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Sample records for glycol copolymers evaluation

  1. Blood compatibility evaluations of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenghua; Ma, Chengyan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Zonghua; Xue, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) copolymers have been widely used for various biomedical applications. However, their hemocompatibility has not been clarified, which would lag their developments and clinical applications. In this work, we studied the effect of PEG-PLA copolymers on key human blood components in terms of their structure and bio-functions, including morphology and lysis of red blood cells, fibrinogen structure and conformation, and plasma and blood coagulation. To elucidate a structure-activity relationship, we used diblock PEG-PLA copolymers with different molecular weight, PEG(5 kDa)-PLA(25 kDa) and PEG(2 kDa)-PLA(2 kDa), abbreviated as PEG5k-PLA25k and PEG2k-PLA2k, respectively. The results show that the PEG-PLA copolymers at the concentration range studied in this work neither caused morphological alteration and lysis of red blood cells nor affected the oxygen delivery function and fibrinogen conformation. PEG5k-PLA25k from 10 to 100 mg/mL and PEG2k-PLA2k from 1.5 to 5 mg/mL disturbed the local microenvironments of fibrinogen molecules. PEG5k-PLA25k at up to 0.1 mg/mL did not interfere in the coagulation process of plasma or whole blood, while PEG2k-PLA2k from 0.1 mg/mL significantly interfered in the intrinsic plasma coagulation pathway and impaired whole blood coagulation. The results provide important information for the molecular design and clinical applications of PEG-PLA copolymers.

  2. Improved oral absorption of doxorubicin by amphiphilic copolymer of lysine-linked ditocopherol polyethylene glycol 2000 succinate: in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; Li, Lin; Du, Yuqian; Sun, Jin; Han, Xiaopeng; Luo, Cong; Ai, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Yang, Zhifu; He, Zhonggui

    2015-02-02

    In the previous study, we have synthesized an amphiphilic copolymer of nanostructure-forming material and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, lysine-linked ditocopherol polyethylene glycol 2000 succinate (PLV2K). The cytotoxicty in vitro and anticancer efficacy in vivo after intravenous administration of DOX-loaded PLV2K micelles (PLV2K-DOX) was found more effective than DOX solution (DOX-Sol). However, its performance and mechanism on oral absorption of doxorubicin are not well understood yet. PLV2K-DOX are spherical micelles with a narrow size distribution of 20.53 ± 2.44 nm. With an in situ intestinal perfusion model, the intestinal absorption potential of PLV2K-DOX was evaluated in comparison with DOX-Sol. PLV2K-DOX was specifically absorbed in duodenum and ileum sites of rats after oral administration. The intestinal absorption rate (Ka) of PLV2K-DOX is 3.19-, 1.61-, and 1.80-fold higher than that of DOX-Sol in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively. In Caco-2 uptake studies, PLV2K-DOX micelles significantly improve the internalized amount of DOX by P-gp inhibition of free PLV2K copolymer and endocytosis of DOX-loaded nanoparticles. Moreover, PLV2K-DOX micelles improve the membrane permeability of DOX by multiple transcytosis mechanisms, including caveolin-, clathrin-dependent, and caveolin-/clathrin-independent transcytosis in Caco-2 transport studies. However, the transepithelia electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cellular monolayer is not changed, suggesting no involvement of paracellular transport of PLV2K-DOX. In vivo pharmacokinetics in rats following oral administration demonstrated that PLV2K-DOX demonstrates higher AUC (5.6-fold) and longer t1/2 (1.2-fold) than DOX-Sol. The findings suggest the new PLV2K micelles might provide an effective nanoplatform for oral delivery of anticancer drugs with poor membrane permeability and low oral bioavailability.

  3. Multidimensional chromatographic techniques for hydrophilic copolymers II. Analysis of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(vinyl acetate) graft copolymers.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Daniela; Rittig, Frank; Lange, Ronald F M; Pasch, Harald

    2006-10-13

    A large variety of hydrophilic copolymers is applied in different fields of chemical industry including bio, pharma and pharmaceutical applications. For example, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(vinyl alcohol) graft copolymers that are used as tablet coatings are responsible for the controlled release of the active compounds. These copolymers are produced by grafting of vinyl acetate onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) and subsequent hydrolysis of the poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(vinyl acetate) graft copolymers. The poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(vinyl acetate) copolymers are distributed with regard to molar mass and chemical composition. In addition, they frequently contain the homopolymers polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl acetate. The comprehensive analysis of such complex systems requires hyphenated analytical techniques, including two-dimensional liquid chromatography and combined LC and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The development and application of these techniques are discussed in the present paper.

  4. Ultrasound responsive block copolymer micelle of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene glycol) obtained through click reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Fayong; Xie, Chuan; Cheng, Zhengang; Xia, Hesheng

    2016-05-01

    The well-defined amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) copolymer containing 1, 2, 3-triazole moiety and multiple ester bonds (PEG-click-PPG) was prepared by click reaction strategy. The PEG-click-PPG copolymer can self-assemble into spherical micelles in aqueous solution. It is found that high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can open the copolymer PEG-click-PPG micelles and trigger the release of the payload in the micelle. The multiple ester bonds introduced in the junction point of the copolymer chain through click reactions were cleaved under HIFU, and leads to the disruption of the copolymer micelle and fast release of loaded cargo. The click reaction provides a convenient way to construct ultrasound responsive copolymer micelles with weak bonds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Crystallization studies of polyethylene -poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, P. R.; Hovey, G. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Breitenkamp, K.; Kade, M.; Emerick, T.

    2006-03-01

    Structure and crystallization behavior of three copolymers obtained by grafting poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains to polyethylene (PE) main chain was investigated by variable temperature x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results show that PEG side chains and PE main chains crystallize into separate domains. This is especially true when grafted chains are long (50 and 100 repeat units), in which the PEG domains are same as in PEG homopolymer both in structure and in melting behavior. In the copolymer with shorter chains (25 repeat units), the PEG crystals are not distinct and melting is broad. The PEG domains can be dissolved in water or ethanol without altering the mechanical integrity of the film. PE crystallites in both samples are similar to that in PE homopolymer. For instance, the thermal expansion of the basal cell plane (a- and b-axes) of the PE domains agrees well with that of PE homopolymer over the entire temperature range from ambient to melt. However, the chain-axis dimension PE-lattice in the copolymer is shorter by ˜ 0.05 å and the basal dimensions are larger by ˜ 0.05 å. The changes in these dimensions due to the changes in the length of the grafted PEG chains were investigated.

  6. Interfacial Properties of Polyethylene Glycol/Vinyltriethoxysilane (PEG/VTES) Copolymers and their Application to Stain Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yin-Chun; Su, Shuenn-Kung; Lin, Ya-Wun; Hsu, Wan-Ting; Huang, Kuo-Shien

    2012-05-01

    In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) were used in different proportions to produce a series of PEG-VTES copolymers. The copolymer molecular structures were confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. In addition, their surface activities were evaluated by evaluating the surface tension, contact angle, and foaming properties. The results showed that these surfactants exhibited excellent surface activities and wetting power, as well as low foaming. Consequently, the application of a series of PEG/VTES copolymers can make cotton fabrics stain resistant.

  7. Novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(anhydride-esters) amphiphilic copolymer micelles loading curcumin: preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Li; Shen, Yuanyuan; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaofen; Li, Mingna; Guo, Shengrong; Huang, Shengtang

    2013-01-01

    A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(anhydride-esters) amphiphilic copolymer (4-arm PEG-b-PAE) was synthesized by esterization of 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(anhydride-esters) which was obtained by melt polycondensation of α -, ω -acetic anhydride terminated poly(L-lactic acid). The obtained 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was characterized by (1)H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration of 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was 2.38 μg/mL. The curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles were prepared by a solid dispersion method and the drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency of the micelles were 7.0% and 85.2%, respectively. The curcumin-loaded micelles were spherical with a hydrodynamic diameter of 151.9 nm. Curcumin was encapsulated within 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles amorphously and released from the micelles, faster in pH 5.0 than pH 7.4, presenting one biphasic drug release pattern with rapid release at the initial stage and slow release later. The hemolysis rate of the curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles was 3.18%, which was below 5%. The IC50 value of the curcumin-loaded micelles against Hela cells was 10.21 μg/mL, lower than the one of free curcumin (25.90 μg/mL). The cellular uptake of the curcumin-loaded micelles in Hela cell increased in a time-dependent manner. The curcumin-loaded micelles could induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Hela cells.

  8. Amphiphilic copolymers reduce aggregation of unfolded lysozyme more effectively than polyethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Jaemin; Mustafi, Devkumar; Poellmann, Michael J.; Lee, Raphael C.

    2017-02-01

    Certain amphiphilic block copolymers are known to prevent aggregation of unfolded proteins. To better understand the mechanism of this effect, the optical properties of heat-denatured and dithiothreitol reduced lysozyme were evaluated with respect to controls using UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and circular dichroism (CD) measurements. Then, the effects of adding Polyethylene Glycol (8000 Da), the triblock surfactant Poloxamer 188 (P188), and the tetrablock copolymer Tetronic 1107 (T1107) to the lysozyme solution were compared. Overall, T1107 was found to be more effective than P188 in inhibiting aggregation, while PEG exhibited no efficacy. TEM imaging of heat-denatured and reduced lysozymes revealed spherical aggregates with on average 250–450 nm diameter. Using CD, more soluble lysozyme was recovered with T1107 than P188 with β-sheet secondary structure. The greater effectiveness of the larger T1107 in preventing aggregation of unfolded lysozyme than the smaller P188 and PEG points to steric hindrance at play; signifying the importance of size match between the hydrophobic region of denatured protein and that of amphiphilic copolymers. Thus, our results corroborate that certain multi-block copolymers are effective in preventing heat-induced aggregation of reduced lysozymes and future studies warrant more detailed focus on specific applications of these copolymers.

  9. Developmental toxicity of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was evaluated in developmental toxicity studies with Wistar rats and Himalayan rabbits. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged with 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg PEG-PVA grafted copolymer/kg bw/day from gestation day (GD) 6-15. Pregnant Himalayan rabbits received the same treatment from GD 6 to 19. On GD 20 and 29 for rats and rabbits, respectively, the animals were euthanized and were examined grossly. For each dam, corpora lutea were counted and number and distribution of implantation sites were determined. The fetuses were removed, sexed, weighed, and evaluated for any external, soft tissue, and skeletal findings. No significant findings were found that could be attributed to administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer. Under the conditions of these studies, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity in both species was the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

  10. In vitro evaluation of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) methyl ether copolymer coating effects on cells adhesion and proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusen, Laurentiu; Neacsu, Patricia; Cimpean, Anisoara; Valentin, Ion; Brajnicov, Simona; Dumitrescu, L. N.; Banita, Janina; Dinca, Valentina; Dinescu, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and controlling natural and synthetic biointerfaces is known to be the key to a wide variety of application within cell culture and tissue engineering field. As both material characteristics and methods are important in tailoring biointerfaces characteristics, in this work we explore the feasibility of using Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique for obtaining synthetic copolymeric biocoatings (i.e. poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) methyl ether) for evaluating in vitro Vero and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts cell response. Characterization and evaluation of the coated substrates were carried out using different techniques. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data demonstrated that the main functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited films remained intact. Atomic Force Microscopy images showed the coatings to be continuous, with the surface roughness depending on the deposition parameters. Moreover, the behaviour of the coatings in medium mimicking the pH and temperature of the human body was studied and corelated to degradation. Spectro-ellipsometry (SE) and AFM measurements revealed the degradation trend during immersion time by the changes in coating thickness and roughness. In vitro biocompatibility was studied by indirect contact tests on Vero cells in accordance with ISO 10993-5/2009. The results obtained in terms of cell morphology (phase contrast microscopy) and cytotoxicity (LDH and MTT assays) proved biocompatibility. Furthermore, direct contact assays on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts demonstrated the capacity of all analyzed specimens to support cell adhesion, normal cellular morphology and growth.

  11. Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: reproductive toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was administered by gavage to groups of 25 male and 25 female young Wistar rats at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg bw/day for one generation (F0). The study followed the treated F0 generation through mating, gestation, lactation, and weaning of the F1 generation. F1 animals were mated and followed to gestation day (GD) 15-17 at which time F2 implants were evaluated. There were no indications from the various clinical and gross pathological examinations that the oral administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer to the F0-parental rats produced any signs of general, reproductive, or developmental toxicity in the F0 or F1 animals or F2 implants. Based on the lack of any dose-related or biologically relevant effects on fertility, reproduction, development, and overall health of rats gavaged with PEG-PVA grafted copolymer and their progeny, the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day.

  12. Subchronic toxicity of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; Buesen, Roland; Mellert, Werner; Groeters, Sibylle; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    The safety of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was evaluated in a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats and in a 9-month oral toxicity study in dogs. Wistar rats were administered 600, 3000, or 15,000 ppm PEG-PVA grafted copolymer in their drinking water whereas beagle dogs were fed 3000, 10,000, or 30,000 ppm PEG-PVA grafted copolymer in the diet. There were no mortalities, no adverse clinical signs, no toxicologically adverse effects on body weight or body weight gain, feed consumption, hematological, clinical chemistry or urinary parameters, or histopathology in either species. In rats, no treatment-related effects were observed in the functional observational battery (FOB) or related measurements of motor activity. Increased water consumption observed in rats at the highest dose was the only test substance-induced effect noted. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was the highest concentration tested in both species: 15,000 ppm in rats (corresponding to a daily intake of 1611 mg/kg bw for males and 2191 mg/kg bw for females) and 30,000 ppm in dogs (corresponding to a mean daily intake of 783 mg/kg bw for males and 811 mg/kg bw for females).

  13. Addition of poly (propylene glycol) to multiblock copolymer to optimize siRNA delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhi; Arévalo, Maria T; Li, Junwei; Zeng, Mingtao

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have examined different strategies for siRNA delivery with varying degrees of success. These include use of viral vectors, cationic liposomes, and polymers. Several copolymers were designed and synthesized based on blocks of poly(ethylene glycol) PEG, poly(propylene glycol) PPG, and poly(l-lysine). These were designated as P1, P2, and P3. We studied the copolymer self-assembly, siRNA binding, particle size, surface potential, architecture of the complexes, and siRNA delivery. Silencing of GFP using copolymer P3 to deliver GFP-specific siRNA to Neuro-2a cells expressing GFP was almost as effective as using Lipofectamine 2000, with minimal cytotoxicity. Thus, we have provided a new copolymer platform for siRNA delivery that we can continue to modify for improved delivery of siRNA in vitro and eventually in vivo. PMID:24424156

  14. Addition of poly (propylene glycol) to multiblock copolymer to optimize siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi; Arévalo, Maria T; Li, Junwei; Zeng, Mingtao

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have examined different strategies for siRNA delivery with varying degrees of success. These include use of viral vectors, cationic liposomes, and polymers. Several copolymers were designed and synthesized based on blocks of poly(ethylene glycol) PEG, poly(propylene glycol) PPG, and poly(l-lysine). These were designated as P1, P2, and P3. We studied the copolymer self-assembly, siRNA binding, particle size, surface potential, architecture of the complexes, and siRNA delivery. Silencing of GFP using copolymer P3 to deliver GFP-specific siRNA to Neuro-2a cells expressing GFP was almost as effective as using Lipofectamine 2000, with minimal cytotoxicity. Thus, we have provided a new copolymer platform for siRNA delivery that we can continue to modify for improved delivery of siRNA in vitro and eventually in vivo.

  15. Hydrophilization of poly(caprolactone) copolymers through introduction of oligo(ethylene glycol) moieties.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Jonathan J; Blumenthal, Nils R; Shastri, V Prasad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new family of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) copolymers that bear oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) moieties is described. The synthesis of three different oligo(ethylene glycol) functionalized epoxide monomers derived from 2-methyl-4-pentenoic acid, and their copolymerization with ε-caprolactone (CL) to poly(CL-co-OEG-MPO) copolymers is presented. The statistical copolymerization initiated with SnOct2/BnOH yielded the copolymers with varying OEG content and composition. The linear relationship between feed ratio and incorporation of the OEG co-monomer enables control over backbone functional group density. The introduction of OEG moieties influenced both the thermal and the hydrophilic characteristics of the copolymers. Both increasing OEG length and backbone content resulted in a decrease in static water contact angle. The introduction of OEG side chains in the PCL copolymers had no adverse influence on MC-3TE3-E1 cell interaction. However, changes to cell form factor (Φ) were observed. While unmodified PCL promoted elongated (anisotropic) morphologies (Φ = 0.094), PCL copolymer with tri-ethylene glycol side chains at or above seven percent backbone incorporation induced more isotropic cell morphologies (Φ = 0.184) similar to those observed on glass controls (Φ = 0.151).

  16. Thermal destruction of copolymers of polypropylene glycol maleate with acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkeev, M. Zh.; Sarsenbekova, A. Zh.; Tazhbaev, E. M.; Figurinene, I. V.

    2015-12-01

    The results from thermogravimetric and kinetic studies of copolymers of polypropylene glycol maleate with acrylic acid at different molar ratios are presented. The results from conventional thermogravimetric studies are used to determine kinetic characteristics of the process of thermal decomposition, i.e., activation energy and pre-exponential factors. These parameters are determined in three ways: the Achar, Freeman-Carroll, and Sharp-Wentworth methods. Activation energies calculated using all the three methods confirm the dependence of the destruction process on the ratio of components in a synthesized copolymer. It is shown that the obtained values of the activation energies and thermodynamic characteristics allow us to predict a copolymer's composition.

  17. A thermosensitive hydrogel based on biodegradable amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol) polycaprolactone poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chang Yang; Qian, Zhi Yong; Liu, Cai Bing; Juan Huang, Mei; Gu, Ying Chun; Wen, Yan Jun; Kan, Bing; Wang, Ke; Dai, Mei; Li, Xing Yi; Gou, Ma Ling; Tu, Ming Jing; Wei, Yu Quan

    2007-06-01

    A series of low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) biodegradable block copolymers were successfully synthesized using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) as the coupling agent, and were characterized using 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The aqueous solutions of the PEG-PCL-PEG copolymers displayed a special thermosensitive gel-sol transition when the concentration was above the corresponding critical gel concentration. Gel-sol phase diagrams were recorded using the test-tube-inversion method; they depended on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance in the macromolecular structure, as well as some other factors, including the heating history, volume, and the ageing time of the copolymer aqueous solutions and dissolution temperature of the copolymers. As a result, the gel-sol transition temperature range could be altered, which might be very useful for application in injectable drug delivery systems. This work was financially supported by the Chinese Key Basic Research Program (2004CB518800 and 2004CB518807), and the Sichuan Key Project of Science and Technology (06(05SG022-021-02)).

  18. Diblock copolymers of polyethylene glycol and a polymethacrylamide with side-chains containing twin ortho ester rings: synthesis, characterization, and evaluation as potential pH-responsive micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojing; Luo, Shi; Tang, Rupei; Wang, Rui; Wang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    The diblock copolymer, PEG-b-PMEA, was synthesized by reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT). The PMEA block contained a polymethacrylamide backbone and twin ortho ester rings in the side-chains. At neutral pH, PEG-b-PMEA self-assembled to form stable micelles. At pH 5, the twin ortho ester rings were quickly hydrolyzed to completion in 12 h, and releasing nearly 70% of the encapsulated Nile Red dye. The PEG-b-PMEA micelles were completely nontoxic to cultured cells as determined by the MTT assay. Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded micelles showed toxicity toward lung cancer cells comparable to that of the free PTX at equivalent doses. These results suggest that the PEG-b-PMEA micelles could be useful nano-carriers for pH-responsive delivery of poorly soluble anticancer drugs.

  19. Permselective properties for aqueous ethanol solutions through copolymer membranes from benzyl methacrylate and polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Okado, Takashi; Matsumoto, Akira; Oiwa, Masayoshi; Uragami, Tadashi )

    1992-10-01

    Copolymer membranes prepared by bulk copolymerization of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylates of three different degrees of polymerization as macromonomer and benzyl methacrylate as comonomer were used for the separation of aqueous ethanol solutions in both pervaporation and evapomeation. The copolymer membranes preferentially permeated water from an aqueous ethanol solutions in both pervaporation and evapomeation. The copolymer membranes preferentially permeated water from an aqueous ethanol solution in evapomeation. In pervaporation, ethanol was predominantly permeated from an aqueous ethanol solution through the copolymer membranes containing a long polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain above about 20 wt% PEG content in a copolymer. This result was attributed to a remarkable swelling of the copolymer membrane containing a long PEG chain by the aqueous ethanol solution in pervaporation. In evapomeation, both the separation factors and the permeation rates through these membranes are not much affected by the ethanol concentration in the feed vapor. In pervaporation, they were significantly dependent on the ethanol concentration in the feed solution. The above results are discussed from the viewpoint of the physical structure of the membrane in evapomeation and pervaporation.

  20. 1H-NMR characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) and polydimethylsiloxane copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Ain Athirah; Othaman, Rizafizah; Noor, Wan Syaidatul Aqma Wan Mohd; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) copolymers. The copolymers were synthesized by reacting hydroxyl group (-OH) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polydimetylsiloxane (PDMS) with isocyanate group (R-N=C=O) of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). The reaction was carried out at room temperature. The copolymers were synthesized in three different compositions which differ in molar ratios of PEG to PDMS. The ratios (PEG:PDMS) used were 2:6. 3:5 and 4:4. The formation of the copolymers was characterized by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) for structural determination. The presence of proton signal at 4.80 ppm which belongs to the proton of urethane group indicates the formation of urethane links. The formation of urethane links showed that two homopolymers were linked together by HMDI to form longer copolymer chains. It is worth to note that the sequence of PEG and PDMS along the copolymer chain is random.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of novel biotinylated biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(carbonate-lactic acid) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhigang; Guan, Huili; Lü, Changhai; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin

    2005-11-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(5-benzyloxy-trimethylene carbonate-lactic acid) copolymers (PEG-b-P(BTMC-LA)) were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of lactide and 5-benzyloxy trimethylene carbonate in the presence of mono-hydroxyl poly(ethylene glycol) with diethyl zinc as catalyst. They were further converted into deprotected copolymers with the pendant hydroxyl groups by hydrogenolysis in the presence of Pd(OH)2/C, and finally conjugated with biotin through the free hydroxyl groups. Gel permeation chromatography, Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed the copolymer structures and successful attachment of biotin to the copolymer.

  2. Biodegradable hyperbranched amphiphilic polyurethane multiblock copolymers consisting of poly(propylene glycol), poly(ethylene glycol), and polycaprolactone as in situ thermogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Zibiao; Zhang, Zhongxing; Liu, Kerh Li; Ni, Xiping; Li, Jun

    2012-12-10

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of new hyperbranched amphiphilic polyurethane multiblock copolymers consisting of poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and polycaprolactone (PCL) segments as in situ thermogels. The hyperbranched poly(PPG/PEG/PCL urethane)s, termed as HBPEC copolymers, were synthesized from PPG-diol, PEG-diol, and PCL-triol by using 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) as a coupling agent. The compositions and structures of HBPEC copolymers were determined by GPC and 1H NMR spectroscopy. We carried out comparative studies of the new hyperbranched copolymers with their linear counterparts, the linear poly(PPG/PEG/PCL urethane) (LPEC) copolymer and Pluronic F127 PEG-PPG-PEG block copolymer, in terms of their self-assembly and aggregation behaviors and thermoresponsive properties. HBPEC copolymers were found to show thermoresponsive micelle formation and aggregation behaviors. Particularly, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the copolymers was significantly affected by the copolymer architecture. HBPEC copolymers showed much lower LCST than LPEC, the linear counterpart. Our studies revealed that the effect of hyperbranch architecture was more prominent in the gelation of the copolymers. The aqueous solutions of HBPEC copolymers exhibited thermogelling behaviors at critical gelation concentrations (CGCs) ranging from 4.3 to 7.4 wt %. These values are much lower than those reported on other PCL-contained linear thermogelling copolymers and Pluronic F127 copolymer. In addition, the CGC of HBPEC copolymers is much lower than the control LPEC copolymer. More interestingly, at high temperatures, while LPEC and other linear thermogelling copolymers formed turbid sol, HBPEC formed a dehydrated gel. Our data suggest that these phenomena are caused by the hyperbranched structure of HBPEC copolymers, which could increase the interaction of copolymer branches and enhance the chain association through

  3. Polystyrene nanoparticles based on poly(butyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) and poly(methyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) graft copolymers.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Adrian; Vincent, Brian

    2003-06-15

    The solubilization of styrene by poly(butyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) and poly(methyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) graft copolymers has been examined. From turbidity measurements the solubility limit of the monomer in the micelles was obtained and the distribution coefficients were evaluated. Dynamic light scattering revealed that below the solubility limit, solubilization leads to a slight increase in micelle size, while above the solubility limit, there is a dramatic increase in particle size and turbidity as oil-in-water emulsions are formed through coalescence of monomer-swollen micelles. Polymerizations carried out below the solubility limit using the graft copolymer micelles as templates resembled microemulsion polymerizations in nature and led to very fine sterically stabilized polystyrene latex particles. Through careful control of the monomer concentration and the polymerization temperature it was possible to obtain spherical nanosize latex particles with similar size to those of the micelle precursors (10 nm) up to 11% monomer by weight. Polymerizations above the solubility limit, on the other hand, showed similarities with emulsion polymerizations and resulted in larger particles with higher polydispersity.

  4. A new formulation of curcumin using poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)—polyethylene glycol diblock copolymer as carrier material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong Tuyen Dao, Thi; Hoai Nguyen, To; To, Van Vinh; Ho, Thanh Ha; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Chien Dang, Mau

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to fabricate a nanoparticle formulation of curcumin using a relatively new vehicle as the matrix polymer: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)- polyethylene glycol (PEG) diblock copolymer, and to investigate the effects of the various processing parameters on the characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs). We successfully synthesized the matrix polymer of PLGA-PEG by conjugation of PLGA copolymer with a carboxylate end group to a heterobifunctional amine-PEG-methoxy using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide as conjugation crosslinkers. The composition of the formed product (PLGA-PEG) was characterized with 500 MHz 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The conjugation of PLGA-PEG was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum study. This diblock copolymer was then used to prepare the curcumin-loaded NPs through nanoprecipitation technique. With this method, we found that the size distribution depends on the type of solvent, the concentration of polymer and the concentration of surfactant. The particle size and size distribution were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to confirm the size, structure and morphology of the successfully prepared NPs. All of our results showed that they are spherical and quite homologous with mean diameter around of 100-300 nm. Further, we evaluated encapsulation efficiency and some characteristics of NPs through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, zeta-potential measurements and x-ray diffraction studies. The HPLC analyses were performed to determine the amount of curcumin entrapped in NPs. The zeta-potential measurements confirmed the stability of NPs and the successful encapsulation of curcumin within NPs and the x-ray diffraction patterns showed the disordered-crystalline phase of curcumin inside the polymeric matrix.

  5. Ocular permeability of pirenzepine hydrochloride enhanced by methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D, L-lactide) block copolymer.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiasheng; Pang, Hui; Yan, Zhen; Li, Pengmei

    2007-10-01

    Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D, L-lactide) block copolymer was tested as an ocular permeation enhancer for pirenzepine hydrochloride. The block copolymers with the methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) to poly(D, L-lactide) weight ratio of 80/20, 50/50, 40/60 were synthesized by a ring-opening polymerization procedure. In vitro transcorneal experiments demonstrated that the block copolymer 80/20 significantly enhanced the transcorneal permeation of pirenzepine at the mass ratio of 1/1.4 (pirenzepine hydrochloride/copolymer). Interaction between pirenzepine and copolymer was identified by infrared spectroscopy analysis and dialysis experiments. Ocular pharmacokinetics of pirenzepine/copolymer preparation by in vivo instillation experiments confirmed that block copolymer could enhance the ocular penetration of pirenzepine. Ocular chronic toxicity experiments of block copolymer and pirenzepine/copolymer preparation were studied on rabbits, and no significant toxicity in both groups was observed within 9 months. It could conclude that pirenzepine/copolymer preparation is effective and safe in ocular delivery of pirenzepine.

  6. A novel rapamycin-polymer conjugate based on a new poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Wanyi; Chen, Zhijin; Barve, Ashutosh; Peng, Zhonghua; Cheng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Rapamycin has demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the clinical development of its formulations was hampered due to its poor solubility and undesirable distribution in vivo. Chemical modification of rapamycin presents an opportunity for overcoming the obstacles and improving its therapeutic index. The objective of this study is to develop a drug-polymer conjugate to increase the solubility and cellular uptake of rapamycin. Methods We developed the rapamycin-polymer conjugate using a novel, linear, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based multiblock copolymer. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the rapamycin-polymer conjugate were evaluated in various cancer cells. Results The rapamycin-polymer conjugate provides enhanced solubility in water compared with free rapamycin and shows profound activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The rapamycin-polymer conjugate also presents high drug loading capacity (wt% ~ 26%) when GlyGlyGly is used as a linker. Cellular uptake of the conjugate was confirmed by confocal microscopy examination of PC-3 cells that were cultured in the presence of FITC-labled polymer (FITC-polymer). Conclusion This study suggests that the rapamycin-polymer conjugate is a novel anti-cancer agent that may provide an attractive strategy for treatment of a wide variety of tumors. PMID:24072263

  7. Tailoring Membrane Surface Properties and Ultrafiltration Performances via the Self-Assembly of Polyethylene Glycol-block-Polysulfone-block-Polyethylene Glycol Block Copolymer upon Thermal and Solvent Annealing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Tao; Hu, Yunxia

    2017-09-13

    Recently, ultrafiltration (UF) membranes have faced great challenges including the fine control of membrane surfaces for high filtration performances and antifouling properties in treating complex solution systems. Here, a particular type of amphiphilic block copolymer polyethylene glycol-block-polysulfone-block-polyethylene glycol (PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG) was synthesized through one-pot step-growth polymerization with mPEG [monomethylpoly(ethylene glycol)] as two ends to achieve the mobility of hydrophilic polymer chains. Without any other polymers or additives involved, the PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG triblock copolymer UF membrane was fabricated through the non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) method. The surface properties and filtration performances of UF membranes were tailored through the self-assembly of PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG triblock copolymers combining the thermal and solvent annealing treatments in water at 90 °C for 16 h. The annealed PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG triblock copolymer membrane significantly enhanced its water flux resulting from the increased mean pore size with the improved porosity, as well as the decreased skin layer thickness, upon annealing. More importantly, the PEG-b-PSf-b-PEG triblock copolymer membrane surface turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic upon annealing with the PEG enrichment on the surface, and exhibited improved protein antifouling performances. Our research opens a new avenue to tailor the membrane structure and surface properties by self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers upon thermal and solvent annealing treatments.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of injectable, water-soluble copolymers of tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian C; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2002-11-01

    Several homopolymers and copolymers of 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEAEM) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) were synthesized using anionic polymerization initiated by potassium t-butoxide. The polymers were characterized by average molecular weight, polydispersity and monomeric unit composition. A very narrow molecular weight distribution was achieved with a well-controlled composition. The glass transition temperatures and compositions of the copolymers followed a Gordon-Taylor relationship. The water solubility and biocompatibility of the copolymers was compared to their parent homopolymers to determine if the addition of a poly(ethylene glycol) group was sufficient to solubilize the polymers in aqueous buffer solutions and to increase the biocompatibility of the polymers. These water-soluble, injectable cationic copolymers have potential applications in gene delivery as well as other biomaterial applications.

  9. Preparation, characterization and anticancer activity of norcantharidin-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) amphiphilic block copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shui-Fang; Lu, Wen-Fen; Wen, Zhi-Yong; Li, Qiang; Chen, Jian-Hai

    2012-09-01

    In this study, a novel amphiphilic block copolymer biomaterial - poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (caprolactone) (PEG-PCL), was used to entrap norcantharidin (NCTD), taking advantage of self-assembly theory. Dialysis and volatilization dialysis were used to prepare copolymer micelles. Drug-loaded micelles were compared with blank micelles in terms of their particle diameter, morphology and IR spectral characteristics. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in respect of morphology and IR spectrum, but particle size differed. Drug-loaded micelles had a smaller particle size than blank micelles. Three important factors influencing particle size, the drug loading content (LC) and the drug entrapment efficiency (EE) of the NCTD-loaded micelles, were studied. The results indicated that the method of preparation and the type of organic solvent had a significant influence on the size of the micelles. LC and EE were greatly affected by the ratio of NCTD to copolymer. In vitro release of NCTD from the conjugate micelles showed that its release rate depended on the pH of the phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The amount released was higher at lower pH than under neutral conditions. In vitro antitumor activity of the NCTD conjugate against human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line and human lung cancer (A549) cell line was evaluated by the MTT method. Micelles loaded with NCTD demonstrated greater and more satisfactory cell viability inhibition than the free drug. In vivo antitumor activity of drug-loaded micelles was investigated in mice bearing S180 mouse sarcoma. NCTD-loaded micelles displayed tumor inhibition effects, better than the free drug. As a new drug delivery system, copolymer micelles present many advantages including easy formulation, good water solubility, low toxicity and high treatment efficacy, and show great potential as carriers of hydrophobic drugs.

  10. Aggregation behavior of poly(ethylene glycol-bl-propylene sulfide) di- and triblock copolymers in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Cerritelli, Simona; O'Neil, Conlin P; Velluto, Diana; Fontana, Antonella; Adrian, Marc; Dubochet, Jacques; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-06

    Block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene sulfide) (PEG-PPS) have recently emerged as a new macromolecular amphiphile capable of forming a wide range of morphologies when dispersed in water. To understand better the relationship between stability and morphology in terms of the relative and absolute block compositions, we have synthesized a collection of PEG-PPS block copolymers and quantified their critical aggregation concentration and observed their morphology using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy after thin film hydration with extrusion and after solvent dispersion from tetrahydrofuran, a solvent for both blocks. By understanding the relationship between aggregate character and block copolymer architecture, we have observed that whereas the relative block lengths control morphology, the stability of the aggregates upon dilution is determined by the absolute block length of the hydrophobic PPS block. We have compared results obtained with PEG-PPS to those obtained with poly(ethylene glycol)-bl-poly(propylene oxide)-bl-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymers (Pluronics). The results reveal that the PEG-PPS aggregates are substantially more stable than Pluronic aggregates, by more than an order of magnitude. PEG-PPS can form a wide variety of stable or metastable morphologies in dilute solution within normal time and temperature ranges, whereas Pluronics can generally form only spherical micelles under the same conditions. On the basis of these results, block copolymers of PEG with poly(propylene sulfide) may present distinct advantages over those with poly(propylene glycol) for a number of applications.

  11. In vitro evaluation of the genotoxicity of a family of novel MeO-PEG-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-PEG-OMe triblock copolymer and PLGA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lili; Yang, Likai; Zhang, Zhi-rong; Gong, Tao; Deng, Li; Gu, Zhongwei; Sun, Xun

    2009-11-01

    Despite the booming development of nanoparticle materials for pharmaceutical applications, studies on their genotoxicity are few. In our previous efforts to develop an intravenous nanoparticle material, a family of novel monomethoxy(polyethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-monomethoxy (PELGE) polymers was synthesized. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nine kinds of selected blank PELGE and PLGA (poly(D,L-lactic and glycolic acid)) nanoparticles were evaluated using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays with or without the addition of a metabolic activation system (S9 mix), using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles exhibited a dose-dependent response, with a concentration of 5 mg ml-1 being the turning point. The frequencies of MN observed in samples treated with various nanoparticles were not statistically different from those seen in the negative controls in the presence or absence of the S9 mix. Also, no cell cycle delay was observed. The numbers of SCE per cell observed in samples treated with five kinds of PELGE nanoparticles were significantly greater than those found in the negative controls with or without the S9 mix. The discrepancies found in the two assays suggest that the five kinds of nanoparticles may produce only a weakly clastogenic response.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of triblock copolymers of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene fumarate).

    PubMed

    Behravesh, Esfandiar; Shung, Albert K; Jo, Seongbong; Mikos, Antonios G

    2002-01-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers were synthesized by transesterification of hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and hydrophobic poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and characterized. Four block copolymers were synthesized with a 2:1 mPEG:PPF molar ratio and mPEGs of molecular weights 570, 800, 1960, and 5190 and PPF of molecular weight 1570 as determined by NMR. The copolymers synthesized with mPEG of molecular weights 570 and 800 had 1.9 and 1.8 mPEG blocks per copolymer, respectively, as measured by NMR, representing an ABA-type block copolymer. The number of mPEG blocks of the copolymer decreased with increasing mPEG block length to as low as 1.5 mPEG blocks for copolymer synthesized with mPEG of molecular weight 5190. At a concentration range of 5-25 wt % in phosphate-buffered saline, copolymers synthesized with mPEG molecular weights of 570 and 800 possessed lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) between 40 and 45 degrees C and between 55 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Aqueous solutions of copolymer synthesized with mPEG 570 and 800 also experienced thermoreversible gelation. The sol-gel transition temperature was dependent on the sodium chloride concentration as well as the mPEG block length. The copolymer synthesized from mPEG 570 had a transition temperature between 40 and 20 degrees C with salt concentrations between 1 and 10 wt %, while the sol-gel transition temperatures of the copolymer synthesized from mPEG molecular weight 800 were higher in the range 75-30 degrees C with salt concentrations between 1 and 15 wt %. These novel thermoreversible copolymers are the first biodegradable copolymers with unsaturated double bonds along their macromolecular chain that can undergo both physical and chemical gelation and hold great promise for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of a Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(simvastatin) Diblock Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Asafo-Adjei, Theodora A.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Puleo, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable polyesters are commonly used as drug delivery vehicles, but their role is typically passive, and encapsulation approaches have limited drug payload. An alternative drug delivery method is to polymerize the active agent or its precursor into a degradable polymer. The prodrug simvastatin contains a lactone ring that lends itself to ring-opening polymerization (ROP). Consequently, simvastatin polymerization was initiated with 5 kDa monomethyl ether poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and catalyzed via stannous octoate. Melt condensation reactions produced a 9.5 kDa copolymer with a polydispersity index of 1.1 at 150 °C up to a 75 kDa copolymer with an index of 6.9 at 250 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed first-order propagation rates. Infrared spectroscopy of the copolymer showed carboxylic and methyl ether stretches unique to simvastatin and mPEG, respectively. Slow degradation was demonstrated in neutral and alkaline conditions. Lastly, simvastatin, simvastatin-incorporated molecules, and mPEG were identified as the degradation products released. The present results show the potential of using ROP to polymerize lactone-containing drugs such as simvastatin. PMID:25431653

  14. Complement activation by sulfonated poly(ethylene glycol)-acrylate copolymers through alternative pathway.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hong Seok; Ryu, Kyu Eun; Ahn, Woong Shick; Chun, Heung Jae; Dal Park, Hyung; Park, Ki Dong; Kim, Young Ha

    2006-07-01

    Previously, novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and sulfonated PEG acrylate (PEG-SO(3)A/OA) copolymers were prepared as coating and/or blending materials for biomedical applications. Surfaces modified with copolymers exhibited increased anti-coagulation properties and decreased plasma adsorption level due to increased hydrophilic properties and reorientation characteristics of PEG/PEG-SO(3)A chains in water phase. As continuation study, anti-complement effects of PEG-SO(3)/OA copolymers were investigated in vitro, and compared with those of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and PEG/OA. C3 activation by PEG-SO(3)/OA samples was lower than that by PEG/OA samples, which was attributed to decreased surface nucleophile level of samples. PEG-SO(3)/OA samples increased inhibition of Bb production, resulting in decreased C5 activation. Owing to reduced activations of C3 and C5, PEG-SO(3)/OA samples markedly decreased SC5b-9 levels in plasma.

  15. Cell attachment on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer produced by Azotobacter chroococcum 7B.

    PubMed

    Bonartsev, Anton P; Yakovlev, Sergey G; Zharkova, Irina I; Boskhomdzhiev, Arasha P; Bagrov, Dmitrii V; Myshkina, Vera L; Makhina, Tatiana K; Kharitonova, Elena P; Samsonova, Olga V; Feofanov, Alexey V; Voinova, Vera V; Zernov, Anton L; Efremov, Yurii M; Bonartseva, Garina A; Shaitan, Konstantin V; Kirpichnikov, Michail P

    2013-05-21

    The improvement of biomedical properties, e.g. biocompatibility, of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) by copolymerization is a promising trend in bioengineering. We used strain Azotobacter chroococcum 7B, an effective producer of PHAs, for biosynthesis of not only poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and its main copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB-HV), but also alternative copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PHB-PEG). In biosynthesis we used sucrose as the primary carbon source and valeric acid or poly(ethylene glycol) 300 (PEG 300) as additional carbon sources. The chemical structure of PHB-PEG and PHB-HV was confirmed by 1H nuclear-magnetic resonance (1H NMR) analysis. The physico-chemical properties (molecular weight, crystallinity, hydrophilicity, surface energy) and surface morphology of films from PHB copolymers were studied. To study copolymers biocompatibility in vitro the protein adsorption and COS-1 fibroblasts growth on biopolymer films by XTT assay were analyzed. Both copolymers had changed physico-chemical properties compared to PHB homopolymer: PHB-HV and PHB-PEG had less crystallinity than PHB; PHB-HV was more hydrophobic than PHB in contrast to PHB-PEG appeared to have greater hydrophilicity than PHB; whereas the morphology of polymer films did not differ significantly. The protein adsorption to PHB-PEG was greater and more uniform than to PHB and PHB-PEG copolymer promoted better growth of COS-1 fibroblasts compared with PHB homopolymer. Thus, despite low EG-monomers content in bacterial origin PHB-PEG copolymer, this polymer demonstrated significant improvement in biocompatibility in contrast to PHB and PHB-HV copolymers, which may be coupled with increased protein adsorption and hydrophilicity of PEG-containing copolymer.

  16. Cell attachment on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer produced by Azotobacter chroococcum 7B

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The improvement of biomedical properties, e.g. biocompatibility, of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) by copolymerization is a promising trend in bioengineering. We used strain Azotobacter chroococcum 7B, an effective producer of PHAs, for biosynthesis of not only poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and its main copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB-HV), but also alternative copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PHB-PEG). Results In biosynthesis we used sucrose as the primary carbon source and valeric acid or poly(ethylene glycol) 300 (PEG 300) as additional carbon sources. The chemical structure of PHB-PEG and PHB-HV was confirmed by 1H nuclear-magnetic resonance (1H NMR) analysis. The physico-chemical properties (molecular weight, crystallinity, hydrophilicity, surface energy) and surface morphology of films from PHB copolymers were studied. To study copolymers biocompatibility in vitro the protein adsorption and COS-1 fibroblasts growth on biopolymer films by XTT assay were analyzed. Both copolymers had changed physico-chemical properties compared to PHB homopolymer: PHB-HV and PHB-PEG had less crystallinity than PHB; PHB-HV was more hydrophobic than PHB in contrast to PHB-PEG appeared to have greater hydrophilicity than PHB; whereas the morphology of polymer films did not differ significantly. The protein adsorption to PHB-PEG was greater and more uniform than to PHB and PHB-PEG copolymer promoted better growth of COS-1 fibroblasts compared with PHB homopolymer. Conclusions Thus, despite low EG-monomers content in bacterial origin PHB-PEG copolymer, this polymer demonstrated significant improvement in biocompatibility in contrast to PHB and PHB-HV copolymers, which may be coupled with increased protein adsorption and hydrophilicity of PEG-containing copolymer. PMID:23692611

  17. Surface characterization of poly(L-lactic acid)-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers by static and dynamic contact angle measurements, FTIR, and ATR-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Mert, O; Doganci, E; Erbil, H Y; Demir, A S

    2008-02-05

    The surface composition and surface free energy properties of two types of amphiphilic and semicrystalline diblock copolymers consisting of poly(L-lactic acid) coupled to (methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PLLA-MePEG) having differing block lengths of PEG were investigated by using static and dynamic contact angle measurements, transmission Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and compared with results obtained from PLLA and MePEG homopolymers. The contact angle results were evaluated by using the van Oss-Good method (acid-base method), and it was determined that the Lewis base surface tension coefficient (gamma-) of the copolymers increased with an increase of the PEG molar content at the copolymer surface. This result is in good agreement with the transmission FTIR and ATR-FTIR results but not proportional to them, indicating that the surfaces of the copolymers are highly mobile and that the molecular rearrangement takes place upon contact with a polar liquid drop. The dynamic contact angle measurements showed that the strong acid-base interaction between the oxygen atoms in the copolymer backbone of the relatively more hydrophilic PEG segments with the Lewis acidic groups of the polar and hydrogen-bonding water molecules enabled the surface molecules to restructure (conformational change) at the contact area, so that the PEG segments moved upward, whereas the apolar methyl pendant groups of PLLA segments buried downward.

  18. Poly(ethylene glycol) grafted polylactide based copolymers for the preparation of PLA-based nanocarriers and hybrid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Riva, Raphaël; Schmeits, Stéphanie; Croisier, Florence; Lecomte, Philippe; Jérôme, Christine

    2015-01-01

    In previous works, poly(D,L-lactide-co-ɛCL-poly(ethylene glycol) (poly(D,L-La-co-αPEGɛCL) amphiphilic graft-copolymers were successfully synthesized according to a copper azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) strategy. This paper aims at reporting on the behavior of this amphiphilic copolymer in water, which was not studied in the previous paper. Moreover, the ability of the copolymer to stabilize a PLA nanoparticles aqueous suspension is presented. For this purpose, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are proposed to characterize the nanoparticles in solution. Otherwise, the strategy developed for the synthesis of the amphiphilic copolymers was adapted and extended to the synthesis of PLA-based degradable hydrogel, potentially applicable as drug-loaded degradable polymer implant.

  19. Unexpected Temperature Behavior of Polyethylene Glycol Spacers in Copolymer Dendrimers in Chloroform

    PubMed Central

    Markelov, Denis A.; Matveev, Vladimir V.; Ingman, Petri; Nikolaeva, Marianna N.; Penkova, Anastasia V.; Lahderanta, Erkki; Boiko, Natalia I.; Chizhik, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied copolymer dendrimer structure: carbosilane dendrimers with terminal phenylbenzoate mesogenic groups attached by poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) spacers. In this system PEG spacers are additional tuning to usual copolymer structure: dendrimer with terminal mesogenic groups. The dendrimer macromolecules were investigated in a dilute chloroform solution by 1H NMR methods (spectra and relaxations). It was found that the PEG layer in G = 5 generations dendrimer is “frozen” at high temperatures (above 260 K), but it unexpectedly becomes “unfrozen” at temperatures below 250 K (i.e., melting when cooling). The transition between these two states occurs within a small temperature range (~10 K). Such a behavior is not observed for smaller dendrimer generations (G = 1 and 3). This effect is likely related to the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of PEG and is caused by dendrimer conformations, in which the PEG group concentration in the layer increases with growing G. We suppose that the unusual behavior of PEG fragments in dendrimers will be interesting for practical applications such as nanocontainers or nanoreactors. PMID:27052599

  20. Polyethylene glycol-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer: study of the bioavailability after oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; Fabian, Eric; Leibold, Edgar; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    The absorption, urinary excretion, and the biliary excretion of a single oral dose of 10 or 1000 mg/kg bw of (14)C-polyethylene glycol-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer were studied in adult male and female rats. In a balance/excretion experiment, the total excretion of ingested radioactivity was determined over a period of 168 h and residual radioactivity was detected in selected tissues and the carcass. In a biliary excretion experiment, excretion of radioactivity via the bile duct was determined over a period of 48 h after administration of the substance to cannulated rats. Most, if not all, of the radioactivity (>100%) was excreted within 48 h via the feces regardless of sex or dose. Urinary excretion was very limited: 0.45-0.50% of dose at the low dose and 0.22-0.27% of dose at the high dose. At both dose levels, residual radioactivity in the carcass and all organs and tissues after 168 h was ≤ 0.02% of dose. Biliary excretion was 0.01-0.02% of dose. Based on these findings, the bioavailability of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer was determined to be <1% demonstrating that absorption was virtually negligible following a single oral administration to male and female rats.

  1. Injectable and Photopolymerizable Tissue-Engineered Auricular Cartilage Using Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Dimethacrylate Copolymer Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Anestis; Bichara, David A.; Zhao, Xing; Ibusuki, Shinichi; Anseth, Kristi S.; Yaremchuk, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the histological, biochemical, and integrative features of the neocartilage using swine auricular chondrocytes photoencapsulated into two poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDM) copolymer hydrogels of a different degradation profile: degradable (PEG-4,5LA-DM) and nondegradable (PEGDM) macromers in molar ratios of 60:40 and 70:30. Integration of the engineered tissue with existing native cartilage was examined using an articular cartilaginous ring model. Experimental group samples (total n = 96) were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and harvested at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. Nonimplanted constructs (total n = 16) were used as controls for quantification of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and hydroxyproline. Histologically, neocartilage resembled both the cellular population and composition of the extracellular matrix of the native swine auricular cartilage. DNA content demonstrated that the photoencapsulated chondrocytes were capable of survival and proliferation over time. Both glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline contents appeared higher in the neotissue, which was supported by less degradable PEGDM hydrogel. Integration of neocartilage with surrounding native cartilage improved with time, resulting in the development of tight integration interface. PEGDM copolymer hydrogels can support in vivo chondrogenesis by photoencapsulating auricular chondrocytes. PMID:20695772

  2. Amphiphilic poly[(propylene glycol)-block-(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)] copolymers for gene transfer in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Brissault, Blandine; Kichler, Antoine; Leborgne, Christian; Jarroux, Nathalie; Cheradame, Hervé; Guis, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Amphiphilic triblock copolymers such as poly(ethylene glycol-b-propylene glycol-b-ethylene glycol) PE6400 (PEG(13)-PPG(30)-PEG(13)) have been recently shown to promote gene transfer in muscle. Herein we investigated the effect of a chemical change of the PEG moiety on the transfection activity of these compounds. We synthesized new amphiphilic copolymers in which the PEG end blocks are replaced by more hydrophilic poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMeOxz) chains of various lengths. The resulting triblock PMeOxz-PPG-PMeOxz compounds were characterized by NMR, SEC, TGA, and DSC techniques and assayed for in vivo muscle gene transfer. The results confirm both the block structure and the monomer unit composition (DP(PG)/DP(MeOxz)) of the new PPG(34)-PMeOxz(41) and PPG(34)-PMeOxz(21) triblock copolymers. Furthermore, in vivo experiments show that these copolymers are able to significantly increase DNA transfection efficiency, despite the fact that their chemical nature and hydrophilic character are different from the poloxamers. Overall, these results show that the capacity to enhance DNA transfection in skeletal muscle is not restricted to PEG-PPG-PEG arrangements.

  3. Poly(citric acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers--new biocompatible hybrid materials for nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Naeini, Ashkan Tavakoli; Adeli, Mohsen; Vossoughi, Manouchehr

    2010-08-01

    Linear-dendritic ABA triblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as B block and hyperbranched poly(citric acid) (PCA) as A blocks were synthesized through polycondensation. The molecular self-assembly of synthesized PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in water led to formation of nanoparticles and fibers in different sizes and shapes depending on the time and size of PCA blocks. Ten days after dissolving PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in water, the size of fibers had reached several millimeters. Mixing a water solution of fluorescein as a small guest molecule and PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers led to the encapsulation of fluorescein by products of molecular self-assembly. To investigate their potential application in nanomedicine and to understand the limitations and capabilities of these materials as nanoexcipients in biological systems, different types of short-term in vitro cytotoxicity experiments on the HT1080 cell line (human fibrosarcoma) and hemocompatibility tests were performed. From the clinical editor: This manuscript investigates the potentials of linear-dendritic ABA triblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as B block and hyperbranched poly(citric acid) (PCA) as A blocks for future applications in nanomedicine.

  4. Protein-resistant polymer coatings based on surface-adsorbed poly(aminoethyl methacrylate)/poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ionov, Leonid; Synytska, Alla; Kaul, Elisabeth; Diez, Stefan

    2010-01-11

    We report on the protein-resistant properties of glass substrates coated with novel copolymers of 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (AEM-PEG). In comparison to currently available protein-blocking polymer systems, such as poly-l-lysine-poly(ethylene glycol), silane-based poly(ethylene glycol), and poly(ethylene glycol) brushes prepared by surface-initiated polymerization, the proposed AEM-PEG offers the combined advantages of low cost, simplicity of use, and applicability in aqueous solutions. We demonstrate the capability of AEM-PEG to block the surface binding of globular proteins (tubulin), their assemblies (microtubules), and functional motor proteins (kinesin-1). Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of AEM-PEG for surface patterning of proteins in microfluidic devices.

  5. Low molecular weight linear polyethylenimine-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyethylenimine triblock copolymers: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro gene transfer properties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Lok, Martin C; Hennink, Wim E; Christensen, Lane V; Yockman, James W; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Sung Wan

    2005-01-01

    Novel ABA triblock copolymers consisting of low molecular weight linear polyethylenimine (PEI) as the A block and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as the B block were prepared and evaluated as polymeric transfectant. The cationic polymerization of 2-methyl-2-oxazoline (MeOZO) using PEG-bis(tosylate) as a macroinitiator followed by acid hydrolysis afforded linear PEI-PEG-PEI triblock copolymers with controlled compositions. Two copolymers, PEI-PEG-PEI 2100-3400-2100 and 4000-3400-4000, were synthesized. Both copolymers were shown to interact with and condense plasmid DNA effectively to give polymer/DNA complexes (polyplexes) of small sizes (<100 nm) and moderate zeta-potentials (approximately +10 mV) at polymer/plasmid weight ratios > or =1.5/1. These polyplexes were able to efficiently transfect COS-7 cells and primary bovine endothelial cells (BAECs) in vitro. For example, PEI-PEG-PEI 4000-3400-4000 based polyplexes showed a transfection efficiency comparable to polyplexes of branched PEI 25000. The transfection activity of polyplexes of PEI-PEG-PEI 4000-3400-4000 in BAECs using luciferase as a reporter gene was 3-fold higher than that for linear PEI 25000/DNA formulations. Importantly, the presence of serum in the transfection medium had no inhibitive effect on the transfection activity of the PEI-PEG-PEI polyplexes. These PEI-PEG-PEI triblock copolymers displayed also an improved safety profile in comparison with high molecular weight PEIs, since the cytotoxicity of the polyplex formulations was very low under conditions where high transgene expression was found. Therefore, linear PEI-PEG-PEI triblock copolymers are an attractive novel class of nonviral gene delivery systems.

  6. Highly elastomeric poly(glycerol sebacate)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) amphiphilic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alpesh; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K; Iviglia, Giorgio; Zhang, Hongbin; Mukundan, Shilpaa; Mihaila, Silvia M; Demarchi, Danilo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-05-01

    Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS), a tough elastomer, has been proposed for tissue engineering applications due to its desired mechanical properties, biocompatibility and controlled degradation. Despite interesting physical and chemical properties, PGS shows limited water uptake capacity (∼2%), thus constraining its utility for soft tissue engineering. Therefore, a modification of PGS that would mimic the water uptake and water retention characteristics of natural extracellular matrix is beneficial for enhancing its utility for biomedical applications. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of highly elastomeric poly(glycerol sebacate)-co-polyethylene glycol (PGS-co-PEG) block copolymers with controlled water uptake characteristics. By tailoring the water uptake property, it is possible to engineer scaffolds with customized degradation and mechanical properties. The addition of PEG results in almost 15-fold increase in water uptake capacity of PGS, and improves its mechanical stability under dynamic loading conditions. PGS-co-PEG polymers show elastomeric properties and can be subjected to serve deformation such as bending and stretching. The Young's modulus of PGS-co-PEG can be tuned from 13 kPa to 2.2 MPa by altering the amount of PEG within the copolymer network. Compared to PGS, more than six-fold increase in elongation was observed upon PEG incorporation. In addition, the rate of degradation increases with an increase in PEG concentration, indicating that degradation rate of PGS can be regulated. PGS-co-PEG polymers also support cell proliferation, and thus can be used for a range of tissue engineering applications.

  7. Nanoparticles of Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide)-d-a-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 1000 Succinate Random Copolymer for Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuandong; Zheng, Yi; Liu, Kexin; Tian, Ge; Tian, Yan; Xu, Lei; Yan, Fei; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

    2010-07-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies could provide potential solutions. In this research, a novel biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLGA-TPGS) random copolymer was synthesized from lactide, glycolide and d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) by ring-opening polymerization using stannous octoate as catalyst. The obtained random copolymers were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, GPC and TGA. The docetaxel-loaded nanoparticles made of PLGA-TPGS copolymer were prepared by a modified solvent extraction/evaporation method. The nanoparticles were then characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques. The results revealed that the size of PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was around 250 nm. The docetaxel-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could achieve much faster drug release in comparison with PLGA nanoparticles. In vitro cellular uptakes of such nanoparticles were investigated by CLSM, demonstrating the fluorescence PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles could be internalized by human cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa). The results also indicated that PLGA-TPGS-based nanoparticles were biocompatible, and the docetaxel-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles had significant cytotoxicity against Hela cells. The cytotoxicity against HeLa cells for PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was in time- and concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, PLGA-TPGS random copolymer could be acted as a novel and promising biocompatible polymeric matrix material applicable to nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Application of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymers with different Poly(ethylene glycol) contents for the preparation of PEG-coated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingwen; Qian, Changyun; Zhang, Yanting; Guo, Shengrong

    2013-02-01

    This work used one poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) copolymer with low PEG content as matrix material and the copolymers with high PEG content as emulsifier to prepare PEG-coated nanoparticles for controlled release of paclitaxel by solvent evaporation technique. The copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The effects of the composition and concentration of the copolymers used as emulsifier on the diameters and encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles were investigated. The mean hydrodynamic diameters of the nanoparticles measured by dynamic light scattering ranged from 70 to 160 nm. The higher PEG content of emulsifier led to bigger diameter of nanoparticles and the emulsifier concentration (0.1%-1.0%) had no obvious influence on the diameters. The paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles could achieve a sustained drug release for 7 days. When 2%-30% (w/v) of inulin was used as cryoprotectant during freeze drying process, the lyophilized nanoparticles could be well reconstituted into aqueous solution and the hydrodynamic diameter was not obviously changed.

  9. Poly(butyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) and poly(methyl methacrylate-g-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)) graft copolymers: preparation and aqueous solution properties.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Adrian; Saunders, Brian; Vincent, Brian; Heenan, Richard K

    2003-06-15

    A series of water-soluble, amphiphilic graft copolymers has been prepared by free-radical copolymerization of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers, with either methyl methacrylate or butyl methacrylate as the comonomers, in water/ethanol solvent mixtures. Lower molecular weight copolymers were obtained by increasing the concentration of the initiator, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), used in the polymerization reaction. However, the route used also led to the formation of significant quantities of tetramethylsuccinodinitrile, a toxic byproduct resulting from the cage reaction of AIBN. Static fluorescence measurements using pyrene as a probe, along with 1H NMR experiments, showed that the graft copolymers form aggregates in water at very low concentrations (approximately 0.01 g l(-1)) with the pendant hydrophilic graft chains forming a stabilizing shell around the hydrophobic backbone. An increase in the hydrophile-lipophile balance of the graft copolymers was found to lead to smaller aggregates with lower aggregation numbers and highly swollen hydrophilic shells, as revealed by small angle neutron scattering (SANS).

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicate Ester Prodrugs and Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Block Copolymers for Formulation into Prodrug-Loaded Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Adam Richard

    Fine control of the physical and chemical properties of customized materials is a field that is rapidly advancing. This is especially critical in pursuits to develop and optimize novel nanoparticle drug delivery. Specifically, I aim to apply chemistry concepts to test the hypothesis "Silicate ester prodrugs of paclitaxel, customized to have the proper hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability, can be formulated with well-defined, biocompatible, amphiphilic block copolymers into nanoparticles that are effective drugs." Chapter 1 briefly describes the context and motivation of the scientific pursuits described in this thesis. In Chapter 2, a family of model silicate esters is synthesized, the hydrolysis rate of each compound is benchmarked, and trends are established based upon the steric bulk and leaving group ability of the silicate substituents. These trends are then applied to the synthesis of labile silicate ester prodrugs in Chapter 3. The bulk of this chapter focuses on the synthesis, hydrolysis, and cytotoxicity of prodrugs based on paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent. In Chapter 4, a new methodology for the synthesis of narrowly dispersed, "random" poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymers by a constant infusion of the glycolide monomer is detailed. Using poly(ethylene glycol) as a macroinitiator, amphiphilic block copolymers were synthesized. Co-formulating a paclitaxel silicate and an amphiphilic block copolymer via flash nanoprecipitation led to highly prodrug-loaded, kinetically trapped nanoparticles. Studies to determine the structure, morphology, behavior, and efficacy of these nanoparticles are described in Chapter 5. Efforts to develop a general strategy for the selective end-functionalization of the polyether block of these amphiphilic block copolymers are discussed in Chapter 6. Examples of this strategy include functionalization of the polyether with an azide or a maleimide. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an outlook for future development of

  11. The operation of enzymatic fuel cell fabricated with rationally designed poly(caprolactone-g-ethylene glycol) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Seyda; Kilic, Muhammet Samet; Sanal, Timur; Hazer, Baki

    2017-07-01

    This study describes construction of an enzymatic fuel cell comprised of poly(caprolactone-g-ethylene glycol) coated novel glucose oxidase anode and laccase cathode. Rationally designed poly(caprolactone-g-ethylene glycol) containing various poly(ethylene glycol) percentages ranging between 2.67 and 15.04% were synthesized chemically and tested separately for operation of the fuel cell system to achieve the best energy generation. The maximum power density was found to be 80.55μWcm(-2) at 0.91V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in pH5, 100mM citrate buffer (20°C) by the addition of 30mM of glucose from the electrodes coated with 11.34% poly(ethylene glycol) containing polymer with a quantity of 600μg. High poly(ethylene glycol) percentages with more numbers of long poly(ethylene glycol) brushes lead to the creation of a complexity in the polymer morphology and steric hindrance effect for electron transport. The graft copolymer was easily used for the fuel cell system owing to its biocompatible and microporous film morphology. The grafted polymer was able to facilitate enzymatic glucose oxidation and oxygen reduction while simultaneously producing high catalytic electrical currents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of retroviral vectors by coating with poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer (PEG-PLL).

    PubMed

    Katakura, Hiromichi; Harada, Atsushi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Furusho, Miki; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Wada, Hiromi; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro

    2004-04-01

    Although some cationic reagents, such as polybrene, improve gene transduction in vitro, their use in vivo is prohibited due to their toxicity to the exposed cells. This paper demonstrates that a new cationic reagent, poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer (PEG-PLL), improves gene transduction with retroviral vectors without increasing cell toxicity. A retroviral vector derived from the Moloney leukemia virus, containing the lacZ gene, was modified with PEG-PLL prior to transduction into NIH3T3, Lewis lung carcinoma, and primary cultured mouse brain cells. LacZ transduction efficacy was evaluated by counting the number of X-Gal-positive cells. We have demonstrated that PEG-PLL is able to stably modify the viral particle surface due to the affinity of the PEG moiety to the biomembrane, and neutralizes negative charges by the cationic nature of the poly-lysine residue. Thus, PEG-PLL increased the gene transduction efficiency and minimized cell toxicity because free PEG-PLL was removable by centrifugation. We have shown that PEG-PLL increased the viral gene transduction efficiency 3- to 7-fold with NIH3T3 or Lewis lung carcinoma cell lines without increasing cytotoxicity. It improved retroviral gene transduction efficacy even against labile cells, such as primary cultured brain cells. PEG-PLL is a novel reagent that improves retroviral gene transduction efficacy without increasing cytotoxicity. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Soft Tissue Response to the Presence of Polypropylene-G-Poly(ethylene glycol) Comb-Type Graft Copolymers Containing Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hazer, Derya Burcu; Hazer, Baki; Dinçer, Nazmiye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the soft tissue response of the pure and Au-embedded PPg-PEG. PP-g-PEG2000, PP-g-PEG4000, Au-PP-g-PEG2000, and AuPP-g-PEG4000 were obtained via chlorination of polypropylene and polyethylene glycol in the presence of a base with a “grafting onto” technique. Solvent cast films of these four copolymers with PP as a control group were embedded into five different rats. After 30 days of implantation, microscopic evaluation of inflammation and SEM analysis were done. PP had the most intense inflammatory reaction among the other polymers. PP-PEG block copolymers with high molecular weight and gold-nanoparticles-embedded ones revealed mild inflammatory reaction independently. SEM assessment revealed punched hole-like defects on the surface of all polymer samples except for PP. Graft copolymers with PEG, especially Au-attached ones, have favorable soft tissue response, and inflammatory reaction becomes milder as the number of PEG side chains increases. PMID:22235166

  14. Soft tissue response to the presence of polypropylene-G-poly(ethylene glycol) comb-type graft copolymers containing gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hazer, Derya Burcu; Hazer, Baki; Dinçer, Nazmiye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the soft tissue response of the pure and Au-embedded PPg-PEG. PP-g-PEG2000, PP-g-PEG4000, Au-PP-g-PEG2000, and AuPP-g-PEG4000 were obtained via chlorination of polypropylene and polyethylene glycol in the presence of a base with a "grafting onto" technique. Solvent cast films of these four copolymers with PP as a control group were embedded into five different rats. After 30 days of implantation, microscopic evaluation of inflammation and SEM analysis were done. PP had the most intense inflammatory reaction among the other polymers. PP-PEG block copolymers with high molecular weight and gold-nanoparticles-embedded ones revealed mild inflammatory reaction independently. SEM assessment revealed punched hole-like defects on the surface of all polymer samples except for PP. Graft copolymers with PEG, especially Au-attached ones, have favorable soft tissue response, and inflammatory reaction becomes milder as the number of PEG side chains increases.

  15. Supramolecular assemblies of alkane functionalized poly ethylene glycol copolymer for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lida

    The therapeutic effects of many modern drugs were limited owing to their physical properties and half-life in the blood stream. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between drug delivery performances and chemical properties of the polymer micelle drug carriers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based alternating copolymer poly[(polyoxyethylene)-oxy-5-hydroxyisophthalic] (Ppeg) with PEG molecular weights of 600 and 1000 were synthesized and modified with different alkanes to study the effects of altering the hydrophobic and hydrophilic chain lengths. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum, critical micelle concentration (CMC), micelle size, and micelle zeta potential of the synthesized polymers were measured. The resulting polymer particles were able to form micelles in aqueous solution with CMCs lower than 0.04 wt%. Drug delivery studies were performed with a model hydrophobic drug, pyrene. Drug loading data showed the polymer particles were able to encapsulate pyrene and has a loading capacity up to 8 wt%. The sustain release ability was measured and the pyrene release was extended over 5 days. Both loading capacity and sustain release ability were found to be highly dependent on CMC. Cell culture study was implemented with RAW 264.7 cells in order to determine the polymer micelle's cytocompatibility, Most Ppeg polymer micelles showed more than 85% cell viability with and without pyrene loading. Cell internalization of the micelles encapsulated drug was measured both quantitatively and qualitatively and was enhanced comparing to unencapsulated drug. The results indicated that the internalization enhancement effect of polymer micelle was mainly affected by hydrophilic chain length; neither hydrophobic chain length nor loading capacity has significant influence on internalization.

  16. Polysaccharide-poly(ethylene glycol) star copolymer as a scaffold for the production of bioactive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Nori; Kiick, Kristi L

    2005-01-01

    The production of polysaccharide-derivatized surfaces, polymers, and biomaterials has been shown to be a useful strategy for mediating the biological properties of materials, owing to the importance of polysaccharides for the sequestration and protection of bioactive proteins in vivo. We have therefore sought to combine the benefits of polysaccharide derivatization of polymers with unique opportunities to use these polymers for the production of bioactive, noncovalently assembled hydrogels. Accordingly, we report the synthesis of a heparin-modified poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) star copolymer that can be used in the assembly of bioactive hydrogel networks via multiple strategies and that is also competent for the delivery of bioactive growth factors. A heparin-decorated polymer, synthesized by the reaction of thiol end-terminated four-arm star PEG (M(n) = 10 000) with maleimide functionalized low molecular weight heparin (LMWH, M(r) = 3000), has been characterized via (1)H NMR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography; results indicate attachment of the LMWH with at least 73% efficiency. Both covalently and noncovalently assembled hydrogels can be produced from the PEG-LMWH conjugate. Viscoelastic noncovalently assembled hydrogels have been formed on the basis of the interaction of the PEG-LMWH with a PEG polymer bearing multiple heparin-binding peptide motifs. The binding and release of therapeutically important proteins from the assembled hydrogels have also been demonstrated via immunochemical assays, which demonstrate the slow release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a function of matrix erosion. The combination of these results suggests the opportunities for producing polymer-polysaccharide conjugates that can assemble into novel hydrogel networks on the basis of peptide-saccharide interactions and for employing these materials in delivery applications.

