects relevant physiological processes. In this paper, we review the potential contribution of kinetic analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia. PMID:25250200

  1. Intermittent hypoxia in patients with unexplained polycythaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Gillon, J C; Treacher, D F; Gaminara, E J; Pearson, T C; Cameron, I R

    1986-01-01

    The aetiology of polycythaemia is unclear in up to 30% of patients. Twenty patients with unexplained polycythaemia were investigated to see whether they had an intermittent hypoxic stimulus to erythropoiesis that was undetected by conventional investigations for hypoxic secondary polycythaemia. Overnight polygraphic sleep studies showed that five patients had prolonged nocturnal hypoxaemia. Their arterial oxygen saturation was below 92%, the level at which appreciable hypoxic stimulation of erythropoiesis occurs, for 26-68% of the time for which they were studied. Considerable evidence is accumulating that intermittent hypoxia is a potent stimulus to erythropoiesis, and clinicians should consider the possibility of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with unexplained polycythaemia. Appropriate investigation will lead to the correct diagnosis of polycythaemia secondary to hypoxia in some cases previously regarded as idiopathic, and treatment may then be planned accordingly. PMID:3092936

  2. Response of skeletal muscle mitochondria to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hoppeler, Hans; Vogt, Michael; Weibel, Ewald R; Flück, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This review explores the current concepts relating the structural and functional modifications of skeletal muscle mitochondria to the molecular mechanisms activated when organisms are exposed to a hypoxic environment. In contrast to earlier assumptions it is now established that permanent or long-term exposure to severe environmental hypoxia decreases the mitochondrial content of muscle fibres. Oxidative muscle metabolism is shifted towards a higher reliance on carbohydrates as a fuel, and intramyocellular lipid substrate stores are reduced. Moreover, in muscle cells of mountaineers returning from the Himalayas, we find accumulations of lipofuscin, believed to be a mitochondrial degradation product. Low mitochondrial contents are also observed in high-altitude natives such as Sherpas. In these subjects high-altitude performance seems to be improved by better coupling between ATP demand and supply pathways as well as better metabolite homeostasis. The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been identified as a master regulator for the expression of genes involved in the hypoxia response, such as genes coding for glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). HIF-1 achieves this by binding to hypoxia response elements in the promoter regions of these genes, whereby the increase of HIF-1 in hypoxia is the consequence of a reduced degradation of its dominant subunit HIF-1a. A further mechanism that seems implicated in the hypoxia response of muscle mitochondria is related to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria during oxidative phosphorylation. How exactly ROS interfere with HIF-1a as well as MAP kinase and other signalling pathways is debated. The current evidence suggests that mitochondria themselves could be important players in oxygen sensing.

  3. Hypoxia promotes glioma-associated macrophage infiltration via periostin and subsequent M2 polarization by upregulating TGF-beta and M-CSFR

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaofan; Xue, Hao; Shao, Qianqian; Wang, Jian; Guo, Xing; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Jinsen; Xu, Shugang; Li, Tong; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Xiao; Qiu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are enriched in gliomas and help create a tumor-immunosuppressive microenvironment. A distinct M2-skewed type of macrophages makes up the majority of glioma TAMs, and these cells exhibit pro-tumor functions. Gliomas contain large hypoxic areas, and the presence of a correlation between the density of M2-polarized TAMs and hypoxic areas suggests that hypoxia plays a supportive role during TAM recruitment and induction. Here, we investigated the effects of hypoxia on human macrophage recruitment and M2 polarization. We also investigated the influence of the HIF inhibitor acriflavine (ACF) on M2 TAM infiltration and tumor progression in vivo. We found that hypoxia increased periostin (POSTN) expression in glioma cells and promoted the recruitment of macrophages. Hypoxia-inducible POSTN expression was increased by TGF-α via the RTK/PI3K pathway, and this effect was blocked by treating hypoxic cells with ACF. We also demonstrated that both a hypoxic environment and hypoxia-treated glioma cell supernatants were capable of polarizing macrophages toward a M2 phenotype. ACF partially reversed the M2 polarization of macrophages by inhibiting the upregulation of M-CSFR in macrophages and TGF-β in glioma cells under hypoxic conditions. Administering ACF also ablated tumor progression in vivo. Our findings reveal a mechanism that underlies hypoxia-induced TAM enrichment and M2 polarization and suggest that pharmacologically inhibiting HIFs may reduce M2-polarized TAM infiltration and glioma progression. PMID:27602954

  4. Noopept reduces the postischemic functional and metabolic disorders in the brain of rats with different sensitivity to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, I V; Shabanov, P D

    2009-03-01

    Chronic cerebral ischemia was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries in Wistar rats, divided by sensitivity to hypoxia into highly sensitive and low-sensitive. Noopept (peptide preparation), injected (0.5 mg/kg) during 7 days after occlusion of the carotid arteries, reduced the neurological disorders in rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia and improved their survival during the postischemic period. Noopept normalized behavior disordered by cerebral ischemia (according to the open field and elevated plus maze tests), prevented accumulation of LPO products and inhibition of antioxidant systems in the brain of rats with high and low sensitivity to hypoxia. Hence, noopept exhibited a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia.

  5. Uncoupling protein 2 deficiency mimics the effects of hypoxia and endoplasmic reticulum stress on mitochondria and triggers pseudohypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Dromparis, Peter; Paulin, Roxane; Sutendra, Gopinath; Qi, Andrew C; Bonnet, Sébastien; Michelakis, Evangelos D

    2013-07-05

    Mitochondrial signaling regulates both the acute and the chronic response of the pulmonary circulation to hypoxia, and suppressed mitochondrial glucose oxidation contributes to the apoptosis-resistance and proliferative diathesis in the vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension. Hypoxia directly inhibits glucose oxidation, whereas endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress can indirectly inhibit glucose oxidation by decreasing mitochondrial calcium (Ca²⁺m levels). Both hypoxia and ER stress promote proliferative pulmonary vascular remodeling. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) has been shown to conduct calcium from the ER to mitochondria and suppress mitochondrial function. We hypothesized that UCP2 deficiency reduces Ca²⁺m in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), mimicking the effects of hypoxia and ER stress on mitochondria in vitro and in vivo, promoting normoxic hypoxia inducible factor-1α activation and pulmonary hypertension. Ucp2 knockout (KO)-PASMCs had lower mitochondrial calcium than Ucp2 wildtype (WT)-PASMCs at baseline and during histamine-stimulated ER-Ca²⁺ release. Normoxic Ucp2KO-PASMCs had mitochondrial hyperpolarization, lower Ca²⁺-sensitive mitochondrial enzyme activity, reduced levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and Krebs' cycle intermediates, and increased resistance to apoptosis, mimicking the hypoxia-induced changes in Ucp2WT-PASMC. Ucp2KO mice spontaneously developed pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension and exhibited a pseudohypoxic state with pulmonary vascular and systemic hypoxia inducible factor-1α activation (increased hematocrit), not exacerbated further by chronic hypoxia. This first description of the role of UCP2 in oxygen sensing and in pulmonary hypertension vascular remodeling may open a new window in biomarker and therapeutic strategies.

  6. Impaired Wound Healing in Hypoxic Renal Tubular Cells: Roles of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jianping; Ramesh, Ganesan; Sun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Wound and subsequent healing are frequently associated with hypoxia. Although hypoxia induces angiogenesis for tissue remodeling during wound healing, it may also affect the healing response of parenchymal cells. Whether and how wound healing is affected by hypoxia in kidney cells and tissues is currently unknown. Here, we used scratch-wound healing and transwell migration models to examine the effect of hypoxia in cultured renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC). Wound healing and migration were significantly slower in hypoxic (1% oxygen) RPTC than normoxic (21% oxygen) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was induced during scratch-wound healing in normoxia, and the induction was more evident in hypoxia. Nevertheless, HIF-1α-null and wild-type cells healed similarly after scratch wounding. Moreover, activation of HIF-1α with dimethyloxalylglycine in normoxic cells did not suppress wound healing, negating a major role of HIF-1α in wound healing in this model. Scratch-wound healing was also associated with glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)/β-catenin signaling, which was further enhanced by hypoxia. Pharmacological inhibition of GSK3β resulted in β-catenin expression, accompanied by the suppression of wound healing and transwell cell migration. Ectopic expression of β-catenin in normoxic cells could also suppress wound healing, mimicking the effect of hypoxia. Conversely, inhibition of β-catenin via dominant negative mutants or short hairpin RNA improved wound healing and transwell migration in hypoxic cells. The results suggest that GSK3β/β-catenin signaling may contribute to defective wound healing in hypoxic renal cells and tissues. PMID:22010210

  7. Shared Physiological and Molecular Responses in Marine Fish and Invertebrates to Environmental Hypoxia: Potential Biomarkers of Adverse Impacts on Marine Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P.; Rahman, S.

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the effects of environmental exposure to hypoxia (dissolved oxygen: <2 mg/L) on critical physiological functions such as reproduction, growth and metabolism in both fish and invertebrates is essential for accurate predictions of its chronic impacts on marine communities. Marked disruption of reproduction and its endocrine control was observed in Atlantic croaker collected from the hypoxic region in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Recent research has shown that growth and its physiological upregulation is also impaired in hypoxia-exposed marine fish. Expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP), which inhibits growth, was increased in croaker livers, whereas plasma levels of IGF, the primary regulator of growth, were decreased in snapper after hypoxia exposure. In addition, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which regulates changes in metabolism during adaptation to hypoxia, was upregulated in croaker collected from hypoxic environments. Interestingly, similar changes in the expression of IGFBP and HIF-1 have been found in marine crustaceans after hypoxia exposure, suggesting these responses to hypoxia are common to marine fish and invertebrates. Preliminary field studies indicate that hypoxia exposure also causes epigenetic modifications, including increases in global DNA methylation, and that these epigenetic changes can influence reproduction and growth in croaker. Epigenetic modifications can be passed to offspring and persist in future generations no longer exposed to an environmental stressor further aggravating its long-term adverse impacts on population abundance and delaying recovery. The growing availability of complete invertebrate genomes and high-throughput DNA sequencing indicates similar epigenetic studies can now be conducted with marine invertebrates. Collectively, the results indicate that environmental hypoxia exposure disrupts major physiological functions in fish and invertebrates critical for maintenance of

  8. Krüppel-like factor 8 involved in hypoxia promotes the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer via epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Wang, Yafang; Zhou, Yongan; Pang, Hailin; Zhou, Jing; Qian, Pei; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Helong

    2014-12-01

    Previously, we reported that hypoxia was able to induce invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer and that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key factor involved in this tumor type. Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) as a transcriptional repressor has been suggested as a promoter of tumor metastasis in breast cancer and an inducer of the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT). KLF8 is also highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues, contributing to poor prognosis. However, the association between KLF8 and HIF-1 in regulating the progression of human gastric cancer in hypoxia is unclear. In the present study, we found that KLF8 was overexpressed in gastric cancer metastatic tissues and cells. Additionally, KLF8 siRNA significantly inhibited SGC7901 cell invasion and migration compared with SGC7901, SGC7901/Scr-si cells. Hypoxia is thus able to induce KLF8 expression and EMT in SGC7901 cells. However, following the examination of changes in cell morphology and epithelial and mesenchymal markers, it was found that KLF8 siRNA and HIF-1 siRNA strongly reversed EMT in cells undergoing hypoxia. Furthermore, hypoxia-induced KLF8 overexpression was attenuated by HIF-1 siRNA. Experiments using luciferase promoter constructs resulted in a marked increase in the activity of cells exposed to hypoxia and decreased activity in cells co-transfected with HIF-1 siRNA. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed proximal HRE at -133 is the main HIF-1 binding site in the KLF8 promoter. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that KLF8 is actively enhanced by hypoxia and is a novel HIF-1 target. KLF8 is a novel EMT regulating transcription factor that involved in the progression of gastric cancer. The specific anti-EMT drugs in combination with anti-hypoxia are new promising cancer therapies.

  9. Protective effect of Edaravone against hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity in osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bo; Chai, Chunxiang; Zhao, Sishun

    2015-12-01

    Edaravone is a newly developed clinical medicine for the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Reduced blood supply to bones (hypoxia) has been involved in the pathological development of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of Edaravone and its latent mechanism on hypoxia-induced cell toxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined by the fluorescence dyes 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA), respectively. mRNA and proteins were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Edaravone significantly restored the hypoxia-induced reduction of MC3T3-E1 cell viability and inhibited lactate dehydrogenase release. In addition, we found that Edaravone inhibits the generation of ROS and NO. Hoechst staining results indicated that the nuclear condensation characteristic of apoptosis was increased in MC3T3-E1 cells after hypoxia exposure, which was significantly suppressed by Edaravone treatment. Mechanistically, we found that Edaravone markedly reduced the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and blunted the release of cytochrome c. These findings strongly suggested that Edaravone suppresses hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells. The pleiotropic effects of Edaravone on hypoxia exposure in osteoblasts suggest potential antiosteoporosis mechanisms of Edaravone. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Cobalt chloride attenuates hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage in rat brain: Molecular mechanisms of action of cobalt chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpana, S.; Dhananjay, S.; Anju, B.

    2008-09-15

    This study reports the efficacy of cobalt preconditioning in preventing hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage (an indicator of cerebral edema) using male Sprague-Dawley rats as model system. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in vascular leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was a marked increase in Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) DNA binding activity and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), Interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and cell adhesion molecules such as Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), andmore » P-selectin. Chemical preconditioning by cobalt for 7 days (12.5 mg Co/kg b.w., oral) significantly attenuated cerebral vascular leakage and the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by hypoxia. Administration of NF{kappa}B inhibitor, curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) appreciably inhibited hypoxia induced vascular leakage indicating the involvement of NF{kappa}B in causing vascular leakage. Interestingly, cobalt when administered at 12.5 mg Co/kg b.w. (i.p.), 1 h before hypoxia could not prevent the vascular leakage indicating that cobalt per se did not have an effect on NF{kappa}B. The lower levels of NF{kappa}B observed in the brains of cobalt administered animals might be due to higher levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins (hemeoxygenase-1 and metallothionein). To conclude cobalt preconditioning inhibited hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage by lowering NF{kappa}B DNA binding activity and its regulated pro-inflammatory mediators. This is contemplated to be mediated by cobalt induced reduction in ROS/NO and increase in HO-1 and MT.« less

  11. Effects of hypobaria and hypoxia on seed germination of six plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongkang; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Li, Fang

    2014-10-01

    Hypobaria (low pressure) is typically associated with hypoxia (low oxygen partial pressure). There are several advantages of growing higher plants under hypobaria in the moon or mars habitat. The objectives of this research were to investigate the seed germination of six plant species under hypobaric and ambient total pressure conditions. Seeds were sown and germinated under three levels of total atmospheric pressure (101, 30 and 10 kPa) and three levels of oxygen partial pressures (21, 6 and 2 kPa) in an 8-day study. Hypoxia (6 or 2 kPa) significantly inhibited all seed germination under three levels of total atmospheric pressure by increasing the electrical conductivity and the optical density, decreasing the seed germination percentage and seed dehydrogenase activity and inhibiting the growth of the shoots and roots. Hypobaria (30 or 10 kPa) markedly improved seed germination and root growth by enhancing the oxygen diffusion rate under hypoxic conditions (6 or 2 kPa). The seeds of three dicot plants (lettuce, Chinese cabbage and cucumber) were more sensitive to hypoxia caused by hypobaria than were those of three monocot plants (maize, wheat and rice); lettuce and cucumber seeds had the highest sensitivity, whereas rice seeds had the lowest sensitivity. This research demonstrates that six experimental seeds can germinate normally under hypobaria (30 kPa), but the oxygen partial pressure should not be less than 6 kPa.

  12. Preconditioning Triggered by Carbon Monoxide (CO) Provides Neuronal Protection Following Perinatal Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Widerøe, Marius; Alves, Paula M.; Vercelli, Alessandro; Vieira, Helena L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of acute mortality in newborns and cognitive and motor impairments in children. Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia leads to excitotoxicity and necrotic and apoptotic cell death, in which mitochondria play a major role. Increased resistance against major damage can be achieved by preconditioning triggered by subtle insults. CO, a toxic molecule that is also generated endogenously, may have a role in preconditioning as low doses can protect against inflammation and apoptosis. In this study, the role of CO-induced preconditioning on neurons was addressed in vitro and in vivo. The effect of 1 h of CO treatment on neuronal death (plasmatic membrane permeabilization and chromatin condensation) and bcl-2 expression was studied in cerebellar granule cells undergoing to glutamate-induced apoptosis. CO's role was studied in vivo in the Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (common carotid artery ligature +75 min at 8% oxygen). Apoptotic cells, assessed by Nissl staining were counted with a stereological approach and cleaved caspase 3-positive profiles in the hippocampus were assessed. Apoptotic hallmarks were analyzed in hippocampal extracts by Western Blot. CO inhibited excitotoxicity-induced cell death and increased Bcl-2 mRNA in primary cultures of neurons. In vivo, CO prevented hypoxia-ischemia induced apoptosis in the hippocampus, limited cytochrome c released from mitochondria and reduced activation of caspase-3. Still, Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in hippocampus of CO pre-treated rat pups. Our results show that CO preconditioning elicits a molecular cascade that limits neuronal apoptosis. This could represent an innovative therapeutic strategy for high-risk cerebral hypoxia-ischemia patients, in particular neonates. PMID:22952602

  13. Chinonin, a novel drug against cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Shen, J G; Quo, X S; Jiang, B; Li, M; Xin, W; Zhao, B L

    2000-02-21

    The inhibitory effects of Chinonin, a natural antioxidant extracted from a Chinese medicine, on apoptotic and necrotic cell death of cardiomyocytes in hypoxia-reoxygenation process were observed in this study. The possible mechanisms of Chinonin on scavenging reactive oxygen species and regulating apoptotic related genes bcl-2 and p53 were also investigated. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to 24-h hypoxia and 4-h reoxygenation. Cell death was evaluated by DNA electrophoresis on agarose gel, cell death ELISA and annexin-V-FLUOS/propidium iodide (PI) double staining cytometry. Hypoxia caused the increase of apoptotic rates and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), while reoxygenation not only further increased the apoptotic rates and leakage of LDH, but also induced necrosis of cardiomyocytes. In addition, hypoxia increased the levels of NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) and thiobarbituric acid reacted substances (TBARS), while reoxygenation decreased NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-), but further increased TBARS in the cultured media. Moreover, hypoxia up-regulated the expression levels of bcl-2 and p53 proteins, while reoxygenation down-regulated bcl-2 and further up-regulated p53. Chinonin significantly decreased the rates of apoptotic and necrotic cardiomyocytes, and inhibited the leakage of LDH. It also diminished NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) and TBARS, down-regulated the expression level of p53 protein, and up-regulated bcl-2 protein, respectively. The results suggest that Chinonin has preventive effects against apoptotic and necrotic cell death and its protective mechanisms are related to the antioxidant properties of scavenging nitric oxide and oxygen free radicals, and the modulating effects on the expression levels of bcl-2 and p53 proteins.

  14. Mechanisms of increased lifespan in hypoxia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic variation accounts for a relatively small amount of the variation in lifespan (generally 15-30%), while environmental stressors are very strong predictors (Finch and Kirkwood 2000). Hypoxia is an environmental stress that increases longevity in some contexts, but the mechanisms remain poorly...

  15. Acridine-intercalator based hypoxia selective cytotoxins

    DOEpatents

    Papadopoulou-Rosenzweig, M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    Hypoxia selective cytotoxins of the general formula STR1 wherein n is from 1 to 5, and NO[sub 2] is in at least one of the 2, 4 or 5-positions of the imidazole are developed. Such compounds have utility as radiosensitizers and chemosensitizers. 9 figs.

  16. New Approaches to the Gulf Hypoxia Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Allison, Mead A.; Chapman, Piers; Cowan, James H.; Dagg, Michael J.; Day, John W.; DiMarco, Steve F.; Hetland, Robert D.; Powell, Rodney

    2010-05-01

    Coastal water hypoxia, where dissolved oxygen is less than 2 milligrams per liter, is a global environmental problem [e.g., Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008]. It is largely associated with eutrophication, whereby nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorous) to coastal waters lead to elevated primary production and accelerated rates of microbial respiration, which results in oxygen depletion. Despite more than 25 years of monitoring [Rabalais et al., 2007] (see also Figure S1 in the online supplement to this Eos issue (http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/)), the relative importance of the various processes that control hypoxia in bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM)—in particular, those beyond the direct influence of river plumes [Dagg et al., 2007; Bianchi et al., 2008, 2010, and references therein]—remains uncertain. For example, a prediction last June pronounced that the 2009 hypoxic area would be the largest on record (˜23,000 square kilometers; see http://www.gulfhypoxia.net/Research/Shelfwide%20Cruises/2009/Files/2009_Hypoxia_Forecast.pdf). However, the most recent annual surveys estimated its size at 8000 square kilometers, only 35% of that predicted. This occurred in the absence of a significant hurricane impact on this margin in 2009—hurricanes tend to dissipate hypoxia.

  17. Acridine-intercalator based hypoxia selective cytotoxins

    DOEpatents

    Papadopoulou-Rosenzweig, Maria; Bloomer, William D.; Bloomer, William D.

    1994-01-01

    Hypoxia selective cytotoxins of the general formula ##STR1## wherein n is from 1 to 5, and NO.sub.2 is in at least one of the 2, 4 or 5-positions of the imidazole. Such compounds have utility as radiosensitizers and chemosensitizers.

  18. GULF OF MEXICO HYPOXIA MONITORING AND MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greene, Richard M. and Russell G. Kreis. In press. Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Monitoring and Modeling (Abstract). To be presented at the EPA Science Forum: Healthy Communities and Ecosystems, 1-3 June 2004, Washington, DC. 1 p. (ERL,GB R990).

    Oxygen-depleted or hypoxic bottom...

  19. Regulation of immunity and inflammation by hypoxia in immunological niches.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Cormac T; Colgan, Sean P

    2017-12-01

    Immunological niches are focal sites of immune activity that can have varying microenvironmental features. Hypoxia is a feature of physiological and pathological immunological niches. The impact of hypoxia on immunity and inflammation can vary depending on the microenvironment and immune processes occurring in a given niche. In physiological immunological niches, such as the bone marrow, lymphoid tissue, placenta and intestinal mucosa, physiological hypoxia controls innate and adaptive immunity by modulating immune cell proliferation, development and effector function, largely via transcriptional changes driven by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). By contrast, in pathological immunological niches, such as tumours and chronically inflamed, infected or ischaemic tissues, pathological hypoxia can drive tissue dysfunction and disease development through immune cell dysregulation. Here, we differentiate between the effects of physiological and pathological hypoxia on immune cells and the consequences for immunity and inflammation in different immunological niches. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of targeting hypoxia-sensitive pathways in immune cells for the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  20. Scientific Assessment of Hypoxia in US Coastal Waters ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from the Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia and Human Health. Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology (JOST) This report was prepared by a task force associated with the IWG-4H that included representatives of Federal agencies participating in the science and management of coastal hypoxia. It builds on earlier reports to assess hypoxia in U.S. coastal waters (CENR 2003) by updating the assessments and summarizing the major advances in hypoxia research during the past five years. Specifically, this report draws on An Assessment of Coastal Hypoxia and Eutrophication in U.S. Waters (CENR 2003), which was called for in HABHRCA 1998, and The State of Hypoxia in United States Estuarine and Coastal Waters (Diaz 2009). This report also recommends priorities for future hypoxia-related research across the U.S. government.

  1. The response of human skeletal muscle tissue to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lundby, Carsten; Calbet, Jose A L; Robach, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Hypoxia refers to environmental or clinical settings that potentially threaten tissue oxygen homeostasis. One unique aspect of skeletal muscle is that, in addition to hypoxia, oxygen balance in this tissue may be further compromised when exercise is superimposed on hypoxia. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular responses of human skeletal muscle to acute and chronic hypoxia, with emphasis on physical exercise and training. Based on published work, it is suggested that hypoxia does not appear to promote angiogenesis or to greatly alter oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle at rest. Although the HIF-1 pathway in skeletal muscle is still poorly documented, emerging evidence suggests that muscle HIF-1 signaling is only activated to a minor degree by hypoxia. On the other hand, combining hypoxia with exercise appears to improve some aspects of muscle O(2) transport and/or metabolism.

  2. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H

    2010-01-01

    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged frommore » a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent

  3. Sensing hypoxia: physiology, genetics and epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2013-01-01

    The carotid body is a sensory organ for detecting arterial blood O2 levels and reflexly mediates systemic cardiac, vascular and respiratory responses to hypoxia. This article presents a brief review of the roles of gaseous messengers in the sensory transduction at the carotid body, genetic and epigenetic influences on hypoxic sensing and the role of the carotid body chemoreflex in cardiorespiratory diseases. Type I (also called glomus) cells, the site of O2 sensing in the carotid body, express haem oxygenase-2 and cystathionine-γ-lyase, the enzymes which catalyse the generation of CO and H2S, respectively. Physiological studies have shown that CO is an inhibitory gas messenger, which contributes to the low sensory activity during normoxia, whereas H2S is excitatory and mediates sensory stimulation by hypoxia. Hypoxia-evoked H2S generation in the carotid body requires the interaction of cystathionine-γ-lyase with haem oxygenase-2, which generates CO. Hypoxia-inducible factors 1 and 2 constitute important components of the genetic make-up in the carotid body, which influence hypoxic sensing by regulating the intracellular redox state via transcriptional regulation of pro- and antioxidant enzymes. Recent studies suggest that developmental programming of the carotid body response to hypoxia involves epigenetic changes, e.g. DNA methylation of genes encoding redox-regulating enzymes. Emerging evidence implicates heightened carotid body chemoreflex in the progression of autonomic morbidities associated with cardiorespiratory diseases, such as sleep-disordered breathing with apnoea, congestive heart failure and essential hypertension. PMID:23459758

  4. [Effect of bemethyl on the glutathione system in the rat liver in acute hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Zarubina, I V; Mironova, O P

    2002-01-01

    The effect of bemithyl on the state of liver glutathione system was studied in rats under acute hypoxic hypoxia conditions modeled by "elevating" animals in a pressure chamber up to an altitude of 8000-11,000 m for 30 min. Bemithyl (25 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 30 min before the hypoxia onset, prevents a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione and SH groups and impedes a drop in the activity of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. By means of the inhibition analysis using actinomycin D (a protein synthesis inhibitor), it was established that the protective action of bemithyl is related to the ability of enhancing the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in the liver glutathione system.

  5. Limited effects of exogenous glucose during severe hypoxia and a lack of hypoxia-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated rainbow trout cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Tracy A.; DellaValle, Brian; Gesser, Hans; Rodnick, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We examined whether exogenous glucose affects contractile performance of electrically paced ventricle strips from rainbow trout under conditions known to alter cardiomyocyte performance, ion regulation and energy demands. Physiological levels of d-glucose did not influence twitch force development for aerobic preparations (1) paced at 0.5 or 1.1 Hz, (2) at 15 or 23°C, (3) receiving adrenergic stimulation or (4) during reoxygenation with or without adrenaline after severe hypoxia. Contractile responses to ryanodine, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, were also not affected by exogenous glucose. However, glucose did attenuate the fall in twitch force during severe hypoxia. Glucose uptake was assayed in non-contracting ventricle strips using 2-[3H] deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) under aerobic and hypoxic conditions, at different incubation temperatures and with different inhibitors. Based upon a lack of saturation of 2-DG uptake and incomplete inhibition of uptake by cytochalasin B and d-glucose, 2-DG uptake was mediated by a combination of facilitated transport and simple diffusion. Hypoxia stimulated lactate efflux sixfold to sevenfold with glucose present, but did not increase 2-DG uptake or reduce lactate efflux in the presence of cytochalasin B. Increasing temperature (14 to 24°C) also did not increase 2-DG uptake, but decreasing temperature (14 to 4°C) reduced 2-DG uptake by 45%. In conclusion, exogenous glucose improves mechanical performance under hypoxia but not under any of the aerobic conditions applied. The extracellular concentration of glucose and cold temperature appear to determine and limit cardiomyocyte glucose uptake, respectively, and together may help define a metabolic strategy that relies predominantly on intracellular energy stores. PMID:23685969

  6. Hypoxia promotes noncanonical autophagy in nucleus pulposus cells independent of MTOR and HIF1A signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyowon; Merceron, Christophe; Mangiavini, Laura; Seifert, Erin L; Schipani, Ernestina; Shapiro, Irving M; Risbud, Makarand V

    2016-09-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells reside in the avascular and hypoxic microenvironment of intervertebral discs. Importantly, many activities related to survival and function of NP cells are controlled by the HIF-family of transcription factors. We hypothesize that NP cells adapt to their hypoxic niche through modulation of macroautophagy/autophagy. In various cell types, hypoxia induces autophagy in a HIF1A-dependent fashion; however, little is known about hypoxic regulation of autophagy in NP cells. Hypoxia increases the number of autophagosomes as seen by TEM analysis and LC3-positive puncta in NP cells. Hypoxic induction of autophagy was also demonstrated by a significantly higher number of autophagosomes and smaller change in autolysosomes in NP cells expressing tandem-mCherry-EGFP-LC3B. Increased LC3-II levels were not accompanied by a concomitant increase in BECN1 or the ATG12-ATG5 complex. In addition, ULK1 phosphorylation at Ser757 and Ser777 responsive to MTOR and AMPK, respectively, was not affected in hypoxia. Interestingly, when MTOR activity was inhibited by rapamycin or Torin1, LC3-II levels did not change, suggesting a novel MTOR-independent regulation. Noteworthy, while silencing of HIF1A affected hypoxic induction of BNIP3, it did not affect LC3-II levels, indicating hypoxia-induced autophagy is HIF1-independent. Importantly, there was no change in the number of LC3-positive autophagosomes in NP-specific Hif1a null mice. Finally, inhibition of autophagic flux did not affect the glycolytic metabolism of NP cells, suggesting a possible nonmetabolic role of autophagy. Taken together, our study for the first time shows that NP cells regulate autophagy in a noncanonical fashion independent of MTOR and HIF1A signaling.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Hypoxia-Regulated Endothelial Circular RNA.

    PubMed

    Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Jaé, Nicolas; Heumüller, Andreas W; Chen, Wei; Boon, Reinier A; Stellos, Konstantinos; Zeiher, Andreas M; John, David; Uchida, Shizuka; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2015-10-23

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are noncoding RNAs generated by back splicing. Back splicing has been considered a rare event, but recent studies suggest that circRNAs are widely expressed. However, the expression, regulation, and function of circRNAs in vascular cells is still unknown. Here, we characterize the expression, regulation, and function of circRNAs in endothelial cells. Endothelial circRNAs were identified by computational analysis of ribo-minus RNA generated from human umbilical venous endothelial cells cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Selected circRNAs were biochemically characterized, and we found that the majority of them lacks polyadenylation, is resistant to RNase R digestion and localized to the cytoplasm. We further validated the hypoxia-induced circRNAs cZNF292, cAFF1, and cDENND4C, as well as the downregulated cTHSD1 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cultured endothelial cells. Cloning of cZNF292 validated the predicted back splicing of exon 4 to a new alternative exon 1A. Silencing of cZNF292 inhibited cZNF292 expression and reduced tube formation and spheroid sprouting of endothelial cells in vitro. The expression of pre-mRNA or mRNA of the host gene was not affected by silencing of cZNF292. No validated microRNA-binding sites for cZNF292 were detected in Argonaute high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking and immunoprecipitation data sets, suggesting that cZNF292 does not act as a microRNA sponge. We show that the majority of the selected endothelial circRNAs fulfill all criteria of bona fide circRNAs. The circRNA cZNF292 exhibits proangiogenic activities in vitro. These data suggest that endothelial circRNAs are regulated by hypoxia and have biological functions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Effect of hypoxia on the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in U87 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Minchenko, O H; Riabovol, O O; Tsymbal, D O; Minchenko, D O; Ratushna, O O

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the effect of hypoxia on the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in U87 glioma cells under the inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme-1), which controls cell proliferation and tumor growth as a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress. It was shown that hypoxia down-regulated gene expression of malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2), malic enzyme 2 (ME2), mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (GOT2), and subunit B of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB) in control (transfected by empty vector) glioma cells in a gene specific manner. At the same time, the expression level of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and subunit D of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHD) genes in these cells does not significantly change in hypoxic conditions. It was also shown that the inhibition of ІRE1 signaling enzyme function in U87 glioma cells decreases the effect of hypoxia on the expression of ME2, GOT2, and SDHB genes and introduces the sensitivity of IDH2 gene to hypoxia. Furthermore, the expression of all studied genes depends on IRE1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling in gene specific manner, because ІRE1 knockdown significantly decreases their expression in normoxic conditions, except for IDH2 gene, which expression level is strongly up-regulated. Therefore, changes in the expression level of nuclear genes encoding ME2, MDH2, IDH2, SDHB, SDHD, and GOT2 proteins possibly reflect metabolic reprogramming of mitochondria by hypoxia and IRE1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling and correlate with suppression of glioma cell proliferation under inhibition of the IRE1 enzyme function.

  9. Culture media from hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    PubMed

    Hummitzsch, Lars; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-03-10

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon, whereby short episodes of non-lethal ischemia to an organ or tissue exert protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a distant organ. However, there is still an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the RIPC-mediated mechanisms within the target organ and the released factors. Here we established a human cell culture model to investigate cellular and molecular effects of RIPC and to identify factors responsible for RIPC-mediated intestinal protection. Human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) were exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia (3 × 15 min) and conditioned culture media (CM) were collected after 24h. Human intestinal cells (CaCo-2) were cultured with or without CM and subjected to 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, gelatin zymography, hydrogen peroxide measurements and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were performed. In HUVEC cultures hypoxic conditioning did not influence the profile of secreted proteins but led to an increased gelatinase activity (P<0.05) in CM. In CaCo-2 cultures 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in morphological signs of cell damage, increased LDH levels (P<0.001) and elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (P<0.01). Incubation of CaCo-2 cells with CM reduced the hypoxia-induced signs of cell damage and LDH release (P<0.01) and abrogated the hypoxia-induced increase of hydrogen peroxide. These events were associated with an enhanced phosphorylation status of the prosurvival kinase Erk1/2 (P<0.05) but not Akt and STAT-5. Taken together, CM of hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. The established culture model may help to unravel RIPC-mediated cellular events and to identify molecules released by RIPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cycling hypoxia: A key feature of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Carine; Tellier, Céline; Feron, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    A compelling body of evidence indicates that most human solid tumors contain hypoxic areas. Hypoxia is the consequence not only of the chaotic proliferation of cancer cells that places them at distance from the nearest capillary but also of the abnormal structure of the new vasculature network resulting in transient blood flow. Hence two types of hypoxia are observed in tumors: chronic and cycling (intermittent) hypoxia. Most of the current work aims at understanding the role of chronic hypoxia in tumor growth, response to treatment and metastasis. Only recently, cycling hypoxia, with spatial and temporal fluctuations in oxygen levels, has emerged as another key feature of the tumor environment that triggers different responses in comparison to chronic hypoxia. Either type of hypoxia is associated with distinct effects not only in cancer cells but also in stromal cells. In particular, cycling hypoxia has been demonstrated to favor, to a higher extent than chronic hypoxia, angiogenesis, resistance to anti-cancer treatments, intratumoral inflammation and tumor metastasis. These review details these effects as well as the signaling pathway it triggers to switch on specific transcriptomic programs. Understanding the signaling pathways through which cycling hypoxia induces these processes that support the development of an aggressive cancer could convey to the emergence of promising new cancer treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypoxia promotes luteal cell death in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ryo; Komiyama, Junichi; Tasaki, Yukari; Acosta, Tomas J; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2008-03-01

    Low oxygen caused by a decreasing blood supply is known to induce various responses of cells, including apoptosis. The present study was conducted to examine whether low-oxygen conditions (hypoxia) induce luteal cell apoptosis in cattle. Bovine midluteal cells incubated under hypoxia (3% O(2)) showed significantly more cell death than did those incubated under normoxia (20% O(2)) at 24 and 48 h of culture, and had significantly lower progesterone (P4) levels starting at 8 h. Characteristic features of apoptosis, such as shrunken nuclei and DNA fragmentation, were observed in cells cultured under hypoxia for 48 h. Hypoxia increased the mRNA expressions of BNIP3 and caspase 3 at 24 and 48 h of culture. Hypoxia had no significant effect on the expressions of BCL2 and BAX mRNA. Hypoxia also increased BNIP3 protein, and activated caspase-3. Treatment of P4 attenuated cell death, caspase-3 mRNA expression, and caspase-3 activity under hypoxia. Overall results of the present study indicate that hypoxia induces luteal cell apoptosis by enhancing the expression of proapoptotic protein, BNIP3, and by activating caspase-3, and that the induction of apoptosis by hypoxia is partially caused by a decrease in P4 production. Because hypoxia suppresses P4 synthesis in bovine luteal cells, we suggest that oxygen deficiency caused by a decreasing blood supply in bovine corpus luteum is one of the major factors contributing to both functional and structural luteolysis.

  12. Slit2 ameliorates renal inflammation and fibrosis after hypoxia-and lipopolysaccharide-induced epithelial cells injury in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Yao, Qisheng, E-mail: yymcyqs@126.com; Sun, Xinbo

    Hypoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) is often incompletely repaired and leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The Slit2 family of secreted glycoproteins is expressed in the kidney, it has been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory activity and prevent ischemic renal injury in vivo. However, whether Slit2 reduces renal fibrosis and inflammation after hypoxic and inflammatory epithelial cells injury in vitro remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether Slit2 ameliorated fibrosis and inflammation in two renal epithelial cells line challenged with hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Renal epithelial cells were treatedmore » with hypoxia and LPS to induce cell injury. Hoechst staining and Western blot analysis was conducted to examine epithelial cells injury. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tested the inflammatory factor interleukin (IL)−1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Western blot analysis determined the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)−1α, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Results revealed that hypoxia induced epithelial cells apoptosis, inflammatory factor IL-1β and TNF-α release and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. LPS could exacerbate hypoxia -induced epithelial cells apoptosis, IL-1β and TNF-α release and fibrosis. Slit2 reduced the expression of fibronectin, the rate of epithelial cell apoptosis, and the expression of inflammatory factor. Slit2 could also inhibit the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB, but not the expression of HIF-1α. Therefore, Slit2 attenuated inflammation and fibrosis after LPS- and hypoxia-induced epithelial cells injury via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, but not depending on the HIF-1α signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Slit2 ameliorates inflammation after hypoxia-and LPS-induced epithelial cells

  13. Substance P receptors in brain stem respiratory centers of the rat: regulation of NK1 receptors by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, S B; Hinrichsen, C F; Geraghty, D P

    1997-09-01

    Substance P (SP) is a key neurotransmitter involved in the brain stem integration of carotid body chemoreceptor reflexes. In this study, the characteristics and location of SP receptors in the rat brain stem and their regulation by hypoxia were investigated using homogenate radioligand binding and quantitative autoradiography. Specific binding of [125I] Bolton-Hunter SP (BHSP) to brain stem homogenates was saturable (approximately 0.3 nM) and to a single class of high-affinity sites (K(d), 0.16 nM; maximum density of binding sites, 0.43 fmol/mg wet weight tissue). The order of potency of agonists for inhibition of BHSP binding was SP > [Sar9Met(O2)11]SP > neurokinin A > septide > neurokinin B > [Nle10]-neurokinin A(4-10) = senktide, and for nonpeptide antagonists, RP 67580 > CP-96,345 > RP 68651 = CP-96,344, consistent with binding to NK1 receptors. The effect of single and multiple, 5-min bouts of hypoxia (8.5% O2/91.5% N2) on BHSP binding was investigated using quantitative autoradiography. Binding sites were localized to the lateral, medial and commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the hypoglossal nucleus, central gray and the spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus (Sp5 and nSp5, respectively). Five min after a single bout of hypoxia, the density of BHSP binding sites had decreased significantly (P < .05) in the medial NTS (-33%) and lateral NTS (-24%) when compared to normoxic controls. However, the normal receptor complement was restored within 60 min of the hypoxic challenge. In the Sp5, a significant decrease (P < .05) in binding was observed 5 min after hypoxia which was still apparent after 60 min. In contrast, the density of BHSP binding sites in the hypoglossal nucleus decreased slowly and was significantly lower (P < .05) than normoxic controls 60 min after hypoxia. Five min after repetitive hypoxia (3 x 5 min bouts), BHSP binding in the NTS was reduced by more than 40%. Studies in homogenates showed that the affinity of SP for BHSP binding

  14. Lenticular cytoprotection. Part 1: the role of hypoxia inducible factors-1α and -2α and vascular endothelial growth factor in lens epithelial cell survival in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Sudha; Brooks, Morgan M; Cammarata, Patrick R

    2013-01-01

    The prosurvival signaling cascades that mediate the unique ability of human lens epithelial cells to survive in their naturally hypoxic environment are not well defined. Hypoxia induces the synthesis of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α that in turn, plays a crucial role in modulating a downstream survival scheme, where vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also plays a major role. To date, no published reports in the lens literature attest to the expression and functionality of HIF-2α and the role it might play in regulating VEGF expression. The aim of this study was to identify the functional expression of the hypoxia inducible factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α and establish their role in regulating VEGF expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate a link between sustained VEGF expression and the ability of the hypoxic human lens epithelial cell to thrive in low oxygen conditions and resist mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (also referred to as lenticular cytoprotection). Hypoxia inducible factor translation inhibitors were used to demonstrate the role of HIF-1α and HIF-2α and the simultaneous expression of both hypoxic inducible factors to determine their role in regulating VEGF expression. Axitinib, which inhibits lenticular cell autophosphorylation of its VEGF receptor, was employed to demonstrate a role for the VEGF-VEGFR2 receptor complex in regulating Bcl-2 expression. Specific antisera and western blot analysis were used to detect the protein levels of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, as well as the proapoptotic protein, BAX and the prosurvival protein, Bcl-2. VEGF levels were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The potentiometric dye, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide, was used to determine the effect of the inhibitors on mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. Cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) maintained under hypoxic condition (1% oxygen) displayed consistent accumulation

  15. Lenticular cytoprotection. Part 1: The role of hypoxia inducible factors-1α and -2α and vascular endothelial growth factor in lens epithelial cell survival in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Neelam, Sudha; Brooks, Morgan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The prosurvival signaling cascades that mediate the unique ability of human lens epithelial cells to survive in their naturally hypoxic environment are not well defined. Hypoxia induces the synthesis of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α that in turn, plays a crucial role in modulating a downstream survival scheme, where vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also plays a major role. To date, no published reports in the lens literature attest to the expression and functionality of HIF-2α and the role it might play in regulating VEGF expression. The aim of this study was to identify the functional expression of the hypoxia inducible factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α and establish their role in regulating VEGF expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate a link between sustained VEGF expression and the ability of the hypoxic human lens epithelial cell to thrive in low oxygen conditions and resist mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (also referred to as lenticular cytoprotection). Methods Hypoxia inducible factor translation inhibitors were used to demonstrate the role of HIF-1α and HIF-2α and the simultaneous expression of both hypoxic inducible factors to determine their role in regulating VEGF expression. Axitinib, which inhibits lenticular cell autophosphorylation of its VEGF receptor, was employed to demonstrate a role for the VEGF–VEGFR2 receptor complex in regulating Bcl-2 expression. Specific antisera and western blot analysis were used to detect the protein levels of HIF-1α and HIF-2α, as well as the proapoptotic protein, BAX and the prosurvival protein, Bcl-2. VEGF levels were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The potentiometric dye, 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro1,1′,3,3′-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide, was used to determine the effect of the inhibitors on mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. Results Cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) maintained under hypoxic condition (1% oxygen

  16. Pathophysiological hypoxia affects the redox state and IL-2 signalling of human CD4+ T cells and concomitantly impairs survival and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Timo; Tran, Cam Loan; Schellmann, Saskia; Hahne, Martin; Strehl, Cindy; Hoff, Paula; Radbruch, Andreas; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Buttgereit, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Inflamed areas are characterized by infiltration of immune cells, local hypoxia and alterations of cellular redox states. We investigated the impact of hypoxia on survival, proliferation, cytokine secretion, intracellular energy and redox state of human CD4(+) T cells. We found that pathophysiological hypoxia (<2% O2 ) significantly decreased CD4(+) T-cell survival after mitogenic stimulation. This effect was not due to an increased caspase-3/7-mediated apoptosis or adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) consumption/depletion. However, the ability of stimulated T cells to proliferate was reduced under hypoxic conditions, despite increased expression of CD25. Pathophysiological hypoxia was also found to modify intracellular ROS (iROS) levels in stimulated T cells over time as compared with levels found in normoxia. Physiological hypoxia (5% O2 ) did not decrease CD4(+) T-cell survival and proliferation or modify iROS levels as compared with normoxia. We conclude that pathophysiological hypoxia affects T-cell proliferation and viability via disturbed IL-2R signalling downstream of STAT5a phosphorylation, but not as a result of impaired cellular energy homeostasis. We suggest iROS links early events in T-cell stimulation to the inhibition of the lymphoproliferative response under pathophysiological hypoxic conditions. The level of iROS may therefore act as a mediator of immune functions leading to down-regulation of long-term T-cell activity in inflamed tissues. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. NASA Gulf of Mexico Initiative Hypoxia Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    The Applied Science & Technology Project Office at Stennis Space Center (SSC) manages NASA's Gulf of Mexico Initiative (GOMI). Addressing short-term crises and long-term issues, GOMI participants seek to understand the environment using remote sensing, in-situ observations, laboratory analyses, field observations and computational models. New capabilities are transferred to end-users to help them make informed decisions. Some GOMI activities of interest to the hypoxia research community are highlighted.