  17. New Insights into Poly(Lactic-co-glycolic acid) Microstructure: Using Repeating Sequence Copolymers to Decipher Complex NMR and Thermal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stayshich, Ryan M.; Meyer, Tara Y.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence, which Nature uses to spectacular advantage, has not been fully exploited in synthetic copolymers. To investigate the effect of sequence and stereosequence on the physical properties of copolymers a family of complex isotactic, syndiotactic and atactic repeating sequence poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) copolymers (RSC PLGAs) were prepared and their NMR and thermal behavior was studied. The unique suitability of polymers prepared from the bioassimilable lactic and glycolic acid monomers for biomedical applications makes them ideal candidates for this type of sequence engineering. Polymers with repeating units of LG, GLG and LLG (L = lactic, G = glycolic) with controlled and varied tacticities were synthesized by assembly of sequence specific, stereopure dimeric, trimeric and hexameric segmer units. Specifically labeled deuterated lactic and glycolic acid segmers were likewise prepared and polymerized. Molecular weights for the copolymers ranged from Mn = 12-40 kDa by size exclusion chromatography in THF. Although the effects of sequence-influenced solution conformation were visible in all resonances of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra, the diastereotopic methylene resonances in the 1H NMR (CDCl3) for the glycolic units of the copolymers proved most sensitive. An octad level of resolution, which corresponds to an astounding 31-atom distance between the most separated stereocenters, was observed in some mixed sequence polymers. Importantly, the level of sensitivity of a particular NMR resonance to small differences in sequence was found to depend on the sequence itself. Thermal properties were also correlated with sequence. PMID:20681726

  18. 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole (BTD)-moiety-containing red emitter conjugated amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymers for bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yanqing; Wu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Ching-Yi; Strovas, Tim; Li, Yongzhong; Jin, Yuguang; Su, Fengyu; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Summary 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole (BTD)-containing red emitter was chemically conjugated onto amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) copolymers to form two new fluorophore-conjugated block copolymers (P5 and P7). P5 is a cationic amino group-containing polymer, whereas, P7 is a neutral polymer. The polymers formed micelles in aqueous solution with average diameters of 45 nm (P7) and 78 nm (P5), which were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cell internalization of the micelles using mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 was investigated. The micelles formed from P5 were endocytosed into the cell's cytoplasm through a non-specific endocytosis process, which was affected by temperature and calcium ions. Micelles formed from P7 could not be endocytosed. The dramatic difference of cell uptake between P5 and P7 indicated the cationic amino groups had a strong influence on the cell internalization to enhance the endocytosis pathway. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the P5 micelle and no significant toxicity was observed. This study is the first report regarding the synthesis of BTD-conjugated block copolymers and the application of the biomacromolecules for bioimaging. PMID:20454543

  19. Synthesis of polycarbonate-r-polyethylene glycol copolymer for templated synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajkumar; Kim, Jinkyu; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-12-01

    We synthesized a novel polycarbonate Z-r-polyethylene glycol (PCZ-r-PEG) copolymer by solution polycondensation. Successful synthesis of PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was used as a structure-directing agent for fabrication of mesoporous thin film containing a titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer. To control the porosity of the resultant inorganic layer, the ratio of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) to PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was varied. The structure and porosity of the resulting mesoporous films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Mesoporous TiO2 films fabricated on an F-doped tin oxide (FTO) surface were used as photoanodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs). The highest efficiency achieved was 3.3% at 100 mW/cm2 for a film thickness of 750 nm, which is high considering the thickness of TiO2 film, indicating the importance of the structure-directing agent.

  20. Synthesis and micellar characterization of short block length methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(caprolactone) diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Letchford, Kevin; Zastre, Jason; Liggins, Richard; Burt, Helen

    2004-05-15

    A series of short block length methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(caprolactone) diblock copolymers was synthesized and characterized in order to assess the potential of these copolymers as a micellar drug-delivery system. Varying the caprolactone:MePEG weight ratio in the reaction mixture allowed the synthesis of diblock copolymers with a MePEG molecular weight of 750 g/mol and PCL block lengths of 2, 5 or 10 repeat units. Phase diagrams of aqueous solutions of the copolymers were constructed which displayed characteristic cloud points and Krafft points. As the degree of polymerization of PCL increased, critical micelle concentration (CMC) values decreased from 6.97 x 10(-1) to 3.38 x 10(-3) g/l, partition equilibrium coefficients (Kv) increased from 1.09 x 10(4) to 22.2 x 10(4),and hydrodynamic diameters increased from 12.2 to 19.5 nm. The micelle morphology was determined to be spherical by transmission electron microscopy.

  1. Multifunctional copolymer coating of polyethylene glycol, glycidyl methacrylate, and REDV to enhance the selectivity of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu; Zhang, Jingxun; Li, Haolie; Zhang, Li; Bi, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional polymer coatings have potential applications in biomaterials. These coatings possess reactive functional groups for the immobilization of specific biological factors that can influence cellular behavior. These coatings also display low nonspecific protein adsorption. In this study, we prepared a multifunctional polymer coating through the deposition of random copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) to prevent nonspecific attachment and enable the covalence of Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV) peptide with endothelial cells (ECs) selectivity. Coatings were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesion and proliferation of ECs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) onto the REDV-modified surface were investigated to understand the synergistic action of antifouling PEG and EC selective REDV peptide conjugated GMA. The copolymers containing GMA and PEG groups are very useful as a multifunctional coating material with anti-fouling and ECs specific adhesion for implant materials surface modification.

  2. Microspheres prepared with different co-polymers of poly(lactic-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or with chitosan cause distinct effects on macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; Silva, Letícia Bueno da; Pereira, Priscilla Aparecida Tartari; Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2015-12-01

    Microencapsulation of bioactive molecules for modulating the immune response during infectious or inflammatory events is a promising approach, since microspheres (MS) protect these labile biomolecules against fast degradation, prolong the delivery over longer periods of time and, in many situations, target their delivery to site of action, avoiding toxic side effects. Little is known, however, about the influence of different polymers used to prepare MS on macrophages. This paper aims to address this issue by evaluating in vitro cytotoxicity, phagocytosis profile and cytokines release from alveolar macrophages (J-774.1) treated with MS prepared with chitosan, and four different co-polymers of PLGA [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)]. The five MS prepared presented similar diameter and zeta potential each other. Chitosan-MS showed to be cytotoxic to J-774.1 cells, in contrast to PLGA-MS, which were all innocuous to this cell linage. PLGA 5000-MS was more efficiently phagocytized by macrophages compared to the other MS tested. PLGA 5000-MS and 5002-MS induced significant production of TNF-α, while 5000-MS, 5004-MS and 7502-MS decreased spontaneous IL-6 release. Nevertheless, only PLGA 5002-MS induced significant NFkB/SEAP activation. These findings together show that MS prepared with distinct PLGA co-polymers are differently recognized by macrophages, depending on proportion of lactic and glycolic acid in polymeric chain, and on molecular weight of the co-polymer used. Selection of the most adequate polymer to prepare a microparticulate drug delivery system to modulate immunologic system may take into account, therefore, which kind of immunomodulatory response is more adequate for the required treatment.

  3. Linear-dendrimer type methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone) copolymer micelles for the delivery of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhimei; Zhu, Wenxia; Song, Jiarong; Wei, Peng; Yang, Fengying; Liu, Na; Feng, Runliang

    2015-01-01

    To improve curcumin's pharmacokinetic, in vitro cytotoxicity and release property. A novel linear-dendrimer methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone) copolymer was synthesized through O-alkylation, basic hydrolysis and ring-opening polymerization reaction with methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol), epichlorohydrin and ε-caprolactone as raw materials. Its structure was characterized by (1)H-NMR and GPC. The copolymer's hemolysis and micellar encapsulation for curcumin by thin-film hydration were studied. Curcumin-loaded micelles were evaluated by use of in vitro release, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction. Curcumin-loaded micelles' in vitro cytotoxic activities against Hela and HT-29 cells were done, and its pharmacokinetic parameters were also carried out. Curcumin was encapsulated into the micelles with 92.54% of entrapment efficiency and 12.84% of drug loading in amorphous forms. The dissolubility of nanoparticulate curcumin was 1.70 × 10(5) times higher than that of curcumin in water. The obtained copolymer showed no hemolysis. In vitro drug release study indicated that, in all cases, the kinetics was adjusted well to the Makoid-Banakar model ([Formula: see text] = 0.9984). In addition, data were analyzed by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, n values were 0.43, indicating that the drug release was accomplished by the combination diffusion and polymer chain relaxation. The cytotoxicity experiment indicated that the nanoparticulate curcumin kept up its potent anti-cancer activities. The pharmacokinetic results showed that the MRT0-∞, t1/2z and AUC0-∞ of Curcumin-loaded micelles were 1.64, 6.54 and 4.67 times higher than that of CUR control solution. The copolymeric micelles loading curcumin might act as a delivery vehicle for CUR.

  4. Targeted drug delivery nanosystems based on copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thu Ha, Phuong; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Doan Do, Hai; Thong Phan, Quoc; Nguyet Tran Thi, Minh; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Nhung Hoang Thi, My; Huong Le, Mai; Nguyen, Linh Toan; Quang Bui, Thuc; Hieu Phan, Van

    2016-03-01

    Along with the development of nanotechnology, drug delivery nanosystems (DDNSs) have attracted a great deal of concern among scientists over the world, especially in cancer treatment. DDNSs not only improve water solubility of anticancer drugs but also increase therapeutic efficacy and minimize the side effects of treatment methods through targeting mechanisms including passive and active targeting. Passive targeting is based on the nano-size of drug delivery systems while active targeting is based on the specific bindings between targeting ligands attached on the drug delivery systems and the unique receptors on the cancer cell surface. In this article we present some of our results in the synthesis and testing of DDNSs prepared from copolymer poly(lactide)-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (PLA-TPGS), which carry anticancer drugs including curcumin, paclitaxel and doxorubicin. In order to increase the targeting effect to cancer cells, active targeting ligand folate was attached to the DDNSs. The results showed copolymer PLA-TPGS to be an excellent carrier for loading hydrophobic drugs (curcumin and paclitaxel). The fabricated DDNSs had a very small size (50-100 nm) and enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of drugs. Most notably, folate-decorated paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles (Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs) were tested on tumor-bearing nude mice. During the treatment time, Fol/PTX/PLA-TPGS NPs always exhibited the best tumor growth inhibition compared to free paclitaxel and paclitaxel-loaded copolymer PLA-TPGS nanoparticles. All results evidenced the promising potential of copolymer PLA-TPGS in fabricating targeted DDNSs for cancer treatment.

  5. Actuator based on sulfonated comb copolymer of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) grafted by poly (ethylene glycol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guifen; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yujun

    2007-07-01

    Comb copolymer consisting of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) as backbone and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as side chains (EVAL-g-PEG) has been synthesized, then it was sulfonated by 1,3-propane sultone to get the final ionomer (EVAL-g-SPEG), and ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) based on EVAL-g-SPEG was prepared through electroless deposition of platinum onto the surfaces of EVAL-g-SPEG membrane. The graft copolymers were characterized with respect to molecular weight using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and composition using 1H-NMR. The results showed that the No. of PEG graft of the side chains is n=1, 2 and others. Thermal properties were examined by DSC and TG. The melt temperature (T m) and glass transition temperature (T g) of the comb copolymer increase with the increasing length and the number of the side chains. Moreover, the deformation performance of IPMC material was tested and its results show that the starting response voltage of IPMC actuator decreases with the increasing IEC value. On the other hand, the starting response voltage increases with the decreased side chain length. The IPMC with n=2 side chain length of PEG has the maximum tip displacement, and the maximum tip displacement of IPMC membrane generally decreases with the side chain length of EVAL-g-SPEG. This feature may be the reflection of two opposite effects, namely the decreasing ion densities and increasing water sorption of the membrane.

  6. Synthesis and self-assembly of temperature-responsive copolymers based on N-vinylpyrrolidone and triethylene glycol methacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Jumeaux, Coline; Chapman, Robert; Chandrawati, Rona; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a biocompatible, water-soluble polymer with unique physicochemical properties and attractive biological features that has found widespread use in several industries. Owing to advances in controlled polymerisation techniques, PVP can be easily synthesised with robust control over its architecture. However, the synthesis of PVP copolymers, which can allow tailoring of its properties and expand the scope of this polymeric material, is challenging and rarely reported. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of well-defined, temperature-responsive polyvinylpyrrolidone-co-poly(triethylene glycol methacrylate) (PVP-co-pTEGMA) block copolymers via successive Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) and Activators ReGenerated by Electron Transfer Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ARGET-ATRP) techniques. We show that PVP-co-pTEGMA block copolymers display temperature-responsive behaviour and self-assemble above their cloud point temperature (Tcp) to form spherical nanostructures of 100-200 nm in diameter. Finally, we demonstrate stabilisation of these assemblies below their Tcp by cross-linking through the PVP block. PMID:28458725

  7. Thermo- and pH-Responsive Copolymers Bearing Cholic Acid and Oligo(ethylene glycol) Pendants: Self-Assembly and pH-Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong-Guang; Zhu, X X

    2015-11-11

    A family of block and random copolymers of norbornene derivatives bearing cholic acid and oligo(ethylene glycol) pendants were prepared in the presence of Grubbs' catalyst. The phase transition temperature of the copolymers in aqueous solutions may be tuned by the variation of comonomer ratios and pH values. Both types of copolymers formed micellar nanostructures with a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) shell and a hydrophobic core containing cholic acid residues. The micellar size increased gradually with increasing pH due to the deprotonation of the carboxylic acid groups. These micelles were capable of encapsulating hydrophobic compounds such as Nile Red (NR). A higher hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity ratio in both copolymers resulted in a higher loading capacity for NR. With similar molecular weights and monomer compositions, the block copolymers showed a higher loading capacity for NR than the random copolymers. The NR-loaded micelles exhibited a pH-triggered release behavior. At pH 7.4 within 96 h, the micelles formed by the block and random of copolymers released 56 and 97% NR, respectively. Therefore, these micelles may have promise for use as therapeutic nanocarriers in drug delivery systems.

  8. Synthesis of three-arm block copolymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) with oxalyl chloride and its application in hydrophobic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Liu, Chao; Duan, Jianwei; Liang, Xiaoyu; Li, Xuanling; Sun, Hongfan; Kong, Deling; Yang, Jing

    Synthesis of star-shaped block copolymer with oxalyl chloride and preparation of micelles to assess the prospect for drug-carrier applications. Three-arm star block copolymers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (3S-PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization, then PEG as the hydrophilic block was linked to the terminal hydroxyl of 3S-PLGA with oxalyl chloride. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to identify the structure and properties of 3S-PLGA-PEG. Rapamycin (RPM)-loaded micelles were prepared by solvent evaporation, and pyrene was used as the fluorescence probe to detect the critical micelle concentration of the copolymer. The particle size, distribution, and ζ-potential of the micelles were determined by dynamic light scattering, and the morphology of the RPM-loaded micelles was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. High-performance liquid chromatography was conducted to analyze encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading capacity, as well as the release behavior of RPM-loaded micelles. The biocompatibility of material and the cytostatic effect of RPM-loaded micelles were investigated by Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. FT-IR, GPC, and (1)H-NMR suggested that 3S-PLGA-PEG was successfully synthesized. The RPM-loaded micelles prepared with the 3S-PLGA-PEG possessed good properties. The micelles had good average diameter and encapsulation efficiency. For in vitro release, RPM was released slowly from 3S-PLGA-PEG micelles, showing that 3S-PLGA-PEG-RPM exhibited a better and longer antiproliferative effect than free RPM. In this study, we first used oxalyl chloride as the linker to synthesize 3S-PLGA-PEG successfully, and compared with reported literature, this method shortened the reaction procedure and improved the reaction yield. The micelles prepared with this material

  9. Synthesis of three-arm block copolymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)–poly(ethylene glycol) with oxalyl chloride and its application in hydrophobic drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Liu, Chao; Duan, Jianwei; Liang, Xiaoyu; Li, Xuanling; Sun, Hongfan; Kong, Deling; Yang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Synthesis of star-shaped block copolymer with oxalyl chloride and preparation of micelles to assess the prospect for drug-carrier applications. Materials and methods Three-arm star block copolymers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (3S-PLGA)–polyethylene glycol (PEG) were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization, then PEG as the hydrophilic block was linked to the terminal hydroxyl of 3S-PLGA with oxalyl chloride. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to identify the structure and properties of 3S-PLGA-PEG. Rapamycin (RPM)-loaded micelles were prepared by solvent evaporation, and pyrene was used as the fluorescence probe to detect the critical micelle concentration of the copolymer. The particle size, distribution, and ζ-potential of the micelles were determined by dynamic light scattering, and the morphology of the RPM-loaded micelles was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. High-performance liquid chromatography was conducted to analyze encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading capacity, as well as the release behavior of RPM-loaded micelles. The biocompatibility of material and the cytostatic effect of RPM-loaded micelles were investigated by Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. Results FT-IR, GPC, and 1H-NMR suggested that 3S-PLGA-PEG was successfully synthesized. The RPM-loaded micelles prepared with the 3S-PLGA-PEG possessed good properties. The micelles had good average diameter and encapsulation efficiency. For in vitro release, RPM was released slowly from 3S-PLGA-PEG micelles, showing that 3S-PLGA-PEG-RPM exhibited a better and longer antiproliferative effect than free RPM. Conclusion In this study, we first used oxalyl chloride as the linker to synthesize 3S-PLGA-PEG successfully, and compared with reported literature, this method shortened the reaction procedure and improved the reaction

  10. Development of a membrane impregnated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane)/poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer for a high-throughput screening of the permeability of drugs, cosmetics, and other chemicals across the human skin.

    PubMed

    Miki, Ryotaro; Ichitsuka, Yasuna; Yamada, Takumi; Kimura, Soichiro; Egawa, Yuya; Seki, Toshinobu; Juni, Kazuhiko; Ueda, Hideo; Morimoto, Yasunori

    2015-01-23

    We aimed to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) system for preliminary predictions of human skin permeability by using an artificial membrane that can mimic the permeation behaviour of lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds across the human skin. In this study, we synthesized a copolymer containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 6000 and impregnated it onto a supportive membrane filter to prepare a PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer-impregnated membrane. In addition, we synthesized another polymer without PEG units and used it to prepare an impregnated membrane for determining the role of PEG 6000 units in the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer-impregnated membrane. The permeation characteristics of the impregnated membranes were evaluated on the basis of the permeability coefficients of 12 model compounds with different lipophilicities, by using a 2-chamber diffusion cell, and these permeability coefficients were compared with those across the human skin. We obtained a good correlation between the permeability coefficients across the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer-impregnated membrane and human skin. Further, we evaluated the permeation characteristics of a 96-well plate model of the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer by using 6 model compounds. We obtained an ideal correlation between the permeability coefficients across the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer using a 96-well plate and those across the human skin. Thus, the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer would be a good candidate for preliminary evaluation of the permeability of lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds across the human skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyethyleneimine-poly(ethylene glycol)-star-copolymers as efficient and biodegradable vectors for mammalian cell transfection.

    PubMed

    Ladewig, Katharina; Xu, Zhi Ping; Gray, Peter; Max Lu, G Q

    2014-07-01

    High molecular weight (MW) polyethyleneimine (PEI) has been successfully used for the transfection of a broad variety of cell lines. In contrast to low MW PEI, which exhibits low transfection efficiencies but also low cytotoxicity, high MW PEI-mediated transfection achieves much higher efficiencies but at the cost of cell viability; therefore its use in commercial scale transfection and clinical application is limited. In this work we address this problem by constructing biodegradable high MW PEI mimics built from low MW PEI building blocks. The end-groups of small 5-arm star polyethylene glycol (PEG) prepolymers were decorated with linear oligo-ethyleneimine (OEI)/PEI arms of various MW via azomethine linkages. The resultant PEI-PEG-star-copolymers were investigated for their ability to complex plasmid DNA. Polymer/DNA complexes were characterized using techniques such as dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Having established their cytotoxicity limits, they were tested as gene delivery vehicles for the transfection of suspension adapted Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-S) cells under serum-free conditions and adherent human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) in serum containing medium. Our PEI-PEG-star-copolymers showed a reduced cytotoxicity compared to high MW PEI while maintaining the ability to complex plasmid DNA and transfect mammalian cells, with significant transfection efficiencies. The effects of the optimum parameters on the transfection of mammalian cells using such novel polymers are discussed.

  12. Preparation and Properties of Polysulfone-poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymer membrane.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung-Moon; Kim, Deuk-Ju; Nam, Sang-Yong

    2014-10-01

    In this study, Graft copolymers composed of PSf backbones and PEG side chains were synthesized to prepare gas separation membranes with enhancing permeability and selectivity on carbon dioxide separation. PSf-g-PEG copolymers were synthesized by two steps, chloromethylation and graft reactions. Grafted PEG segment of PSf was controlled by molecular weight of PEG. Thermal properties of prepared mebrane were studied by TGA and DSC. T(g) of the copolymers was decreased with increasing of molecular weight of PEG. Hydrophilicity of PSf-g-PEG copolymer membrane was measured using contact angle method, and PEG grafted polymers showed lower contact angles due to higher hydrophilicity. Gas permeation properties of CO2 and N2 gases through the membranes were measured using time-lag method. The permeability of CO2 was enhanced with PEG moiety contents and increasing of number of PEG segment. The selectivity of CO2/N2 was increased with introducing of PEG due to higher solubility with CO2 gas.

  13. Phase Behavior and Dynamics of the ABA Triblock Copolymer Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Distearate Doped with Lithium Perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giotto, Marcus V.; Sangiorge, Clausymara L.; Harris, Douglas J.; de Oliveira, Armando L.; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Bonagamba, Tito J.

    2002-03-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) distearate (PEGD) complexed with lithium perchlorate has been studied by NMR, SAXS, DSC, and Polarized-Light Optical Microscopy (PLOM). Unlike other polymer electrolytes, highly Lithium-doped PEGD samples exhibit sharp Li-7 NMR quadrupolar powder patterns even at temperatures well above the melting point, indicating that this copolymer is microphase separated and the dynamics in the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) phase are anisotropic. Measurements of the Li-7 central transition linewidth in highly doped samples show three distinct line narrowings, due to the PEG glass transition ( 20°C), the stearate melting point of the polymer ( 35°C), and an order-disorder transition ( 72°C). SAXS, DSC, and PLOM confirm the presence of a microphase-separated state up to 72 °C. C-13 and H-1 NMR show that the segmental mobility in the ordered state is reduced compared to the isotropic melt. The results confirm the previously proposed order-disorder model to explain the dependence of the ionic conductivity on the lithium concentration for Lithium-doped PEGD samples.

  14. Biodegradable amphiphilic block-graft copolymers based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(polycarbonates-g-polycarbonates) for controlled release of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Youmei; Lv, Yin; Cheng, Yinjia; He, Feng; Zhuo, Renxi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, novel biodegradable amphiphilic block-graft copolymers based on methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(polycarbonates-g-polycarbonates) (mPEG-b-(PATMC-g-PATMC)) were synthesized successfully for controlled release of doxorubicin (DOX). Backbone block copolymer, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(5-allyloxy-1,3-dioxan-2-one) (mPEG-b-PATMC) was synthesized in bulk catalyzed by immobilized porcine pancreas lipase (IPPL). Then, mPEG-b-PATMC-O, the allyl epoxidation product of mPEG-b-PATMC, was further grafted by PATMC itself also using IPPL as the catalyst. The copolymers were characterized by (1)N HMR and gel permeation chromatography results showed narrow molecular weight distributions. Stable micelle solutions could be prepared by dialysis method, while a monomodal and narrow size distribution could be obtained. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation showed the micelles dispersed in spherical shape with nano-size before and after DOX loading. Compared with the block copolymers, the grafted structure could enhance the interaction of polymer chains with drug molecules and improve the drug-loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. Furthermore, the amphiphilic block-graft copolymers mPEG-b-(PATMC-g-PATMC) had low cytotoxicity and more sustained drug release behavior.

  15. Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:26191379

  16. Synthesis of poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-polyisobutylene ABA block copolymers by the combination of quasiliving carbocationic and atom transfer radical polymerizations.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Ákos; Szarka, Györgyi; Iván, Béla

    2015-01-01

    Systematic investigations are carried out on the synthesis of a series of new, unique ABA-type triblock copolymers consisting of the hydrophobic and chemically inert polyisobutylene (PIB) inner and the hydrophilic comb-shaped poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (PPEGMA) polymacromonomer as an outer block. Telechelic PIB macroinitiators with narrow molecular weight distributions (MWD) are synthesized by quasiliving carbocationic polymerization of isobutylene with a bifunctional initiator followed by quantitative chain end derivatizations. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of PEGMAs with various molecular weights is investigated by using these macroinitiators. It is found that CuBr is an inefficient ATRP catalyst, while CuCl leads to high, nearly complete conversions of the PEGMA macromonomers. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analyses reveal slow initiation of PEGMA at relatively high PIB/PEGMA ratios or with PEGMAs of higher molecular weights due to steric hindrance between the macroinitiator and macromonomer. The occurrence of slow initiation, and not permanent termination, is proven by highly efficient ATRP of a low-molecular-weight monomer, methyl methacrylate, with the block copolymers as macroinitiators. Successful synthesis of PPEGMA-PIB-PPEGMA ABA block copolymers is obtained by using either low-molecular-weight PEGMA or relatively low macroinitiator/macromonomer ratios. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicates phase separation and significant suppression of the crystallinity of the pendant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains in these new block copolymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Thermosensitive block copolymer hydrogels based on poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and polyethylene glycol for biomedical applications: state of the art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Boffito, Monica; Sirianni, Paolo; Di Rienzo, Anna Maria; Chiono, Valeria

    2015-03-01

    This review focuses on the challenges associated with the design and development of injectable hydrogels of synthetic origin based on FDA approved blocks, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL). An overview of recent studies on inverse thermosensitive PEG/PCL hydrogels is provided. These systems have been proposed to overcome the limitations of previously introduced degradable thermosensitive hydrogels [e.g., PEG/poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) hydrogels]. PEG/PCL hydrogels are advantageous due to their higher gel strength, slower degradation rate and availability in powder form. Particularly, triblock PEG/PCL copolymers have been widely investigated, with PCL-PEG-PCL (PCEC) hydrogels showing superior gel strength and slower degradation kinetics than PEG-PCL-PEG (PECE) hydrogels. Compared to triblock PEG/PCL copolymers, concentrated solutions of multiblock PEG/PCL copolymers were stable due to their slower crystallization rate. However, the resulting hydrogel gel strength was low. Inverse thermosensitive triblock PEG/PCL hydrogels have been mainly applied in tissue engineering, to decrease tissue adherence or, in combination with bioactive molecules, to promote tissue regeneration. They have also found application as in situ drug delivery carriers. On the other hand, the wide potentialities of multiblock PEG/PCL hydrogels, associated with the stability of their water-based solutions under storage, their higher degradation time compared to triblock copolymer hydrogels and the possibility to insert bioactive building blocks along the copolymer chains, have not been fully exploited yet. A critical discussion is provided to highlight advantages and limitations of currently developed themosensitive PEG/PCL hydrogels, suggesting future strategies for the realization of PEG/PCL-based copolymers with improved performance in the different application fields.

  18. Efficacy of an emollient containing diethylene glycol/dilinoleic acid copolymer for the treatment of dry skin and pruritus in patients with senile xerosis.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Runa; Negi, Osamu; Suzuki, Tamie; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamo, Atsuko; Suga, Yasushi; Matsukuma, Shoko; Takamori, Kenji

    2017-03-30

    Pruritus frequently reduces quality of life (QOL) in patients with senile xerosis. This study investigated the moisturizing and antipruritic effects of a topical emollient containing a diethylene glycol/dilinoleic acid copolymer (D/DC) in patients with pruritic senile xerosis. This single-blind study involved 50 subjects, aged 50-75 years. Patients were randomized to self-applied treatment of the lower legs with 10% (n = 20) or 20% (n = 20) D/DC-containing cream, white petrolatum (n = 5), or no treatment (n = 5) thrice daily for four weeks. Clinical scores of skin dryness and scratch marks, skin conductance, and Skindex-16 were evaluated before and after treatment. The degree of pruritus was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) score once a week. Patients treated with 10% and 20% D/DC showed significant improvements in skin dryness and scratch mark scores, as well as increased skin conductance, compared with the untreated group, whereas white petrolatum treatment improved only skin dryness scores. Moreover, patients treated with 20% D/DC showed significant improvements in skin dryness scores and skin conductance compared with white petrolatum treatment. The VAS scores in the D/DC-treated and white petrolatum-treated groups were significantly lower than in the untreated group, being particularly lower after one week of treatment with 20% D/DC. Topical application of an emollient containing D/DC is effective in improving skin dryness and pruritus in patients with senile xerosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nanoparticles made of multi-block copolymer of lactic acid and ethylene glycol containing periodic side-chain carboxyl groups for oral delivery of cyclosporine A

    PubMed Central

    Ankola, D. D.; Battisti, A.; Solaro, R.; Kumar, M. N. V. Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of new carboxylated multi-block copolymer of lactic acid and ethylene glycol (EL14) for nanoparticle (NP) formation and their ability to deliver high molecular weight hydrophobic drug—cyclosporine A (CsA). CsA-loaded EL14 NPs were compared with traditional poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs, both prepared by emulsion–diffusion–evaporation process. On the one hand, the increase in drug payload from 10 to 30 per cent for EL14 NPs showed no difference in particle size, however the entrapment efficiency tends to decrease from 50 to 43 per cent; on the other hand, the more hydrophobic PLGA showed an increasing trend in entrapment efficiency from 20 to 62 per cent with increasing particle size. Over 90 per cent of CsA was released in vitro from both the nanoparticulates; however, the release was much slower in the case of more hydrophobic PLGA. On in vivo evaluation in rats, the NPs made of EL14 showed a higher Cmax, a faster Tmax and enhanced tissue levels to that of PLGA that are crucial for CsA's activity and toxicity; however, the overall bioavailability of the nanoparticulates was similar and higher than Neoral. Together these data demonstrate the feasibility of NPs made of low molecular weight, hydrophilic polymer EL14 for efficient delivery of CsA. PMID:20504806

  20. Nanoparticles made of multi-block copolymer of lactic acid and ethylene glycol containing periodic side-chain carboxyl groups for oral delivery of cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Ankola, D D; Battisti, A; Solaro, R; Kumar, M N V Ravi

    2010-08-06

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of new carboxylated multi-block copolymer of lactic acid and ethylene glycol (EL14) for nanoparticle (NP) formation and their ability to deliver high molecular weight hydrophobic drug--cyclosporine A (CsA). CsA-loaded EL14 NPs were compared with traditional poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs, both prepared by emulsion-diffusion-evaporation process. On the one hand, the increase in drug payload from 10 to 30 per cent for EL14 NPs showed no difference in particle size, however the entrapment efficiency tends to decrease from 50 to 43 per cent; on the other hand, the more hydrophobic PLGA showed an increasing trend in entrapment efficiency from 20 to 62 per cent with increasing particle size. Over 90 per cent of CsA was released in vitro from both the nanoparticulates; however, the release was much slower in the case of more hydrophobic PLGA. On in vivo evaluation in rats, the NPs made of EL14 showed a higher C(max), a faster T(max) and enhanced tissue levels to that of PLGA that are crucial for CsA's activity and toxicity; however, the overall bioavailability of the nanoparticulates was similar and higher than Neoral. Together these data demonstrate the feasibility of NPs made of low molecular weight, hydrophilic polymer EL14 for efficient delivery of CsA.

  1. Surface Mechanical and Rheological Behaviors of Biocompatible Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) and Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-ε-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG) Block Copolymers at the Air-Water Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Khetan, Jawahar; Won, You-Yeon

    2016-02-01

    Air–water interfacial monolayers of poly((d,l-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA–PEG) exhibit an exponential increase in surface pressure under high monolayer compression. In order to understand the molecular origin of this behavior, a combined experimental and theoretical investigation (including surface pressure–area isotherm, X-ray reflectivity (XR) and interfacial rheological measurements, and a self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical analysis) was performed on air–water monolayers formed by a PLGA–PEG diblock copolymer and also by a nonglassy analogue of this diblock copolymer, poly((d,l-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL–PEG). The combined results of this study show that the two mechanisms, i.e., the glass transition of the collapsed PLGA film and the lateral repulsion of the PEG brush chains that occur simultaneously under lateral compression of the monolayer, are both responsible for the observed PLGA–PEG isotherm behavior. Upon cessation of compression, the high surface pressure of the PLGA–PEG monolayer typically relaxes over time with a stretched exponential decay, suggesting that in this diblock copolymer situation, the hydrophobic domain formed by the PLGA blocks undergoes glass transition in the high lateral compression state, analogously to the PLGA homopolymer monolayer. In the high PEG grafting density regime, the contribution of the PEG brush chains to the high monolayer surface pressure is significantly lower than what is predicted by the SCF model because of the many-body attraction among PEG segments (referred to in the literature as the “n-cluster” effects). The end-grafted PEG chains were found to be protein resistant even under the influence of the “n-cluster” effects.

  2. Surface Mechanical and Rheological Behaviors of Biocompatible Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) and Poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-ε-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG) Block Copolymers at the Air-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Khetan, Jawahar; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-12-29

    Air-water interfacial monolayers of poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) exhibit an exponential increase in surface pressure under high monolayer compression. In order to understand the molecular origin of this behavior, a combined experimental and theoretical investigation (including surface pressure-area isotherm, X-ray reflectivity (XR) and interfacial rheological measurements, and a self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical analysis) was performed on air-water monolayers formed by a PLGA-PEG diblock copolymer and also by a nonglassy analogue of this diblock copolymer, poly((D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid-ran-caprolactone)-block-ethylene glycol) (PLGACL-PEG). The combined results of this study show that the two mechanisms, i.e., the glass transition of the collapsed PLGA film and the lateral repulsion of the PEG brush chains that occur simultaneously under lateral compression of the monolayer, are both responsible for the observed PLGA-PEG isotherm behavior. Upon cessation of compression, the high surface pressure of the PLGA-PEG monolayer typically relaxes over time with a stretched exponential decay, suggesting that in this diblock copolymer situation, the hydrophobic domain formed by the PLGA blocks undergoes glass transition in the high lateral compression state, analogously to the PLGA homopolymer monolayer. In the high PEG grafting density regime, the contribution of the PEG brush chains to the high monolayer surface pressure is significantly lower than what is predicted by the SCF model because of the many-body attraction among PEG segments (referred to in the literature as the "n-cluster" effects). The end-grafted PEG chains were found to be protein resistant even under the influence of the "n-cluster" effects.

  3. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments.

  4. Formulation and in vitro characterization of novel sildenafil citrate-loaded polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer-based orally dissolving films.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Shi, Li-Li; Cao, Qing-Ri; Xu, Wei-Juan; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Xiao-Yin; Cui, Jing-Hao

    2014-10-01

    This work was aimed to develop novel sildenafil citrate (SC)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer (Kollicoat(®) IR)-based orally dissolving films (ODFs) using a solvent casting method. Formulation factors such as plasticizers and disintegrants were optimized on the basis of characteristics of blank ODFs. The SC-loaded ODF with a loading capacity up to 6.25mg in an area of 6 cm(2) was prepared and evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The physicochemical properties of drug-loaded ODF were also investigated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The blank ODF composed of Kollicoat(®) IR, sodium alginate (ALG-Na) and glycerol (10:2:1.5, w/w) had a remarkably short disintegration time of about 20s. The SC-loaded ODF showed a delayed disintegration time (about 25s), but exhibited improved mechanical properties when compared to the blank ODF. SC was homogeneously dispersed throughout the ODF and the crystalline form of drug had been partly changed, existing strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and carriers. The Kollicoat(®) IR/ALG-Na based ODFs containing SC might be an alternative to conventional tablet for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction.

  5. Rheological Characterization of Polysaccharide–Poly(ethylene glycol) Star Copolymer Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Nori; Chae, Byeong-Seok; Zhang, Le; Kiick, Kristi L.; Furst, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    Binding interactions between low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and heparin-binding peptides (HBP) have been applied as a strategy for the assembly of hydrogels that are capable of sequestering growth factors and delivering them in a controlled manner. In this work, the assembly of four-arm star poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)–LMWH conjugate with PEG–HBP conjugates has been investigated. The interactions between LMWH and the heparin-binding regions of antithrombin III (ATIII) or the heparin interacting protein (HIP) have been characterized via heparin affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance (SPR); results indicate that the two peptides have slightly different affinities for heparin and LMWH, and bind LMWH with micromolar affinity. Solutions of the PEG–LMWH and of mixtures of the PEG–LMWH and PEG–HBP were characterized via both bulk rheology and laser tweezer microrheology. Interestingly, solutions of PEG–LMWH (2.5 wt % in PBS) form hydrogels in the absence of PEG–ATIII or PEG–HIP, with storage moduli, determined via bulk rheological measurements, in excess of the loss moduli over frequencies of 0.1–100 Hz. The addition of PEG–ATIII or PEG–HIP increases the moduli in direct proportion to the number of cross-links introduced. Characterization of the hydrogels via microrheology shows the gel microstructure is composed of polymer-rich fibrillar structures surrounded by polymer-depleted buffer. Potential applications of these hydrogels are discussed. PMID:16004430

  6. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Lowe, Kristine L; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J

    2003-04-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  7. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  8. Material compatibility evaluation for DWPF nitric-glycolic acid-literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Skidmore, E.

    2013-06-01

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternative for formic and nitric acid in the DWPF flowsheet. Demonstration testing and modeling for this new flowsheet has shown that glycolic acid and glycolate has a potential to remain in certain streams generated during the production of the nuclear waste glass. A literature review was conducted to assess the impact of glycolic acid on the corrosion of the materials of construction for the DWPF facility as well as facilities downstream which may have residual glycolic acid and glycolates present. The literature data was limited to solutions containing principally glycolic acid.

  9. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  10. Synthesis of a new potential biodegradable disulfide containing poly(ethylene imine)-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer cross-linked with click cluster for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Roesler, Susanne; Kissel, Thomas

    2011-06-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted-polyethylenimine (PEG-PEI) are promising non-viral gene delivery systems. Herein, we aimed to synthesize a biodegradable disulfide containing PEGylated PEI to attempt to reduce its cytotoxicity and enhance the gene transfer activity. Using click chemistry, low Mw PEI (br. 2 kDa) and short chain length PEG (tetraethylene glycol, TEG) were cross-linked to a high Mw PEG-PEI copolymer (∼ 22 kDa). The chemical structure of the copolymer was characterized using (1)H NMR and GPC. The degradation behavior was investigated under in vitro conditions in the presence of 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT). The gel retardation assay, dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy showed good DNA condensation ability by forming polyplexes with small particle size and positive zeta potential. In particular, MTT assay indicated that this PEG-PEI polymer is about 22-fold less toxic than PEI 25k and only 2-fold more toxic than PEI 2k in L929 cell line. After coupling of small PEG chains and cross-linking by disulfide bridges, the transfection efficiency is increased approximately 6-fold in comparison to PEI 2k and still reaches approximately 17% of PEI 25k. Hence, this click cluster cross-linked disulfide containing PEG-PEI copolymer could be an attractive cationic polymer for non-viral gene delivery.

  11. 5-aminolevulinic acid-incorporated nanoparticles of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-chitosan copolymer for photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chung-Wook; Chung, Kyu-Don; Jeong, Young-Il; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to make 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-incorporated nanoparticles using methoxy polyethylene glycol/chitosan (PEG-Chito) copolymer for application in photodynamic therapy for colon cancer cells. Methods 5-ALA-incorporated (PEG-Chito-5-ALA) nanoparticles were prepared by ion complex formation between 5-ALA and chitosan. Protoporphyrin IX accumulation in the tumor cells and phototoxicity induced by PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles were assessed using CT26 cells in vitro. Results PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles have spherical shapes with sizes diameters 200 nm. More specifically, microscopic observation revealed a core-shell structure of PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles. 1H NMR spectra showed that 5-ALA was incorporated in the core of the nanoparticles. In the absence of light irradiation, all components such as 5-ALA, empty nanoparticles, and PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles did not affect the viability of cells. However, 5-ALA or PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles induced tumor cell death under light irradiation, and the viability of tumor cells was dose-dependently decreased according to the increase in irradiation time. In particular, PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles induced increased phototoxicity and higher protoporphyrin IX accumulation into the tumor cells than did 5-ALA alone. Furthermore, PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles accelerated apoptosis/necrosis of tumor cells, compared to 5-ALA alone. Conclusion PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles showed superior delivery capacity of 5-ALA and phototoxicity against tumor cells. These results show that PEG-Chito-5-ALA nanoparticles are promising candidates for photodynamic therapy of colon cancer cells. PMID:23589688

  12. A Solution-Processable (Tetraaniline-b-Polyethylene Glycol)3 Star-Shaped Rod-Coil Block Copolymer with Enhanced Electrochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Cao, Linyu; Gong, Chen; Yang, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    A novel electroactive star-shaped rod-coil copolymer composed of a benzene core and three symmetrically positioned tetraaniline-b-poly(ethylene glycol) arms, (TAni-b-PEG)3 rod-coil block copolymer, is synthesized successfully and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, (1)H NMR, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Uniform and high-quality (TAni-b-PEG)3 thin films onto indium tin oxide-coated glass surface are fabricated simply from its DMF solution. Resulting (TAni-b-PEG)3 copolymer thin films possess excellent electrochromic properties with a high optical contrast of 73.3%, superb coloration efficiency of 318.5 cm(2) C(-1) at 750 nm. Very short switching times, that is, 2.11 s and 2.14 s for coloring and bleaching times, respectively, are observed as well. The mechanism of these impressive electrochromic properties of (TAni-b-PEG)3 thin films possessed is proposed based on the atomic force microscopy investigation, star-shaped molecular geometry, synergetic electronic and ionic conductivity and amphiphilic self-assembly feature of (TAni-b-PEG)3 copolymer, which can self-assemble to form cylinder pattern consisting of quick pathways for electronic charges and ionic species, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Morphological Control of Anisotropic Self-Assemblies from Alternating Poly(p-dioxanone)-poly(ethylene glycol) Multiblock Copolymer Depending on the Combination Effect of Crystallization and Micellization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Jia; Wang, Hao; Chen, Si-Chong; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Ya

    2015-06-30

    A novel and facile method was developed for morphological controlling of self-assemblies prepared by crystallization induced self-assembly of crystalline-coil copolymer depending on the combination effect of crystallization and micellization. The morphological evolution of the self-assemblies of alternating poly(p-dioxanone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PPDO-PEG) multiblock copolymer prepared by different solvent mixing methods in aqueous solution were investigated. "Chrysanthemum"-like and "star anise"-like self-assemblies were obtained at different rates of solvent mixing. The results suggested gradually change in solvent quality (slowly dropping water into DMF solution) leaded to a hierarchical micellization-crystallization process of core-forming PPDO blocks, and flake-like particles were formed at the initial stage of crystallization. Meanwhile, crystallization induced micellization process occurred when solvent quality changed drastically. Shuttle-like particles, which have much smaller size than those of flake-like particles, were formed at the initial stage of crystallization when quickly injecting water into DMF solution of the copolymer. Therefore, owing to the different changing rate of solvent quality, which may result in different combination effect of crystallization and micellization during self-assembly of the copolymer, PPDO-PEG self-assemblies with different hierarchical morphology in nano scale could be obtained.

  14. Room temperature aqueous self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) block copolymers: From spherical to worm-like micelles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela P; Costa, João R C; Rocha, Nuno; Góis, Joana R; Serra, Arménio C; Coelho, Jorge F J

    2016-09-01

    The solution self-assembly and the formation, at room temperature, of a wide range of nanostructures based on monomethyl ether poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (mPEG-b-P4VP) block copolymer is reported. Copolymers with different compositions and molecular weights were synthesized through Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) method. The solution self-assembly of the block copolymers was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for different solution pHs. It was found that the formation of non-spherical nanostructures, such as rod- and worm-like micelles can be easily achieved, at room temperature, by simply varying the molecular weight of the different segments as well as the mPEG to P4VP ratio in the block copolymer structure. Because P4VP segments are known to form strong complexes with metals, the nanostructures prepared in this manuscript can find innovative applications in the biomedical field and be used as nano-templates for inorganic materials.

  15. RGD-grafted poly-L-lysine-graft-(polyethylene glycol) copolymers block non-specific protein adsorption while promoting cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    VandeVondele, Stephanie; Vörös, Janos; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2003-06-30

    A novel class of surface-active copolymers is described, designed to protect surfaces from nonspecific protein adsorption while still inducing specific cell attachment and spreading. A graft copolymer was synthesized, containing poly-(L-lysine) (PLL) as the backbone and substrate binding and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as protein adsorption-resistant pendant side chains. A fraction of the grafted PEG was pendantly functionalized by covalent conjugation to the peptide motif RGD to induce cell binding. The graft copolymer spontaneously adsorbs from dilute aqueous solution onto negatively charged surfaces. The performance of RGD-modified PLL-g-PEG copolymers was analyzed in protein adsorption and cell culture assays. These coatings efficiently blocked the adsorption of serum proteins to Nb(2)O(5) and tissue culture polystyrene while specifically supporting attachment and spreading of human dermal fibroblasts. This surface functionalization technology is expected to be valuable in both the biomaterial and biosensor fields, because different signals can easily be combined, and sterilization and application are straightforward and cost-effective.

  16. Microstructure characterization and thermal analysis of hybrid block copolymer α-methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly[ ɛ-(benzyloxycarbonyl)- L-lysine] for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izunobi, Josephat U.; Higginbotham, Clement L.

    2010-08-01

    Hybrid block copolymers, which combine the economy and processibility of synthetic polymers with the functionality and highly ordered structures of polypeptides, can enhance control over structure formation at the nanoscale, as well as afford interesting materials that interface with Nature for a diversity of biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering and bioimaging. Hybrid block copolymer, α-methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly[ ɛ-(benzyloxycarbonyl)- L-lysine], MPEG- b-PLL(Z), was synthesized by anionic ring-opening polymerization in excellent yield, and fully characterized using IR, 1H, 13C and 2-D NMR, GPC, TGA, DTGA, DSC, MDSC and polarimetry. Its precursor NCA, ɛ-(benzyloxycarbonyl)- L-lysine N-carboxyanhydride, L-Lys(Z)-NCA, was prepared in 97% yield; and a double doublet observed in the 1850-1750 cm -1 absorption region of its infrared spectrum, for the characteristic NCA carbonyl absorption bands, is discussed.

  17. Preparation of magnetic microspheres based on poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymers by modified solvent diffusion method.

    PubMed

    Men, Ke; Zeng, Shi; Gou, MaLing; Guo, Gang; Gu, Ying Chun; Luo, Feng; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan; Qian, ZhiYong

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic microspheres have promising application in biomedical field. In this paper, biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCEC) triblock copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization method. Through adjusting the epsilon-CL/PEG weight ratio in feed, PCEC copolymers with different block ratio were obtained. A novel modified solvent diffusion method was described to prepare magnetic PCEC composite microspheres containing magnetite nanoparticles. The particle size of microsphere decreased with increase in the PEG/PCL block ratio. The obtained microspheres could response to external magnetic field. This study described a novel method to prepare magnetic microspheres. The obtained magnetic polymeric microspheres might have potential application in drug delivery system or disease diagnosis field.

  18. Preclinical safety evaluation of inhaled cyclosporine in propylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Noonberg, Sarah; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Lynch, Maryellen; Kovelesky, Rosemary A; Rodríguez, Carlos A; Sprugel, Katherine; Turner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporine inhalation solution has the potential to improve outcomes following lung transplantation by delivering high concentrations of an immunosuppressant directly to the allograft while minimizing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicity. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the potential toxicity of aerosolized cyclosporine formulated in propylene glycol when given by inhalation route to rats and dogs for 28 days. Sprague-Dawley rats received total inhaled doses of 0 (air), 0 (vehicle, propylene glycol), 7.4, 24.3, and 53.9 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. In a separate study, beagle dogs were exposed to 0, 4.4, 7.7, and 9.7 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. Endpoints used to evaluate potential toxicity of inhaled cyclosporine were clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, respiratory functions, toxicokinetics, and clinical/anatomic pathology. Daily administration of aerosolized cyclosporine did not result in observable accumulation of cyclosporine in blood or lung tissue. Toxicokinetic analysis from the rat study showed that the exposure of cyclosporine was approximately 18 times higher in the lung tissue compared to the blood. Systemic effects were consistent with those known for cyclosporine. There was no unexpected systemic toxicity or clinically limiting local respiratory toxicity associated with inhalation exposure to cyclosporine inhalation solution at exposures up to 2.7 times the maximum human exposure in either rats or dogs. There were no respiratory or systemic effects of high doses of propylene glycol relative to air controls. These preclinical studies demonstrate the safety of aerosolized cyclosporine in propylene glycol and support its continued clinical investigation in patients undergoing allogeneic lung transplantation.

  19. Novel RAFT amphiphilic brush copolymer steric stabilisers for cubosomes: poly(octadecyl acrylate)-block-poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate).

    PubMed

    Chong, Josephine Y T; Mulet, Xavier; Postma, Almar; Keddie, Daniel J; Waddington, Lynne J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2014-09-21

    Copolymers, particularly Pluronics®, are typically used to sterically stabilise colloidal nanostructured particles composed of a lyotropic liquid crystalline bicontinuous cubic phase (cubosomes). There is a need to design and assess new functionalisable stabilisers for these colloidal drug delivery systems. Six amphiphilic brush copolymers, poly(octadecyl acrylate)-block-poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether acrylate) (P(ODA)-b-P(PEGA-OMe)), synthesised by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), were assessed as novel steric stabilisers for cubosomes. It was found that increasing the density of PEG on the nanostructured particle surface by incorporating a PEG brush design (i.e., brush copolymer), provided comparable and/or increased stabilisation effectiveness compared to a linear PEG structure, Pluronic® F127, which is extensively used for steric stabilisation of cubosomes. Assessment was conducted both prior to and following the removal of the dodecyl trithiocarbonate end-group, by free radical-induced reduction. The reduced (P(ODA)-b-P(PEGA-OMe) copolymers were more effective steric stabilisers for phytantriol and monoolein colloidal particle dispersions than their non-reduced analogues. High throughput characterisation methodologies, including an accelerated stability assay (ASA) and synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), were implemented in this study for the rapid assessment of steric stabiliser effectiveness and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase identification. Phytantriol cubosomes stabilised with P(ODA)-b-P(PEGA-OMe) copolymers exhibited a double diamond cubic phase (Q(2)(D)), whilst monoolein cubosomes exhibited a primitive cubic phase (Q(2)(P)), analogous to those formed using Pluronic® F127.

  20. Effect of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer on bioadhesion and release rate property of eplerenone pellets.

    PubMed

    Kendre, Prakash Namdeo; Chaudhari, Pravin Digambar

    2017-05-01

    The present study involved the design and development of oral bioadhesive pellets of eplerenone. A solid dispersion of eplerenone was developed with a hydrophilic carrier, polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus(®)). Bioadhesive pellets were prepared from this solid dispersion using a combination of HPMC K4M and Carbopol 934P. Both the solid dispersion and the pellets were evaluated for various physicochemical properties such as solubility, entrapment efficiency, drug content, surface morphology, mucoadhesion and swelling behavior. Analysis carried out using FT-IR, DSC and XRD found no interaction between the eplerenone and excipients. The solid dispersion had irregular-shaped smooth-surfaced particles of diameter 265 ± 105.5 μm. In TEM analysis, eplerenone particles of size 79-120 nm were found. The solubility and dissolution of eplerenone in the Soluplus(®)-based solid dispersion were 5.26 and 2.50 times greater, respectively. Investigation of the swelling behavior of the pellets showed that the thickness of the gel layer increased continuously over the duration of the study. Moreover, a correlation was observed between the thickness and strength of the gel layer and the percentage release. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian (anomalous), with the release kinetics approaching first-order kinetics. The bioavailability of the eplerenone bioadhesive pellet formulation was studied using Wistar rats and was found to be improved. An in vivo mucoadhesion study showed that the pellets are retained for 24 h in rabbits. It was concluded that Soluplus(®) had a positive effect on the solubility and dissolution of pellets without affecting the bioadhesion.

  1. Copolymers of poly(lactic acid) and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-based nanomedicines: versatile multifunctional platforms for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Mahalingam R; Muthu, Madaswamy S; Singh, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The major drawbacks associated with most of the anti-cancer drugs are their potential adverse effects. Distribution of these drugs throughout the body causes untoward adverse effects and less accumulation of drug at the site of tumors also causes decrease in therapeutic efficacy. Targeted nanomedicines are the emerging systems to improve the targetability of drug to the tumor site and to reduce the toxicity with maximum efficacy. Copolymers of poly-lactic acid (PLA) and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (Vitamin-E TPGS or TPGS) are innovative materials being actively investigated for the fabrication of non-targeted and targeted nanomedicines for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this review, different nanomedicines of copolymers such as poly-lactic acid - polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (PLA - Tween® 80), poly-lactic acid - poly-ethyleneglycol (PLA-PEG), poly-lactic acid-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS) and TPGS-based nanomedicines (i.e., TPGS emulsified polymeric nanoparticles, TPGS prodrugs, TPGS liposomes, and TPGS micelles) for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer have been discussed. PLA, PLA-Tween® 80, PLA-PEG, PLA-TPGS, and TPGS are the promising polymeric biomaterials well studied as cancer nanomedicines. These biomaterials have proved that they could be applied in the fabrication of multifunctional nanomedicines for the future needs in simultaneous diagnosis of cancer as well as targeted chemotherapy.

  2. Application of Linear and Branched Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(Lactide) Block Copolymers for the Preparation of Films and Solution Electrospun Meshes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Martina; Groll, Juergen; Tessmar, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PEG-PLA) block copolymers are processed to solvent cast films and solution electrospun meshes. The effect of polymer composition, architecture, and number of anchoring points for the plasticizer on swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties of these films and meshes is investigated as potential barrier device for the prevention of peritoneal adhesions. As a result, adequate properties are achieved for the massive films with a longer retention of the plasticizer PEG for star-shaped block copolymers than for the linear triblock copolymers and consequently more endurable mechanical properties during degradation. For electrospun meshes fabricated using the same polymers, similar trends are observed, but with an earlier start of fragmentation and lower tensile strengths. To overcome the poor mechanical strengths and an occurring shrinkage during incubation, which may impair the coverage of the wound, further adaptions of the meshes and the fabrication process are necessary. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Stereocomplex Film Using Triblock Copolymers of Polylactide and Poly(ethylene glycol) Retain Paxlitaxel on Substrates by an Aqueous Inkjet System.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Hiroharu; Kuroda, Ayaka; Kan, Kai; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-09-29

    The stereocomplex formation of poly(L,L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D,D-lactide) (PDLA) using an inkjet system was expanded to the amphiphilic copolymers, using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a hydrophilic polymer. The diblock copolymers, which are composed of PEG and PLLA (MPEG-co-PLLA) and PEG and PDLA (MPEG-co-PDLA), were employed for thin-film preparation using an aqueous inkjet system. The solvent and temperature conditions were optimized for the stereocomplex formation between MPEG-co-PLLA and MPEG-co- PDLA. As a result, the stereocomplex was adequately formed in acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v) at 40 °C. The aqueous conditions improved the stereocomplex film preparation, which have suffered from clogging when using the organic solvents in previous work. The triblock copolymers, PLLA-co-PEG-co-PLLA and PDLA-co-PEG-co-PDLA, were employed for square patterning with the inkjet system, which produced thin films. The amphiphilic polymer film was able to retain hydrophobic compounds inside. The present result contributed to the rapid film preparation by inkjet, retaining drugs with difficult solubility in water, such as paclitaxel within the films.

  4. Adsorption induced enzyme denaturation: the role of protein surface in adsorption induced protein denaturation on allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Thudi, Lahari; Jasti, Lakshmi S; Swarnalatha, Y; Fadnavis, Nitin W; Mulani, Khudbudin; Deokar, Sarika; Ponrathnam, Surendra

    2012-02-01

    The effects of protein size on adsorption and adsorption-induced denaturation of proteins on copolymers of allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) have been studied. Different responses were observed for the amount of protein adsorbed and denatured on the polymer surface for different proteins (trypsin, alchol dehydrogenase from baker's yeast (YADH), glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Gluconobacter cerinus, and alkaline phosphates from calf intestinal mucosa (CIAP). Protein adsorption on the copolymer with 25% crosslink density (AGE-25) was dependent not only on the size of the protein but also on the presence of glycoside residues on the protein surface. Adsorption and denaturation of proteins follows the order YADH>trypsin>GDH>CIAP although the molecular weights of the proteins follow the order YADH>CIAP>GDH>trypsin. The lack of correlation between amount of adsorbed protein and its molecular weight was due to the presence of glycoside residues on CIAP and GDH which protect the enzyme surface from denaturation. Enzyme stabilities in aqueous solutions of 1-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CHP) correlate well with the trend in denaturation by the copolymer, strongly suggesting that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in protein binding and the mechanism of protein denaturation is similar to that for water-miscible organic solvents.

  5. Impact of molecular weight and degree of conjugation on the thermodynamics of DNA complexation and stability of polyethylenimine-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan J; Beck, Rachel W; Prevette, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is often conjugated to polyethylenimine (PEI) to provide colloidal stability to PEI-DNA polyplexes and shield charge leading to toxicity. Here, a library of nine cationic copolymers was synthesized by grafting three molecular weights (750, 2000, 5000Da) of PEG to linear PEI at three conjugation ratios. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we have quantified the thermodynamics of the associations between the copolymers and DNA and determined the extent to which binding is hindered as a function of PEG molecular weight and conjugation ratio. Low conjugation ratios of 750Da PEG to PEI resulted in little decrease in DNA affinity, but a significant decrease-up to two orders of magnitude-was found for the other copolymers. We identified limitations in determination of affinity using indirect assays (electrophoretic mobility shift and ethidium bromide exclusion) commonly used in the field. Dynamic light scattering of the DNA complexes at physiological ionic strength showed that PEI modifications that did not reduce DNA affinity also did not confer significant colloidal stability, a finding that was supported by calorimetric data on the aggregation process. These results quantify the DNA interaction thermodynamics of PEGylated polycations for the first time and indicate that there is an optimum PEG chain length and degree of substitution in the design of agents that have desirable properties for effective in vivo gene delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The heat-chill method for preparation of self-assembled amphiphilic poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer based micellar nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Payyappilly, Sanal Sebastian; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2014-04-07

    A new method is developed for preparation of amphiphilic block copolymer micellar nanoparticles and investigated as a delivery system for celecoxib, a hydrophobic model drug. Biodegradable block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were synthesized by ring opening copolymerization and characterized thoroughly using FTIR, (1)H NMR and GPC. The block copolymer was dispersed in distilled water at 60 °C and then it was chilled in an ice bath for the preparation of the micellar nanoparticles. Polymers self-assembled to form micellar nanoparticles (<50 nm) owing to their amphiphilic nature. The prepared micellar nanoparticles were analyzed using HR-TEM, DLS and DSC. The cytotoxicity of the polymer micellar nanoparticles was investigated against HaCaT cell lines. The study of celecoxib release from the micellar nanoparticles was carried out to assess their suitability as a drug delivery vehicle. Addition of the drug to the system at low temperature is an added advantage of this method compared to the other temperature assisted nanoparticle preparation techniques. In a nutshell, polymer micellar nanoparticles prepared using the heat-chill method are believed to be promising for the controlled drug release system of labile drugs, which degrade in toxic organic solvents and at higher temperatures.

  7. Organic solvent-free low temperature method of preparation for self assembled amphiphilic poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer based nanocarriers for protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Payyappilly, Sanal Sebastian; Panja, Sudipta; Mandal, Pijush; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2015-11-01

    Degradation and denaturation of labile biomolecules during preparation of micelles by organic solvent at high temperature are some of the limitations for fabrication of advanced polymer based protein delivery systems. In this paper, effectiveness of heat-chill method for preparation of micelles containing large labile biomolecules was investigated using insulin as a model protein molecule. Micelles (average size, <120 nm) were prepared using amphiphilic diblock and triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL). Micelles were prepared by heating PEG-PCL block copolymers with distilled water at 60 °C followed by sudden chilling in an ice-water bath. Effects of molecular architecture on morphology, stability and protein loading capacity of micelles were investigated. Micelles prepared using high molecular weight block copolymers exhibited good colloidal stability, encapsulation efficiency and insulin release characteristics. Insulin retained its secondary structure after micelles preparation as confirmed by CD spectroscopic study. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity test suggested that the prepared micellar nanoparticles possessed biocompatibility. In a nut shell, heat-chill method of micellar nanoparticles preparation is well suited for encapsulating labile proteins and other allied biomolecules which degrade in presence of toxic organic solvents and at elevated temperatures.

  8. Copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(l-lysine) grafting polyethylenimine through a reducible disulfide linkage for siRNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingguo; Cheng, Du; Yin, Tinghui; Chen, Weicai; Lin, Yujie; Chen, Jifeng; Li, Ruitang; Shuai, Xintao

    2014-01-01

    siRNA therapy research has primarily focused on the synthesis and development of effective siRNA delivery vectors with easy biodegradability and low toxicity. In the present study, we synthesized a ternary copolymer mPEG-b-PLL-g-(ss-lPEI), denoted as PLI, by introducing disulfide bond linkages to graft low molecular weight linear polyethylenimine (lPEI) to the block copolymer of poly(l-lysine) (PLL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for siRNA delivery. The PLL block and disulfide linkage rendered the carrier biodegradability, while lPEI grafting brought about the proton buffering capacity for lysosomal siRNA release and low cationic toxicity. Conjugation of a single chain monoclonal antibody (Herceptin) to the carrier as a targeting ligand for the Her2/neu receptor significantly increased the transfection activity of the copolymer/siRNA nanocomplex (i.e. the polyplex) in Skov-3, a human ovarian cancer cell line. Determination of gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels demonstrated that Her2-targeted delivery of siRNA (XIAP siRNA) effectively downregulated the targeted XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) gene, resulting in enhanced cancer cell apoptosis and improved therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The distinct features of low cytotoxicity, easy degradability, and high siRNA transfection efficiency make the copolymer a promising candidate for siRNA therapy in tumors.siRNA therapy research has primarily focused on the synthesis and development of effective siRNA delivery vectors with easy biodegradability and low toxicity. In the present study, we synthesized a ternary copolymer mPEG-b-PLL-g-(ss-lPEI), denoted as PLI, by introducing disulfide bond linkages to graft low molecular weight linear polyethylenimine (lPEI) to the block copolymer of poly(l-lysine) (PLL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) for siRNA delivery. The PLL block and disulfide linkage rendered the carrier biodegradability, while lPEI grafting brought about the proton

  9. The use of ethylene glycol solution as the running buffer for highly efficient microchip-based electrophoresis in unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer microchips.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yuan; Ding, Hui; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Lei; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2011-12-30

    An ethylene glycol solution was used as the electrophoretic running buffer in unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microchips to minimize the interactions between the analytes and the hydrophobic walls of the plastic microchannels, enhance the resolution of the analytes and eliminate the uncontrollable dispersion caused by uneven liquid levels and non-uniform surfaces of the separation channels. Five amino acids that were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as model analytes to examine the separation efficiency. The effects of ethylene glycol concentration, pH and sodium tetraborate concentration were systematically investigated. The five FITC-labeled amino acids were effectively resolved using a COC microchip with an effective length of 2.5 cm under optimum conditions, which included using a running buffer of 20 mmol/L sodium tetraborate in ethylene glycol:water (80:20, v/v), pH 6.7. A theoretical plate number of 4.8 × 10(5)/m was obtained for aspartic acid. The system exhibited good repeatability, and the relative standard deviations (n=5) of the peak areas and migration times were no more than 3.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the system was successfully applied to elucidate these five amino acids in human saliva.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and drug loading property of Monomethoxy-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(ε-caprolactone)-Poly(D,L-lactide) (MPEG-PCLA) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Chu, BingYang; Zhang, Lan; Qu, Ying; Chen, XiaoXin; Peng, JinRong; Huang, YiXing; Qian, ZhiYong

    2016-09-28

    Amphiphilic block copolymers have attracted a great deal of attention in drug delivery systems. In this work, a series of monomethoxy-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) (MPEG-PCLA) copolymers with variable composition of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly (D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) were prepared via ring-opening copolymerization of ε-CL and D,L-LA in the presence of MPEG and stannous octoate. The structure and molecular weight were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The crystallinity, hydrophilicity, thermal stability and hydrolytic degradation behavior were investigated in detail, respectively. The results showed that the prepared amphiphilic MPEG-PCLA copolymers have adjustable properties by altering the composition of PCLA, which make it convenient for clinical applications. Besides, the drug loading properties were also studied. Docetaxel (DTX) could be entrapped in MPEG-PCLA micelles with high loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency. And all lyophilized DTX-loaded MPEG-PCLA micelles except MPEG-PCL micelles were readily re-dissolved in normal saline at 25 °C. In addition, DTX-loaded MPEG-PCLA micelles showed a slightly enhanced antitumor activity compared with free DTX. Furthermore, DTX micelles exhibited a slower and sustained release behavior in vitro, and higher DTX concentration and longer retention time in vivo. The results suggested that the MPEG-PCLA copolymer with the adjustable ratio of PCL to PDLLA may be a promising drug delivery carrier for DTX.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and drug loading property of Monomethoxy-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(ε-caprolactone)-Poly(D,L-lactide) (MPEG-PCLA) copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Chu, BingYang; Zhang, Lan; Qu, Ying; Chen, XiaoXin; Peng, JinRong; Huang, YiXing; Qian, ZhiYong

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers have attracted a great deal of attention in drug delivery systems. In this work, a series of monomethoxy-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) (MPEG-PCLA) copolymers with variable composition of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly (D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) were prepared via ring-opening copolymerization of ε-CL and D,L-LA in the presence of MPEG and stannous octoate. The structure and molecular weight were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The crystallinity, hydrophilicity, thermal stability and hydrolytic degradation behavior were investigated in detail, respectively. The results showed that the prepared amphiphilic MPEG-PCLA copolymers have adjustable properties by altering the composition of PCLA, which make it convenient for clinical applications. Besides, the drug loading properties were also studied. Docetaxel (DTX) could be entrapped in MPEG-PCLA micelles with high loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency. And all lyophilized DTX-loaded MPEG-PCLA micelles except MPEG-PCL micelles were readily re-dissolved in normal saline at 25 °C. In addition, DTX-loaded MPEG-PCLA micelles showed a slightly enhanced antitumor activity compared with free DTX. Furthermore, DTX micelles exhibited a slower and sustained release behavior in vitro, and higher DTX concentration and longer retention time in vivo. The results suggested that the MPEG-PCLA copolymer with the adjustable ratio of PCL to PDLLA may be a promising drug delivery carrier for DTX. PMID:27677842

  12. Improvement in the water solubility of drugs with a solid dispersion system by spray drying and hot-melt extrusion with using the amphiphilic polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and d-mannitol.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Tomoki; Suzuki, Ryohei; Okamoto, Ryohei; Shibagaki, Kohei; Fujita, Kosuke; Takahashi, Chisato; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize solid dispersion particles with a novel amphiphilic polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, as a water-soluble carrier. Solid dispersion particles were prepared by hot-melt extrusion and spray drying. Indomethacin (IMC) was used as a model comprising drugs with low solubility in water and d-mannitol (MAN) was used as an excipient. The physicochemical properties of prepared particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis, FTIR spectra analysis, and drug release studies. Stability studies were also conducted under stress conditions at 40°C, 75% relative humidity. We found that dissolution behavior of the original drug crystal could be improved by solid dispersion with the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer. The PXRD pattern and thermal analysis indicated that the solid dispersion prepared with the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and IMC was in an amorphous state. FTIR spectra analysis indicated that the interaction manner between the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and IMC may differ with the preparation method and formulation of solid dispersions. Stability studies proved that the amorphous state of IMC in solid dispersion particles was preserved under stress conditions for more than two weeks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Biodegradable tri-block copolymer poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine)(PLA-PEG-PLL) as a non-viral vector to enhance gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunhua; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Donghua; Chen, Zhijing; Lu, Zaijun; Zhang, Na

    2011-02-23

    Low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency are critical issues in designing current non-viral gene delivery vectors. The purpose of the present work was to synthesize the novel biodegradable poly (lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine) (PLA-PEG-PLL) copolymer, and explore its applicability and feasibility as a non-viral vector for gene transport. PLA-PEG-PLL was obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of Lys(Z)-NCA onto amine-terminated NH(2)-PEG-PLA, then acidolysis to remove benzyloxycarbonyl. The tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL combined the characters of cationic polymer PLL, PLA and PEG: the self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) possessed a PEG loop structure to increase the stability, hydrophobic PLA segments as the core, and the primary ɛ-amine groups of lysine in PLL to electrostatically interact with negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA to deposit with the PLA core. The physicochemical properties (morphology, particle size and surface charge) and the biological properties (protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in HeLa and HepG2 cells) of the gene-loaded PLA-PEG-PLL nanoparticles (PLA-PEG-PLL NPs) were evaluated, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay confirmed that the PLA-PEG-PLL NPs could condense DNA thoroughly and protect DNA from nuclease degradation. Initial experiments showed that PLA-PEG-PLL NPs/DNA complexes exhibited almost no toxicity and higher gene expression (up to 21.64% in HepG2 cells and 31.63% in HeLa cells) than PEI/DNA complexes (14.01% and 24.22%). These results revealed that the biodegradable tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL might be a very attractive candidate as a non-viral vector and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vectors/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo.