  18. Novel Hypoxia-Directed Cancer Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    as anti-cancer therapies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hypoxia-inducible factors, mass-spectrometry, drug discovery, kidney cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...programs required for driving solid tumor growth in cancers of kidney , pancreas, stomach, colon and skin. We seek the discovery of drug-like...drug discovery, kidney cancer. 5 What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? How were the

  19. Hypoxia Responsive Drug Delivery Systems in Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Alimoradi, Houman; Matikonda, Siddharth S; Gamble, Allan B; Giles, Gregory I; Greish, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors. It is mainly determined by low levels of oxygen resulting from imperfect vascular networks supplying most tumors. In an attempt to improve the present chemotherapeutic treatment and reduce associated side effects, several prodrug strategies have been introduced to achieve hypoxia-specific delivery of cytotoxic anticancer agents. With the advances in nanotechnology, novel delivery systems activated by the consequent outcomes of hypoxia have been developed. However, developing hypoxia responsive drug delivery systems (which only depend on low oxygen levels) is currently naïve. This review discusses four main hypoxia responsive delivery systems: polymeric based drug delivery systems, oxygen delivery systems combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, anaerobic bacteria which are used for delivery of genes to express anticancer proteins such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors 1 alpha (HIF1α) responsive gene delivery systems.

  20. Structural integration in hypoxia-inducible factors

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dalei; Potluri, Nalini; Lu, Jingping

    The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) coordinate cellular adaptations to low oxygen stress by regulating transcriptional programs in erythropoiesis, angiogenesis and metabolism. These programs promote the growth and progression of many tumours, making HIFs attractive anticancer targets. Transcriptionally active HIFs consist of HIF-alpha and ARNT (also called HIF-1 beta) subunits. Here we describe crystal structures for each of mouse HIF-2 alpha-ARNT and HIF-1 alpha-ARNT heterodimers in states that include bound small molecules and their hypoxia response element. A highly integrated quaternary architecture is shared by HIF-2 alpha-ARNT and HIF-1 alpha-ARNT, wherein ARNT spirals around the outside of each HIF-alpha subunit. Five distinctmore » pockets are observed that permit small-molecule binding, including PAS domain encapsulated sites and an interfacial cavity formed through subunit heterodimerization. The DNA-reading head rotates, extends and cooperates with a distal PAS domain to bind hypoxia response elements. HIF-alpha mutations linked to human cancers map to sensitive sites that establish DNA binding and the stability of PAS domains and pockets.« less

  1. Nutrient Enrichment Drives Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Boynton, Walter R.; Crowder, Larry B.; Diaz, Robert J.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mee, Laurence D.; Nixon, Scott W.; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Rosenberg, Rutger; Sanders, James G.; Scavia, Donald; Turner, R. Eugene

    2009-04-01

    During most summers over the past 30 years, bottom dissolved oxygen across a large area of the Louisiana and upper Texas continental shelf declined to concentrations too low (hypoxia) for most fish and large invertebrate animals to survive. This area is one of the best known “dead zones” proliferating around the world [Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008]. During July 2008, hypoxic bottom waters extended across 20,720 square kilometers (Figure 1), but they were probably even more extensive because winds from Hurricane Dolly mixed the waters off Texas before the survey could be completed. Increased inputs of nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) from the U.S. agricultural heartland within the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB) are implicated in the development and spread of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Consequently, the causes of, and solutions for, hypoxia have been subjects of extensive debate and analysis. An integrated scientific assessment led to a 2001 Action Plan [Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force, 2001] with a goal of reducing the area of the hypoxic zone to less than 5000 square kilometers by reducing nitrogen loading [Rabalais et al., 2007].

  2. The Role of Hypoxia in Glioblastoma Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Ana Rita; Pilkington, Geoffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient’s median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI image analysis, followed by radiotherapy and treatment with temozolomide. However, the gradual development of tumor resistance to temozolomide is frequent in GBM patients leading to subsequent tumor regrowth/relapse. For this reason, the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for GBM is of critical importance. Low tumor oxygenation, also known as hypoxia, constitutes a major concern for GBM patients, since it promotes cancer cell spreading (invasion) into the healthy brain tissue in order to evade this adverse microenvironment. Tumor invasion not only constitutes a major obstacle to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, but it is also the main cause of death in GBM patients. Understanding how hypoxia triggers the GBM cells to become invasive is paramount to developing novel and more effective therapies against this devastating disease. In this review, we will present a comprehensive examination of the available literature focused on investigating how GBM hypoxia triggers an invasive cancer cell phenotype and the role of these invasive proteins in GBM progression. PMID:29165393

  3. Hypoxia in the changing marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Cowie, G.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2013-03-01

    The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24).

  4. Imaging hypoxia using 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The objective is to develop a multivariate in vivo hemodynamic model of tissue oxygenation (MiHMO2) based on 3D photoacoustic spectroscopy. Introduction: Low oxygen levels, or hypoxia, deprives cancer cells of oxygen and confers resistance to irradiation, some chemotherapeutic drugs, and oxygen-dependent therapies (phototherapy) leading to treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival. For example, clinical studies of patients with breast carcinomas, cervical cancer, and head and neck carcinomas (HNC) are more likely to suffer local reoccurrence and metastasis if their tumors are hypoxic. A novel method to non invasively measure tumor hypoxia, identify its type, and monitor its heterogeneity is devised by measuring tumor hemodynamics, MiHMO2. Material and Methods: Simulations are performed to compare tumor pO2 levels and hypoxia based on physiology - perfusion, fractional plasma volume, fractional cellular volume - and its hemoglobin status - oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration - based on in vivo measurements of breast, prostate, and ovarian tumors. Simulations of MiHMO2 are performed to assess the influence of scanner resolutions and different mathematic models of oxygen delivery. Results: Sensitivity of pO2 and hypoxic fraction to photoacoustic scanner resolution and dependencies on model complexity will be presented using hemodynamic parameters for different tumors. Conclusions: Photoacoustic CT spectroscopy provides a unique ability to monitor hemodynamic and cellular physiology in tissue, which can be used to longitudinally monitor tumor oxygenation and its response to anti-angiogenic therapies.

  5. Metabolism, hypoxia and the diabetic heart.

    PubMed

    Heather, Lisa C; Clarke, Kieran

    2011-04-01

    The diabetic heart becomes metabolically remodelled as a consequence of exposure to abnormal circulating substrates and hormones. Fatty acid uptake and metabolism are increased in the type 2 diabetic heart, resulting in accumulation of intracellular lipid intermediates and an increased contribution of fatty acids towards energy generation. Cardiac glucose uptake and oxidation are decreased, predominantly due to increased fatty acid metabolism, which suppresses glucose utilisation via the Randle cycle. These metabolic changes decrease cardiac efficiency and energetics in both humans and animal models of diabetes. Diabetic hearts have decreased recovery following ischemia, indicating a reduced tolerance to oxygen-limited conditions. There is evidence that diabetic hearts have a compromised hypoxia signalling pathway, as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and downstream signalling from HIF are reduced following ischemia. Failure to activate HIF under oxygen-limited conditions results in less angiogenesis, and an inability to upregulate glycolytic ATP generation. Given that glycolysis is already suppressed in the diabetic heart under normoxic conditions, the inability to upregulate glycolysis in response to hypoxia may have deleterious effects on ATP production. Thus, impaired HIF signalling may contribute to metabolic and energetic abnormalities, and impaired collateral vessel development following myocardial infarction in the type 2 diabetic heart. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 5-Aminolevulinic acid with sodium ferrous citrate induces autophagy and protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced cellular injury through MAPK-Nrf-2-HO-1 signaling cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Mingyi; Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou; Department of Pediatrics, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha

    Background: Hypoxia causes cardiac disease via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. 5-Aminolevulinic acid in combination with sodium ferrous citrate (ALA/SFC) has been shown to up-regulate heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and decrease macrophage infiltration and renal cell apoptosis in renal ischemia injury mice. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ALA/SFC could protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by autophagy via HO-1 signaling. Materials & methods: Murine atrial cardiomyocyte HL-1 cells were pretreated with ALA/SFC and then exposed to hypoxia. Results: ALA/SFC pretreatment significantly attenuated hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial injury,more » while it increased cell viability and autophagy levels. HO-1 expression by ALA/SFC was associated with up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf-2, whereas Nrf-2 siRNA dramatically reduced HO-1 expression. ERK1/2, p38, and SAPK/JNK pathways were activated by ALA/SFC and their specific inhibitors significantly reduced ALA/SFC-mediated HO-1 upregulation. Silencing of either Nrf-2 or HO-1and LY294002, inhibitor of autophagy, abolished the protective ability of ALA/AFC against hypoxia-induced injury and reduced ALA/SFC-induced autophagy. Conclusion: Taken together, our data suggest that ALA/SFC induces autophagy via activation of MAPK/Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling pathway to protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. - Highlights: • ALA/SFC attenuates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial injury. • ALA/SFC increases the heme oxygenase-1 expression via Nrf-2 and ERK1/2, p38, and SAPK/JNK pathways. • ALA/SFC induces autophagy and inhibition of autophagy prevent ALA/SFC-mediated suppression of hypoxia-induced injury.« less

  7. Hypoxia Induced Impairment of NK Cell Cytotoxicity against Multiple Myeloma Can Be Overcome by IL-2 Activation of the NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Subhashis; Germeraad, Wilfred T. V.; Rouschop, Kasper M. A.; Steeghs, Elisabeth M. P.; van Gelder, Michel; Bos, Gerard M. J.; Wieten, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy residing within the bone marrow (BM). We aim to develop allogeneic Natural Killer (NK) cell immunotherapy for MM. As the BM contains hypoxic regions and the tumor environment can be immunosuppressive, we hypothesized that hypoxia inhibits NK cell anti-MM responses. Methods NK cells were isolated from healthy donors by negative selection and NK cell function and phenotype were examined at oxygen levels representative of hypoxic BM using flowcytometry. Additionally, NK cells were activated with IL-2 to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity under hypoxia. Results Hypoxia reduced NK cell killing of MM cell lines in an oxygen dependent manner. Under hypoxia, NK cells maintained their ability to degranulate in response to target cells, though, the percentage of degranulating NK cells was slightly reduced. Adaptation of NK- or MM cells to hypoxia was not required, hence, the oxygen level during the killing process was critical. Hypoxia did not alter surface expression of NK cell ligands (HLA-ABC, -E, MICA/B and ULBP1-2) and receptors (KIR, NKG2A/C, DNAM-1, NCRs and 2B4). It did, however, decrease expression of the activating NKG2D receptor and of intracellular perforin and granzyme B. Pre-activation of NK cells by IL-2 abrogated the detrimental effects of hypoxia and increased NKG2D expression. This emphasized that activated NK cells can mediate anti-MM effects, even under hypoxic conditions. Conclusions Hypoxia abolishes the killing potential of NK cells against multiple myeloma, which can be restored by IL-2 activation. Our study shows that for the design of NK cell-based immunotherapy it is necessary to study biological interactions between NK- and tumor cells also under hypoxic conditions. PMID:23724099

  8. Intracellular pathways triggered by the selective FLT-1-agonist placental growth factor in vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bellik, Lydia; Vinci, Maria Cristina; Filippi, Sandra; Ledda, Fabrizio; Parenti, Astrid

    2005-10-01

    We have previously shown that hypoxia makes vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) responsive to placental growth factor (PlGF) through the induction of functional fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt-1) receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the PlGF effects on proliferation and contraction of VSMCs previously exposed to hypoxia (3% O2). In cultured rat VSMCs exposed to hypoxia, PlGF increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), p38 and STAT3; activation of STAT3 was higher than that of other kinases. In agreement with this finding, the proliferation of hypoxia-treated VSMCs in response to PlGF was significantly impaired by the p38 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors SB202190 and LY294002, respectively, and was almost completely prevented by AG490, a janus tyrosine kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) inhibitor. Since hypoxia was able to reverse the vasorelaxant effect of PlGF into a vasoconstrictor response, the mechanism of this latter effect was also investigated. Significant Flt-1 activity was measured in isolated preparations from rat aorta exposed to hypoxia. Inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, Akt and STAT3 induced a modest inhibition of the vasoconstrictor response to PlGF, while the p38 inhibitor SB202190 markedly impaired the PlGF-induced contractile response. These effects were selectively mediated by Flt-1 without any involvement of foetal liver kinase-1 receptors. These data are the first evidence that different intracellular pathways activated by Flt-1 receptor in VSMCs are involved in diverse biological effects of PlGF: while mitogen activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase(1/2) and JAK/STAT play a role in VSMC proliferation, p38 is involved in VSMC contraction. These findings may highlight the role of PlGF in vascular pathology.

  9. Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes MUC4 degradation via autophagy to enhance pancreatic cancer cells survival.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Kumar, S; Ponnusamy, M P; Batra, S K

    2016-11-10

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) and associated pre-neoplastic lesions have been reported to be hypoxic, primarily due to hypovascular nature of PC. Though the presence of hypoxia under cancerous condition has been associated with the overexpression of oncogenic proteins (MUC1), multiple emerging reports have also indicated the growth inhibitory effects of hypoxia. In spite of being recognized as the top-most differentially expressed and established oncogenic protein in PC, MUC4 regulation in terms of micro-environmental stress has not been determined. Herein, for the first time, we are reporting that MUC4 protein stability is drastically affected in PC, under hypoxic condition in a hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-independent manner. Mechanistically, we have demonstrated that hypoxia-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes autophagy by inhibiting pAkt/mTORC1 pathway, one of the central regulators of autophagy. Immunohistofluorescence analyses revealed significant negative correlation (P-value=0.017) between 8-hydroxy guanosine (8-OHG) and MUC4 in primary pancreatic tumors (n=25). Moreover, we found pronounced colocalization between MUC4 and LAMP1/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) in PC tissues and also observed their negative relationship in their expression pattern, suggesting that areas with high autophagy rate had less MUC4 expression. We also found that hypoxia and ROS have negative impact on overall cell growth and viability, which was partially, though significantly (P<0.05), rescued in the presence of MUC4. Altogether, hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress induces autophagy in PC, leading to the MUC4 degradation to enhance survival, possibly by offering required metabolites to stressed cells.

  10. Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress promotes MUC4 degradation via autophagy to enhance pancreatic cancer cells survival

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, S; Kumar, S; Ponnusamy, MP; Batra, SK

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) and associated pre-neoplastic lesions have been reported to be hypoxic, primarily due to hypovascular nature of PC. Though the presence of hypoxia under cancerous condition has been associated with the overexpression of oncogenic proteins (MUC1), multiple emerging reports have also indicated the growth inhibitory effects of hypoxia. In spite of being recognized as the top-most differentially expressed and established oncogenic protein in PC, MUC4 regulation in terms of micro-environmental stress has not been determined. Herein, for the first time, we are reporting that MUC4 protein stability is drastically affected in PC, under hypoxic condition in a hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-independent manner. Mechanistically, we have demonstrated that hypoxia-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes autophagy by inhibiting pAkt/ mTORC1 pathway, one of the central regulators of autophagy. Immunohistofluorescence analyses revealed significant negative correlation (P-value = 0.017) between 8-hydroxy guanosine (8-OHG) and MUC4 in primary pancreatic tumors (n = 25). Moreover, we found pronounced colocalization between MUC4 and LAMP1/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) in PC tissues and also observed their negative relationship in their expression pattern, suggesting that areas with high autophagy rate had less MUC4 expression. We also found that hypoxia and ROS have negative impact on overall cell growth and viability, which was partially, though significantly (P < 0.05), rescued in the presence of MUC4. Altogether, hypoxia-mediated oxidative stress induces autophagy in PC, leading to the MUC4 degradation to enhance survival, possibly by offering required metabolites to stressed cells. PMID:27109098

  11. Effects of hypoxia on sympathetic neural control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. L.; Muenter, N. K.

    2000-01-01

    This special issue is principally focused on the time domain of the adaptive mechanisms of ventilatory responses to short-term, long-term and intermittent hypoxia. The purpose of this review is to summarize the limited literature on the sympathetic neural responses to sustained or intermittent hypoxia in humans and attempt to discern the time domain of these responses and potential adaptive processes that are evoked during short and long-term exposures to hypoxia.

  12. [Chronic hypoxia and cardiovascular risk : Clinical significance of different forms of hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Koehler, U; Hildebrandt, O; Krönig, J; Grimm, W; Otto, J; Hildebrandt, W; Kinscherf, R

    2018-06-01

    It is of fundamental importance to differentiate whether chronic hypoxia occurs intermittently or persistently. While chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is found typically in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OAS), chronic persistent hypoxia (CPH) is typically diagnosed in patients with chronic lung disease. Cardiovascular risk is markedly increased in patients with CIH compared to patients with CPH. The frequent change between oxygen desaturation and reoxygenation in patients with CIH is associated with increased hypoxic stress, increased systemic inflammation, and enhanced adrenergic activation followed by endothelial dysfunction and increased arteriosclerosis. The pathophysiologic consequences of CPH are less well understood. The relationship between CPH and the development of pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary heart disease as well as polycythemia has been established.

  13. Prolonged lobar hypoxia in vivo enhances the responsivity of isolated pulmonary veins to hypoxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, D. W.; Farhi, L. E.; Russell, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The hypoxic response of pulmonary vessels isolated from eight sheep whose right apical lobes (RAL) had inspired 100% N2 for 20 h was studied. The RAL of these conscious sheep inspired hypoxic gas and the remainder of the lung inspired air. During hypoxia, RAL perfusion was 33 +/- 3% of its air value, carotid arterial PO2 averaged 86 +/- 3 mm Hg and pulmonary perfusion pressure was not significantly different from the initial control period when the RAL inspired air. At the end of the hypoxic exposure, the sheep were killed, and pulmonary artery and vein rings (0.5 to 2 mm inner diameter) were isolated from both the RAL and the right cardiac lobe, which served as the control lobe (CL). Arteries from the RAL and CL did not contract in response to 6% O2/6% CO2/88% N2 (hypoxia). In contrast, RAL veins did contract vigorously in response to hypoxia, whereas CL veins did not contract or contracted only minimally. Rubbing of the endothelium or prior incubation of RAL veins with catalase (1,200 units/ml), indomethacin (10(-5) M), or the thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TxA2/PGH2) receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548 (3 X 10(-6) M) each significantly reduced the response to hypoxia. RAL veins were also found to be more reactive than CL veins to the prostaglandin endoperoxide analogue U46619. We conclude that prolonged lobar hypoxia in vivo increases the responsivity of isolated pulmonary veins to hypoxia. These contractions may result from an increase in reactive O2 species, which in turn modify production of, metabolism of, and/or tissue responsivity to TxA2/PGH2.

  14. Tissue hypoxia during ischemic stroke: adaptive clues from hypoxia-tolerant animal models.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Thomas I; Williams-Hernandez, Ashley; Hunter, Anan L; Liddy, Caroline; Peffley, Dennis M; Umesiri, Francis E; Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola

    2015-05-01

    The treatment and prevention of hypoxic/ischemic brain injury in stroke patients remain a severe and global medical issue. Numerous clinical studies have resulted in a failure to develop chemical neuroprotection for acute, ischemic stroke. Over 150 estimated clinical trials of ischemic stroke treatments have been done, and more than 200 drugs and combinations of drugs for ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have been developed. Billions of dollars have been invested for new scientific breakthroughs with only limited success. The revascularization of occluded cerebral arteries such as anti-clot treatments of thrombolysis has proven effective, but it can only be used in a 3-4.5h time frame after the onset of a stroke, and not for every patient. This review is about novel insights on how to resist tissue hypoxia from unconventional animal models. Ability to resist tissue hypoxia is an extraordinary ability that is not common in many laboratory animals such as rat and mouse models. For example, we can learn from a naked mole-rat, Chrysemys picta, how to actively regulate brain metabolic activity to defend the brain against fluctuating oxygen tension and acute bouts of oxidative stress following the onset of a stroke. Additionally, a euthermic arctic ground squirrel can teach us how the brain of a stroke patient can remain well oxygenated during tissue hypoxia with no evidence of cellular stress. In this review, we discuss how these animals provide us with a system to gain insight into the possible mechanisms of tissue hypoxia/ischemia. This issue is of clinical significance to stroke patients. We describe specific physiological and molecular adaptations employed by different animals' models of hypoxia tolerance in aquatic and terrestrial environments. We highlight how these adaptations might provide potential clues on strategies to adapt for the clinical management of tissue hypoxia during conditions such as stroke where oxygen demand fails to match the supply. Copyright

  15. Hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factors and fibrogenesis in chronic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Cannito, Stefania; Paternostro, Claudia; Busletta, Chiara; Bocca, Claudia; Colombatto, Sebastiano; Miglietta, Antonella; Novo, Erica; Parola, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Fibrogenic progression of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) towards the end-point of cirrhosis is currently regarded, whatever the aetiology, as a dynamic and highly integrated cellular response to chronic liver injury. Liver fibrogenesis (i.e., the process) is sustained by hepatic populations of highly proliferative, pro-fibrogenic and contractile myofibroblast-like cells (MFs) that mainly originate from hepatic stellate cells (HSC) or, to a less extent, from portal fibroblasts or bone marrow-derived cells. As is well known, liver fibrosis (i.e., the result) is accompanied by perpetuation of liver injury, chronic hepatitis and persisting activation of tissue repair mechanisms, leading eventually to excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. In this scenario, hypoxic areas represent a very common and major feature of fibrotic and cirrhotic liver during the progression of CLDs. Cells exposed to hypoxia respond by means of heterodimeric hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that translocate into the nucleus and binds to a specific core sequence defined hypoxia-responsive element (HRE), present in the promoter on several genes which are considered as hypoxia-regulated target genes. HIFs transcription factors can activate a complex genetic program designed to sustain several changes necessary to efficiently counteract the decrease in oxygen tension. Accordingly, hypoxia, through up-regulation of angiogenesis, is currently believed to significantly contribute to fibrogenic progression of CLDs, mostly by affecting the pro-fibrogenic and pro-angiogenic behaviour of hepatic MFs. In addition, experimental and clinical evidence generated in the last decade also indicates that angiogenesis and fibrogenesis in CLDs may also be sustained by HIF-dependent but hypoxia-independent mediators.

  16. Chloroquine inhibits autophagy and deteriorates the mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in hypoxic rat neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Hao, Lei; Guo, Yan-Yan; Yang, Guang-Lu; Mei, Hua; Li, Xiao-Hua; Zhai, Qiong-Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) and apoptosis in the neurons are associated with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE). The present study was to explore the influence of autophagy on the induction of MD and apoptosis in the neurons in a neonatal HIE rats and in hypoxia-treated neurons in vitro. Ten-day-old HI rat pups were sacrificed for brain pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. The induction of autophagy, apoptosis and MD were also determined in the neurons under hypoxia, with or without autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) treatment. HI treatment caused atrophy and apoptosis of neurons, with a significantly increased levels of apoptosis- and autophagy-associated proteins, such as cleaved caspase 3 and the B subunit of autophagy-related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-B). in vitro experiments demonstrated that the hypoxia induced autophagy in neurons, as was inhibited by CQ. The hypoxia-induced cytochrome c release, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 9 were aggravated by CQ. Moreover, there were higher levels of reactive oxygen species, more mitochondrial superoxide and less mitochondrial membrane potential in the CQ-treated neurons under hypoxia than in the neurons singularly under hypoxia. Apoptosis and autophagy were induced in HI neonatal rat neurons, autophagy inhibition deteriorates the hypoxia-induced neuron MD and apoptosis. It implies a neuroprotection of autophagy in the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Administration of autophagy inducer agents might be promising in HIE treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Ibuprofen does not reverse ventilatory acclimatization to chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    De La Zerda, D J; Stokes, J A; Do, J; Go, A; Fu, Z; Powell, F L

    2017-07-27

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia involves an increase in the acute hypoxic ventilatory response that is blocked by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs administered during sustained hypoxia. We tested the hypothesis that inflammatory signals are necessary to sustain ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia once it is established. Adult, rats were acclimatized to normoxia or chronic hypoxia (CH, [Formula: see text] =70Torr) for 11-12days and treated with ibuprofen or saline for the last 2days of hypoxia. Ventilation, metabolic rate, and arterial blood gas responses to O 2 and CO 2 were not affected by ibuprofen after acclimatization had been established. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis showed acute (1h) hypoxia activated microglia in a medullary respiratory center (nucleus tractus solitarius, NTS) and this was blocked by ibuprofen administered from the beginning of hypoxic exposure. Microglia returned to the control state after 7days of CH and were not affected by ibuprofen administered for 2 more days of CH. In contrast, NTS astrocytes were activated by CH but not acute hypoxia and activation was not reversed by administering ibuprofen for the last 2days of CH. Hence, ibuprofen cannot reverse ventilatory acclimatization or astrocyte activation after they have been established by sustained hypoxia. The results are consistent with a model for microglia activation or other ibuprofen-sensitive processes being necessary for the induction but not maintenance of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation were essential for MGF E peptide regulating cell morphology and mobility but not proangiogenic capacity of BMSCs under severe hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Sha, Yongqiang; Yang, Li; Lv, Yonggang

    2018-04-01

    Severe hypoxia inhibits the adhesion and mobility of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and limits their application in bone tissue engineering. In this study, CoCl 2 was used to simulate severe hypoxia and the effects of mechano-growth factor (MGF) E peptide on the morphology, adhesion, migration, and proangiogenic capacity of BMSCs under hypoxia were measured. It was demonstrated that severe hypoxia (500-μM CoCl 2 ) significantly caused cell contraction and reduced cell area, roundness, adhesion, and migration of BMSCs. RhoA and ROCK1 expression levels were upregulated by severe hypoxia, but p-RhoA and mobility-relevant protein (integrin β1, p-FAK and fibronectin) expression levels in BMSCs were inhibited. Fortunately, MGF E peptide could restore all abovementioned indexes except RhoA expression. MEK-ERK1/2 pathway was involved in MGF E peptide regulating cell morphological changes, mobility, and relevant proteins (except p-FAK). PI3K-Akt pathway was involved in MGF E peptide regulating cell area, mobility, and relevant proteins. Besides, severe hypoxia upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor α expression but was harmful for proangiogenic capacity of BMSCs. Our study suggested that MGF E peptide might be helpful for the clinical application of tissue engineering strategy in bone defect repair. Sever hypoxia impairs bone defect repair with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). This study proved that mechano-growth factor E (MGF E) peptide could improve the severe hypoxia-induced cell contraction and decline of cell adhesion and migration of BMSCs. Besides, MGF E peptide weakened the effects of severe hypoxia on the cytoskeleton arrangement- and mobility-relevant protein expression levels in BMSCs. The underlying molecular mechanism was also verified. Finally, it was confirmed that MGF E peptide showed an adverse effect on the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor α in BMSCs under severe hypoxia but could

  19. The effects of hypoxia on active ionic transport processes in the gill epithelium of hyperregulating crab, Carcinus maneas.

    PubMed

    Lucu, Čedomil; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Effects of hypoxia on the osmorespiratory functions of the posterior gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas acclimated to 12ppt seawater (DSW) were studied. Short-circuit current (Isc) across the hemilamella (one epithelium layer supported by cuticle) was substantially reduced under exposure to 1.6, 2.0, or 2.5mg O 2 /L hypoxic saline (both sides of epithelium) and fully recovered after reoxygenation. Isc was reduced equally in the epithelium exposed to 1.6mg O 2 /L on both sides and when the apical side was oxygenated and the basolateral side solely exposed to hypoxia. Under 1.6mg O 2 /L, at the level of maximum inhibition of Isc, conductance was decreased from 40.0mScm -2 to 34.7mScm -2 and fully recovered after reoxygenation. Isc inhibition under hypoxia and reduced 86 Rb + (K + ) fluxes across apically located K + channels were caused preferentially by reversible inhibition of basolaterally located and ouabain sensitive Na + ,K + -ATPase mediated electrogenic transport. Reversible inhibition of Isc is discussed as decline in active transport energy supply down regulating metabolic processes and saving energy during oxygen deprivation. In response to a 4day exposure of Carcinus to 2.0mg O 2 /L, hemolymph Na + and Cl - concentration decreased, i.e. hyperosmoregulation was weakened. Variations of the oxygen concentration level and exposure time to hypoxia lead to an increase of the surface of mitochondria per epithelium area and might in part compensate for the decrease in oxygen availability under hypoxic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of K(ATP) currents in rat ventricular myocytes by hypoxia and a redox reaction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xi-Sheng; Ma, Ji-Hua; Zhang, Pei-Hua

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigated the possible regulatory mechanisms of redox agents and hypoxia on the K(ATP) current (I(KATP)) in acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes. Single-channel and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to record the K(ATP) current (I(KATP)) in acutely isolated rat ventricular myocytes. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG, 1 mmol/L) increased the I(KATP), while reduced glutathione (GSH, 1 mmol/L) could reverse the increased I(KATP) during normoxia. To further corroborate the effect of the redox agent on the K(ATP) channel, we employed the redox couple DTT (1 mmol/L)/H2O2 (0.3, 0.6, and 1 mmol/L) and repeated the previous processes, which produced results similar to the previous redox couple GSH/GSSG during normoxia. H2O2 increased the I(KATP) in a concentration dependent manner, which was reversed by DTT (1 mmol/L). In addition, our results have shown that 15 min of hypoxia increased the I(KATP), while GSH (1 mmol/L) could reverse the increased I(KATP). Furthermore, in order to study the signaling pathways of the I(KATP) augmented by hypoxia and the redox agent, we applied a protein kinase C(PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide VI (BIM), a protein kinase G(PKG) inhibitor KT5823, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors KN-62 and KN-93. The results indicated that BIM, KT5823, KN-62, and KN-93, but not H-89, inhibited the I(KATP) augmented by hypoxia and GSSG; in addition, these results suggest that the effects of both GSSG and hypoxia on K(ATP) channels involve the activation of the PKC, PKG, and CaMK II pathways, but not the PKA pathway. The present study provides electrophysiological evidence that hypoxia and the oxidizing reaction are closely related to the modulation of I(KATP).

  1. Hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 decreased survival rate of canine lymphoma cells under hypoxic condition.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Lai, Yu-Chang; Tateno, Morihiro; Setoguchi, Asuka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that hypoxic stimulation enhances growth potentials of canine lymphoma cells by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and that the hypoxia-activated prodrug (TH-302) inhibits growth potentials in the cells. We investigated how hypoxic culture affects the growth rate, chemoresistance, and invasiveness of canine lymphoma cells and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant lymphoma cells, and influences of TH-302 on survival rate of the cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic culture upregulated the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and survivin, and enhanced the growth rate, DOX resistance, and invasiveness of the cells. Additionally, TH-302 decreased the survival rate of the cells under hypoxic condition. Our studies suggest that hypoxic stimulation may advance the tumorigenicity of canine lymphoma cells, favoring malignant transformation. Therefore, the data presented may contribute to the development of TH-302-based hypoxia-targeting therapies for canine lymphoma.

  2. Potential role for microRNA in regulating hypoxia-induced metabolic suppression in jumbo squids.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Moussa, Hanane; Logan, Samantha M; Seibel, Brad A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2018-05-02

    At night, Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) rise to the ocean's surface to feed, but come morning, they descend into the ocean's oxygen minimum zone where they can avoid predators but must deal with severe hypoxia, high pressure, and very cold water. To survive this extreme environment, squid use various adaptations to enter a hypometabolic state characterized by metabolic rate suppression by 35-52%, relative to normoxic conditions. The molecular mechanisms facilitating this metabolic flexibility have yet to be elucidated in hypometabolic squid. Herein, we report the first investigation of the role of microRNAs, a rapid and reversible post-transcriptional master regulator of virtually all biological functions, in cephalopods. We examined expression levels of 39 highly-conserved invertebrate microRNAs in D. gigas brain, mantle muscle, and branchial heart, comparing hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Hypoxia-inducible microRNAs are potentially involved in facilitating neuroprotection, anti-apoptosis, and regenerative mechanisms in brain; inhibiting apoptosis and cell proliferation while conserving energy in heart; and limiting damage by reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in muscle. Rather than orchestrate global metabolic rate depression, the majority of hypoxia-inducible microRNAs identified are involved in promoting cytoprotective mechanisms, suggesting a regulatory role for microRNA in hypoxic marine invertebrates that sets the stage for mechanistic analyses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeting the hypoxic fraction of tumours using hypoxia-activated prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    The presence of a microenvironment within most tumours containing regions of low oxygen tension or hypoxia has profound biological and therapeutic implications. Tumour hypoxia is known to promote the development of an aggressive phenotype, resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy and is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Paradoxically, it is recognised as a high-priority target and one of the therapeutic strategies designed to eradicate hypoxic cells in tumours is a group of compounds known collectively as hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) or bioreductive drugs. These drugs are inactive prodrugs that require enzymatic activation (typically by 1 or 2 electron oxidoreductases) to generate cytotoxic species with selectivity for hypoxic cells being determined by (1) the ability of oxygen to either reverse or inhibit the activation process and (2) the presence of elevated expression of oxidoreductases in tumours. The concepts underpinning HAP development were established over 40 years ago and have been refined over the years to produce a new generation of HAPs that are under preclinical and clinical development. The purpose of this article is to describe current progress in the development of HAPs focusing on the mechanisms of action, preclinical properties and clinical progress of leading examples.

  4. Cordyceps sinensis extract suppresses hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bao-an; Yang, Jun; Huang, Ji; Cui, Xiang-jun; Chen, Shi-xiong; Den, Hong-yan; Xiang, Guang-ming

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effects of a Chinese herb Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) extract on hypoxia-induced proliferation and the underlying mechanisms involved. This prospective study was carried out at the Central Laboratory of Yichang Central People's Hospital, Yichang, China from March 2008 to April 2010. The C. sinensis was extracted from the Chinese herb C. sinensis using aqueous alcohol extraction techniques. Forty healthy adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in the study. The proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Cell cycles were analyzed using FACSort flow cytometric analysis. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), c-jun, and c-fos in rat PASMCs was determined by immunohistochemistry. We found an increased proliferation of PASMCs and increased expression of transcription factors, c-jun and c-fos in PASMCs cultured under hypoxic conditions. The C. sinensis extract significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, C. sinensis extract also significantly inhibited the expression of PCNA, c-jun, and c-fos in these PASMCs. Our results indicated that C. sinensis extract inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat PASMCs, probably by suppressing the expression of PCNA, c-fos, c-jun, and decreasing the percentage of cells in synthesis phase, second gap phase, and mitotic phase in cell cycle (S+G2/M) phase. Our results therefore, provided novel evidence that C. sinensis extract may be used as a therapeutic reagent in the treatment of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

  5. Effect of chronic perinatal hypoxia on the role of rho-kinase in pulmonary artery contraction in newborn lambs

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Michael H.; Merritt, Travis A.; Papamatheakis, Demosthenes G.; Blood, Quintin; Ross, Jonathon M.; Power, Gordon G.; Longo, Lawrence D.; Wilson, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to chronic hypoxia during gestation predisposes infants to neonatal pulmonary hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that moderate continuous hypoxia during gestation causes changes in the rho-kinase pathway that persist in the newborn period, altering vessel tone and responsiveness. Lambs kept at 3,801 m above sea level during gestation and the first 2 wk of life were compared with those with gestation at low altitude. In vitro studies of isolated pulmonary arterial rings found a more forceful contraction in response to KCl and 5-HT in high-altitude compared with low-altitude lambs. There was no difference between the effects of blockers of various pathways of extracellular Ca2+ entry in low- and high-altitude arteries. In contrast, inhibition of rho-kinase resulted in significantly greater attenuation of 5-HT constriction in high-altitude compared with low-altitude arteries. High-altitude lambs had higher baseline pulmonary artery pressures and greater elevations in pulmonary artery pressure during 15 min of acute hypoxia compared with low-altitude lambs. Despite evidence for an increased role for rho-kinase in high-altitude arteries, in vivo studies found no significant difference between the effects of rho-kinase inhibition on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in intact high-altitude and low-altitude lambs. We conclude that chronic hypoxia in utero results in increased vasopressor response to both acute hypoxia and serotonin, but that rho-kinase is involved only in the increased response to serotonin. PMID:23152110

  6. BMP-2 up-regulates PTEN expression and induces apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pi, Weifeng; Guo, Xuejun; Su, Liping; Xu, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in regulation of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) under hypoxia. Normal human PASMCs were cultured in growth medium (GM) and treated with BMP-2 from 5-80 ng/ml under hypoxia (5% CO(2)+94% N(2)+1% O(2)) for 72 hours. Gene expression of PTEN, AKT-1 and AKT-2 were determined by quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR). Protein expression levels of PTEN, AKT and phosph-AKT (pAKT) were determined. Apoptosis of PASMCs were determined by measuring activities of caspases-3, -8 and -9. siRNA-smad-4, bpV(HOpic) (PTEN inhibitor) and GW9662 (PPARγ antagonist) were used to determine the signalling pathways. Proliferation of PASMCs showed dose dependence of BMP-2, the lowest proliferation rate was achieved at 60 ng/ml concentration under hypoxia (82.2±2.8%). BMP-2 increased PTEN gene expression level, while AKT-1 and AKT-2 did not change. Consistently, the PTEN protein expression also showed dose dependence of BMP-2. AKT activity significantly reduced in BMP-2 treated PASMCs. Increased activities of caspase-3, -8 and -9 of PASMCs were found after cultured with BMP-2. PTEN expression remained unchanged when Smad-4 expression was inhibited by siRNA-Smad-4. bpV(HOpic) and GW9662 (PPARγ inhibitor) inhibited PTEN protein expression and recovered PASMCs proliferation rate. BMP-2 increased PTEN expression under hypoxia in a dose dependent pattern. BMP-2 reduced AKT activity and increased caspase activity of PASMCs under hypoxia. The increased PTEN expression may be mediated through PPARγ signalling pathway, instead of BMP/Smad signalling pathway.

  7. Root Bending Is Antagonistically Affected by Hypoxia and ERF-Mediated Transcription via Auxin Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eysholdt-Derzsó, Emese

    2017-01-01

    When plants encounter soil water logging or flooding, roots are the first organs to be confronted with reduced gas diffusion resulting in limited oxygen supply. Since roots do not generate photosynthetic oxygen, they are rapidly faced with oxygen shortage rendering roots particularly prone to damage. While metabolic adaptations to low oxygen conditions, which ensure basic energy supply, have been well characterized, adaptation of root growth and development have received less attention. In this study, we show that hypoxic conditions cause the primary root to grow sidewise in a low oxygen environment, possibly to escape soil patches with reduced oxygen availability. This growth behavior is reversible in that gravitropic growth resumes when seedlings are returned to normoxic conditions. Hypoxic root bending is inhibited by the group VII ethylene response factor (ERFVII) RAP2.12, as rap2.12-1 seedlings show exaggerated primary root bending. Furthermore, overexpression of the ERFVII member HRE2 inhibits root bending, suggesting that primary root growth direction at hypoxic conditions is antagonistically regulated by hypoxia and hypoxia-activated ERFVIIs. Root bending is preceded by the establishment of an auxin gradient across the root tip as quantified with DII-VENUS and is synergistically enhanced by hypoxia and the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. The protein abundance of the auxin efflux carrier PIN2 is reduced at hypoxic conditions, a response that is suppressed by RAP2.12 overexpression, suggesting antagonistic control of auxin flux by hypoxia and ERFVII. Taken together, we show that hypoxia triggers an escape response of the primary root that is controlled by ERFVII activity and mediated by auxin signaling in the root tip. PMID:28698356

  8. mTOR-Notch3 signaling mediates pulmonary hypertension in hypoxia-exposed neonatal rats independent of changes in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Julijana; Shah, Sparsh; Wong, Mathew J; Kantores, Crystal; Jain, Amish; Post, Martin; Yeganeh, Behzad; Jankov, Robert P

    2017-11-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a pivotal regulator of cell proliferation, survival, and autophagy. Autophagy is increased in adult experimental chronic pulmonary hypertension (PHT), but its contributory role to pulmonary vascular disease remains uncertain and has yet to be explored in the neonatal animal. Notch is a major pro-proliferative pathway activated by mTOR. A direct relationship between autophagy and Notch signaling has not been previously explored. Our aim was to examine changes in mTOR-, Notch-, and autophagy-related pathways and the therapeutic effects of autophagy modulators in experimental chronic neonatal PHT secondary to chronic hypoxia. Rat pups were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (13% O 2 ) from postnatal days 1-21, while receiving treatment with temsirolimus (mTOR inhibitor), DAPT (Notch inhibitor), or chloroquine (inhibitor of autophagic flux). Exposure to hypoxia up-regulated autophagy and Notch3 signaling markers in lung, pulmonary artery (PA), and PA-derived smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Temsirolimus prevented chronic PHT and attenuated PA and SMC signaling secondary to hypoxia. These effects were replicated by DAPT. mTOR or Notch inhibition also down-regulated smooth muscle content of platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor, a known contributor to vascular remodeling. In contrast, chloroquine had no modifying effects on markers of chronic PHT. Knockdown of Beclin-1 in SMCs had no effect on hypoxia-stimulated Notch3 signaling. mTOR-Notch3 signaling plays a critical role in experimental chronic neonatal PHT. Inhibition of autophagy did not suppress Notch signaling and had no effect on markers of chronic PHT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase, Not Cystathionine β-Synthase Nor Cystathionine γ-Lyase, Mediates Hypoxia-Induced Migration of Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Tao, Beibei; Wang, Rui; Sun, Chen; Zhu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis is a common phenomenon in many physiological and patho-physiological processes. However, the potential differential roles of three hydrogen sulfide producing systems cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)/H 2 S, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS)/H 2 S, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST)/H 2 S in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis are still unknown. We found that minor hypoxia (10% oxygen) significantly increased the migration of vascular endothelial cells while hypoxia (8% oxygen) significantly inhibited cell migration. The present study was performed using cells cultured in 10% oxygen. RNA interference was used to block the endogenous generation of hydrogen sulfide by CSE, CBS, or MPST in a vascular endothelial cell migration model in both normoxia and hypoxia. The results showed that CBS had a promoting effect on the migration of vascular endothelial cells cultured in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In contrast, CSE had an inhibitory effect on cell migration. MPST had a promoting effect on the migration of vascular endothelial cells cultured in hypoxia; however, it had no effect on the cells cultured in normoxia. Importantly, it was found that the hypoxia-induced increase in vascular endothelial cell migration was mediated by MPST, but not CSE or CBS. The western blot analyses showed that hypoxia significantly increased MPST protein levels, decreased CSE protein levels and did not change CBS levels, suggesting that these three hydrogen sulfide-producing systems respond differently to hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, MPST protein levels were elevated by hypoxia in a bi-phasic manner and MPST mRNA levels increased later than the first stage elevation of the protein levels, implying that the expression of MPST induced by hypoxia was also regulated at a post-transcriptional level. RNA pull-down assay showed that some candidate RNA binding proteins, such as nucleolin and Annexin A2, were dissociated from the 3'-UTR of MPST mRNA in

  10. Postconditioning with repeated mild hypoxia protects neonatal hypoxia-ischemic rats against brain damage and promotes rehabilitation of brain function.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qingqing; Chang, Yanqun; Cheng, Xiaomao; Luo, Xingang; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Xiaoyuan

    2018-05-01

    Mild hypoxia conditioning induced by repeated episodes of transient ischemia is a clinically applicable method for protecting the brain against injury after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage. To assess the effect of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning on brain damage and long-term neural functional recovery after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage. Rats received different protocols of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning. Seven-day-old rats with hypoxia ischemic brain damage (HIBD) from the left carotid ligation procedure plus 2 h hypoxic stress (8% O 2 at 37 °C) were further receiving repeated mild hypoxia intermittently. The gross anatomy, functional analyses, hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1a) expression, and neuronal apoptosis of the rat brains were subsequently examined. Compared to the HIBD group, rats postconditioned with mild hypoxia had elevated HIF-1a expression, more Nissl-stain positive cells in their brain tissue and their brains functioned better in behavioral analyses. The recovery of the brain function may be directly linked to the inhibitory effect of HIF-1α on neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, there were significantly less neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region of the rats postconditioned with mild hypoxia, which might also be related to the higher HIF-1a expression and better brain performance. Overall, these results suggested that postconditioning of neonatal rats after HIBD with mild hypoxia increased HIF-1a expression, exerted a neuroprotective effect and promoted neural functional recovery. Repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning protects neonatal rats with HIBD against brain damage and improves neural functional recovery. Our results may have clinical implications for treating infants with HIBD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental Hypoxia Has Negligible Effects on Long-Term Hypoxia Tolerance and Aerobic Metabolism of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew T; Clark, Timothy D; Andrewartha, Sarah J; Elliott, Nicholas G; Frappell, Peter B

    Exposure to developmental hypoxia can have long-term impacts on the physiological performance of fish because of irreversible plasticity. Wild and captive-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) can be exposed to hypoxic conditions during development and continue to experience fluctuating oxygen levels as juveniles and adults. Here, we examine whether developmental hypoxia impacts subsequent hypoxia tolerance and aerobic performance of Atlantic salmon. Individuals at 8°C were exposed to 50% (hypoxia) or 100% (normoxia) dissolved oxygen (DO) saturation (as percent of air saturation) from fertilization for ∼100 d (800 degree days) and then raised in normoxic conditions for a further 15 mo. At 18 mo after fertilization, aerobic scope was calculated in normoxia (100% DO) and acute (18 h) hypoxia (50% DO) from the difference between the minimum and maximum oxygen consumption rates ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively) at 10°C. Hypoxia tolerance was determined as the DO at which loss of equilibrium (LOE) occurred in a constantly decreasing DO environment. There was no difference in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], or aerobic scope between fish raised in hypoxia or normoxia. There was some evidence that hypoxia tolerance was lower (higher DO at LOE) in hypoxia-raised fish compared with those raised in normoxia, but the magnitude of the effect was small (12.52% DO vs. 11.73% DO at LOE). Acute hypoxia significantly reduced aerobic scope by reducing [Formula: see text], while [Formula: see text] remained unchanged. Interestingly, acute hypoxia uncovered individual-level relationships between DO at LOE and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and aerobic scope. We discuss our findings in the context of developmental trajectories and the role of aerobic performance in hypoxia tolerance.