  14. Preparation and electrochemical properties of gel polymer electrolytes using triethylene glycol diacetate-2-propenoic acid butyl ester copolymer for high energy density lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Huanhuan; Li, Hongxiao; Fan, Li-Zhen; Shi, Qiao

    2014-03-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) composed of triethylene glycol diacetate (TEGDA)-2-propenoic acid butyl ester (BA) copolymer and commercial used liquid organic electrolyte are prepared via in situ polymerization. The ionic conductivity of the as-prepared GPE can reach 5.5 × 10-3 S cm-1 with 6 wt% monomers and 94 wt% liquid electrolyte at 25 °C. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity is consistent with an Arrhenius temperature behavior in a temperature range of 20-90 °C. Furthermore, the electrochemical stability window of the GPE is 5 V at 25 °C. A Li|GPE|(Li[Li1/6Ni1/4Mn7/12]O2) cell has been fabricated, which shows good charge-discharge properties and stable cycle performance compared to liquid electrolyte under the same test conditions.

  15. Dual-responsive polypseudorotaxanes based on block-selected inclusion between polyethylene-block-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers and 1,4-diethoxypillar[5]arene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhuang; Li, Nan; Gao, Yongping; Sun, Fugen; He, Jianping; Li, Yongsheng

    2015-10-21

    Based on the selective recognition of the polyethylene (PE) block of polyethylene-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PE-b-PEG) by 1,4-diethoxypillar[5]arene (DEP5A), two novel thermo and competitive guest (1,4-dibromobutane or hexanedinitrile) responsive polypseudorotaxanes (PPRs) have been successfully constructed. The formation of PPRs both in solution and in the solid state was demonstrated by (1)H NMR, 2D NOESY, and WAXD analyses. TGA data illustrate that PPRs exhibit higher thermal stability than their precursor diblock copolymers. Moreover, intriguing porous disk-like aggregates are produced by electrospraying of PPRs in CHCl3 and the self-assembled structures of PPRs are totally changed by the addition of 1,4-dibromobutane or hexanedinitrile, demonstrating their competitive guest stimuli-responsiveness.

  16. Cononsolvency-induced micellization of pyrene end-labeled diblock copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jingyi; Xu, Jian; Luo, Shizhong; Liu, Shiyong

    2007-11-06

    Pyrene end-labeled double hydrophilic diblock copolymers, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (Py-PNIPAM-b-POEGMA), were synthesized via consecutive reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using a pyrene-containing dithioester as the chain transfer agent. These diblock copolymers molecularly dissolve in pure methanol and water, but form well-defined and nearly monodisperse PNIPAM-core micelles in an appropriate mixture of them due to the cononsolvency of PNIPAM block. 1H NMR, laser light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to characterize the cononsolvency-induced PNIPAM-core micelles. When the volume fraction of water, phi water, in the methanol/water mixture is in the range of 0.5-0.8, the sizes of micelles are in the range of 20-30 nm in radius for Py-PNIPAM50-b- POEGMA18. At phi water = 0.5, the formed micelles possess the highest overall micelle density and the largest molar mass. The effects of varying the block lengths of Py-PNIPAM-b-POEGMA diblock copolymers on the structural parameters of PNIPAM-core micelles have also been explored. Although we can observe the immediate appearance of bluish tinge upon mixing the diblock copolymer solution in methanol with equal volume of water (phi water = 0.5), which is characteristic of the formation of micellar aggregates, the whole micellization process apparently takes a relatively long time to complete, as revealed by monitoring the time dependence of fluorescence emission spectra. The excimer/monomer fluorescence intensity ratios, IE/IM, continuously decrease with time and then reach a plateau value after approximately 20 min. The decrease of IE/IM after the initial formation of pseudo-equilibrium micelles should be ascribed to the structural rearrangement and further packing of PNIPAM segments within the micelle core, restricting the mobility of pyrene end groups and decreasing the

  17. Poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) network blends of amphiphilic acrylic copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol)-fluoroalkyl side chains for fouling-release coatings. II. Laboratory assays and field immersion trials.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Elisa; Sarvothaman, Mahesh K; Galli, Giancarlo; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Conlan, Sheelagh L; Clare, Anthony S; Sugiharto, Albert B; Davies, Cait; Williams, David

    2012-01-01

    Amphiphilic copolymers containing different amounts of poly(ethylene glycol)-fluoroalkyl acrylate and polysiloxane methacrylate units were blended with a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix in different proportions to investigate the effect of both copolymer composition and loading on the biological performance of the coatings. Laboratory bioassays revealed optimal compositions for the release of sporelings of Ulva linza, and the settlement of cypris larvae of Balanus amphitrite. The best-performing coatings were subjected to field immersion tests. Experimental coatings containing copolymer showed significantly reduced levels of hard fouling compared to the control coatings (PDMS without copolymer), their performance being equivalent to a coating based on Intersleek 700™. XPS analysis showed that only small amounts of fluorine at the coating surface were sufficient for good antifouling/fouling-release properties. AFM analyses of coatings under immersion showed that the presence of a regular surface structure with nanosized domains correlated with biological performance.

  18. Biophysical characterization of hyper-branched polyethylenimine-graft-polycaprolactone-block-mono-methoxyl-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers (hy-PEI-PCL-mPEG) for siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Samsonova, Olga; Sproat, Brian; Merkel, Olivia; Kissel, Thomas

    2011-08-10

    A library of mono-methoxyl-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) modified hyperbranched PEI copolymers (hy-PEI-PCL-mPEG) was synthesized to establish structure function relationships for siRNA delivery. These amphiphilic block-copolymers were thought to provide improved colloidal stability and endosomal escape of polyplexes containing siRNA. The influence of the mPEG chain length, PCL segment length, hy-PEI molecular weight and the graft density on their biophysical properties was investigated. In particular, buffer capacity, complex formation constants, gene condensation, polyplex stability, polyplex size and zeta-potential were measured. It was found that longer mPEG chains, longer PCL segments and higher graft density beneficially affected the stability and formation of polyplexes and reduced the zeta-potential of siRNA polyplexes. Significant siRNA mediated knockdown was observed for hy-PEI25k-(PCL900-mPEG2k)(1) at N/P 20 and 30, implying that the PCL hydrophobic segment played a very important role in siRNA transfection. These gene delivery systems merit further investigation under in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of Poly(L-lactide)-Poly(ethylene glycol) Copolymer with Light-Induced Shape-Memory Effect Triggered by Pendant Anthracene Groups.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; He, Man-jie; Deng, Xiao-Ying; Du, Lan; Fan, Cheng-Jie; Yang, Ke-Ke; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2016-04-13

    A novel light-induced shape-memory material based on poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer is developed successfully by dangling the photoresponsive anthracene group on the PEG soft segment selectively. For synthesis strategy, the preprepared photoresponsive monomer N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-9-anthracene-methanamine (BHEAA) is first embedded into PEG chains; then, we couple this anthracene-functionalized PEG precursor with PLA precursor to result in PLA-PEG-A copolymer. The composition of target product can be well-defined by simply adjusting the feed ratio. The chemical structures of intermediate and final products are confirmed by (1)H NMR. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis of material reveals that the PEG soft segment became noncrystallizable when 4% or more BHEAA is introduced, and this feature is beneficial to the mobility of anthracene groups in polymer matrix. The static tensile tests show that the samples exhibit rubberlike mechanical properties except for the PLA-dominant one. The reversibility of [4 + 4] cycloaddition reaction between pendant anthracene groups in PLA-PEG-A film is demonstrated by UV-vis. Eventually, the light-induced shape-memory effect (LSME) is successfully realized in PLA-PEG-A. The results of cyclic photomechanical tests also reveal that the content of PLA hard segment as well as photosensitive anthracene moieties plays a crucial role in LSME.

  20. Cross-linked nanoassemblies from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate) block copolymers as stable supramolecular templates for particulate drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jin; Bae, Younsoo

    2011-07-11

    Block copolymer cross-linked nanoassemblies (CNAs) were developed as stable supramolecular templates for particulate drug delivery. Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(aspartate) [PEG-p(Asp)] block copolymers, consisting of PEG (5 or 12 kDa) and Asp (5, 14, 25, 33, and 37 repeating units), were used as scaffolds and grafts in combination to prepare a nanoassembly library of grafted nanoassemblies (GNAs) and CNAs. Four synthesis routes were tested to maximize the number of drug-binding Asp units per nanoassembly. Grafting-onto-scaffold and grafting-from-scaffold methods were used for GNA synthesis. Either partially or completely deprotected PEG-p(Asp) was cross-linked with diamine compounds to prepare CNAs. (1)H NMR and GPC measurements showed that GNAs and CNAs contained the maximum 183 and 253 Asp units, respectively. Initial screening of the nanoassemblies revealed that GNAs would be impractical for further development as drug carriers due to variable grafting efficiency and low product yields. CNAs were obtained in high yields and identified as a promising supramolecular template that can entrap and release ionizable drugs (doxorubicin), enhancing the particle stability of nanoassemblies in the pharmaceutically relevant pH ranges between 4 and 9. Light scattering measurements demonstrated that the particle size of CNAs remained uniform before and after drug entrapment, causing neither aggregation nor dissociation (<5 mg/mL).

  1. Galactosylated poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly (l-lactide-co-β-malic acid) block copolymer micelles for targeted drug delivery: preparation and in vitro characterization

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Aili; Qian, Junmin; Yao, Yu; Zhang, Wanggang

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradable galactosylated methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(l-lactide-co-β-malic acid) (Gal-PEG-b-PLMA) block copolymer micelles were successfully prepared by a solvent diffusion method, and could efficiently encapsulate doxorubicin. The Gal-PEG-b-PLMA micelles before and after doxorubicin loading were characterized by size, morphology, in vitro drug release, and in vitro cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results showed that the empty and doxorubicin-loaded micelles were approximately spherical in shape and had mean sizes of about 72 nm and 85 nm, respectively. In vitro release behavior of doxorubicin from the micelles was pH-dependent, with obviously faster release rates at mildly acidic pH 4.5 and 5.5 compared with physiologic pH 7.4. Methylthiazoletetrazolium assay and flow cytometric analysis indicated that the doxorubicin-loaded galactosylated micelles exhibited a greater growth-inhibitory effect on HepG2 cells than the nongalactosylated doxorubicin-loaded micelles, and induced S phase cell cycle arrest. Confocal laser scanning microscope observations revealed that the galactosylated micelles could be efficiently internalized by HepG2 cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The results suggest that Gal-PEG-b-PLMA copolymer micelles are a promising carrier system for targeted drug delivery in cancer therapy. PMID:21170351

  2. Nonviral Plasmid DNA Carriers Based on N,N'-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate and Di(ethylene glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate Star Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mendrek, Barbara; Sieroń, Łukasz; Żymełka-Miara, Iwona; Binkiewicz, Paulina; Libera, Marcin; Smet, Mario; Trzebicka, Barbara; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Kowalczuk, Agnieszka; Dworak, Andrzej

    2015-10-12

    Star polymers with random and block copolymer arms made of cationic N,N'-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and nonionic di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA) were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used for the delivery of plasmid DNA in gene therapy. All stars were able to form polyplexes with plasmid DNA. The structure and size of the polyplexes were precisely determined using light scattering and cryo-TEM microscopy. The hydrodynamic radius of a complex of DNA with star was dependent on the architecture of the star arms, the DEGMA content and the number of amino groups in the star compared to the number of phosphate groups of the nucleic acid (N/P ratio). The smallest polyplexes (Rh90°∼50 nm) with positive zeta potentials (∼15 mV) were formed of stars with N/P=6. The introduction of DEGMA into the star structure caused a decrease of polyplex cytotoxicity in comparison to DMAEMA homopolymer stars. The overall transfection efficiency using HT-1080 cells showed that the studied systems are prospective gene delivery agents. The most promising results were obtained for stars with random copolymer arms of high DEGMA content.

  3. Synthesis and self-assembly of brush-type poly[poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate]-block-poly(pentafluorostyrene) amphiphilic diblock copolymers in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Tan, B H; Hussain, H; Liu, Y; He, C B; Davis, T P

    2010-02-16

    Well-defined fluorinated brush-like amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly[poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate] (P(PEGMA)) and poly(pentafluorostyrene) (PPFS) have been successfully synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The self-assembly behavior of these polymers in aqueous solutions was studied using (1)H NMR, fluorescence spectrometry, static and dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The micellar structure comprised of PPFS as the core and brush-like (hydrophobic main chain and hydrophilic branches) polymers as the coronas. The hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) of the micelles in aqueous solution was in the nanometer range, independent of the polymer concentration, consistent with a closed association model. Diblock copolymers with a longer P(PEGMA) block formed micelles with smaller R(h) and lower aggregation numbers consistent with an improved solubilization of the core. The micelles possessed a thick hydration layer as verified by the ratio of the radius of gyration, R(g) to the hydrodynamic radius, R(h). The aggregation number and ratio of R(g) to R(h) were observed to increase with temperature (20-50 degrees C), while the R(h) of the micelle decreased slightly over the same temperature range. An increase in temperature induced the brush-like PEG segments in the corona to dehydrate and shrink while forming micelles with larger aggregation numbers.

  4. Polycaprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock copolymers as potential substitutes for di(ethylhexyl) phthalate in flexible poly(vinyl chloride) formulations.

    PubMed

    Ferruti, Paolo; Mancin, Ivan; Ranucci, Elisabetta; De Felice, Claudio; Latini, Giuseppe; Laus, Michele

    2003-01-01

    New high-molecular-weight hydrophobic/hydrophilic segmented copolymers of poly(ester ether carbonate) structure, containing poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments in their main chain, were synthesized and characterized. These copolymers were obtained by a two-step chain-extension reaction carried out in the presence of alpha,omega-dihydroxy-oligoPCL of molecular weight 1250 and PEG samples of molecular weight 150, 400, 600, 1000, and 2000. The molecular structures of all synthesized materials were characterized by means of (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, their molecular weights were determined by means of size exclusion chromatography, and their thermal properties were obtained by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The poly(ester ether carbonate)s of this study are partly or totally miscible at least up to 50 wt % with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and could be used to produce flexible PVC formulations. The miscibility between PVC and the poly(ester ether carbonate)s reported in this paper was investigated by means of DSC and DMA analysis. PVC blends were also analyzed by determining their swellability and the amount of extractables in aqueous media. By comparison purposes, the chain-extension product of PCL1250, that is, PCL polycarbonate, was also synthesized and characterized. The results obtained demonstrated that the copolymers with shortest PEG segment length, i.e. PEG150, 400, and 600, give the best results in terms of miscibility with PVC and lead to blends with maximum resistance to extraction by water. Therefore, they represent, in principle, good substitutes for low-molecular-weight, leachable PVC plasticizers, such as di(ethylhexyl) phthalate.

  5. In situ formation and gelation mechanism of thermoresponsive stereocomplexed hydrogels upon mixing diblock and triblock poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hailiang; Pan, Pengju; Shan, Guorong; Bao, Yongzhong

    2015-05-28

    A novel in situ formed gel system with potential biodegradability and biocompatibility is developed by mixing the diblock and triblock poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA/PEG) copolymers with opposite configurations of PLA blocks. In situ gelation of such system is extremely fast, which happens within 10 s after mixing. In situ gelation, gel-to-sol transition, crystalline structure, microstructures, and mechanical properties of PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA enantiomerically mixed gels are significantly influenced by the mixing ratio, degree of polymerization for PEG block in triblock (DPPEG,tri) and diblock copolymers (DPPEG,di). It is found that in situ gelation of PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA enantiomeric mixture just happen at relatively smaller PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA mass ratio and larger DPPEG,tri. Hydrodynamic diameters of PLA-PEG and PLA-PEG-PLA copolymers in dilute solution increase remarkably upon mixing, indicating the formation of bridging networks. Stereocomplexed crystallites are formed for the PLA hydrophobic domains in PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA enantiomeric mixtures. As indicated by synchrotron-radiation SAXS analysis, the enantiomeric mixture changes from a compactly to loosely aggregated structure and the intermicellar distance enhances with increasing DPPEG,tri, DPPEG,di, or PLA-PEG-PLA fraction. Gelation mechanism of PLA-PEG/PLA-PEG-PLA enantiomeric mixture is proposed, in which part of PLA-PEG-PLA chains act as the connecting bridges between star and flower-like micelles and the stereocomplexed crystallites in micelle cores act as physically cross-linked points.

  6. Methoxypolyethylene glycol-block-polycaprolactone diblock copolymers reduce P-glycoprotein efflux in the absence of a membrane fluidization effect while stimulating P-glycoprotein ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Zastre, Jason; Jackson, John K; Wong, Wesley; Burt, Helen M

    2007-04-01

    We have previously shown that amphiphilic diblock copolymers composed of methoxypolyethylene glycol-b-polycaprolactone (MePEG-b-PCL) increased the cellular accumulation and reduced the basolateral to apical flux of the P-glycoprotein substrate, rhodamine 123 (R-123) in caco-2 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate membrane perturbation effects of MePEG-b-PCL diblock copolymers with erythrocyte membranes and caco-2 cells and the effect on P-gp ATPase activity. The diblock copolymer MePEG(17)-b-PCL(5) induced increasing erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations which correlated with increasing accumulation of R-123 into caco-2 cells. However, no increase in cellular accumulation of R-123 by non-P-gp expressing cells was observed, suggesting that diblock did not enhance the transmembrane passive diffusion of R-123, but that the accumulation enhancement effect of the diblock in caco-2 cells was likely mediated primarily via P-gp inhibition. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements of membrane fluidity and P-gp ATPase activity demonstrated that MePEG(17)-b-PCL(5) decreased caco-2 membrane fluidity while stimulating ATPase activity approximately threefold at concentrations that maximally enhanced R-123 caco-2 accumulation. These results suggest that inhibition of P-gp efflux by MePEG(17)-b-PCL(5) does not appear to be related to increases in membrane fluidity or through inhibition in P-gp ATPase activities, which are two commonly reported cellular effects for P-gp inhibition mediated by surfactants.

  7. Poly(ethylene glycol)-polyacrylate copolymers modified to control adherent monocyte-macrophage physiology: interactions with attaching Staphylococcus epidermidis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Victoria E; Bryers, James D

    2004-04-01

    The ability of various surface modifications of poly(ethylene glycol)-graft-polyacrylate (PEG-g-PA) copolymers (tethered adhesion peptides and fragments of monoclonal antibodies) to modulate monocyte-macrophage cell interactions with surface colonizing bacteria is reported. The PEG-g-PA copolymers were made to inhibit nonspecific protein and cellular adhesion. The copolymers were then covalently modified with either cell adhesion peptides (YRGDS, YEILDV, or YRGES) or fragments of antibodies to monocyte-macrophage integrin receptors (anti-VLA4, anti-beta(1), anti-beta(2), and anti-CD64), which are known to enhance macrophage adhesion and perhaps modulate their activation. Cytokine expression and phagocytosis response by surface adherent monocyte-macrophages to Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria were quantified. The cytokine expression (interleukins 6 and 1 beta) of adherent macrophages in response to the modified polymers only and to bacterial challenges were quantified by dynamic ELISA assays. The adherent macrophage phagocytic response (oxidative burst) to various materials is compared to oxidative responses to both opsonized and nonopsonized S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa bacteria. The efficiency of adherent macrophages to ingest and kill both species was determined using radiolabeled and fluorescent labeled bacterial cell ingestion studies as a function of the PEG-g-PA surface modification. Materials modified with adhesion peptides marginally enhanced (2x) macrophage attachment versus controls but, upon bacterial challenges, these materials predisposed adherent macrophages to overexpress proinflammatory cytokines and to exhibit a significant phagocytic response. Conversely, PEG-g-PA materials modified by fragments of monoclonal antibodies significantly enhanced (7x) macrophage adhesion but, upon bacterial challenge, "per cell" cytokine expression levels were reduced compared to peptide modified materials. Macrophages adhering to

  8. Poly[lactic-co-(glycolic acid)]-grafted hyaluronic acid copolymer micelle nanoparticles for target-specific delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyukjin; Ahn, Cheol-Hee; Park, Tae Gwan

    2009-04-08

    PLGA-grafted HA copolymers were synthesized and utilized as target specific micelle carriers for DOX. For grafting hydrophobic PLGA chains onto the backbone of hydrophilic HA, HA was solubilized in an anhydrous DMSO by nano-complexing with dimethoxy-PEG. The carboxylic groups of HA were chemically grafted with PLGA, producing HA-g-PLGA copolymers. Resultant HA-g-PLGA self-assembled in aqueous solution to form multi-cored micellar aggregates and DOX was encapsulated during the self-assembly. DOX-loaded HA-g-PLGA micelle nanoparticles exhibited higher cellular uptake and greater cytotoxicity than free DOX for HCT-116 cells that over-expressed HA receptor, suggesting that they were taken up by the cells via HA receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  9. Polyion complex micelles from plasmid DNA and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer as serum-tolerable polyplex system: physicochemical properties of micelles relevant to gene transfection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Itaka, Keiji; Yamauchi, Kyosuke; Harada, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2003-11-01

    Polyion complex (PIC) micelles composed of the poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-PLL) block copolymer and plasmid DNA (pDNA) were investigated in this study from a physicochemical viewpoint to get insight into the structural feature of the PIC micellar vector system to show practical gene transfection efficacy particularly under serum-containing medium. The residual ratio (r) of the lysine units in PEG-PLL to the phosphate units of pDNA in the system significantly affects the size of the PIC micelles evaluated from dynamic light scattering, being decreased from approximately 120 to 80 nm with an increase in the r value for the region with r > or = 1.0. The zeta potential of the complexes slightly increased with r in the same region, yet maintained a very small absolute value and leveled off to a few mV at r approximately 2.0. These results suggest that the micelles are most likely to take the core-shell structure with dense PEG palisades surrounding the PIC core to compartmentalize the condensed pDNA. Furthermore, an increasing r value in the region of r > or = 1 induces a rearrangement of the stoichiometric complex formed at r=1.0 to the non-stoichiometric complex composed of the excess block copolymer. The association number of pDNA and the block copolymer in the micelle was estimated from the apparent micellar molecular weight determined by static light scattering measurements, indicating that a single pDNA molecule was incorporated in each of the micelles prepared from the PEG (Mw=12,000 g/mol)-PLL (polymerization degree of PLL segment: 48) (12-48) block copolymer at r=2.0. These 12-48/pDNA micelles showed a gene expression comparable to the lipofection toward cultured 293 cells, though 100 microM chloroquine was required in the transfection medium. Notably, even in the presence of serum, the PIC micelles achieved appreciable cellular association to attain a high gene expression, which is in sharp contrast with the drastic decrease in the gene

  10. Tuning of thermally induced sol-to-gel transitions of moderately concentrated aqueous solutions of doubly thermosensitive hydrophilic diblock copolymers poly(methoxytri(ethylene glycol) acrylate)-b-poly(ethoxydi(ethylene glycol) acrylate-co-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Jin, Naixiong; Zhang, Hao; Jin, Shi; Dadmun, Mark D; Zhao, Bin

    2012-03-15

    We report in this article a method to tune the sol-to-gel transitions of moderately concentrated aqueous solutions of doubly thermosensitive hydrophilic diblock copolymers that consist of two blocks exhibiting distinct lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) in water. A small amount of weak acid groups is statistically incorporated into the lower LCST block so that its LCST can be tuned by varying solution pH. Well-defined diblock copolymers, poly(methoxytri(ethylene glycol) acrylate)-b-poly(ethoxydi(ethylene glycol) acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PTEGMA-b-P(DEGEA-co-AA)), were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and postpolymerization modification. PTEGMA and PDEGEA are thermosensitive water-soluble polymers with LCSTs of 58 and 9 °C, respectively, in water. A 25 wt % aqueous solution of PTEGMA-b-P(DEGEA-co-AA) with a molar ratio of DEGEA to AA units of 100:5.2 at pH = 3.24 underwent multiple phase transitions upon heating, from a clear, free-flowing liquid (<15 °C) to a clear, free-standing gel (15-46 °C) to a clear, free-flowing hot liquid (47-56 °C), and a cloudy mixture (≥57 °C). With the increase of pH, the sol-to-gel transition temperature (T(sol-gel)) shifted to higher values, while the gel-to-sol transition (T(gel-sol)) and the clouding temperature (T(clouding)) of the sample remained essentially the same. These transitions and the tunability of T(sol-gel) originated from the thermosensitive properties of two blocks of the diblock copolymer and the pH dependence of the LCST of P(DEGEA-co-AA), which were confirmed by dynamic light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Using the vial inversion test method, we mapped out the C-shaped sol-gel phase diagrams of the diblock copolymer in aqueous buffers in the moderate concentration range at three different pH values (3.24, 5.58, and 5.82, all measured at ~0 °C). While the upper temperature boundaries overlapped, the lower temperature boundary

  11. Cell migration rate on poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers and correlation with the material sliding angle.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shan-hui; Tang, Cheng-Ming; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann; Liao, Tien-Chi; Lin, Chu-Chieh; Iwata, Hiroo

    2007-04-10

    The nanostructure of a biomaterial surface has strong influence on cell behavior. The migration of cells on nanostructured surfaces, however, has not been investigated so far. In this study, we used PCL/PEG diblock copolymers as model surfaces to examine the effect of nanoislands on migration of different cells, including fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The water sliding angle of the substrates was measured. The cell migration rate was examined under a real-time optical microscope. It was found that a greater cell migration rate correlated with the smaller sliding angle of the substrate.

  12. Evaluation of workers exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Yoon, Chungsik; Byun, Hyaejeong; Kim, Yangho; Park, Donguk; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Sang man; Park, Sungki; Chung, Eunkyo

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) are widely used in industries as solvents for coatings, paint and ink, but exposure data are limited because they are minor components out of mixed solvents, as well as because of inconsistency in desorption solvent use. The objective of this study was to investigate the worker exposure profile of EGME and EGMEA. Our study investigated 27 workplaces from June to September 2008 and detected EGME and EGMEA in 20 and 13, respectively. Both personal and area sampling were conducted using a charcoal tube to collect EGME and EGMEA. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector was used to analyze these compounds after desorption using a mixture of methylene chloride and methanol. The arithmetic mean concentrations of EGME and EGMEA during periods of full work shifts were 2.59 ppm and 0.33 ppm, respectively. The exposure levels were lower than the Korean Ministry of Labor (MOL) OEL (5 ppm) but higher than the ACGIH TLV (0.1 ppm). In general, the working environments were poor and required much improvement, including the use of personal protective equipment. Only 50% of the workplaces had local exhaust ventilation systems in operation. The average capture velocity of the operating local exhaust ventilation systems was 0.27 m/s, which did not meet the legal requirement of 0.5 m/s. Educating workers to clearly understand the handling and use of hazardous chemicals and improving working conditions are strongly suggested.

  13. Linear-dendritic copolymer composed of polyethylene glycol and all-trans-retinoic acid as drug delivery platform for paclitaxel against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Jiang, Xutao; Guo, Yubo; An, Sai; Kuang, Yuyang; Ma, Haojun; He, Xi; Jiang, Chen

    2015-03-18

    A new linear-dendritic copolymer composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) was synthesized as the anticancer drug delivery platform (PEG-G3-RA8). It can self-assemble into core-shell micelles with a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) at 3.48 mg/L. Paclitaxel (PTX) was encapsulated into PEG-G3-RA8 to form PEG-G3-RA8/PTX micelles for breast cancer treatment. The optimized formulation had high drug loading efficacy (20% w/w of drug copolymer ratio), nanosized diameter (27.6 nm), and narrow distribution (PDI = 0.103). Compared with Taxol, PEG-G3-RA8/PTX remained highly stable in the serum-containing cell medium and exhibited 4-fold higher cellular uptake. Besides, near-infrared fluorescence (NIR) optical imaging results indicated that fluorescent probe loaded micelle had a preferential accumulation in breast tumors. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies (10 mg/kg) showed the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) and mean residence time (MRT0-∞) for PEG-G3-RA8/PTX and Taxol were 12.006 ± 0.605 mg/L h, 2.264 ± 0.041 h and 15.966 ± 1.614 mg/L h, 1.726 ± 0.097 h, respectively. The tumor accumulation of PEG-G3-RA8/PTX group was 1.89-fold higher than that of Taxol group 24 h postinjection. With the advantages like efficient cellular uptake and preferential tumor accumulation, PEG-G3-RA8/PTX showed superior therapeutic efficacy on MCF-7 tumor bearing mice compared to Taxol.

  14. Enhancement of Airway Gene Transfer by DNA Nanoparticles Using a pH-Responsive Block Copolymer of Polyethylene Glycol and Poly-L-lysine

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Nicholas J.; Kim, Anthony J.; Suk, Jung Soo; Adstamongkonkul, Pichet; Simons, Brian W.; Lai, Samuel K.; Cooper, Mark J.; Hanes, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Highly compacted DNA nanoparticles, composed of single molecules of plasmid DNA compacted with block copolymers of polyethylene glycol and poly-L-lysine (PEG-CK30), have shown considerable promise in human gene therapy clinical trials in the nares, but may be less capable of transfecting cells that lack surface nucleolin. To address this potential shortcoming, we formulated pH-responsive DNA nanoparticles that mediate gene transfer via a nucleolin-independent pathway. Poly-L-histidine was inserted between PEG and poly-L-lysine to form a triblock copolymer system, PEG-CH12K18. Inclusion of poly-L-histidine increased the buffering capacity of PEG-CH12K18 to levels comparable with branched polyethyleneimine. PEG-CH12K18 compacted DNA into rod-shaped DNA nanoparticles with similar morphology and colloidal stability as PEG-CK30 DNA nanoparticles. PEG-CH12K18 DNA nanoparticles entered human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) that lack surface nucleolin by a clathrin-dependent endocytic mechanism followed by endo-lysosomal processing. Despite trafficking through the degradative endo-lysosomal pathway, PEG-CH12K18 DNA nanoparticles improved the in vitro gene transfer by ~ 20-fold over PEG-CK30 DNA nanoparticles, and in vivo gene transfer to lung airways in BALB/c mice by ~ 3-fold, while maintaining a favorable toxicity profile. These results represent an important step toward the rational development of an efficient gene delivery platform for the lungs based on highly compacted DNA nanoparticles. PMID:22182747

  15. Self-aggregation of cationically modified poly(ε-caprolactone)2-co-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers: Effect of cationic grafting ligand and poly(ε-caprolactone) chain length.

    PubMed

    Charoongchit, Pimchanok; Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong; Sripha, Kittisak; Mao, Shirui; Sapin-Minet, Anne; Maincent, Philippe; Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep

    2017-03-01

    Cationic copolymers have been attractive to investigate due to their potential to complexation with anionic drugs and expected to use in the pharmaceutical application. In this study, the modified poly(ε-caprolactone)2-co-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers (P(CL)2-PEG) were successfully synthesized by click reaction. The amount of small molecular cationic ligand, propargyltrimethyl ammonium iodide, was varied and grafted onto various mole ratios of P(CL) to PEG. The effects of P(CL) chain length and amount of the grafting cationic ligand on physicochemical properties of polymers and particles were studied. The number-average molecular weights of the copolymers grafted with cationic ligand were found ranging between 10,000 and 23,000g/mol as investigated by NMR. From DSC study, the results showed that the grafting ligand affected thermal behaviors of the copolymers by increasing the glass transition temperature and decreasing the melting temperature of the copolymers. Furthermore, these cationic copolymers could self-aggregate with their critical aggregation concentration depending on mole ratios of hydrophilic to hydrophobic portions. The particles containing higher amounts of the cationic ligand tended to aggregate in both acidic and basic pH environment and at high salt concentration. Additionally, particle size, size distribution (PdI), and morphology of self-assembling particles varied depending on P(CL) chain length and the amount of the grafting cationic ligand. The synthesized cationic copolymer showed a capability to encapsulate a high negatively charged drug, enoxaparin, with an encapsulation efficiency of 87%. After drug incorporation, the particles substantially changed in size, shape, PdI, and zeta potential to become more suitable for drug delivery. These cationic copolymers with flexible properties will be the candidate for further development as carriers for the delivery of negatively charged drugs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. CPT loaded nanoparticles based on beta-cyclodextrin-grafted poly(ethylene glycol)/poly (L-glutamic acid) diblock copolymer and their inclusion complexes with CPT.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Meng, Haijing; Xu, Ke; Xu, Yanyun; Luo, Ping; Luo, Yu; Lu, Wei; Huang, Jin; Liu, Shiyuan; Yu, Jiahui

    2014-01-01

    This research is aimed to develop a nanoparticle delivery system based on β-cyclodextrin-grafted diblock copolymer and camptothecin (CPT) inclusion complexes with the purpose of enhancing the stability of CPT in aqueous media. Firstly, mPEG-PBLG diblock copolymer was synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of γ-benzyl-L-glutamate-N-carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA) initiated with amine terminated poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (mPEG-NH2). After removal of benzyl groups, mono-6-amine-β-cyclodextrin (EDA-β-CD) units were coupled to the carboxyl groups of the copolymer as side groups to produce the host macromolecule mPEG-PLG(CD). The highly hydrophobic anticancer drug CPT was employed as the guest component which could be included into the host macromolecule to form supramolecular inclusion-complex mPEG-PLG(CPT@CD). Interestingly, the supramolecular complexes were able to form spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 98 nm in aqueous media confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggesting their passive targeting potential to tumor tissue. Due to the protection effect from a dual lock system (the environment of nanoparticles and the exterior surface of β-CD), the active lactone ring of CPT showed remarkably enhanced stability against hydrolysis under physiological condition. The release profile of the mPEG-PLG(CPT@CD) nanoparticles in PBS buffer was found to be gradual and sustaining. It was worthy to note that the release could be accelerated by addition of adamantane carboxylate (ADC) as competitive guest compound, demonstrating the chemically stimulated release behavior of the nanoparticles. Compared with free CPT, the mPEG-PLG(CPT@CD) nanoparticles displayed essentially decreased cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line in 24 h because of a sustained release profile of CPT from the nanoparticles, moreover, the carrier mPEG-PLG(CD) itself showed almost no cytotoxicity, indicating its great potential

  17. [The study of quality characteristics of the hydrogel ointments and films based on copolymers divinyl esters of diethylene glycol].

    PubMed

    Bakirova, R E; Tazhbaeva, E M; Muravleva, L E; Fazylov, S D; Akhmetova, S B

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of using a hydrogel based on divinyl ether co- and terpolymer of diethylene glycol as the backbone polymer for incorporating water-soluble medicinal substances was examined. The character of the influence of emulsifiers, plasticizers, high-boiling liquids and bioactive substances is defined within the changes of physical-chemical properties of obtained hydrogels. The obtained polyelectrolyte hydrogels by their homogeneity, dehydration and rheological characteristics may be of concern in function of matrices to create external prolonged-action dosage forms.

  18. Immobilization of Antibody on a Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Surface with Functionalizable, Non-Biofouling Poly[Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) Methacrylate].

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Pyo; Kang, Sung Min; Hong, Daewha; Lee, Hee-Yoon; Choi, Insung S; Ko, Sangwon; Lee, Jungkyu K

    2015-02-01

    We report a perfluoroaryl azide-based photoreaction for synthesizing functionalizable and nonbiofouling poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] (pOEGMA) films on a chemically inert COC substrate, and an estimation of a surface coverage of the antibody immobilized onto the surface with the immuno-gold nanoparticles. The processes were confirmed by water contact angle measurement, FT-IR spectroscopy, and FE-SEM. The strategy demonstrated in this work could be applied to functionalizations of other polymeric materials and determination of the binding capacity of analytes in biosensors and microfluidic devices.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of clickable block copolymers for targeted nanoparticle drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyan; Chan, Kiat Hwa; Prud'homme, Robert K; Link, A James

    2012-08-06

    Polymeric nanoparticles with multifunctional capabilities, including surface functionalization, hold great promise to address challenges in targeted drug delivery. Here, we describe a concise, robust synthesis of a heterofunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG), HO-PEG-azide. This macromer was used to synthesize polylactide (PLA)-PEG-azide, a functional diblock copolymer. Rapid precipitation of this copolymer with a hydrophobic cargo resulted in the generation of monodisperse nanoparticles with azides in the surface corona. To demonstrate conjugation to these nanoparticles, a regioselectively modified alkyne-folate was employed as a model small molecule ligand, and the artificial protein A1 with an alkyne moiety introduced by unnatural amino acid substitution was selected as a model macromolecular ligand. Using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne ligation reaction, both ligands exhibited good conjugation efficiency even when low concentrations of ligands were used.

  20. Y-shaped biotin-conjugated poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer for the targeted delivery of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenxia; Song, Zhimei; Wei, Peng; Meng, Ning; Teng, Fangfang; Yang, Fengying; Liu, Na; Feng, Runliang

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve curcumin's low water-solubility and selective delivery to cancer, we reported ligand-mediated micelles based on a Y-shaped biotin-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (epsilon-caprolactone)2 (biotin-PEG-PCL2) copolymer. Its structure was characterized by (1)H NMR. The blank and drug-loaded micelles obtained by way of thin-film hydration were characterized by dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and hemolytic test. Curcumin was loaded into micelles with a high encapsulating efficiency (93.83%). Curcumin's water-solubility was enhanced 170,400 times higher than free curcumin. Biotin-PEG-PCL2 micelles showed slower drug release in vitro than H2N-PEG-PCL2 micelles. In vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity tests showed that higher dosage of curcumin might overcome the effect of slow release on cytotoxicities because of its higher uptake induced by biotin, resulting in higher anticancer activities against MDA-MB-436 cells. In brief, Y-shaped biotin-PEG-PCL2 is a promising delivery carrier for anticancer drug.

  1. Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) diblock copolymer prevents aggregation of poly(L-lactide) microspheres during ethylene oxide gas sterilization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y; Kim, S Y; Moon, M H; Kim, S H; Lee, K S; Byun, Y

    2001-05-01

    Sterilization procedure is one of the most important obstacles in the clinical applications of biodegradable microspheres. The microspheres prepared with poly(alpha-hydroxy acid) were severely aggregated during ethylene oxide (EO) gas sterilization, and could not be used in clinical applications. In this study, the effects of EO gas sterilization on the poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) microspheres were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and size fractionation. The aggregation between the microspheres might be stimulated by high mobility of amorphous regions of PLLA on the microsphere surfaces since both water vapor and gas mixture can reduce glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLLA below the sterilization temperature. During EO gas sterilization, there were no changes in the molecular structure and the molecular weight of PLLA in microspheres, but there were changes in the crystallinity of PLLA in microspheres. In this study, poly(L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers (PLE) were blended with PLLA homopolymers in various ratios to design the microsphere suitable for EO gas sterilization. Aggregation of PLLA microspheres was markedly prevented when more than 4wt% of PLE was blended in the microspheres. This inhibition effect on aggregation may be due to the increased initial crystallinity of the microspheres, which help to maintain the microsphere morphology during EO gas sterilization.

  2. Biodegradable Tri-Block Copolymer Poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine)(PLA-PEG-PLL) as a Non-Viral Vector to Enhance Gene Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chunhua; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Donghua; Chen, Zhijing; Lu, Zaijun; Zhang, Na

    2011-01-01

    Low cytotoxicity and high gene transfection efficiency are critical issues in designing current non-viral gene delivery vectors. The purpose of the present work was to synthesize the novel biodegradable poly (lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lysine) (PLA-PEG-PLL) copolymer, and explore its applicability and feasibility as a non-viral vector for gene transport. PLA-PEG-PLL was obtained by the ring-opening polymerization of Lys(Z)-NCA onto amine-terminated NH2-PEG-PLA, then acidolysis to remove benzyloxycarbonyl. The tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL combined the characters of cationic polymer PLL, PLA and PEG: the self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) possessed a PEG loop structure to increase the stability, hydrophobic PLA segments as the core, and the primary ɛ-amine groups of lysine in PLL to electrostatically interact with negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA to deposit with the PLA core. The physicochemical properties (morphology, particle size and surface charge) and the biological properties (protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in HeLa and HepG2 cells) of the gene-loaded PLA-PEG-PLL nanoparticles (PLA-PEG-PLL NPs) were evaluated, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay confirmed that the PLA-PEG-PLL NPs could condense DNA thoroughly and protect DNA from nuclease degradation. Initial experiments showed that PLA-PEG-PLL NPs/DNA complexes exhibited almost no toxicity and higher gene expression (up to 21.64% in HepG2 cells and 31.63% in HeLa cells) than PEI/DNA complexes (14.01% and 24.22%). These results revealed that the biodegradable tri-block copolymer PLA-PEG-PLL might be a very attractive candidate as a non-viral vector and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vectors/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo. PMID:21541064

  3. All-atom molecular dynamics study of a spherical micelle composed of N-acetylated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(gamma-benzyl L-glutamate) block copolymers: a potential carrier of drug delivery systems for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Hiroshi; Andoh, Yoshimichi; Yoshii, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2009-11-19

    An all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of a spherical micelle composed of amphiphilic N-acetylated poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(gamma-benzyl L-glutamate) (PEG-PBLG-Ac) block copolymers was performed in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and 1 atm. Such copolymers have received considerable attention as carriers in drug delivery systems. In this study, we used copolymers consisting of 11 EG units and 9 BLG units as models. Starting from the copolymers arranged spherically, the calculation predicted an equilibrium state consisting of a slightly elliptical micelle structure with a hydrophobic PBLG inner core and a hydrophilic PEG outer shell. The micelle structure was dynamically stable during the simulation, with the PEG blocks showing a compact helical conformation and the PBLG blocks an alpha-helix form. Multiple hydrogen bonds with solvent water molecules stabilized the helical conformation of the PEG blocks, leading to their hydration as shown by longer residence times of water molecules near the PEG ether oxygen atoms compared with that of bulk water. Some water molecules have also been found distributed within the hydrophobic core; they showed continuous exchange with bulk water during the simulation. Those molecules existed mostly as a cluster in spaces between the copolymers, forming hydrogen bonds among themselves as well as with the hydrophobic core through hydrophilic groups such as esters and amides. The water molecules forming hydrogen bonds with the micelle may play an important role in the stabilization of the micelle structure.

  4. Characterization of tailor-made copolymers of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate as nonviral gene transfer agents: influence of macromolecular structure on gene vector particle properties and transfection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Uzgün, Senta; Akdemir, Ozgür; Hasenpusch, Günther; Maucksch, Christof; Golas, Monika M; Sander, Bjoern; Stark, Holger; Imker, Rabea; Lutz, Jean-François; Rudolph, Carsten

    2010-01-11

    Oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylates (OEGMA) of various chain lengths (i.e., 9, 23, or 45 EG units) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) were copolymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), yielding well-defined P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymers with increasing OEGMA molar fractions (F(OEGMA)) but a comparable degree of polymerization (DP approximately 120). Increase of both F(OEGMA) and OEGMA chain lengths correlated inversely with gene vector size, morphology, and zeta potential. P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymers prevented gene vector aggregation at high plasmid DNA (pDNA) concentrations in isotonic solution and did not induce cytotoxicity even at high concentrations. Transfection efficiency of the most efficient P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymers was found to be >10-fold lower compared with branched polyethylenimine (PEI) 25 kDa. Although OEGMA copolymerization largely reduced gene vector binding with the cell surface, cellular internalization of the bound complexes was less affected. These observations suggest that inefficient endolysosomal escape limits transfection efficiency of P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymer gene vectors. Despite this observation, optimized p(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) gene vectors remained stable under conditions for in vivo application leading to 7-fold greater gene expression in the lungs compared with PEI. Tailor-made P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymers are promising nonviral gene transfer agents that fulfill the requirements for successful in vivo gene delivery.

  5. Novel hydrogels of chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-glycolic acid copolymer with enhanced rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Lejardi, A; Hernández, R; Criado, M; Santos, Jose I; Etxeberria, A; Sarasua, J R; Mijangos, C

    2014-03-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been grafted with glycolic acid (GL), a biodegradable hydroxyl acid to yield modified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAGL). The formation of hydrogels at pH = 6.8 and physiological temperature through blending chitosan (CS) and PVAGL at different concentrations has been investigated. FTIR, DOSY NMR and oscillatory rheology measurements have been carried out on CS/PVAGL hydrogels and the results have been compared to those obtained for CS/PVA hydrogels prepared under the same conditions. The experimental results point to an increase in the number of interactions between chitosan and PVAGL in polymer hydrogels prepared with modified PVA. The resulting materials with enhanced elastic properties and thixotropic behavior are potential candidates to be employed as injectable materials for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The evaluation of biodegradable four star PEO-PLA copolymer as a drug delivery vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaam, Latisha Evette

    Current drug delivery vectors for sustained release include both naturally occurring and artificially synthesized polymers. Several linear copolymer systems have been explored for use as drug delivery systems because they form micelles and microspheres as a result of having hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer portions. The pharmaceutical agent is released due to degradation of the polymer and/or by swelling of the polymer. This release is dependant upon the material containing the pharmaceutical agent; thus material design is a major parameter in establishing a drug delivery vector. Material design allows tailored physical and chemical characteristics, which are key to establishing release. The overall goal of this research is to obtain and evaluate an unstudied branched Polyethylene glycol based polyether ester as a drug delivery vector through assessing and characterizing the micellar aggregation state, neat material thermal characteristics and morphology, micellar material degradation, effect of degradation on the micelle structure, and computational estimation of molecular aggregate force. This system may present enhanced physical properties for containing and delivering hydrophobic drug molecules due to its covalently linked branches. Three constructs of four star polyethylene oxide polylactide copolymer were examined. The samples differed in molecular weight and chain length of the polylactide subunit and in stereo form. Characterization of micelles revealed that solubility decreased with increasing polylactide chain length and molecular aggregation in aqueous solution and that the critical micelle concentration was lower for the star system than for previously reported systems. Transmission electron microscopy and second virial calculations revealed polydispersity and batch to batch variation. Differential Scanning Calorimetry thermograms show two distinct transition peaks for the neat material samples. Thermogravimetric Analysis sample thermograms exhibited

  7. Studies on intracellular degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid-polyethylene glycol copolymer accumulated by Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soma Pal; Patra, A; Paul, A K

    2007-11-01

    Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 accumulates poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [PHB] when grown in glucose containing nitrogen-free Stockdale medium. The same medium supplemented with valerate alone and valerate plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) leads to the accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [PHBV] and PEG containing PHBV-PEG polymers, respectively. The intracellular degradation of these polymers as studied in carbon-free Stockdale medium showed a rapid degradation of PHB followed by PHBV, while it was least in case of PHBV-PEG. The rate of such degradation was 44.16, 26.4 and 17.0 mg h(-1)l(-1) for PHB, PHBV and PHBV-PEG, respectively. During the course of such of PHBV and PHBV-PEG degradation the 3HB mol% of polymers decreased significantly with increase of 3HV mol fraction, the EG mol% in PHBV-PEG, however, remained constant. After 50h of degradation the decrease in intrinsic viscosity and molecular mass of PHBV-PEG were 37.5 and 43.6%, respectively. These values appeared low compared to PHB and PHBV. Moreover, the increasing EG content of polymer retarded their extent of degradation. Presence of PEG, particularly of low molecular weight PEG was inhibitory to intracellular PHA depolymerise (i-PHA depolymerase) activity and the relative substrate specificity of the i-PHA depolymerase of MAL-201 appeared to be PHB > PHBV > PHBV-PEG.

  8. The biocompatibility evaluation of mPEG-PLGA-PLL copolymer and different LA/GA ratio effects for biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    He, Zelai; Wang, Qi; Sun, Ying; Shen, Ming; Zhu, Mingjie; Gu, Malin; Wang, Yi; Duan, Yourong

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterial poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a FDA-approved material for clinical application, showed broad prospects in the past, but gradually can no longer meet present clinical developments and requirements, which we synthesized monomethoxy(polyethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(L-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) (PEAL) and have had some relevant reports. But studies on biocompatibility and the impacts of LA and GA ratio (LA/GA=60/40, 70/30, and 80/20) in main material have not yet been reported. Hemolysis experiment indicates that the hemolysis rate of PEAL extraction medium is less than 5%. Whole blood clotting time (CT), plasma recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time evaluations, and dynamic CT assay show that the anticoagulant time of PEAL copolymer for blood is longer than that under negative and positive control. Protein adsorption assay indicates that PEAL films adsorb less protein than PLGA films (p<0.01); but comparing with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, the aforementioned difference is not significant (p>0.05). Complement activation test shows that PEAL surface does not induce complement activation. CCK8 measurement shows that the relative growth rates of Huh7, L02, and L929 cells co-incubated with PEAL nanoparticles (NPs) are more than 90%. PEAL NPs co-incubated with 5% foetal bovine serum or 2% bovine serum albumin, through dynamic light scattering assay, remain stable. Different concentrations of PEAL NPs co-incubated with zebrafish embryos at 6-72 h post fertilization show that comparing with negative control, 10, 100, or 500 μM of NPs for embryos development has no significant effects (p>0.05), only 1000 or 2000 μM of NPs has some effects (p<0.05). It is concluded that the PEAL copolymer, with excellent biocompatibility, proves to be a high-safety dose as drug carrier and implant candidate in vivo.

  9. Evaluation of activated sludge for biodegradation of propylene glycol as an aircraft deicing fluid.

    PubMed

    Delorit, Justin D; Racz, LeeAnn

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft deicing fluid used at airport facilities is often collected for treatment or disposal in order to prevent serious ecological threats to nearby surface waters. This study investigated lab scale degradation of propylene glycol, the active ingredient in a common aircraft deicing fluid, by way of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor containing municipal waste water treatment facility activated sludge performing simultaneous organic carbon oxidation and nitrification. The ability of activated sludge to remove propylene glycol was evaluated by studying the biodegradation and sorption characteristics of propylene glycol in an activated sludge medium. The results indicate sorption may play a role in the fate of propylene glycol in AS, and the heterotrophic bacteria readily degrade this compound. Therefore, a field deployable bioreactor may be appropriate for use in flight line applications.

  10. Preparation and biodisposition of methoxypolyethylene glycol amine-poly(DL-lactic acid) copolymer nanoparticles loaded with pyrene-ended poly(DL-lactic acid).

    PubMed

    Sasatsu, Masanaho; Onishi, Hiraku; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2008-06-24

    A formyl group-ended poly(DL-lactic acid) (PLA-aldehyde), synthesized in the same manner as reported previously, was utilized to produce the polymeric marker for PLA-related nanoparticles. Namely, pyrene-ended poly(DL-lactic acid) (PLA-pyrene) was prepared as a polymeric marker by the reductive amination of PLA-aldehyde and aminopyrene. Methoxypolyethylene glycol amine-poly(DL-lactic acid) block copolymer (PLA-(MeO-PEG) nanoparticles loaded with PLA-pyrene were prepared, and examined on retention of PLA-pyrene in the nanoparticles, and biodisposition in normal and sarcoma-180 solid tumor-bearing mice. PLA-pyrene was retained stably in PLA-(MeO-PEG) nanoparticles in a PBS-ethanol (7:3, v/v) mixture and a plasma-PBS (1:1, v/v) mixture, indicating that PLA-pyrene might be a useful marker of PLA-(MeO-PEG) nanoparticles themselves. After i.v. injection in normal rats, the plasma level of PLA-pyrene was very high for initial 8h, and accumulated gradually into organs, especially spleen and liver. After i.v. injection in tumor-bearing mice, similar biodistribution profiles of PLA-pyrene were observed, and PLA-pyrene was accumulated well in tumor, suggesting that PLA-(MeO-PEG) nanoparticles should be delivered efficiently to solid tumors. It is suggested that PLA-pyrene might be a useful probe of the nanoparticles themselves. In addition, it was demonstrated that PLA-(MeO-PEG) nanoparticles should be a useful drug carrier for passive tumor targeting.

  11. Superparamagnetic iron oxide--loaded poly(lactic acid)-D-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate copolymer nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Prashant, Chandrasekharan; Dipak, Maity; Yang, Chang-Tong; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Jun, Ding; Feng, Si-Shen

    2010-07-01

    We developed a strategy to formulate supraparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) in nanoparticles (NPs) of biodegradable copolymer made up of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) for medical imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high contrast and low side effects. The IOs-loaded PLA-TPGS NPs (IOs-PNPs) were prepared by the single emulsion method and the nanoprecipitation method. Effects of the process parameters such as the emulsifier concentration, IOs loading in the nanoparticles, and the solvent to non-solvent ratio on the IOs distribution within the polymeric matrix were investigated and the formulation was then optimized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed direct visual evidence for the well dispersed distribution of the IOs within the NPs. We further investigated the biocompatibility and cellular uptake of the IOs-PNPs in vitro with MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast in close comparison with the commercial IOs imaging agent Resovist. MRI imaging was further carried out to investigate the biodistribution of the IOs formulated in the IOs-PNPs, especially in the liver to understand the liver clearance process, which was also made in close comparison with Resovist. We found that the PLA-TPGS NPs formulation at the clinically approved dose of 0.8 mg Fe/kg could be cleared within 24 h in comparison with several weeks for Resovist. Xenograft tumor model MRI confirmed the advantages of the IOs-PNPs formulation versus Resovist through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect of the tumor vasculature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Injectable biodegradable hybrid hydrogels based on thiolated collagen and oligo(acryloyl carbonate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-oligo(acryloyl carbonate) copolymer for functional cardiac regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guohui; Wang, Xiaolin; Deng, Chao; Teng, Xiaomei; Suuronen, Erik J; Shen, Zhenya; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2015-03-01

    Injectable biodegradable hybrid hydrogels were designed and developed based on thiolated collagen (Col-SH) and multiple acrylate containing oligo(acryloyl carbonate)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-oligo(acryloyl carbonate) (OAC-PEG-OAC) copolymers for functional cardiac regeneration. Hydrogels were readily formed under physiological conditions (37°C and pH 7.4) from Col-SH and OAC-PEG-OAC via a Michael-type addition reaction, with gelation times ranging from 0.4 to 8.1 min and storage moduli from 11.4 to 55.6 kPa, depending on the polymer concentrations, solution pH and degrees of substitution of Col-SH. The collagen component in the hybrid hydrogels retained its enzymatic degradability against collagenase, and the degradation time of the hydrogels increased with increasing polymer concentration. In vitro studies showed that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) exhibited rapid cell spreading and extensive cellular network formation on these hybrid hydrogels. In a rat infarction model, the infarcted left ventricle was injected with PBS, hybrid hydrogels, BMSCs or BMSC-encapsulating hybrid hydrogels. Echocardiography demonstrated that the hybrid hydrogels and BMSC-encapsulating hydrogels could increase the ejection fraction at 28 days compared to the PBS control group, resulting in improved cardiac function. Histology revealed that the injected hybrid hydrogels significantly reduced the infarct size and increased the wall thickness, and these were further improved with the BMSC-encapsulating hybrid hydrogel treatment, probably related to the enhanced engraftment and persistence of the BMSCs when delivered within the hybrid hydrogel. Thus, these injectable hybrid hydrogels combining intrinsic bioactivity of collagen, controlled mechanical properties and enhanced stability provide a versatile platform for functional cardiac regeneration.

  13. Temperature/pH Responsive Hydrogels Based on Poly(ethylene glycol) and Functionalized Poly(e-caprolactone) Block Copolymers for Controlled Delivery of Macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Nikouei, Nazila Safaei; Ghasemi, Nasim; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2016-02-01

    To assess the potential of triblock copolymers based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and functionalized poly(ε-caprolactone) as temperature/pH responsive gels for controlled delivery of macromolecules. Poly(α-carboxylate-co-α-benzylcarboxylate-ε-caprolactone)-PEG-poly(α-carboxylate-co-α-benzylcarboxylate-ε-caprolactone) (PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL) was synthesized through ring opening polymerization of α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone by PEG, followed by 30% debenzylation of the lateral blocks. The effect of Tris buffer and pH on the sol-gel transition temperature of PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL was assessed. The temperature/pH responsive release of tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (TMR-D) (10 and 40 kDa) from PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL was investigated. Replacement of water with Tris buffer reduced PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL sol-gel transition temperature. Thermo-reversible hydrogels were only formed at pHs ≥ 5.0, but PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL transition temperature was not affected by pH above pH 5.0. In contrast to Pluronic F127 that released 100% of TMR-D within 2 h, PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL hydrogel controlled TMR-D release efficiently at pH = 7.4 and 37°C (~27 and 11% TMRD 10 and 40 kDa release within 150 h, respectively). At 50°C or pH = 9.0, TMR-D release was increased slightly, while at room temperature or pH = 5.0, no control over TMR-D release was observed by PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL hydrogel. PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL hydrogel provides depot release of macromolecules at physiological conditions. This release can be triggered through changes in the temperature or pH.

  14. Evaluation of copolymer conformation states of vinylchloride-maleic anhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The quantum-chemical analysis and experimental study of alternating vinylchloride-maleic anhydride (VC-MA) copolymer macromolecules with polymerization degree 600 have been carried out. The VC-MA copolymer in solvents of different nature undergoes cycloanhydride-enol tautomerism and the macromolecules take the form of corrugated sticks according to viscometric measurements. The computer simulation has shown that the segment with polymerization degree n < 18 (model compound) is not a helix and rolls while if n = 18 the conformations get distorted. The model molecule optimal structure comprising a random sequence of alternating units of comonomers and their enol tautomers with minimal system total energy has been found by the semiempirical parametric method PM3.

  15. An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (Egbe)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, was developed in support of the EPA's evaluation of a petition from the American Chemistry Council requesting to delist EGBE per the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Titl...

  16. An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (Egbe)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, was developed in support of the EPA's evaluation of a petition from the American Chemistry Council requesting to delist EGBE per the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Titl...

  17. Effect of polymer degradation on prolonged release of paclitaxel from filomicelles of polylactide/poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Jelonek, Katarzyna; Li, Suming; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Wu, Xiaohan; Orchel, Arkadiusz

    2017-06-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most efficient anticancer agents, but the conventional dosage formulations cause many side effects. PLA-PEG filomicelles are promising carriers of paclitaxel because high loading capacity and long term release can be achieved. Slow release of cytostatic drugs is very advantageous due to prolonged exposure of tumor cells to cytostatic over multiple cell cycles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of bioresorbable PLA-PEG filomicelles for prolonged delivery of paclitaxel. Paclitaxel is encapsulated in PLLA-PEG filomicelles and PDLLA-PEG spherical micelles. Drug release was studied in PBS at 37°C at various pH values to elucidate the influence of polymer degradation on drug release. NMR, GPC and HPLC were used to follow polymer degradation and drug release. The release of paclitaxel is strongly dependent on the degradation of micelles. A biphasic drug release profile is observed for both PLLA-PEG and PDLLA-PEG micelles: slow release in the first phase and faster release in the second phase. Degradation is faster at acidic pH than at pH7.4, and PLLA-PEG filomicelles degrade less rapidly than PDLLA-PEG spherical micelles, leading to various rates of drug release. The correlation between degradation and drug release is very helpful for the development of novel drug carriers with tailored properties. Importantly, the cytotoxic activity of PLLA-PEG filomicelles was evidenced, thus showing their potential as carrier of antitumor drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and evaluation of ion exchange hollow fibers. [vinyl copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    An ion exchange hollow fiber impregnated with a vinylpyridine base was developed. The basic exchange resin used to impart the necessary permselectivity to the hollow fiber is a copolymer of vinylpyridine and dibromoethane prepared according to Rembaum. A slight pressure was used to impregnate the exchange monomer mixture into the void structure of the fiber wall, and with maintenance of subambient temperatures, the rate of cross-linking is slow enough to allow the growing polymer to permeate the wall structure before significant increase in polymer molecular weight. These ion exchange fibers are produced from polyacrylonitrile hollow fibers with an appropriate wall structure that enables the impregnating vinylpyridine monomer mixture to form a truly semipermeable anion barrier after curing.

  19. Evaluation of novel biodegradable cyclic carbonate polyester copolymers for cytocompatibility using MRC-5 cells.

    PubMed

    Longino, J; Mullen, B; Benghuzzi, H; Tucci, M; Tang, C; Storey, R; Puckett, A

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesize and characterize a novel series of biodegradable cyclic carbonate polyester copolymers based on lactide and 5-methyl-5-benzyloxy-carbonyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one (MBC). Two compositions were selected for characterization. One copolymer was based on a racemic mixture of 1-lactide with 15.4 mole % MBC and the other was based on 1-lactide with 8.2 mole % MBC. These polymers contain carboxylic acid moieties along the backbone that may be used for tethering bioactive agents, forming ionic crosslinks or be reacted with vinyl containing monomers to allow free radical crosslinking. The initial materials evaluated have the carboxylic acid functionalities blocked with benzene. These polymers and the de-blocked versions may have potential applications for hard and soft tissue scaffolds, control drug delivery matrixes or a variety of other applications in medicine. The copolymer samples were pressed into 7.0-mm diameter disk using a KBr press. The disks were then sterilized using U.V radiation under a laminar flow hood. After sterilization, the copolymer disks were submerged in 2 ml of media and placed in a CO2 regulated incubator at 37 degrees C. A total of six groups per phase (n = 7 test tubes per group) were used in this study. Test tubes in groups I and III were plated with MRC-5 and subsequently treated with media alone (controls). Test tubes in groups II and IV were plated with MRC-5 and subsequently treated with media before being introduced to copolymer samples. Cell number, as well as, biochemical markers such as protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined at the end of the 24, 48 and 72-hour time periods. Representative test tubes were subjected to an H&E staining procedure for microscopic morphological evaluation. The results of this evaluation suggest that the exposure of both copolymers produced a non-cytotoxic environment with the MRC-5 cell line. Although both copolymers are non-cytotoxic, the sample having the higher

  20. Thermoreversible hydrogels based on triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and carboxyl functionalized poly(ε-caprolactone): The effect of carboxyl group substitution on the transition temperature and biocompatibility in plasma.

    PubMed

    Safaei Nikouei, Nazila; Vakili, Mohammad Reza; Bahniuk, Markian S; Unsworth, Larry; Akbari, Ali; Wu, Jianping; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    In this study we report on the development, characterization and plasma protein interaction of novel thermoresponsive in situ hydrogels based on triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(α-carboxyl-co-benzyl carboxylate)-ε-caprolactone (PCBCL) having two different degrees of carboxyl group substitution on the PCBCL block. Block copolymers were synthesized through ring-opening polymerization of α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone by dihydroxy PEG, leading to the production of poly(α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone)-PEG-poly(α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone) (PBCL-PEG-PBCL). This was followed by partial debenzylation of PBCL blocks under controlled conditions, leading to the preparation of PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL triblock copolymers with 30 and 54mol.% carboxyl group substitution. Prepared PCBCL-PEG-PCBCL block copolymers have been shown to have a concentration-dependent sol to gel transition as a result of an increase in temperature above ∼29°C, as evidenced by the inverse flow method, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. The sol-gel transition temperature/concentration and dynamic mechanical properties of the gel were found to be dependent on the level of carboxyl group substitution. Both hydrogels (30 and 54mol.% carboxyl group substitution) showed similar amounts of protein adsorption but striking differences in the profiles of the adsorbed proteome. Additionally, the two systems showed similarities in their clot formation kinetics but substantial differences in clot endpoints. The results show great promise for the above-mentioned thermoreversible in situ hydrogels as biocompatible materials for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preclinical evaluation of radiosensitizing activity of Pluronic block copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Reshani H.; Patel, Ravi; Wu, Hanping; Gangolli, Mihika; Traughber, Bryan; Oleinick, Nancy; Exner, Agata A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pluronic block copolymers are non-ionic surfactants with demonstrated sensitizing activity in chemotherapy and hyperthermia in various tumor cell lines. In the current study we investigated the potential activity of Pluronic as a radiosensitizing agent. Materials and methods As a possible mechanism, the effect of Pluronic on Hsp70 and Hsp90 was examined. Gli36 human glioma cells were treated with radiation alone as well as with a combination treatment of Pluronic and radiation. Results Clonogenic cell survival assays show that Pluronic has an elevated effect on radiosensitization (50% high, p < 0.01), even with radiation doses as low as 2 Gy. The Hsp90 level was reduced 24 h after the combined treatment in both in vitro and in vivo. Similarly, Hsp70 levels were also decreased 24 h post treatment. When Gli36 cells were exposed to Pluronic before and during irradiation, DNA DSB: double-strand breaks repair was reduced, and elevated apoptosis was also seen in tumor xenografts. Conclusion Data suggest the potential use of L10 as a radiosensitizer. While the mechanism of sensitization requires additional investigation, the presented results indicate that the effect may be due, in part, to a decrease in Hsp90 and 70 levels and increased DNA damage. PMID:23631609

  2. Characterisation and toxicological assessment of Neutral Methacrylate Copolymer for GRAS evaluation.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Johanna; Haynes, Geoff; Kreuzer, Knut; Rosamilia, Tiana

    2013-12-01

    Neutral Methacrylate Copolymer is a fully polymerised copolymer used in the pharmaceutical industry to permit pH-independent delayed release of active ingredients from oral dosage forms. This function has potential use with food supplements and this article describes available information on the safety of the substance. Oral administration of radiolabelled copolymer to rats resulted in the detection of chemically unchanged copolymer in the faeces, with negligible absorption. Safety studies revealed no adverse toxicity following repeated administration at doses of up to 2000 mg/kg bw/d in a sub-chronic study in rats or 250 mg/kg bw/d in a sub-chronic study in dogs. No reproductive toxicity occurred at up to 2000 mg/kg bw/d in rats or rabbits. The substance shows no evidence of genotoxicity, has low acute toxicity and no irritation or sensitisation potential. An ADI value of 20 mg/kg bw was concluded from two alternative approaches. Daily exposure from use in dietary supplements is estimated as up to 10.0 mg/kg bw in adults and 13.3 mg/kg bw in children. There would therefore appear to be no safety concerns under the intended conditions of use. The information provided is intended to support an evaluation that the substance may be "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS).

  3. Comparison between hot-melt extrusion and spray-drying for manufacturing solid dispersions of the graft copolymer of ethylene glycol and vinylalcohol.

    PubMed

    Guns, Sandra; Dereymaker, Aswin; Kayaert, Pieterjan; Mathot, Vincent; Martens, Johan A; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effect of the manufacturing method (spray-drying or hot-melt extrusion) on the kinetic miscibility of miconazole and the graft copolymer poly(ethyleneglycol-g-vinylalcohol). The effect of heat pre-treatment of solutions used for spray-drying and the use of spray-dried copolymer as excipient for hot-melt extrusion was investigated. The solid dispersions were prepared at different drug-polymer ratios and analyzed with modulated differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. Miconazole either mixed with the PEG-fraction of the copolymer or crystallized in the same or a different polymorph as the starting material. The kinetic miscibility was higher for the solid dispersions obtained from solutions which were pre-heated compared to those spray-dried from solutions at ambient temperature. Hot-melt extrusion resulted in an even higher mixing capability. Here the use of the spray-dried copolymer did not show any benefit concerning the kinetic miscibility of the drug and copolymer, but it resulted in a remarkable decrease in the torque experienced by the extruder allowing extrusion at lower temperature and torque. The manufacturing method has an influence on the mixing capacity and phase behavior of solid dispersions. Heat pre-treatment of the solutions before spray-drying can result in a higher kinetic miscibility. Amorphization of the copolymer by spray-drying before using it as an excipient for hot-melt extrusion can be a manufacturing benefit.