  12. Reactive oxygen radicals and gaseous transmitters in carotid body activation by intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Peng, Ying-Jie; Yuan, Guoxiang; Nanduri, Jayasri

    2018-05-01

    Sleep apnea is a prevalent respiratory disease characterized by periodic cessation of breathing during sleep causing intermittent hypoxia (IH). Sleep apnea patients and rodents exposed to IH exhibit elevated sympathetic nerve activity and hypertension. A heightened carotid body (CB) chemoreflex has been implicated in causing autonomic abnormalities in IH-treated rodents and in sleep apnea patients. The purpose of this article is to review the emerging evidence showing that interactions between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and gaseous transmitters as a mechanism cause hyperactive CB by IH. Rodents treated with IH exhibit markedly elevated ROS in the CB, which is due to transcriptional upregulation of pro-oxidant enzymes by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and insufficient transcriptional regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes by HIF-2. ROS, in turn, increases cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE)-dependent H 2 S production in the CB. Blockade of H 2 S synthesis prevents IH-evoked CB activation. However, the effects of ROS on H 2 S production are not due to direct effects on CSE enzyme activity but rather due to inactivation of heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), a carbon monoxide (CO) producing enzyme. CO inhibits H 2 S production through inactivation of CSE by PKG-dependent phosphorylation. During IH, reduced CO production resulting from inactivation of HO-2 by ROS releases the inhibition of CO on CSE thereby increasing H 2 S. Inhibiting H 2 S synthesis prevented IH-evoked sympathetic activation and hypertension.

  13. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and protects the liver from chronic intermittent hypoxia induced injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanpeng; Yang, Huai'an; Cui, Zeshi; Tai, Xuhui; Chu, Yanling; Guo, Xing

    2017-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea that characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been reported to associate with chronic liver injury. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) exerts liver-protective effects in various liver diseases. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that TUDCA could protect liver against CIH injury. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to intermittent hypoxia for eight weeks and applied with TUDCA by intraperitoneal injection. The effect of TUDCA on liver histological changes, liver function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response, hepatocyte apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were investigated. The results showed that administration of TUDCA attenuated liver pathological changes, reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase level, suppressed reactive oxygen species activity, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β level and inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis induced by CIH. TUDCA also inhibited CIH-induced ER stress in liver as evidenced by decreased expression of ER chaperone 78 kDa glucose-related protein, unfolded protein response transducers and ER proapoptotic proteins. Altogether, the present study described a liver-protective effect of TUDCA in CIH mice model, and this effect seems at least partly through the inhibition of ER stress.

  14. Targeting p35/Cdk5 signalling via CIP-peptide promotes angiogenesis in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bosutti, Alessandra; Qi, Jie; Pennucci, Roberta; Bolton, David; Matou, Sabine; Ali, Kamela; Tsai, Li-Huei; Krupinski, Jerzy; Petcu, Eugene B; Montaner, Joan; Al Baradie, Raid; Caccuri, Francesca; Caruso, Arnaldo; Alessandri, Giulio; Kumar, Shant; Rodriguez, Cristina; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose; Slevin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) is over-expressed in both neurons and microvessels in hypoxic regions of stroke tissue and has a significant pathological role following hyper-phosphorylation leading to calpain-induced cell death. Here, we have identified a critical role of Cdk5 in cytoskeleton/focal dynamics, wherein its activator, p35, redistributes along actin microfilaments of spreading cells co-localising with p(Tyr15)Cdk5, talin/integrin beta-1 at the lamellipodia in polarising cells. Cdk5 inhibition (roscovitine) resulted in actin-cytoskeleton disorganisation, prevention of protein co-localization and inhibition of movement. Cells expressing Cdk5 (D144N) kinase mutant, were unable to spread, migrate and form tube-like structures or sprouts, while Cdk5 wild-type over-expression showed enhanced motility and angiogenesis in vitro, which was maintained during hypoxia. Gene microarray studies demonstrated myocyte enhancer factor (MEF2C) as a substrate for Cdk5-mediated angiogenesis in vitro. MEF2C showed nuclear co-immunoprecipitation with Cdk5 and almost complete inhibition of differentiation and sprout formation following siRNA knock-down. In hypoxia, insertion of Cdk5/p25-inhibitory peptide (CIP) vector preserved and enhanced in vitro angiogenesis. These results demonstrate the existence of critical and complementary signalling pathways through Cdk5 and p35, and through which coordination is a required factor for successful angiogenesis in sustained hypoxic condition.

  15. DT-13 attenuates human lung cancer metastasis via regulating NMIIA activity under hypoxia condition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Hui; Lin, Sen-Sen; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Ren-Ping; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Du, Hong-Zhi; Mao, Ting-Ting; Yu, Bo-Yang; Li, Rui-Ming; Yuan, Sheng-Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-08-01

    Cancer metastasis plays a major role in tumor deterioration. Metastatic processes are known to be regulated by hypoxic microenvironment and non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA). DT-13, a bioactive saponin monomer isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been reported to inhibit various cancer metastasis, but whether NMIIA is involved in the anti-metastatic activity of DT-13 under hypoxia remains to be determined. Thus, this study aims to clarify the role of DT-13 in regulating 95D cell metastasis under hypoxic microenvironment and to further investigate whether NMIIA is involved in the anti-metastatic mechanism of DT-13. We found that DT-13 significantly inhibited 95D cells metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, hypoxia significantly inhibited the expression of NMIIA and redistributed NMIIA to the cell periphery, whereas DT-13 reversed the hypoxic effects by upregulating the expression of NMIIA. Moreover, DT-13 treatment redistributed NMIIA to the nuclear periphery and reduced the formation of F-actin in 95D cells. In addition, we found that the Raf-ERK1/2 signaling pathway is involved in regulation of NMIIA by DT-13. Collectively, these findings support NMIIA as a target of DT-13 to prevent lung cancer metastasis.

  16. Regulation of intracellular pH in cancer cell lines under normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Swietach, Pawel

    2013-04-01

    Acid-extrusion by active transport is important in metabolically active cancer cells, where it removes excess intracellular acid and sets the intracellular resting pH. Hypoxia is a major trigger of adaptive responses in cancer, but its effect on acid-extrusion remains unclear. We studied pH-regulation under normoxia and hypoxia in eight cancer cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A, HT29, HT1080, MiaPaca2, HeLa) using the pH-sensitive fluorophore, cSNARF-1. Hypoxia responses were triggered by pre-incubation in low O(2) or with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). By selective pharmacological inhibition or transport-substrate removal, acid-extrusion flux was dissected into components due to Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) and Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport. In half of the cell-lines (HCT116, RT112, MDA-MB-468, MCF10A), acid-extrusion on NHE was the dominant flux during an acid load, and in all of these, bar one (MDA-MB-468), NHE-flux was reduced following hypoxic incubation. Further studies in HCT116 cells showed that <4-h hypoxic incubation reduced NHE-flux reversibly with a time-constant of 1-2 h. This was not associated with a change in expression of NHE1, the principal NHE isoform. Following 48-h hypoxia, inhibition of NHE-flux persisted but became only slowly reversible and associated with reduced expression of the glycosylated form of NHE1. Acid-extrusion by Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport was hypoxia-insensitive and comparable in all cell lines. This constitutive and stable element of pH-regulation was found to be important for setting and stabilizing resting pH at a mildly alkaline level (conducive for growth), irrespective of oxygenation status. In contrast, the more variable flux on NHE underlies cell-specific differences in their dynamic response to larger acid loads. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE EXPRESSION OF GENES THAT ENCODE SOME IGFBP AND CCN PROTEINS IN U87 GLIOMA CELLS DEPENDS ON IRE1 SIGNALING.

    PubMed

    Minchenko, O H; Kharkova, A P; Minchenko, D O; Karbovskyi, L L

    2015-01-01

    We have studied hypoxic regulation of the expression of different insulin-like growth factor binding protein genes in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme-1), a central mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress, which controls cell proliferation and tumor growth. We have demonstrated that hypoxia leads to up-regulation of the expression of IGFBP6, IGFBP7, IGFBP10/CYR61, WISP1, and WISP2 genes and down-regulation--of IGFBP9/NOV gene at the mRNA level in control glioma cells, being more signifcant changes for IGFBP10/CYR61 and WISP2 genes. At the same time, inhibition of IRE1 modifies the effect of hypoxia on the expression of all studied genes: eliminates sensitivity to hypoxia the expression of IGFBP7 and IGFBP9/NOV genes, suppresses effect of hypoxia on IGFBP6, IGFBP10/CYR61, and WISP2 genes, and slightly enhances hypoxic regulation of WISP1 gene expression in glioma cells. We have also demonstrated that the expression of all studied genes in glioma cells is regulated by IRE1 signaling enzyme upon normoxic condition, because inhibition of IRE1 significantly up-regulates IGFBP7, IGFBP10/CYR61, WISP1, and WISP2 genes and down-regulates IGFBP6 and IGFBP9/NOV genes as compared to control glioma cells. The present study demonstrates that hypoxia, which contributes to tumor growth, affects all studied IGFBP and WISP gene expressions and that inhibition of IRE1 preferentially abolishes or suppresses the hypoxic regulation of these gene expressions and thus possibly contributes to slower glioma growth. Moreover, inhibition of IRE1, which correlates with suppression of cell proliferation and glioma growth, is down-regulated expression of pro-proliferative IGFBP genes, attesting to the fact that endoplasmic reticulum stress is a necessary component of malignant tumor growth.

  18. Withanolide A Prevents Neurodegeneration by Modulating Hippocampal Glutathione Biosynthesis during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Baitharu, Iswar; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satya Narayan; Shroff, Sabita; Sahu, Jayanta Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)–related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone dependenet manner

  19. [Regulatory analysis of hypoxia on innate immunity of human corneal epithelium].

    PubMed

    Pang, K P; Pan, H; Wu, X Y

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To investigate the role of hypoxia on the regulation of innate immunity of human corneal epithelium. Methods: Telomerase-immortalized human epithelial cells (THCEs) were incubated under normoxia (21% O 2 ) or hypoxic (1% O 2 ) conditions respectively. After 6, 12, 24, 48 h culture, the mRNA and protein levels of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. After 24 h culture, THCEs of each group were challenged respectively with TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 μg/ml) for 6 h. RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA level of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), interleukin(IL)6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Western blot was used to examine the protein level of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B α (IκBα) and phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. Results: The results of RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression of TLR4 downregulated 90% and 55% respectively after hypoxic exposure for 48 h. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, expression of MyD88 and activation of NF-κB. The mRNA level of MyD88 was diminished 63%, and the protein expression of p-IκBα was also lowered. Meanwhile, the secretions of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α under hypoxia were reduced (31%, 55% and 50% respectively). Conclusion: Hypoxia attenuated immune and inflammatory response of the cornea epithelium by suppressing TLR4 signaling, and could enhance cell susceptibility to microorganism infection.

  20. Withanolide A prevents neurodegeneration by modulating hippocampal glutathione biosynthesis during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Baitharu, Iswar; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satya Narayan; Shroff, Sabita; Sahu, Jayanta Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone dependenet manner.

  1. Hypoxia-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Stemness in Brain Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Pankaj; Mittal, Shivani Arora; Chongtham, Jonita; Mohanty, Sujata; Srivastava, Tapasya

    2017-06-01

    Activation of pluripotency regulatory circuit is an important event in solid tumor progression and the hypoxic microenvironment is known to enhance the stemness feature of some cells. The distinct population of cancer stem cells (CSCs)/tumor initiating cells exist in a niche and augment invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. Previously, studies have reported global hypomethylation and site-specific aberrant methylation in gliomas along with other epigenetic modifications as important contributors to genomic instability during glioma progression. Here, we have demonstrated the role of hypoxia-mediated epigenetic modifications in regulating expression of core pluripotency factors, OCT4 and NANOG, in glioma cells. We observe hypoxia-mediated induction of demethylases, ten-eleven-translocation (TET) 1 and 3, but not TET2 in our cell-line model. Immunoprecipitation studies reveal active demethylation and direct binding of TET1 and 3 at the Oct4 and Nanog regulatory regions. Tet1 and 3 silencing assays further confirmed induction of the pluripotency pathway involving Oct4, Nanog, and Stat3, by these paralogues, although with varying degrees. Knockdown of Tet1 and Tet3 inhibited the formation of neurospheres in hypoxic conditions. We observed independent roles of TET1 and TET3 in differentially regulating pluripotency and differentiation associated genes in hypoxia. Overall, this study demonstrates an active demethylation in hypoxia by TET1 and 3 as a mechanism of Oct4 and Nanog overexpression thus contributing to the formation of CSCs in gliomas. Stem Cells 2017;35:1468-1478. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Sunitinib reduces tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis, and radiosensitizes prostate cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Roque; Nguewa, Paul A; Redrado, Miriam; Manrique, Irene; Calvo, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    The need for new treatments for advanced prostate cancer has fostered the experimental use of targeted therapies. Sunitinib is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor that mainly targets membrane-bound receptors of cells within the tumor microenvironment, such as endothelial cells and pericytes. However, recent studies suggest a direct effect on tumor cells. In the present study, we have evaluated both direct and indirect effects of Sunitinib in prostate cancer and how this drug regulates hypoxia, using in vitro and in vivo models. We have used both in vitro (PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells) and in vivo (PC-3 xenografts) models to study the effect of Sunitinib in prostate cancer. Analysis of hypoxia based on HIF-1α expression and FMISO uptake was conducted. ALDH activity was used to analyze cancer stem cells (CSC). Sunitinib strongly reduced proliferation of PC-3 and DU-145 cells in a dose dependent manner, and decreased levels of p-Akt, p-Erk1/2, and Id-1, compared to untreated cells. A 3-fold reduction in tumor growth was also observed (P < 0.001 with respect to controls). Depletion of Hif-1α levels in vitro and a decrease in FMISO uptake in vivo showed that Sunitinib inhibits tumor hypoxia. When combined with radiotherapy, this drug enhanced cell death in vitro and in vivo, and significantly decreased CD-31, PDGFRβ, Hif-1α, Id1, and PCNA protein levels (whereas apoptosis was increased) in tumors as compared to controls or single-therapy treated mice. Moreover, Sunitinib reduced the number of ALDH + cancer stem-like cells and sensitized these cells to radiation-mediated loss of clonogenicity. Our results support the use of Sunitinib in prostate cancer and shows that both hypoxia and cancer stem cells are involved in the effect elicited by this drug. Combination of Sunitinib with radiotherapy warrants further consideration to reduce prostate cancer burden. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Hypoxia-inducible Factor-2α-dependent Hypoxic Induction of Wnt10b Expression in Adipogenic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Kwon; Park, Bongju; Lee, Seongyeol; Choi, Kang; Moon, Yunwon; Park, Hyunsung

    2013-01-01

    Adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy in obesity can lead to many changes in adipose tissue, such as hypoxia, metabolic dysregulation, and enhanced secretion of cytokines. In this study, hypoxia increased the expression of Wnt10b in both human and mouse adipogenic cells, but not in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α-deficient adipogenic cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, bound to the Wnt10b enhancer region as well as upstream of the Wnt1 gene, which is encoded by an antisense strand of the Wnt10b gene. Hypoxia-conditioned medium (H-CM) induced phosphorylation of lipoprotein-receptor-related protein 6 as well as β-catenin-dependent gene expression in normoxic cells, which suggests that H-CM contains canonical Wnt signals. Furthermore, adipogenesis of both human mesenchymal stem cells and mouse preadipocytes was inhibited by H-CM even under normoxic conditions. These results suggest that O2 concentration gradients influence the formation of Wnt ligand gradients, which are involved in the regulation of pluripotency, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. PMID:23900840

  4. MAP4 Mechanism that Stabilizes Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in Hypoxia: Microtubule Enhancement and DYNLT1 Interaction with VDAC1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-ming; Zhang, Jia-ping; Hu, Jiong-yu; Zhang, Qiong; Dai, Xia; Teng, Miao; Zhang, Dong-xia; Huang, Yue-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane permeability has received considerable attention recently because of its key role in apoptosis and necrosis induced by physiological events such as hypoxia. The manner in which mitochondria interact with other molecules to regulate mitochondrial permeability and cell destiny remains elusive. Previously we verified that hypoxia-induced phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4) could lead to microtubules (MTs) disruption. In this study, we established the hypoxic (1% O2) cell models of rat cardiomyocytes, H9c2 and HeLa cells to further test MAP4 function. We demonstrated that increase in the pool of MAP4 could promote the stabilization of MT networks by increasing the synthesis and polymerization of tubulin in hypoxia. Results showed MAP4 overexpression could enhance cell viability and ATP content under hypoxic conditions. Subsequently we employed a yeast two-hybrid system to tag a protein interacting with mitochondria, dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 (DYNLT1), by hVDAC1 bait. We confirmed that DYNLT1 had protein-protein interactions with voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) using co-immunoprecipitation; and immunofluorescence technique showed that DYNLT1 was closely associated with MTs and VDAC1. Furthermore, DYNLT1 interactions with MAP4 were explored using a knockdown technique. We thus propose two possible mechanisms triggered by MAP4: (1) stabilization of MT networks, (2) DYNLT1 modulation, which is connected with VDAC1, and inhibition of hypoxia-induced mitochondrial permeabilization. PMID:22164227

  5. Systemic administration of thrombin peptide TP508 enhances VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis and attenuates effects of chronic hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska-Pazdrak, Barbara; Carney, Darrell H.

    2015-01-01

    Revascularization of chronic wounds and ischemic tissue is attenuated by endothelial dysfunction and the inability of angiogenic factors to stimulate angiogenesis. We recently showed that TP508, a nonproteolytic thrombin peptide, increases perfusion and NO-dependent vasodilation in hearts with chronic ischemia and stimulates NO production by endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated systemic in vivo effects of TP508 on VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis in vitro using aortic explants in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Mice were injected with saline or TP508 and 24h later aortas were removed and cultured to quantify endothelial sprouting. TP508 injection increased endothelial sprouting and potentiated the in vitro response to VEGF. Exposure of control explants to hypoxia inhibited basal and VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell sprouting. This effect of hypoxia was significantly prevented by TP508 injection. Thus, TP508 systemic administration increases responsiveness of aortic endothelial cells to VEGF and diminishes the effect of chronic hypoxia on endothelial cell sprouting. Studies using human endothelial cells in culture suggest that protective effects of TP508 during hypoxia may involve stimulation of endothelial cell NO production. These data suggest potential clinical benefit of using a combination of systemic TP508 and local VEGF as a therapy for revascularization of ischemic tissue. PMID:23594718

  6. Protective effect of salidroside against bone loss via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Qu, Ye; Jin, Xin; Guo, Xiao Qin; Wang, Yue; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Li, Ling Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays a critical role in coupling angiogenesis with osteogenesis during bone development and regeneration. Salidroside (SAL) has shown anti-hypoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible roles of SAL in the prevention of hypoxia-induced osteoporosis have remained unknown. Two osteoblast cell lines, MG-63 and ROB, were employed to evaluate the effects of SAL on cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Rats subjected to ovariectomy-induced bone loss were treated with SAL in vivo. Our results showed that pre-treatment with SAL markedly attenuated the hypoxia-induced reductions in cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization. SAL down-regulated HIF-1α expression and inhibited its translocation; however, SAL increased its transcriptional activity and, consequently, up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In vivo studies further demonstrated that SAL caused decreases in the mineral, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and BGP concentrations in the blood of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Moreover, SAL improved the trabecular bone microarchitecture and increased bone mineral density in the distal femur. Additionally, SAL administration partially ameliorated this hypoxia via the HIF-1α-VEGF signalling pathway. Our results indicate that SAL prevents bone loss by enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis and that these effects are associated with the activation of HIF-1α signalling. PMID:27558909

  7. Glycogen Synthase in Sertoli Cells: More Than Glycogenesis?

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rodrigo; Mancilla, Héctor; Villarroel-Espíndola, Franz; Slebe, Felipe; Slebe, Juan Carlos; Méndez, Raúl; Guinovart, Joan J; Concha, Ilona I

    2016-11-01

    Sertoli cell metabolism actively maintains the nutritional needs of germ cells. It has been described that after glucose incorporation in Sertoli cells, less than 1% is converted to glycogen suggesting low levels of glycogen synthase activity. Phosphorylation of muscle glycogen synthase (MGS) at serine 640 (pS640MGS) decreases its activity, and this form of the enzyme was discovered as a non-ribosomal protein that modulates the translation of a subset of transcripts in HeLa cells. The aim of our study was to functionally characterize MGS in cultured Sertoli cells, as well as to explore this new feature related to RNA molecules. We detected MGS in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells as well as in the nuclei. The activity rates of the enzyme were extremely low indicating that MGS is expressed but almost inactive. Protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) overexpression was performed to activate MGS by dephosphorylation. PTG induced glycogen synthesis massively, confirming that this enzyme is present but inactive. This finding correlates with high levels of pS640MGS, which were assayed by phosphatase treatment. To explore a putative new function for MGS in Sertoli cells, we performed RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to microarray studies. The results revealed that MGS co-immunoprecipitated with the several mRNAs and also rRNAs. These findings indicate that MGS is expressed Sertoli cells but in an inactive form, and also support a possibly novel feature of this metabolic enzyme associated with RNA-related molecules. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2597-2607, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Intermittent hypoxia training in prediabetes patients: Beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, hypoxia tolerance and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Serebrovska, Tetiana V; Portnychenko, Alla G; Drevytska, Tetiana I; Portnichenko, Vladimir I; Xi, Lei; Egorov, Egor; Gavalko, Anna V; Naskalova, Svitlana; Chizhova, Valentina; Shatylo, Valeriy B

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at examining beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) under prediabetic conditions. We investigate the effects of three-week IHT on blood glucose level, tolerance to acute hypoxia, and leukocyte mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes, i.e. insulin receptor, facilitated glucose transporter-solute carrier family-2, and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J. Seven healthy and 11 prediabetic men and women (44-70 years of age) were examined before, next day and one month after three-week IHT (3 sessions per week, each session consisting 4 cycles of 5-min 12% O 2 and 5-min room air breathing). We found that IHT afforded beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in patients with prediabetes reducing fasting glucose and during standard oral glucose tolerance test. The most pronounced positive effects were observed at one month after IHT termination. IHT also significantly increased the tolerance to acute hypoxia (i.e. SaO 2 level at 20th min of breathing with 12% O 2 ) and improved functional parameters of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. IHT stimulated HIF-1α mRNA expression in blood leukocytes in healthy and prediabetic subjects, but in prediabetes patients the maximum increase was lagged. The greatest changes in mRNA expression of HIF-1α target genes occurred a month after IHT and coincided with the largest decrease in blood glucose levels. The higher expression of HIF-1α was positively associated with higher tolerance to hypoxia and better glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, our results suggest that IHT may be useful for preventing the development of type 2 diabetes. Impact statement The present study investigated the beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) in humans under prediabetic conditions. We found that three-week moderate IHT induced higher HIF-1α mRNA expressions as well as its target genes, which were positively correlated with higher tolerance

  9. Hypoxia-induced changes in standing balance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Linsey S; Oakley, Sarah R; Vang, Pao; Noble, Brie N; Cevette, Michael J; Stepanek, Jan P

    2011-05-01

    A few studies in the literature have reported postural changes with hypoxia, but none have quantified the magnitude of change. Further understanding of this condition could have implications for patients at risk for falls, individuals undergoing acute altitude exposure, and pilots and commercial passengers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of hypoxia (oxygen nitrogen mixtures) on postural standing balance using the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) system. This improves upon previous protocols by manipulating vision and standing balance with a sway-referenced visual field and/or platform. Additionally, normative data were available for comparison with the cumulative test scores and scores for each condition. Altitude hypoxia was simulated by use of admixing nitrogen to the breathing gas to achieve equivalent altitudes of 1524 m, 2438 m, and 3048 m. Subjects were evaluated using the CDP system. Subjects showed an overall trend toward decreased performance at higher simulated altitudes consistent with the initial hypothesis. Composite standing balance sway scores for the sensory organization subtest of CDP were decreased compared to baseline for simulated altitudes as low as 2438 m (mean sway scores: 81.92 at baseline; 81.85 at 1524 m; 79.15 at 2438 m; 79.15 at 3048 m). Reaction times to unexpected movements in the support surface for the motor control subtest (MCT) increased compared to baseline (mean composite scores: 133.3 at baseline; 135.9 ms at 1524 m; 138.0 ms at 2438 m; 140.9 ms at 3048 m). The CDP testing provided a reliable objective measurement of degradation of balance under hypoxic conditions.

  10. Hypoxia awareness training for aircrew: a comparison of two techniques.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupinder; Cable, Gordon G; Hampson, Greg V; Pascoe, Glenn D; Corbett, Mark; Smith, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    Major hazards associated with hypoxia awareness training are the risks of decompression sickness, barotrauma, and loss of consciousness. An alternate method has been developed which combines exposure to a simulated altitude of 10,000 ft (3048 m) with breathing of a gas mixture containing 10% oxygen and 90% nitrogen. The paradigm, called Combined Altitude and Depleted Oxygen (CADO), places the subjects at a physiological altitude of 25,000 ft (7620 m) and provides demonstration of symptoms of hypoxia and the effects of pressure change. CADO is theoretically safer than traditional training at a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft (7620 m) due to a much lower risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and has greater fidelity of training for fast jet aircrew (mask-on hypoxia). This study was conducted to validate CADO by comparing it with hypobaric hypoxia. There were 43 subjects who were exposed to two regimens of hypoxia training: hypobaric hypoxia (HH) at a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft (7620 m) and CADO. Subjective, physiological, and performance data of the subjects were collected, analyzed, and compared. There were no significant differences in the frequency and severity of the 24 commonly reported symptoms, or in the physiological response, between the two types of hypoxia exposure. CADO is similar to HH in terms of the type and severity of symptoms experienced by subjects, and appears to be an effective, useful, and safe tool for hypoxia training.

  11. The infectious hypoxia: occurrence and causes during Shigella infection.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ellen T; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Marteyn, Benoit S

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is defined as a tissue oxygenation status below physiological needs. During Shigella infection, an infectious hypoxia is induced within foci of infection. In this review, we discuss how Shigella physiology and virulence are modulated and how the main recruited immune cells, the neutrophils, adapt to this environment. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Christopher; Hinkelbein, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3–6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots. PMID:25419162

  13. Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on geniohyoid contractility and endurance.

    PubMed

    Salmone, R J; Van Lunteren, E

    1991-08-01

    Sleep apnea and other respiratory diseases produce hypoxemia and hypercapnia, factors that adversely affect skeletal muscle performance. To examine the effects of these chemical alterations on force production by an upper airway dilator muscle, the contractile and endurance characteristics of the geniohyoid muscle were examined in situ during severe hypoxia (arterial PO2 less than 40 Torr), mild hypoxia (PO2 45-65 Torr), and hypercapnia (PCO2 55-80 Torr) and compared with hyperoxic-normocapnic conditions in anesthetized cats. Muscles were studied at optimal length, and contractile force was assessed in response to supramaximal electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve (n = 7 cats) or geniohyoid muscle (n = 2 cats). There were no significant changes in the twitch kinetics or force-frequency curve of the geniohyoid muscle during hypoxia or hypercapnia. However, the endurance of the geniohyoid, as reflected in the fatigue index (ratio of force at 2 min to initial force in response to 40-Hz stimulation at a duty cycle 0.33), was significantly reduced by severe hypoxia but not by hypercapnia or mild hypoxia. In addition, the downward shift in the force-frequency curve after the repetitive stimulation protocol was greater during hypoxia than hyperoxia, especially at higher frequencies. In conclusion, the ability of the geniohyoid muscle to maintain force output during high levels of activation is adversely affected by severe hypoxia but not mild hypoxia or hypercapnia. However, none of these chemical perturbations affected muscle contractility acutely.

  14. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Trigger Hypoxia-Induced Transcription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandel, N. S.; Maltepe, E.; Goldwasser, E.; Mathieu, C. E.; Simon, M. C.; Schumacker, P. T.

    1998-09-01

    Transcriptional activation of erythropoietin, glycolytic enzymes, and vascular endothelial growth factor occurs during hypoxia or in response to cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in Hep3B cells. However, neither the mechanism of cellular O2 sensing nor that of cobalt is fully understood. We tested whether mitochondria act as O2 sensors during hypoxia and whether hypoxia and cobalt activate transcription by increasing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results show (i) wild-type Hep3B cells increase ROS generation during hypoxia (1.5% O2) or CoCl2 incubation, (ii) Hep3B cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA (ρ 0 cells) fail to respire, fail to activate mRNA for erythropoietin, glycolytic enzymes, or vascular endothelial growth factor during hypoxia, and fail to increase ROS generation during hypoxia; (iii) ρ 0 cells increase ROS generation in response to CoCl2 and retain the ability to induce expression of these genes; and (iv) the antioxidants pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and ebselen abolish transcriptional activation of these genes during hypoxia or CoCl2 in wild-type cells, and abolish the response to CoCl2 in ρ 0 cells. Thus, hypoxia activates transcription via a mitochondria-dependent signaling process involving increased ROS, whereas CoCl2 activates transcription by stimulating ROS generation via a mitochondria-independent mechanism.

  15. Effect of Acute Exposure to Moderate Altitude on Muscle Power: Hypobaric Hypoxia vs. Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Feriche, Belén; García-Ramos, Amador; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Drobnic, Franchek; Bonitch- Góngora, Juan G.; Galilea, Pedro A.; Riera, Joan; Padial, Paulino

    2014-01-01

    When ascending to a higher altitude, changes in air density and oxygen levels affect the way in which explosive actions are executed. This study was designed to compare the effects of acute exposure to real or simulated moderate hypoxia on the dynamics of the force-velocity relationship observed in bench press exercise. Twenty-eight combat sports athletes were assigned to two groups and assessed on two separate occasions: G1 (n = 17) in conditions of normoxia (N1) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and G2 (n = 11) in conditions of normoxia (N2) and normobaric hypoxia (NH). Individual and complete force-velocity relationships in bench press were determined on each assessment day. For each exercise repetition, we obtained the mean and peak velocity and power shown by the athletes. Maximum power (Pmax) was recorded as the highest Pmean obtained across the complete force-velocity curve. Our findings indicate a significantly higher absolute load linked to Pmax (∼3%) and maximal strength (1RM) (∼6%) in G1 attributable to the climb to altitude (P<0.05). We also observed a stimulating effect of natural hypoxia on Pmean and Ppeak in the middle-high part of the curve (≥60 kg; P<0.01) and a 7.8% mean increase in barbell displacement velocity (P<0.001). No changes in any of the variables examined were observed in G2. According to these data, we can state that acute exposure to natural moderate altitude as opposed to simulated normobaric hypoxia leads to gains in 1RM, movement velocity and power during the execution of a force-velocity curve in bench press. PMID:25474104

  16. Effect of acute exposure to moderate altitude on muscle power: hypobaric hypoxia vs. normobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Feriche, Belén; García-Ramos, Amador; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Drobnic, Franchek; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan G; Galilea, Pedro A; Riera, Joan; Padial, Paulino

    2014-01-01

    When ascending to a higher altitude, changes in air density and oxygen levels affect the way in which explosive actions are executed. This study was designed to compare the effects of acute exposure to real or simulated moderate hypoxia on the dynamics of the force-velocity relationship observed in bench press exercise. Twenty-eight combat sports athletes were assigned to two groups and assessed on two separate occasions: G1 (n = 17) in conditions of normoxia (N1) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and G2 (n = 11) in conditions of normoxia (N2) and normobaric hypoxia (NH). Individual and complete force-velocity relationships in bench press were determined on each assessment day. For each exercise repetition, we obtained the mean and peak velocity and power shown by the athletes. Maximum power (Pmax) was recorded as the highest P(mean) obtained across the complete force-velocity curve. Our findings indicate a significantly higher absolute load linked to P(max) (∼ 3%) and maximal strength (1 RM) (∼ 6%) in G1 attributable to the climb to altitude (P<0.05). We also observed a stimulating effect of natural hypoxia on P(mean) and P(peak) in the middle-high part of the curve (≥ 60 kg; P<0.01) and a 7.8% mean increase in barbell displacement velocity (P<0.001). No changes in any of the variables examined were observed in G2. According to these data, we can state that acute exposure to natural moderate altitude as opposed to simulated normobaric hypoxia leads to gains in 1 RM, movement velocity and power during the execution of a force-velocity curve in bench press.

  17. Normobaric hypoxia overnight impairs cognitive reaction time.

    PubMed

    Pramsohler, Stephan; Wimmer, Stefan; Kopp, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Martin; Netzer, Nikolaus Cristoph

    2017-05-15

    Impaired reaction time in patients suffering from hypoxia during sleep, caused by sleep breathing disorders, is a well-described phenomenon. High altitude sleep is known to induce periodic breathing with central apneas and oxygen desaturations, even in perfectly healthy subjects. However, deficits in reaction time in mountaineers or workers after just some nights of hypoxia exposure are not sufficiently explored. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of sleep in a normobaric hypoxic environment on reaction time divided by its cognitive and motoric components. Eleven healthy non acclimatized students (5f, 6m, 21 ± 2.1 years) slept one night at a simulated altitude of 3500 m in a normobaric hypoxic room, followed by a night with polysomnography at simulated 5500 m. Preexisting sleep disorders were excluded via BERLIN questionnaire. All subjects performed a choice reaction test (SCHUHFRIED RT, S3) at 450 m and directly after the nights at simulated 3500 and 5500 m. We found a significant increase of cognitive reaction time with higher altitude (p = 0.026). No changes were detected in movement time (p = n.s.). Reaction time, the combined parameter of cognitive- and motoric reaction time, didn't change either (p = n.s.). Lower SpO 2 surprisingly correlated significantly with shorter cognitive reaction time (r = 0.78, p = 0.004). Sleep stage distribution and arousals at 5500 m didn't correlate with reaction time, cognitive reaction time or movement time. Sleep in hypoxia does not seem to affect reaction time to simple tasks. The component of cognitive reaction time is increasingly delayed whereas motoric reaction time seems not to be affected. Low SpO 2 and arousals are not related to increased cognitive reaction time therefore the causality remains unclear. The fact of increased cognitive reaction time after sleep in hypoxia, considering high altitude workers and mountaineering operations with overnight stays, should be further investigated.

  18. 2013 Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Forecast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Evans, Mary Anne; Obenour, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico annual summer hypoxia forecasts are based on average May total nitrogen loads from the Mississippi River basin for that year. The load estimate, recently released by USGS, is 7,316 metric tons per day. Based on that estimate, we predict the area of this summer’s hypoxic zone to be 18,900 square kilometers (95% credible interval, 13,400 to 24,200), the 7th largest reported and about the size of New Jersey. Our forecast hypoxic volume is 74.5 km3 (95% credible interval, 51.5 to 97.0), also the 7th largest on record.

  19. 2014 Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Forecast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Evans, Mary Anne; Obenour, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico annual summer hypoxia forecasts are based on average May total nitrogen loads from the Mississippi River basin for that year. The load estimate, recently released by USGS, is 4,761 metric tons per day. Based on that estimate, we predict the area of this summer’s hypoxic zone to be 14,000 square kilometers (95% credible interval, 8,000 to 20,000) – an “average year”. Our forecast hypoxic volume is 50 km3 (95% credible interval, 20 to 77).

  20. Hypoxia-Inducible Factors Link Iron Homeostasis and Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Yatrik M.; Xie, Liwei

    2014-01-01

    Iron is required for efficient oxygen transport, and hypoxia signaling links erythropoiesis with iron homeostasis. Hypoxia induces a highly conserved signaling pathway in cells under conditions of low O2. One component of this pathway, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), is a transcription factor that is highly active in hypoxic cells. The first HIF target gene characterized was EPO, which encodes erythropoietin—a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis. The past decade has led to fundamental advances in our understanding of how hypoxia regulates iron levels to support erythropoiesis and maintain systemic iron homeostasis. We review the cell-type specific effects of hypoxia and HIFs in adaptive response to changes in oxygen and iron availability, as well as potential uses of HIF modulators for patients with iron-related disorders. PMID:24389303

  1. Metabolic correlates of tumour hypoxia in malignant canine mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mees, G; Vangestel, C; Dierckx, R; Loomans, S; Van Damme, N; Peremans, K; De Rooster, H; Van Goethem, B; Pauwels, P; Ducatelle, R; Van de Wiele, C

    2011-12-01

    Given its importance in human and canine tumour biology, a profound understanding of tumour hypoxia is of paramount importance. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between tumour hypoxia and the expression of a number of hypoxia-induced proteins that play a role in tumour metabolism. The hypoxia marker pimonidazole was administered to dogs affected by spontaneous mammary carcinoma and compared with immunohistochemical staining for GLUT1 and 3, HK 2 and CA IX. A statistically significant correlation was found between pimonidazole staining and GLUT1-expression (R=0.607; p=0.001). These results indicate a strong interaction between tumour hypoxia and tumour metabolism by the induction of proteins essential to maintain a stable tumour microenvironment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effects of simulated hypoxia on dielectric properties of mouse erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qin-Wen; Zhao, Xin

    2008-02-01

    To explore the influence of simulated altitude hypoxia on dielectric properties of mouse erythrocytes. Experimental animals were divided into the plain control group(control) and simulated altitude hypoxia group (altitude). The AC impedance of mouse erythrocytes was measured with the Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer, the influence of simulated altitude hypoxia on dielectric properties of mouse erythrocytes was observed by cell dielectric spectroscopy, Cole-Cole plots, loss factor spectrum, loss tangent spectrum, and curve fitting analysis of Cole-Cole equation. After mice were exposed to hypoxia at simulated 5000 m altitude for 4 weeks, permittivity at low frequency (epsilonl) and dielectric increment (deltaepsilon) increased 57% and 59% than that of control group respectively, conductivity at low frequency (kappal) and conductivity at high frequency (kappah) reduced 49% and 11% than that of control group respectively. The simulated altitude hypoxia could arise to increase dielectric capability and depress conductive performance on mouse erythrocytes.

  3. Hypoxia-inducible factors promote alveolar development and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vadivel, Arul; Alphonse, Rajesh S; Etches, Nicholas; van Haaften, Timothy; Collins, Jennifer J P; O'Reilly, Megan; Eaton, Farah; Thébaud, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how alveoli and the underlying capillary network develop and how these mechanisms are disrupted in disease states is critical for developing effective therapies for lung regeneration. Recent evidence suggests that lung angiogenesis promotes lung development and repair. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) preserves lung angiogenesis and alveolarization in experimental O2-induced arrested alveolar growth in newborn rats, but combined VEGF+angiopoietin 1 treatment is necessary to correct VEGF-induced vessel leakiness. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that activate multiple O2-sensitive genes, including those encoding for angiogenic growth factors, but their role during postnatal lung growth is incompletely understood. By inducing the expression of a range of angiogenic factors in a coordinated fashion, HIF may orchestrate efficient and safe angiogenesis superior to VEGF. We hypothesized that HIF inhibition impairs alveolarization and that HIF activation regenerates irreversible O2-induced arrested alveolar growth. HIF inhibition by intratracheal dominant-negative adenovirus (dnHIF-1α)-mediated gene transfer or chetomin decreased lung HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and VEGF expression and led to air space enlargement and arrested lung vascular growth. In experimental O2-induced arrested alveolar growth in newborn rats, the characteristic features of air space enlargement and loss of lung capillaries were associated with decreased lung HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression. Intratracheal administration of Ad.HIF-1α restored HIF-1α, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, VEGF, VEGFR2, and Tie2 expression and preserved and rescued alveolar growth and lung capillary formation in this model. HIFs promote normal alveolar development and may be useful targets for alveolar regeneration.

  4. Cold stimulates the behavioral response to hypoxia in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Bieke; Bouslama, Myriam; Matrot, Boris; Rotrou, Yann; Vardon, Guy; Lofaso, Frédéric; Van den Bergh, Omer; D'Hooge, Rudi; Gallego, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    In newborns, hypoxia elicits increased ventilation, arousal followed by defensive movements, and cries. Cold is known to affect the ventilatory response to hypoxia, but whether it affects the arousal response remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of cold on the ventilatory and arousal responses to hypoxia in newborn mice. We designed an original platform measuring noninvasively and simultaneously the breathing pattern by whole body plethysmography, body temperature by infrared thermography, as well as motor and ultrasonic vocal (USV) responses. Six-day-old mice were exposed twice to 10% O(2) for 3 min at either cold temperature (26 degrees C) or thermoneutrality (33 degrees C). At 33 degrees C, hypoxia elicited a marked increase in ventilation followed by a small ventilatory decline, small motor response, and almost no USVs. Body temperature was not influenced by hypoxia, and oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) displayed minimal changes. At 26 degrees C, hypoxia elicited a slight increase in ventilation with a large ventilatory decline and a large drop of Vo(2). This response was accompanied by marked USV and motor responses. Hypoxia elicited a small decrease in temperature after the return to normoxia, thus precluding any causal influence on the motor and USV responses to hypoxia. In conclusion, cold stimulated arousal and stress responses to hypoxia, while depressing hypoxic hyperpnea. Arousal is an important defense mechanism against sleep-disordered breathing. The dissociation between ventilatory and behavioral responses to hypoxia suggests that deficits in the arousal response associated with sleep breathing disorders cannot be attributed to a depressed hypoxic response.