  4. Stabilization of solid dispersions of nimodipine and polyethylene glycol 2000.

    PubMed

    Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2006-05-01

    Previous investigations revealed that solid dispersions consisting of 20% (m/m) nimodipine and 80% (m/m) polyethylene glycol 2000 prepared by the melting method, represent supersaturated solid solutions of nimodipine recrystallizing upon storage at +25 degrees C. The objective of this study was the improvement of the storage stability by preventing recrystallization. The first approach in order to prevent recrystallization was the development of thermodynamically stable solid solutions by using solvents aiming to enhance the solubility of nimodipine in the carrier material. As potential solubility enhancing additives, polyethylene glycol 300, poly(ethylene/propylene glycol) copolymer, polypropylene glycol 1020, propylene glycol, glycerol and ethyl acetate were evaluated. The second approach enhancing storage stability was the addition of recrystallization inhibitors to supersaturated solid solutions, thereby delaying the transformation of the metastable supersaturated system to the thermodynamically stable state. Macrogol cetostearyl ether, macrogol glycerol monostearate, polysorbate 60, cetostearyl alcohol, glycerol monostearate and sodium lauryl sulphate as well as hydroxypropylcellulose, butylmethacrylat-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)methacrylat-methylmethacrylat-copolymer, polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol and povidone K17 were included in the study. It could be shown that povidone K17 effectively prevents recrystallization in solid solutions containing 20% (m/m) of nimodipine during storage at +25 degrees C over silica gel thereby ensuring a substantial increase in the dissolution rate and degree of supersaturation in water. On the contrary, stabilization by solubility enhancement was only successful at drug loadings not exceeding 1% (m/m) using polyethylene glycol 300 as solubility enhancing additive.

  5. High-throughput evaluation of olefin copolymer composition by means of attenuated total reflection Fourier tranform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tuchbreiter, A; Marquardt, J; Zimmermann, J; Walter, P; Mülhaupt, R; Kappler, B; Faller, D; Roths, T; Honerkamp, J

    2001-01-01

    As a consequence of developing fully automated reactors for organic and organometallic synthesis and polymerizations combined with rapid on-line analysis, databases, and data mining, the analysis of polymers with respect to composition and properties has been speeded up. High-throughput evaluation of olefin copolymers requires fast measurements and high accuracy without tedious sample preparation such as pressing KBr pellets. This has been achieved by using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy) in conjunction with multivariate calibration in order to determine the composition of olefin copolymers such as ethene/propene, ethene/1-hexene and ethene/1-octene copolymers.

  6. A novel diblock of copolymer of (monomethoxy poly [ethylene glycol]-oleate) with a small hydrophobic fraction to make stable micelles/polymersomes for curcumin delivery to cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Erfani-Moghadam, Vahid; Nomani, Alireza; Zamani, Mina; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Najafi, Farhood; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin is a potent natural anticancer agent, but its effectiveness is limited by properties such as very low solubility, high rate of degradation, and low rate of absorption of its hydrophobic molecules in vivo. To date, various nanocarriers have been used to improve the bioavailability of this hydrophobic biomaterial. This study investigates the encapsulation of curcumin in a novel nanostructure of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-oleate (mPEG-OA) and its anticancer effect. Tests were done to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC), encapsulation efficiency, drug-loading efficiency, and cytotoxicity (against U87MG brain carcinoma cells and HFSF-PI3 cells as normal human fibroblasts) of some nanodevice preparations. The results of fluorescence microscopy and cell-cycle analyses indicated that the in vitro bioavailability of the encapsulated curcumin was significantly greater than that of free curcumin. Cytotoxicity evaluations showed that half maximal inhibitory concentrations of free curcumin and curcumin-loaded mPEG-OA for the U87MG cancer cell line were 48 μM and 24 μM, respectively. The Annexin-V-FLUOS assay was used to quantify the apoptotic effect of the prepared nanostructures. Apoptosis induction was observed in a dose-dependent manner after curcumin-loaded mPEG-OA treatments. Two common self-assembling structures, micelles and polymersomes, were observed by atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering, and the abundance of each structure was dependent on the concentration of the diblock copolymer. The mPEG-OA micelles had a very low CMC (13.24 μM or 0.03 g/L). Moreover, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that the curcumin-loaded mPEG-OA polymersomes had very stable structures, and at concentrations 1,000 times less than the CMC, at which the micelles disappear, polymersomes were the dominant structures in the dispersion with a reduced size distribution below 150 nm. Overall, the results from these tests

  7. Preparation and characterization of new zinc(II) phthalocyanine - Containing poly(l-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer micelles for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lamch, Łukasz; Kulbacka, Julita; Pietkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rossowska, Joanna; Dubińska-Magiera, Magda; Choromańska, Anna; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2016-07-01

    Poly(l-lactide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer (mPEG-b-PLLA) micelles were fabricated and applied as a new biodegradable and biocompatible nanocarrier for solubilization of hydrophobic zinc (II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The nanocarrier demonstrated a good colloidal stability and its in vitro sustained cargo release profile was assessed. Photobleaching of ZnPc, both in its native form and encapsulated in the obtained polymeric micelles, was studied by means of spectroscopic measurements. The photodynamic reaction (PDR) protocol for cyto- and photocytotoxicity was performed on metastatic melanoma cells (Me45), normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT) being used for comparison. The intracellular accumulation of free and encapsulated ZnPc was visualized at various time periods (1, 3 and 24h). The proapoptotic potential of the encapsulated phthalocyanine was evaluated by monitoring DNA double strand break damage fragmentation (TUNEL assay) and caspase 3/7 activity. In addition, in vitro biocompatibility studies were conducted by determining hemolytic activity of Zn-Pc-loaded mPEG-b-PLLA micelles and their lack of cytotoxicity against macrophages (P388/D1) and endothelial cells (HUV-EC-C). Our results suggest that the PDR using Zn-Pc-loaded mPEG-b-PLLA micelles can be effective in inhibiting tumor cell growth and apoptosis induction with higher responses, observed for Me45 cells. Additionally, the ZnPc-loaded micelles appear to be hemato-biocompatible and safe for normal keratinocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of Methotrexate-loaded magnetic nanoparticles modified with biocompatible copolymers.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Sahar; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-11-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are attractive materials that have been widely used in medicine for drug delivery, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. In our study, SPION and the anticancer drug, Methotrexate, were encapsulated into polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) nanoparticles for local treatment. The magnetic properties conferred by SPION could help to maintain the nanoparticles in the joint with an external magnet. The drug encapsulation efficiency achieved for Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with PCL-PEG copolymer was 92.36%. There is potential for use of these nanoparticles for biomedical application.

  9. Facile and Quantitative Synthesis of a Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Poly(l-arginine) Block Copolymer and Its Use for the Preparation of Polyion Complex Micelles with Polyanions for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Shinpei; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-07-28

    Though l-arginine-containing polymers show versatile biological functions, a precisely controlled synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-arginine) (PEG-b-PArg) block copolymers has not been reported. Here, an effective method for the synthesis of PEG-b-PArg block copolymers is developed. In order to obtain PEG-b-PArg, a two-step reaction, i.e., synthesis of PEG-b-poly(l-ornithine) is employed, followed by guanidinylation with N,N'-bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxamidine. This procedure quantitatively converts amino groups to guanidium groups at the side chains of peptide segments under mild conditions. Polyion complex (PIC) micelles are prepared by mixing the positively charged PEG-b-PArg with negatively charged homo-polyelectrolytes such as hyaluronic acid (HA) or chondroitin sulfate C (CS). PIC micelles prepared with CS show a higher stability than those prepared with HA, probably due to strong interactions between guanidium cations in PEG-b-PArg and carboxylate/sulfate in CS. Thus, PIC micelles containing PArg are a potentially effective arginine carrier for the development of in vivo therapeutic applications for various diseases related to nitric oxide, which is generated from inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages using l-arginine as a substrate.

  10. Temperature effects on the stability of gold nanoparticles in the presence of a cationic thermoresponsive copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamies, Ramón; Zhu, Kaizheng; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena; Nyström, Bo

    2016-11-01

    New hybrid complexes composed by a thermoresponsive copolymer and gold nanoparticles (Rh = 22 nm) have been characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-visible spectroscopy. A cationic thermoresponsive triblock copolymer, methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly( N-isopropylacrylamide)- block-poly((3-acrylamidopropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride), abbreviated as MPEG- b-PNIPAAM- b-PN(+), has been synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). We have evaluated the thermal response at low concentrations of this triblock copolymer in bulk solution and the effect of concentration on the interaction between this thermosensitive copolymer and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form new hybrid complexes (60-1000 nm) at different temperatures. The thermosensitive nature of the copolymer causes both aggregation and contraction of the aggregates at elevated temperatures. The AuNPs were found to be separately embedded in the hybrid complexes. Interestingly, the AuNPs prevent macroscopic phase separation of the system at high temperatures.

  11. Polyion complex micelle MRI contrast agents from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lysine) block copolymers having Gd-DOTA; preparations and their control of T(1)-relaxivities and blood circulation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Kawano, Kumi; Maitani, Yoshie; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2010-12-01

    The current study synthesized macromolecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents constituted of the poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer (PEG-P(Lys)). A chelate group, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), was attached to the primary amino group of the block copolymer in desired contents. Gd-DOTA-based macromolecular contrast agents were prepared from PEG-P(Lys) having DOTA (PEG-P(Lys-DOTA) and Gd(III) ions. All of the PEG-P(Lys) block copolymers having gadolinium ions (PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd)) showed higher T(1) relaxivity (per gadolinium), r(1)=5.6-7.3mM(-1)s(-1), than that of a low-molecular-weight gadolinium-chelate, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gadolinium(III) (Gd-DTPA) at 9.4T. The study prepared the polyion complex (PIC) micelles from the amino groups of the lysine units and an oppositely charged polyanion, poly(methacrylic acid) or dextran sulfate, in an aqueous medium. In contrast, the fully DOTA-attached PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd) formed a PIC with a polycation. Compared with partially DOTA-attached cationic PEG-P(Lys-DOTA-Gd), this PIC micelle yielded a forty percent decrease of r(1). This r(1) decrease was considered to result from a change in the accessibility of water molecules to gadolinium ions in the micelles' inner core. The r(1) was decreased upon formation of the PIC micelle, and this change proved that our concept worked in vitro. Blood-circulation characteristics of PIC micelles were controlled by means of changing the molecular weight of the counter anion. The PIC micelles accumulated in tumor tissues, and MRI study showed T1W image of axial slice of tumor area was significantly enhanced at 24h after the injection.

  12. The effect of insulin-loaded linear poly(ethylene glycol)-brush-like poly(l-lysine) block copolymer on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury through downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Tang, Xiangyuan; Li, Xin; Xia, Wenquan; Liu, Daojun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the therapeutic effect of insulin-loaded linear poly(ethylene glycol)-brush-like poly(l-lysine) block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(poly(ethylenediamine l-glutamate)-g-poly(l-lysine)) (PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) on renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury through downregulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) as compared to free insulin. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 30 U/kg insulin or insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) complex, and then subjected to 45 minutes of ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion. The blood and lungs were collected, the level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were measured, and the dry/wet lung ratios, the activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase, the content of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the expression of HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured in pulmonary tissues. Both insulin and insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) preconditioning improved the recovery of renal function, reduced pulmonary oxidative stress injury, restrained inflammatory damage, and downregulated the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF as compared to ischemia/reperfusion group, while insulin/PEG-b-(PELG-g-PLL) significantly improved this effect.

  13. Preparation, blood coagulation and cell compatibility evaluation of chitosan-graft-polylactide copolymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Pei; Liu, Peifeng; Gong, Tao; Li, Suming; Duan, Yourong; Zhang, Zhirong

    2014-02-01

    Biodegradable chitosan-graft-polylactide (PLA-CS) copolymers were prepared by the grafting of a poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) precursor to the backbone of chitosan using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC ⋅ HCl) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as a coupling agent. The blood and cell compatibility of the graft copolymers were investigated in comparison to PLLA and PDLA homopolymers. The coagulation properties of PLA-CS were evaluated by hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting and protein absorption assays. PLA-CS copolymers present similar hemolysis ratio and plasma recalcification time as PLA, but slower dynamic blood clotting and lower protein absorption. The cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), agar diffusion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) experiments. All the samples presented no effect on the viability to cells. Inflammatory cytokine analysis using sandwich ELISAs revealed that PLA-CS would not stimulate inflammatory activity.

  14. PLA-PEG-PLA copolymer-based polymersomes as nanocarriers for delivery of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs: preparation and evaluation with atorvastatin and lisinopril.

    PubMed

    Danafar, H; Rostamizadeh, K; Davaran, S; Hamidi, M

    2014-10-01

    Tri-block poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PLA-PEG-PLA) copolymers were synthesized and used to prepare polymersomes loaded separately by the hydrophobic and hydrophilic model drugs, atorvastatin and lisinopril, respectively. The resulting nanostructures were characterized by various techniques such as FTIR, DSC, PCS and AFM. The polymersomes exhibited high encapsulation efficiencies of almost 78% and 70.8% for atorvastatin and lisinopril, respectively. Investigation on FTIR and DSC results revealed that such a high encapsulation efficiency is due to strong interaction between atorvastatin and the copolymer. The impact of drug/copolymer ratio and copolymer composition on drug-loading efficiency and drug release behavior were also studied. The results showed that in case of lisinopril, polymersomes exhibited a triphasic drug release, while for atorvastatin a biphasic release profile was obtained. Overall, the results indicated that PLA-PEG-PLA polymersomes can be considered as a promising carrier for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.

  15. A prospective evaluation of propylene glycol clearance and accumulation during continuous-infusion lorazepam in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Nelsen, Jamie L; Haas, Curtis E; Habtemariam, Bahru; Kaufman, David C; Partridge, Amy; Welle, Stephen; Forrest, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Propylene glycol is a commonly used diluent in several pharmaceutical preparations, including the sedative lorazepam. Fifty critically ill patients receiving continuous-infusion lorazepam for a minimum of 36 hours were prospectively evaluated to determine the extent of propylene glycol accumulation over time, characterize propylene glycol clearance in the presence of critical illness, and develop a pharmacokinetic model that would predict clearance based on patient-specific clinical, laboratory, and demographic factors. In this cohort, the median lorazepam infusion rate was 2.1 mg/h (0.5-18). Propylene glycol concentration correlated poorly with osmolality, osmol gap, and lactate. In all, 8 patients (16%) had significant propylene glycol accumulation (>25mg/dL). When propylene glycol concentrations were >25 mg/dL, the median lorazepam infusion rate before sample collection was higher, 6.4 (1.9-11.3) versus 2.0 (0.5-7.4) mg/h (P =.0003). A linear first-order model with interoccasion variability on clearance adjusted for total body weight and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score predicted propylene glycol concentration.

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of docetaxel-loaded stearic acid-modified Bletilla striata polysaccharide copolymer micelles

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Dandan; Wang, Yue; Liu, Kun; Wang, Miao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Bingjin; Lv, Jiayin

    2017-01-01

    Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSPs) have been used in pharmaceutical and biomedical industry, the aim of the present study was to explore a BSPs amphiphilic derivative to overcome its application limit as poorly water-soluble drug carriers due to water-soluble polymers. Stearic acid (SA) was selected as a hydrophobic block to modify B. striata polysaccharides (SA-BSPs). Docetaxel (DTX)-loaded SA-BSPs (DTX-SA-BSPs) copolymer micelles were prepared and characterized. The DTX release percentage in vitro and DTX concentration in vivo was carried out by using high performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 and HeLa cells were subjected to MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) assay to evaluate the cell viability. In vitro evaluation of copolymer micelles showed higher drug encapsulation and loading capacity. The release percentage of DTX from DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles and docetaxel injection was 66.93 ± 1.79% and 97.06 ± 1.56% in 2 days, respectively. The DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles exhibited a sustained release of DTX. A 50% increase in growth inhibition was observed for HepG2 cells treated with DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles as compared to those treated with docetaxel injection for 72 h. DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles presented a similar growth inhibition effect on Hela cells. Furthermore, absolute bioavailability of DTX-SA-BSPs copolymer micelles was shown to be 1.39-fold higher than that of docetaxel injection. Therefore, SA-BSPs copolymer micelles may be used as potential biocompatible polymers for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:28334044

  17. Evaluation in vitro and in vivo of dimethicone transdermal therapeutic systems. Influence of propylene glycol on drug release.

    PubMed

    Ritschel, W A; Nayak, P M

    1987-03-01

    Coumarin-containing transdermal drug delivery systems were studied in vitro for drug release and in vivo in rats for drug absorption. The matrix of the transdermal delivery system, dimethicone, was a commercially available silicone elastomer. The devices containing 1, 3 and 5% coumarin released in vitro 8.8 (87.4%), 23.4 (74.5%) and 31.6 mg (63.3%) of drug within 24 h. The device containing 5% coumarin was selected for further studies in which 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 70% propylene glycol was added. Up to 20% propylene glycol content did not change the amount released. The preparations with 30, 50 and 70% propylene glycol released 69.3, 73.6 and 87.9%, respectively. The 50 and 70% preparations were physically not acceptable. Only the preparations containing 5% coumarin without propylene glycol and 5% coumarin and 30% propylene glycol in the elastomer were evaluated in vivo. The area under the blood level-time curve of the propylene glycol-containing system was twice that of the device without propylene glycol. Blood levels were maintained between about 2 micrograms/ml and 5 micrograms/ml during the time the device was kept on the skin (24 h).

  18. In vitro evaluation of elastic multiblock co-polymers as a scaffold material for reconstruction of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Tzoneva, Rumiana; Weckwerth, Claudia; Seifert, Barbara; Behl, Marc; Heuchel, Matthias; Tsoneva, Iana; Lendlein, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to create cell- and histocompatible implant materials, which might temporarily replace the mechanical function of a native tissue for regenerative therapies. To match the elastic behavior of the native tissue two different multiblock co-polymers were investigated: PDC, consisting of poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and PDD, based on PPDO/poly((adipinate-alt-1,4-butanediol)-co-(adipinate-alt-ethylene glycol)-co-adipinate-alt-diethylene glycol) (Diorez). PDC is capable of a shapememory effect. Both multiblock co-polymers show an improved elasticity compared to materials applied in established vascular prosthesis. PDD is softer than PDC at 20°C, while PDC maintains its elasticity at 37°C. Thermodynamic characteristics indicate a more polar surface of PDD. Low cell adhesion was found on surfaces with low molar free energy of hysteresis (ΔG) derived from contact angle measurements in wetting and dewetting mode and high cell adhesion on high-ΔG surfaces. An increasing content of PCL in PDC improved cell adhesion and spreading of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The prothrombotic potential of PDD is higher than PDC. Finally, it is concluded that PDC is a promising material for vascular tissue engineering because of its improved elastic properties, as well as balanced prothrombotic and anti-thrombotic properties with endothelial cells.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) micelles as nanocarriers for oral delivery of cyclosporine a.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhui; Li, Xinru; Zhou, Yanxia; Wang, Xiaoning; Fan, Yating; Huang, Yanqing; Liu, Yan

    2010-03-27

    A series of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) diblock copolymers were designed according to polymer-drug compatibility and synthesized, and mPEG-PLA micelle was fabricated and used as a nanocarrier for solubilization and oral delivery of Cyclosporine A (CyA). CyA was efficiently encapsulated into the micelles with nanoscaled diameter ranged from 60 to 96 nm with a narrow size distribution. The favorable stabilities of CyA-loaded polymeric micelles were observed in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The in vitro drug release investigation demonstrated that drug release was retarded by polymeric micelles. The enhanced intestinal absorption of CyA-loaded polymeric micelles, which was comparable to the commercial formulation of CyA (Sandimmun Neoral®), was found. These suggested that polymeric micelles might be an effective nanocarrier for solubilization of poorly soluble CyA and further improving oral absorption of the drug.

  20. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2007-01-09

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  1. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymers and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.; Bloom, Paul D.; Sheares Ashby, Valerie V.

    2006-02-14

    The present invention provides novel multi-functional methacrylic copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility under acidic conditions. The copolymers are constructed from tertiary amine methacrylates and poly(ethylene glycol) containing methacrylates. The copolymers are useful as gene vectors, pharmaceutical carriers, and in protein separation applications.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Block Copolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Polyether-Polyimide Block Copolymers; Three series of Polyether-Polyimide (PEPI) block copolymers were synthesized. Soft segments were poly( propylene ... glycol ) (PPO) Mn = 2,000 and 4,000. Hard segments were pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and di-(2-hydroxyethyl)-dimethylhydantoin (H). The hard

  3. Initial evaluation of novel polyamide-imides and their copolymers as adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; Dezern, James F.

    1989-01-01

    Continued interest by the research community in thermally stable, tough, high temperature adhesives has resulted in the investigation by Langley Research Center of two linear aromatic polyamide-imide (PAI) homopolymers and two linear aromatic PAI copolymers. The homopolymers were made with either 3,3'=DABA or 4,4'-DABA and BTDA. The two polymers were prepared with a monomer ratio of 0.75 DABP:0.25 DABA:1.00 BTDA. These aromatic PAIs possess high thermal stability because of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and chain stiffness. Lap shear strength (LSS) was the main criteria used to evaluate the polymers as adhesives. LSS of bonded Ti-6Al-4V was determined at room temperature (RT), 177, 204 and 232 C. The glass transition temperature and the type of bond failure were also determined. The best LSS values of the four adhesive systems investigated were obtained with the PAI copolymer identified in the report as LARC-TPI (25 percent 3,3'-DABA); however, it did not produce LSSs nearly as high as LARC-TPI. The poor flow properties observed appear to be due to a combination of high molecular weight and the increased interchain electronic interactions associated with the amide group.

  4. Initial evaluation of novel polyamide-imides and their copolymers as adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; Dezern, James F.

    1989-01-01

    Continued interest by the research community in thermally stable, tough, high temperature adhesives has resulted in the investigation by Langley Research Center of two linear aromatic polyamide-imide (PAI) homopolymers and two linear aromatic PAI copolymers. The homopolymers were made with either 3,3'=DABA or 4,4'-DABA and BTDA. The two polymers were prepared with a monomer ratio of 0.75 DABP:0.25 DABA:1.00 BTDA. These aromatic PAIs possess high thermal stability because of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and chain stiffness. Lap shear strength (LSS) was the main criteria used to evaluate the polymers as adhesives. LSS of bonded Ti-6Al-4V was determined at room temperature (RT), 177, 204 and 232 C. The glass transition temperature and the type of bond failure were also determined. The best LSS values of the four adhesive systems investigated were obtained with the PAI copolymer identified in the report as LARC-TPI (25 percent 3,3'-DABA); however, it did not produce LSSs nearly as high as LARC-TPI. The poor flow properties observed appear to be due to a combination of high molecular weight and the increased interchain electronic interactions associated with the amide group.

  5. FhuA deletion variant Δ1-159 overexpression in inclusion bodies and refolding with Polyethylene-Poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dworeck, Tamara; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Muhammad, Noor; Fioroni, Marco; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    Membrane protein isolation is a challenging problem. In fact especially their extraction from the respective membrane is difficult and often goes along with losses in yield. Usually expensive detergents are needed to extract the target protein from the membrane. Therefore finding an efficient overexpression and extraction method and an alternative to detergents is desirable. In this study we describe a new and fast method to express, extract and purify an engineered variant of the FhuA protein (FhuA Δ1-159) that acts as passive diffusion channel, using a diblock copolymer as an alternative to detergents like octyl-POE (n-octylpolyoxyethylene). The N-terminal leader sequence, facilitating the protein's transport to the outer membrane was deleted (FhuA Δ1-159 Δsignal), resulting in protein accumulation in easy to isolate inclusion bodies. Urea was used to solubilise the unfolded protein and dialysis against phosphate-buffer containing the commercially available diblock copolymer PE-PEG[Polyethylene-Poly(ethyleneglycol)] lead to protein refolding. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a high β-sheet percentage within the refolded protein secondary structure indicating the successful reconstitution of FhuA Δ1-159 Δsignal native state. Furthermore the channel functionality of FhuA Δ1-159 Δsignal was verified by measuring the in and out-flux through the protein when inserted into liposome membrane, using the HRP/TMB (HRP=Horse Radish Peroxidase, TMB=3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine) assay system.

  6. Influence of average molecular weights of poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers 50/50 on phase separation and in vitro drug release from microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J M; Busnel, J P; Benoît, J P

    1990-09-01

    The phase separation of fractionated poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) copolymers 50/50 was determined by silicone oil addition. Polymer fractionation by preparative size exclusion chromatography afforded five different microsphere batches. Average molecular weight determined the existence, width, and displacement of the "stability window" inside the phase diagrams, and also microsphere characteristics such as core loading and amount released over 6 hr. Further, the gyration and hydrodynamic radii were measured by light scattering. It is concluded that the polymer-solvent affinity is largely modified by the variation of average molecular weights owing to different levels of solubility. The lower the average molecular weight is, the better methylene chloride serves as a solvent for the coating material. However, a paradoxical effect due to an increase in free carboxyl and hydroxyl groups is noticed for polymers of 18,130 and 31,030 SEC (size exclusion chromatography) Mw. For microencapsulation, polymers having an intermediate molecular weight (47,250) were the most appropriate in terms of core loading and release purposes.

  7. High temperature proton exchange membranes with enhanced proton conductivities at low humidity and high temperature based on polymer blends and block copolymers of poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) and poly(ethylene glycol)

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Shawn; Hassan, Mohammad K.; Nalawade, Amol; ...

    2015-09-16

    Hot (at 120 °C) and dry (20% relative humidity) operating conditions benefit fuel cell designs based on proton exchange membranes (PEMs) and hydrogen due to simplified system design and increasing tolerance to fuel impurities. In this paper, presented are preparation, partial characterization, and multi-scale modeling of such PEMs based on cross-linked, sulfonated poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (xsPCHD) blends and block copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). These low cost materials have proton conductivities 18 times that of current industry standard Nafion at hot, dry operating conditions. Among the membranes studied, the blend xsPCHD-PEG PEM displayed the highest proton conductivity, which exhibits a morphology withmore » higher connectivity of the hydrophilic domain throughout the membrane. Simulation and modeling provide a molecular level understanding of distribution of PEG within this hydrophilic domain and its relation to proton conductivities. Finally, this study demonstrates enhancement of proton conductivity at high temperature and low relative humidity by incorporation of PEG and optimized sulfonation conditions.« less

  8. High temperature proton exchange membranes with enhanced proton conductivities at low humidity and high temperature based on polymer blends and block copolymers of poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) and poly(ethylene glycol)

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shawn; Hassan, Mohammad K.; Nalawade, Amol; Perry, Kelly A.; More, Karren L.; Mauritz, Kenneth A.; McDonnell, Marshall T.; Keffer, David J.; Mays, Jimmy W.

    2015-09-16

    Hot (at 120 °C) and dry (20% relative humidity) operating conditions benefit fuel cell designs based on proton exchange membranes (PEMs) and hydrogen due to simplified system design and increasing tolerance to fuel impurities. In this paper, presented are preparation, partial characterization, and multi-scale modeling of such PEMs based on cross-linked, sulfonated poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (xsPCHD) blends and block copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). These low cost materials have proton conductivities 18 times that of current industry standard Nafion at hot, dry operating conditions. Among the membranes studied, the blend xsPCHD-PEG PEM displayed the highest proton conductivity, which exhibits a morphology with higher connectivity of the hydrophilic domain throughout the membrane. Simulation and modeling provide a molecular level understanding of distribution of PEG within this hydrophilic domain and its relation to proton conductivities. Finally, this study demonstrates enhancement of proton conductivity at high temperature and low relative humidity by incorporation of PEG and optimized sulfonation conditions.

  9. A free-standing, sheet-shaped, "hydrophobic" biomaterial containing polymeric micelles formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) block copolymer for possible incorporation/release of "hydrophilic" compounds.

    PubMed

    Moroishi, Hitomi; Yoshida, Chikara; Murakami, Yoshihiko

    2013-02-01

    Sheet-shaped materials with a large contact area relative to the drug targeting site lead to advantages over conventional particle-shaped drug carriers and have several advantages for their biomedical applications. The present study proposes a methodology for preparing a novel sheet-shaped "hydrophobic" and biocompatible biomaterial in which polymeric micelles are uniformly dispersed for the incorporation of "hydrophilic" compounds into the sheet. The methoxy-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) block copolymer (CH(3)O-PEG-b-PLA) was successfully synthesized by means of the anionic ring-opening polymerization of both ethylene oxide and dl-lactide. CH(3)O-PEG-b-PLA was self-assembled and formed stable micelle-like w/o emulsion with a hydrophilic inner core in organic solvents. A sheet-shaped material containing a hydrophilic inner space for incorporating hydrophilic compounds was obtained by spin-coating both the micelle solution and a sheet-forming polymer. Fluorescent images of the sheet proved that polymeric micelles providing hydrophilic spaces were uniformly dispersed in the hydrophobic sheet. The facile technique presented in this paper can be a tool for fabricating sheet-shaped biomaterials that have a hydrophilic inner core and, consequently, that are suitable for the sustained release of hydrophilic compounds.

  10. Star-shape redox-responsive PEG-sheddable copolymer of disulfide-linked polyethylene glycol-lysine-di-tocopherol succinate for tumor-triggering intracellular doxorubicin rapid release: head-to-head comparison.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xiaoyu; Sun, Jin; Zhong, Lu; Wu, Chunnuan; Niu, Handong; Xu, Tao; Lian, He; Han, Xiaopeng; Ren, Guolian; Ding, Wenya; Wang, Jia; Pu, Xiaohui; He, Zhonggui

    2014-10-01

    A redox-responsive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-sheddable copolymer of disulfide-linked PEG 5000-lysine-di-tocopherol succinate (P(5k)SSLV) is developed which can self-assemble into nanomicelles in aqueous condition and trigger the rapid release of encapsulated drugs within tumor cells. The reduction-insensitive doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded P(5k)LV (P(5k)LV-DOX) nanomicelles are further prepared. Then head-to-head comparison of P(5k)SSLV-DOX, P(5k)LV-DOX and DOX-Sol is performed concerning in vitro release, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and apoptosis. Results show that P(5k)SSLV-DOX nanomicelles have a faster DOX release, a higher anti-tumor activity and more DOX concentrating in the nucleus than P(5k)LV-DOX nanomicelles. In conclusion, the redox-responsive P(5k)SSLV nanomicelles might hold a great potential to improve chemotherapy by tumor-triggering intracellular rapid release. The outcomes of this study also address the significance of such head-to-head comparison studies in translational research of nanomedicine.

  11. Synthesis and In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Degradable Shell Crosslinked Polymer Nanoparticles with Poly(carboxybetaine) vs. Poly(ethylene glycol) Surface-grafted Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ang; Luehmann, Hannah P.; Sun, Guorong; Samarajeewa, Sandani; Zou, Jiong; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Welch, Michael J.; Liu, Yongjian; Wooley, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles with tunable pharmacokinetics are desirable for various biomedical applications. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is well known to create “stealth” effects to stabilize and extend the blood circulation of nanoparticles. In this work, poly(carboxybetaine) (PCB), a new non-fouling polymer material, was incorporated as surface-grafted coatings, conjugated onto degradable shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles (dSCKs) composed of poly(acrylic acid)- based shells and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) cores, to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetics to their PEG-functionalized analogs. A series of five dSCKs was prepared from amphiphilic block copolymers, having different numbers and lengths of either PEG or PCB grafts, by supramolecular assembly in water followed by shell crosslinking, and then studied by a lactate assay to confirm their core hydrolytic degradabilities. Each dSCK was also conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) macrocyclic chelators and tyramine moieties to provide for 64Cu and/or radiohalogen labeling. The high specific activity of 64Cu radiolabeling ensured nanogram administration of dSCKs for in vivo evaluation of their pharmacokinetics. Biodistribution studies demonstrated comparable in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of PCB-grafted dSCKs to their PEG-conjugated counterparts. These results indicated that PCB-functionalized dSCKs have great potential as a theranostic platform for translational research. PMID:23043240

  12. Novel pentablock copolymer (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery: Effect of copolymer compositions on the crystallinity of copolymers and in vitro drug release profile from nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Viral; Mishra, Gyan P; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design novel pentablock copolymers (polylatide-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol- polycaprolactone-polylatide) (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) to prepare nanoparticle formulations which provide continuous delivery of steroids over a longer duration with minimal burst effect. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) incorporation on crystallinity of pentablock copolymers and in vitro release profile of triamcinolone acetonide (selected as model drug) from nanoparticles. PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA copolymers with different block ratio of PCL/PLA segment were synthesized. Release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly affected by crystallinity of the copolymers. Burst release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly minimized with incorporation of proper ratio of PDLLA in the existing triblock (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer. Moreover, pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles exhibited continuous release of triamcinolone acetonide. Pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles can be utilized to achieve continuous near zero-order delivery of corticosteroids from nanoparticles without any burst effect.

  13. Novel pentablock copolymer (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) based nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery: Effect of copolymer compositions on the crystallinity of copolymers and in vitro drug release profile from nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Viral; Mishra, Gyan P.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to design novel pentablock copolymers (polylatide-polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol- polycaprolactone-polylatide) (PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA) to prepare nanoparticle formulations which provide continuous delivery of steroids over a longer duration with minimal burst effect. Another purpose was to evaluate the effect of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) incorporation on crystallinity of pentablock copolymers and in vitro release profile of triamcinolone acetonide (selected as model drug) from nanoparticles. PLA-PCL-PEG-PCL-PLA copolymers with different block ratio of PCL/PLA segment were synthesized. Release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly affected by crystallinity of the copolymers. Burst release of triamcinolone acetonide from nanoparticles was significantly minimized with incorporation of proper ratio of PDLLA in the existing triblock (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer. Moreover, pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles exhibited continuous release of triamcinolone acetonide. Pentablock copolymer based nanoparticles can be utilized to achieve continuous near zero-order delivery of corticosteroids from nanoparticles without any burst effect. PMID:23626400

  14. Evaluation of propylene glycol and glycerol infusions as treatments for ketosis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Allen, M S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (G) as potential treatments for ketosis, we conducted 2 experiments lasting 4 d each in which cows received one bolus infusion per day. Blood was collected before infusion, over 240min postinfusion, as well as 24 h postinfusion. Experiment 1 used 6 ruminally cannulated cows (26±7 d in milk) randomly assigned to 300-mL infusions of PG or G (both ≥99.5% pure) in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods. Within each period, cows were assigned randomly to infusion site sequence: abomasum (A)-cranial reticulorumen (R) or the reverse, R-A. Glucose precursors were infused into the R to simulate drenching and the A to prevent metabolism by ruminal microbes. Glycerol infused in the A increased plasma glucose concentration the most (15.8mg/dL), followed by PG infused in the R (12.6mg/dL), PG infused in the A (9.11mg/dL), and G infused in the R (7.3mg/dL). Infusion of PG into the R increased plasma insulin and insulin area under the curve (AUC) the most compared with all other treatments (7.88 vs. 2.13μIU/mL and 321 vs. 31.9min×μIU/mL, respectively). Overall, PG decreased plasma BHBA concentration after infusion (-6.46 vs. -4.55mg/dL) and increased BHBA AUC (-1,055 vs. -558min ×mg/dL) compared with G. Plasma NEFA responses were not different among treatments. Experiment 2 used 8 ruminally cannulated cows (22±5 d in milk) randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a Latin square design experiment balanced for carryover effects. Treatments were 300mL of PG, 300mL of G, 600mL of G (2G), and 300mL of PG + 300mL of G (GPG), all infused into the R. Treatment contrasts compared PG with each treatment containing glycerol (G, 2G, and GPG). Propylene glycol increased plasma glucose (14.0 vs. 5.35mg/dL) and insulin (7.59 vs. 1.11μIU/mL) concentrations compared with G, but only tended to increase glucose and insulin concentrations compared with 2G. Propylene glycol increased AUC for glucose (1,444 vs. 94.3mg/dL) and insulin (326

  15. Evaluation of Propylene Glycol-Based Fluids for Constellation Habitats and Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Two fluid life tests have been conducted to evaluate propylene glycol-based fluids for use in Constellation habitats and vehicles. The first test was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 to help determine the compatibility of the propylene glycol-based fluid selected for Orion at the time. When the first test uncovered problems with the fluid selection, an investigation and selection of a new fluid were conducted. A second test was started in March 2010 to evaluate the new selection. For the first test, the fluid was subjected to a thermal fluid loop that had flight-like properties, as compared to Orion. The fluid loop had similar wetted materials, temperatures, flow rates, and aluminum wetted surface area to fluid volume ratio. The test was designed to last for 10 years, the life expectancy of the lunar habitat. However, the test lasted less than two months. System filters became clogged with precipitate, rendering the fluid system inoperable. Upon examination of the precipitate, it was determined that the precipitate composition contained aluminum, which could have only come from materials in the test stand, as aluminum is not part of the original fluid composition. Also, the fluid pH was determined to have increased from 10.1, at the first test sample, to 12.2, at the completion of the test. This high of a pH is corrosive to aluminum and was certainly a contributing factor to the development of precipitate. Due to the problems encountered during this test, the fluid was rejected as a coolant candidate for Orion. A new propylene glycol-based fluid was selected by the Orion project for use in the Orion vehicle. The Orion project has conducted a series of screening tests to help verify that there will be no problems with the new fluid selection. To compliment testing performed by the Orion project team, a new life test was developed to test the new fluid. The new test bed was similar to the original test bed, but with some improvements based on experience

  16. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable cationic poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) copolymer hydrogels modified with agmatine for enhanced cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Kazuhiro; Jo, Seongbong; Mikos, Antonios G

    2002-01-01

    We synthesized positively charged biodegradable hydrogels by cross-linking of agmatine-modified poly(ethylene glycol)-tethered fumarate (Agm-PEGF) and poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) (P(PF-co-EG)) to investigate the effect of the guanidino groups of the agmatine on hydrogel swelling behavior and smooth muscle cell adhesion to the hydrogels. The weight swelling ratio of these hydrogels at pH 7.0 increased from 279 +/- 4 to 306 +/- 7% as the initial Agm-PEGF content increased from 0 to 200 mg/g of P(PF-co-EG), respectively. The diffusional exponents, n, during the initial phase of water uptake were independent of the initial Agm-PEGF content and were determined to be 0.66 +/- 0.08, 0.71 +/- 0.07, and 0.60 +/- 0.05 for respective initial Agm-PEGF contents of 0, 100, and 200 mg/g. The heat of fusion of water present in the hydrogels increased from 214 +/- 11 to 254 +/- 4 J/g as the initial Agm-PEGF content increased from 0 to 200 mg/g. The number of adherent smooth muscle cells increased dose-dependently from 15 +/- 6 to 75 +/- 7% of the initial seeding density as the initial Agm-PEGF content increased from 0 to 200 mg/g. These results suggest that the incorporation of the guanidino groups of agmatine into P(PF-co-EG) hydrogels increases the hydrogel free water content and the total water content of the hydrogels and also enhances cell adhesion to the hydrogels.

  17. Are block copolymer worms more effective Pickering emulsifiers than block copolymer spheres?

    PubMed

    Thompson, K L; Mable, C J; Cockram, A; Warren, N J; Cunningham, V J; Jones, E R; Verber, R; Armes, S P

    2014-11-21

    RAFT-mediated polymerisation-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare six types of amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles which were subsequently evaluated as putative Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilisation of n-dodecane-in-water emulsions. It was found that linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PGMA-PHPMA) diblock copolymer spheres and worms do not survive the high shear homogenisation conditions used for emulsification. Stable emulsions are obtained, but the copolymer acts as a polymeric surfactant; individual chains rather than particles are adsorbed at the oil-water interface. Particle dissociation during emulsification is attributed to the weakly hydrophobic character of the PHPMA block. Covalent stabilisation of these copolymer spheres or worms can be readily achieved by addition of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) during the PISA synthesis. TEM studies confirm that the resulting cross-linked spherical or worm-like nanoparticles survive emulsification and produce genuine Pickering emulsions. Alternatively, stabilisation can be achieved by either replacing or supplementing the PHPMA block with the more hydrophobic poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA). The resulting linear spheres or worms also survive emulsification and produce stable n-dodecane-in-water Pickering emulsions. The intrinsic advantages of anisotropic worms over isotropic spheres for the preparation of Pickering emulsions are highlighted. The former particles are more strongly adsorbed at similar efficiencies compared to spheres and also enable smaller oil droplets to be produced for a given copolymer concentration. The scalable nature of PISA formulations augurs well for potential applications of anisotropic block copolymer nanoparticles as Pickering emulsifiers.

  18. ABC Triblock Copolymer Worms: Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation as Pickering Emulsifiers for Millimeter-Sized Droplets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is used to prepare linear poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)–poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)–poly(benzyl methacrylate) [PGMA–PHPMA–PBzMA] triblock copolymer nano-objects in the form of a concentrated aqueous dispersion via a three-step synthesis based on reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. First, GMA is polymerized via RAFT solution polymerization in ethanol, then HPMA is polymerized via RAFT aqueous solution polymerization, and finally BzMA is polymerized via “seeded” RAFT aqueous emulsion polymerization. For certain block compositions, highly anisotropic worm-like particles are obtained, which are characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The design rules for accessing higher order morphologies (i.e., worms or vesicles) are briefly explored. Surprisingly, vesicular morphologies cannot be accessed by targeting longer PBzMA blocks—instead, only spherical nanoparticles are formed. SAXS is used to rationalize these counterintuitive observations, which are best explained by considering subtle changes in the relative enthalpic incompatibilities between the three blocks during the growth of the PBzMA block. Finally, the PGMA–PHPMA–PBzMA worms are evaluated as Pickering emulsifiers for the stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions. Millimeter-sized oil droplets can be obtained using low-shear homogenization (hand-shaking) in the presence of 20 vol % n-dodecane. In contrast, control experiments performed using PGMA–PHPMA diblock copolymer worms indicate that these more delicate nanostructures do not survive even these mild conditions. PMID:27795581

  19. Preparation, Characterization and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Fused Dispersions of Simvastatin using PEO-PPO Block Copolymer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harjeet; Philip, Betty; Pathak, Kamla

    2012-01-01

    The solubility enhancement of poorly soluble compounds is an important task in pharmaceutical technology as it leads to better bioavailability and a more efficient application. Fused dispersions (FDs) of simvastatin (SIM) using PEO-PPO block copolymer were prepared which paved the way for the formation of an amorphous product with enhanced dissolution and bioavailability. The accumulative solubility of simvastatin (SIM) from PEO-PPO block copolymer (Lutrol NF 127 prill surfactant) was found to be superior to the drug alone which may be due to the increased oxyethylene content that played the major role in solubility enhancement. A 3(2) full factorial approach was used for optimization wherein the temperature to which the melt-drug mixture cooled (X1) and the drug-to-polymer ratio (X2) were selected as the independent variables and the time required for 90% drug dissolution (t90%) was selected as the dependent variable. A low level of X1 and a high level of X2 were suitable for obtaining higher dissolution of SIM from SIM FDs. On increasing melt to cool drug temperature, t90% increased thus improving dissolution rate of FD2 batch with the maximum drug release (99.63%) in 120 min. The optimized FDs were characterized by saturation solubility study, drug content, in-vitro dissolution, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, (1)HNMR spectroscopy and pharmacodynamic evaluation. Capsules containing optimized FDs were prepared and compared with marketed brand (SIMVOTIN®). Finally, it can be concluded that the optimized FDs of SIM ameliorate the solubility and dissolution of drug with improved pharmacodynamic activity.

  20. Effect of water-soluble polymers, polyethylene glycol and poly(vinylpyrrolidone), on the gelation of aqueous micellar solutions of Pluronic copolymer F127.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Nágila M P S; Ricardo, Nadja M P S; Costa, Flávia de M L L; Bezerra, Francisco W A; Chaibundit, Chiraphon; Hermida-Merino, Daniel; Greenland, Barnaby W; Burattini, Stefano; Hamley, Ian W; Keith Nixon, S; Yeates, Stephen G

    2012-02-15

    The micellization of F127 (E(98)P(67)E(98)) in dilute aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000 and PEG35000) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP K30 and PVP K90) is studied. The average hydrodynamic radius (r(h,app)) obtained from the dynamic light scattering technique increased with increase in PEG concentration but decreased on addition of PVP, results which are consistent with interaction of the micelles with PEG and the formation of micelles clusters, but no such interaction occurs with PVP. Tube inversion was used to determine the onset of gelation. The critical concentration of F127 for gelation increased on addition of PEG and of PVP K30 but decreased on addition of PVP K90. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to show that the 30 wt% F127 gel structure (fcc) was independent of polymer type and concentration, as was the d-spacing and so the micelle hard-sphere radius. The maximum elastic modulus (G(max)(')) of 30 wt% F127 decreased from its value for water alone as PEG was added, but was little changed by adding PVP. These results are consistent with the packed-micelles in the 30 wt% F127 gel being effectively isolated from the polymer solution on the microscale while, especially for the PEG, being mixed on the macroscale.

  1. Subchronic toxicity and immunotoxicity of MeO-PEG-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-PEG-OMe triblock copolymer nanoparticles delivered intravenously into rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Longfei; Zhang, Mengtian; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Xie, Zhaolu; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun

    2014-06-20

    Although monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-monomethoxy (PELGE) nanoparticles have been widely studied as a drug delivery system, little is known about their toxicity in vivo. Here we examined the subchronic toxicity and immunotoxicity of different doses of PELGE nanoparticles with diameters of 50 and 200 nm (PELGE50 and PELGE200) in rats. Neither size of PELGE nanoparticles showed obvious subchronic toxic effects during 28 d of continuous intravenous administration based on clinical observation, body weight, hematology parameters and histopathology analysis. PELGE200 nanoparticles showed no overt signs of immunotoxicity based on organ coefficients, histopathology analysis, immunoglobulin levels, blood lymphocyte subpopulations and splenocyte cytokines. Conversely, PELGE50 nanoparticles were associated with an increased organ coefficient and histopathological changes in the spleen, increased serum IgM and IgG levels, alterations in blood lymphocyte subpopulations and enhanced expression of spleen interferon-γ. Taken together, these results suggest that PELGE nanoparticles show low subchronic toxicity but substantial immunotoxicity, which depends strongly on particle size. These findings will be useful for safe application of PELGE nanoparticles in drug delivery systems.

  2. Suppression of cell and platelet adhesion to star-shaped 8-armed poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) block copolymer films.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Koji; Ohya, Yuichi; Ouchi, Tatsuro

    2006-06-16

    To explore the potential of a star-shaped 8-armed poly(ethylene glycol)35K-block-poly(L-lactide)37K (8-armed PEG35K-b-PLLA37K: M(n) of PEG = 35 000, M(n) of PLLA = 37 000) film as a novel bioabsorbable adhesion-prevention membrane, the water structure, surface contact angle, protein adsorption, and cell and platelet anti-adhesion properties of such a hydrated film are investigated. Based on the results, it is found that the 8-armed PEG35K-b-PLLA37K film exhibits a biologically inert surface, which is the result of a large number of PEG chains and a free water layer on the film surface. This leads to a reduction in protein absorption and cell and platelet adhesion onto the film surface. This implies that the star-shaped 8-armed PEG35K-b-PLLA37K film can be utilized as a novel bioabsorbable adhesion-prevention membrane.

  3. Subchronic toxicity and immunotoxicity of MeO-PEG-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-PEG-OMe triblock copolymer nanoparticles delivered intravenously into rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Longfei; Zhang, Mengtian; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Xie, Zhaolu; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun

    2014-06-01

    Although monomethoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-monomethoxy (PELGE) nanoparticles have been widely studied as a drug delivery system, little is known about their toxicity in vivo. Here we examined the subchronic toxicity and immunotoxicity of different doses of PELGE nanoparticles with diameters of 50 and 200 nm (PELGE50 and PELGE200) in rats. Neither size of PELGE nanoparticles showed obvious subchronic toxic effects during 28 d of continuous intravenous administration based on clinical observation, body weight, hematology parameters and histopathology analysis. PELGE200 nanoparticles showed no overt signs of immunotoxicity based on organ coefficients, histopathology analysis, immunoglobulin levels, blood lymphocyte subpopulations and splenocyte cytokines. Conversely, PELGE50 nanoparticles were associated with an increased organ coefficient and histopathological changes in the spleen, increased serum IgM and IgG levels, alterations in blood lymphocyte subpopulations and enhanced expression of spleen interferon-γ. Taken together, these results suggest that PELGE nanoparticles show low subchronic toxicity but substantial immunotoxicity, which depends strongly on particle size. These findings will be useful for safe application of PELGE nanoparticles in drug delivery systems.

  4. Evaluation and modeling of the eutectic composition of various drug-polyethylene glycol solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Baird, Jared A; Taylor, Lynne S

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of which factors contribute to the eutectic composition of drug-polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends and to compare experimental values with predictions from the semi-empirical model developed by Lacoulonche et al. Eutectic compositions of various drug-PEG 3350 solid dispersions were predicted, assuming athermal mixing, and compared to experimentally determined eutectic points. The presence or absence of specific interactions between the drug and PEG 3350 were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The eutectic composition for haloperidol-PEG and loratadine-PEG solid dispersions was accurately predicted using the model, while predictions for aceclofenac-PEG and chlorpropamide-PEG were very different from those experimentally observed. Deviations in the model prediction from ideal behavior for the systems evaluated were confirmed to be due to the presence of specific interactions between the drug and polymer, as demonstrated by IR spectroscopy. Detailed analysis showed that the eutectic composition prediction from the model is interdependent on the crystal lattice energy of the drug compound (evaluated from the melting temperature and the heat of fusion) as well as the nature of the drug-polymer interactions. In conclusion, for compounds with melting points less than 200°C, the model is ideally suited for predicting the eutectic composition of systems where there is an absence of drug-polymer interactions.

  5. Evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) plate and screw system for bone fixation.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Minsu; Heo, Suhak; Kim, Hong; Kim, Eun Hee; Choy, Young Bin; Heo, Chan Yeong

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of the recently developed modifiable bioabsorbable plates and screws, which are made of PLGA [poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids)]. An in vitro extract test and a mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test revealed that neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was observed with the plates and screws tested in this study. An in vivo mandible fracture model in rabbit was introduced to evaluate the in vivo efficacy and of the PLGA-based plates and screws. At 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks after implantation, tissue specimens were taken from the implanted sites of the rabbits and a histologic analysis was performed for each of the specimens. After 4 weeks, the plate was covered by connective tissues and severe chronic active inflammation in soft tissue was observed. After 6 weeks, the inflammation decreased and some of the specimens exhibited new bone formation around the periosteum. After 8 and 10 weeks, new bone formation was observed with all samples, where almost no severe inflammation was involved, implying the healing of the fracture. Given these, it can be suggested that the biodegradable plate and screw system that we evaluated in this study is effective for treatment of mandible fracture, one of the regions under a high load-bearing condition. The adjustment process and the long-term follow-up study are in progress for clinical application of the plate and screw system introduced in this study.

  6. Cononsolvency-induced micellization kinetics of pyrene end-labeled diblock copolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate studied by stopped-flow light-scattering and fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jingyi; Zhang, Jingyan; Xu, Jian; Liu, Shiyong

    2008-12-01

    Cononsolvency-induced micellization kinetics of a pyrene end-labeled diblock copolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate, Py-PNIPAM-b-POEGMA, was investigated in detail via a combination of stopped-flow light-scattering and fluorescence techniques. Upon a stopped-flow jump from pure methanol to proper methanol/water mixtures, scattered light intensity exhibited an initial increase and then stabilized out; whereas the time-dependence of monomer to excimer fluorescence intensity ratios (I E/I M) revealed an abrupt increase followed by a gradual decrease to plateau values. The dynamic traces of scattered intensity can be well fitted by double exponential functions, the obtained tau 1, scat and tau 2, scat can be ascribed to processes of forming quasi-equilibrium micelles and their relaxation into final equilibrium states, respectively. On the other hand, a triple exponential function was needed to fit the dynamic traces of I E/I M, leading to three characteristic relaxation times (tau 1, fluo, tau 2, fluo, and tau 3, fluo). It was found that the time scales of tau 1, scat and tau 2, scat obtained from stopped-flow light scattering were in general agreement with tau 2, fluo and tau 3, fluo obtained from stopped-flow fluorescence. Considering that excimer fluorescence is extremely sensitive to small aggregates, the newly detected fast process (tau 1, fluo) approximately 10 ms) by stopped-flow fluorescence should be ascribed to the early stage of micellization, i.e., the burst formation of small transient micelles, in which light scattering detection was still not sensitive enough. These small transient micelles fused and grew into quasi-equilibrium micelles, which then slowly relaxed into the final equilibrium state.

  7. Evaluation of a chitosan-polyethylene glycol paste as a local antibiotic delivery device

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Cheyenne S; Alexander, Christopher M; Berretta, Joel M; Courtney, Harry S; Beenken, Karen E; Smeltzer, Mark S; Bumgardner, Joel D; Haggard, Warren O; Jennings, J Amber

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the efficacy of a chitosan/polyethylene glycol blended paste as a local antibiotic delivery device, particularly in musculoskeletal wounds. METHODS Acidic (A) chitosan sponges and neutralized (N) chitosan/polyethylene glycol (PEG) blended sponges were combined in ratios of 3A:2N, 1A:1N, and 2A:3N; then hydrated with phosphate buffered saline to form a chitosan/PEG paste (CPP). Both in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to determine the potential CPP has as a local antibiotic delivery device. In vitro biocompatibility was assessed by the cytotoxic response of fibroblast cells exposed to the experimental groups. Degradation rate was measured as the change in dry mass due to lysozyme based degradation over a 10-d period. The antibiotic elution profiles and eluate activity of CPP were evaluated over a 72-h period. To assess the in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of the CPP, antibiotic-loaded paste samples were exposed to subcutaneously implanted murine catheters inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus. Material properties of the experimental paste groups were evaluated by testing the ejection force from a syringe, as well as the adhesion to representative musculoskeletal tissue samples. RESULTS The highly acidic CPP group, 3A:2N, displayed significantly lower cell viability than the control sponge group. The equally distributed group, 1A:1N, and the highly neutral group, 2A:3N, displayed similar cell viability to the control sponge group and are deemed biocompatible. The degradation studies revealed CPP is more readily degradable than the chitosan sponge control group. The antibiotic activity studies indicated the CPP groups released antibiotics at a constant rate and remained above the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the respective test bacteria for a longer time period than the control chitosan sponges, as well as displaying a minimized burst release. The in vivo functional model resulted in complete bacterial infection prevention in all

  8. Evaluation of two point-of-care ethylene glycol tests for dogs.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Karina J; Koenigshof, Amy M; Weder, Christian D; Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate 2 point-of-care ethylene glycol (EG) tests in dogs. Prospective, randomized, blinded laboratory evaluation. University teaching hospital. Ten healthy adult dogs. Jugular venipuncture and in vitro evaluation for detection of EG in canine blood. Whole blood samples were centrifuged and separated, and the plasma was divided into 30 aliquots. The aliquots were mixed with EG to provide EG concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 mg/dL. The EG concentration of each sample was confirmed using gas chromatography. For the VetSpec EG Qualitative Reagent Test Kit, 100 μL of each sample was added to test vials and compared with 20 and 50 mg/dL reference vials. For the Kacey EG Test Strips, 20 μL of each sample was added to the test circle and compared with the color chart provided by the manufacturer. For each test, samples were prepared in groups of 5 and presented in randomized order to 2 readers who were blinded to the presumed EG concentration. Samples were scored as negative, 20-50 mg/dL, or greater than 50 mg/dL. For each test, the sensitivity and specificity for detecting EG was calculated. Cohen's unweighted kappa coefficient was calculated to determine the degree of agreement between readers. For detecting EG, the Kacey EG Test Strips had excellent sensitivity and specificity (both 100%) and good agreement between readers. The VetSpec EG Qualitative Reagent Test Kit was less sensitive and specific (65% and 70% for the first reader, 95% and 40% for the second) with less agreement. Of the 2 systems evaluated, the Kacey EG Test Strips displayed greater accuracy and ease of use. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  9. Evaluation of the Effect of Green Tea Extract on Mouth Bacterial Activity in the Presence of Propylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Moghbel, Abdolhossein; Farjzadeh, Ahmad; Aghel, Nasrin; Agheli, Homaun; Raisi, Nafiseh

    2012-01-01

    Background Compounds present in green tea have proved to inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria associated with infections. Objectives To assess the effects of green tea leaves extract in presence of propylene glycol on the aerobic mouth bacteria load. Materials and Methods Saliva of 25 volunteer girl students aging 20-25 years were selected and evaluated by a mouthwash sample containing 1% tannin, as the most effective antibacterial complex in green tea. Comparative studies were also conducted between green tea mouthwashes containing 1% tannin and a similar sample with 10% propylene glycol added during extraction. This comparison was applied for a chlorhexidine 0.2% sample as a chemical mouthwash brand, too. Results There was a meaningful difference between the green tea mouthwashes containing 10% propylene glycol and the simple green tea extract (P < 0.05). Significant difference was also seen between the herbal and chemical mouthwashes (P < 0.05). The extract 1% tannin containing 10% propylene glycol reduced the aerobic mouth bacterial load of the student salvia about 64 percent. The pH monotonousness in different days and temperatures approved the stability of tannin in liquid water medium. Conclusions Using green tea extract as a herbal mouthwash is safe and harmless specially for children and pregnant women. This result led us to suppose that green tea may prevent plaque formation on teeth, coming over halitosis due to mouth infection, too. These effects need to be approved in an in vivo trial as a second study. PMID:24624155

  10. Evaluating structure in thin block copolymer films with soft x-rays (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunday, Daniel; Liman, Christopher; Hannon, Adam F.; Ren, Jiaxing; Chen, Xuanxuan; Suh, Hyo Seon; de Pablo, Juan J.; Nealey, Paul F.; Kline, R. Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The semiconductor industry is evaluating a variety of approaches for the cost efficient production of future processing and memory generations. Amongst the technologies being explored are multiple patterning steps, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, multiple-beam electron beam lithography and the directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs). BCP DSA utilizes a chemical or topographical template to induce long range order in a thin film of BCP which enhances the resolution of the original pattern. The characterization of buried structure within a DSA BCP film is challenging due to the lack of contrast between the organic materials. Critical-dimension small angle x-ray scattering (CDSAXS) measurements were performed on DSA BCP films, using soft X-rays to tune the contrast, in order to understand the relationship between template structure and film morphology.1 The results of these measurements show that as the width of the guiding stripe widens the arrangement of the BCP on the guiding stripe inverts, shifting from the A block being centered on the guiding stripe to the B block being centered on the guiding stripe. The initial results of integration of mean field simulations into the analysis of scattering data will also be discussed. In addition to examining the BCP structure with CDSAXS, soft X-ray reflectivity2 measurements were performed on BCP to better understand the relationship between interface width for systems with alternative architectures (triblocks) and additives (polymers/ionic liquids). The addition of a selectively associating additive increases the interaction parameter between the two blocks, resulting in the reduction of the interface width and access to smaller pitches. The use of soft X-ray reflectivity allows the evaluation of the distribution of the additive. (1) Sunday, D. F.; Hammond, M. R.; Wang, C.; Wu, W.; Delongchamp, D. M.; Tjio, M.; Cheng, J. Y.; Kline, R. J.; Pitera, J. W. Determination of the Internal Morphology of

  11. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release ethylcellulose and polyethylene glycol microspheres containing metoprolol tartrate

    PubMed Central

    Malipeddi, Venkata Ramana; Awasthi, Rajendra; Dua, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Metoprolol tartrate is rapidly absorbed from both gastric and intestinal regions, after oral administration. To retard the release rate of the metoprolol tartrate, microspheres were prepared with varying concentrations of a mixture containing ethylcellulose and polyethylene glycol-6000. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for various physicochemical characteristics and in vitro drug release. The percent yield of microspheres was in the range of 75.2–87.3%. The particle size of microspheres was found to be in the range of 73.2–85.5 μm. Fourier transform-infrared spectral analysis and differential scanning calorimetry concluded the absence of any interaction between the drug and the carriers. The release time profile of metoprolol tartrate from microspheres in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution was to the extent of 33.4–60.2%. The complete release of metoprolol tartrate occurred from MPT-3 and MPT-4 in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) within 8 and 7 h, respectively, whereas the incomplete release (72.3%) occurred from MPT-1. Nearly, the complete release (98.5%) of metoprolol occurred from MPT-2 in 10 h. Formulation MPT-2 would be a preferred formulation. The release of metoprolol involves diffusion rate limited (R2 = 0.9865) as a mechanism from drug release. The prepared microspheres of metoprolol tartrate eliminate the need for multiple dosing and provide patient compliance. PMID:28386461

  12. Tissue anti-adhesion potential of ibuprofen-loaded PLLA-PEG diblock copolymer films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Ho; Go, Ae Kyung; Oh, Se Heang; Lee, Ka Eul; Yuk, Soon Hong

    2005-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen) on the prevention of postsurgical tissue adhesion. For this, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-PEG diblock copolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of L-lactide and methoxy polyethylene glycol (Mw 5000) of different compositions. The synthesized copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PLLA-PEG copolymer films were prepared by solvent casting. The prepared copolymer films were more flexible and hydrophilic than the control PLLA film, as investigated by the measurements of glass transition temperature, water absorption content, and water contact angle. The drug release behavior from the ibuprofen (10 wt%)-loaded copolymer films was examined by high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed that the drug was released gradually up to about 40% of total loading amount after 20 days, depending on PEG composition; more drug release from the films with higher PEG compositions. In vitro cell adhesions on the copolymer films with/without drug were compared by the culture of NIH/3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts on the surfaces. For in vivo evaluation of tissue anti-adhesion potential, the copolymer films with/without drug were implanted between the cecum and peritoneal wall defects of rats and their tissue adhesion extents were compared. It was observed that the ibuprofen-containing PLLA-PEG films with high PEG composition (particularly PLLA113-PEG113 film with PEG composition, 50 mol%) were very effective in preventing cell or tissue adhesion on the film surfaces, probably owing to the synergistic effects of highly mobile, hydrophilic PEG and anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen.

  13. Evaluation of Bioabsorbable Multiamino Acid Copolymer/Nanohydroxyapatite/Calcium Sulfate Cage in a Goat Spine Model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunpeng; Song, Yueming; Xue, Youdi; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Chunguang

    2017-07-01

    Currently, polylactide is the most popular material used to made bioabsorbable cages but too-quick degradation and osteolysis around the cage have been reported in the literature. This study evaluated the fusion effect, biomechanical stability, and histologic characteristics of a novel bioabsorbable multiamino acid copolymer/nanohydroxyapatite/calcium sulfate (MAACP/n-HA/CS) interbody cage in a goat model of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. A total of 24 goats underwent C3/C4 discectomy and fusion with 3 groups of intervertebral implants: MAACP/n-HA/CS cage group (n = 8), titanium cage group (n = 8), and autologous tricortical iliac crest bone group (n = 8). Disc space height and lordosis angle were measured pre- and postoperatively and after 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Range of motion (ROM) was evaluated through biomechanical testing. Histologic analysis was performed to evaluate fusion status and to detect any foreign body reactions associated with the bioabsorbable cages. At 12 and 24 weeks, disc space height in MAACP/n-HA/CS cage group was greater than that of titanium cage group and tricortical iliac crest group (P < 0.05). Lordosis angle in MAACP/n-HA/CS cage group and titanium cage group were lower than that of tricortical iliac crest group (P < 0.05). Biomechanical test showed that ROM did not differ significantly between MAACP/n-HA/CS cage group and titanium cage group, whereas the value of ROM in bone graft group was the largest. Histologic evaluation showed a better interbody fusion in the MAACP/n-HA/CS cage group than in the other 2 groups. MAACP/n-HA/CS cage surface degraded and was absorbed at 24 weeks. All MAACP/n-HA/CS cages showed excellent biocompatibility. MAACP/n-HA/CS cages can provide good fusion effect, enough biomechanical stability, and integrate closely with the surrounding bone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anticancer Activity of Nanoparticles Based on PLGA and its Co-polymer: In-vitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Amjadi, Issa; Rabiee, Mohammad; Hosseini, Motahare-Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Attempts have been made to prepare nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and doxorubicin. Biological evaluation and physio-chemical characterizations were performed to elucidate the effects of initial drug loading and polymer composition on nanoparticle properties and its antitumor activity. PLGA nanoparticles were formulated by sonication method. Lactide/glycolide ratio and doxorubicin amounts have been tailored. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were employed to identify the presence of doxorubicin within nanospheres. The in vitro release studies were performed to determine the initial ant net release rates over 24 h and 20 days, respectively. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay was measured to evaluate therapeutic potency of doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles. Spectroscopy and thermal results showed that doxorubicin was loaded into the particles successfully. It was observed that lactide/glycolide content of PLGA nanoparticles containing doxorubicin has more prominent role in tuning particle characteristics. Doxorubicin release profiles from PLGA 75 nanospheres demonstrated that the cumulative release rate increased slightly and higher initial burst was detected in comparison to PLGA 50 nanoparticles. MTT data revealed doxorubicin induced antitumor activity was enhanced by encapsulation process, and increasing drug loading and glycolide portion. The results led to the conclusion that by controlling the drug loading and the polymer hydrophilicity, we can adjust the drug targeting and blood clearance, which may play a more prominent role for application in chemotherapy. PMID:24523742

  15. Novel chitosan hydrogel formed by ethylene glycol chitosan, 1,6-diisocyanatohexan and polyethylene glycol-400 for tissue engineering scaffold: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Kang; Wan, Yuqing; Li, Xudong; Feng, Gang

    2014-08-01

    Traditional chitosan hydrogels were prepared by chemical or physical crosslinker, and both of the two kinds of hydrogels have their merits and demerits. In this study, researchers attempted to prepare one kind of chitosan hydrogel by slightly crosslinker, which could combine the advantages of the two kinds of hydrogels. In this experiment, the crosslinker was formed by a reaction between the isocyanate group of 1,6-diisocyanatohexan and the hydroxyl group of polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), then the crosslinker reacted with the amidine and the hydroxyl group of ethylene glycol chitosan to form the network structure. Physical properties of the hydrogel were tested by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and biodegradation. Biocompatibility was assessed by cell implantation in vitro and the scaffold was used as a cartilage tissue engineering scaffold to repair a defect in rabbit knee joints in vivo. FTIR results show the formation of a covalent bond during thickening of the ethylene glycol chitosan. SEM and degradation experiments showed that the ethylene glycol chitosan hydrogel is a 3-D, porous, and degradable scaffold. The hydrogel contained 2% ethylene glycol chitosan and 10 μl crosslinker was selected for the biocompatibility experiment in vitro and in vivo. After chondrocytes were cultured in the ethylene glycol chitosan hydrogel scaffold for 1 week cells exhibited clustered growth and had generated extracellular matrix on the scaffold in vitro. The results in vivo showed that hydrogel-chondrocytes promoted the repair of defect in rabbits. Based on these results, it could be concluded that ethylene glycol chitosan hydrogel is a scaffold with excellent physicochemical properties and it is a promising tissue engineering scaffold.