  5. Cobalt chloride decreases fibroblast growth factor-21 expression dependent on oxidative stress but not hypoxia-inducible factor in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanlong; Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY; Wang, Chunhong

    2012-10-15

    Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a potential metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on metabolic diseases. FGF21 is mainly expressed in the liver, but is also found in other tissues including the intestine, which expresses β-klotho abundantly. The intestine is a unique organ that operates in a physiologically hypoxic environment, and is responsible for the fat absorption processes including triglyceride breakdown, re-synthesis and absorption into the portal circulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and the chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}), on FGF21 expression in Caco-2 cells and the consequence of fat accumulation. Physicalmore » hypoxia (1% oxygen) and CoCl{sub 2} treatment decreased both FGF21 mRNA and secreted protein levels. Gene silence and inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIFα) did not affect the reduction of FGF21 mRNA and protein levels by hypoxia. However, CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a significant increase in oxidative stress. The addition of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) suppressed CoCl{sub 2}-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and completely negated CoCl{sub 2}-induced FGF21 loss. mRNA stability analysis demonstrated that the CoCl{sub 2} administration caused a remarkable reduction in FGF21 mRNA stability. Furthermore, CoCl{sub 2} increased intracellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, along with a reduction in mRNA levels of lipid lipase, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and an increase of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c) and stearoyl-coenzyme A (SCD1). Addition of both NAC and recombinant FGF21 significantly attenuated the CoCl{sub 2}-induced TG accumulation. In conclusion, the decrease of FGF21 in Caco-2 cells by chemical hypoxia is independent of HIFα, but dependent on an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism. The regulation of FGF21 by hypoxia may contribute to intestinal lipid metabolism and

  6. Hydrogen sulfide mediates hypoxia-induced relaxation of trout urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Dombkowski, Ryan A; Doellman, Meredith M; Head, Sally K; Olson, Kenneth R

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a recently identified gasotransmitter that may mediate hypoxic responses in vascular smooth muscle. H2S also appears to be a signaling molecule in mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle, but its existence and function in non-mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle have not been examined. In the present study we examined H2S production and its physiological effects in urinary bladder from steelhead and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and evaluated the relationship between H2S and hypoxia. H2S was produced by trout bladders, and its production was sensitive to inhibitors of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase. H2S produced a dose-dependent relaxation in unstimulated and carbachol pre-contracted bladders and inhibited spontaneous contractions. Bladders pre-contracted with 80 mmol l(-1) KCl were less sensitive to H2S than bladders contracted with either 80 mmol l(-1) KC2H3O2 (KAc) or carbachol, suggesting that some of the H2S effects are mediated through an ion channel. However, H2S relaxation of bladders was not affected by the potassium channel inhibitors, apamin, charybdotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, and glybenclamide, or by chloride channel/exchange inhibitors 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid disodium salt, tamoxifen and glybenclamide, or by the presence or absence of extracellular HCO3-. Inhibitors of neuronal mechanisms, tetrodotoxin, strychnine and N-vanillylnonanamide were likewise ineffective. Hypoxia (aeration with N2) also relaxed bladders, was competitive with H2S for relaxation, and it was equally sensitive to KCl, and unaffected by neuronal blockade or the presence of extracellular HCO3-. Inhibitors of H2S synthesis also inhibited hypoxic relaxation. These experiments suggest that H2S is a phylogenetically ancient gasotransmitter in non-mammalian non-vascular smooth muscle and that it serves as an oxygen sensor/transducer, mediating the effects of hypoxia.

  7. Downregulation of a tumor suppressor RECK by hypoxia through recruitment of HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha to reverse HRE site in the promoter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Ju; Lee, Kwang Youl; Lee, You Mie

    2010-05-01

    Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a tumor suppressor and the suppression of RECK is induced by Ras or Her-2/neu oncogenes. However, regulation of RECK under hypoxic microenvironment is largely unknown. Here, we identified that hypoxia significantly downregulates RECK mRNA and protein expression using semiquantitative RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. This repression was reversed by the HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) and HIF-1 inhibitor, YC-1. Hypoxia-induced downregulation of RECK was abolished by knockdown of HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha with respective small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), whereas overexpression of HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha suppressed RECK expression similar to the level under hypoxic conditions. Transfection of a deletion mutant of the second reverse HRE (rHRE2, -2345 to -2333) site of RECK promoter completely removed RECK suppression under hypoxia, indicating that the rHRE2 site is responsible for the inhibition of RECK. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA affinity precipitation assays demonstrated that HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha were recruited to the rHRE2 region of RECK promoter under hypoxic conditions, but the treatment of TSA or YC-1 inhibited their binding to the rHRE2 site. Moreover, TSA and YC-1 inhibited hypoxia-induced cancer cell migration, invasion and MMPs secretion. Taken together, we can conclude that hypoxia induces RECK downregulation through the recruitment of HDAC1 and HIF-1alpha to the rHRE2 site in the promoter and the inhibition of hypoxic RECK silencing would be a therapeutic and preventive target for early tumorigenesis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell culture alters Ca2+ entry pathways activated by store-depletion or hypoxia in canine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lih Chyuan; Kyle, Barry D; Lennox, Alison R; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Hatton, William J; Hume, Joseph R

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that, in acutely dispersed canine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), depletion of both functionally independent inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) stores activates capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE). The present study aimed to determine if cell culture modifies intracellular Ca(2+) stores and alters Ca(2+) entry pathways caused by store depletion and hypoxia in canine PASMCs. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured in fura 2-loaded cells. Mn(2+) quench of fura 2 signal was performed to study divalent cation entry, and the effects of hypoxia were examined under oxygen tension of 15-18 mmHg. In acutely isolated PASMCs, depletion of IP(3)-sensitive Ca(2+) stores with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) did not affect initial caffeine-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients but abolished 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) transients. In contrast, CPA significantly reduced caffeine- and 5-HT-induced Ca(2+) transients in cultured PASMCs. In cultured PASMCs, store depletion or hypoxia caused a transient followed by a sustained rise in [Ca(2+)](i). The transient rise in [Ca(2+)](i) was partially inhibited by nifedipine, whereas the nifedipine-insensitive transient rise in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited by KB-R7943, a selective inhibitor of reverse mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). The nifedipine-insensitive sustained rise in [Ca(2+)](i) was inhibited by SKF-96365, Ni(2+), La(3+), and Gd(3+). In addition, store depletion or hypoxia increased the rate of Mn(2+) quench of fura 2 fluorescence that was also inhibited by these blockers, exhibiting pharmacological properties characteristic of CCE. We conclude that cell culture of canine PASMCs reorganizes IP(3) and ryanodine receptors into a common intracellular Ca(2+) compartment, and depletion of this store or hypoxia activates voltage-operated Ca(2+) entry, reverse mode NCX, and CCE.

  9. CoCl2 , a mimic of hypoxia, enhances bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells migration and osteogenic differentiation via STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Wan, Qilong; Cheng, Gu; Cheng, Xin; Zhang, Jing; Pathak, Janak L; Li, Zubing

    2018-06-16

    Mesenchymal stem cells homing and migration is a crucial step during bone fracture healing. Hypoxic environment in fracture site induces bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) migration, but its mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study and studies by other groups have reported the involvement of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in cell migration. However, the role of STAT3 pathway in hypoxia-induced cell migration is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of STAT3 signaling in hypoxia-induced BMSCs migration and osteogenic differentiation. BMSCs isolated from C57BL/6 male mice were cultured in the presence of cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) to simulate intracellular hypoxia. Hypoxia enhanced BMSCs migration, and upregulated cell migration related gene expression i.e., metal-loproteinase (MMP) 7, MMP9 and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4. Hypoxia enhanced the phosphorylation of STAT3, and cell migration related proteins: c-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK), focal of adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular regulated protein kinases and protein kinase B 1/2 (ERK1/2). Moreover, hypoxia enhanced expression of osteogenic differentiation marker. Inhibition of STAT3 suppressed the hy-poxia-induced BMSCs migration, cell migration related signaling molecules phos-phorylation, and osteogenic differentiation related gene expression. In conclusion, our result indicates that hypoxia-induced BMSCs migration and osteogenic differentiation is via STAT3 phosphorylation and involves the cooperative activity of the JNK, FAK and MMP9 signaling pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of aquaporin 4 (AQP 4) up-regulation in rat cerebral edema under hypobaric hypoxia and the preventative effect of puerarin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi; Yan, Muyang; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Qi; He, Shang; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Chengbin

    2018-01-15

    We aim to investigate the mechanism of aquaporin 4 (AQP 4) up-regulation during high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) in rats under hypobaric hypoxia and preventative effect of puerarin. Rats were exposed to a hypobaric chamber with or without the preventative treatment of puerarin or dexamethasone. Morriz water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory injury. HE staining and W/D ratio were used to evaluate edema injury. Rat astrocytes and microglia were co-cultured under the condition of hypoxia with the administration of p38 inhibitor, NF-κB inhibitor or puerarin. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) of cortex and culture supernatant were measured with ELISA. AQP4, phosphorylation of MAPKs, NF-κB pathway of cortex and astrocytes were measured by Western blot. Weakened spatial memory and cerebral edema were observed after hypobaric hypoxia exposure. AQP4, phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPK signal pathway of cortex increased after hypoxia exposure and decreased with preventative treatment of puerarin. Hypoxia increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in cortex and microglia and puerarin could prevent the increase of them. AQP4 of astrocytes increased after co-cultured with microglia when both were exposed to hypoxia. AQP4 showed a decrease after administered with p38 inhibitor, NF-κB inhibitor or puerarin. Hypoxia triggers inflammatory response, during which AQP4 of astrocytes can be up regulated through the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from microglia. Puerarin can exert a preventative effect on the increase of AQP4 through inhibiting the release of TNF-α and phosphorylation of NF-κB, MAPK pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effects of puerarin on acute lung and cerebrum injury induced by hypobaric hypoxia via the regulation of aquaporin (AQP) via NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi; Yan, Muyang; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Qi; Guan, Xu; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Chengbin

    2016-11-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia, frequently encountered at high altitude, may lead to lung and cerebrum injury. Our study aimed to investigate whether puerarin could exert ameliorative effects on rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia via regulation of aquaporin (AQP) and NF-κB signaling pathway in lung and cerebrum. 40 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (normal control group, hypobaric hypoxia group, puerarin group and dexamethasone group). Wet/dry ratio, blood gas, pathological changes of lung and cerebrum and spatial memory were observed in each group. Inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined with ELISA and expression of AQP1, AQP4, NF-κB signaling pathway in lung and cerebrum with western blot RESULTS: Puerarin showed significant preventative effects on tissue injury and behavioral changes, as evidenced by histopathological findings and Morris water maze. In addition, levels of inflammatory cytokines in BALF decreased in the two preventative groups compared with those of hypobaric hypoxia group. AQP in lung and cerebrum increased under the condition of hypobaric hypoxia while was down regulated in both two preventative groups. NF-κB and IκB was also inhibited by puerarin. Our study suggested that lung and cerebrum injury, increased inflammatory cytokines in BALF and increased AQP1, AQP4 and NF-κB signaling pathway occurred under the condition of hypobaric hypoxia. Moreover, puerarin could prevent lung and cerebrum injury of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia via down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines, AQP1 and AQP4 expression and NF-κB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting tumor hypoxia: suppression of breast tumor growth and metastasis by novel carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yuanmei; McDonald, Paul C; Oloumi, Arusha; Chia, Stephen; Ostlund, Christina; Ahmadi, Ardalan; Kyle, Alastair; Auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Leung, Samuel; Huntsman, David; Clarke, Blaise; Sutherland, Brent W; Waterhouse, Dawn; Bally, Marcel; Roskelley, Calvin; Overall, Christopher M; Minchinton, Andrew; Pacchiano, Fabio; Carta, Fabrizio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Touisni, Nadia; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2011-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia and HIF-1-inducible protein that regulates intra- and extracellular pH under hypoxic conditions and promotes tumor cell survival and invasion in hypoxic microenvironments. Interrogation of 3,630 human breast cancers provided definitive evidence of CAIX as an independent poor prognostic biomarker for distant metastases and survival. shRNA-mediated depletion of CAIX expression in 4T1 mouse metastatic breast cancer cells capable of inducing CAIX in hypoxia resulted in regression of orthotopic mammary tumors and inhibition of spontaneous lung metastasis formation. Stable depletion of CAIX in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts also resulted in attenuation of primary tumor growth. CAIX depletion in the 4T1 cells led to caspase-independent cell death and reversal of extracellular acidosis under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Treatment of mice harboring CAIX-positive 4T1 mammary tumors with novel CAIX-specific small molecule inhibitors that mimicked the effects of CAIX depletion in vitro resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis formation in both spontaneous and experimental models of metastasis, without inhibitory effects on CAIX-negative tumors. Similar inhibitory effects on primary tumor growth were observed in mice harboring orthotopic tumors comprised of lung metatstatic MDA-MB-231 LM2-4(Luc+) cells. Our findings show that CAIX is vital for growth and metastasis of hypoxic breast tumors and is a specific, targetable biomarker for breast cancer metastasis.

  13. Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase PIN1 Directly Binds to and Stabilizes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeong-jun; Kwon, Nayoung; Choi, Min-A; Jung, Kyung Oh; Piao, Juan-Yu; Ngo, Hoang Kieu Chi; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Chung, June-Key; Cha, Young-Nam; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Bu Young; Min, Sang-Hyun; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PIN1) regulates the functional activity of a subset of phosphoproteins through binding to phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and subsequently isomerization of the phosphorylated bonds. Interestingly, PIN1 is overexpressed in many types of malignancies including breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers. However, its oncogenic functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that PIN1 directly interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. PIN1 binding to HIF-1α occurred in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We also found that PIN1 interacted with HIF-1α at both exogenous and endogenous levels. Notably, PIN1 binding stabilized the HIF-1α protein, given that their levels were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. The stabilization of HIF-1α resulted in increased transcriptional activity, consequently upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major contributor to angiogenesis. Silencing of PIN1 or pharmacologic inhibition of its activity abrogated the angiogenesis. By utilizing a bioluminescence imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate that PIN1 inhibition dramatically reduced the tumor volume in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model and angiogenesis as well as hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These results suggest that PIN1 interacting with HIF-1α is a potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic target. PMID:26784107

  14. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α/Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1 Axis by Dichloroacetate Suppresses Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Justin; Choi, Hyunsung; Hsieh, Meng-Hsiung; Neugent, Michael L; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Hayenga, Heather N; Singh, Pankaj K; Shackelford, David B; Lee, In-Kyu; Shulaev, Vladimir; Dhar, Shanta; Takeda, Norihiko; Kim, Jung-Whan

    2018-02-01

    Hypoxia has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases. Aberrantly activated myofibroblasts are the primary pathological driver of fibrotic progression, yet how various microenvironmental influences, such as hypoxia, contribute to their sustained activation and differentiation is poorly understood. As a defining feature of hypoxia is its impact on cellular metabolism, we sought to investigate how hypoxia-induced metabolic reprogramming affects myofibroblast differentiation and fibrotic progression, and to test the preclinical efficacy of targeting glycolytic metabolism for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrotic progression was evaluated in two independent, fibroblast-specific, promoter-driven, hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif) 1A knockout mouse models and in glycolytic inhibitor, dichloroacetate-treated mice. Genetic and pharmacological approaches were used to explicate the role of metabolic reprogramming in myofibroblast differentiation. Hypoxia significantly enhanced transforming growth factor-β-induced myofibroblast differentiation through HIF-1α, whereas overexpression of the critical HIF-1α-mediated glycolytic switch, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) was sufficient to activate glycolysis and potentiate myofibroblast differentiation, even in the absence of HIF-1α. Inhibition of the HIF-1α/PDK1 axis by genomic deletion of Hif1A or pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings suggest that HIF-1α/PDK1-mediated glycolytic reprogramming is a critical metabolic alteration that acts to promote myofibroblast differentiation and fibrotic progression, and demonstrate that targeting glycolytic metabolism may prove to be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  15. Adropin Is a Key Mediator of Hypoxia Induced Anti-Dipsogenic Effects via TRPV4-CamKK-AMPK Signaling in the Circumventricular Organs of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Zhou, Li; Qian, Xu; Wang, Dong; He, Wen-Juan; Tang, Zhong-wei; Yin, Jun; Huang, Qing-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Water intake reduction (anti-dipsogenic effects) under hypoxia has been well established, but the underlying reason remains unknown. Our previous report indicated that activated TRPV4 neurons in SFO are associated with anti-dipsogenic effects under hypoxia. Although low partial pressure of blood oxygen directly activates TRPV4, humoral factors could also be involved. In the present study, we hypothesize that adropin, a new endogenous peptide hormone, was rapidly increased (serum and brain) concomitant with reduced water intake in early hypoxia. Also, the nuclear expression of c-Fos, a marker for neuronal activation, related to water-consumption (SFO and MnPO) was inhibited. These effects were mitigated by a scavenger, rat adropin neutralizing antibody, which effectively neutralized adropin under hypoxia. Interestingly, injection of recombinant adropin in the third ventricle of the rats also triggered anti-dipsogenic effects and reduced c-Fos positive cells in SFO, but these effects were absent when TRPV4 was knocked down by shRNA. Moreover, adropin-activated CamKK-AMPK signaling related to TRPV4 calcium channel in SFO in normoxia. These results revealed that dissociative adropin was elevated in acute hypoxia, which was responsible for anti-dipsogenic effects by altering TRPV4-CamKK-AMPK signaling in SFO. PMID:28473751

  16. Hypoxia-inducible factors regulate pluripotency factor expression by ZNF217- and ALKBH5-mediated modulation of RNA methylation in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanzhao; Zhi, Wanqing Iris; Lu, Haiquan; Samanta, Debangshu; Chen, Ivan; Gabrielson, Edward; Semenza, Gregg L

    2016-10-04

    Exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia increases the percentage of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which are required for tumor initiation and metastasis, and this response is dependent on the activity of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). We previously reported that exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia induces the ALKBH5-mediated demethylation of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in NANOG mRNA leading to increased expression of NANOG, which is a pluripotency factor that promotes BCSC specification. Here we report that exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia also induces ZNF217-dependent inhibition of m6A methylation of mRNAs encoding NANOG and KLF4, which is another pluripotency factor that mediates BCSC specification. Although hypoxia induced the BCSC phenotype in all breast-cancer cell lines analyzed, it did so through variable induction of pluripotency factors and ALKBH5 or ZNF217. However, in every breast cancer line, the hypoxic induction of pluripotency factor and ALKBH5 or ZNF217 expression was HIF-dependent. Immunohistochemistry revealed that expression of HIF-1α and ALKBH5 was concordant in all human breast cancer biopsies analyzed. ALKBH5 knockdown in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells significantly decreased metastasis from breast to lungs in immunodeficient mice. Thus, HIFs stimulate pluripotency factor expression and BCSC specification by negative regulation of RNA methylation.

  17. Cordyceps sinensis increases hypoxia tolerance by inducing heme oxygenase-1 and metallothionein via Nrf2 activation in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mrinalini; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Koganti, Praveen; Chauhan, Amitabh; Manickam, Manimaran; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NF κ B (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor- α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor- β . Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NF κ B and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NF κ B levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia.

  18. Cordyceps sinensis Increases Hypoxia Tolerance by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1 and Metallothionein via Nrf2 Activation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Manimaran; Misra, Kshipra

    2013-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, an edible mushroom growing in Himalayan regions, is widely recognized in traditional system of medicine. In the present study, we report the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in facilitating tolerance to hypoxia using A549 cell line as a model system. Treatment with aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis appreciably attenuated hypoxia induced ROS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained antioxidant status similar to that of controls via induction of antioxidant gene HO1 (heme oxygenase-1), MT (metallothionein) and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2). In contrast, lower level of NFκB (nuclear factor kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor-α observed which might be due to higher levels of HO1, MT and transforming growth factor-β. Further, increase in HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor-1) and its regulated genes; erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 was observed. Interestingly, Cordyceps sinensis treatment under normoxia did not regulate the expression HIF1, NFκB and their regulated genes evidencing that Cordyceps sinensis per se did not have an effect on these transcription factors. Overall, Cordyceps sinensis treatment inhibited hypoxia induced oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular Nrf2, HIF1 and lowering NFκB levels. These findings provide a basis for possible use of Cordyceps sinensis in tolerating hypoxia. PMID:24063008

  19. BIRC3 is a biomarker of mesenchymal habitat of glioblastoma, and a mediator of survival adaptation in hypoxia-driven glioblastoma habitats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dapeng; Berglund, Anders E; Kenchappa, Rajappa S; MacAulay, Robert J; Mulé, James J; Etame, Arnold B

    2017-08-24

    Tumor hypoxia is an established facilitator of survival adaptation and mesenchymal transformation in glioblastoma (GBM). The underlying mechanisms that direct hypoxia-mediated survival in GBM habitats are unclear. We previously identified BIRC3 as a mediator of therapeutic resistance in GBM to standard temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). Here we report that BIRC3 is a biomarker of the hypoxia-mediated adaptive mesenchymal phenotype of GBM. Specifically, in the TCGA dataset elevated BIRC3 gene expression was identified as a superior and selective biomarker of mesenchymal GBM versus neural, proneural and classical subtypes. Further, BIRC3 protein was highly expressed in the tumor cell niches compared to the perivascular niche across multiple regions in GBM patient tissue microarrays. Tumor hypoxia was found to mechanistically induce BIRC3 expression through HIF1-alpha signaling in GBM cells. Moreover, in human GBM xenografts robust BIRC3 expression was noted within hypoxic regions of the tumor. Importantly, selective inhibition of BIRC3 reversed therapeutic resistance of GBM cells to RT in hypoxic microenvironments through enhanced activation of caspases. Collectively, we have uncovered a novel role for BIRC3 as a targetable biomarker and mediator of hypoxia-driven habitats in GBM.