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of combinations of hydroquinone, glycolic acid, and hyaluronic acid in the treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Gheida, Shereen F; El Maghraby, Gamal M; Farag, Zeinab E

    2015-06-01

    Various treatments are currently available for melasma. However, results are often disappointing. 1 To assess the efficacy and safety of combinations of hydroquinone, glycolic acid, and hyaluronic acid in the treatment of melasma after topical application. 2 To evaluate the dermoscopy as a tool in diagnosis and follow-up of melasma treatment. One hundred patients with mild, moderate-to-severe melasma were divided into five groups. Group I (twenty patients were treated with cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone), group II (twenty patients were treated with cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone + 10% glycolic acid), group III (twenty patients were treated with cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone + 0.01% hyaluronic acid), group IV (twenty patients were treated with cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone + 10% glycolic acid + 0.01% hyaluronic acid), and group V (twenty patients were treated with placebo cream). All patients were subjected to dermoscopic examination and digital photographs before and after treatment. The response and side effects were evaluated. Groups I, III, and IV showed highly significant changes in modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score after using the treatment. Group II showed significant change in mMASI score after using the treatment. The side effects were more reported in group II, followed by group IV, followed by group I, followed by group III. There was highly significant difference between the dermoscopic color findings before and after treatment. Vascularization was another dermoscopic finding. A cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone + 10% glycolic acid + 0.01% hyaluronic acid was very effective in treatment of melasma with tolerable side effects. Dermoscope is a valuable noninvasive tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of melasma treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. pH-Responsive chimaeric pepsomes based on asymmetric poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-leucine)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid) triblock copolymer for efficient loading and active intracellular delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peipei; Qiu, Min; Deng, Chao; Meng, Fenghua; Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Ru; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2015-04-13

    pH-Responsive chimaeric polypeptide-based polymersomes (refer to as pepsomes) were designed and developed from asymmetric poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-leucine)-b-poly(l-glutamic acid) (PEG-PLeu-PGA, PEG is longer than PGA) triblock copolymers for efficient encapsulation and triggered intracellular delivery of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl). PEG-PLeu-PGA was conveniently prepared by sequential ring-opening polymerization of l-leucine N-carboxyanhydride and γ-benzyl-l-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride using PEG-NH2 as an initiator followed by deprotection. Pepsomes formed from PEG-PLeu-PGA had unimodal distribution and small sizes of 64-71 nm depending on PLeu block lengths. Interestingly, these chimaeric pepsomes while stable at pH 7.4 were quickly disrupted at pH 5.0, likely due to alternation of ionization state of the carboxylic groups in PGA that shifts PGA blocks from hydrophilic and random coil structure into hydrophobic and α-helical structure. DOX·HCl could be actively loaded into the watery core of pepsomes with a high loading efficiency. Remarkably, the in vitro release studies revealed that release of DOX·HCl was highly dependent on pH, in which about 24.0% and 75.7% of drug was released at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, at 37 °C in 24 h. MTT assays demonstrated that DOX·HCl-loaded pepsomes exhibited high antitumor activity, similar to free DOX·HCl in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, they were also potent toward drug-resistant MCF-7 cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). Confocal microscopy studies showed that DOX·HCl-loaded pepsomes delivered and released drug into the cell nuclei of MCF-7/ADR cells in 4 h, while little DOX·HCl fluorescence was observed in MCF-7/ADR cells treated with free drug under otherwise the same conditions. These chimaeric pepsomes with facile synthesis, efficient drug loading, and pH-triggered drug release behavior are an attractive alternative to liposomes for targeted cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Evaluation of glove material resistance to ethylene glycol dimethyl ether permeation

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, R.; Chelton, C.F.

    1988-08-01

    Some glycol ethers have been reported to cause adverse reproductive effects in exposed male and female workers, and skin absorption has been determined to be an important route of entry of this class of chemicals. Because ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) is a possible component of lithium-based primary battery electrolyte systems, a study was undertaken to determine the resistance of various commercially available gloves to permeation of this liquid. The gloves were tested by the ASTM Method F-739-81, and butyl rubber was found to be the most effective barrier to permeation. Further studies determined that the butyl gloves could be reused if they were reconditioned overnight in a vacuum oven at 50 degrees C. When a mixture of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (30% v/v) and propylene carbonate (70% v/v) was tested, the results indicated that the propylene carbonate retards the permeation of the glycol ether by a factor of 10. This is believed to be caused by the propylene carbonate coating the surface of the butyl membrane to reduce the sorption of EGDME.

  19. Evaluation of aminoalkylmethacrylate nanoparticles as colloidal drug carrier systems. Part II: characterization of antisense oligonucleotides loaded copolymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zobel, H P; Stieneker, F; Atmaca-Abdel Aziz, S; Gilbert, M; Werner, D; Noe, C R; Kreuter, J; Zimmer, A

    1999-07-01

    Aminoalkylmethacrylate methylmethacrylate copolymer nanoparticles were evaluated for their use as potential drug carrier systems. Their cytotoxicity, as well as the loading of antisense oligonucleotides that were employed as anionic model drugs depended on the substitution of the basic aminoalkyl copolymer. Toxic influences on the integrity of cell membranes depended on aminoalkyl groups located on the particle surfaces. Toxicity was observed either by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays using African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells or by a hemolysis test, where the efflux of haemoglobin from disrupted erythrocytes was measured. The cytotoxic effects were increased by the elongation of the N-alkyl chain by four additional methylene groups. Lipophilic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) homopolymer nanoparticles showed a negative surface charge and, therefore, were not suitable for the adsorption of anionic drugs. The surface charge was changed to positive values by the incorporation of basic monomers. Consequently, the loading efficacy was increased by raising the basic copolymer portion. Additionally, a pH-dependent loading behaviour of oligonucleotides was observed. Substitution of the amino nitrogen protons by methyl groups led to a decreased oligonucleotide loading and to a reduced cytotoxicity. Nanoparticles with permanent positively charged quarternary ammonium groups showed a high pH-independent loading efficacy, but also possessed a high cytotoxic potential. In this study, cationic copolymer nanoparticles containing 30% (w/w) methylaminoethyl-methacrylate (MMAEMC) were found to be optimal with regard to biocompatibility and carrier properties for hydrophilic anionic antisense oligonucleotides. A significant portion of adsorbed oligonucleotides were protected from enzymatic degradation. The cellular uptake of oligonucleotides into Vero cells was significantly enhanced by this methylaminoethyl-methacrylate derivative.

  20. Synthesis of Degradable Poly[(Ethylene Glycol)-co-(Glycolic Acid)] via the Post-Polymerization Oxyfunctionalization of Poly(Ethylene Glycol).

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2016-10-01

    To enhance the limited degradability of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a straightforward method of synthesizing poly[(ethylene glycol)-co-(glycolic acid)] (P(EG-co-GA)) via a ruthenium-catalyzed, post-polymerization oxyfunctionalization of various PEGs is developed. Using this method, a set of copolymers with GA compositions of up to 8 mol% are prepared with minimal reduction in molecular weight (<10%) when compared to their commercially available starting materials. The P(EG-co-GA) copolymers are shown to undergo hydrolysis under mild conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Chirality plays critical roles in enhancing the aqueous solubility of nocathiacin I by block copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kun; Wang, Shuzhen; Ma, Hairong; Chen, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Although drug solubilization by block copolymer micelles has been extensively studied, the rationale behind the choice of appropriate block copolymer micelles for various poorly water-soluble drugs has been of relatively less concern. The objective of this study was to use methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-polylactate micelles (MPEG-PLA) to solubilize glycosylated antibiotic nocathiacin I and to compare the effects of chirality on the enhancement of aqueous solubility. Nocathiacin I-loaded MPEG-PLA micelles with opposite optical property in PLA were synthesized and characterized. The drug release profile, micelle stability and preliminary safety properties of MPEG-PLA micelles were evaluated. Meanwhile, three other poorly water-soluble chiral compound-loaded micelles were also prepared and compared.  The aqueous solubility of nocathiacin I was greatly enhanced by both L- and D-copolymers, with the degree of enhancement appearing to depend on the chirality of the copolymers. Comparison of different chiral compounds confirmed the trend that aqueous solubility of chiral compounds can be more effectively enhanced by block copolymer micelles with specific stereochemical configuration. The present study introduced chiral concept on the selection and preparation of block copolymer micelles for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Clinical evaluation of a flat plate dialyzer equipped with a polycarbonate polyether copolymer membrane.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, C; Sari, R

    1986-01-01

    The performances and clinical tolerance of a flat plate dialyzer equipped with a polycarbonate polyether copolymer membrane (surface area 1.13 and 0.80 m2, membrane thickness 16 micron) were evaluated in 10 patients, among whom 7 underwent a total of 523 dialysis sessions performed over a 6-month investigation period. Clinical and biological parameters recorded during the study were compared to those observed during an immediately preceding control period during which the same patients were dialyzed with flat plate or hollow fiber Cuprophan dialyzers. The clearances of the 1.13 m2 polycarbonate dialyzer for urea, creatinine, uric acid and inorganic phosphate determined at 36 +/- 14 min after start of the dialysis sessions were found respectively at 132 +/- 23, 103 +/- 22, 120 +/- 23 and 103 +/- 18 ml/min and at significantly higher values (except for uric acid) at the 4th hour of dialysis. The ultrafiltration rate was 490 ml/h for a 100 mm Hg transmembrane pressure and the residual blood volume at the end of dialysis was found at 1.1 +/- 0.3 ml. The main clinical and biological parameters recorded in the 7 patients treated for 6 months with polycarbonate dialyzers were not significantly different from those observed during the preceding control period, although 71% of the polycarbonate dialyzers had a smaller surface area than in those used during the control period. The overall blood leakage rate recorded in 555 polycarbonate dialyzers was 1.08%. No sign or symptom suggestive of clinical intolerance to the polycarbonate membrane was recorded during the entire course of the study.

  3. Block Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cell Membrane Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-30

    113 CHAPTER 5 MONO METHOXY POLY( ETHYLENE GLYCOL) GRAFTED BLOCK COPOLYMERS FOR ALKALINE EXCHANGE MEMBRANE...polystyrene-poly( ethylene -co-butylene)-polystyrene (SEBS) copolymer.[37, 42] Chloromethylation of the polystyrene block and trimethylamine...temperature. The same graft and functionalization strategy was applied to poly( ethylene -co- tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) film leading to a promising

  4. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  5. Use of ethylene glycol to evaluate gradient performance in gradient-intensive diffusion MR sequences.

    PubMed

    Spees, William M; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Garbow, Joel R; Neil, Jeffrey J; Ackerman, Joseph J H

    2012-07-01

    Imaging a phantom of known dimensions is a widely used and simple method for calibrating MRI gradient strength. However, full-range characterization of gradient response is not achievable using this approach. Measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient of a liquid with known diffusivity allows for calibration of gradient amplitudes across a wider dynamic range. An important caveat is that the temperature dependence of the liquid's diffusion characteristics must be known, and the temperature of the calibration phantom must be recorded. In this report, we demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient of ethylene glycol is well described by Arrhenius-type behavior across the typical range of ambient MRI magnet temperatures. Because of ethylene glycol's utility as an NMR chemical-shift thermometer, the same (1)H MR spectroscopy measurements that are used for gradient calibration also simultaneously "report" the sample temperature. The high viscosity of ethylene glycol makes it well-suited for assessing gradient performance in demanding diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy sequences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of local drug delivery of amphotericin B and in vivo degradation of chitosan and polyethylene glycol blended sponges.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ashley Cox; Rhodes, Cheyenne; Jennings, Jessica Amber; Hittle, Lauren; Shirtliff, Mark; Bumgardner, Joel D; Haggard, Warren O

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the combination of polyethylene glycol with chitosan in point-of-care loaded sponges made by one or two lyophilizations for adjunctive local antifungal delivery in musculoskeletal wounds. Blended and control chitosan sponges were evaluated in vitro for antifungal release and activity, degradation, cytocompatibility, and characterized for spectroscopic, crystallinity, thermal, and morphologic material properties. In vivo biocompatibility and degradation of sponges were also evaluated in a rat intramuscular pouch model 4 and 10 days after implantation. Blended sponges released amphotericin B active against Candida albicans (>0.25 µg/mL) over 72 h and did not elicit cytotoxicity response of fibroblasts. Blended sponges exhibited decreases in surface roughness, decreased thermal decomposition temperatures, as well as small Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and crystallinity differences, compared with chitosan-only sponges. Three of the four blended sponge formulations exhibited 31%-94% increases in in vitro degradation from the chitosan sponges after 10 days, but did not demonstrate the same increase in in vivo degradation. Low inflammatory in vivo tissue response to blended and chitosan-only sponges was similar over 10 days. These results demonstrated that adding polyethylene glycol to chitosan sponges does improve local antifungal release, cytocompatibility, and in vitro degradation, but does not increase in vivo degradation.

  7. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol-Paclitaxel Conjugates for Lung Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tian; Magnusson, Johannes; Préat, Véronique; Frédérick, Raphael; Alexander, Cameron; Bosquillon, Cynthia; Vanbever, Rita

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary drug delivery is considered an attractive route of drug administration for lung cancer chemotherapy. However, fast clearance mechanisms result in short residence time of small molecule drugs in the lung. Therefore, achieving a sustained presence of chemotherapeutics in the lung is very challenging. In this study, we synthesized two different polyethylene glycol-paclitaxel ester conjugates with molecular weights of 6 and 20 kDa in order to achieve sustained release of paclitaxel in the lung. One structure was synthesized with azide linker using "click" chemistry and the other structure was synthesized with a succinic spacer. The physicochemical and biological properties of the conjugates were characterized in vitro. Conjugation to polyethylene glycol improved the solubility of paclitaxel by up to four orders of magnitude. The conjugates showed good stability in phosphate buffer saline pH 6.9 (half-life ≥72 h) and in bronchoalveolar lavage (half-life of 3 to 9 h) at both molecular weights, but hydrolyzed quickly in mouse serum (half-life of 1 to 3 h). The conjugates showed cytotoxicity to B16-F10 melanoma cells and LL/2 Lewis lung cancer cells but less than free paclitaxel or Taxol, the commercial paclitaxel formulation. These properties imply that the conjugates have the potential to retain paclitaxel in the lung for a prolonged duration and to sustain its release locally for a better efficacy.

  8. The Use of Ethylene Glycol to Evaluate Gradient Performance in Gradient-Intensive Diffusion MR Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Spees, William M.; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Garbow, Joel R.; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Imaging a phantom of known dimensions is a widely used and simple method for calibrating MRI gradient strength. However, full-range characterization of gradient response is not achievable using this approach. Measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient of a liquid with known diffusivity allows for calibration of gradient amplitudes across a wider dynamic range. An important caveat is that the temperature-dependence of the liquid’s diffusion characteristics must be known, and the temperature of the calibration phantom must be recorded. In this report we demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient of ethylene glycol is well-described by Arrhenius-type behavior across the typical range of ambient MRI magnet temperatures. Because of ethylene glycol’s utility as an NMR chemical-shift thermometer, the same 1H MR spectroscopy measurements that are used for gradient calibration also simultaneously “report” the sample temperature. The high viscosity of ethylene glycol makes it well-suited for assessing gradient performance in demanding diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy sequences. PMID:22127787

  9. Dodecanol-poly(D,L-lactic acid)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-folate (Dol-PLA-PEG-FA) nanoparticles: evaluation of cell cytotoxicity and selecting capability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sujun; Luo, Yanfeng; Zeng, Suyun; Luo, Chunhua; Yang, Li; Liang, Zhiqing; Wang, Yuanliang

    2013-02-01

    Folate-conjugated Dol-poly(D,L-lactic acid)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-folate (Dol-PLA-PEG-FA), was synthesized from dodecanol-poly(D,L-lactic acid), amino-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) and folate. (1)H NMR proved the successful synthesis of Dol-PLA-PEG-FA. Nanoparticles (NPs) were further fabricated from Dol-PLA-PEG-FA by using solvent evaporation-induced interfacial self-assembly method. The size, critical micelle concentration (CMC), cytotoxicity and selecting capability to cancer cells in vitro were examined for Dol-PLA-PEG-FA NPs. The size of NPs showed polymer concentration-dependent phenomenon in the fabrication process, and its polydispersity index (PDI) was very narrow. The CMC was determined as 1.995×10(-4) g/L in aqueous solution, which is much lower than the reported CMC of block copolymer self-assemble micelles. The cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the obtained NPs2 are non-toxic to either breast cancer cell or normal endothelial cells, and the cell uptake of NPs indicated that the NPs demonstrated much higher selecting capability to breast cancer cells compared to normal fibroblast cells. The possible receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway mechanism was proposed. Based on the above results, it could be concluded that Dol-PLA-PEG-FA polymer and its nanoparticles can be potentially used as a safe drug carrier with strong tumor cells targeting capability for tumor chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lysozyme release and polymer erosion behavior of injectable implants prepared from PLGA-PEG block copolymers and PLGA/PLGA-PEG blends

    PubMed Central

    Milacic, Vesna; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the controlled release lysozyme from various poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 50/50-polyethylene glycol (PEG) block copolymers relative to PLGA 50/50. Methods Lysozyme was encapsulated in cylindrical implants (0.8 mm diameter) by a solvent extrusion method. Release studies were conducted in phosphate buffered saline + 0.02 % Tween 80 (PBST) at 37°C. Lysozyme activity was measured by a fluorescence-based assay. Implant erosion was evaluated by kinetics of polymer molecular weight decline, water uptake, and mass loss. Results Lysozyme release from an AB15 di-block copolymer (15% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 28 kDa) was very fast, whereas an AB10 di-block copolymer (with 10% 5 kDa PEG, PLGA 45 kDa) and ABA10 tri-block copolymer (with 10% 6 kDa PEG, PLGA 27kDa) showed release profiles similar to PLGA. We achieved continuous lysozyme release for up to 4 weeks from AB10 and ABA10 by lysozyme co-encapsulation with the pore- forming and acid-neutralizing MgCO3, and from AB15 by co-encapsulation of MgCO3 and blending AB15 with PLGA. Lysozyme activity was mostly recovered during four weeks. Conclusions These block co-polymers may have utility either alone or as PLGA blends for the controlled release of proteins. PMID:23959854

  11. Hydrophilic poly (ethylene glycol) capped poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles for subcutaneous delivery of insulin in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    S, Saravanan; S, Malathi; P S L, Sesh; S, Selvasubramanian; S, Balasubramanian; V, Pandiyan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of insulin loaded poly(ethylene glycol) capped poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid nanoparticles (ISPPLG NPs) by subcutaneous administration in diabetic rats. A series of biodegradable low molecular weight PLGA [90/10 (PLG2) and 80/20 (PLG4)] copolymers were synthesized by melt polycondensation and their ISPPLG NPs were synthesized by water-oil-water (W/O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation method. The PLGA copolymers and their nanoparticles were characterized. The maximum encapsulation efficiency of ISPPLG4 NPs is 66% and the diameter of the nanoparticles is about 140nm. The in-vivo studies of ISPPLG NPs carried out in diabetic rats by subcutaneous administration show considerable reduction in serum glucose level along with partial restoration of tissue defense systems. Histopathological studies reveal that ISPPLG NPs could restore the damages caused by oxidants during hyperglycaemia. The subcutaneous administration of ISPPLG4 NPs is thus an effective method of reducing hyperglycaemia associated complications.

  12. Microscopic cleanliness evaluation of the apical root canal after using calcium hydroxide mixed with chlorhexidine, propylene glycol, or antibiotic paste.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana M; Andrade Junior, Carlos V; Zaia, Alexandre A; Pessoa, Oscar F

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluated cleaning of the dentinal wall after removal of different calcium hydroxide pastes. Sixty-eight single-rooted teeth were prepared using the step-back technique and randomly divided into 4 groups according to medication used: Ca(OH)2 with 0.2% chlorhexidine solution (Group 1), Ca(OH)2 with propylene glycol (Group 2), Ca(OH)2 with antibiotic paste (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole) and distilled water (Group 3), and Ca(OH)2 with antibiotic paste and propylene glycol (Group 4). The samples were stored at 37 °C and 100% relative humidity for 21 days. The medicaments were removed using 5 mL 1% NaOCl, instrumentation with master apical file, 5 mL 1% NaOCl, patency with the K-file #10, ultrasonic instrumentation, and 10 mL 17% EDTA-T. The specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis (α = 5%) test showed that were no differences between the experimental groups when comparing Ca(OH)2 removal (P = .0951). The chi-square test (α = 5%) indicated a predominance of Ca(OH)2 obstructing dental tubules in all groups. On the basis of the methodology applied, it was concluded that the apical dentine surface remained equally covered by Ca(OH)2, regardless of the vehicle used.

  13. Total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin and (-)-o-quinogeldanamycin: asymmetric glycolate aldol reactions and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Merritt B; Meredith, Erik L; Hicken, Erik J; Simmons, Bryon L; Glancey, Russell R; Ma, Wei

    2003-10-17

    The total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin (GA), following a linear route, has been completed using a demethylative quinone-forming reaction as the last step. Key steps include the use of two new asymmetric boron glycolate aldol reactions. To set the anti-C11,12 hydroxymethoxy functionality, (S,S)-5,6-bis-4-methoxyphenyldioxanone 8 was used. Methylglycolate derived from norephedrine 5 set the C6,7 methoxyurethane stereochemistry. The quinone formation step using nitric acid gave the non-natural o-quino-GA product 55 10:1 over geldanamycin. Other known oxidants gave an unusual azaquinone product 49. o-Quino-GA 55 binds Hsp90 with good affinity but is less cytotoxic compared to GA.

  14. Thermally sensitive polypeptide-based copolymer for DNA complexation into stable nanosized polyplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Emilya; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Kozarova, Rahila; Turmanova, Sevdalina; Apostolova, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy based on non-viral synthetic delivery vectors has attracted much attention in the past two decades. However, it is still in clinical trial stages, mainly due to the lack of safe and efficient delivery vehicles. Herein, we report on the synthesis and DNA complexation ability of novel, hybrid copolymer comprising poly( N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) block with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains and a polycationic block of poly( l-lysine) (PLLys). The copolymer was synthesized in a two-step procedure. In the first step, a thermally sensitive PNIPAm- g-PEG copolymer with terminal ammonium hydrochloride group was prepared. The second step involves controlled ring-opening polymerization of Z- l-lysine N-carboxyanhydride initiated by the PNIPAm- g-PEG macroinitiator. The hybrid copolymer obtained show high ability to condense DNA into stable polyplexes with sizes below 100 nm. Cytotoxicity evaluation of both hybrid copolymer and its polyplex with DNA indicates that it might be a good candidate for gene-delivery applications.

  15. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 83-166-1594, Witco Chemical Corporation, Perth Amboy, New Jersey. [Ethylene oxide, glycols, and adipic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, C.E.; Roseman, J.

    1985-05-01

    Area and personel air samples were analyzed for ethylene oxide, glycols, and adipic-acid at the Witco Chemical Corporation, Perth Amboy, New Jersey from November to December, 1983 and May, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the union to investigate possible health effects due to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), glycols, and ethylene oxide. The evaluation was assigned to the New Jersey State Department of Health. The authors conclude that health hazards due to ethylene oxide and airborne fatty acid exposures exist. Recommendations include improving ventilation and work practices and implementing an OSHA approved respirator program.

  16. Tissue engineering of fish skin: behavior of fish cells on poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) copolymers in relation to the composition of the polymer substrate as an initial step in constructing a robotic/living tissue hybrid.

    PubMed

    Pouliot, Roxane; Azhari, Rosa; Qanadilo, Hala F; Mahmood, Tahir A; Triantafyllou, Michael S; Langer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the development of a biosynthetic fish skin to be used on aquatic robots that can emulate fish. Smoothness of the external surface is desired in improving high propulsive efficiency and maneuvering agility of autonomous underwater vehicles such as the RoboTuna (Triantafyllou, M., and Triantafyllou, G. Sci. Am. 272, 64, 1995). An initial step was to determine the seeding density and select a polymer for the scaffolds. The attachment and proliferation of chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) and brown bullhead (BB) cells were studied on different compositions of a poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate) (PEGT) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) copolymer (Polyactive). Polymer films were used, cast of three different compositions of PEGT/PBT (weight ratios of 55/45, 60/40, and 70/30) and two different molecular masses of PEGT (300 and 1000 Da). When a 55 wt% and a 300-Da molecular mass form of PEGT was used, maximum attachment and proliferation of CHSE-214 and BB cells were achieved. Histological studies and immunostaining indicate the presence of collagen and cytokeratins in the extracellular matrix formed after 14 days of culture. Porous scaffolds of PEGT/PBT copolymers were also used for three-dimensional tissue engineering of fish skin, using BB cells. Overall, our results indicate that fish cells can attach, proliferate, and express fish skin components on dense and porous Polyactive scaffolds.

  17. pH-sensitive micelles self-assembled from multi-arm star triblock co-polymers poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) for controlled anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, You Qiang; Zhao, Bin; Li, Zhen Dong; Lin, Wen Jing; Zhang, Can Yang; Guo, Xin Dong; Wang, Ju Fang; Zhang, Li Juan

    2013-08-01

    A series of amphiphilic 4- and 6-armed star triblock co-polymers poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (4/6AS-PCL-b-PDEAEMA-b-PPEGMA) were developed by a combination of ring opening polymerization and continuous activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization. The critical micelle concentration values of the star co-polymers in aqueous solution were extremely low (2.2-4.0mgl(-1)), depending on the architecture of the co-polymers. The self-assembled blank and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded three layer micelles were spherical in shape with an average size of 60-220nm determined by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The in vitro release behavior of DOX from the three layer micelles exhibited pH-dependent properties. The DOX release rate was significantly accelerated by decreasing the pH from 7.4 to 5.0, due to swelling of the micelles at lower pH values caused by the protonation of tertiary amine groups in DEAEMA in the middle layer of the micelles. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded micelles to HepG2 cells suggested that the 4/6AS-PCL-b-PDEAEMA-b-PPEGMA micelles could provide equivalent or even enhanced anticancer activity and bioavailability of DOX and thus a lower dosage is sufficient for the same therapeutic efficacy. The results demonstrate that the pH-sensitive multilayer micelles could have great potential application in delivering hydrophobic anticancer drugs for improved cancer therapy.

  18. Ethylene glycol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene glycol ; CASRN 107 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  19. Propylene glycol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol ; CASRN 57 - 55 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy and Tolerability of Glycolic Acid, Salicylic Mandelic Acid, and Phytic Acid Combination Peels in Melasma.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay; Bansal, Shivani; Sethi, Sumit; Gupta, Chitra

    2016-03-01

    Melasma is acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by light-to-deep brown pigmentation over cheeks, forehead, upper lip, and nose. Treatment of this condition is difficult and associated with high recurrence rates. Chemical peels have become a popular modality in the treatment of melasma. To compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of glycolic acid (35%) versus salicylic-mandelic (SM) acid (20% salicylic/10% mandelic acid) versus phytic combination peels in Indian patients with melasma. Ninety patients diagnosed with melasma were randomly assigned into 3 groups of 30 patients each. Group A received glycolic acid (GA-35%) peel, Group B received SM acid, and Group C received phytic combination peels. Each group was primed with 4% hydroquinone and 0.05% tretinoin cream for 4 weeks before treatment. Chemical peeling was done after every 14 days in all groups until 12 weeks. Clinical evaluation using melasma area and severity index (MASI) score and photography was recorded at every visit and follow-up was done until 20 weeks. There was a decrease in MASI score in all 3 groups but it was statistically significantly lower in Group A than Group C (p = .00), and it was also statistically significantly lower in Group B than Group C (p = .00) but there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (p = .876). Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was 62.36% reduction in GA group, 60.98% reduction in SM group, and 44.71% in phytic acid group. It is concluded that GA (35%) and SM acid peels are both equally efficacious and a safe treatment modality for melasma in Indian skin, and are more effective than phytic acid peels. Salicylic-mandelic peels are better tolerated and more suitable for Indian skin.

  1. Evaluation of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) containing copolymer networks of varied composition as sustained metoprolol tartrate delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Bistra; Ivanova, Sijka; Balashev, Konstantin; Rachev, Dimitar; Christova, Darinka

    2014-08-01

    Segmented copolymer networks (SCN) based on poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, and/or methyl methacrylate segments have been evaluated as potential sustained release systems of the water soluble cardioselective β-blocker metoprolol tartrate. The structure and properties of the drug carriers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Swelling kinetics of SCNs in various media was followed, and the conditions for effective MT loading were specified. MT-loaded SCNs with drug content up to 80 wt.% were produced. The release kinetics of metoprolol tartrate from the systems was studied and it was shown that the conetworks of different structure and composition are able to sustain the metoprolol tartrate release without additional excipients.

  2. Evaluation of diclofenac sodium sustained release matrix pellets: impact of polyethylene glycols molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, A; Shazly, A

    2014-01-01

    Sustained release matrix pellets loaded with 5% w/w diclofenac sodium (DS) were prepared using extrusion/spheronization technique. Different polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of different molecular weight, namely PEG 2000, PEG 4000 and PEG 6000, were mixed with avicel PH 101 in different weight ratios to manufacture the pellet formulations and water was used as a binder. Mix torque rheometer was used to characterize the pellets' wet mass. Also, the prepared pellets were characterized for their particle sizes, DS content, shape and morphology as well as the in vitro drug release. The results showed increasing PEG weight ratio resulted in a reduction of wet mass torque as well as binder ratio, especially at PEG high weight ratios (30% and 50%) and the extent of lowering wet mass peak torque was inversely proportional to PEG molecular weight. The manufactured pellets exhibited size range of 993 μm to 1085 μm with small span values. The drug release from pellets was governed by the molecular weight of PEG used, since increasing PEG molecular weight resulted in slowing the drug release rate from pellets, but increasing its level resulted in enhancing release rate. This was attributed to increasing pellet wet mass peak torque by increasing PEG molecular weight and lowering it by increasing PEG level. The prepared pellets showed non-Fickian or anomalous drug release or the coupled diffusion/polymer relaxation.

  3. EVALUATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX PELLETS: IMPACT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS MOLECULAR WEIGHT.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Shazly, Gamal A

    2015-01-01

    Sustained release matrix pellets loaded with 5% w/w diclofenac sodium (DS) were prepared using extrusion/spheronization technique. Different polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of different molecular weight, namely PEG 2000, PEG 4000 and PEG 6000 were mixed with avicel PH 101® in different weight ratios to manufacture the pellet formulations and water was used as a binder. Mix torque rheomter was used to characterize the pellets' wet mass. Also, the prepared pellets were characterized for their particle sizes, DS content, shape and morphology as well as the in vitro drug release. The results showed that increasing PEG weight ratio resulted in a reduction of wet mass torque as well as binder ratio, especially at PEG high weight ratios (30% and 50%) and the extent of lowering wet mass peak torque was inversely proportional to PEG molecular weight. The manufactured pellets exhibited size range of 993 to 1085 µm with small span values. The drug release from pellets was governed by the molecular weight of PEG used, since increasing PEG molecular weight resulted in slowing the drug release rate from pellets, but increasing its level resulted in enhancing release rate. This was attributed to increasing pellet wet mass peak torque by increasing PEG molecular weight and lowering it by increasing PEG level. The prepared pellets showed non-Fickian or anomalous drug release or the coupled diffusion/polymer relaxation.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of degradable polyurea block copolymers as siRNA delivery agents.

    PubMed

    Cass, Peter; Knower, Warren; Hinton, Tracey; Shi, Shuning; Grusche, Felix; Tizard, Mark; Gunatillake, Pathiraja

    2013-09-01

    Chain extension by diisocyanate condensation provides a versatile and convenient means for preparing block copolymers. We have utilized this chemistry to prepare reducible multiblock polycations for siRNA delivery. This approach, an alternative to oxidative coupling, was suitable for preparing multiblock polycations with defined molecular weight and architecture. The polymer, PEG-b-multi-(polyhexylurea-co-oligo-L-lysine)-b-PEG, was capable of electrostatically condensing siRNA to form nano-sized polyplexes across a broad compositional range. We demonstrated that the polyplexes enter the cells via endocytosis and interact with the endosome membrane leading to destabilization and hence endosome escape. Another feature of these polymers is their multiple intra-chain disulfide linkages. This enables weakening of the polyplex via chain scission within the cytosol's reductive environment. In addition to the controlled preparation of the polymer, the polyplexes were capable of delivering siRNA in vitro to silence greater than 50% green fluorescent protein expression with negligible toxicity.

  5. Evaluation of the matrix effect on gas chromatography--mass spectrometry with carrier gas containing ethylene glycol as an analyte protectant.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Tomoharu; Ikami, Takahito; Sato, Takashi; Kikukawa, Koji; Kobayashi, Masato; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2016-02-19

    The consequences of matrix effects in GC are a major issue of concern in pesticide residue analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of an analyte protectant generator in pesticide residue analysis using a GC-MS system. The technique is based on continuous introduction of ethylene glycol into the carrier gas. Ethylene glycol as an analyte protectant effectively compensated the matrix effects in agricultural product extracts. All peak intensities were increased by this technique without affecting the GC-MS performance. Calibration curves for ethylene glycol in the GC-MS system with various degrees of pollution were compared and similar response enhancements were observed. This result suggests a convenient multi-residue GC-MS method using an analyte protectant generator instead of the conventional compensation method for matrix-induced response enhancement adding the mixture of analyte protectants into both neat and sample solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Liraglutide-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres: Preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junzi; Williams, Gareth R; Branford-White, Christopher; Li, Heyu; Li, Yan; Zhu, Li-Min

    2016-09-20

    In this work, we sought to generate sustained-release injectable microspheres loaded with the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide. Using water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion methods, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with liraglutide were prepared. The microspheres gave sustained drug release over 30days, with cumulative release of up to 90% reached in vitro. The microspheres were further studied in a rat model of diabetes, and their performance compared with a group given daily liraglutide injections. Reduced blood sugar levels were seen in the microsphere treatment groups, with the results being similar to those obtained with conventional injections between 10 and 25days after the commencement of treatment. After 5 and 30days of treatment, the microspheres seem a little slower to act than the injections. The pathology of the rats' spleen, heart, kidney and lungs was probed after the 30-day treatment period, and the results indicated that the microspheres were safe and had beneficial effects on the liver, reducing the occurrence of fatty deposits seen in untreated diabetic rats. Moreover, in terms of liver, renal and cardiac functions, and blood lipid and antioxidant levels, the microspheres were as effective as the injections. The expression of several proteases linked to the metabolism of aliphatic acids and homocysteine was promoted by the microsphere formulations. Inflammatory markers in the microsphere treatment groups were somewhat higher than the injection group, however. The liraglutide/PLGA microspheres prepared in this work are overall shown to be efficacious in a rat model of diabetes, and we thus believe they have strong potential for clinical use.

  7. Preparation of poly(cyclooctene)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCOE-g-PEG) graft copolymers with tunable PEG side chains via ROMP and its protein adsorption and platelet adhesion properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Shi, Dean; Wang, Xueli; Shi, Hengchong; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Yingkui; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua; Li, Robert K Y

    2014-12-01

    In our previous work [H. Shi, D. Shi et al., Polymer Chemistry 2(2011)679-684], polycyclooctene-g-PEG (PCOE-g-PEG) copolymers were synthesized via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) from PEG functionalized cyclic olefin macromonomers and cyclooctene. The grafting degree and the grafting site were easily controlled through the "grafting through" approach. The PCOE-g-PEG film surface was imparted excellent anti-protein adsorption properties. In that work, the molecular weight of PEG side chain was fixed at 750 g/mol and the neat PEG content in the copolymer was lower than 50 wt.%. In this work, both the effects of PEG side chain lengths (350 to 1000 g/mol) at a fixed PEG content (50 wt.%) and the neat PEG content (30 wt.% to 70 wt.%) at a fixed PEG molecular weight (750 g/mol) on the anti-protein adsorption and anti-platelet adhesion properties are studied. It is shown that the copolymer with 60 wt.% PEG side chains of 750 g/mol, where both PEG and PCOE form continuous morphology, is optimal to reduce the adsorption of both the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and platelet. When the PEG content reaches 70 wt.%, phase inversion happens. PEG is the continuous phase but PCOE becomes the dispersed phase. The surface roughness of the casting PCOE-g-PEG film increases. In this case, both BSA adsorption and platelet adhesion will slightly increase comparing to the sample with 60 wt.% PEG.

  8. Self-assembled supramolecular hydrogel based on PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer and γ-cyclodextrin inclusion complex for sustained delivery of dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Gharechahi, Marzieh; Alibolandi, Mona; Tekie, Farnaz Sadat Mirzazadeh; Khashyarmanesh, Bibi Zahra; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, thermosensitive, water-soluble, and biodegradable triblock copolymer PCL600-PEG6000-PCL600 was used to form supramolecular hydrogel (SMGel) by inclusion complexation with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). The prepared SMGel was investigated as a carrier for sustained release of dexamethasone. The triblock copolymer PCL-PEG-PCL [where PCL = polycaprolactone, PEG = poly(ethylene glycol)] was synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization method using microwave irradiation. The polymerization reaction and the copolymer structures were evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). SMGel was prepared in aqueous solution by blending an aqueous γ-CD solution with aqueous solution of PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer at room temperature. The sol-to-gel transition time was measured at various concentrations of copolymer and γ-CD. As-prepared SMGel was used to prepare a sustained, controllable drug delivery system of dexamethasone sodium phosphate. The SMGel was also characterized in terms of rheological, morphological, and structural properties. Results obtained from proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1H-NMR) and GPC demonstrated that microwave irradiation is a simple and reliable method for synthesis of PEG-PCL copolymer. The SMGel with excellent syringability was prepared by mixing of 20% wt γ-CD and 10% wt of copolymer within 4 s. The SMGel containing 10% wt copolymer, 20% wt γ-CD, and 0.5% or 0.1% wt dexamethasone released approximately 100% and 45% of drug over up to 23 days, respectively. It could be concluded that SMGel based on self-assembly of inclusion complexes between PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer and γ-CD could be used as a basis for injectable drug delivery systems that provide sustained and controlled release of macromolecular drugs such as dexamethasone. PMID:27051627

  9. Cisplatin Loaded Poly(L-glutamic acid)-g-Methoxy Poly(ethylene glycol) Complex Nanoparticles for Potential Cancer Therapy: Preparation, In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyang; Tang, Zhaohui; Li, Mingqiang; Song, Wantong; Zhang, Dawei; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Yan; Sun, Hai; Deng, Mingxiao; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel polypeptide-based graft copolymer poly(L-glutamic acid)-graft-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PLG-g-mPEG) was synthesized through a Steglich esterification reaction of PLG with mPEG. The structure of the copolymers was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). MTT assay demonstrated that the PLG-g-mPEGs had good cell compatibility. The unreacted carboxyl groups of the PLG-g-mPEGs were used to complex cisplatin to form polymer-metal complex nanoparticles (CDDP/PLG-g-mPEG) for cancer therapy. The average hydrodynamic radius of the CDDP/PLG-g-mPEG nanoparticles was inr the range of 14-25 nm, which was beneficial for solid tumor targeting delivery. A sustained release without initial burst was achieved for the CDDP/PLG-g-mPEG nanoparticles, indicating that the CDDP-loaded nanoparticles had great potential to suppress the drug release in blood circulation before the nanoparticles had arrived at targeting tumors. The CDDP/PLG-g-mPEG nanoparticles showed a much longer blood retention profile as compared with the free CDDP. This indicated that the CDDP-loaded nanoparticles had much more opportunity to accumulate in tumor tissue by exerting the EPR effect. In vitro tests demonstrated that the CDDP/PLG-g-mPEG nanoparticles could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa, MCF-7 and A549 cancer cells. At equal dose (4 mg kg(-1)), the CDDP/PLG-g-mPEG nanoparticles showed comparable in vivo antitumor efficacy and significantly lower systemic toxicity as compared with free cis-Diaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) in MCF-7 tumor bearing mice. These suggested that the CDDP/PLG-g-mPEG nanoparticle drug delivery system had a great potential to be used for cancer therapy.

  10. Functional evaluation of a novel vitreous substitute using polyethylene glycol sols injected into a foldable capsular vitreous body.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han; Feng, Songfu; Liu, Yaqin; Huang, Zhen; Sun, Xuyuan; Zhou, Lian; Lu, Xiaohe; Gao, Qianying

    2013-09-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a short-term (41 days) potential vitreous substitute and is too short for an ideal vitreous substitute. Previously, a foldable capsular vitreous body (FCVB) was designed to mimic vitreous function. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether PEG injected into FCVB can serve as a long-term vitreous substitute. In vitro study, a concentration of 5% (w/v) PEG sols showed natural-like mechanical and optical properties in terms of pH, density, light transmittance, refractive index, interfacial tension, viscosity, rheology, and cytotoxicity. Then in vivo tests, 30 rabbits received standard pars plana vitrectomy, of which 12 eyes were implanted with PEG injected into FCVB, nine eyes were injected with PEG sols alone, and nine others were injected with balance salt solution as control. A clinical evaluation of the anterior segment, fundus, and intraocular pressure was measured pre- and postoperatively up to 180 days, which showed that FCVBs had good retina supporting function, except for a higher incidence of cataracts. Gross pathology, hematoxylin and eosin, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining analysis also showed that FCVBs had good biocompatibility, and that all quadrants of the capsular wall fitted well with the retina. This study demonstrated that PEG injected into FCVB can serve as a long-term vitreous substitute and has potential clinical use. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reduced hydrophobic interaction of polystyrene surfaces by spontaneous segregation of block copolymers with oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate blocks: force measurements in water using atomic force microscope with hydrophobic probes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Seki, Akiko; Ishizone, Takashi; Yokoyama, Hideaki

    2008-05-20

    Reduction of hydrophobic interaction in water is important in biological interfaces. In our previous work, we have found that poly(styrene- b-triethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PS-PME3MA) segregates the PME3MA block to the surface in hydrophobic environment, such as in air or in a vacuum, and shows remarkable resistance against adsorption or adhesion of proteins, platelets, and cells in water. In this paper, we report that atomic force microscopy (AFM) with hydrophobic probes can directly monitor the reduced hydrophobic interaction of the PS surfaces modified by poly(styrene- b-origoethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PS-PME NMA), where N is the number of ethylene glycol units. The pull-off forces between the hydrophobic probes that are coated with octyltrichlorosilane (OLTS) and the PS-PME NMA modified polystyrene (PS) surfaces in water were measured. The absolute spring constants and tip-curvatures of the AFM cantilevers were measured to compute the work of adhesion by the Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts (JKR) theory, which relates the pull-off force at which the separation occurs between a hemisphere and a plane to the work of adhesion. The hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic tip and polymer surfaces in water were greatly reduced with the segregated PME NMA blocks. The hydrophobic interactions decrease with increasing N of the series of PS-PME NMA and show a correlation with the amount of protein adsorbed.

  12. Development of corn starch based green composites reinforced with Saccharum spontaneum L fiber and graft copolymers--evaluation of thermal, physico-chemical and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Jana, A K; Maiti, M

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, corn starch based green composites reinforced with graft copolymers of Saccharum spontaneum L. (Ss) fiber and methyl methacrylates (MMA) and its mixture with acrylamide (AAm), acrylonitrile (AN), acrylic acid (AA) were prepared. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (Rf) was used as the cross-linking agent in corn starch matrix and different physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were evaluated. The matrix and composites were found to be thermally more stable than the natural corn starch backbone. Further the matrix and composites were subjected for biodegradation studies through soil composting method. Different stages of biodegradation were evaluated through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. S. spontaneum L fiber-reinforced composites were found to exhibit better tensile strength. On the other hand Ss-g-poly (MMA) reinforced composites showed maximum compressive strength and wear resistance than other graft copolymers reinforced composite and the basic matrix. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethylene glycol blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a type ...

  14. Effect of ethyl-alpha-hydroxymethylacrylate on selected properties of copolymers and ACP resin composites.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Joseph M; Fowler, Bruce O; Weir, Michael D; Skrtic, Drago; Stansbury, Jeffrey W

    2008-10-01

    There is an increased interest in the development of bioactive polymeric dental composites and related materials that have potential for mineralized tissue regeneration and preservation. This study explores how the substitution of ethyl alpha-hydroxymethylacryate (EHMA) for 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in photo-activated 2,2-bis[p-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA) and Bis-GMA/tri(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resins affected selected physicochemical properties of the polymers and their amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites. Rate of polymerization and the degree of conversion (DC) of polymers {EHMA (E), HEMA (H), Bis-GMA/EHMA (BE), Bis-GMA/HEMA (BH), Bis-GMA/TEGDMA/EHMA (BTE) and Bis-GMA/TEGDMA/HEMA (BTH)} were assessed by photo-differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. ACP/BTE and ACP/BTH composites were evaluated for DC, biaxial flexure strength (BFS), water sorption (WS) and mineral ion release. Mid-FTIR and near-IR measurements revealed the following order of decreasing DC: [E, H polymers (97.0%)] > [BE copolymer (89.9%)] > [BH copolymer (86.2%)] > [BTE, BTH copolymers (85.5%)] > [ACP/BTH composite (82.6%)] > [ACP/BTE composite (79.3%)]. Compared to HEMA, EHMA did not adversely affect the BFS of its copolymers and/or ACP composites. Lower WS of BTE copolymers and composites (28% and 14%, respectively, compared to the BTH copolymers and composites) only marginal reduced the ion release from ACP/BTE composites compared to ACP/BTH composites. More hydrophobic ACP composites with acceptable ion-releasing properties were developed by substituting the less hydrophilic EHMA for HEMA.

  15. Clickable Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Isaacman, Michael J; Barron, Kathryn A; Theogarajan, Luke S

    2012-06-15

    Amphiphilic polymers have recently garnered much attention due to their potential use in drug-delivery and other biomedical applications. A modular synthesis of these polymers is extremely desirable since it offers precise individual block characterization and increased yields. We present here for the first time a modular synthesis of poly(oxazoline)-poly(siloxane)-poly(oxazoline) block copolymers that have been clicked together using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Various click methodologies for the synthesis of these polymers have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The approach using copper nanoparticles was found to be the most optimal among the methods evaluated. Furthermore, these results were extended to allow for a reactive Si-H group-based siloxane middle block to be successfully clicked. This enables the design of more complex amphiphilic block copolymers that have additional functionality, such as stimuli responsiveness, to be synthesized via a simple hydrosilylation reaction.

  16. Safety evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(lactic-acid) microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xianfang; Yuan, Weien; Lu, Yi; Mo, Xiaofen

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and/or poly(lactic-acid) (PLA) microspheres are important drug delivery systems. This study investigated eye biocompatibility and safety of PLGA/PLA microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits. Normal New Zealand rabbits were randomly selected and received intravitreal administration of different doses (low, medium, or high) of PLGA/PLA microspheres and erythropoietin-loaded PLGA/PLA microspheres. The animals were clinically examined and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postadministration, and retinal tissues were prepared for analysis. Retinal reactions to the microspheres were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. Retinal structure changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, retinal function influences were explored by the electroretinography test. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining revealed no apoptotic cells in the injected retinas; immunohistochemistry did not detect any increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed no micro- or ultrastructure changes in the retinas at different time points postintravitreal injection. The electroretinography test showed no significant influence of scotopic or photopic amplitudes. The results demonstrated that PLGA/PLA microspheres did not cause retinal histological changes or functional damage and were biocompatible and safe enough for intravitreal injection in rabbits for controlled drug delivery.

  17. Safety evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(lactic-acid) microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xianfang; Yuan, Weien; Lu, Yi; Mo, Xiaofen

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and/or poly(lactic-acid) (PLA) microspheres are important drug delivery systems. This study investigated eye biocompatibility and safety of PLGA/PLA microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits. Normal New Zealand rabbits were randomly selected and received intravitreal administration of different doses (low, medium, or high) of PLGA/PLA microspheres and erythropoietin-loaded PLGA/PLA microspheres. The animals were clinically examined and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postadministration, and retinal tissues were prepared for analysis. Retinal reactions to the microspheres were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. Retinal structure changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, retinal function influences were explored by the electroretinography test. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining revealed no apoptotic cells in the injected retinas; immunohistochemistry did not detect any increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed no micro- or ultrastructure changes in the retinas at different time points postintravitreal injection. The electroretinography test showed no significant influence of scotopic or photopic amplitudes. The results demonstrated that PLGA/PLA microspheres did not cause retinal histological changes or functional damage and were biocompatible and safe enough for intravitreal injection in rabbits for controlled drug delivery. PMID:25028546

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the biocompatibility of a calcium phosphate/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite.

    PubMed

    Gala-García, A; Carneiro, M B H; Silva, G A B; Ferreira, L S; Vieira, L Q; Marques, M M; Sinisterra, R D; Cortes, M E

    2012-07-01

    This study assess the effects of bioceramic and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite (BCP/PLGA) on the viability of cultured macrophages and human dental pulp fibroblasts, and we sought to elucidate the temporal profile of the reaction of pulp capping with a composite of bioceramic of calcium phosphate and biodegradable polymer in the progression of delayed dentine bridge after (30 and 60 days) in vivo. Histological evaluation of inflammatory infiltrate and dentin bridge formation were performed after 30 and 60 days. There was similar progressive fibroblast growth in all groups and the macrophages showed viability. The in vivo study showed that of the three experimental groups: BCP/PLGA composite, BCP and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) dentin bridging was the most prevalent (90 %) in the BCP/PLGA composite after 30 days, mild to moderate inflammatory response was present throughout the pulp after 30 days. After 60 days was observed dentine bridging in 60 % and necrosis in 40 %, in both groups. The results indicate that understanding BCP/PLGA composite is biocompatible and by the best tissue response as compared to calcium hydroxide in direct pulp capping may be important in the mechanism of delayed dentine bridge after 30 and 60 days.

  19. Design and evaluation of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanocomposite particles containing salmon calcitonin for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingshi; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Kurashima, Homare; Takeuchi, Hirofumi; Yokoyama, Toyokazu; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2012-08-15

    Salmon calcitonin, for the treatment of calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling, was used as a model peptide drug and adsorbed on the surface of biodegradable polymeric poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanospheres. Subsequently, the nanospheres were treated using lyophilizer and loaded onto inhalable carrier using Mechanofusion to obtain nanocomposite particles suitable for inhalation. The physicochemical properties and in vitro inhalation properties of the nanocomposite particles were investigated. The pulmonary distribution and pharmacological effect were also evaluated in male Wistar rats. The results showed that the drug loading efficiency of salmon calcitonin on PLGA nanospheres were exceeding 96% (w/w). Inhalation efficiency of the lyophilized PLGA nanospheres was largely improved after they were loaded on the surface of inhalable carrier. Over 50% (w/w) of the lyophilized PLGA nanospheres could be deposited in the alveoli section after intratracheal administration to male Wistar rats, while a rapid elimination rate of the lyophilized nanospheres from the lung was found in pulmonary distribution study. The in vivo pharmacological study showed that the nanocomposite particles exhibited superior hypocalcemic action over salmon calcitonion solution and the lyophilized nanospheres. It suggested that the Mechanofusion(TM) technique can impart improved inhalation properties to the lyophilized nanospheres for pulmonary delivery of therapeutic peptide drugs.

  20. Use of amphiphilic triblock copolymers for enhancing removal efficiency of organic pollutant from contaminated media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun Hyup; Lee, Byungsun; Son, Intae; Kim, Jae Hong; Kim, Chunho; Yoo, Ji Yong; Wu, Jong-Pyo; Kim, Younguk

    2015-11-01

    We have studied amphiphilic triblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(propylene glycol)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG- b-PPG- b-PEG) and poly(propylene glycol)- b-poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(propylene glycol) (PPG- b-PEG- b-PPG) as possible substitutes for sodium dodecyl sulfate as anionic surfactants for the removal of hydrophobic contaminants. The triblock copolymers were compared with sodium dodecyl sulfate in terms of their abilities to remove toluene as hydrophobic contaminant in fuel, and the effects of polymer structure, PEG content, and concentration were studied. The PEG- b-PPG- b-PEG copolymer containing two hydrophilic PEG blocks was more effective for the removal of hydrophobic contaminant at extremely high concentration. We also measured the removal capabilities of the triblock copolymers having various PEG contents and confirmed that removal capability was greatest at 10% PEG content regardless of polymer structure. As with sodium dodecyl sulfate, the removal efficiency of a copolymer has a positive correlation with its concentration. Finally, we proposed the amphiphilic triblock copolymer of PPG- b-PEG- b-PPG bearing 10% PEG content that proved to be the most effective substitute for sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  1. Nanoparticles of a polyaspartamide-based brush copolymer for modified release of sorafenib: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cervello, Melchiorre; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Volpe, Antonella Bavuso; Porsio, Barbara; Balasus, Daniele; Emma, Maria Rita; Azzolina, Antonina; Puleio, Roberto; Loria, Guido Ruggero; Puleo, Stefano; Giammona, Gaetano

    2017-09-14

    In this paper, we describe the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A synthetic brush copolymer, named PHEA-BIB-ButMA (PBB), was synthesized by Atom Trasnfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) starting from the α-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-d,l-aspartamide (PHEA) and poly butyl methacrylate (ButMA). Empty and sorafenib loaded PBB NPs were, then, produced by using a dialysis method and showed spherical morphology, colloidal size, negative ζ potential and the ability to allow a sustained sorafenib release in physiological environment. Sorafenib loaded PBB NPs were tested in vitro on HCC cells in order to evaluate their cytocompatibility and anticancer efficacy if compared to free drug. Furthermore, the enhanced anticancer effect of sorafenib loaded PBB NPs was demonstrated in vivo by using a xenograft model, by first allowing Hep3B cells to grow subcutaneously into nude mice and then administering sorafenib as free drug or incorporated into NPs via intraperitoneal injection. Finally, in vivo biodistribution studies were performed, showing the ability of the produced drug delivery system to accumulate in a significant manner in the solid tumor by passive targeting, thanks to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of colonic transit between polyethylene glycol and water as oral contrast vehicles in the CT evaluation of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Jeffrey J; Taylor, Andrew J; Winter, Thomas C

    2006-11-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the efficacy of a new positive oral contrast agent's ability to reach the colon during CT evaluation of acute appendicitis. Eighty adult emergency department patients who underwent abdominal CT to evaluate for appendicitis were studied. Forty patients received the department's standard dose of 1,600 mL of a water-iodinated contrast mixture (ratio of 2 mL of iodinated contrast material to 100 mL of water) with a standard delay time of 2-2.5 hours from the beginning of contrast medium ingestion. Forty patients were given a new oral contrast mixture of 1,000 mL of polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixed with 30 mL of iodinated contrast agent, and the examination was conducted only 1 hour from inception of contrast administration. Examinations were reviewed for the presence of contrast medium in the cecum and the presence of appendicitis or other abdominal abnormality. Thirty-eight of 40 patients in the PEG group had contrast medium in the colon at 1 hour after contrast administration, 20 of whom had surgically confirmed cases of appendicitis. In five other patients in that group, another cause to explain the patient's complaints was identified on imaging. Only 18 of the 40 patients who received the standard oral preparation had contrast material present in the cecum. Eleven patients in that group had confirmed appendicitis, and four others had another abnormal finding detected at CT. There was a significant difference in the success of contrast medium transit to the colon with these two agents (p < 0.0001). The use of an oral contrast agent composed of PEG and iodinated contrast material provided a marked improvement in oral agent transit to the colon even in patients with intraabdominal inflammation.

  3. Assessment of the tolerability profile of an ophthalmic solution of 5% glycyrrhizin and copolymer PEG/PPG on healthy volunteers and evaluation of its efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Mencucci, Rita; Favuzza, Eleonora; Menchini, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the tolerability on healthy volunteers and the efficacy on subjects affected by chronic moderate/severe blepharitis of a 5% glycyrrhizin and copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(propylene glycol)(PEG/PPG) ophthalmic solution. Methods The study was a randomized, controlled, open label, intra-patient monocentric study. It consisted of two different phases, the assessment of tolerability phase on 20 healthy volunteers, and the evaluation of the efficacy on 21 subjects affected by chronic moderate/severe blepharitis; the treatment period was 2 weeks, followed by 1-week of follow-up. In the efficacy phase, in both eyes, eyelid hygiene was also performed. At day 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 a complete ophthalmological examination was performed. In the tolerability phase, signs of clinical toxicity were recorded and subject-reported symptoms were collected using a questionnaire. In the efficacy phase, global signs and symptoms of blepharitis scores were collected using standardized photographic scales and questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results No ocular signs of drug toxicity were reported. During the treatment period for tolerability phase, there were statistically significant higher scores of tearing and ocular discomfort in the tolerability study group versus the tolerability control group. In the efficacy phase, differences between global scores of the two groups were statistically significant at day 0 (score of the efficacy study group was higher than the efficacy control group; P = 0.005) and at day 21 (score of the efficacy study group was lower than the efficacy control group (P ≤ 0.001).The difference of global scores at day 3, 7, 14, and 21 versus day 0 was statistically significant in both groups. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion The 5% glycyrrhizin ophthalmic solution was well tolerated in healthy volunteers and in patients with chronic moderate/severe blepharitis, and in

  4. Fluorinated/siloxane copolymer blends for fouling release: chemical characterisation and biological evaluation with algae and barnacles.

    PubMed

    Marabotti, Ilaria; Morelli, Andrea; Orsini, Lorenzo M; Martinelli, Elisa; Galli, Giancarlo; Chiellini, Emo; Lien, Einar M; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Clare, Anthony S; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Donik, Crtomir; Jenko, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Fouling-release coatings were prepared from blends of a fluorinated/siloxane copolymer with a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix in order to couple the low modulus character of PDMS with the low surface tension typical for fluorinated polymers. The content of the surface-active copolymer was varied in the blend over a broad range (0.15-10 wt % with respect to PDMS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analyses were performed on the coatings to establish the distribution of specific chemical constituents throughout the coatings, and proved enrichment in fluorine of the outermost layers of the coating surface. Addition of the fluorinated/siloxane copolymer to the PDMS matrix resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in settlement of barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, cyprids. The release of young plants of Ulva, a soft fouling species, and young barnacles showed that adhesion strength on the fluorinated/siloxane copolymer was significantly lower than the siloxane control. However, differences in adhesion strength were not directly correlated with the concentration of copolymer in the blends.

  5. Evaluation of viscoelastic poly(ethylene glycol) sols as vitreous substitutes in an experimental vitrectomy model in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Christopher D.; Crafoord, Sven; Andréasson, Sten; Arnér, Karin M.; O’Shea, Timothy M.; Langer, Robert; Ghosh, Fredrik K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ an experimental protocol for in vivo evaluation of sols of 5 wt.% poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in phosphate-buffered saline as artificial vitreous substitutes. A 20 gauge pars plana vitrectomy and posterior vitreous detachment were performed in the right eye of eight pigmented rabbits. Approximately 1 ml of the viscoelastic PEG sols was then injected into the vitreous space of six eyes. PEG with an average molecular weight of 300,000 and 400,000 g mol−1 was used in two and four eyes, respectively. Two eyes received balanced salt solution and served as controls. Full-field electroretinography was carried out and intra-ocular pressure (IOP, palpation) measured pre- and post-operatively at regular intervals up to 41 days. The rabbits were killed and the eyes examined by retinal photography, gross macroscopic examination and histology. The viscoelastic sols were successfully injected and remained translucent throughout the post-operative period, with some inferior formation of precipitates. None of the eyes displayed IOP elevation post-operatively, but in three of the PEG sol injected eyes transient hypotony was noted. One eye sustained retinal detachment during surgery and another two in the post-operative period. ERG recordings confirmed preservation of retinal function in three out of four eyes injected with 400,000 g mol−1 PEG. Histological examination revealed up-regulation of glial acidic fibrillary protein in Müller cells in PEG sol injected eyes, but normal overall morphology in eyes with attached retinas. The viscosity of the sol was not retained throughout the post-operative period, indicating the demand for polymer cross-linking to increase residence time. The results provide promising preliminary results on the use of PEG hydrogels as a vitreous substitute. PMID:21081184

  6. Evaluation of viscoelastic poly(ethylene glycol) sols as vitreous substitutes in an experimental vitrectomy model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Christopher D; Crafoord, Sven; Andréasson, Sten; Arnér, Karin M; O'Shea, Timothy M; Langer, Robert; Ghosh, Fredrik K

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to employ an experimental protocol for in vivo evaluation of sols of 5 wt.% poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in phosphate-buffered saline as artificial vitreous substitutes. A 20 gauge pars plana vitrectomy and posterior vitreous detachment were performed in the right eye of eight pigmented rabbits. Approximately 1 ml of the viscoelastic PEG sols was then injected into the vitreous space of six eyes. PEG with an average molecular weight of 300,000 and 400,000 g mol(-1) was used in two and four eyes, respectively. Two eyes received balanced salt solution and served as controls. Full-field electroretinography was carried out and intra-ocular pressure (IOP, palpation) measured pre- and post-operatively at regular intervals up to 41 days. The rabbits were killed and the eyes examined by retinal photography, gross macroscopic examination and histology. The viscoelastic sols were successfully injected and remained translucent throughout the post-operative period, with some inferior formation of precipitates. None of the eyes displayed IOP elevation post-operatively, but in three of the PEG sol injected eyes transient hypotony was noted. One eye sustained retinal detachment during surgery and another two in the post-operative period. ERG recordings confirmed preservation of retinal function in three out of four eyes injected with 400,000 g mol(-1) PEG. Histological examination revealed up-regulation of glial acidic fibrillary protein in Müller cells in PEG sol injected eyes, but normal overall morphology in eyes with attached retinas. The viscosity of the sol was not retained throughout the post-operative period, indicating the demand for polymer cross-linking to increase residence time. The results provide promising preliminary results on the use of PEG hydrogels as a vitreous substitute. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fabrication of a Self-Cleaning Surface via the Thermosensitive Copolymer Brush of P(NIPAAm-PEGMA).

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuansong; Huang, Jian; Wang, Xiaolin

    2015-10-14

    Surface hydrophilicity and the inherent washing force are two crucial factors for constructing an underwater self-cleaning surface. Following this self-cleaning mechanism, we fabricated thermosensitive copolymer brushes of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) on the polypropylene (PP) surface. Benefiting from the hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains, the copolymer brushes with the PEGMA content exceeding 5 mol % exhibited good surface hydrophilicity, whenever at temperatures below or above the lower critical solution temperatures (LCST). Hence their underwater oleophobicity was greatly improved with oil contact angles higher than 141° and oil adhesive forces lower than 20 μN. In addition, the sharp volume-phase transition feature was reserved in their copolymer backbones, as proved by the AFM result. Self-cleaning evaluation of the modified surfaces was performed by a simple temperature-change water cleaning method, after which only 0.2 wt % of oil residues remained on the brush surface of P(NIPAAm-5PEGMA) (with 5 mol % of PEGMA contents). The excellent self-cleaning capability is believed to be ascribed to its balanced surface features in hydrophilicity and the sharper volume-phase transition, when a hydrophilic surface can facilitate oil desorption and an intense conformation change of chain stretching and shrinking can offer the strong washing force to assist oil detachment. This study contributes to development of the underwater self-cleaning surface based on a hydrophilic surface with the chain motion.

  8. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) copolymers by Azotobacter chroococcum 7B: A precursor feeding strategy.

    PubMed

    Bonartsev, A P; Zharkova, I I; Yakovlev, S G; Myshkina, V L; Mahina, T K; Voinova, V V; Zernov, A L; Zhuikov, V A; Akoulina, E A; Ivanova, E V; Kuznetsova, E S; Shaitan, K V; Bonartseva, G A

    2017-02-07

    A precursor feeding strategy for effective biopolymer producer strain Azotobacter chroococcum 7B was used to synthesize various poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) copolymers. We performed experiments on biosynthesis of PHB copolymers by A. chroococcum 7B using various precursors: sucrose as the primary carbon source, various carboxylic acids and ethylene glycol (EG) derivatives [diethylene glycol (DEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 300, PEG 400, PEG 1000] as additional carbon sources. We analyzed strain growth parameters including biomass and polymer yields as well as molecular weight and monomer composition of produced copolymers. We demonstrated that A. chroococcum 7B was able to synthesize copolymers using carboxylic acids with the length less than linear 6C, including poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) (PHB-4MHV) using Y-shaped 6C 3-methylvaleric acid as precursor as well as EG-containing copolymers: PHB-DEG, PHB-TEG, PHB-PEG, and PHB-HV-PEG copolymers using short-chain PEGs (with n ≤ 9) as precursors. It was shown that use of the additional carbon sources caused inhibition of cell growth, decrease in polymer yields, fall in polymer molecular weight, decrease in 3-hydroxyvalerate content in produced PHB-HV-PEG copolymer, and change in bacterial cells morphology that were depended on the nature of the precursors (carboxylic acids or EG derivatives) and the timing of its addition to the growth medium.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to copolymers in cosmetics--case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Quartier, Sarah; Garmyn, Marjan; Becart, Sophie; Goossens, An

    2006-11-01

    Copolymers or heteropolymers are large molecules with high molecular weights (>1000 D). They have been underestimated for a long time as to their sensitizing capacities. Allergic contact dermatitis to 6 copolymers in cosmetics and 1 in a medical dressing has been described; however, the nature of the hapten is still unknown. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hexadecene copolymer in a purple-colored lipstick and review the literature on allergic contact dermatitis to 7 copolymers: PVP/hexadecene, PVP/eicosene, PVP/1-triacontene, methoxy polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-22/dodecyl glycols, methoxy PEG-17/dodecyl glycols, phthalic anhydride/trimellitic anhydride/glycols, and polyvinyl methyl/maleic acid anhydride.

  10. OX26 modified hyperbranched polyglycerol-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and evaluation of its brain delivery ability.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hanmei; Jin, Xu; Li, Ling; Lv, Feng; Liu, Tianjun

    2012-08-01

    A novel nanoparticles-based brain drug delivery system made of hyperbranched polyglycerol-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) which was surface functionalized with transferrin antibody (OX26) was prepared. Hyperbranched polyglycerol-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) was synthesized, characterized and applied to prepare nanoparticles by means of double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Transmission electron micrograph and dynamic light scattering showed that nanoparticles had a round and regular shape with a mean diameter of 170 ± 20 nm. Surface chemical composition was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Endomorphins, as a model drug, was encapsulated in the nanoparticles. In vitro drug release study showed that endomorphins was released continuously for 72 h. Cellular uptake study showed that the uptake of nanoparticles by the brain microvascular endothelial cells was both time- and concentration-dependant. Further uptake inhibition study indicated that the uptake of nanoparticles was via a caveolae-mediated endocytic pathway. In vivo endomorphins brain delivery ability was evaluated based upon the rat model of chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve. OX26 modified nanoparticles had achieved better analgesic effects, compared with other groups. Thus, OX26 modified hyperbranched polyglycerol-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles may be a promising brain drug delivery carrier.

  11. Synthesis of ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer containing fungicides and evaluation of their effect for wood decay resistance

    Treesearch

    George C. Chen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to combat wood decay based on the approach controlled-release biocides from polymers. The possibility of introducing polymer-bonded fungicides into the cell lumens was investigated. The synthesis of ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer containing pentachlorophenol (penta) and 8-hydroxy quinoline (8HQ) in N, N dimethyl formamide is...

  12. Enhancement of the Oral Bioavailability of Felodipine Employing 8-Arm-Poly(Ethylene Glycol): In Vivo, In Vitro and In Silico Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fasinu, Pius; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Bijukumar, Divya; Khan, Riaz A; Pillay, Viness

    2017-04-01

    Poor oral bioavailability is the single most important challenge in drug delivery. Prominent among the factors responsible for this is metabolic activity of the intestinal and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. In preliminary studies, it was demonstrated that 8-arm-PEG was able to inhibit the felodipine metabolism. Therefore, this report investigated the oral bioavailability-enhancing property of 8-arm-PEG employing detailed in vitro, in vivo, and in silico evaluations. The in vitro metabolism of felodipine by cytochrome P450 3A4-expressed human liver microsomes (HLM) was optimized yielding a typical Michaelis-Menten plot through the application of Enzyme Kinetic Module software from where the enzyme kinetic parameters were determined. In vitro investigation of 8-arm-poly(ethylene glycol) against CYP3A4-catalyzed felodipine metabolism employing human liver microsomes compared closely with naringenin, a typical grapefruit flavonoid, yielding IC50 values of 7.22 and 121.97 μM, respectively. The investigated potential of 8-arm-poly(ethylene glycol) in oral drug delivery yielded satisfactory in vitro drug release results. The in vivo studies of the effects of 8-arm-poly(ethylene glycol) on the oral bioavailability of felodipine as performed in the Large White pig model showed a >100% increase in plasma felodipine levels compared to controls, with no apparent effect on systemic felodipine clearance. The outcome of this research presents a novel CYP3A4 inhibitor, 8-arm-poly(ethylene glycol) for oral bioavailability enhancement.

  13. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol aerosol in CD-1 mice by nose-only exposure.

    PubMed

    Tyl, R W; Ballantyne, B; Fisher, L C; Fait, D L; Dodd, D E; Klonne, D R; Pritts, I M; Losco, P E

    1995-08-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG; CAS No. 107-21-1) is teratogenic to mice by whole-body (WB) exposure to aerosol (1000-2500 mg/m3). The WB results were confounded by possible exposure from ingestion after grooming and/or from percutaneous absorption. Therefore, CD-1 mice were exposed to EG aerosol (MMAD 2.6 +/- 1.7 microns) on Gestational Days (GD) 6 through 15, 6 hr/day, by nose-only (NO) (0, 500, 1000, or 2500 mg/m3) or WB exposures (0 or 2100 mg/m3, as positive control), 30/group. Five additional "satellite" females each at 2500 mg/m3 NO and 2100 mg/m3 WB were exposed on GD 6 for measurement of EG on fur. Control environments were water aerosol (4200 mg/m3 for NO; 2700 mg/m3 for WB). Females were weighed and evaluated for clinical signs and water consumption throughout gestation. On GD 18, maternal uterus, liver, and kidneys (2) were weighed, with kidneys examined microscopically. Corpora lutea and implantation sites were recorded. Live fetuses were weighed, sexed, and examined for structural alterations. For NO dams, kidney weights were increased at 1000 and 2500 mg/m3; no renal lesions and no other treatment-related maternal toxicity were observed. There were no effects on pre- or postimplantation loss; fetal body weights/litter were reduced at 2500 mg/m3. At 2500 mg/m3, incidences of fused ribs and skeletal variations were increased. The 2500 mg/m3 NO satellite animals had approximately 330 mg/kg extractable EG. The WB group exhibited maternal and developmental toxicity including increased fetal skeletal malformations and variations, confirming previous results, with 1390 mg/kg extractable EG on fur. Therefore, exposure of CD-1 mice to a respirable EG aerosol during organogenesis by NO inhalation resulted in minimal maternal toxicity at 1000 and 2500 mg/m3 and developmental toxicity at 2500 mg/m3. The NOAEL was 500 mg/m3 NO for maternal and 1000 mg/m3 NO for developmental toxicity. This study supports the interpretation of the initial EG WB results as due to systemic

  14. The effect of RAFT-derived cationic block copolymer structure on gene silencing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Tracey M; Guerrero-Sanchez, Carlos; Graham, Janease E; Le, Tam; Muir, Benjamin W; Shi, Shuning; Tizard, Mark L V; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; McLean, Keith M; Thang, San H

    2012-10-01

    In this work a series of ABA tri-block copolymers was prepared from oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA(475)) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) to investigate the effect of polymer composition on cell viability, siRNA uptake, serum stability and gene silencing. Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used as the method of polymer synthesis as this technique allows the preparation of well-defined block copolymers with low polydispersity. Eight block copolymers were prepared by systematically varying the central cationic block (DMAEMA) length from 38 to 192 monomer units and the outer hydrophilic block (OEGMA(475)) from 7 to 69 units. The polymers were characterized using size exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR. Chinese Hamster Ovary-GFP and Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells were used to assay cell viability while the efficiency of block copolymers to complex with siRNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis. The ability of the polymer-siRNA complexes to enter into cells and to silence the targeted reporter gene enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was measured by using a CHO-GFP silencing assay. The length of the central cationic block appears to be the key structural parameter that has a significant effect on cell viability and gene silencing efficiency with block lengths of 110-120 monomer units being the optimum. The ABA block copolymer architecture is also critical with the outer hydrophilic blocks contributing to serum stability and overall efficiency of the polymer as a delivery system.

  15. Double-masked randomized clinical trial evaluating the effect of a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice on periodontal healing after one-stage full-mouth debridement.

    PubMed

    Pera, Claudia; Ueda, Paulo; Casarin, Renato Corrêa Viana; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casati, Márcio Zaffalon; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluates the effect of triclosan/copolymer dentifrice on the 6-month clinical response of patients with generalized severe chronic periodontitis (GSCP) treated with one-stage, full-mouth ultrasonic debridement (FMUD). Thirty patients diagnosed with GSCP (≥8 teeth presenting probing depth [PD] ≥5 mm and bleeding on probing [BOP]) were selected and randomly allocated to a control group (n = 15) subjected to FMUD and daily use of a placebo dentifrice or to a test group (n = 15) subjected to FMUD and daily use of a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice. Patients were analyzed for the following parameters: full-mouth plaque index (FMPI), full-mouth BOP score (FMBS), gingival recession, PD, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Patients were evaluated at 3 and 6 months by a calibrated and masked examiner. Initially, the groups presented similar periodontal conditions, with no significant differences in any of the parameters evaluated (P >0.05). In both groups, improvements in all periodontal parameters (P <0.05) were seen at the completion of the experimental period. Additionally, the test group showed lower FMPI (3 months) and FMBS (3 and 6 months) than the control group (P <0.05). Moreover, the CAL gain was significantly greater in the test group, especially at initially deep pockets (PD ≤7 mm). Whereas in the control group the CAL gain in deep pockets was 2.7 ± 0.6 mm, in the test group the CAL gain was 3.6 ± 1.4 mm (P <0.05). Within the limits of the present study, the use of triclosan/copolymer dentifrice promoted additional clinical benefits in the treatment of GSCP treated by one-stage FMUD.

  16. Properties of radiation cured vinyl-divinyl copolymers. [Gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Micko, M.M.; Paszner, L.

    1980-04-01

    Analysis of compression stress-strain curves of radiation-cured vinyl methacrylate copolymers shows that addition of small concentrations of vinyl comonomers significantly alter all mechanical strength properties in compression. Stress-strain behavior is found to be a function of the copolymer composition. Best strength results are limited to a narrow comonomer concentration region; between 5 to 10% of divinyl monomer (DVM) for the four systems studied. This concentration range broadens with increasing molecular bridge length of the crosslinking agent being narrowest for ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate and broadest for tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Copolymer connection number (CN/sub co/), as introduced earlier, is found to be useful structural parameter for crosslinked copolymers in that it correlates quantitatively mechanical or thermomechanical properties with crosslink densities within copolymers. The Methyl methacrylate-TEGDMA comonomer system was found to be the most suitable and economically attractive. It represents a well balanced compromise of improved polymerization parameters and copolymer properties desirable in many polymeric products. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Development of poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) as an injectable carrier for endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suggs, L J; Mikos, A G

    1999-01-01

    Poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) [P(PF-co-EG)] hydrogels were examined as in situ polymerizable carriers for endothelial cells. The temperature increase from 37 degrees C during cross-linking was measured. The maximum temperature did not increase above 38.3 degrees C for any copolymer formulation. The temperature profiles also appeared to be independent of the amount or molecular weight of poly(ethylene glycol). These materials were polymerized in situ in a subcutaneous rat model and evaluated for initial biocompatibility. A normal wound-healing response was seen with formation and subsequent maturity of a fibrous capsule. Endothelial cells were embedded in vitro during the cross-linking process and their proliferation was assessed over the first 24 h. There was significant DNA synthesis by the embedded endothelial cells during this time period. These data suggest that P(PF-co-EG) hydrogels could be developed for use as injectable cell carriers.

  18. Evaluation of soy-based surface active copolymers as surfactant ingredients in model shampoo formulations.

    PubMed

    Popadyuk, A; Kalita, H; Chisholm, B J; Voronov, A

    2014-12-01

    A new non-toxic soybean oil-based polymeric surfactant (SBPS) for personal-care products was developed and extensively characterized, including an evaluation of the polymeric surfactant performance in model shampoo formulations. To experimentally assure applicability of the soy-based macromolecules in shampoos, either in combination with common anionic surfactants (in this study, sodium lauryl sulfate, SLS) or as a single surface-active ingredient, the testing of SBPS physicochemical properties, performance and visual assessment of SBPS-based model shampoos was carried out. The results obtained, including foaming and cleaning ability of model formulations, were compared to those with only SLS as a surfactant as well as to SLS-free shampoos. Overall, the results show that the presence of SBPS improves cleaning, foaming, and conditioning of model formulations. SBPS-based formulations meet major requirements of multifunctional shampoos - mild detergency, foaming, good conditioning, and aesthetic appeal, which are comparable to commercially available shampoos. In addition, examination of SBPS/SLS mixtures in model shampoos showed that the presence of the SBPS enables the concentration of SLS to be significantly reduced without sacrificing shampoo performance. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymers for improving the solubility of tacrolimus. I: Evaluation of solid dispersion formulations.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takatsune; Kurimoto, Ippei; Yoshihara, Keiichi; Umejima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Naoki; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sako, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2012-05-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Eudragit E/HCl (E-SD) on the reprecipitation of a poorly water-soluble drug, tacrolimus. To evaluate the inhibition of reprecipitation of E-SD, reprecipitation studies on tacrolimus were conducted using a dissolution test method. Solubility of tacrolimus was measured at regular intervals in a dissolution media, in which tacrolimus was dissolved in ethanol, and the test media contained additives for inhibiting precipitation. Supersaturation profiles of tacrolimus were observed, and were maintained for 24h only with E-SD. Solid dispersion formulations of tacrolimus prepared with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) or E-SD in different drug/carrier ratios were also investigated. Solid dispersions prepared with E-SD showed higher solubility of tacrolimus compared with that of HPMC. In the E-SD formulation, the drug solubility influences to drug/carrier ratio. The formulation of drug/E-SD (1/5) showed the highest drug solubility. Thus, it may be inferred that a definite drug/carrier ratio exists to increase drug solubility. Further, by mixing E-SD the solid dispersion prepared with HPMC showed enhanced drug solubility.

  20. Feasibility Study to Evaluate Candidate Materials of Nanofilled Block Copolymers for Use in Ultra High Density Pulsed Power Capacitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    power capacitors Dharmaraj Raghavan HOWARD UNIV WASHINGTON DC Final Report 10/26/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office...materials of nanofilled block copolymers for use in ultra high density pulsed power capacitors 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0306...permittivity of inorganic fillers with the high breakdoen strength (Ebd) of polymer matrix to obtain high energy density capacitors . Our strategy of

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of novel water-soluble copolymers based on acrylamide and modular β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjun; Jiang, Wenchao; Gou, Shaohua; Ye, Zhongbin; Feng, Mingming; Lai, Nanjun; Liang, Lixi

    2013-07-01

    Mono-6-(allyl amino)-β-cyclodextrin (N-β-CD) and mono-2-O-(allyl oxygen radicals-2-hydroxyl propyl)-β-cyclodextrin (O-β-CD) were copolymerized with acrylamide (AM), acrylic acid (AA), and 1-llyl-3-oil acyloxyimidazole-1-ammonion bramide (AOAB) initiated by redox initiation system in an aqueous medium. The AM/AA/AOAB/N-β-CD and AM/AA/AOAB/O-β-CD were prepared by adjusting the reactive conditions, such as initiator concentration, pH, temperature, and monomer ratios. The obtained copolymers were characterized by means of infrared (IR) spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), rotational rheometer, intrinsic viscosity, salt resistance, core flood test, etc. The temperature-tolerance, shear-tolerance, salt-resistance and thickening function of these copolymers are improved remarkably compared with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM). About 18.3% and 12.5% oil recovery could be enhanced by 2000mg/L AM/AA/AOAB/N-β-CD and AM/AA/AOAB/O-β-CD comparing with water-flooding. In addition, the result of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) test showed that the solutions of obtained copolymers could remarkably reduce the crystalline interspace of sodium montmorillonite (from 18.9Å to 15.3Å).

  2. Injectable supramolecular hydrogel from insulin-loaded triblock PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer and γ-cyclodextrin with sustained-release property.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Heidari, Zinat; Tabassi, Sayyed A Sajadi; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Alibolandi, Mona; Tekie, Farnaz Sadat Mirzazadeh; Khameneh, Bahman; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2015-02-01

    Supramolecular hydrogels formed by cyclodextrins and polymers have been widely investigated as a biocompatible, biodegradable and controllable drug delivery system. In this study, a supramolecular hydrogel based on biodegradable poly(caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) triblock copolymers and γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) was prepared through inclusion complexation as an injectable, sustained-release vehicle for insulin. The triblock copolymer PCL-PEG-PCL was synthesised by the ring-opening polymerisation method, using microwave irradiation. The polymerisation reaction and the copolymer structures were evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The supramolecular hydrogel was prepared in aqueous solution by blending an aqueous γ-CD solution with an aqueous solution of PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymer at room temperature. In vitro insulin release through the hydrogel system was studied. The relative surface hydrophobicity of standard and released insulin from the SMGel was estimated using 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS). Results of (1)HNMR and gel permeation chromatography revealed that microwave irradiation is a simple and reliable method for synthesis of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer. Gelation occurred within a minute. The supramolecular hydrogel obtained by mixing 10.54% (w/v) γ-CD and 2.5% (w/v) copolymer had an excellent syringeability. Insulin was released up to 80% over a period of 20 days. Insulin kept its initial folding after formulating and releasing from SMGel. A supramolecular hydrogel based on complexation of triblock PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer with γ-cyclodextrin is a suitable system for providing sustained release of therapeutic proteins, with desirable flow behaviour.

  3. Phase separations in a copolymer copolymer mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Jun; Jin, Guojun; Ma, Yuqiang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a three-order-parameter model to study the phase separations in a diblock copolymer-diblock copolymer mixture. The cell dynamical simulations provide rich information about the phase evolution and structural formation, especially the appearance of onion-rings. The parametric dependence and physical reason for the domain growth of onion-rings are discussed.

  4. Self-assembled architectures from biohybrid triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Reynhout, Irene C; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Nolte, Roeland J M

    2007-02-28

    The synthesis and self-assembly behavior of biohybrid ABC triblock copolymers consisting of a synthetic diblock, polystyrene-b-polyethylene glycol (PSm-b-PEG113), where m is varied, and a hemeprotein, myoglobin (Mb) or horse radish peroxidase (HRP), is described. The synthetic diblock copolymer is first functionalized with the heme cofactor and subsequently reconstituted with the apoprotein or the apoenzyme to yield the protein-containing ABC triblock copolymer. The obtained amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble in aqueous solution into a large variety of aggregate structures. Depending on the protein and the polystyrene block length, micellar rods, vesicles, toroids, figure eight structures, octopus structures, and spheres with a lamellar surface are formed.

  5. Multiple sources of sodium starch glycolate, NF: evaluation of functional equivalence and development of standard performance tests.

    PubMed

    Shah, Umang; Augsburger, Larry

    2002-01-01

    Sodium starch glycolate is a commonly used super-disintegrant employed to promote rapid disintegration and dissolution of IR solid dosage forms. It is manufactured by chemical modification of starch, i.e., carboxymethylation to enhance hydrophilicity and cross-linking to reduce solubility. It has been reported in the literature that the source of starch, particle size, amount of sodium chloride (reaction by-product), viscosity, degree of substitution and cross-linking affect the functionality of sodium starch glycolate. Compendial assays provide an accurate representation of the chemical quality of an excipient, but they are not useful in describing the physical properties associated with the excipients. Physical characterization of sodium starch glycolate, NF revealed differences in particle size, surface area, porosity, surface morphology, and viscosity between two of the three sources examined. An automated liquid uptake test (in neutral and acidic medium) demonstrated similar initial rates of uptake, however, the extent of liquid uptake differed for the disintegrant powders examined. Settling volume was also observed to be different for the disintegrant from two sources. Lowering the pH of the medium reduced the rate and extent of liquid uptake and the settling volume in all instances. The extent of liquid uptake and settling volume was observed to be higher for the smaller sieve fractions in either medium, Although differences were also observed in the axial and radial disintegration force measurements of the pure disintegrant compacts, disintegration and dissolution of a model drug (hydrochlorothiazide) from either the soluble or insoluble core did not reveal any significant differences between the multiple sources.

  6. Non-clinical safety and pharmacokinetic evaluations of propylene glycol aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; McDonald, Paddy; Lilly, Patrick; Kirkpatrick, Daniel; Wallery, Jeffrey; Byron, Peter; Venitz, Jürgen

    2011-09-05

    Aerosolized propylene glycol (PG) was generated as log-normally distributed particulate clouds in different concentrations using a novel capillary aerosol generator (CAG) and evaluated in a battery of non-clinical studies intended to assess its potential inhalation and systemic toxicity in 2 species before ICH-compliant "first-time-in-man" studies. Exposures were nose-only in rats, and via face mask with oropharyngeal tube in dogs. The CAG-generated PG aerosol had a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 2.29μm, with a 1.56 geometric standard deviation (GSD) in the rat studies, and a MMAD of 1.34μm (1.45 GSD) in the dog studies, consistent with expected particle size exposures in man. International Congress on Harmonization (ICH) Guidelines were followed, which recommend preliminary non-clinical safety studies using the vehicle and device (CAG-PG) prior to the first human exposure including safety pharmacology, pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, single dose toxicity studies, and repeated dose toxicity studies in two species. In the rat, the only biologically relevant findings included clinical signs of ocular and nasal irritation indicated by minor bleeding around the eyes and nose, and minimal laryngeal squamous metaplasia. This finding is commonly observed in inhalation studies in the rat, and likely related to the unique sensitivity of the tissue, as well as the circuitous airflow pathway through the larynx which increases particle deposition. In the female Beagle dog, treatment-related decreases in hemoglobin, red blood cells and hematocrit were observed in the two highest exposure groups, equivalent to approximately 18 and 60mg/kg/day. In male dogs from the high dose group, similar small decreases, albeit, non-statistically significant decreases were observed in these hematological markers as well. PK studies in rats and dogs showed that the absorption of PG following pulmonary inhalation exposure occurs rapidly, and equilibrium between lung tissue and plasma

  7. Graphene oxide stabilized by PLA-PEG copolymers for the controlled delivery of paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulou, A; Voulgari, E; Diamanti, E K; Gournis, D; Avgoustakis, K

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the application of water-dispersible poly(lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) copolymers for the stabilization of graphene oxide (GO) aqueous dispersions and the feasibility of using the PLA-PEG stabilized GO as a delivery system for the potent anticancer agent paclitaxel. A modified Staudenmaier method was applied to synthesize graphene oxide (GO). Diblock PLA-PEG copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of dl-lactide in the presence of monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG). Probe sonication in the presence of PLA-PEG copolymers was applied in order to reduce the hydrodynamic diameter of GO to the nano-size range according to dynamic light scattering (DLS) and obtain nano-graphene oxide (NGO) composites with PLA-PEG. The composites were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and DLS. The colloidal stability of the composites was evaluated by recording the size of the composite particles with time and the resistance of composites to aggregation induced by increasing concentrations of NaCl. The composites were loaded with paclitaxel and the in vitro release profile was determined. The cytotoxicity of composites against A549 human lung cancer cells in culture was evaluated by flow cytometry. The uptake of FITC-labeled NGO/PLA-PEG by A549 cells was also estimated with flow cytometry and visualized with fluorescence microscopy. The average hydrodynamic diameter of NGO/PLA-PEG according to DLS ranged between 455 and 534 nm, depending on the molecular weight and proportion of PLA-PEG in the composites. NGO/PLA-PEG exhibited high colloidal stability on storage and in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (far exceeding physiological concentrations). Paclitaxel was effectively loaded in the composites and released by a highly sustained fashion. Drug release could be regulated by the molecular weight of the PLA-PEG copolymer and its proportion in the composite. The paclitaxel

  8. Positively charged micelles based on a triblock copolymer demonstrate enhanced corneal penetration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingguo; Li, Zhanrong; Zhou, Tianyang; Zhang, Junjie; Xia, Huiyun; Li, Heng; He, Jijun; He, Siyu; Wang, Liya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The cornea is a main barrier to drug penetration after topical application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the abilities of micelles generated from a positively charged triblock copolymer to penetrate the cornea after topical application. Methods The triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-g-polyethyleneimine was synthesized, and the physicochemical properties of the self-assembled polymeric micelles were investigated, including hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, morphology, drug-loading content, drug-loading efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Using fluorescein diacetate as a model drug, the penetration capabilities of the polymeric micelles were monitored in vivo using a two-photon scanning fluorescence microscopy on murine corneas after topical application. Results The polymer was successfully synthesized and confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared. The polymeric micelles had an average particle size of 28 nm, a zeta potential of approximately +12 mV, and a spherical morphology. The drug-loading efficiency and drug-loading content were 75.37% and 3.47%, respectively, which indicates that the polymeric micelles possess a high drug-loading capacity. The polymeric micelles also exhibited controlled-release behavior in vitro. Compared to the control, the positively charged polymeric micelles significantly penetrated through the cornea. Conclusion Positively charged micelles generated from a triblock copolymer are a promising vehicle for the topical delivery of hydrophobic agents in ocular applications. PMID:26451109

  9. Tailor-Made Pentablock Copolymer Based Formulation for Sustained Ocular Delivery of Protein Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sulabh P.; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research article is to report the synthesis and evaluation of novel pentablock copolymers for controlled delivery of macromolecules in the treatment of posterior segment diseases. Novel biodegradable PB copolymers were synthesized by sequential ring-opening polymerization. Various ratios and molecular weights of each block (polyglycolic acid, polyethylene glycol, polylactic acid, and polycaprolactone) were selected for synthesis and to optimize release profile of FITC-BSA, IgG, and bevacizumab from nanoparticles (NPs) and thermosensitive gel. NPs were characterized for particle size, polydispersity, entrapment efficiency, and drug loading. In vitro release study of proteins from NPs alone and composite formulation (NPs suspended in thermosensitive gel) was performed. Composite formulations demonstrated no or negligible burst release with continuous near zero-order release in contrast to NPs alone. Hydrodynamic diameter of protein therapeutics and hydrophobicity of PB copolymer exhibited significant effect on entrapment efficiency and in vitro release profile. CD spectroscopy confirmed retention of structural conformation of released protein. Biological activity of released bevacizumab was confirmed by in vitro cell proliferation and cell migration assays. It can be concluded that novel PB polymers can serve a platform for sustained delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:25045540

  10. Dynamic and static curing of ethylcellulose:PVA-PEG graft copolymer film coatings.

    PubMed

    Muschert, S; Siepmann, F; Leclercq, B; Siepmann, J

    2011-08-01

    When using aqueous polymer dispersions for the preparation of controlled-release film coatings, instability during long-term storage can be a crucial concern. Generally, a thermal after treatment is required to assure sufficient polymer particle coalescence. This curing step is often performed under static conditions in an oven, which is a time-consuming and rather cumbersome process. Dynamic curing in the fluidized bed presents an attractive alternative. However, yet little is known on the required conditions, in particular: temperature, time, and relative humidity, to provide stable film structures. The aim of this study was to better understand the importance of these key factors and to evaluate the potential of dynamic curing compared with that of static curing. Recently proposed ethylcellulose:poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymer (PVA-PEG graft copolymer) dispersions were coated on theophylline and metoprolol succinate-loaded starter cores, exhibiting different osmotic activity. Importantly, processing times as short as 2h were found to be sufficient to provide long-term stable films, even upon open storage under stress conditions. For instance, 2-h dynamic curing at 57°C and 15% relative humidity are assuring stable film structures in the case of theophylline matrix cores coated with 15%ethylcellulose:PVA-PEG graft copolymer 85:15. Importantly, the approach is also applicable to other types of drugs and starter cores, and the underlying drug release mechanisms remain unaltered.

  11. Release of small water-soluble drugs from multiblock copolymer microspheres: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sohier, J; van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, R; de Groot, K; Bezemer, J M

    2003-03-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT/PBT) multiblock copolymer was investigated as a possible matrix for controlled delivery of small water-soluble drugs. Two molecules were selected as sustained release candidates from microspheres: leuprorelin acetate (peptide of Mw = 1270 D) and vitamin B(12) (Mw = 1355 D). First, vitamin B(12)-loaded microspheres were prepared using a double emulsion method and preparation parameters were varied (surfactant in the first emulsion and copolymer composition). The resulting microsphere structure, entrapment efficiency and release rate were evaluated. Vitamin B(12)-loaded microsphere parameters could easily be tailored to achieve specific requirements. The addition of surfactant in the first preparation process led to a significant increase of the microsphere entrapment efficiency, whereas the decrease of the PEGT copolymer content allowed the release rates from microspheres to be precisely decreased. However, leuprorelin acetate-loaded microspheres did not show the same characteristics when prepared with the same parameters, possibly because of a high water solubility discrepancy between the vitamin B(12) and the peptide. This study shows the suitability of PEGT/PBT microspheres as a controlled release system for vitamin B(12), but not for leuprorelin acetate. It also underlines the necessity of tailored development for each individual drug and emphasizes the risk of using model molecules. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Evaluation of CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers through molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Peiqing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-02-19

    Multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both used to evaluate the factors conclusive on the CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) homopolymer and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers. The ab initio calculated interaction energies of the candidate CO2-philic molecule models with CO2, including vinyl acetate dimer (VAc), dimethyl maleate (DMM), diethyl maleate (DEM), and dibutyl maleate (DBM), showed that VAc was the most CO2-philc segment. However, the cohesive energy density, solubility parameter, Flory-Huggins parameter, and radial distribution functions calculated by using the molecular dynamics simulations for the four polymer and polymer-CO2 systems indicated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. The corresponding polymers were synthesized by using free radical polymerization. The measurement of cloud point pressures of the four polymers in CO2 also demonstrated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. Although copolymerization of maleate, such as DEM or DBM, with PVAc reduced the polymer-CO2 interactions, the weakened polymer-polymer interaction increased the CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The polymer-polymer interaction had a significant influence on the CO2-philicity of the polymer. Reduction of the polymer-polymer interaction might be a promising strategy to prepare the high CO2-philic polymers on the premise that the strong polymer-CO2 interaction could be maintained.

  13. Amine-reactive biodegradable diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Tessmar, Jörg K; Mikos, Antonios G; Göpferich, Achim

    2002-01-01

    A new class of diblock copolymers was synthesized from biodegradable poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol)minus signmonoamine. These polymers were activated by covalently attaching linkers such as disuccinimidyl tartrate or disuccinimidyl succinate to the hydrophilic polymer chain. The polymers were characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, (13)C NMR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). These investigations indicated that the polymers were obtained with the correct composition, in high purities, and the expected molecular weight. By using dyes containing primary amine groups such as 5-aminoeosin as model substrates, it was possible to show that the polymers are able to bind such compounds covalently. The diblock copolymers were developed to suppress unspecific protein adsorption and allow the binding of bioactive molecules by instant surface modification. The polymers are intended to be used for tissue engineering applications where surface immobilized cell adhesion peptides or growth factors are needed to control cell behavior.

  14. Bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400, and polyethylene glycol 1000 against selected microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Bhat, Kishore; Sogi, Suma H. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol, glycerine, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) against selected microorganisms in vitro. Materials and Methods: Five vehicles, namely propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG 400, PEG 1000, and combination of propylene glycol with PEG 400, were tested for their bactericidal activity. The minimum bactericidal concentration was noted against four standard strains of organisms, i.e. Streptococcus mutans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 12598, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 35550, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, using broth dilution assay. Successful endodontic therapy depends upon thorough disinfection of root canals. In some refractory cases, routine endodontic therapy is not sufficient, so intracanal medicaments are used for proper disinfection of canals. Intracanal medicaments are dispensed with vehicles which aid in increased diffusion through the dentinal tubules and improve their efficacy. Among the various vehicles used, glycerine is easily available, whereas others like propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol have to be procured from appropriate sources. Also, these vehicles, being viscous, aid in sustained release of the medicaments and improve their handling properties. The most commonly used intracanal medicaments like calcium hydroxide are ineffective on many microorganisms, while most of the other medicaments like MTAD (Mixture of Tetracycline, an Acid, and a Detergent) and Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP) consist of antibiotics which can lead to development of antibiotic resistance among microorganisms. Thus, in order to use safer and equally effective intracanal medicaments, newer alternatives like chlorhexidine gluconate, ozonized water, etc., are being explored. Similarly, the five vehicles mentioned above are being tested for their antimicrobial activity in this study. Results: All vehicles

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Guideline for Monitoring Propylene Glycol Toxicity in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Continuous Infusion Lorazepam

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Rebecca; Gupta, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and determine the safety of a guideline, by using osmol gap as an indicator of propylene glycol toxicity for pediatric patients receiving continuous infusion lorazepam. METHODS: From existing adult data, a guideline was developed for the use of continuous infusion lorazepam in pediatric critical care patients with recommendations for using osmol gap as an indicator of propylene glycol toxicity. A retrospective medical chart review was performed of patients receiving continuous infusion lorazepam from February 2012 to September 2012 for whom the guideline was used. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received continuous infusion lorazepam for sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit during the 9-month study period for a total of 23 infusions. Eight patients (34.8%) had an osmol gap of ≥ 12 mOsm/kg during lorazepam infusion, and 7 patients (30.4%) did not have an elevated osmol gap at any point during the infusion. Two patients (8.6%) had clinical toxicity as indicated by elevated anion gap or lactate in addition to an osmol gap ≥ 12 mOsm/kg, while no patients experienced clinical toxicity with an osmol gap < 12 mOsm/kg. CONCLUSIONS: A guideline for the use of lorazepam infusion in pediatric critical care patients was developed and evaluated for safety. Lorazepam continuous infusions appeared to be associated with minimal toxicity in pediatric intensive care unit patients when the osmol gap monitoring guideline was used. PMID:26472950

  16. Evaluation of the Water Potentials of Solutions of Polyethylene Glycol 8000 Both in the Absence and Presence of Other Solutes

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Burlyn E.

    1983-01-01

    Published and additional data for polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG), formerly PEG 6000, solution water potentials (Ψ) are compared. Actual bars Ψ over the concentration range of 0 to 0.8 gram PEG per gram H2O and temperature (T) range of 5 to 40°C are best predicted (probably within ± 5%) by this equation: Ψ = 1.29[PEG]2T − 140[PEG]2 − 4.0[PEG]. Although transformable through division by [PEG] to virial equation form, results indicate that the coefficients are not virial. Mannitol (MAN) interacts with PEG to produce Ψ significantly lower than additive. Vapor pressure osmometer (VPO) data for MAN-PEG synergism compared favorably with those from thermocouple hygrometry; and VPO data showing the interactions between PEG and four salts are presented. The synergism of MAN-PEG and of NaCl-PEG are related linearly to the concentration of solute added with PEG. PMID:16662983

  17. Conductive area ratio of multiblock copolymer electrolyte membranes evaluated by e-AFM and its impact on fuel cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takimoto, Naohiko; Takamuku, Shogo; Abe, Mitsutaka; Ohira, Akihiro; Lee, Hae-Seung; McGrath, James E.

    The correlation between membrane surface morphology and fuel cell performance was investigated using a series of hydrophilic-hydrophobic multiblock copolymers based on poly(arylene ether sulfone) with different block lengths. The proton conductive regions on the membrane surface were successfully observed by using electrochemical atomic force microscopy (e-AFM). The results revealed a strong dependence of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic microphase-separated structure on the block length. The conductive area ratio (CAR) estimated from the proton conduction image decreased as the block length increased, and it was found to be closely connected with cell resistance that determines fuel cell performance. The well-defined phase-separated structure of multiblock copolymers can improve proton conductivity without any undesirable increments in water uptake or swelling, but in some instances, it affects the interfacial connection with the catalyst layer, resulting in lower fuel cell performance. The results of this study suggest the necessity for further improvement of the membrane morphology by optimizing both the casting conditions and the molecular design of the block sequences.

  18. In vivo evaluation of hybrid patches composed of PLA based copolymers and collagen/chondroitin sulfate for ligament tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pinese, Coline; Gagnieu, Christian; Nottelet, Benjamin; Rondot-Couzin, Capucine; Hunger, Sylvie; Coudane, Jean; Garric, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Biomaterials for soft tissues regeneration should exhibit sufficient mechanical strength, demonstrating a mechanical behavior similar to natural tissues and should also promote tissues ingrowth. This study was aimed at developing new hybrid patches for ligament tissue regeneration by synergistic incorporation of a knitted structure of degradable polymer fibers to provide mechanical strength and of a biomimetic matrix to help injured tissues regeneration. PLA- Pluronic(®) (PLA-P) and PLA-Tetronic(®) (PLA-T) new copolymers were shaped as knitted patches and were associated with collagen I (Coll) and collagen I/chondroitine-sulfate (Coll CS) 3-dimensional matrices. In vitro study using ligamentocytes showed the beneficial effects of CS on ligamentocytes proliferation. Hybrid patches were then subcutaneously implanted in rats for 4 and 12 weeks. Despite degradation, patches retained strength to answer the mechanical physiological needs. Tissue integration capacity was assessed with histological studies. We showed that copolymers, associated with collagen and chondroitin sulfate sponge, exhibited very good tissue integration and allowed neotissue synthesis after 12 weeks in vivo. To conclude, PLA-P/CollCS and PLA-T/CollCS hybrid patches in terms of structure and composition give good hopes for tendon and ligament regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1778-1788, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. RGD Peptides-Conjugated Pluronic Triblock Copolymers Encapsulated with AP-2α Expression Plasmid for Targeting Gastric Cancer Therapy in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Zhimin; Sun, Peng; Fang, Cheng; Fang, Hongwei; Wang, Yueming; Ji, Jiajia; Chen, Jun

    2015-07-17

    Gastric cancer, a high-risk malignancy, is a genetic disease developing from a cooperation of multiple gene mutations and a multistep process. Gene therapy is a novel treatment method for treating gastric cancer. Here, we developed a novel Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides conjugated copolymers nanoparticles-based gene delivery system in order to actively targeting inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells. These transcription factor (AP-2α) expression plasmids were also encapsulated into pluronic triblock copolymers nanoparticles which was constituted of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-block-PPO-block-PEO, P123). The size, morphology and composition of prepared nanocomposites were further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) analysis, these nanocomposites have minor effects on the proliferation of GES-1 cells but significantly decreased the viability of MGC-803, suggesting they own low cytotoxicity but good antitumor activity. The following in vivo evaluation experiments confirmed that these nanocomposites could prevent the growth of gastric cancer cells in the tumor xenograft mice model. In conclusion, these unique RGD peptides conjugated P123 encapsulated AP-2α nanocomposites could selectively and continually kill gastric cancer cells by over-expression of AP-2α in vitro and in vivo; this exhibits huge promising applications in clinical gastric cancer therapy.

  20. Degradation of PCL-MPEG diblock copolymer in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Jen; Chang, Kai-Ling

    2008-06-01

    The poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCL-MPEG) amphiphilic diblock copolymer with molar ratio of epsilon-CL to MPEG 81:1 is synthesized via a ring-opening polymerization without a catalyst. The M(w) and M(n) molecular weights and the polydispersities are 18,000, 11,000 g/mole and 1.55, respectively. The pegylated amphiphilic copolymer forms micelles with a low critical micelle concentration 6.71 x 10(-8) mole/L, and the average particle size of copolymeric micelles is 62.3 +/- 12.9 nm. The degradation behavior of diblock copolymer was studied in rat plasma at 37 degrees C for 90 days. The changes of mass, composition, morphology, molecular weight, and thermal property of PCL-MPEG copolymer were investigated. The decrease of copolymer mass shows two phases with rate constants of 1.91 x 10(-1) day(-1) in the first-phase (1-24 h) and 1.77 x 10(-3) day(-1) in the second-phase (1-90 days). The degradation of labile ester linkage between PCL block and MPEG block accounts for continuous decrease of copolymer mass in plasma. The decrease of EG molar ratio from 1.30 to 0.67 and prominent reduction of enthalpy of fusion of remained copolymer from 116.5 to 85.2 J/g provide evidences of PCL-MPEG chain scission. On the other hand, the presence of partially degraded copolymers in the residuals results in its polydispersity increased from 1.55 to 2.24 at the end of 90 days. Nevertheless, the surface erosion of copolymer makes the molecular weight not quite different from its original value. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of block copolymer properties on nanocarrier protection from in vivo clearance

    PubMed Central

    D’Addio, Suzanne M.; Saad, Walid; Ansell, Steven M.; Squiers, John J.; Adamson, Douglas; Herrera-Alonso, Margarita; Wohl, Adam R.; Hoye, Thomas R.; Macosko, Christopher W.; Mayer, Lawrence D.; Vauthier, Christine; Prud’homme, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Drug nanocarrier clearance by the immune system must be minimized to achieve targeted delivery to pathological tissues. There is considerable interest in finding in vitro tests that can predict in vivo clearance outcomes. In this work, we produce nanocarriers with dense PEG layers resulting from block copolymer-directed assembly during rapid precipitation. Nanocarriers are formed using block copolymers with hydrophobic blocks of polystyrene (PS), poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), poly-D,L-lactide (PLA), or poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), and hydrophilic blocks of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with molecular weights from 1.5 kg/mol to 9 kg/mol. Nanocarriers with paclitaxel prodrugs are evaluated in vivo in Foxn1nu mice to determine relative rates of clearance. The amount of nanocarrier in circulation after 4 h varies from 10% to 85% of initial dose, depending on the block copolymer. In vitro complement activation assays are conducted in an effort to correlate the protection of the nanocarrier surface from complement binding and activation and in vivo circulation. Guidelines for optimizing block copolymer structure to maximize circulation of nanocarriers formed by rapid precipitation and directed assembly are proposed, relating to the relative size of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic block, the hydrophobicity of the anchoring block, the absolute size of the PEG block, and polymer crystallinity. The in vitro results distinguish between the poorly circulating PEG5k-PCL9k and the better circulating nanocarriers, but could not rank the better circulating nanocarriers in order of circulation time. Analysis of PEG surface packing on monodisperse 200 nm latex spheres indicates that the sizes of the hydrophobic PCL, PS, and PLA blocks are correlated with the PEG blob size, and possibly the clearance from circulation. Suggestions for next step in vitro measurements are made. PMID:22732478

  2. Synthesis and characterization of new poly(ortho ester amidine) copolymers for nonviral gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rupei; Ji, Weihang; Wang, Chun

    2011-01-01

    A new type of pH-labile cationic polymers, poly(ortho ester amidine) (POEAmd) copolymers, has been synthesized and characterized with potential future application as gene delivery carriers. The acid-labile POEAmd copolymer was synthesized by polycondensation of a new ortho ester diamine monomer with dimethylaliphatimidates, and a non-acid-labile polyamidine (PAmd) copolymer was also synthesized for comparison using a triethylene glycol diamine monomer. Both copolymers were easily dissolved in water, and can efficiently bind and condense plasmid DNA at neutral pH, forming nano-scale polyplexes. The physico-chemical properties of the polyplexes have been studied using dynamic light scattering, gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide exclusion, and heparin competition. The average size of the polyplexes was dependent on the amidine: phosphate (N:P) ratio of the polymers to DNA. Polyplexes containing the acid-labile POEAmd or the non-acid-labile PAmd showed similar average particle size, comparable strength of condensing DNA, and resistance to electrostatic destabilization. They also share similar metabolic toxicity to cells as measured by MTT assay. Importantly, the acid-labile polyplexes undergo accelerated polymer degradation at mildly-acid-pHs, resulting in increasing particle size and the release of intact DNA plasmid. Polyplexes from both types of polyamidines caused distinct changes in the scattering properties of Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21) cells, showing swelling and increasing intracellular granularity. These cellular responses are uniquely different from other cationic polymers such as polyethylenimine and point to stress-related mechanisms specific to the polyamidines. Gene transfection of BHK-21 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. The positive yet modest transfection efficiency by the polyamidines (acid-labile and non-acid-labile alike) underscores the importance of balancing polymer degradation and DNA release with endosomal escape. Insights gained from

  3. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  4. In vitro investigation on poly(lactide)-Tween 80 copolymer nanoparticles fabricated by dialysis method for chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiping; Feng, Si-Shen

    2006-04-01

    Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) has been widely used as an emulsifier with excellent effects in nanoparticles technology for biomedical applications. This work was thus triggered to synthesize poly(lactide)/Tween 80 copolymers with various copolymer blend ratio, which were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by 1H NMR and TGA. Nanoparticles of poly(lactide)/Tween 80 copolymers were prepared by the dialysis method without surfactants/emulsifiers involved. Paclitaxel was chosen as a prototype anticancer drug due to its excellent therapeutic effects against a wide spectrum of cancers. The drug-loaded nanoparticles of poly(lactide)/Tween 80 copolymers were then characterized by various state-of-the-art techniques, including laser light scattering for particles size and size distribution, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for surface morphology; laser Doppler anemometry for zeta potential; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the physical status of the drug encapsulated in the polymeric matrix; X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) for surface chemistry; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for drug encapsulation efficiency; and in vitro drug release kinetics. HT-29 cells and Glioma C6 cells were used as an in vitro model of the GI barrier for oral chemotherapy and a brain cancer model to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity of the paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles. The viability of C6 cells was decreased from 37.4 +/- 4.0% for poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to 17.8 +/- 4.2% for PLA-Tween 80-10 and 12.0 +/- 5.4% for PLA-Tween 80-20 copolymer nanoparticles, which was comparable with that for Taxol at the same 50 microg/mL drug concentration.

  5. Amorphous amphiphilic P(3HV-co-4HB)-b-mPEG block copolymer synthesized from bacterial copolyester via melt transesterification: nanoparticle preparation, cisplatin-loading for cancer therapy and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohsin; Ullah, Najeeb; Choi, Mun Hwan; Kim, Myeong Ok; Yoon, Sung Chul

    2012-04-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used against a variety of tumors. We determined the efficacy and bioavailability of cisplatin in the form of cisplatin-loaded self-assembled amphiphilic copolymer nanoparticles (NPs). Non-crystallizing bacterial copolyester was employed as hydrophobic segment to increase drug loading efficiency. Novel amorphous amphiphilic block copolymer P(3HV-co-4HB)-b-mPEG was synthesized from bacterial copolyester poly(3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) coupled via transesterification reaction using bis(2-ethylhexanoate) tin catalyst to monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol). The product was characterized, and core-shell particles with nanometer size range were prepared by emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination revealed that the NPs took the shape of spheres with inner concealed core of hydrophobic P(3HV-co-4HB) polymer and the outer shell formed by hydrophilic mPEG segment. The in vitro release profile of cisplatin from the core hydrophobic domain showed a sustained release of the drug. TEM and confocal microscopy examination revealed clearly the internalization of cisplatin-loaded NPs into the tumor cells. MTT assay, flow cytometry, western blot and confocal microscopy revealed a suppression effect by the NPs on tumor cell growth, and enhancement of apoptotic process of the tumor cells compared to free drug treated cells. The amorphous polymeric NPs could be effective vehicles for the sustained delivery of toxic anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Argpyrimidine-tagged rutin-encapsulated biocompatible (ethylene glycol dimers) nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and evaluation for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, Abhishek; Dhara, Kaliprasanna; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus represents a major metabolic disorder affecting millions of people all over the world. Currently available therapeutic treatments are not good enough to control the long-term complications of diabetes. Active targeting via inclusion of a specific ligand on the nanoparticles provides effective therapeutic approach in different diseases. However, such specific drug delivery systems have not been explored much in diabetes due to lack of suitable biological targets in this disorder. Our objective is to synthesize a ligand-tagged drug-loaded nanoparticle for delivery of the drug at specific sites to enhance its therapeutic efficiency in diabetic condition. The nanoparticles have been prepared by using biocompatible ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester) dimers. Although advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are the root causes of diabetic complications, argpyrimidine, an AGE, possesses antioxidant and reducing activities. AGE interacts selectively with its cell surface receptors (RAGE), which are significantly increased in diabetic condition. We have selected RAGE as the target of argpyrimidine, which is tagged on the nanoparticles as a ligand. Rutin, having anti-hyperglycemic and anti-glycating activities, has been used for nanoencapsulation. Rutin-loaded argpyrimidine-tagged nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized. We have demonstrated the drug releasing capacity and target specificity of the synthesised drug delivery system under ex vivo and in vivo conditions.

  7. Evaluation of the stability of nonfouling ultrathin poly(ethylene glycol) films for silicon-based microdevices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Johnson, Robert W; Desai, Tejal A

    2004-01-20

    The creation of nonfouling surfaces is one of the major prerequisites for microdevices for biomedical and analytical applications. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a water soluble, nontoxic, and nonimmunogenic polymer has the unique ability of reducing nonspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion and, therefore, is generally coupled with a wide variety of surfaces to improve their biocompatibility. The performance of these modified surfaces for long-term biomedical applications largely depends on the stability of these PEG films. To this end, we have investigated the stability of covalently coupled ultrathin PEG films on silicon in aqueous in vivo like conditions for a period of 4 weeks. The PEG-modified silicon substrates were incubated in PBS (37 degrees C, pH 7.4, 5% CO2) for different periods of time and then characterized using the techniques of ellipsometry, contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The ability of the PEG-modified surfaces to control protein fouling was examined by protein adsorption studies using fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin and ellipsometry. Furthermore, the ability of these films to control fibroblast adhesion was examined. Studies suggest that the PEG-modified surfaces retain their protein and cell repulsive nature even though the PEG film thickness decreases for the period of investigation.

  8. Preparation of sterically stabilized chitin nanowhisker dispersions by grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) and evaluation of their dispersion stability.

    PubMed

    Araki, Jun; Kurihara, Mari

    2015-01-12

    Sterically stabilized chitin nanowhiskers (ChNWs) were prepared by surface grafting monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) via reductive amination of primary amino groups on ChNWs and terminal aldehydes on mPEG. The amount of grafted mPEG was determined to be 0.2-0.3 g/g ChNWs, by conductometric titration, from the decrease in amino groups after grafting. ChNWs with controlled amounts of surface amino groups were obtained by deacetylation; however, this did not cause a drastic change in the amount of grafted mPEG. Grafting was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; however, X-ray diffractometry indicated no sign of mPEG. Thermogravimetry indicated a higher amount of mPEG than that from titration, suggesting an overestimation due to the facilitated combustion of grafted samples. In contrast to ungrafted samples, all grafted samples were stable in the presence of electrolytes. However, liquid-crystalline phase separation of grafted ChNWs was not observed, possibly owing to the high viscosity of the concentrated sample.

  9. Cycloolefin effect in cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun Soon; Seo, Dong Chul; Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Sang Wok; Kim, Sang Jin; Shin, Dae Hyeon; Shin, Jin Bong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2008-11-01

    One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low transmittance in COMA type copolymer most researchers were interested in developing of (meth)acryl type copolymer again for ArF photoresist. On the other hand, we have studied various polymer platforms suitable ArF photoresist except for meth(acryl) type copolymer. As a result of this study we had developed ROMA type polymers and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymers. Among the polymers cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer has many attractions such as etch roughness, resist reflow which needs low glass transition temperature and solvent solubility. In this study, we intend to find out cycloolefin-(meth)acryl copolymer characteristics compared with (meth)acryl copolymer. And, we have tried to find out any differences between acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate type copolymer with various evaluation results. As a result of this study we are going to talk about the reason that the resist using acrylate type copolymer and cycloolefin-(meth)acryl type copolymer show good pattern profile while acrylate type copolymer show poor pattern profile. We also intend to explain the role of cycloolefin as a function of molecular weight variation and substitution ratio variation of cycloolefin in cycloolefin-(meth)acrylate resin.One of the most important factors in ArF resist development is a resin platform, which dominates a lot of parts of resist characteristics. It has been much changed in order to improve their physical properties such as resolution, pattern profile, etch resistance and line edge roughness. Through the low etch resistance in ArF initial (meth)acryl type copolymer and low

  10. A facile method for construction of antifouling surfaces by self-assembled polymeric monolayers of PEG-silane copolymers formed in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangjin; Chi, Young Shik; Choi, Insung S; Seong, Jiehyun; Jon, Sangyong

    2006-11-01

    Self-assembled polymeric monolayers (PMs) on Si/SiO2 wafers were prepared in water from a series of random copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSMA), denoted as poly(TMSMA-r-PEGMA). Four polymers of poly(TMSMA-r-PEGMA) were synthesized by free radical polymerization with a systematic variation of co-monomer feed ratios. Regardless of PEG grafting density in the copolymers, all PMs formed approximately 1 nm-thick film as measured by ellipsometry. However, the PMs with a higher grafting density of PEG resulted in more hydrophilic surfaces in terms of water contact angle. The protein resistance of the PMs was evaluated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. Analyses by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the PMs of the copolymers markedly reduced the nonspecific adsorption of proteins compared to the unmodified Si/SiO2 wafers. The study also revealed that the PMs prepared from the copolymers with a higher PEG grafting density were more effective in resisting the nonspecific protein adsorption.

  11. Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Khan, Junaid; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2013-12-28

    Stimuli triggered polymers provide a variety of applications related with the biomedical fields. Among various stimuli triggered mechanisms, thermoresponsive mechanisms have been extensively investigated, as they are relatively more convenient and effective stimuli for biomedical applications. In a contemporary approach for achieving the sustained action of proteins, peptides and bioactives, injectable depots and implants have always remained the thrust areas of research. In the same series, Poloxamer based thermogelling copolymers have their own limitations regarding biodegradability. Thus, there is a need to have an alternative biomaterial for the formulation of injectable hydrogel, which must remain biocompatible along with safety and efficacy. In the same context, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based copolymers play a crucial role as a biomedical material for biomedical applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermosensitivity and easy controlled characters. This review stresses on the physicochemical property, stability and composition prospects of smart PEG/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels, recently utilized for biomedical applications. The manuscript also highlights the synthesis scheme and stability characteristics of these copolymers, which will surely help the researchers working in the same area. We have also emphasized the applied use of these smart copolymers along with their formulation problems, which could help in understanding the possible modifications related with these, to overcome their inherent associated limitations. © 2013.

  12. Radical-cured block copolymer-modified thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Redline, Erica M.; Francis, Lorraine F.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-01-10

    Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized and added at 4 wt % to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (BisGMA), a monomer that cures using free radical chemistry. In separate experiments, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) was combined as a secondary monomer with BisGMA and the monomers were loaded with 4 wt % PEP-PEO. The diblock copolymers self-assembled into well-dispersed spherical micelles with PEP cores and PEO coronas. No appreciable change in the final extent of cure of the thermosets was caused by the addition of diblock copolymer, except in the case of BisGMA, where the addition of the block copolymer increased extent of cure by 12%. Furthermore, the extent of cure was increased by 29% and 37% with the addition of 25 and 50 wt % PEGDMA, respectively. Elastic modulus and fracture resistance were also determined, and the values indicate that the addition of block copolymers does not significantly toughen the thermoset materials. This finding is surprising when compared with the large increase in fracture resistance seen in block copolymer-modified epoxies, and an explanation is proposed.

  13. GLYCOLIC - FORMIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Pickenheim, B.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.

    2010-11-08

    glycolic acid added. The outstanding issues regarding the glycolic/formic flowsheet include increasing understanding of the impact on glass REDOX control and increased metal solubility, particularly iron, during processing. Additionally, evaluations of the utility of the flowsheet over varying sludge compositions should be completed to ensure flowsheet robustness. Work has already been initiated to further understand the REDOX and iron solubility areas.

  14. New Polytetrahydrofuran Graft Copolymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-15

    chioroprene) , chiorobutyl - ~~~~~ rubber , bromobutyl rubber , chlorinated EPDM , chlorinated poly(buta— diene) and chlorinated butadiene styrene copolymer...bromobutyl rubber , which after dehalogenation is unstable with respect to conjugated dienes, the yields of graft copolymer are low. With poly(chloroprerte

  15. Silicone/Acrylate Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two-step process forms silicone/acrylate copolymers. Resulting acrylate functional fluid is reacted with other ingredients to produce copolymer. Films of polymer were formed by simply pouring or spraying mixture and allowing solvent to evaporate. Films showed good weatherability. Durable, clear polymer films protect photovoltaic cells.

  16. Characterisation and evaluation of paramagnetic fluorine labelled glycol chitosan conjugates for (19)F and (1)H magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Elena; Harvey, Peter; Chalmers, Kirsten H; Mishra, Anurag; Senanayake, P Kanthi; Wilson, J Ian; Botta, Mauro; Fekete, Marianna; Blamire, Andrew M; Parker, David

    2014-02-01

    Medium molecular weight glycol chitosan conjugates have been prepared, linked by an amide bond to paramagnetic Gd(III), Ho(III) and Dy(III) macrocyclic complexes in which a trifluoromethyl reporter group is located 6.5 Å from the paramagnetic centre. The faster relaxation of the observed nucleus allows modified pulse sequences to be used with shorter acquisition times. The polydisperse materials have been characterised by gel permeation chromatography, revealing an average molecular weight on the order of 13,800 (Gd), 14,600 (Dy) and 16,200 (Ho), consistent with the presence of 8.5, 9.5 and 13 complexes, respectively. The gadolinium conjugate was prepared for both a q = 1 monoamide tricarboxylate conjugate (r1p 11.2 mM(-1) s(-1), 310 K, 1.4 T) and a q = 0 triphosphinate system, and conventional contrast-enhanced proton MRI studies at 7 T were undertaken in mice bearing an HT-29 or an HCT-116 colorectal tumour xenograft (17 μmol/kg). Enhanced contrast was observed following injection in the tail vein in tumour tissue, with uptake also evident in the liver and kidney with a tumour-to-liver ratio of 2:1 at 13 min, and large amounts in the kidney and bladder consistent with predominant renal clearance. Parallel experiments observing the (19)F resonance in the holmium conjugate complex using a surface coil did not succeed owing to its high R2 value (750 Hz, 7 T). However, the fluorine signal in the dysprosium triphosphinate chitosan conjugate [R1/R2 = 0.6 and R1 = 145 Hz (7 T)] was sharper and could be observed in vivo at -65.7 ppm, following intravenous tail vein injection of a dose of 34 μmol/kg.

  17. Studies on N-vinylformamide cross-linked copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świder, Joanna; Tąta, Agnieszka; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Witek, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta

    2015-12-01

    Copolymers of N-vinylformamide (NVF) cross-linked with three multifunctional monomers, including divinylbenzene (DVB), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and N,N‧-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) were synthetized by a three-dimensional free radical polymerization in inverse suspension using 2,2‧-azobis(2-methylpropionamide) dihydrochloride (AIBA) as an initiator. Methyl silicon oil was used as the continuous phase during the polymerization processes. Fourier-transform adsorption infrared (FT-IR) spectra revealed the presence of silicone oil traces and suggested that silicone oil strongly interacted with the copolymers surface. Purification procedure allowed to completely remove the silicon oil traces from P(NVF-co-DVB) only. The morphology and the structure of the investigated copolymers were examined by optical microscopy, FT-IR, and FT-Raman (Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy) methods.

  18. Toxicity of ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and propylene glycol to human cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Mochida, K.; Gomyoda, M.

    1987-01-01

    Tissue culture toxicity of various alcohols has been reported by Dillingham who used mouse L cells and Koerker who used mouse neuroblastoma cells. The toxicity of various polyhydric alcohols (ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and propylene glycol) has apparently not been determined, under conditions of culture. The authors report the toxicity of ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and propylene glycol and KB cells and the results are compared with previous data obtained using their cell culture system.

  19. In situ gelling stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    He, Chaoliang; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Doo Sung

    2008-05-08

    Stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels, which are reversible polymer networks formed by physical interactions and exhibit a sol-gel phase-transition in response to external stimuli, have great potential in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, especially in site-specific controlled drug-delivery systems. The drug may be mixed with a polymer solution in vitro and the drug-loaded hydrogel can form in situ after the in vivo administration, such as injection; therefore, stimuli-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels have many advantages, such as simple drug formulation and administration procedures, no organic solvent, site-specificity, a sustained drug release behavior, less systemic toxicity and ability to deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Among the stimuli in the biomedical applications, temperature and pH are the most popular physical and chemical stimuli, respectively. The temperature- and/or pH-sensitive block copolymer hydrogels for biomedical applications have been extensively developed in the past decade. This review focuses on recent development of the preparation and application for drug delivery of the block copolymer hydrogels that respond to temperature, pH or both stimuli, including poly(N-substituted acrylamide)-based block copolymers, poloxamers and their derivatives, poly(ethylene glycol)-polyester block copolymers, polyelectrolyte-based block copolymers and the polyelectrolyte-modified thermo-sensitive block copolymers. In addition, the hydrogels based on other stimuli-sensitive block copolymers are discussed.

  20. Plasma-induced graft-polymerization of polyethylene glycol acrylate on polypropylene films: chemical characterization and evaluation of the protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Stefano; Riccardi, Claudia; Grimoldi, Elisa; Colombo, Claudia; Villa, Anna Maria; Natalello, Antonino; Gatti-Lafranconi, Pietro; Lotti, Marina; Doglia, Silvia Maria

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the optimization of argon plasma-induced graft-polymerization of polyethylene glycol acrylate (PEGA) on polypropylene (PP) films in order to obtain surfaces with a reduced protein adsorption for possible biomedical applications. To this end, we examined the protein adsorption on the treated and untreated surfaces. The graft-polymerization process consisted of four steps: (a) plasma pre-activation of the PP substrates; (b) immersion in a PEGA solution; (c) argon plasma-induced graft-polymerization; (d) washing and drying of the samples. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated in terms of the amount of grafted polymer, coverage uniformity and substrates wettability. The process was monitored by contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The stability of the obtained thin films was evaluated in water and in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) at 37 degrees C. The adsorption of fibrinogen and green fluorescent protein (GFP)--taken as model proteins--on the differently prepared surfaces was evaluated through a fluorescence approach using laser scanning confocal microscopy with photon counting detection. After plasma treatments of short duration, the protein adsorption decreases by about 60-70% with respect to that of the untreated film, while long plasma exposure resulted in a higher protein adsorption, due to damaging of the grafted polymer.

  1. Block and Graft Copolymers of Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchessault, Robert H.; Ravenelle, François; Kawada, Jumpei

    2004-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) were modified for diblock copolymer and graft polymer by catalyzed transesterification in the melt and by chemical synthesis to extend the side chains of the PHAs, and the polymers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Catalyzed transesterification in the melt is used to produce diblock copolymers of poly[3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) and monomethoxy poly[ethylene glycol] (mPEG) in a one-step process. The resulting diblock copolymers are amphiphilic and self-assemble into sterically stabilized colloidal suspensions of PHB crystalline lamellae. Graft polymer was synthesized in a two-step chemical synthesis from biosynthesized poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyundecenoate] (PHOU) containing ca. 25 mol chains. 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid reacts with the side chain alkenes of PHOU by the radical addition creating thioether linkage with terminal carboxyl functionalities. The latter groups were subsequently transformed into the amide or ester linkage by tridecylamine or octadecanol, respectively, producing new graft polymers. The polymers have different physical properties than poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate] (PHO) which is the main component of the PHOU, such as non-stickiness and higher thermal stability. The combination of biosynthesis and chemical synthesis produces a hybrid thermoplastic elastomer with partial biodegradability.

  2. Adhesion and migration of marrow-derived osteoblasts on injectable in situ crosslinkable poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels with a covalently linked RGDS peptide.

    PubMed

    Behravesh, Esfandiar; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Mikos, Antonios G

    2003-05-01

    Marrow-derived osteoblasts were cultured on poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) (P(PF-co-EG)) based hydrogels modified in bulk with a covalently linked RGDS model peptide. A poly(ethylene glycol) spacer arm was utilized to covalently link the peptide to the hydrogel. Three P(PF-co-EG) block copolymers were synthesized with varying poly(ethylene glycol) block lengths relative to poly(ethylene glycol) spacer arm. A poly(ethylene glycol) block length of nominal molecular weight 2000 and spacer arm of nominal molecular weight 3400 were found to reduce nonspecific cell adhesion and show RGDS concentration dependent marrow-derived osteoblast adhesion. A concentration of 100 nmol/mL RGDS was sufficient to promote adhesion of 84 +/- 17% of the initial seeded marrow-derived osteoblasts compared with 9 +/- 1% for the unmodified hydrogel after 12 h. Cell spreading was quantified as a method for evaluating adhesivity of cells to the hydrogel. A megacolony migration assay was utilized to assess the migration characteristics of the marrow-derived osteoblasts on RGDS modified hydrogels. Marrow-stromal osteoblasts migration was greater on hydrogels modified with 100 nmol/mL linked RGDS when compared with hydrogels modified with 1000 nmol/mL linked RGDS, while proliferation was not affected. These P(PF-co-EG) hydrogels modified in the bulk with RGDS peptide are potential candidates as in situ forming scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

  3. Comparison of the biomechanics and histology of two soft-tissue fixators composed of bioabsorbable copolymers.

    PubMed

    Powers, D L; Sonawala, M; Woolf, S K; An, Y H; Hawkins, R; Pietrzak, W S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the dynamic in vitro and in vivo characteristics of two different bioabsorbable copolymer soft-tissue fixation devices and to determine their efficacy in reattaching soft tissue to bone. Suretac fixators (Smith & Nephew/Acufex MicroSurgical Inc., Northwood, MA), made of polyglyconate (2:1 glycolic acid:trimethylene carbonate), and Pop Rivets (Arthrotek, Warsaw, IN), made of LactoSorb (82% poly L-lactic acid, 18% polyglycolic acid), were anchored into synthetic bone, and their pull-out strengths were evaluated. The devices were also evaluated with the use of an in vivo goat model in which the medial collateral ligament (MCL) was elevated from the tibia and directly reattached. In the in vitro biomechanical study, the Suretac fixators had negligible strength remaining by four weeks, whereas the Pop Rivets retained 50% of their strength at 4 weeks, 20% at 8 weeks, and negligible strength at 12 weeks. The in vivo strength of MCL repairs affected by each implant was not statistically different at any of the time points. Histologically, both implants were absorbed by 52 weeks, and there was no appreciable adverse tissue response. In conclusion, both copolymer fixators were found to be biocompatible. The Pop Rivet fixators demonstrated in vivo performance comparable to the Suretac fixators, although the Pop Rivets retained strength longer in vitro. Our results suggest that both devices provide adequate strength of fixation before degrading to allow the healing soft tissues to reach or surpass their native strength.

  4. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    MedlinePlus

    ... the stool. This increases the number of bowel movements and softens the stool so it is easier ... for polyethylene glycol 3350 to produce a bowel movement.To use the powder, follow these steps: If ...

  5. Poly(ester anhydride)/mPEG amphiphilic block co-polymer nanoparticles as delivery devices for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanqin; Xiao, Li; Li, Yimei; Zhai, Yinglei; Xie, Chaopeng; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2011-01-01

    This work focused on the preparation and characterization of a novel amphiphilic block co-polymer and paclitaxel-loaded co-polymer nanoparticles (NPs) and in vitro evaluation of the release of paclitaxel and cytotoxicity of NPs. mPEG-b-P(OA-DLLA)-b-mPEG was prepared via melt polycondensation of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG), octadecanedioic acid (OA) and D,L-lactic acid (DLLA) and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, GPC, DSC and XRD. The paclitaxel-loaded mPEG-b-P(OA-DLLA)-b-mPEG NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation and then characterized by LPSA, TEM and (1)H-NMR. In vitro release behaviors of the paclitaxel-loaded NPs were investigated by HPLC. In vitro cytotoxicity of NPs was evaluated by MTT assay with normal mouse lung fibroblast cells (L929) as model cells. The composition of mPEG-b-P(OA-DLLA)-b-mPEG is consistent with that of the designed co-polymer. The paclitaxel-loaded NPs are of spherical shape with core/shell structure and size smaller than 300 nm. Paclitaxel can be continuously released from the paclitaxel-loaded NPs and the in vitro release rate of paclitaxel decreases with increasing the content of the P(OA-DLLA) segments in the co-polymer. The mPEG-b-P(OA-DLLA)-b-mPEG NPs are non-toxic to L929. The results suggest that mPEG-b-P(OA-DLLA)-b-mPEG NPs are a potential candidate carrier material for the controlled delivery of paclitaxel and other hydrophobic compounds.

  6. Injectable biodegradable temperature-responsive PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymers: synthesis and effect of copolymer composition on the drug release from the copolymer-based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Mingxi; Chen, Dawei; Ma, Xichen; Liu, Yanjun

    2005-04-27

    Injectable biodegradable temperature-responsive poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide-b-ethylene glycol-b-DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymers with DL-lactide/glycolide molar ratio ranging from 6/1 to 15/l were synthesized from monomers of DL-lactide, glycolide and polyethylene glycol and characterized by 1H NMR. The resulting copolymers are soluble in water to form free flowing fluid at room temperature but become hydrogels at body temperature. The hydrophobicity of the copolymer increased with the increasing of DL-lactide/glycolide molar ratio. In vitro dissolution studies with two different hydrophobic drugs (5-fluorouracil and indomethacin) were performed to study the effect of DL-lactide/glycolide molar ratio on drug release and to elucidate drug release mechanism. The release mechanism for hydrophilic 5-fluorouracil was diffusion-controlled, while hydrophobic indomethacin showed an biphasic profile comprising of an initial diffusion-controlled stage followed by the hydrogel erosion-dominated stage. The effect of DL-lactide/glycolide molar ratio on drug release seemed to be dependent on the drug release mechanism. It has less effect on the drug release during the diffusion-controlled stage, but significantly affected drug release during the hydrogel erosion-controlled stage. Compared with ReGel system, the synthesized copolymers showed a higher gelation temperature and longer period of drug release. The copolymers can solubilize the hydrophobic indomethacin and the solubility (13.7 mg/ml) was increased 3425-fold compared to that in water (4 microg/ml, 25 degrees C). Two methods of physical mixing method and solvent evaporation method were used for drug solubilization and the latter method showed higher solubilization efficiency.

  7. Elucidation of the Structure Formation of Polymer-Conjugated Proteins in Solution and Block Copolymer Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferebee, Rachel L.

    The broader technical objective of this work is to contribute to the development of enzyme-functionalized nanoporous membranes that can function as autonomous and target selective dynamic separators. The scientific objective of the research performed within this thesis is to elucidate the parameters that control the mixing of proteins in organic host materials and in block copolymers templates in particular. A "biomimetic" membrane system that uses enzymes to selectively neutralize targets and trigger a change in permeability of nanopores lined with a pH-responsive polymer has been fabricated and characterized. Mechanical and functional stability, as well as scalability, have been demonstrated for this system. Additional research has focused on the role of polymeric ligands on the solubility characteristics of the model protein, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). For this purpose BSA was conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ligands of varied degree of polymerization and grafting density. Combined static and dynamic light scattering was used (in conjunction with MALDI-TOF) to determine the second virial coefficient in PBS solutions. At a given mass fraction PEG or average number of grafts, the solubility of BSA-PEG conjugates is found to increase with the degree of polymerization of conjugated PEG. This result informs the synthesis of protein-conjugate systems that are optimized for the fabrication of block copolymer blend materials with maximum protein loading. Blends of BSA-PEG conjugates and block copolymer (BCP) matrices were fabricated to evaluate the dispersion morphology and solubility limits in a model system. Electron microscopy was used to evaluate the changes in lamellar spacing with increased filling fraction of BSA-PEG conjugates.

  8. Thermoresponsive and photocrosslinkable PEGMEMA-PPGMA-EGDMA copolymers from a one-step ATRP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hongyun; Wang, Wenxin; Vermonden, Tina; Heath, Felicity; Hennink, Wim E; Alexander, Cameron; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Howdle, Steven M

    2009-04-13

    Thermoresponsive and photocrosslinkable polymers can be used as injectable scaffolds in tissue engineering to yield gels in situ with enhanced mechanical properties and stability. They allow easy handling and hold their shapes prior to photopolymerization for clinical practice. Here we report a novel copolymer with both thermoresponsive and photocrosslinkable properties via a facile one-step deactivation enhanced atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methylacrylate (PEGMEMA, M(n) = 475) and poly(propylene glycol) methacrylate (PPGMA, M(n) = 375) as monofunctional vinyl monomers and up to 30% of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as multifunctional vinyl monomer. The resultant PEGMEMA-PPGMA-EGDMA copolymers have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 1H NMR analysis, which demonstrate their multivinyl functionality and hyperbranched structures. These water-soluble copolymers show lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior at 32 degrees C, which is comparable to poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM). The copolymers can also be cross-linked by photopolymerization through their multivinyl functional groups. Rheological studies clearly demonstrate that the photocrosslinked gels formed at a temperature above the LCST have higher storage moduli than those prepared at a temperature below the LCST. Moreover, the cross-linking density of the gels can be tuned to tailor their porous structures and mechanical properties by adjusting the composition and concentration of the copolymers. Hydrogels with a broad range of storage moduli from 10 to 400 kPa have been produced.

  9. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., ethylene-1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers (1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid, dimethyl...-benzenedicarboxylic acid, polymerized with 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol and 1,2-ethanediol) (CAS Reg. No. 25038-91-9) are... terephthalic acid with a mixture containing 99 to 66 mole percent of ethylene glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1345 - Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate/ terephthalate copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polycondensation of isophthalic acid and terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol and 1,3-bis(2-hydroxyethoxy)benzene... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate... Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate/ terephthalate copolymer. Ethylene/1, 3-phenylene...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock poly(ether-ester-urethane)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haw, Tan Ching; Ahmad, Azizan; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock poly(ether-ester-urethane)s was synthesized in the framework of environmental friendly products to meet the need for highly flexible polymers. Triblock copolymer with poly(ethylene glycol) as center block and poly(D,L-lactide) as side block were first synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide, followed by chain extension reaction of triblocks using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). NMR and infra-red spectroscopies were used to determine the molecular composition whereas XRD analysis revealed crystallinity behavior of synthesized multiblock copolymers.