  20. Preinduction of HSP70 promotes hypoxic tolerance and facilitates acclimatization to acute hypobaric hypoxia in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Liu, Zhao-hui; Xiong, Lei; Li, Ming-ming; Wu, Li-ying; Zhao, Yong-qi

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that induction of HSP70 by administration of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) leads to protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present study was performed to determine the effect of GGA on the survival of mice and on brain damage under acute hypobaric hypoxia. The data showed that the mice injected with GGA survived significantly longer than control animals (survival time of 9.55 ± 3.12 min, n = 16 vs. controls at 4.28 ± 4.29 min, n = 15, P < 0.005). Accordingly, the cellular necrosis or degeneration of the hippocampus and the cortex induced by sublethal hypoxia for 6 h could be attenuated by preinjection with GGA, especially in the CA2 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. In addition, the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) of the hippocampus and the cortex was increased after exposure to sublethal hypoxia for 6 h but could be inhibited by the preinjection of GGA. Furthermore, the expression of HSP70 was significantly increased at 1 h after GGA injection. These results suggest that administration of GGA improved survival rate and prevented acute hypoxic damage to the brain and that the underlying mechanism involved induction of HSP70 and inhibition of NOS activity. PMID:19105051

  1. Hypoxia-induced PLOD2 promotes proliferation, migration and invasion via PI3K/Akt signaling in glioma.

    PubMed

    Song, Ye; Zheng, Shihao; Wang, Jizhou; Long, Hao; Fang, Luxiong; Wang, Gang; Li, Zhiyong; Que, Tianshi; Liu, Yi; Li, Yilei; Zhang, Xi'an; Fang, Weiyi; Qi, Songtao

    2017-06-27

    Gliomas are the most common form of malignant primary brain tumors with poor 5-year survival rate. Dysregulation of procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) was observed in gliomas, but the specific role and molecular mechanism of PLOD2 in glioma have not been reported yet. In this study, PLOD2 was found to be frequently up-regulated in glioma and could serve as an independent prognostic marker to identify patients with poor clinical outcome. Knockdown of PLOD2 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, inhibition of PLOD2 inactivated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and thus regulated the expression of its downstream epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated regulators, including E-cadherin, vimentin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, snail and slug in glioma cells. Moreover, PLOD2 could be induced by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) via hypoxia, thereby promoting hypoxia-induced EMT in glioma cells. Our data suggests that PLOD2 may be a potential therapeutic target for patients with glioma.

  2. Protective Effect of N-acetylcysteine on Liver Damage During Chronic Intrauterine Hypoxia in Fetal Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kazumasa; Pinkas, Gerard; Evans, LaShauna; Liu, Hongshan; Al-Hasan, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exposure to hypoxia during pregnancy generates a stressed intrauterine environment that may lead to fetal organ damage. The objectives of the study are (1) to quantify the effect of chronic hypoxia in the generation of oxidative stress in fetal guinea pig liver and (2) to test the protective effect of antioxidant treatment in hypoxic fetal liver injury. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to either normoxia (NMX) or 10.5% O2 (HPX, 14 days) prior to term (65 days) and orally administered N-acetylcysteine ([NAC] 10 days). Near-term anesthetized fetuses were excised and livers examined by histology and assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA fragmentation. Chronic HPX increased erythroid precursors, MDA (NMX vs HPX; 1.26 ± 0.07 vs 1.78 ± 0.07 nmol/mg protein; P < .001, mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) and DNA fragmentation levels in fetal livers (0.069 ± 0.01 vs 0.11 ± 0.005 OD/mg protein; P < .01). N-acetylcysteine inhibited erythroid aggregation and reduced (P < .05) both MDA and DNA fragmentation of fetal HPX livers. Thus, chronic intrauterine hypoxia generates cell and nuclear damage in the fetal guinea pig liver. Maternal NAC inhibited the adverse effects of fetal liver damage suggestive of oxidative stress. The suppressive effect of maternal NAC may implicate the protective role of antioxidants in the prevention of liver injury in the hypoxic fetus. PMID:22534333

  3. Hypoxia induces triglycerides accumulation in prostate cancer cells and extracellular vesicles supporting growth and invasiveness following reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rahul; Dhar, Deepanshi; Agarwal, Chapla; Bergman, Bryan; Graner, Michael; Maroni, Paul; Singh, Rana P.; Agarwal, Rajesh; Deep, Gagan

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an independent prognostic indicator of poor outcome in several malignancies. However, precise mechanism through which hypoxia promotes disease aggressiveness is still unclear. Here, we report that under hypoxia (1% O2), human prostate cancer (PCA) cells, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by these cells, are significantly enriched in triglycerides due to the activation of lipogenesis-related enzymes and signaling molecules. This is likely a survival response to hypoxic stress as accumulated lipids could support growth following reoxygenation. Consistent with this, significantly higher proliferation was observed in hypoxic PCA cells following reoxygenation associated with rapid use of accumulated lipids. Importantly, lipid utilization inhibition by CPT1 inhibitor etomoxir and shRNA-mediated CPT1-knockdown significantly compromised hypoxic PCA cell proliferation following reoxygenation. Furthermore, COX2 inhibitor celecoxib strongly reduced growth and invasiveness following hypoxic PCA cells reoxygenation, and inhibited invasiveness induced by hypoxic PCA EVs. This establishes a role for COX2 enzymatic products in the enhanced PCA growth and invasiveness. Importantly, concentration and loading of EVs secreted by PCA cells were significantly compromised under delipidized serum condition and by lipogenesis inhibitors (fatostatin and silibinin). Overall, present study highlights the biological significance of lipid accumulation in hypoxic PCA cells and its therapeutic relevance in PCA. PMID:26087400

  4. Gene Therapy by Targeted Adenovirus-mediated Knockdown of Pulmonary Endothelial Tph1 Attenuates Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Morecroft, Ian; White, Katie; Caruso, Paola; Nilsen, Margaret; Loughlin, Lynn; Alba, Raul; Reynolds, Paul N; Danilov, Sergei M; Baker, Andrew H; MacLean, Margaret R

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is produced by pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) via tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1). Pathologically, serotonin acts on underlying pulmonary arterial cells, contributing to vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The effects of hypoxia on PAEC-Tph1 activity are unknown. We investigated the potential of a gene therapy approach to PAH using selective inhibition of PAEC-Tph1 in vivo in a hypoxic model of PAH. We exposed cultured bovine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (bPASMCs) to conditioned media from human PAECs (hPAECs) before and after hypoxic exposure. Serotonin levels were increased in hypoxic PAEC media. Conditioned media evoked bPASMC proliferation, which was greater with hypoxic PAEC media, via a serotonin-dependent mechanism. In vivo, adenoviral vectors targeted to PAECs (utilizing bispecific antibody to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) as the selective targeting system) were used to deliver small hairpin Tph1 RNA sequences in rats. Hypoxic rats developed PAH and increased lung Tph1. PAEC-Tph1 expression and development of PAH were attenuated by our PAEC-Tph1 gene knockdown strategy. These results demonstrate that hypoxia induces Tph1 activity and selective knockdown of PAEC-Tph1 attenuates hypoxia-induced PAH in rats. Further investigation of pulmonary endothelial-specific Tph1 inhibition via gene interventions is warranted. PMID:22525513

  5. Rapid mitochondrial adjustments in response to short-term hypoxia and re-oxygenation in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Dudognon, Tony; Fabioux, Caroline; Soudant, Philippe; Moraga, Dario; Kraffe, Edouard

    2013-05-01

    As oxygen concentrations in marine coastal habitats can fluctuate rapidly and drastically, sessile marine organisms such as the oyster Crassostrea gigas can experience marked and rapid oxygen variations. In this study, we investigated the responses of oyster gill mitochondria to short-term hypoxia (3 and 12 h, at 1.7 mg O2 l(-1)) and subsequent re-oxygenation. Mitochondrial respiratory rates (states 3 and 4 stimulated by glutamate) and phosphorylation efficiency [respiratory control ratio (RCR) and the relationship between ADP and oxygen consumption (ADP/O)] were measured. Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity and cytochrome concentrations (a, b, c1 and c) were measured to investigate the rearrangements of respiratory chain subunits. The potential implication of an alternative oxidase (AOX) was investigated using an inhibitor of the respiratory chain (antimycin A) and through gene expression analysis in gills and digestive gland. Results indicate a downregulation of mitochondrial capacity, with 60% inhibition of respiratory rates after 12 h of hypoxia. RCR remained stable, while ADP/O increased after 12 h of hypoxia and 1 h of re-oxygenation, suggesting increased phosphorylation efficiency. CCO showed a fast and remarkable increase of its catalytic activity only after 3 h of hypoxia. AOX mRNA levels showed similar patterns in gills and digestive gland, and were upregulated after 12 and 24 h of hypoxia and during re-oxygenation. Results suggest a set of controls regulating mitochondrial functions in response to oxygen fluctuations, and demonstrate the fast and extreme plasticity of oyster mitochondria in response to oxygen variations.

  6. Improved graft mesenchymal stem cell survival in ischemic heart with a hypoxia-regulated heme oxygenase-1 vector.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao Liang; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Y Clare; Qian, Keping; Shen, Leping; Phillips, M Ian

    2005-10-04

    The goal of this study was to modify mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cells with a hypoxia-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plasmid to enhance the survival of MSCs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) heart. Although stem cells are being tested clinically for cardiac repair, graft cells die in the ischemic heart because of the effects of hypoxia/reoxygenation, inflammatory cytokines, and proapoptotic factors. Heme oxygenase-1 is a key component in inhibiting most of these factors. Mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow were transfected with either HO-1 or LacZ plasmids. Cell apoptosis was assayed in vitro after hypoxia-reoxygen treatment. In vivo, 1 x 10(6) of male MSC(HO-1), MSC(LacZ), MSCs, or medium was injected into mouse hearts 1 h after MI (n = 16/group). Cell survival was assessed in a gender-mismatched transplantation model. Apoptosis, left ventricular remodeling, and cardiac function were tested in a gender-matched model. In the ischemic myocardium, the MSC(HO-1) group had greater expression of HO-1 and a 2-fold reduction in the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate in situ nick end labeling-positive cells compared with the MSC(LacZ) group. At seven days after implantation, the survival MSC(HO-1) was five-fold greater than the MSC(LacZ) group; MSC(HO-1) also attenuated left ventricular remodeling and enhanced the functional recovery of infarcted hearts two weeks after MI. A hypoxia-regulated HO-1 vector modification of MSCs enhances the tolerance of engrafted MSCs to hypoxia-reoxygen injury in vitro and improves their viability in ischemic hearts. This demonstration is the first showing that a physiologically inducible vector expressing of HO-1 genes improves the survival of stem cells in myocardial ischemia.

  7. Chronic hypoxia up-regulates expression of adenosine A1 receptors in DDT1-MF2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Lucy C; Bonnet, Claire; Kemp, Paul J; Yates, Michael S; Bowmer, Christopher J

    2004-02-01

    As the first step to understand how chronic hypoxia might regulate smooth muscle function in health and disease, we have employed an established immortalised cell model of smooth muscle, DDT1-MF2 cells, to address the hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptor density is modulated by O2 availability. Maximal specific binding (Bmax) of the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, [3H]-DPCPX, to cell membranes increased 3.5-fold from 0.48 +/- 0.02 pmol/mg to 1.7 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg protein after 16 hr of hypoxia and this effect was not accompanied by any statistically significant changes in either binding affinity (0.84 +/- 0.2 nM vs. 1.2 +/- 0.3 nM) or Hill coefficient (1.1 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.03). Hypoxia-evoked increases in membrane receptor density were paralleled in intact DDT1-MF2 cells. In addition, the increase in [3H]-DPCPX binding to intact cells was inhibited by co-incubation during hypoxia with the translational inhibitor cycloheximide, the transcriptional blocker actinomycin D and the NFkappaB inhibitor sulphasalazine. Together, these data show that adenosine A1 receptor density is modulated, at least in part, by O2-dependent activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB and adds to the list of processes dynamically regulated by ambient oxygen availability. Since hypoxia is an initiating factor in acute renal failure, similar changes in transcription may account for up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptors noted previously in the renal vasculature of rats with acute renal failure.

  8. Effects and mechanism of oridonin on pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia-hypercapnia in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Xing; Sun, Yu; Chen, Chan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Quan; Qian, Guo-Qing; Dong, Wei; Chen, Yan-Fan

    2009-06-20

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by suppressing apoptosis and enhancing cell proliferation in the vascular wall. Inducing pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) apoptosis had been regarded as a therapeutic approach for PAH. Oridonin can cause apoptosis in many cell lines, while little has been done to evaluate its effect on PASMC. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: normal control (NC); hypoxia-hypercapnia (HH); Hypoxia-hypercapnia + oridonin (HHO). Rats were exposed to hypoxia-hypercapnia for four weeks. Cultured human PASMC (HPASMC) were assigned to three groups: normoxia (NO); hypoxia (HY); hypoxia + oridonin (HO). The mean pulmonary artery pressure, mass ratio of right ventricle over left ventricle plus septum (RV/(LV + S)), the ratio of thickness of the pulmonary arteriole wall to vascular external diameter (WT%) and the ratio of the vessel wall area to the total area (WA%) were measured. Morphologic changes of pulmonary arteries were observed under light and electron microscopes. The apoptotic characteristics in vitro and in vivo were detected. The mPAP, RV/(LV + S), WT%, and WA% in the HH group were significantly greater than those in the NC (P < 0.01) and HHO groups (P < 0.01); the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the expressions of Bax, cyt-C and apoptotic index (AI) in the group HH were less than those in the NC and HHO groups; and the expression of Bcl-2 in group HH was greater than that in the NC and HHO groups. HPASMC mitochondrial membrane potentials in group HO was lower than in group HY (P < 0.01), and cyt-C in the cytoplasm, AI, and caspase-9 in the HO group were greater than that in the HY group (P < 0.01), but the expression of Bcl-2 in the HO group was less than that in the HY group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that oridonin can lower pulmonary artery pressure effectively, and inhibit pulmonary artery structural remodeling by inducing smooth cell apoptosis via a

  9. Long-term potentiation protects rat hippocampal slices from the effects of acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Youssef, F F; Addae, J I; McRae, A; Stone, T W

    2001-07-13

    We have previously shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) decreases the sensitivity of glutamate receptors in the rat hippocampal CA1 region to exogenously applied glutamate agonists. Since the pathophysiology of hypoxia/ischemia involves increased concentration of endogenous glutamate, we tested the hypothesis that LTP could reduce the effects of hypoxia in the hippocampal slice. The effects of LTP on hypoxia were measured by the changes in population spike potentials (PS) or field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fepsps). Hypoxia was induced by perfusing the slice with (i) artificial CSF which had been pre-gassed with 95%N2/5% CO2; (ii) artificial CSF which had not been pre-gassed with 95% O2/5% CO2; or (iii) an oxygen-glucose deprived (OGD) medium which was similar to (ii) and in which the glucose had been replaced with sucrose. Exposure of a slice to a hypoxic medium for 1.5-3.0 min led to a decrease in the PS or fepsps; the potentials recovered to control levels within 3-5 min. Repeat exposure, 45 min later, of the same slice to the same hypoxic medium for the same duration as the first exposure caused a reduction in the potentials again; there were no significant differences between the degree of reduction caused by the first or second exposure for all three types of hypoxic media (P>0.05; paired t-test). In some of the slices, two episodes of LTP were induced 25 and 35 min after the first hypoxic exposure; this caused inhibition of reduction in potentials caused by the second hypoxic insult which was given at 45 min after the first; the differences in reduction in potentials were highly significant for all the hypoxic media used (P<0.01; paired t-test). The neuroprotective effects of LTP were not prevented by cyclothiazide or inhibitors of NO synthetase compounds that have been shown to be effective in blocking the effects of LTP on the actions of exogenously applied AMPA and NMDA, respectively. The neuroprotective effects of LTP were similar to those

  10. Hypoxia and Its Acid-Base Consequences: From Mountains to Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Erik R

    Hypoxia, depending upon its magnitude and circumstances, evokes a spectrum of mild to severe acid-base changes ranging from alkalosis to acidosis, which can alter many responses to hypoxia at both non-genomic and genomic levels, in part via altered hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) metabolism. Healthy people at high altitude and persons hyperventilating to non-hypoxic stimuli can become alkalotic and alkalemic with arterial pH acutely rising as high as 7.7. Hypoxia-mediated respiratory alkalosis reduces sympathetic tone, blunts hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and hypoxic cerebral vasodilation, and increases hemoglobin oxygen affinity. These effects and others can be salutary or counterproductive to tissue oxygen delivery and utilization, based upon magnitude of each effect and summation. With severe hypoxia either in the setting of profound arterial hemoglobin desaturation and reduced O2 content or poor perfusion (ischemia) at the global or local level, metabolic and hypercapnic acidosis develop along with considerable lactate formation and pH falling to below 6.8. Although conventionally considered to be injurious and deleterious to cell function and survival, both acidoses may be cytoprotective by various anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic mechanisms which limit total hypoxic or ischemic-reperfusion injury. Attempts to correct acidosis by giving bicarbonate or other alkaline agents under these circumstances ahead of or concurrent with reoxygenation efforts may be ill advised. Better understanding of this so-called "pH paradox" or permissive acidosis may offer therapeutic possibilities. Rapidly growing cancers often outstrip their vascular supply compromising both oxygen and nutrient delivery and metabolic waste disposal, thus limiting their growth and metastatic potential. However, their excessive glycolysis and lactate formation may not necessarily represent oxygen insufficiency, but rather the Warburg effect-an attempt to provide a large amount

  11. Hypoxia interferes with ABA metabolism and increases ABA sensitivity in embryos of dormant barley grains.

    PubMed

    Benech-Arnold, Roberto L; Gualano, Nicolas; Leymarie, Juliette; Côme, Daniel; Corbineau, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been suggested as being responsible for dormancy in barley grain: (i) ABA in the embryo, and (ii) limitation of oxygen supply to the embryo by oxygen fixation as a result of the oxidation of phenolic compounds in the glumellae. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether hypoxia imposed by the glumellae interferes with ABA metabolism in the embryo, thus resulting in dormancy. In dormant and non-dormant grains incubated at 20 degrees C and in non-dormant grains incubated at 30 degrees C (i.e. when dormancy is not expressed), ABA content in the embryo decreased dramatically during the first 5 h of incubation before germination was detected. By contrast, germination of dormant grains was less than 2% within 48 h at 30 degrees C and embryo ABA content increased during the first hours of incubation and then remained 2-4 times higher than in embryos from grains in which dormancy was not expressed. Removal of the glumellae allowed germination of dormant grains at 30 degrees C and the embryos did not display the initial increase in ABA content. Incubation of de-hulled grains under 5% oxygen to mimic the effect of glumellae, restored the initial increase ABA in content and completely inhibited germination. Incubation of embryos isolated from dormant grains, in the presence of a wide range of ABA concentrations and under various oxygen tensions, revealed that hypoxia increased embryo sensitivity to ABA by 2-fold. This effect was more pronounced at 30 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. Furthermore, when embryos from dormant grains were incubated at 30 degrees C in the presence of 10 microM ABA, their endogenous ABA content remained constant after 48 h of incubation under air, while it increased dramatically in embryos incubated under hypoxia, indicating that the apparent increase in embryo ABA responsiveness induced by hypoxia was, in part, mediated by an inability of the embryo to inactivate ABA. Taken together these results suggest that hypoxia

  12. Evolutionary Genetics of Hypoxia Tolerance in Cetaceans during Diving

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ran; Wang, Zhengfei; Niu, Xu; Zhou, Kaiya; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia was a major challenge faced by cetaceans during the course of secondary aquatic adaptation. Although physiological traits of hypoxia tolerance in cetaceans have been well characterized, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the sequences of 17 hypoxia-tolerance-related genes in representative cetaceans to provide a comprehensive insight into the genetic basis of hypoxia tolerance in these animals. Genes involved in carrying and transporting oxygen in the blood and muscle (hemoglobin-α and β, myoglobin), and genes involved in the regulation of vasoconstriction (endothelin-1, -2, and -3; endothelin receptor type A and B; adrenergic receptor α-1D; and arginine vasopressin) appear to have undergone adaptive evolution, evidence for positive selection on their particular sites, and radical physiochemical property changes of selected condons. Interestingly, “long-diving” cetaceans had relatively higher ω (dN/dS) values than “short-diving” cetaceans for the hemoglobin β gene, indicating divergent selective pressure presented in cetacean lineages with different diving abilities. Additionally, parallel positive selection or amino acid changes (ADRA1D: P50A, A53G, AVPR1B: I/V270T) among animals exposed to different hypoxia habitats reflect functional convergence or similar genetic mechanisms of hypoxia tolerance. In summary, positive selection, divergent selective pressures, and parallel evolution at the molecular level provided some new insights into the genetic adaptation of hypoxia tolerance. PMID:26912402

  13. Glycolysis determines dichotomous regulation of T cell subsets in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yang; Zhang, Ming; Savoldo, Barbara; Metelitsa, Leonid S.; Rodgers, John; Yustein, Jason T.; Neilson, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia occurs in many pathological conditions, including chronic inflammation and tumors, and is considered to be an inhibitor of T cell function. However, robust T cell responses occur at many hypoxic inflammatory sites, suggesting that functions of some subsets are stimulated under low oxygen conditions. Here, we investigated how hypoxic conditions influence human T cell functions and found that, in contrast to naive and central memory T cells (TN and TCM), hypoxia enhances the proliferation, viability, and cytotoxic action of effector memory T cells (TEM). Enhanced TEM expansion in hypoxia corresponded to high hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) expression and glycolytic activity compared with that observed in TN and TCM. We determined that the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH negatively regulates HIF1A expression by binding to adenylate-uridylate–rich elements in the 3′-UTR region of HIF1A mRNA in glycolytically inactive TN and TCM. Conversely, active glycolysis with decreased GAPDH availability in TEM resulted in elevated HIF1α expression. Furthermore, GAPDH overexpression reduced HIF1α expression and impaired proliferation and survival of T cells in hypoxia, indicating that high glycolytic metabolism drives increases in HIF1α to enhance TEM function during hypoxia. This work demonstrates that glycolytic metabolism regulates the translation of HIF1A to determine T cell responses to hypoxia and implicates GAPDH as a potential mechanism for controlling T cell function in peripheral tissue. PMID:27294526

  14. Reassessing hypoxia forecasts for the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Scavia, Donald; Donnelly, Kristina A

    2007-12-01

    Gulf of Mexico hypoxia has received considerable scientific and policy attention because of its potential ecological and economic impacts and implications for agriculture within its massive watershed. A 2000 assessment concluded that increased nitrate load to the Gulf since the 1950s was the primary cause of large-scale hypoxia