  12. Perfluorocyclobutyl Aryl Ether-Based ABC Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Binbin; Yao, Wenqiang; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Sen; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    A series of fluorine-containing amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers comprising hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and hydrophobic poly(p-(2-(4-biphenyl)perfluorocyclobutoxy)phenyl methacrylate) (PBPFCBPMA) segments were synthesized by successive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, PEG-Br macroinitiators bearing one terminal ATRP initiating group were prepared by chain-end modification of monohydroxy-terminated PEG via esterification reaction. PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br diblock copolymers were then synthesized via ATRP of BPFCBPMA monomer initiated by PEG-Br macroinitiator. ATRP polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) was directly initiated by PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br to provide PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PtBMA triblock copolymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.43). The pendant tert-butyoxycarbonyls were hydrolyzed to carboxyls in acidic environment without affecting other functional groups for affording PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PMAA amphiphilic triblock copolymers. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as probe and the self-assembly behavior in aqueous media were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Large compound micelles and bowl-shaped micelles were formed in neutral aqueous solution. Interestingly, large compound micelles formed by triblock copolymers can separately or simultaneously encapsulate hydrophilic Rhodamine 6G and hydrophobic pyrene agents. PMID:28000757

  13. Perfluorocyclobutyl Aryl Ether-Based ABC Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Binbin; Yao, Wenqiang; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Sen; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    A series of fluorine-containing amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers comprising hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), and hydrophobic poly(p-(2-(4-biphenyl)perfluorocyclobutoxy)phenyl methacrylate) (PBPFCBPMA) segments were synthesized by successive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). First, PEG-Br macroinitiators bearing one terminal ATRP initiating group were prepared by chain-end modification of monohydroxy-terminated PEG via esterification reaction. PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br diblock copolymers were then synthesized via ATRP of BPFCBPMA monomer initiated by PEG-Br macroinitiator. ATRP polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) was directly initiated by PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-Br to provide PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PtBMA triblock copolymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.43). The pendant tert-butyoxycarbonyls were hydrolyzed to carboxyls in acidic environment without affecting other functional groups for affording PEG-b-PBPFCBPMA-b-PMAA amphiphilic triblock copolymers. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc) were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as probe and the self-assembly behavior in aqueous media were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Large compound micelles and bowl-shaped micelles were formed in neutral aqueous solution. Interestingly, large compound micelles formed by triblock copolymers can separately or simultaneously encapsulate hydrophilic Rhodamine 6G and hydrophobic pyrene agents.

  14. The evaluation of the possibilities of using PLGA co-polymer and its composites with carbon fibers or hydroxyapatite in the bone tissue regeneration process - in vitro and in vivo examinations.

    PubMed

    Cieślik, Magdalena; Mertas, Anna; Morawska-Chochól, Anna; Sabat, Daniel; Orlicki, Rajmund; Owczarek, Aleksander; Król, Wojciech; Cieślik, Tadeusz

    2009-07-15

    Synthetic polymers belonging to the aliphatic polyester group have become highly promising biomaterials for reconstructive medicine. The purpose of the present work is a biological evaluation of lactide-glycolide co-polymer (PLGA) and its composites with carbon fibers (PLGA+CF) or hydroxyapatite (PLGA+HA). The cytotoxicity of the evaluated materials towards hFOB 1.19 human osteoblast-like cells was assessed. Moreover, during the one-year contact of the assessed materials with living osseous tissue, the progress of bone formation was analyzed and the accompanying process of the materials' degradation was evaluated. The materials under evaluation proved to be biocompatible.

  15. The Evaluation of the Possibilities of Using PLGA Co-Polymer and Its Composites with Carbon Fibers or Hydroxyapatite in the Bone Tissue Regeneration Process – in Vitro and in Vivo Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Cieślik, Magdalena; Mertas, Anna; Morawska-Chochólł, Anna; Sabat, Daniel; Orlicki, Rajmund; Owczarek, Aleksander; Król, Wojciech; Cieślik, Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic polymers belonging to the aliphatic polyester group have become highly promising biomaterials for reconstructive medicine. The purpose of the present work is a biological evaluation of lactide-glycolide co-polymer (PLGA) and its composites with carbon fibers (PLGA+CF) or hydroxyapatite (PLGA+HA). The cytotoxicity of the evaluated materials towards hFOB 1.19 human osteoblast-like cells was assessed. Moreover, during the one-year contact of the assessed materials with living osseous tissue, the progress of bone formation was analyzed and the accompanying process of the materials’ degradation was evaluated. The materials under evaluation proved to be biocompatible. PMID:19742134

  16. Evaluation of dextran(ethylene glycol) hydrogel films for giant unilamellar lipid vesicle production and their application for the encapsulation of polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Mora, Nestor Lopez; Gao, Yue; Gutierrez, M Gertrude; Peruzzi, Justin; Bakker, Ivan; Peters, Ruud J R W; Siewert, Bianka; Bonnet, Sylvestre; Kieltyka, Roxanne E; van Hest, Jan C M; Malmstadt, Noah; Kros, Alexander

    2017-08-23

    Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) prepared from phospholipids are becoming popular membrane model systems for use in biophysical studies. The quality, size and yield of GUVs depend on the preparation method used to obtain them. In this study, hydrogels consisting of dextran polymers crosslinked by poly(ethylene glycol) (DexPEG) were used as hydrophilic frameworks for the preparation of vesicle suspensions under physiological ionic strength conditions. A comparative study was conducted using hydrogels with varied physicochemical properties to evaluate their performance for GUV production. The prepared GUVs were quantified by flow cytometry using the Coulter Principle to determine the yield and size distribution. We find that hydrogels of lower mechanical strength, increased swellability and decreased lipid interaction favour GUV production, while their resulting size is determined by the surface roughness of the hydrogel film. Moreover, we embedded polymersomes into the crosslinked hydrogel network, creating a DexPEG - polymersome hybrid film. The re-hydration of lipids on those hybrid substrates led to the production of GUVs and the efficient encapsulation of polymersomes in the lumen of GUVs.

  17. A toxicological review of the propylene glycols.

    PubMed

    Fowles, Jeff R; Banton, Marcy I; Pottenger, Lynn H

    2013-04-01

    The toxicological profiles of monopropylene glycol (MPG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), tripropylene glycol (TPG) and polypropylene glycols (PPG; including tetra-rich oligomers) are collectively reviewed, and assessed considering regulatory toxicology endpoints. The review confirms a rich data set for these compounds, covering all of the major toxicological endpoints of interest. The metabolism of these compounds share common pathways, and a consistent profile of toxicity is observed. The common metabolism provides scientific justification for adopting a read-across approach to describing expected hazard potential from data gaps that may exist for specific oligomers. None of the glycols reviewed presented evidence of carcinogenic, mutagenic or reproductive/developmental toxicity potential to humans. The pathologies reported in some animal studies either occurred at doses that exceeded experimental guidelines, or involved mechanisms that are likely irrelevant to human physiology and therefore are not pertinent to the exposures experienced by consumers or workers. At very high chronic doses, MPG causes a transient, slight decrease in hemoglobin in dogs and at somewhat lower doses causes Heinz bodies to form in cats in the absence of any clinical signs of anemia. Some evidence for rare, idiosyncratic skin reactions exists for MPG. However, the larger data set indicates that these compounds have low sensitization potential in animal studies, and therefore are unlikely to represent human allergens. The existing safety evaluations of the FDA, USEPA, NTP and ATSDR for these compounds are consistent and point to the conclusion that the propylene glycols present a very low risk to human health.

  18. Preparation of hydrophilic vinyl chloride copolymer hollow fiber membranes with antifouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Sano, Rie; Ishigami, Toru; Kakihana, Yuriko; Ohmukai, Yoshikage; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophilic vinyl chloride copolymer hollow fiber membranes with antifouling properties were prepared from brominated vinyl chloride-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (poly(VC-co-HEMA-Br)). The base membrane was grafted with two different zwitterionic monomers, (2-methacryloyloxyethylphosphorylcholine) (MPC) and [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) (MEDSAH), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA). The effect of the grafting on the base membrane hydrophilicity and antifouling properties was investigated. For comparison of the results, the pure water permeabilities and pore sizes at the outer surfaces of the grafted hollow fiber membranes were controlled to be similar. A poly(VC-co-HEMA-Br) hollow fiber membrane with similar pure water permeability and pore size was also prepared as a control membrane. A BSA solution was used as a model fouling solution for evaluation of the antifouling properties. Grafting with zwitterionic monomers and PEGMA improved the antifouling properties compared with the control membrane. The PEGMA grafted membrane showed the best antifouling properties among the grafted membranes

  19. Different insight into amphiphilic PEG-PLA copolymers: influence of macromolecular architecture on the micelle formation and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Cinzia; Capuano, Giovanna; Sottile, Rosa; Tallerico, Rossana; Adami, Renata; Reverchon, Ernesto; Carbone, Ennio; Izzo, Lorella; Pappalardo, Daniela

    2014-01-13

    One constrain in the use of micellar carriers as drug delivery systems (DDSs) is their low stability in aqueous solution. In this study "tree-shaped" copolymers of general formula mPEG-(PLA)n (n = 1, 2 or 4; mPEG = poly(ethylene glycol) monomethylether 2K or 5K Da; PLA = atactic or isotactic poly(lactide)) were synthesized to evaluate the architecture and chemical composition effect on the micelles formation and stability. Copolymers with mPEG/PLA ratio of about 1:1 wt/wt were obtained using a "core-first" synthetic route. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Zeta Potential measurements showed that mPEG2K-(PD,LLA)2 copolymer, characterized by mPEG chain of 2000 Da and two blocks of atactic PLA, was able to form monodisperse and stable micelles. To analyze the interaction among micelles and tumor cells, FITC conjugated mPEG-(PLA)n were synthesized. The derived micelles were tested on two, histological different, tumor cell lines: HEK293t and HeLa cells. Fluorescence Activated Cells Sorter (FACS) analysis showed that the FITC conjugated mPEG2K-(PD,LLA)2 copolymer stain tumor cells with high efficiency. Our data demonstrate that both PEG size and PLA structure control the biological interaction between the micelles and biological systems. Moreover, using confocal microscopy analysis, the staining of tumor cells obtained after incubation with mPEG2K-(PD,LLA)2 was shown to be localized inside the tumor cells. Indeed, the mPEG2K-(PD,LLA)2 paclitaxel-loaded micelles mediate a potent antitumor cytotoxicity effect.

  20. Facile preparation of biodegradable chitosan derivative having poly(butylene glycol adipate) side chains.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meifang; Fang, Yue'e

    2006-08-15

    Various modes are being explored for the construction of functional materials from nanoparticles. Despite these efforts, the assembly of nanoparticles remains challenging with respect to the requirement of multiple component organization on varying dimensions and length scales. The graft copolymers of chitosan with poly(butylene glycol adipate) (PBGA) were prepared due to the esterification reaction between PBGA and 6-O-succinate-N-phthaloyl-chitosan (PHCSSA) in the presence of toluene as a swelling agent. The graft copolymers are nanoparticles with the size of few hundred nanometers as observed from TEM. It is a potential method to combine chitosan with the hydrophobic synthetic polymers. The grafting reactions were conducted with various PBGA/PHCSSA feed ratios to obtain chitosan-g-PBGA copolymers with various PBGA contents. FT-IR, NMR, XRD, spectrofluorophotometer, and TEM were detected to characterize the copolymers. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Science and the perceived environmental risk from ethylene glycol and propylene glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Snellings, W.M.; Shah, S.I.; Garska, D.; Williams, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are widely used in aircraft deicing fluids (ADF), heat transfer fluids, and engine coolants. Discharges of these compounds to the environment have been reduced in recent years, but remain significant. The perceived environmental risk affects the decisions of businesses and regulatory agencies. There is a perception that propylene glycol poses a lower environmental risk than ethylene glycol. This perception is an inference from the use of low concentrations of propylene glycol in food additives -- something safe for food must be safe for fish. Environmental risk, however, must be established on the basis of scientific data, including acute and chronic toxicity to freshwater and saltwater species, oxygen demand, and persistence. A review of aquatic toxicity data for marine and freshwater species, and a review of treatability data in wastewater and soil for these widely used compounds has been completed. The data show that the two compounds, in fact, pose similar environmental risks, and in certain aspects one or the other glycol appears to be preferable. All aspects must be considered to give a valid perception of risk. The role of additives in deicing fluids is significant. Environmental fate and effect data indicate that additives are usually more toxic than the glycols, and environmental data for particular formulations must be evaluated as part of any risk assessment.

  2. Synthesis and water-swelling of thermo-responsive poly(ester urethane)s containing poly(epsilon-caprolactone), poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Loh, Xian Jun; Colin Sng, Kian Boon; Li, Jun

    2008-08-01

    Thermo-responsive multiblock poly(ester urethane)s comprising poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) segments were synthesized. The copolymers were characterized by GPC, NMR, FTIR, XRD, DSC and TGA. Water-swelling analysis carried out at different temperatures revealed that the bulk hydrophilicity of the copolymers could be controlled either by adjusting the composition of the copolymer or by changing the temperature of the environment. These thermo-responsive copolymer films formed highly swollen hydrogel-like materials when soaked in cold water and shrank when soaked in warm water. The changes are reversible. The mechanical properties of the copolymer films were assessed by tensile strength measurement. These copolymers were ductile when compared to PCL homopolymers. Young's modulus and the stress at break increased with increasing PCL content, whereas the strain at break increased with increasing PEG content. The results of the cytotoxicity tests based on the ISO 10993-5 protocol demonstrated that the copolymers were non-cytotoxic and could be potentially used in biomedical applications.

  3. Fabrication of poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel micropatterns with osteoinductive growth factors and evaluation of the effects on osteoblast activity and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramani, K.; Birch, M. A.

    2006-09-01

    The aims of this study were to fabricate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel micropatterns on a biomaterial surface to guide osteoblast behaviour and to study how incorporating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) within the adhered hydrogel influenced cell morphology. Standard photolithographic procedures or photopolymerization through a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) mould were used to fabricate patterned PEG hydrogels on the surface of silanized silicon wafers. Hydrogel patterns were evaluated by light microscopy and surface profilometry. Rat osteoblasts were cultured on these surfaces and cell morphology investigated by fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Release of protein trapped in the polymerized PEG was evaluated and VEGF-PEG surfaces were characterized for their ability to support cell growth. These studies show that photopolymerized PEG can be used to create anti-adhesive structures on the surface of silicon that completely control where cell interaction with the substrate takes place. Using conventional lithography, structures down to 50 µm were routinely fabricated with the boundaries exhibiting sloping sides. Using the PDMS mould approach, structures were fabricated as small as 10 µm and boundaries were very sharp and vertical. Osteoblasts exhibiting typical morphology only grew on the silicon wafer surface that was not coated with PEG. Adding BSA to the monomer solution showed that protein could be released from the hydrogel for up to 7 days in vitro. Incorporating VEGF in the hydrogel produced micropatterns that dramatically altered osteoblast behaviour. At boundaries with the VEGF-PEG hydrogel, there was striking formation of cellular processes and membrane ruffling indicative of a change in cell morphology. This study has explored the morphogenetic properties of VEGF and the applications of nano/microfabrication techniques for guided tissue (bone) regeneration in dental and

  4. OA cartilage derived chondrocytes encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) for the evaluation of cartilage restoration and apoptosis in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, G; Loreto, C; Carnazza, M L; Strehin, I; Elisseeff, J

    2011-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage attrition, subchondral bone remodeling, osteophyte formation and synovial inflammation. Perturbed homeostasis caused by inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and proapoptotic/antiapoptotic dysregulation is known to impair chondrocyte survival in joint microenvironments and contribute to OA pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the programmed cell death (apoptosis) of chondral cells are not yet well defined. The present study was conducted to evaluate apoptosis of chondrocytes from knee articular cartilage of patients with OA. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the apoptosis through the expression of caspase-3 in tissue explants, in cells cultured in monolayer, and in cells encapsulated in a hydrogel (PEGDA) scaffold. Chondrocytes were also studied following cell isolation and encapsulation in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels. Specifically, articular cartilage specimens were assessed by histology (Hematoxlyn and Eosin) and histochemistry (Safranin-O and Alcian Blue). The effector of apoptosis caspase-3 was studied through immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence. DNA strand breaks were evaluated in freshly isolated chondrocytes from human OA cartilage using the TUNEL assay, and changes in nuclear morphology of apoptotic cells were detected by staining with Hoechst 33258. The results showed an increased expression of caspase-3 in tissue explants, in pre-confluent cells and after four passages in culture, and a decreased expression of caspase-3 comparable to control cartilage in cells encapsulated in hydrogels (PEGDA) after 5 weeks in culture. The freshly isolated chondrocytes were TUNEL positive. The chondrocytes after 5 weeks of culture in hydrogels (PEGDA) showed the formation of new hyaline cartilage with increased cell growth, cellular aggregations and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. This is of particular

  5. A mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL copolymer carrier for adriamycin and siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peifeng; Yu, Hui; Sun, Ying; Zhu, Mingjie; Duan, Yourong

    2012-06-01

    A amphiphilic block copolymer composed of conventional monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly (l-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL) was synthesized. The chemical structure of this copolymer and its precursors was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The copolymer was used to prepare nanoparticles (NPs) that were then loaded with either the anti-cancer drug adriamycin or small interfering RNA-negative (siRNA) using a double emulsion method. MTT assays used to study the in vitro cytotoxicity of mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs showed that these particles were not toxic in huh-7 hepatic carcinoma cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometer analysis results demonstrated efficient mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs-mediated delivery of both adriamycin and siRNA into the cells. In vivo the targeting delivery of adriamycin or siRNA mediated by mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs in the huh-7 hepatic carcinoma-bearing mice was evaluated using a fluorescence imaging system. The targeting delivery results and froze section analysis confirmed that drug or siRNA is deliver to tumor more efficiently by mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs than free drug or Lipofectamine™2000. The high efficiency delivery of mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs mainly due to the enhancement of cellular uptake. These results imply that mPEG-PLGA-b-PLL NPs have a great potential to be used as an effective carriers for adriamycin or siRNA. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Persea americana Glycolic Extract: In Vitro Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jesus, D; Oliveira, J R; Oliveira, F E; Higa, K C; Junqueira, J C; Jorge, A O C; Back-Brito, G N; Oliveira, L D

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol) was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL (n = 10) with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control (n = 10). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and dilutions were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation (37°C/48 h), the values of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were converted to log10 and analyzed (ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%). The cytotoxicity of the P. americana extract was evaluated on macrophages by MTT assay. The MIC of the extract was 6.25 mg/mL and with 12.5 mg/mL there was elimination of 100% of planktonic cultures. Regarding the biofilms, a significant reduction (P < 0.001) of the biofilm at concentrations of 50 (0.580 ± 0.209 log10), 100 (0.998 ± 0.508 log10), and 200 mg/mL (1.093 ± 0.462 log10) was observed. The concentrations of 200 and 100 mg/mL were cytotoxic for macrophages, while the concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL showed viability higher than 55%.

  7. Persea americana Glycolic Extract: In Vitro Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, D.; Oliveira, J. R.; Oliveira, F. E.; Higa, K. C.; Junqueira, J. C.; Jorge, A. O. C.; Back-Brito, G. N.; Oliveira, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol) was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL (n = 10) with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control (n = 10). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and dilutions were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation (37°C/48 h), the values of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were converted to log10 and analyzed (ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%). The cytotoxicity of the P. americana extract was evaluated on macrophages by MTT assay. The MIC of the extract was 6.25 mg/mL and with 12.5 mg/mL there was elimination of 100% of planktonic cultures. Regarding the biofilms, a significant reduction (P < 0.001) of the biofilm at concentrations of 50 (0.580 ± 0.209 log10), 100 (0.998 ± 0.508 log10), and 200 mg/mL (1.093 ± 0.462 log10) was observed. The concentrations of 200 and 100 mg/mL were cytotoxic for macrophages, while the concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL showed viability higher than 55%. PMID:26605376

  8. Indoor air guide values for glycol ethers and glycol esters-A category approach.

    PubMed

    Mangelsdorf, Inge; Kleppe, Sara Nordqvist; Heinzow, Birger; Sagunski, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    The German Committee on Indoor Guide Values issues indoor air guide values to protect public health. For health evaluation of glycol ethers and glycol esters in air, the entire group of substances with data for 47 chemicals was analyzed in order to gain a consistent assessment. For some glycol ethers reproductive and hematological effects are of central interest, whereas for others effects on liver and kidneys are crucial. Moreover, some glycol ethers have also been shown to cause irritation of the respiratory tract. For 14 chemicals, suitable inhalation studies were available for deriving specific guide values, or analogies to closely related substances could be drawn. For these chemicals individual indoor air guide values were derived, the respective guide value I ranging from 0.02 to 2mg/m(3). Guide values were derived according to the procedures issued by the Committee, considering the exposure duration in indoor air compared to animal studies or the situation at workplaces, the duration of the respective study, species differences, and interindividual variability including special sensitivity of children. For glycol ethers with insufficient data default guide values II and I of 0.05 and 0.005ppm, respectively, were recommended based on statistical analyses of the available data on all glycol ethers and on evaluation of single studies. For evaluation of combined effects additivity is assumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Desorption ElectroSpray Ionization - Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry of synthetic polymers and copolymers.

    PubMed

    Friia, Manel; Legros, Véronique; Tortajada, Jeanine; Buchmann, William

    2012-08-01

    Desorption ElectroSpray Ionization (DESI) - Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (MS) was evaluated as a new tool for the characterization of various industrial synthetic polymers (poly(ethylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol), poly(methylmethacrylate), poly(dimethylsiloxane)) and copolymers, with masses ranging from 500 g.mol(-1) up to more than 20 000 g.mol(-1) . Satisfying results in terms of signal stability and sensitivity were obtained from hydrophobic surfaces (HTC Prosolia) with a mixture water/methanol (10/90) as spray solvent in the presence of sodium salt. Taking into account the formation of multiplied charged species by DESI-MS, a strategy based on the use of a deconvolution software followed by the automatic assignment of the ions was described allowing the rapid determination of M(n) , M(w) and PDI values. DESI-Orbitrap MS results were compared to those obtained from matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- time-of-flight MS and gel permeation chromatography. An application of DESI-Orbitrap MS for the detection and identification of polymers directly from cosmetics was described. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The effect of glycerol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 on the partition coefficient of benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone).

    PubMed

    Mbah, C J

    2007-01-01

    Sunscreen products are widely used to protect the skin from sun-related deleterious effects. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential effect of glycerol, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400 on dermal absorption of oxybenzone by studying their effects on its partition coefficient. The partition coefficient was evaluated in a chloroform-water system at room temperature. It was found that glycerol and propylene glycol decreased the partition coefficient of oxybenzone, while an increase in partition coefficient was observed with polyethylene glycol 400. The findings suggest that polyethylene glycol 400 in contrast to glycerol and propylene glycol has the potential of increasing the vehicle-skin partition coefficient of oxybenzone when cosmetic products containing such an UV absorber are topically applied to the skin.

  11. Tuning thermoresponsive behavior of diblock copolymers and their gold core hybrids: part 1. Importance of placement of amphiphilic end groups on the diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Xiang, Xu; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Heiden, Patricia A

    2013-02-01

    We report the effects of use and placement of amphiphilic end groups as a valuable tool to achieve significant changes in the thermoresponsive properties of diblock copolymers without the need to resort to compositional changes. We prepared diblock copolymers of di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate with phenyl dithioester and carboxylic acid chain ends and compared the effects of placement of these amphiphilic chain ends on the cloud points of the copolymers. All the copolymers were high molecular weight (greater than 20 kDa) with a polydispersity between 1.1 and 1.2, and the cloud points were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry and reported as the temperature at 50% normalized transmission. The thermoresponse showed a significant dependency on end group placement, reaching as much as a 28°C difference in measured cloud point simply by exchanging end group placement rather than compositional changes. The effect is attributed to changes in the solvation and mobility from chain end placement affecting the degree of association of the chains. The underlying effect is due to the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance in combination with the use of amphiphilic chain end placement that can be applied to copolymers with different blocks at the chain ends. This work shows that substantial changes in thermo-response properties can be achieved by re-arranging monomer components rather than changing monomer composition. This may have value in biomedical materials where the range of acceptable monomers is limited.

  12. EGFR-targeted poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine micelle loaded with paclitaxel for laryngeal cancer: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Henglei; Gao, Chunli; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Min; Xie, Cao; Lu, Weiyue

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using polymeric micelles modified with a peptide (termed GE11) ligand of epidermal growth factor receptor as the targeted carriers to achieve increased accumulation in laryngeal cancer and enhanced intracellular delivery for the encapsulated anticancer drugs. Poly (ethylene glycol)-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) micelles containing paclitaxel were prepared via film-hydration method followed by investigation of in vitro release of paclitaxel in phosphate-buffered saline. The average size of GE11-PEG-DSPE/paclitaxel micelle and mPEG-DSPE/paclitaxel were 35 ± 2.8 nm [the polydispersity index (PDI) = 0.207] and 28 ± 2.1 nm (PDI = 0.154), respectively. Micelles with or without GE11-modified had similar physicochemical properties. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the micelles were homogeneous and spherical in shape. Encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of the micelle were 74.11 ± 3.89% and 3.58 ± 2.82%, respectively. The in vitro targeting characteristic of GE11-modified micelles was investigated by observing the level of cellular uptake of fluorescent coumarin-6-loaded micelles on EGFR over-expressed human laryngeal cancer cell line Hep-2 and EGFR low-expressed human leukemic cell line U-937. Hep-2 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by GE11-PEG-DSPE/paclitaxel micelle compared to mPEG-DSPE/paclitaxel micelle and Taxol in vitro. Our results suggested that GE11-PEG-DSPE micelle could be a promising strategy for enhancing paclitaxel's chemotherapeutic effects on EGFR over-expressed cancer cells.

  13. Synthesis and dose interval dependent hepatotoxicity evaluation of intravenously administered polyethylene glycol-8000 coated ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle on Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Balan; Sathish, Shanmugam; Balakumar, Subramanian; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2015-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are being used in medical imaging, drug delivery, cancer therapy, and so on. However, there is a direct need to identify any nanotoxicity associated with these nanoparticles. However uncommon, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major health concern that challenges pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory agencies alike. In this study we have synthesized and evaluated the dose interval dependent hepatotoxicity of polyethylene glycol-8000 coated ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PUSPIOs). To assess the hepatotoxicity of intravenously injected PUSPIOs, alterations in basic clinical parameters, hematological parameters, hemolysis assay, serum levels of liver marker enzymes, serum and liver lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, enzymatic antioxidant levels, and finally histology of liver, kidney, spleen, lung, brain, and heart tissues were studied in control and experimental Wistar rat groups over a 30-day period. The results of our study showed a significant increase in the aspartate transaminase (AST) enzyme activity at a dose of 10mg/kg b.w. PUSPIOs twice a week. Besides, alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) enzyme activity showed a slender increase when compared with control experimental groups. A significant increase in the serum and liver LPO levels at a dose of 10mg/kg b.w. PUSPIOs twice a week was also observed. Histological analyses of liver, kidney, spleen, lung, brain and heart tissue samples showed no obvious uncharacteristic changes. In conclusion, PUSPIOs were found to posses excellent biocompatibility and Wistar rats showed much better drug tolerance to the dose of 10mg/kg b.w. per week than the dose of 10mg/kg b.w. twice a week for the period of 30 days.

  14. Evaluation of propylene glycol nanoliposomes containing curcumin on burn wound model in rat: biocompatibility, wound healing, and anti-bacterial effects.

    PubMed

    Kianvash, Nooshin; Bahador, Abbas; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Ghafari, Homanaz; Nikoui, Vahid; Rezayat, Sayed Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Partoazar, Alireza

    2017-07-13

    Curcumin is an effective wound healing agent in burn therapy, but due to its low bioavailability, it is required to be formulated for topical therapy. Liposomal nanocarriers are developed as stable and efficient dermal delivery systems. In this study, we prepared curcumin-propylene glycol liposomes (Cur-PgL) to treat animals subjected to second degree burns. The characterization tests confirmed the production of monodisperse nanoliposomes of average size of about 145 nm with high entrapment efficiency percentage and a sustained release behavior. TEM analysis of nanocarriers showed no aggregation in long time storage up to 60 days. The biocompatibility of the Cur-PgL formulation was evaluated by ISO standards. We found that Cur-PgL 0.3% was the effective dose in injured rats without any side effects on intact skin. The cytotoxicity of the Cur-PgL 0.3% nanovesicles was also assessed on human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. The results showed no detectable cytotoxicity, but considerable cytotoxicity was observed in higher concentration of 1.5 and 3 mg/ml of free and PgL forms of curcumin. Eight days of application of Cur-PgL on burned rats resulted in a significant (P<0.001) recovery of wound repair parameters, and after 18 days, wound contraction occurred significantly (P < 0.001) compared to the other groups. The antibacterial activity of the Cur-PgL formulation was found to be similar to the silver sulfadiazine (SSD) cream 1% regarding the inhibition of the bacterial growth. In conclusion, the low dose of curcumin nanoliposomal formulation efficiently improved injuries and infections of burn wounds and it can be considered in burn therapy.

  15. Design and Comparative Evaluation of In-vitro Drug Release, Pharmacokinetics and Gamma Scintigraphic Analysis of Controlled Release Tablets Using Novel pH Sensitive Starch and Modified Starch- acrylate Graft Copolymer Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pankaj; Ganure, Ashok Laxmanrao; Subudhi, Bharat Bhushan; Shukla, Shubhanjali

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the development of controlled release tablets of salbutamol sulphate using graft copolymers (St-g-PMMA and Ast-g-PMMA) of starch and acetylated starch. Drug excipient compatibility was spectroscopically analyzed via FT-IR, which confirmed no interaction between drug and other excipients. Formulations were evaluated for physical characteristics like hardness, friability, weight variations, drug release and drug content analysis which satisfies all the pharmacopoeial requirement of tablet dosage form. Release rate of a model drug from formulated matrix tablets were studied at two different pH namely 1.2 and 6.8, spectrophotometrically. Drug release from the tablets of graft copolymer matrices is profoundly pH-dependent and showed a reduced release rate under acidic conditions as compared to the alkaline conditions. Study of release mechanism by Korsmeyer’s model with n values between 0.61-0.67, proved that release was governed by both diffusion and erosion. In comparison to starch and acetylated starch matrix formulations, pharmacokinetic parameters of graft copolymers matrix formulations showed a significant decrease in Cmax with an increase in tmax, indicating the effect of dosage form would last for longer duration. The gastro intestinal transit behavior of the formulation was determined by gamma scintigraphy, using 99mTc as a marker in healthy rabbits. The amount of radioactive tracer released from the labelled tablets was minimal when the tablets were in the stomach, whereas it increased as tablets reached to intestine. Thus, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release studies of starch-acrylate graft copolymers proved their controlled release behavior with preferential delivery into alkaline pH environment. PMID:26330856

  16. Review of glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents used in the coating industry.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R L

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene oxide-based glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents have been used in the coatings industry for the past fifty years. Because of their excellent performance properties (evaporation rate, blush resistance, flow-out and leveling properties, solubility for coating resins, solvent activity, mild odor, good coupling ability, good solvent release) a complete line of ethylene oxide-based solvents of various molecular weights has been developed. These glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents have better solvent activity for coating resin than ester or ketone solvents in their evaporation rate range. The gloss, flow and leveling, and general performance properties of many coating systems are dependent on the use of these products in the coating formula. Because of the concern about the toxicity of certain ethylene oxide-based solvents, other products are being evaluated as replacements in coating formulas. PMID:6499793

  17. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable amphiphilic triblock copolymers containing L-glutamic acid units.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huili; Xie, Zhigang; Zhang, Peibiao; Deng, Chao; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin

    2005-01-01

    A novel biodegradable amphiphilic triblock copolymer bearing pendant carboxyl groups PLGG-PEG-PLGG was successfully prepared by ring-opening copolymerization of l-lactide (LA) with (3s)-benzoxylcarbonylethyl-morpholine-2, 5-dione (BEMD) in the presence of dihydroxyl poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a macroinitiator in bulk at 130 degrees C using SnOct(2) as catalyst and by subsequent catalytic hydrogenation. The copolymer could form micelles in aqueous solution with the cmc dependent on the composition of the copolymer. The micelles exhibited a homogeneous spherical morphology and a unimodal size distribution. Their degradation rate in the presence of proteinase K was faster than that of PLA, and they showed a low degree of cytotoxicity to the articular cartilage cells. This biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymer with pendant carboxyl groups is capable of further modification and is expected to facilitate a variety of potential biomedical applications, such as drug carriers, tissue engineering, etc.

  18. Synthesis of long-circulating, backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin conjugates and evaluation of molecular-weight-dependent antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huaizhong; Sima, Monika; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-02-01

    Backbone degradable, linear, multiblock N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-doxorubicin (DOX) conjugates are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization followed by chain extension via thiol-ene click reaction. The examination of molecular-weight-dependent antitumor activity toward human ovarian A2780/AD carcinoma in nude mice reveals enhanced activity of multiblock, second-generation, higher molecular weight conjugates when compared with traditional HPMA copolymer-DOX conjugates. The examination of body weight changes during treatment indicates the absence of non-specific adverse effects.

  19. Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 112 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  20. Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether ; CASRN 143 - 22 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  1. Diethylene glycol dinitrate (DEGDN)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethylene glycol dinitrate ( DEGDN ) ; CASRN 693 - 21 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments

  2. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 52125 - 53 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  3. Cell adhesion on poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Kazuhiro; Mikos, Antonios G

    2002-12-15

    We synthesized poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) block copolymers [P(PF-co-EG)] that were crosslinked to form hydrogels and investigated the effect of copolymer composition on cell adhesion to the hydrogels. These copolymers were water soluble when the molar ratio of ethylene glycol repeating unit to propylene fumarate repeating unit was higher than 4.4. The water content of swollen hydrogels increased from 29 to 63% and the water contact angle decreased from 38 to 21 degrees as the molar ratio increased from 0.6 to 4.4. No significant change in either property was observed for ratios higher than 4.4. In a cell adhesion assay under serum-free conditions, the number of adherent platelets and smooth muscle cells decreased from 21 to 2% and from 78 to 20% of the initial seeding density, respectively, as the molar ratio increased from 0.6 to 7.8. Adherent smooth muscle cells did not spread on the hydrogels of the compositions tested. Adherent platelets did not show any filopodia. These results suggest that the hydrophilicity of P(PF-co-EG) hydrogels is one of the factors affecting cell adhesion, and that copolymer modification may be required for enhancing cell adhesion for an application involving the copolymers as in situ crosslinkable cell carriers.

  4. Evaluation of a new biocompatible poly(N-(morpholino ethyl methacrylate)-based copolymer for the delivery of ruthenium oligonucleotides, targeting HPV16 E6 oncogene.

    PubMed

    Reschner, Anca; Shim, Yong Ho; Dubois, Philippe; Delvenne, Philippe; Evrard, Brigitte; Marcélis, Lionel; Moucheron, Cécile; Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, Andrée; Defrancq, Eric; Raes, Martine; Piette, Jacques; Collard, Laurence; Piel, Géraldine

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the use of a new biocompatible block copolymer poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-N-(morpholino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA-b-PMEMA) for the delivery of a particular antisense oligonucleotide targeting E6 gene from human papilloma virus. This antisense oligonucleotide was derivatized with a polyazaaromatic Ru(II) complex which, under visible illumination, is able to produce an irreversible crosslink with the complementary targeted sequence. The purpose of this study is to determine whether by the use of a suitable transfection agent, it is possible to increase the efficiency of the antisense oligonucleotide targeting E6 gene, named Ru-P-4. In a recent study, we showed that Oligofectamine transfected Ru-P-4 antisense oligonucleotide failed to inhibit efficiently the growth of cervical cancer cell line SiHa, contrarily to the Ru-P-6 antisense oligonucleotide, another sequence also targeting the E6 gene. The ability of PDMAEMA-b-PMEMA to form polyplexes with optimal physicochemical characteristics was investigated first. Then the ability of the PDMAEMA-b-PMEMA/Ru-P-4 antisense oligonucleotide polyplexes to transfect two keratinocyte cell lines (SiHa and HaCat) and the capacity of polyplexes to inhibit HPV16+ cervical cancer cell growth was evaluated. PDMAEMA-b-PMEMA base polyplexes at the optimal molar ratio of polymer nitrogen atoms to DNA phosphates (N/P), were able to deliver Ru-P-4 antisense oligonucleotide and to induce a higher growth inhibition in human cervical cancer SiHa cells, compared to other formulations based on Oligofectamine.

  5. Tumoral acidic extracellular pH targeting of pH-responsive MPEG-poly(beta-amino ester) block copolymer micelles for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jinyoung; Park, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Yoo-Shin; Kim, Min Sang; Han, Jong Kwon; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Park, Rang-Woon; Kim, In-San; Song, Hyun Kyu; Lee, Doo Sung; Kwon, Ick Chan

    2007-11-06

    The main objective of this study was to develop and characterize a pH-responsive and biodegradable polymeric micelle as a tumor-targeting drug delivery system. The pH-responsive block copolymer was synthesized by a Michael-type step polymerization of hydrophilic methyl ether poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) and pH-responsive and biodegradable poly(beta-amino ester), resulting in an amphiphilic MPEG-poly(beta-amino ester) block copolymer. This copolymer, which formed nano-sized self-assembled micelles under aqueous conditions, could be efficiently (74.5%) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) using a solvent evaporation method. In an in vitro drug release study, these DOX-loaded polymeric micelles showed noticeable pH-dependent micellization-demicellization behavior, with rapid release of DOX from the micelles in weakly acidic environments (pH 6.4) but very slow release under physiological conditions (pH 7.4). Moreover, due to demicellization, the tumor cell uptake of DOX released from polymeric micelles was much higher at pH 6.4 than at pH 7.4. When in vivo anti-tumor activity of pH-responsive polymeric micelles was evaluated by injecting the DOX-loaded polymeric micelles into B16F10 tumor-bearing mice, these micelles notably suppressed tumor growth and also prolonged survival of the tumor-bearing mice, compared with mice treated with free DOX.

  6. Glycolic acid production using ethylene glycol-oxidizing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, M; Sasaki, M; Hidalgo, A R; Nakano, M; Shimizu, S

    2001-10-01

    Screening for microorganisms oxidizing ethylene glycol to glycolic acid was carried out. Among stock cultures, several yeasts and acetic acid bacteria showed high glycolic acid producing activity. Pichia naganishii AKU 4267 formed the highest concentration of glycolic acid, 35.3 g/l, from 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (molar conversion yield, 26.0%). Among soil isolates, Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126, isolated using propylene glycol as a sole carbon source, formed the highest concentration of glycolic acid, 25.1 g/l, from 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol (molar conversion yield, 18.5%). Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126 showed higher activity toward 20% (v/v) ethylene glycol than P. naganishii AKU 4267. Optimization of the conditions for glycolic acid production was investigated using P. naganishii AKU 4267 and Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126. Under the optimized conditions, P. naganishii AKU 4267 and Rhodotorula sp. 3Pr-126 formed 105 and 110 g/l of glycolic acid (corrected molar conversion yields, 88.0 and 92.2%) during 120 h of reaction, respectively.

  7. Performance of an in situ formed bioactive hydrogel dressing from a PEG-based hyperbranched multifunctional copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yixiao; Hassan, Waqar U; Kennedy, Robert; Greiser, Udo; Pandit, Abhay; Garcia, Yolanda; Wang, Wenxin

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogel dressings have been widely used for wound management due to their ability to maintain a hydrated wound environment, restore the skin's physical barrier and facilitate regular dressing replacement. However, the therapeutic functions of standard hydrogel dressings are restricted. In this study, an injectable hybrid hydrogel dressing system was prepared from a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based thermoresponsive hyperbranched multiacrylate functional copolymer and thiol-modified hyaluronic acid in combination with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The cell viability, proliferation and metabolic activity of the encapsulated ADSCs were studied in vitro, and a rat dorsal full-thickness wound model was used to evaluate this bioactive hydrogel dressing in vivo. It was found that long-term cell viability could be achieved for both in vitro (21days) and in vivo (14days) studies. With ADSCs, this hydrogel system prevented wound contraction and enhanced angiogenesis, showing the potential of this system as a bioactive hydrogel dressing for wound healing.

  8. Impact of glycolate anion on aqueous corrosion in DWPF and downstream facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J. I.

    2015-12-15

    Glycolic acid is being evaluated as an alternate reductant in the preparation of high level waste for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). During processing, the glycolic acid may not be completely consumed with small quantities of the glycolate anion being carried forward to other high level waste (HLW) facilities. The impact of the glycolate anion on the corrosion of the materials of construction (MoC) throughout the waste processing system has not been previously evaluated. A literature review had revealed that corrosion data were not available for the MoCs in glycolic-bearing solutions applicable to SRS systems. Data on the material compatibility with only glycolic acid or its derivative products were identified; however, data were limited for solutions containing glycolic acid or the glycolate anion.

  9. PCP copolymers grafted with RGD enhance the rates of RGD-PCP micelles internalized into cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tze-Wen; Tyan, Yu-Chang; Yang, Jean-Dean

    2010-01-01

    RGD-PCP copolymers were fabricated by grafting Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide to poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-chitooligosaccharide-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PCP) copolymers and the rate of internalization of RGD-PCP micelles by PC 12 cells were examined. Increasing intensity of the absorbance of amine groups in FT-IR spectra of RGD-PCP copolymers compared with those of PCP copolymers indicated the presence of RGD in new copolymers. Moreover, the grafting efficiency and molar ratio of RGD peptides to PCP copolymers were 88.2% and 0.45, respectively, analysed with HPLC. The RGD-PCP copolymers self-assemble to micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.018 wt% (178 mg L(-1)) and with a mean diameter of 90 nm using a dynamic light-scattering (DLS) analyser. Interestingly, the internalization of DPH-loaded RGD-PCP micelles into PC 12 cells is much faster (e.g. within 5 min) than that of PCP micelles. The new RGD-PCP micelles may potentially be used in cellular drug delivery.

  10. Structural and Rheological Properties of Temperature-Responsive Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Josefine Eilsø; Zhu, Kaizheng; Sande, Sverre Arne; Kováčik, Lubomír; Cmarko, Dušan; Knudsen, Kenneth D; Nyström, Bo

    2017-05-11

    Thermoresponsive amphiphilic biodegradable block copolymers of the type poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA-PEGm-PCLA) have great potential for various biomedical applications. In the present study, we have surveyed the effects of PEG spacer length (m = 1000 and 1500), temperature, and polymer concentration on the self-assembling process to form supramolecular structures in aqueous solutions of the PCLA-PEGm-PCLA copolymer. This copolymer has a lower critical solution temperature, and the cloud point depends on both concentration and PEG length. Thermoreversible hydrogels are formed in the semidilute regime; the gel windows in the phase diagrams can be tuned by the concentration and length of the PEG spacer. The rheological properties of both dilute and semidilute samples were characterized; especially the sol-to-gel transition was examined. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments reveal fundamental structural differences between the two copolymers for both dilute and semidilute samples. The intensity profiles for the copolymer with the long PEG spacer could be described by a spherical core-shell model over a broad temperature domain, whereas the copolymer with the short hydrophilic spacer forms rod-like species over an extended temperature range. This finding is supported by cryo-TEM images. At temperatures approaching macroscopic phase separation, both copolymers seem to assume extended rod-like structures.

  11. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G.; Matzger, Adam J.; Benin, Annabelle I.; Willis, Richard R.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  12. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  13. Block coordination copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2014-11-11

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  14. Ultraviolet absorbing copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Amitava; Yavrouian, Andre H.

    1982-01-01

    Photostable and weather stable absorping copolymers have been prepared from acrylic esters such as methyl methacrylate containing 0.1 to 5% of an 2-hydroxy-allyl benzophenone, preferably the 4,4' dimethoxy derivative thereof. The pendant benzophenone chromophores protect the acrylic backbone and when photoexcited do not degrade the ester side chain, nor abstract hydrogen from the backbone.

  15. Preparation of Biodegradable and Elastic Poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) Copolymers and Evaluation as a Localized and Sustained Drug Delivery Carrier.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hoon; Lee, Bo Keun; Park, Seung Hun; Kim, Mal Geum; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Hye Yun; Lee, Hai Bang; Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Moon Suk

    2017-03-21

    To develop a biodegradable polymer possessing elasticity and flexibility, we synthesized MPEG-b-(PCL-co-PLA) copolymers (PCxLyA), which display specific rates of flexibility and elasticity. We synthesize the PCxLyA copolymers by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and l-lactide. PCxLyA copolymers of various compositions were synthesized with 500,000 molecular weight. The PCxLyA copolymers mechanical properties were dependent on the mole ratio of the ε-caprolactone and l-lactide components. Cyclic tensile tests were carried out to investigate the resistance to creep of PCxLyA specimens after up to 20 deformation cycles to 50% elongation. After in vivo implantation, the PCxLyA implants exhibited biocompatibility, and gradually biodegraded over an eight-week experimental period. Immunohistochemical characterization showed that the PCxLyA implants provoked in vivo inflammation, which gradually decreased over time. The copolymer was used as a drug carrier for locally implantable drugs, the hydrophobic drug dexamethasone (Dex), and the water-soluble drug dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium salt (Dex(p)). We monitored drug-loaded PCxLyA films for in vitro and in vivo drug release over 40 days and observed real-time sustained release of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence over an extended period from hydrophobic IR-780- and hydrophilic IR-783-loaded PCxLyA implanted in live animals. Finally, we confirmed that PCxLyA films are usable as biodegradable, elastic drug carriers.

  16. Preparation of Biodegradable and Elastic Poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) Copolymers and Evaluation as a Localized and Sustained Drug Delivery Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hoon; Lee, Bo Keun; Park, Seung Hun; Kim, Mal Geum; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Hye Yun; Lee, Hai Bang; Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Moon Suk

    2017-01-01

    To develop a biodegradable polymer possessing elasticity and flexibility, we synthesized MPEG-b-(PCL-co-PLA) copolymers (PCxLyA), which display specific rates of flexibility and elasticity. We synthesize the PCxLyA copolymers by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone and l-lactide. PCxLyA copolymers of various compositions were synthesized with 500,000 molecular weight. The PCxLyA copolymers mechanical properties were dependent on the mole ratio of the ε-caprolactone and l-lactide components. Cyclic tensile tests were carried out to investigate the resistance to creep of PCxLyA specimens after up to 20 deformation cycles to 50% elongation. After in vivo implantation, the PCxLyA implants exhibited biocompatibility, and gradually biodegraded over an eight-week experimental period. Immunohistochemical characterization showed that the PCxLyA implants provoked in vivo inflammation, which gradually decreased over time. The copolymer was used as a drug carrier for locally implantable drugs, the hydrophobic drug dexamethasone (Dex), and the water-soluble drug dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium salt (Dex(p)). We monitored drug-loaded PCxLyA films for in vitro and in vivo drug release over 40 days and observed real-time sustained release of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence over an extended period from hydrophobic IR-780- and hydrophilic IR-783-loaded PCxLyA implanted in live animals. Finally, we confirmed that PCxLyA films are usable as biodegradable, elastic drug carriers. PMID:28335550

  17. Recent advances in PEG-PLA block copolymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ren Zhong; Zeng, Zhao Wu; Zhou, Guang Lin; Wang, Jun Jie; Li, Fan Zhu; Wang, An Ming

    2010-11-26

    Due to their small particle size and large and modifiable surface, nanoparticles have unique advantages compared with other drug carriers. As a research focus in recent years, polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) block copolymer and its end-group derivative nanoparticles can enhance the drug loading of hydrophobic drugs, reduce the burst effect, avoid being engulfed by phagocytes, increase the circulation time of drugs in blood, and improve bioavailability. Additionally, due to their smaller particle size and modified surface, these nanoparticles can accumulate in inflammation or target locations to enhance drug efficacy and reduce toxicity. Recent advances in PEG-PLA block copolymer nanoparticles, including the synthesis of PEG-PLA and the preparation of PEG-PLA nanoparticles, were introduced in this study, in particular the drug release and modifiable characteristics of PEG-PLA nanoparticles and their application in pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. Supramolecular self-assembly of conjugated diblock copolymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; You, W.; Jiang, P.; Yu, L.; Wang, H. H.; Univ. of Chicago

    2004-02-20

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a novel series of copolymers with different lengths of oligo(phenylene vinylene) (OPV) as the rod block, and poly(propylene oxide) as the coil block. Detailed characterization by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) revealed the strong tendency of these copolymers to self-assemble into cylindrical micelles in solution and as-casted films on a nanometer scale. These micelles have a cylindrical OPV core surrounded by a poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) corona and readily align with each other to form parallel packed structures when mica is used as the substrate. A packing model has been proposed for these cylindrical micelles.

  19. Evaluation of adhesive-free crossed-electrode poly(vinylidene fluoride) copolymer array transducers for high frequency imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, Sanat; Decharat, Adit; Habib, Anowarul; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.; Melandsø, Frank

    2016-07-01

    High frequency crossed-electrode transducers have been investigated, both as single and dual layer transducers. Prototypes of these transducers were developed for 4 crossed lines (yielding 16 square elements) on a polymer substrate, using a layer-by-layer deposition method for poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] with intermediate sputtered electrodes. The transducer was characterized using various methods [LCR analyzer, a pulse-echo experimental setup, and a numerical Finite element method (FEM) model] and evaluated in terms of uniformity of bandwidth and acoustical energy output. All 16 transducer elements produced broad-banded ultrasonic spectra with small variation in central frequency and -6 dB bandwidth. The frequency responses obtained experimentally were verified using a numerical model.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite scaffolds based on triblock copolymer of L-lactide, ε-caprolactone and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Torabinejad, Bahman; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, Jamshid; Davachi, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Ali

    2014-09-01

    The employment of biodegradable polymer scaffolds is one of the main approaches for achieving a tissue engineered construct to reproduce bone tissues, which provide a three dimensional template to regenerate desirable tissues for different applications. The main goal of this study is to design a novel triblock scaffold reinforced with nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) for hard tissue engineering using gas foaming/salt leaching method with minimum solvent usage. With this end in view, the biodegradable triblock copolymers of l-lactide and ε-caprolactone with different mol% were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization method in the presence of Sn(Oct)2 catalyst as initiator and ethylene glycol as co-initiator. The chemical compositions of biodegradable copolymers were characterized by means of FTIR and NMR. The thermal and crystallization behaviors of copolymers were characterized using TGA and DSC thermograms. Moreover, nano-hydroxyapatite was synthesized by the chemical precipitation process and was thoroughly characterized by FTIR, XRD and TEM. Additionally, the nanocomposites with different contents of nHA were prepared by mixing triblock copolymer with nHA. Mechanical properties of the prepared nanocomposites were evaluated by stress-strain measurements. It was found that the nanocomposite with 30% of nHA showed the optimum result. Therefore, nanocomposite scaffolds with 30% nHA were fabricated by gas foaming/salt leaching method and SEM images were used to observe the microstructure and morphology of nanocomposites and nanocomposite scaffolds before and after cell culture. The in-vitro and cell culture tests were also carried out to further evaluate the biological properties. The results revealed that the porous scaffolds were biocompatible to the osteoblast cells because the cells spread and grew well. The resultant nanocomposites could be considered as good candidates for use in bone tissue engineering.

  1. [Evaluation of the usefulness of tests for production of Beta-D-glucuronidase and propylene glycol utilization for the differentiation of enterobacteriaceae rods].

    PubMed

    Kaluzewski, S; Tomczuk, D

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inquire about the diagnostic usefulness of determining the activity of glucuronidase and utilisation of propylene glycol in Enterobacteriaceae rods. The study included 1511 strains: 411- E. coli, 278 - Klebsiella, 231 - Salmonella, 159 - Yersinia, 97 - Citrobacter, 75 - Shigella and 260 strains representing 6 other kinds of enteric rods. Determination was performed in a liquid medium containing in 1 ml 25 mcg MUG and 100 mcg ONPG. Propylene glycol (PG) utilisation was observed in peptone water with 2% of the substrate and with the Andrade indicator. In comparative tests Rambach commercial medium and MacConkey agar from the Fluorocult series were used. In the test with MUG a positive result was obtained from 81.8% E. coli, 65% - Shigella and 13% - Salmonella subgenus I. Only exceptionally was this test positive with Providencia, Enterobacter and Yersinia strains (1-5%) but negative with Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Serratia, Hafnia, Proteus and Morganella strains. Glucuronidase production is not sufficiently characteristic of E. coli strains isolated from humans to be the only basis for the preliminary differentiation of these rods from other Enterobacteriaceae. The test with ONPG was positive from 95-100% E. coli, Yersinia, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Hafnia strains; 61% - Shigella, 9% - Salmonella and 3% - Providencia, but negative with Serratia, Proteus and Morganella strains. Propylene glycol was decomposed by 74% Salmonella strains of subgenus I, 65-94% - Klebsiella, Yersinia and Citrobacter. Shigella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Proteus, Providencia and Morganella rods did not decompose propylene glycol. Evidence that among strains non-decomposing propylene glycol were all the studied S. typhi, S. paratyphi A, S. paratyphi C, S. choleraesuis, S. virchow and S. gallinarum strains as well as a significant percentage of strains representing 8 other Salmonella serotypes frequently detected allows to believe that the use of

  2. Glycol leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Paul; Browne, Keith; Brink, Janus; Coetzee, Christiaan J.

    2016-07-01

    MonoEthylene glycol coolant is used extensively on the Southern African Large Telescope to cool components inside the telescope chamber. To prevent coolant leaks from causing serious damage to electronics and optics, a Glycol Leak Detection System was designed to automatically shut off valves in affected areas. After two years of research and development the use of leaf wetness sensors proved to work best and is currently operational. These sensors are placed at various critical points within the instrument payload that would trigger the leak detector controller, which closes the valves, and alerts the building management system. In this paper we describe the research of an initial concept and the final accepted implementation and the test results thereof.

  3. Fabrication and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of amorphous andrographolide nanosuspensions stabilized by d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate/sodium lauryl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Hongzhi; Chen, Lihua; Rui, Tianqi; Wang, Jingxian; Chen, Ting; Fu, Tingming; Li, Junsong; Di, Liuqing

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide (ADG) is a diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, its poor water solubility and efflux by P-glycoprotein have resulted in lower bioavailability. In this study, ADG nanosuspensions (ADG-NS) were prepared using a wet media milling technique followed by freeze drying. d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), a surfactant that inhibits P-glycoprotein function, and sodium lauryl sulfate were used as surface stabilizers. A Box–Behnken design was used to optimize the nanosuspension preparation. The products of these optimal preparation conditions were amorphous and possessed much faster dissolution in vitro than a coarse powder of ADG. The particle size and redispersibility index of the freeze-dried ADG-NS were 244.6±3.0 nm and 113%±1.14% (n=3), respectively. A short-term stability study indicated that the freeze-dried ADG-NS could remain highly stable as nanosuspensions during the testing period. A test of transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer revealed that the membrane permeability (Papp) of ADG-NS was significantly higher than the permeability of the ADG coarse powder or ADG-NS without TPGS (P<0.01). Compared to the ADG coarse powder, a physical mixture, commercial dripping pills and ADG-NS without TPGS, ADG-NS exhibited significantly higher plasma exposure with significant enhancements in Cmax and area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time from zero to the last sampling time (AUC0−t) (P<0.01). An evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect on Carr-induced paw edema demonstrated that the ADG-NS were more effective in reducing the rate of paw swelling, producing a greater increase in the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P<0.01) and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity (P<0.05) compared to the ADG coarse powder

  4. Fabrication and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of amorphous andrographolide nanosuspensions stabilized by d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate/sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hongzhi; Chen, Lihua; Rui, Tianqi; Wang, Jingxian; Chen, Ting; Fu, Tingming; Li, Junsong; Di, Liuqing

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide (ADG) is a diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, its poor water solubility and efflux by P-glycoprotein have resulted in lower bioavailability. In this study, ADG nanosuspensions (ADG-NS) were prepared using a wet media milling technique followed by freeze drying. d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), a surfactant that inhibits P-glycoprotein function, and sodium lauryl sulfate were used as surface stabilizers. A Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the nanosuspension preparation. The products of these optimal preparation conditions were amorphous and possessed much faster dissolution in vitro than a coarse powder of ADG. The particle size and redispersibility index of the freeze-dried ADG-NS were 244.6±3.0 nm and 113%±1.14% (n=3), respectively. A short-term stability study indicated that the freeze-dried ADG-NS could remain highly stable as nanosuspensions during the testing period. A test of transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer revealed that the membrane permeability (Papp) of ADG-NS was significantly higher than the permeability of the ADG coarse powder or ADG-NS without TPGS (P<0.01). Compared to the ADG coarse powder, a physical mixture, commercial dripping pills and ADG-NS without TPGS, ADG-NS exhibited significantly higher plasma exposure with significant enhancements in Cmax and area under the curve of plasma concentration versus time from zero to the last sampling time (AUC0-t ) (P<0.01). An evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect on Carr-induced paw edema demonstrated that the ADG-NS were more effective in reducing the rate of paw swelling, producing a greater increase in the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P<0.01) and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity (P<0.05) compared to the ADG coarse powder

  5. [Preparation and evaluation of press-coated aminophylline tablet using crystalline cellulose and polyethylene glycol in the outer shell for timed-release dosage forms].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshiteru; Mukai, Baku; Kawamura, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Namiki, Michihiro; Utoguchi, Naoki; Fujii, Makiko

    2002-02-01

    In an attempt to achieve chronopharmacotherapy for asthma, press-coated tablets (250 mg), which contained aminophylline in the core tablet in the form of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) and coated with crystalline cellulose (PH-102) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) at various molecular weights and mixing ratios in the amounts of PH-102 and PEG as the outer shell (press-coating material), were prepared (chronopharmaceutics). Their applicability as timed-release (delayed-release) tablets with a lag time of disintegration and a subsequent rapid drug release phase was investigated. Various types of press-coated tablets were prepared using a tableting machine, and their aminophylline dissolution profiles were evaluated by the JP paddle method. Tablets with the timed-release characteristics could be prepared, and the lag time of disintegration was prolonged as the molecular weight and the amount of PEG, for example PEG 500,000, in the outer shell were increased. The lag time of disintegration could be controlled by the above-mentioned method, however, the pH of the medium had no effect on disintegration of the tablet and dissolution behavior of theophylline. The press-coated tablet (core tablet:aminophylline 50 mg, L-HPC and PEG 6000; outer shell:PH-102:PEG = 8:2 200 mg) with the timed-release characteristics was administered orally to rabbits for an in vivo test. Theophylline was first detected in plasma more than 2 h after administration; thus, this tablet showed a timed-release characteristics in the gastrointestinal tract. The time (tmax) required to reach the maximum plasma theophylline concentration (Cmax) observed after administration of the press-coated tablet was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed compared with that observed after administration of aminophylline solution in the control experiment. However, there was no difference in Cmax and area under the plasma theophylline concentration-time curve (AUC0-->24) between the press-coated tablet and

  6. Interaction of poloxamine block copolymers with lipid membranes: Role of copolymer structure and membrane cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Sandez-Macho, Isabel; Casas, Matilde; Lage, Emilio V; Rial-Hermida, M Isabel; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Interactions of X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) block copolymers with cell membranes were investigated recording the π-A isotherms of monolayer systems of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC):cholesterol 100:0; 80:20 and 60:40 mol ratio and evaluating the capability of the copolymers to trigger haemolysis or to protect from haemolytic agents. Four varieties of poloxamine (Tetronic 904, 908, 1107 and 1307) were chosen in order to cover a wide range of EO and PO units contents and molecular weights, and compared to a variety of poloxamer (Pluronic P85). The π-A isotherms revealed that the greater the content in cholesterol, the stronger the interaction of the block copolymers with the lipids monolayer. The interactions were particularly relevant at low pressures and low lipid proportions, mimicking the conditions of damaged membranes. Relatively hydrophobic copolymers bearing short PEO blocks (e.g., T904 and P85) intercalated among the lipids expanding the surface area (ΔGexc) but not effectively sealing the pores. These varieties showed haemolytic behavior. Oppositely, highly hydrophilic copolymers bearing long PEO blocks (e.g., T908, T1107 and T1307) caused membrane contraction and outer leaflet sealing due to strong interactions of PEO with cholesterol and diamine core with phospholipids. These later varieties were not haemolytic and exerted a certain protective effect against spontaneous haemolysis for both intact erythrocytes and cholesterol-depleted erythrocytes.

  7. Enhanced Stability of Polymeric Micelles Based on Post-functionalized Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Poly(γ-propargyl l-glutamate): the Substituent Effect

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Poon, Zhiyong; Engler, Amanda C.; Bonner, Daniel K.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles that delay the clinical translation of polymeric micelle drug delivery systems is whether these self-assembled micelles can retain their integrity in blood following intravenous (IV) injection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of core functionalization on the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of polymeric micelles. The combination of ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) with highly efficient “click” coupling has enabled easy and quick access to a family of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(γ-R-glutamate)s with exactly the same block lengths, for which the substituent “R” is tuned. The structures of these copolymers were carefully characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR and GPC. Using pyrene as the fluorescence probe, the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of these polymers were found to be in the range of 10−7-10−6 M, which indicates good thermodynamic stability for the self-assembled micelles. The incorporation of polar side groups in the micelle core leads to high CMC values; however, micelles prepared from these copolymers are kinetically more stable in the presence of serum and upon SDS disturbance. It was also observed that these polymers could effectively encapsulate paclitaxel (PTX) as a model anticancer drug and the micelles possessing better kinetic stability showed better suppression of the initial “burst” release and exhibited more sustained release of PTX. These PTX-loaded micelles exerted comparable cytotoxicity against HeLa cells as the clinically approved Cremophor® PTX formulation while the block copolymers showed much lower toxicity compared to the Cremophor-ethanol mixture. The present work demonstrated that the PEG-b-PPLG can be a uniform block copolymer platform toward development of polymeric micelle delivery systems for different drugs through the facile modification of the PPLG block. PMID:22376183

  8. Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate for tumor-targeted delivery of morin hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Abbad, Sarra; Wang, Cheng; Waddad, Ayman Yahia; Lv, Huixia; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we describe the preparation of a targeted cellular delivery system for morin hydrate (MH), based on a low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) (HA-PBCA) block copolymer. In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of MH, D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was mixed with HA-PBCA during the preparation process. The MH-loaded HA-PBCA “plain” nanoparticle (MH-PNs) and HA-PBCA/TPGS “mixed” nanoparticles (MH-MNs) were concomitantly characterized in terms of loading efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, critical aggregation concentration, and morphology. The obtained MH-PNs and MH-MNs exhibited a spherical morphology with a negative zeta potential and a particle size less than 200 nm, favorable for drug targeting. Remarkably, the addition of TPGS resulted in about 1.6-fold increase in drug-loading. The in vitro cell viability experiment revealed that MH-MNs enhanced the cytotoxicity of MH in A549 cells compared with MH solution and MH-PNs. Furthermore, blank MNs containing TPGS exhibited selective cytotoxic effects against cancer cells without diminishing the viability of normal cells. In addition, the cellular uptake study indicated that MNs resulted in 2.28-fold higher cellular uptake than that of PNs, in A549 cells. The CD44 receptor competitive inhibition and the internalization pathway studies suggested that the internalization mechanism of the nanoparticles was mediated mainly by the CD44 receptors through a clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. More importantly, MH-MNs exhibited a higher in vivo antitumor potency and induced more tumor cell apoptosis than did MH-PNs, following intravenous administration to S180 tumor-bearing mice. Overall, the results imply that the developed nanoparticles are promising vehicles for the targeted delivery of lipophilic anticancer drugs. PMID:25609946

  9. Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate for tumor-targeted delivery of morin hydrate.

    PubMed

    Abbad, Sarra; Wang, Cheng; Waddad, Ayman Yahia; Lv, Huixia; Zhou, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we describe the preparation of a targeted cellular delivery system for morin hydrate (MH), based on a low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) (HA-PBCA) block copolymer. In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of MH, D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was mixed with HA-PBCA during the preparation process. The MH-loaded HA-PBCA "plain" nanoparticle (MH-PNs) and HA-PBCA/TPGS "mixed" nanoparticles (MH-MNs) were concomitantly characterized in terms of loading efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, critical aggregation concentration, and morphology. The obtained MH-PNs and MH-MNs exhibited a spherical morphology with a negative zeta potential and a particle size less than 200 nm, favorable for drug targeting. Remarkably, the addition of TPGS resulted in about 1.6-fold increase in drug-loading. The in vitro cell viability experiment revealed that MH-MNs enhanced the cytotoxicity of MH in A549 cells compared with MH solution and MH-PNs. Furthermore, blank MNs containing TPGS exhibited selective cytotoxic effects against cancer cells without diminishing the viability of normal cells. In addition, the cellular uptake study indicated that MNs resulted in 2.28-fold higher cellular uptake than that of PNs, in A549 cells. The CD44 receptor competitive inhibition and the internalization pathway studies suggested that the internalization mechanism of the nanoparticles was mediated mainly by the CD44 receptors through a clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. More importantly, MH-MNs exhibited a higher in vivo antitumor potency and induced more tumor cell apoptosis than did MH-PNs, following intravenous administration to S180 tumor-bearing mice. Overall, the results imply that the developed nanoparticles are promising vehicles for the targeted delivery of lipophilic anticancer drugs.

  10. HPMA copolymers: Origins, early developments, present, and future☆

    PubMed Central

    Kopeček, Jindřich; Kopečková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    The overview covers the discovery of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers, initial studies on their synthesis, evaluation of biological properties, and explorations of their potential as carriers of biologically active compounds in general and anticancer drugs in particular. The focus is on the research in the authors’ laboratory – the development of macromolecular therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and musculoskeletal diseases. In addition, the evaluation of HPMA (co)polymers as building blocks of mod and new biomaterials is presented: the utilization of semitelechelic poly(HPMA) and HPMA copolymers for the modification of biomaterial and protein surfaces and the design of hybrid block and graft HPMA copolymers that self-assemble into smart hydrogels. Finally, suggestions for the design of second-generation macromolecular therapeutics are portrayed. PMID:19919846

  11. A Novel MPEG-PDLLA-PLL Copolymer for Docetaxel Delivery in Breast Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liwei; Peng, Jinrong; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Lan; Tang, Xichuan; Chen, Lijuan; Lei, Minyi; Qian, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Satisfactory drug loading capacity and stability are the two main factors that determine the anti-cancer performance. In general, the stability of the micelles is reduced when the drug loading (DL) is increased. Therefore, it was a challenge to have high drug loading capacity and good stability. In this study, we introduced a hydrophilic poly (L-Lysine) (PLL) segment with different molecular-weights into the monomethoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (D, L-lactide) (MPEG-PDLLA) block copolymer to obtain a series of novel triblock MPEG-PDLLA-PLL copolymers. We found that the micelles formed by a specific MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k copolymer could encapsulate docetaxel (DTX) with a satisfactory loading capacity of up to 20% (w/w) via the thin film hydration method, while the stability of drug loaded micellar formulation was still as good as that of micelles formed by MPEG2k-PDLLA1.7k with drug loading of 5% (w/w). The results from computer simulation study showed that compared with MPEG2k-PDLLA1.7k, the molecular chain of MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k could form a more compact funnel-shaped structure when interacted with DTX. This structure favored keeping DTX encapsulated in the copolymer molecules, which improved the DL and stability of the nano-formulations. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation showed that the DTX loaded MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k (DTX/MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k) micelles exhibited more efficiency in tumor cell growth inhibition. In conclusion, the MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k micelles were much more suitable than MPEG2k-PDLLA1.7k for DTX delivery, and then the novel nano-formulations showed better anti-tumor efficacy in breast cancer therapy.

  12. A Novel MPEG-PDLLA-PLL Copolymer for Docetaxel Delivery in Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Liwei; Peng, Jinrong; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Lan; Tang, Xichuan; Chen, Lijuan; Lei, Minyi; Qian, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Satisfactory drug loading capacity and stability are the two main factors that determine the anti-cancer performance. In general, the stability of the micelles is reduced when the drug loading (DL) is increased. Therefore, it was a challenge to have high drug loading capacity and good stability. In this study, we introduced a hydrophilic poly (L-Lysine) (PLL) segment with different molecular-weights into the monomethoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (D, L-lactide) (MPEG-PDLLA) block copolymer to obtain a series of novel triblock MPEG-PDLLA-PLL copolymers. We found that the micelles formed by a specific MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k copolymer could encapsulate docetaxel (DTX) with a satisfactory loading capacity of up to 20% (w/w) via the thin film hydration method, while the stability of drug loaded micellar formulation was still as good as that of micelles formed by MPEG2k-PDLLA1.7k with drug loading of 5% (w/w). The results from computer simulation study showed that compared with MPEG2k-PDLLA1.7k, the molecular chain of MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k could form a more compact funnel-shaped structure when interacted with DTX. This structure favored keeping DTX encapsulated in the copolymer molecules, which improved the DL and stability of the nano-formulations. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation showed that the DTX loaded MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k (DTX/MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k) micelles exhibited more efficiency in tumor cell growth inhibition. In conclusion, the MPEG2k-PDLLA4k-PLL1k micelles were much more suitable than MPEG2k-PDLLA1.7k for DTX delivery, and then the novel nano-formulations showed better anti-tumor efficacy in breast cancer therapy. PMID:28819454

  13. Mixing a sol and a precipitate of block copolymers with different block ratios leads to an injectable hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Huan; Ding, Jiandong

    2009-06-08

    A facile method to obtain a thermoreversible physical hydrogel was found by simply mixing an aqueous sol of a block copolymer with a precipitate of a similar copolymer but with a different block ratio. Two ABA-type triblock copolymers poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-B-poly(ethylene glycol)-B-poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) were synthesized. One sample in water was a sol in a broad temperature region, while the other in water was just a precipitate. The mixture of these two samples with a certain mix ratio underwent, however, a sol-to-gel-to-precipitate transition upon an increase of temperature. A dramatic tuning of the sol-gel transition temperature was conveniently achieved by merely varying mix ratio, even in the case of a similar molecular weight. Our study indicates that the balance of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity within this sort of amphiphilic copolymers is critical to the inverse thermal gelation in water resulting from aggregation of micelles. The availability of encapsulation and sustained release of lysozyme, a model protein by the thermogelling systems was confirmed. This "mix" method provides a very convenient approach to design injectable thermogelling biomaterials with a broad adjustable window, and the novel copolymer mixture platform is potentially used in drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

  14. pH-sensitive methacrylic copolymer gels and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-05-15

    The present invention provides novel gel forming methacrylic blocking copolymers that exhibit cationic pH-sensitive behavior as well as good water solubility. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether polymer. The polymers may be used for drug and gene delivery, protein separation, as structural supplements, and more.

  15. Polycationic diblock and random polyethylene glycol- or tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl-grafted (co)telomers for gene transfer: synthesis and evaluation of their in vitro transfection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, Bertrand; Van Craynest, Nathalie; Boussif, Otmane; Vierling, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of a series of polycationic telomers, polycationic diblock and random polyethylene glycol (PEG)-grafted (co)telomers, and polycationic random tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl (THM) cotelomers, and on their in vitro gene transfer capability. These compounds were obtained by a telomerization process of various amino-, tetraethylene glycol-, or THM-acrylamide taxogens with thiols which might derive from PEG2000. For N/P ratios [N is the number of (co)telomer amine equivalents; P is the number of DNA phosphate equivalents] from 0.8 to 10, these (co)telomers condensed DNA, forming (co)teloplexes with mean sizes in the 85-330 nm range, even for an N/P ratio of 0.8 or 1.25. Some structure-transfection efficiency relationships were established. Among the new polycationic derivatives that were synthesized and investigated for their transfection efficiency, the (i)Bu-[NH](75) telomers and the diblock polyethylene glycol-conjugated PEG2000-[NH](n) telomers are very promising candidates for gene transfer purposes.

  16. Anticancer agents coupled to N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymers. II. Evaluation of daunomycin conjugates in vivo against L1210 leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, R.; Kopecková, P.; Strohalm, J.; Hume, I. C.; Lloyd, J. B.; Kopecek, J.

    1988-01-01

    DBA2 mice were inoculated i.p. with 10(5)L1210 cells. Animals subsequently treated with daunomycin (single i.p. dose, 0.25-5.0 mg kg-1) all died. The maximum increase in mean survival time observed was approximately 135%. Animals treated with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers conjugated to daunomycin (DNM) showed a significant increase in mean survival time when the polymer-drug linkage was biodegradable (i.e., Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly). Such treatment also produced a number of long term survivors (greater than 50 days). In contrast, HPMA copolymer conjugated to DNM via a non-degradable linkage (Gly-Gly) produced no increase in survival time relative to untreated control animals. The effect observed with biodegradable HPMA copolymer-DNM conjugates was dependent on the concentration of conjugated drug administered (optimum greater than 5 mg kg-1); the frequency of administration (multiple doses were more effective than single); the timing of administration (single doses given on days 1 and 3 were most effective); and the site of tumour inoculation and route of drug administration. Biodegradable HPMA copolymer-DNM conjugates administered i.p. were active against L1210 inoculated s.c. at higher doses than required to curb a peritoneal tumour. Under certain experimental conditions polymer-DNM conjugates containing fucosylamine or galactosamine proved more active than conjugates without the carbohydrate moeity. The mechanism of drug-conjugate action in vivo is at present unclear. Radioiodination of polymer showed approximately 75% of polymer-drug conjugate to be excreted 24 h after i.p. administration. Synthesis of HPMA conjugates containing [3H]DNM showed that polymer containing Gly-Gly-[3H]DNM was excreted (60% of radioactivity in the urine, 24 h) in macromolecular form. In contrast polymer containing Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly-[3H]DNM was largely excreted in the form of low molecular weight species. PMID:3358905

  17. Imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and by chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The resulting block copolymers have one glass transition temperature or two, depending upon the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these block copolymers form tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties.

  18. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  19. Baroplastic Block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, Sheldon A.

    2005-03-01

    Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

  20. Glycol Ethers As Groundwater Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Benjamin; Johannson, Gunnar; Foster, Gregory D.; Eckel, William P.

    1992-01-01

    Ether derivatives of dihydroxy alcohols, which are formed from ethylene or propylene, comprise an important group of groundwater contaminants known as glycol ethers. Compounds in this group are used as solvents, cleaning agents, and emulsifiers in many chemical products and manufacturing operations. Glycol ethers have been associated with a variety of toxic effects, and some compounds in the group are relatively potent teratogens. The limited information available suggests that glycol ethers are contaminants in groundwater, especially in anaerobic plumes emanating from disposal of mixed industrial and household waste. Most methods used to analyze groundwater samples cannot adequately detect μg/? (ppb) concentrations of glycol ethers, and the existing methods perform worst for the most widely used and toxic species. A new method capable of analyzing μg/? concentrations of glycol ethers was recently developed, and its use is recommended for groundwater samples where glycol ethers are likely to be present.

  1. Comparison of biodegradation of poly(ethylene glycol)s and poly(propylene glycol)s.

    PubMed

    Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Tomasz; Zembrzuska, Joanna; Łukaszewski, Zenon

    2006-07-01

    The biodegradation of poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) and poly(propylene glycol)s (PPGs), both being major by-products of non-ionic surfactants biodegradation, was studied under the conditions of the River Water Die-Away Test. PEGs were isolated from a water matrix using solid-phase extraction with graphitized carbon black sorbent, then derivatized with phenyl isocyanate and determined by HPLC with UV detection. PPGs were isolated from a water matrix by liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform, then derivatized with naphthyl isocyanate and determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The primary biodegradation of both PEGs and PPGs reached approximately 99% during the test. The tests show different biodegradation pathways of PEG and PPG. During PEG biodegradation, their chains are shortened leading to the formation of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. During PPG biodegradation, no short-chained biodegradation products were found.

  2. Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    New imide/arylene ether copolymers prepared by reacting anhydride-terminated poly(amic acids) with amine-terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents. Each resulting copolymer may have one glass-transition temperature or two, depending on chemical structure and/or compatibility of block units. Most of copolymers form tough, solvent-resistant films with high tensile properties. Films cast from solution tough and flexible, and exhibit useful thermal and mechanical properties. Potentially useful as moldings, adhesives, or composite matrices. Because of flexible arylene ether blocks, these copolymers easier to process than polyimides.

  3. Analysis of melt copolymers.

    PubMed

    Montaudo, Maurizio S

    2007-01-01

    Melt copolymer chains are the main (most abundant) reaction product obtained when heating a blend of two (or more) condensation polymers (such as polyester + polycarbonate or polyester + polyamide or polyester + polyester) in which exchange reactions occur. In fact, during the melt-mixing reaction, an AB copolymer is formed and, as a consequence, the sample is a complex mixture made of three components or simply "parts", referred to as Z1, Z2 and Z3, where Z1 and Z2 are the parts for unreacted homopolymers (A and B), whereas Z3 is the part for the copolymer. In this paper, it is shown that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (and mass spectrometry in general) can be used to monitor the yield of the reactive blending reaction, YR, by measuring the amount of unreacted homopolymer (Z1 and Z2). In order to allow for comparisons, the paper also discusses conventional methods for measuring Z1 and Z2, such as liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance.

  4. Crystallization of toxic glycol solvates of rifampin from glycerin and propylene glycol contaminated with ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Melgardt M; Caira, Mino R; Li, Jinjing; Strydom, Schalk J; Bourne, Susan A; Liebenberg, Wilna

    2011-06-06

    This study was initiated when it was suspected that syringe blockage experienced upon administration of a compounded rifampin suspension was caused by the recrystallization of toxic glycol solvates of the drug. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and gas chromatography were used to identify the ethylene glycol in the solvate crystals recovered from the suspension. Controlled crystallization and solubility studies were used to determine the ease with which toxic glycol solvates crystallized from glycerin and propylene glycol contaminated with either ethylene or diethylene glycol. The single crystal structures of two distinct ethylene glycol solvates of rifampin were solved while thermal analysis, GC analysis and solubility studies confirmed that diethylene glycol solvates of the drug also crystallized. Controlled crystallization studies showed that crystallization of the rifampin solvates from glycerin and propylene glycol depended on the level of contamination and changes in the solubility of the drug in the contaminated solvents. Although the exact source of the ethylene glycol found in the compounded rifampin suspension is not known, the results of this study show how important it is to ensure that the drug and excipients comply with pharmacopeial or FDA standards.

  5. Mutations in HAO1 encoding glycolate oxidase cause isolated glycolic aciduria.

    PubMed

    Frishberg, Yaacov; Zeharia, Avraham; Lyakhovetsky, Roman; Bargal, Ruth; Belostotsky, Ruth

    2014-08-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias are a group of recessive kidney diseases, characterised by extensive accumulation of calcium oxalate that progressively coalesces into kidney stones. Oxalate overproduction is facilitated by perturbations in the metabolism of glyoxylate, the product of glycolate oxidation, and the immediate precursor of oxalate. Glycolic aciduria associated with hyperoxaluria is regarded as the hallmark of type 1 primary hyperoxaluria. The genetic basis of isolated glycolic aciduria is reported here. Two brothers, born to consanguineous healthy parents of Arab descent, were evaluated for psychomotor delay associated with triple-A-like syndrome (anisocoria, alacrima and achalasia). The proband showed markedly increased urinary glycolic acid excretion with normal excretion of oxalate, citrate and glycerate. Abdominal ultrasound showed normal-sized kidneys with normal echotexture. The genetic nature of triple-A-like syndrome in this kindred was found to be unrelated to this metabolic abnormality. Direct DNA sequencing of glycolate oxidase gene (HAO1) revealed a homozygous c.814-1G>C mutation in the invariant -1 position of intron 5 splice acceptor site. Since HAO1 is a liver-specific enzyme, the effect of this novel mutation on splicing was validated by an in vitro hybrid-minigene approach. We confirmed the appearance of an abnormal splice variant in cells transfected with mutant minigene vector. Our results pinpoint the expression of defective splice variant of glycolate oxidase as the cause of isolated asymptomatic glycolic aciduria. This observation contributes to the development of novel approaches, namely, substrate reduction, for the treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type I. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Preparation of poly(polyethylene glycol methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels by radiation and their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Eun; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2004-02-01

    The pH-responsive copolymer hydrogels were prepared with the monomers of polyethylene glycol methacrylate and acrylic acid based on γ-ray irradiation technique. The gel content of these copolymer hydrogels varied depending on both the composition of monomers and the radiation dose. Maximum gel percent and degree of crosslinking were obtained at the composition of equal amount of comonomers. These copolymer hydrogels did not show any noticeable change in swelling at lower pH range. However they showed an abrupt increase in swelling at higher pH range due to the ionization of carboxyl groups. This pH-responsive swelling behavior was applied for the insulin carrier via oral delivery. Insulin-loaded copolymer hydrogels released most of their insulin in the simulated intestinal fluid which had a pH of 6.8 but not in the simulated gastric fluid which had a pH of 1.2.

  7. Polyethylene Glycol Propionaldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Joe M.; Sedaghat-Herati, Mohammad R.; Karr, Laurel J.

    1992-01-01

    New class of compounds derived from polyethylene glycol (PEG's) namely, PEG-propionaldehydes, offers two important advantages over other classes of PEG aldehyde derivatives: compounds exhibit selective chemical reactivity toward amino groups and are stable in aqueous environment. PEG's and derivatives used to couple variety of other molecules, such as, to tether protein molecules to surfaces. Biotechnical and biomedical applications include partitioning of two phases in aqueous media; immobilization of such proteins as enzymes, antibodies, and antigens; modification of drugs; and preparation of protein-rejecting surfaces. In addition, surfaces coated with PEG's and derivatives used to control wetting and electroosmosis. Another potential application, coupling to aminated surfaces.

  8. Thermogelling Biodegradable Copolymer Aqueous Solutions for Injectable Protein Delivery and Tissue Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Byeongmoon; Lee, Kyeonghee M.; Gutowska, Anna; An, Yuehuei H.

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports on the thermogelling, biodegradable polymer formulations based on poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)(polyethylene glycol) graft copolymers for in-vivo biomedical applications. The description includes diabetic control by sustained insulin delivery and cartilage repair by chondrocyte cell delivery. With one injection of the formula, the blood glucose level could be controlled from 5 to 16 days in diabetic rats by varying the polymer composition. Promising cartilage repair was observed using chondrocyte suspension in the thermogelling biodegradable depot.

  9. Block copolymer investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yufa, Nataliya A.

    The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or

  10. Ethylene glycol and glycolate kinetics in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, T P; Jacobsen, D; Collins, T D; McMartin, K E

    1989-04-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) toxicity results from its metabolism to glycolic acid and other toxic metabolites. The accumulation of glycolate and the elimination kinetics of EG and its metabolites are not well understood, so studies with male Sprague-Dawley rats and mixed breed dogs have been carried out. EG was administered by gavage to rats and dogs, which were placed in metabolic cages for urine and blood sample collection at timed intervals. The peak plasma level of EG occurred at 2 hr after dosing and that of glycolate between 4-6 hr. The rate of EG elimination was somewhat faster in rats with a half-life of 1.7 hr compared to 3.4 hr in dogs. The maximum plasma level of glycolate was greater in rats, although the pattern of accumulation was similar to that in dogs. Glycolate disappeared from the plasma at the same time as EG, suggesting a slower rate of elimination of the metabolite than that of EG. Renal excretion of EG was an important route for its elimination, accounting for 20-30% of the dose. Renal excretion of glycolate represented about 5% of the dose. EG induced an immediate, but short-lived diuresis compared to that in control rats. Minimal clinical effects (mild acidosis with no sedation) were noted at these doses of EG (1-2 g/kg) in both rats and dogs. The results indicate that the toxicokinetics of EG and glycolate were similar in both species.

  11. [Interference of ethylene glycol on lactate assays].

    PubMed

    Graïne, H; Toumi, K; Roullier, V; Capeau, J; Lefèvre, G

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene glycol is broken down to three main organic acids: glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid which cause severe metabolic acidosis. Effect of these three acids on lactate assays was evaluated in five blood gas analysers and two clinical chemistry analysers. For all systems, no influence of oxalic acid on lactate results could be demonstrated. No interference of glycolic acid could be observed on lactate assay performed with Rapid Lab 1265 (R: 104,9 +/- 12,1%), Vitros 950 (R: 105,7 +/- 5,3 %) and Architect ci8200 (R: 104,9 +/- 4,7%), but on the contrary, CCX 4, OMNI S, ABL 725 and 825 demonstrated a concentration-dependent interference. No interference of glyoxylic acid could be observed with Vitros 950, but a positive interference could be observed with ABL 725 and 825, OMNI S, CCX4 and Architect ci8200 A linear relationship between apparent lactate concentration found with ABL 725 and 825, OMNI S, CCX 4, and glyoxylic acid could be observed (0,94 < r < 0,99), a weaker interference being observed with Rapid Lab 1265 and Architect ci 8200. Our results demonstrated that in case of ethylene glycol poisoning, cautious interpretation of lactate assay should be done, since wrong results of lactacidemia could lead to misdiagnostic and delay patient treatment.

  12. Engineering of poly(ethylene glycol) chain-tethered surfaces to obtain high-performance bionanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    A poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] block copolymer possessing a reactive acetal group at the end of the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain, that is, acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, was synthesized by a proprietary polymerization technique. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using the thus-synthesized acetal-PEG-b-PAMA block copolymer. The PEG-b-PAMA not only acted as a reducing agent of aurate ions but also attached to the nanoparticle surface. The GNPs obtained had controlled sizes and narrow size distributions. They also showed high dispersion stability owing to the presence of PEG tethering chains on the surface. The same strategy should also be applicable to the fabrication of semiconductor quantum dots and inorganic porous nanoparticles. The preparation of nanoparticles in situ, i.e. in the presence of acetal-PEG-b-PAMA, gave the most densely packed polymer layer on the nanoparticle surface; this was not observed when coating preformed nanoparticles. PEG/polyamine block copolymer was more functional on the metal surface than PEG/polyamine graft copolymer, as confirmed by angle-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We successfully solubilized the C60 fullerene into aqueous media using acetal-PEG-b-PAMA. A C60/acetal-PEG-b-PAMA complex with a size below 5 nm was obtained by dialysis. The preparation and characterization of these materials are described in this review. PMID:27877362

  13. Dual-controlled drug delivery across biodegradable copolymer. I. Delivery kinetics of levonorgestrel and estradiol through (caprolactone/lactide) block copolymer.

    PubMed

    Ye, W P; Chien, Y W

    1996-04-01

    Four block copolymers of caprolactone (CL) and dl-lactide (LA) with varying weight fractions were synthesized by living polymerization in the presence of Al/Zn bimetallic alkoxide complex. The solubility of levonorgestrel (LNG) and estradiol (E2) in the copolymers was evaluated and found to increase exponentially with CL mole fraction. Their aqueous solubilities were also studied and observed to increase linearly with the concentration of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a solubilizer. The kinetics of LNG and E2 permeation through the copolymer membranes were studied and observed to follow a zero-order kinetics, and the permeation rates obtained were noted to be a function of copolymer composition. The release kinetics through the copolymer matrix were also studied and noted to follow a matrix-diffusion process, and the release flux was found to be dependent on copolymer composition. Permeation rates and release fluxes at steady state as well as the permeability and solubility of LNG and E2 in the copolymers suggest that these permeation parameters are affected by copolymer composition, which increase as the CL/LA ratio in the copolymer was increased.

  14. Glycolate Pathway in Algae 1

    PubMed Central

    Hess, J. L.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1967-01-01

    No glycolate oxidase activity could be detected by manometric, isotopic, or spectrophotometric techniques in cell extracts from 5 strains of algae grown in the light with CO2. However, NADH:glyoxylate reductase, phosphoglycolate phosphatase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were detected in the cell extracts. The serine formed by Chlorella or Chlamydomonas after 12 seconds of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation contained 70 to 80% of its 14C in the carboxyl carbon. This distribution of label in serine was similar to that in phosphoglycerate from the same experiment. Thus, in algae serine is probably formed directly from phosphoglycerate. These results differ from those of higher plants which form uniformly labeled serine from glycolate in short time periods when phosphoglycerate is still carboxyl labeled. In glycolate formed by algae in 5 and 10 seconds of 14CO2 fixation, C2 was at least twice as radioactive as C1. A similar skewed labeling in C2 and C3 of 3-phosphoglycerate and serine suggests a common precursor for glycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate. Glycine formed by the algae, however, from the same experiments was uniformly labeled. Manganese deficient Chlorella incorporated only 2% of the total 14CO2 fixed in 10 minutes into glycolate, while in normal Chlorella 30% of the total 14C was found in glycolate. Manganese deficient Chlorella also accumulated more 14C in glycine and serine. Glycolate excretion by Chlorella was maximal in 10 mm bicarbonate and occurred only in the light, and was not influenced by the addition of glycolate. No time dependent uptake of significant amounts of either glycolate or phosphoglycolate was observed. When small amounts of glycolate-2-14C were fed to Chlorella or Scenedesmus, only 2 to 3% was metabolized after 30 to 60 minutes. The algae were not capable of significant glycolate metabolism as is the higher plant. The failure to detect glycolate oxidase, the low level glycolate-14C metabolism, and the formation of serine from phosphoglycerate

  15. Interfacial Modification by Copolymers: The Importance of Copolymer Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadmun, Mark; Eastwood, Eric

    2002-03-01

    The dispersion of nanoscale particles or domains in a polymer matrix can readily lead to nonlinear enhancement of material properties. Our research group has been examining two primary methods to improve the properties of multicomponent polymer systems: compatibilization of a blend with an interfacial modifier or improving the miscibility and properties of polymer blends with specific interactions. In this talk, the importance of specific copolymer microstructure on its ability to strengthen a biphasic interface will be discussed. Atom transfer radical polymerization has been utilized to polymerize a series of multiblock copolymers containing styrene and methyl methacrylate. This, in turn, has allowed the synthesis of a series of copolymers with careful control of the sequence distribution. Subsequent experiments that determine the interfacial strength between two polymers in the presence and absence of these copolymers has provided critical information that documents the importance of copolymer sequence distribution on its ability to strengthen a biphasic interface.

  16. Interstellar Antifreeze: Ethylene Glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.; Coudert, L. H.

    2002-05-01

    Interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N-LMH) by means of several millimeter-wave rotational torsional transitions of its lowest energy conformer. The types and kinds of molecules found to date in interstellar clouds suggest a chemistry that favors aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols-e.g., formaldehyde (H2CO)/methanol (CH3OH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)/ethanol (CH3CH2OH). Similarly, ethylene glycol is the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which has also been detected toward Sgr B2(N-LMH). While there is no consensus as to how any such large complex molecules are formed in the interstellar clouds, atomic hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO) could form formaldehyde on grain surfaces, but such surface chemistry beyond that point is uncertain. However, laboratory experiments have shown that the gas-phase reaction of atomic hydrogen (H) and solid-phase CO at 10-20 K can produce formaldehyde and methanol and that alcohols and other complex molecules can be synthesized from cometary ice analogs when subject to ionizing radiation at 15 K. Thus, the presence of aldehyde/reduced alcohol pairs in interstellar clouds implies that such molecules are a product of a low-temperature chemistry on grain surfaces or in grain ice mantles. This work suggests that aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols provide unique observational constraints on the formation of complex interstellar molecules.

  17. Interstellar Antifreeze: Ethylene Glycol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.; Coudert, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2,OH) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N-LMH) by means of several millimeter-wave rotational torsional transitions of its lowest energy conformer. The types and kinds of molecules found to date in interstellar clouds suggest a chemistry that favors aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols-e.g., formaldehyde (H2CO)/methanol (CH3OH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)/ethanol (CH3CH2OH). Similarly, ethylene glycol is the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which has also been detected toward Sgr B2(N-LMH). While there is no consensus as to how any such large complex molecules are formed in the interstellar clouds, atomic hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO) could form formaldehyde on grain surfaces, but such surface chemistry beyond that point is uncertain. However, laboratory experiments have shown that the gas-phase reaction of atomic hydrogen (H) and solid-phase CO at 10-20 K can produce formaldehyde and methanol and that alcohols and other complex molecules can be synthesized from cometary ice analogs when subject to ionizing radiation at 15 K. Thus, the presence of aldehyde/ reduced alcohol pairs in interstellar clouds implies that such molecules are a product of a low-temperature chemistry on grain surfaces or in grain ice mantles. This work suggests that aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols provide unique observational constraints on the formation of complex interstellar molecules.

  18. Interstellar Antifreeze: Ethylene Glycol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.; Coudert, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2,OH) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N-LMH) by means of several millimeter-wave rotational torsional transitions of its lowest energy conformer. The types and kinds of molecules found to date in interstellar clouds suggest a chemistry that favors aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols-e.g., formaldehyde (H2CO)/methanol (CH3OH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)/ethanol (CH3CH2OH). Similarly, ethylene glycol is the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which has also been detected toward Sgr B2(N-LMH). While there is no consensus as to how any such large complex molecules are formed in the interstellar clouds, atomic hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO) could form formaldehyde on grain surfaces, but such surface chemistry beyond that point is uncertain. However, laboratory experiments have shown that the gas-phase reaction of atomic hydrogen (H) and solid-phase CO at 10-20 K can produce formaldehyde and methanol and that alcohols and other complex molecules can be synthesized from cometary ice analogs when subject to ionizing radiation at 15 K. Thus, the presence of aldehyde/ reduced alcohol pairs in interstellar clouds implies that such molecules are a product of a low-temperature chemistry on grain surfaces or in grain ice mantles. This work suggests that aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols provide unique observational constraints on the formation of complex interstellar molecules.

  19. Impact of Surface Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Density on Biodegradable Nanoparticle Transport in Mucus ex Vivo and Distribution in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingguo; Ensign, Laura M; Boylan, Nicholas J; Schön, Arne; Gong, Xiaoqun; Yang, Jeh-Chang; Lamb, Nicholas W; Cai, Shutian; Yu, Tao; Freire, Ernesto; Hanes, Justin

    2015-09-22

    Achieving sustained drug delivery to mucosal surfaces is a major challenge due to the presence of the protective mucus layer that serves to trap and rapidly remove foreign particulates. Nanoparticles engineered to rapidly penetrate mucosal barriers (mucus-penetrating particles, "MPP") have shown promise for improving drug distribution, retention and efficacy at mucosal surfaces. MPP are densely coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), which shields the nanoparticle core from adhesive interactions with mucus. However, the PEG density required to impart the "stealth" properties to nanoparticles in mucus, and thus, uniform distribution in vivo, is still unknown. We prepared biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a range of PEG surface densities by blending various ratios of a diblock copolymer of PLGA and 5 kDa poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG5k) with PLGA. We then evaluated the impact of PEG surface density, measured using an (1)H NMR method, on mucin binding in vitro, nanoparticle transport in freshly obtained human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) ex vivo, and nanoparticle distribution in the mouse cervicovaginal tract in vivo. We found that at least 5% PEG was required to effectively shield the nanoparticle core from interacting with mucus components in vitro and ex vivo, thus leading to enhanced nanoparticle distribution throughout the mouse vagina in vivo. We then demonstrated that biodegradable MPP could be formulated from blends of PLGA and PLGA-PEG polymers of various molecular weights, and that these MPP provide tunable drug loading and drug release rates and durations. Overall, we describe a methodology for rationally designing biodegradable, drug-loaded MPP for more uniform delivery to the vagina.

  20. Polyether/Polyester Graft Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L., Jr.; Wakelyn, N.; Stoakley, D. M.; Proctor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Higher solvent resistance achieved along with lower melting temperature. New technique provides method of preparing copolymers with polypivalolactone segments grafted onto poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide) backbone. Process makes strong materials with improved solvent resistance and crystalline, thermally-reversible crosslinks. Resulting graft copolymers easier to fabricate into useful articles, including thin films, sheets, fibers, foams, laminates, and moldings.

  1. Evaluation of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Labeled Chondrocytes Cultivated on a Type II Collagen–Chitosan/Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic) Acid Biphasic Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Su, Juin-Yih; Chen, Shi-Hui; Chen, Yu-Pin; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Chondral or osteochondral defects are still controversial problems in orthopedics. Here, chondrocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles were cultivated on a biphasic, type II collagen–chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold in an attempt to develop cultures with trackable cells exhibiting growth, differentiation, and regeneration. Rabbit chondrocytes were labeled with magnetic nanoparticles and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron (TEM) microscopy, and gene and protein expression analyses. The experimental results showed that the magnetic nanoparticles did not affect the phenotype of chondrocytes after cell labeling, nor were protein and gene expression affected. The biphasic type II collagen–chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold was characterized by SEM, and labeled chondrocytes showed a homogeneous distribution throughout the scaffold after cultivation onto the polymer. Cellular phenotype remained unaltered but with increased gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, as indicated by cell staining, indicating chondrogenesis. Decreased SRY-related high mobility group-box gene (Sox-9) levels of cultured chondrocytes indicated that differentiation was associated with osteogenesis. These results are encouraging for the development of techniques for trackable cartilage regeneration and osteochondral defect repair which may be applied in vivo and, eventually, in clinical trials. PMID:28054960

  2. Evaluation of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Labeled Chondrocytes Cultivated on a Type II Collagen-Chitosan/Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic) Acid Biphasic Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Su, Juin-Yih; Chen, Shi-Hui; Chen, Yu-Pin; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2017-01-04

    Chondral or osteochondral defects are still controversial problems in orthopedics. Here, chondrocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles were cultivated on a biphasic, type II collagen-chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold in an attempt to develop cultures with trackable cells exhibiting growth, differentiation, and regeneration. Rabbit chondrocytes were labeled with magnetic nanoparticles and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron (TEM) microscopy, and gene and protein expression analyses. The experimental results showed that the magnetic nanoparticles did not affect the phenotype of chondrocytes after cell labeling, nor were protein and gene expression affected. The biphasic type II collagen-chitosan/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold was characterized by SEM, and labeled chondrocytes showed a homogeneous distribution throughout the scaffold after cultivation onto the polymer. Cellular phenotype remained unaltered but with increased gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan, as indicated by cell staining, indicating chondrogenesis. Decreased SRY-related high mobility group-box gene (Sox-9) levels of cultured chondrocytes indicated that differentiation was associated with osteogenesis. These results are encouraging for the development of techniques for trackable cartilage regeneration and osteochondral defect repair which may be applied in vivo and, eventually, in clinical trials.

  3. Effects of glycolic acid chemical peeling on facial pigment deposition: evaluation using novel computer analysis of digital-camera-captured images.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Kushida, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    Chemical peeling is becoming increasingly popular for skin rejuvenation in dermatological cosmetic medicine. However, the improvements seen with chemical peeling are often very minor, and it is difficult to conduct a quantitative assessment of pre- and post-treatment appearance. We report the pre- and postpeeling effects for facial pigment deposition using a novel computer analysis method for digital-camera-captured images. Glycolic acid chemical peeling was performed a total of 5 times at 2-week intervals in 23 healthy women. We conducted a computer image analysis by utilizing Robo Skin Analyzer CS 50 and Clinical Suite 2.1 and then reviewed each parameter for the area of facial pigment deposition pre- and post-treatment. Parameters were pigmentation size and four pigmentation categories: little pigmentation and three levels of marked pigmentation (Lv1, 2, and 3) based on detection threshold. Each parameter was measured, and the total area of facial pigmentation was calculated. The total area of little pigmentation and marked pigmentation (Lv1) was significantly reduced. On the other hand, a significant difference was not observed for the total area of marked pigmentation Lv2 and Lv3. This suggests that glycolic acid chemical peeling has an effect on small facial pigment disposition or has an effect on light pigment deposition. As the Robo Skin Analyzer is useful for objectively quantifying and analyzing minor changes in facial skin, it is considered to be an effective tool for accumulating treatment evidence in the cosmetic and esthetic skin field. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of quercetin loaded polymeric micelles composed of pluronic P123 and D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liyan; Shi, Yikang; Zou, Shaohua; Sun, Min; Lil, Lingbing; Zhail, Guangxi

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a polymeric delivery system to improve the solubility and biological activity of Quercetin (QT). QT loaded mixed micelles, composed of Pluronic P123 (P123) and D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) with proportion of 7:3 (QT-P/T), were prepared by thin-film hydration method. The average size of the mixed micelles was 18.43 nm, and the encapsulating efficiency for QT was 88.94 +/- 3.71%, drug-loading was 10.59 +/- 0.38%. The solubility of QT in QT-P/T was 5.56 mg/mL, which was about 2738-fold that of crude QT in water. Compared with the QT propylene glycol solution, the in vitro release of QT from QT-P/T presented the sustained-release property. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that the IC50 values on MCF-7 cells for QT-P/T and QT loaded P123 micelles (QT-P123) were 7.13 microg/mL and 10.73 microg/mL, respectively, while 7.23 microg/mL and 14.47 microg/mL on MCF-7/ADR cells. From the results, it can be concluded that, P123/TPGS mixed micelles may serve as a pharmaceutical nano carrier with improved solubility and biological activity for QT.

  5. Bacterial Utilization of Ether Glycols

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, Edward L.; Payne, W. J.

    1962-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of using oligo- and polyethylene glycols and ether alcohols as sole sources of carbon for aerobic growth was isolated. The effects of substituent groups added to the ether bonds on the acceptability of the compounds as substrates were studied. Mechanisms for the incorporation of two-carbon compounds were demonstrated by the observation that acetate, glyoxylate, ethylene glycol, and a number of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates served as growth substrates in minimal media. The rate of oxidation of the short-chained ethylene glycols by adapted resting cells varied directly with increasing numbers of two-carbon units in the chains from one to four. The amount of oxygen consumed per carbon atom of oligo- and polyethylene glycols was 100% of theoretical, but only 67% of theoretical for ethylene glycol. Resting cells oxidized oligo- and polyethylene glycols with 2 to 600 two-carbon units in the chains. Longer chained polyethylene glycols (up to 6,000) were oxidized at a very slow rate by these cells. Dehydrogenation of triethylene glycol by adapted cells was observed, coupling the reaction with methylene blue reduction. PMID:13945208

  6. Block copolymers encapsulated poly (aryl benzyl ether) dendrimer silicon (IV) phthalocyanine for in vivo and in vitro photodynamic efficacy of choroidal neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiongwei; Chen, Kuizhi; Huang, Zheng; Peng, Yiru

    2015-03-01

    A novel series of poly (aryl benzyl ether) dendrimer silicon phthalocyanines loaded block copolymers ethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (MPEG-PLGA)were formed. The time-dependent intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in HUVECs cells increased as they were incorporated into nanoparticles. With its highly effective selective accumulation on choroidal neovascularization(CNV). This treatment resulted in a efficacious choroidal neovascularization (CNV) occlusion with minimal unfavorable phototoxicity.

  7. [Allergic contact dermatitis due to methoxy PEG-22 dodecyl glycol present in a cosmetic cold cream].

    PubMed

    Lasek-Duriez, A; Castelain, M-C; Modiano, P

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a girl presenting acute allergic contact dermatitis due to methoxy PEG 22 dodecyl glycol contained in Mustela Cold Cream Nutriprotecteur®. A 6-year-old girl was referred with acute eczema of the face occurring within 12h of applying a new moisturizing cream, Mustela Cold Cream Nutriprotecteur®. Patch tests were performed on the upper back using the Finn Chamber technique with the European standard series and the patient's own cream. Readings were performed after 2 days and the sole positive ++ reaction was associated with Mustela Cold Cream®. Additional patch testing was carried out with the ingredients of the cream, with the sole positive ++ reaction again being to methoxy PEG 22 dodecyl glycol copolymer. The other ingredients were negative. Methoxy PEG 22 dodecyl glycol is a copolymer used in cosmetics as an emulsion stabilizer and viscosity-increasing agent. It is found in 20 cosmetics currently on the market, most of which are prescribed for children. Although it is rare, doctors must be aware of allergic contact dermatitis due to methoxy PEG 22 dodecyl glycol because of the extent of clinical reactions and because it chiefly affects the paediatric population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Shear-Assisted Fabrication of Block Copolymer Agglomerates with Various Morphologies in Viscous Medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongpeng; Chen, Xiaoli; Xu, Zhou; Xiao, Meina; Hong, Liangzhi; Ngai, To

    2017-03-21

    In this work, we have investigated the effect of laminar flow shearing on the formation of block copolymer agglomerates in viscous medium. Under a laminar flow shearing, the block copolymer solution droplets were spontaneously emulsified and were then elongated into protofibers, which in turn transformed into particles with various morphologies. Besides micro-/nanorods, which were previously reported for homopolymers, sphere and sheetlike structures were unexpectedly fabricated from block copolymers depending on the solvent quality, solvent exchange rates, and the entanglement of the polymer chains. In particular, the sheet structure, fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polystyrene (PEG-b-PS), can be fixed by UV irradiation when photo-crosslinkable azide groups were introduced onto the polystyrene block. Surprisingly, we found that the fixed sheetlike structures show demulsification capability in tens of seconds, which may have great potential application in the separation of oil from emulsions.

  9. Nitroxide-mediated radical ring-opening copolymerization: chain-end investigation and block copolymer synthesis.

    PubMed

    Delplace, Vianney; Harrisson, Simon; Tardy, Antoine; Gigmes, Didier; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Nicolas, Julien

    2014-02-01

    Well-defined, degradable copolymers are successfully prepared by nitroxide-mediated radical ring opening polymerization (NMrROP) of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) or methyl methacrylate (MMA), a small amount of acrylonitrile (AN) and cyclic ketene acetals (CKAs) of different structures. Phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance allows in-depth chain-end characterization and gives crucial insights into the nature of the copoly-mer terminal sequences and the living chain fractions. By using a small library of P(OEGMA-co-AN-co-CKA) and P(MMA-co-AN-co-CKA) as macroinitiators, chain extensions with styrene are performed to furnish (amphiphilic) block copolymers comprising a degradable segment.

  10. Role of fomepizole in the management of ethylene glycol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Druteika, Deon P; Zed, Peter J; Ensom, Mary H H

    2002-03-01

    To systematically review English-language articles on fomepizole administration in patients with ethylene glycol poisoning. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents, and PubMed. Search terms were fomepizole, 4-methylpyrazole, and ethylene glycol. The search was supplemented with a bibliographic review of all relevant articles. All published reports of fomepizole administration in patients with ethylene glycol poisoning were reviewed, irrespective of study design. We identified one clinical trial and subsequent pharmacokinetic study, one case series, and 13 case reports. Fomepizole has been investigated in 70 patients in open, unblinded studies. Most patients received an intravenous loading dose, with subsequent variable maintenance doses every 12 hours until plasma ethylene glycol levels became undetectable. Additional hemodialysis treatment generally was administered when patients had renal insufficiency or ethylene glycol levels above 50 mg/dl. Many patients had detectable ethanol levels either because of coadministration or as a result of adjunctive treatment at a referring center. Poorer patient outcomes, such as death and renal insufficiency, were associated with later clinical presentation time after ingestion. At therapeutic fomepizole levels (> 8.6 mg/ml), the half-life of ethylene glycol was prolonged to over 19 hours. Fomepizole appeared to be well tolerated by most patients. Fomepizole is an effective alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor that decreases production of ethylene glycol metabolites. Reduced mortality and morbidity are undetermined because of the small number of patients evaluated to date. Data on comparative efficacy of fomepizole versus ethanol and data on administration of fomepizole in children are limited.

  11. Photothermal degradation of ethylene/vinylacetate copolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Chung, S.; Clayton, A.; Di Stefano, S.; Oda, K.; Hong, S. D.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    Photothermal degradation studies were conducted on a 'stabilized' formulation of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in the temperature range 25-105 C under three different oxygen environments (in open air, with limited access to O2, and in a dark closed stagnant oven). These studies were performed in order to evaluate the utility of EVA as an encapsulation material for photovoltaic modules. Results showed that at low temperature (25 C), slow photooxidation of the polymer occurred via electronic energy transfer involving the UV absorber incorporated in the polymer. However, no changes in the physical properties of the bulk polymer were detected up to 1500 hours of irradiation. At elevated temperatures, leaching and evaporation of the additives occurred, which ultimately resulted in the chemical crosslinking of the copolymer and the formation of volatile photoproducts such as acetic acid.

  12. Photothermal degradation of ethylene/vinylacetate copolymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Chung, S.; Clayton, A.; Di Stefano, S.; Oda, K.; Hong, S. D.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    Photothermal degradation studies were conducted on a 'stabilized' formulation of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in the temperature range 25-105 C under three different oxygen environments (in open air, with limited access to O2, and in a dark closed stagnant oven). These studies were performed in order to evaluate the utility of EVA as an encapsulation material for photovoltaic modules. Results showed that at low temperature (25 C), slow photooxidation of the polymer occurred via electronic energy transfer involving the UV absorber incorporated in the polymer. However, no changes in the physical properties of the bulk polymer were detected up to 1500 hours of irradiation. At elevated temperatures, leaching and evaporation of the additives occurred, which ultimately resulted in the chemical crosslinking of the copolymer and the formation of volatile photoproducts such as acetic acid.

  13. Dual-Functional Polyethylene Glycol-b-polyhexanide Surface Coating with in Vitro and in Vivo Antimicrobial and Antifouling Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Zelun; Su, Yajuan; Xi, Yuewei; Tian, Liang; Xu, Miao; Wang, Qianqian; Padidan, Sara; Li, Peng; Huang, Wei

    2017-03-29

    In recent years, microbial colonization on the surface of biomedical implants/devices has become a severe threat to human health. Herein, surface-immobilized guanidine derivative block copolymers create an antimicrobial and antifouling dual-functional coating. We report the preparation of an antimicrobial and antifouling block copolymer by the conjugation of polyhexanide (PHMB) with either allyl glycidyl ether or allyloxy polyethylene glycol (APEG; MW 1200 and 2400). The allyl glycidyl ether modified PHMB (A-PHMB) and allyloxy polyethylene glycol1200/2400 modified PHMB (APEG1200/2400-PHMB) copolymers were grafted onto a silicone rubber surface as a bottlebrush-like coating, respectively, using a plasma-UV-assisted surface-initiated polymerization. Both A-PHMB and APEG1200/2400-PHMB coatings exhibited excellent broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties against Gram-negative/positive bacteria and fungi. The APEG2400-PHMB coating displayed an improved antibiofilm as well as antifouling properties and a long reusable cycle, compared with two other coatings, due to its abundant PEG blocks among those copolymers. Also, the APEG2400-PHMB-coated silicone coupons were biocompatible toward mammalian cells, as revealed by in vitro hemocompatibile and cytotoxic assays. An in vivo study showed a significant decline of Escherichia coli colonies with a 5-log reduction, indicating the APEG2400-PHMB coating surface worked effectively in the rodent subcutaneous infection model. This PHMB-based block copolymer coating is believed to be an effective strategy to prevent biomaterial-associated infections.

  14. Degradation behavior and biosafety studies of the mPEG-PLGA-PLL copolymer.

    PubMed

    He, Zelai; Sun, Ying; Cao, Jun; Duan, Yourong

    2016-04-28

    In a previous study, a novel biodegradable multiblock copolymer, monomethoxy(poly-ethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(l-lysine) (PEAL), was developed as a new drug carrier material. It is imperative to study the biocompatibility and degradation behavior of PEAL to pave the way for clinical applications. Here, we systematically demonstrated that the PEAL copolymer has the appropriate hydrophilicity and biosafety. The degradation rate of the PEAL films was obtained by observing changes in mass, molecular weight (Mw), Mw distribution and degradation products. The degradation rate was observed to have a highly positive correlation with the pH of the medium and negative correlation with the ratio of lactic acid to glycolic acid (LA/GA). Cytotoxicity tests indicated that the degradation products of the copolymer were non-toxic to cells. In zebrafish embryos, the PEAL nanoparticles had no obvious impact on heart rate, production of reactive oxygen species, mortality, or cell apoptosis, and they were observed to have a long circulation time. Therefore, the PEAL copolymer has great potential for use as a drug carrier material.

  15. Alumina interaction with AMPS-MPEG random copolymers I. Adsorption and electrokinetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Bouhamed, H; Boufi, S; Magnin, A

    2003-05-15

    Adsorption of brush copolymers, bearing sulfonate groups and polyethylene glycol segments, on to alumina particles in suspension in water has been investigated. Study of the adsorption isotherms revealed that the copolymers displayed a strong affinity for the surface of the alumina regardless of the fraction of ionic groups on the polymer. For poly(ethylene glycol) content greater than 50%, the adsorption isotherms revealed an initial adsorption plateau followed by a second one. The shape of the adsorption isotherms was interpreted in terms of the polymer configuration at the solid-to-liquid interface. The effects of the pH and the ionic force on adsorption were studied and connected to the effects of interaction between chain segments at the surface of the alumina particles. Changes in the electrokinetic properties of the alumina particles after addition of the copolymers were investigated by following the zeta potential of particles as a function of pH. In the presence of the copolymer continuous shift of the isoelectric point IEP to a more acidic values was observed. Beyond a certain concentration the zeta potential remained negative regardless of the pH.

  16. Multifunctional triblock copolymers for intracellular messenger RNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Connie; Convertine, Anthony J; Stayton, Patrick S; Bryers, James D

    2012-10-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a promising alternative to plasmid DNA (pDNA) for gene vaccination applications, but safe and effective delivery systems are rare. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was employed to synthesize a series of triblock copolymers designed to enhance the intracellular delivery of mRNA. These materials are composed of a cationic dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) segment to mediate mRNA condensation, a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) segment to enhance stability and biocompatibility, and a pH-responsive endosomolytic copolymer of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) and butyl methacrylate (BMA) designed to facilitate cytosolic entry. The blocking order and PEGMA segment length were systematically varied to investigate the effect of different polymer architectures on mRNA delivery efficacy. These polymers were monodisperse, exhibited pH-dependent hemolytic activity, and condensed mRNA into 86-216 nm particles. mRNA polyplexes formed from polymers with the PEGMA segment in the center of the polymer chain displayed the greatest stability to heparin displacement and were associated with the highest transfection efficiencies in two immune cell lines, RAW 264.7 macrophages (77%) and DC2.4 dendritic cells (50%). Transfected DC2.4 cells were shown to be capable of subsequently activating antigen-specific T cells, demonstrating the potential of these multifunctional triblock copolymers for mRNA-based vaccination strategies.

  17. Folate-conjugated amphiphilic star-shaped block copolymers as targeted nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jundong; Zhou, Zhichao; Yang, Cuihong; Kong, Deling; Wan, Ying; Wang, Zheng

    2011-06-15

    Folate (FA)-conjugated star-shaped copolymer was prepared as a targeted carrier for anticancer drug delivery by ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide using pentaerythritol (PTL) as an initiator, followed by conjugation with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) and FA-poly(ethylene glycol) (FA-PEG). The resulting amphiphilic star-shaped copolymer was shaped into drug-loaded micelles, and the achieved micelles had an average size of around 146 nm in diameter. It was found that the sustained release time of model drug (indomethacin, IMC) from some selected micelles could reach around 40 h. In comparison with linear poly(L-lactic acid)-block-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PLA-MPEG), the stability of the star-shaped pentaerythritol-co-poly(L-lactic acid)-block-[methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) and FA-poly(ethylene glycol)] (PTL-PLA-MPEG/PEG-FA) micelle was significantly improved because of the lower critical micelle concentration (CMC). The specificity of PTL-PLA-MPEG/PEG-FA targeting cancer cells was demonstrated by intracellular uptake of PTL-PLA-MPEG/PEG-FA and PTL-PLA-MPEG using HeLa human cervical cancer cells. After 2 h in vitro incubation, a significant intracellular uptake for PTL-PLA-MPEG/PEG-FA over PTL-PLA-MPEG was observed by using inverted fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. These results suggested that PTL-PLA-MPEG/PEG-FA polymeric micelle could be a potentially useful carrier for delivering selected drugs to FA-receptor positive cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Enantiomeric PLA-PEG block copolymers and their stereocomplex micelles used as rifampin delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Xie, Zhigang; Hu, Junli; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin

    2007-10-01

    A novelty approach to self-assembling stereocomplex micelles by enantiomeric PLA-PEG block copolymers as a drug delivery carrier was described. The particles were encapsulated by enantiomeric PLA-PEG stereocomplex to form nanoscale micelles different from the microspheres or the single micelles by PLLA or PDLA in the reported literatures. First, the block copolymers of enantiomeric poly( l-lactide)-poly(ethylene-glycol) (PLLA-PEG) and poly( D-lactide)-poly(ethylene-glycol) (PDLA-PEG) were synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide and d-lactide in the presence of monomethoxy PEG, respectively. Second, the stereocomplex block copolymer micelles were obtained by the self-assembly of the equimolar mixtures of enantiomeric PLA-PEG copolymers in water. These micelles possessed partially the crystallized hydrophobic cores with the critical micelle concentrations (cmc) in the range of 0.8-4.8 mg/l and the mean hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 40 to 120 nm. The micelle sizes and cmc values obviously depended on the hydrophobic block PLA content in the copolymer. Compared with the single PLLA-PEG or PDLA-PEG micelles, the cmc values of the stereocomplex micelles became lower and the sizes of the stereocomplex micelles formed smaller. And lastly, the stereocomplex micelles encapsulated with rifampin were tested for the controlled release application. The rifampin loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency by the stereocomplex micelles were higher than those by the single polymer micelles, respectively. The drug release time in vitro was depending on the composites of the block copolymers and also could be controlled by the polymer molecular weight and the morphology of the polymer micelles.

  19. How the dispersion of magnesium oxide nanoparticles effects on the viscosity of water-ethylene glycol mixture: Experimental evaluation and correlation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrand, Masoud; Abedini, Ehsan; Teimouri, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of dispersion of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on viscosity of a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (50-50% vol.) was examined experimentally. Experiments were performed for various nanofluid samples at different temperatures and shear rates. Measurements revealed that the nanofluid samples with volume fractions of less than 1.5% had Newtonian behavior, while the sample with volume fraction of 3% showed non-Newtonian behavior. Results showed that the viscosity of nanofluids enhanced with increasing nanoparticles volume fraction and decreasing temperature. Results of sensitivity analysis revealed that the viscosity sensitivity of nanofluid samples to temperature at higher volume fractions is more than that of at lower volume fractions. Finally, because of the inability of the existing model to predict the viscosity of MgO/EG-water nanofluid, an experimental correlation has been proposed for predicting the viscosity of the nanofluid.

  20. Biological and mechanical evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) based composites reinforced with one, two and three dimensional carbon biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tejinder; Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Arunachalam, Thirugnanam; Banerjee, Indranil; Pramanik, Krishna

    2017-02-09

    Considering the fact that life on earth is carbon based, carbon materials are being introduced in biological systems. However, very limited information is existing concerning the potential effects of different structures of carbon materials on biological systems. In the present study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based carbonaceous composites were developed by reinforcing 1 wt% of three different carbon based materials i.e. carbon nanotubes (CNTs-one dimensional), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs-two dimensional) and activated carbon (AC-three dimensional). The developed composites were characterized for physicochemical, biological and mechanical properties. Along with their hemocompatible nature, the composites exhibited better swelling ratio, degradation percentage, bioactivity and tensile strength. The improvement in hydrophilicity and protein adsorption resulted in enhancement of cell proliferation and differentiation. Amongst all, sheet like GNPs showed strongest effect on composite's properties due to its larger area exposed. These results demonstrate the potential of PLGA based carbonaceous composites for accelerating bone tissue regeneration.

  1. Anti-tumor activity and safety evaluation of fisetin-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Liao, Jinfeng; Deng, Xin; Liang, Jian; Long, Chaofeng; Xie, Chengshi; Chen, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Lan; Sun, Jinxin; Peng, Jinrong; Chu, Bingyang; Guo, Gang; Luo, Feng; Qian, Zhiyong

    2014-04-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a potential anti-tumor agent but poor water solubility hinders its application and complicates direct parenteral administration. Nanoparticle encapsulation is an efficient way to enhance the solubility of some hydrophobic drugs. In this study, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone (MPEG-PCL) nanoparticles were successfully prepared for fisetin delivery in vitro and in vivo. Narrow distribution fisetin-loaded MPEG-PCL NPs (aproximately100 nm) were obtained via emulsification (O/W) and displayed a sustained release behavior in vitro. Moreover, hemolysis and cell cytotoxicity testing showed that MPEG-PCL is biocompatible and safe for intravenous injection. Most importantly, NPs encapsulation enhanced the anti-cancer activity of fisetin as shown in a subcutaneous LL/2 tumor model, and reduced the hepatotoxicity of fisetin. Therefore, our data demonstrate that fisetin-loaded MPEG-PCL NPs have potential application in cancer chemotherapy.

  2. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-06-08

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be

  3. Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ovsianikov, A; Malinauskas, M; Schlie, S; Chichkov, B; Gittard, S; Narayan, R; Löbler, M; Sternberg, K; Schmitz, K-P; Haverich, A

    2011-03-01

    The natural cell environment is characterized by complex three-dimensional structures, which contain features at multiple length scales. Many in vitro studies of cell behavior in three dimensions rely on the availability of artificial scaffolds with controlled three-dimensional topologies. In this paper, we demonstrate fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering out of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGda) materials by means of two-photon polymerization (2PP). This laser nanostructuring approach offers unique possibilities for rapid manufacturing of three-dimensional structures with arbitrary geometries. The spatial resolution dependence on the applied irradiation parameters is investigated for two PEGda formulations, which are characterized by molecular weights of 302 and 742. We demonstrate that minimum feature sizes of 200nm are obtained in both materials. In addition, an extensive study of the cytotoxicity of the material formulations with respect to photoinitiator type and photoinitiator concentration is undertaken. Aqueous extracts from photopolymerized PEGda samples indicate the presence of water-soluble molecules, which are toxic to fibroblasts. It is shown that sample aging in aqueous medium reduces the cytotoxicity of these extracts; this mechanism provides a route for biomedical applications of structures generated by 2PP microfabrication and photopolymerization technologies in general. Finally, a fully biocompatible combination of PEGda and a photoinitiator is identified. Fabrication of reproducible scaffold structures is very important for systematic investigation of cellular processes in three dimensions and for better understanding of in vitro tissue formation. The results of this work suggest that 2PP may be used to polymerize poly(ethylene glycol)-based materials into three-dimensional structures with well-defined geometries that mimic the physical and biological properties of native cell environments. Copyright © 2010

  4. Absorption of some glycol ethers through human skin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Dugard, P H; Walker, M; Mawdsley, S J; Scott, R C

    1984-01-01

    To assist evaluation of the hazards of skin contact with selected undiluted glycol ethers, their absorption across isolated human abdominal epidermis was measured in vitro. Epidermal membranes were set up in glass diffusion cells and, following an initial determination of permeability to tritiated water, excess undiluted glycol ether was applied to the outer surface for 8 hr. The appearance of glycol ether in an aqueous "receptor" phase bathing the underside of the epidermis was quantified by a gas chromatographic technique. A final determination of tritiated water permeability was compared with initial values to establish any irreversible alterations in epidermal barrier function induced by contact with the glycol ethers. 2-methoxyethanol (EM) was most readily absorbed (mean steady rate 2.82 mg/cm2/hr), and a relatively high absorption rate (1.17 mg/cm2/hr) was also apparent for 1-methoxypropan-2-ol (PM). There was a trend of reducing absorption rate with increasing molecular weight or reducing volatility for monoethylene glycol ethers (EM, 2.82 mg/cm2/hr; 2-ethoxyethanol, EE, 0.796 mg/cm2/hr; 2-butoxyethanol, EB, 0.198 mg/cm2/hr) and also within the diethylene glycol series: 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethanol (DM, 0.206 mg/cm2/hr); 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethanol (DE, 0.125 mg/cm2/hr) and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol (DB, 0.035 mg/cm2/hr). The rate of absorption of 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEAc) was similar to that of the parent alcohol, EE. Absorption rates of diethylene glycol ethers were slower than their corresponding monoethylene glycol equivalents. Combination of intrinsic toxicity and ability to pass across skin contribute to assessment of hazards of contact with undiluted glycol ethers. PMID:6499804

  5. Second generation copolymers for EOR

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.

    1988-05-01

    In this report, the authors review four types of acrylamide-based copolymers with distinctly different dilute solutions and rheological behavior. Each of these ''second generation'' systems possesses characteristics which, in theory, should be superior to conventional polymers under certain operational conditions. Type I copolymers are prepared from acrylamide (AM) and sodium-3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB). The high molecular weight, viscosity maintenance, and phase stability in the presence of divalent ions make these copolymers especially attractive for mobility control in EOR. Type II copolymers address the problems of entrapment, pore clogging, and shear degradation often encountered with ultrahigh molecular weight copolymers. The copolymers of this type are lower molecular weight than Type 1 but associate in a cooperative manner in semi-dilute solutions to enhance solution viscoscity. In this report, the authors discuss associative polymers of acrylamide/N-alkyl acrylamides which contain low mole percentages of C/sub 8/, C/sub 10/, or C/sub 12/ comonomers. In practice, a third charged comonomer such as carboxylated or sulfonated one, might be necessary to reduce adsorption to reservoir rock. Type III systems are relatively low molecular weight and hyrophibically modified in order to bring about intramolecular micelle-like association in aqueous solution. The aqueous solutions are non-viscous; viscosification occurs upon solubilization of hydrocarbons in the hydrophobic domains. Copolymers of acrylamide with N-propyl diacetone acrylamide are examples of Type III.

  6. Magnetic core-bilayer shell complex of magnetite nanoparticle stabilized with mPEG-polyester amphiphilic block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekkapat, Supachai; Thong-On, Bandit; Rutnakornpituk, Boonjira; Wichai, Uthai; Rutnakornpituk, Metha

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we report the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) coated with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG)-polyester amphiphilic block copolymers. The coating polymer layer contains a hydrophobic inner layer of polyester and a hydrophilic corona of mPEG. The copolymers were first prepared via a direct condensation between diacid, diol compounds and mPEG oligomer to obtain a hydrophobic polyester block and hydrophilic mPEG block and then "grafted onto" a magnetite nanoparticle surface. The copolymer composition was varied by changing the structure of the diacid, diol, and the molecular weight ( overline{M}n ) of the mPEG such that particles with good dispersibility and stability in water were obtained. It was found that the copolymer prepared from 1,6-hexanediol can effectively stabilize the particles in water regardless of the types of diacid and overline{M}n of mPEG used. The particle size was approximately 10 nm in diameter, and the particle dispersibility in water was quite dependent on the type and concentration of the copolymer used. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed the presence of less than 37 % Fe3O4 and about 48-53 % of the copolymer in the complexes. The percent entrapment efficiency and loading efficiency of indomethacin model drug in the copolymer-coated magnetite nanoparticles were 19 and 77 %, respectively.

  7. Biodegradability and biocompatibility of thermoreversible hydrogels formed from mixing a sol and a precipitate of block copolymers in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Huan; Ding, Jiandong

    2010-08-09

    This study examines in vitro and in vivo biodegradation and biocompatibility of a thermogelling polymeric material, which we call a mixture hydrogel. The mixture contains two ABA-type triblock copolymers poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) with different block ratios, and one polymer is soluble in water, but the other is not. The aqueous solutions of some mixtures with appropriate mix ratios form hydrogels at the body temperature. The degradation of mixture hydrogels proceeded by hydrolysis of ester bonds followed by the erosion of gel in phosphate saline buffer solution at 37 degrees C for nearly one month. The mass loss and reduction of molecular weight were detected. The mix ratio was found to significantly influence the degradation profiles. The rapid in vivo gel formation was confirmed after subcutaneous injection of the thermogelling copolymer mixtures into Sprague-Dawley rats. The in vivo degradation was a bit accelerated than in vitro hydrolysis, and the persistence time of injected hydrogels in vivo was found to be tuned by mix ratio. MTT assay and histological observations were used to examine the copolymer mixtures. Both in vitro and in vivo results illustrate acceptable biocompatibility of our materials. As such, the thermosensitive hydrogel of copolymer mixture is confirmed to be a promising candidate of an injectable biomaterial for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  8. Crystal structures of ethylene glycol and ethylene glycol monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A Dominic; Suard, Emmanuelle

    2011-12-21

    We have carried out a neutron powder diffraction study of deuterated ethylene glycol (1,2-ethanediol), and deuterated ethylene glycol monohydrate with the D2B high-resolution diffractometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Using these data, we have refined the complete structure, including all hydrogen atoms, of the anhydrous phase at 220 K. In addition, we have determined the structure of ethylene glycol monohydrate at 210 K using direct space methods. Anhydrous ethylene glycol crystallizes in space-group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with four formula units in a unit-cell of dimensions a = 5.0553(1) Å, b = 6.9627(1) Å, c = 9.2709(2) Å, and V = 326.319(8) Å(3) [ρ(calc)(deuterated) = 1386.26(3) kg m(-3)] at 220 K. Ethylene glycol monohydrate crystallizes in space-group P2(1)/c with four formula units in a unit-cell of dimensions a = 7.6858(3) Å, b = 7.2201(3) Å, c = 7.7356(4) Å, β = 92.868(3)°, and V = 428.73(2) Å(3) [ρ(calc)(deuterated) = 1365.40(7) kg m(-3)] at 210 K. Both the structures are characterized by the gauche conformation of the ethylene glycol molecule; however, the anhydrous phase contains the tGg' rotamer (or its mirror, g'Gt), whereas the monohydrate contains the gGg' rotamer. In the monohydrate, each water molecule is tetrahedrally coordinated, donating two hydrogen bonds to, and accepting two hydrogen bonds from the hydroxyl groups of neighboring ethylene glycol molecules. There are substantial differences in the degree of weak C-D···O hydrogen bonding between the two crystals, which calls into question the role of these interactions in determining the conformation of the ethylene glycol molecule.

  9. Nanocomposites of Molybdenum Disulfide/Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol-co-Polypyrrole for Amplified Photoacoustic Signal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hohyeon; Kim, Haemin; Nguyen, Thang Phan; Chang, Jin Ho; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Hyuncheol; Kang, Eunah

    2016-11-02

    Photoacoustic activity is the generation of an ultrasonic signal via thermal expansion or bubble formation, stimulated by laser irradiation. Photoacoustic nanoplatforms have recently gained focus for application in bioelectric interfaces. Various photoacoustic material types have been evaluated, including gold nanoparticles, semiconductive π-conjugating polymers (SP), etc. In this study, surfactant-free methoxy-polyethylene glycol-co-polypyrrole copolymer (mPEG-co-PPyr) nanoparticles (NPs) and mPEG-co-PPyr NP/molybdenum disulfide (mPEG-co-PPyr/MoS2) nanocomposites (NCs) were prepared and their photoacoustic activity was demonstrated. The mPEG-co-PPyr NPs and mPEG-co-PPyr/MoS2 NCs both showed photoacoustic signal activity. The mPEG-co-PPyr/MoS2 NCs presented a higher photoacoustic signal amplitude at 700 nm than the mPEG-co-PPyr NPs. The enhanced photoacoustic activity of the mPEG-co-PPyr/MoS2 NCs might be attributed to heterogeneous interfacial contact between mPEG-co-PPyr and the MoS2 nanosheets due to complex formation. Laser ablation of MoS2 might elevate the local temperature and facilitate the thermal conductive transfer in the mPEG-co-PPyr/MoS2 NCs, amplifying PA signal. Our study, for the first time, demonstrates enhanced PA activity in SP/transition metal disulfide (TMD) composites as photoacoustic nanoplatforms.

  10. Retinal pigment epithelium cell culture on thin biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) films.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Garcia, C A; Mikos, A G

    1998-01-01

    Thin films of 50:50 and 75:25 poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were manufactured with a controlled thickness of less than 10 microm. The effect of PLGA copolymer ratio on in vitro cell attachment, proliferation, morphology, and tight junction formation was evaluated using a human D407 retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line. Almost complete cell attachment was achieved on both PLGA films after 8 h of cell seeding, which was comparable to that on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) controls. The initial cell seeding density affected attachment, and the optimal value for 50:50 PLGA was 25000 cells cm(-2). After 7 days of in vitro culture, cell density on 50:50 and 75:25 PLGA films increased 45 and 40 folds, respectively, and a 34-fold increase was observed on TCPS. The RPE cells cultured on PLGA films at confluence had a characteristic cobblestone morphology. Confluent RPE cells also developed normal tight junctions in vitro which were concentrated mainly at the apical surfaces of cell-cell junctions. These results demonstrated that thin biodegradable PLGA films can provide suitable substrates for human RPE cell culture, and may serve as temporary carriers for subretinal implantation of organized sheets of RPE.

  11. Bone substitute biomedical material of multi-(amino acid) copolymer: in vitro degradation and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Yan, Yonggang; Wei, Jie; Ma, Jian; Gong, Min; Luo, Xiaoman; Zhang, Yunfei

    2011-11-01

    Degradable polymers with good mechanical strength as bone repair biomaterials have been paid more attention in biomedical application. In this study, a multi-(amino acid) copolymer consisting of 6-aminocaproic acid and five natural amino acids was prepared by a reaction of acid-catalyzed condensation. The results revealed that the copolymer could be slowly degradable in Tris-HCl solution, and lost its initial weight of 31.9 wt% after immersion for 12 weeks, and the changes of pH value of Tris-HCl solution were in range from 6.9 to 7.4 during soaking. The compressive strength of the copolymer decreased from 107 to 68 MPa after immersion for 12 weeks. The proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cells on the copolymer significantly increased with time, and the cells with normal phenotype extended and spread well on the copolymer surfaces. When the copolymer was implanted in muscle and bone defects of femoral cortex of dogs for 12 weeks, the histological evaluation confirmed that the copolymer exhibited excellent biocompatibility and more effective osteogenesis in vivo. When implanted into cortical bone defects of dogs, the copolymer could be combined directly with the natural bone without fibrous capsule tissue between implants and host bone. The results indicated that the multi-(amino acid) copolymer with sufficient strength, good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity had clinical potential for load-bearing bone repair or substitution.

  12. Synthesis of PCEC Copolymers with Controlled Molecular Weight Using Full Factorial Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Barghi, Leila; Asgari, Davoud; Barar, Jaleh; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable polyester and has attracted attention as a suitable carrier for development of controlled drug delivery due to its non-toxicity and biocompatibility. It has been reported that the biodegradability of PCL can be enhanced by copolymerization with PEG. Molecular weight (Mw) and CL block lengths optimization in a series of synthesized PCEC copolymers was the main purpose of this study. Methods: The composition of copolymers was designed using full factorial methodology. Molecular weight of used PEG (4 levels) and weight ratio of epsilon-caprolactone/PEG (3 levels) were selected as independent variables. The PCEC copolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization. Formation of copolymers was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy as well as H-NMR. The Mn of PCEC copolymers was calculated from HNMR spectra. The thermal behavior of copolymers was characterized on differential scanning calorimeter. Results: Molecular weight of twelve synthesized copolymers was ranged from 1782 to 9264. In order to evaluate the effect of selected variables on the copolymers composition and Mw, a mathematical model for each response parameter with p-value less than 0.001were obtained. Average percent error for prediction of total Mn of copolymers and Mn of CL blocks were 13.81% and 14.88% respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, the proposed model is significantly valid due to obtained low percent error in Mn prediction of test sets. PMID:25789219

  13. New adhesive systems based on functionalized block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Hurst, M.; Small, J.; Emerson, J.; Zamora, D.

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate chemically-functionalized block copolymers as adhesion promoters for metal/thermoset resin interfaces. Novel block copolymers were synthesized which contain pendant functional groups reactive toward copper and epoxy resins. In particular, imidazole and triazole functionalities that chelate with copper were incorporated onto one block, while secondary amines were incorporated onto the second block. These copolymers were found to self-assemble from solution onto copper surfaces to form monolayers. The structure of the adsorbed monolayers were studied in detail by neutron reflection and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The monolayer structure was found to vary markedly with the solution conditions and adsorption protocol. Appropriate conditions were found for which the two blocks form separate layers on the surface with the amine functionalized block exposed at the air surface. Adhesion testing of block copolymer-coated copper with epoxy resins was performed in both lap shear and peel modes. Modest enhancements in bond strengths were observed with the block copolymer applied to the native oxide. However, it was discovered that the native oxide is the weak link, and that by simply removing the native oxide, and then applying an epoxy resin before the native oxide can reform, excellent bond strength in the as-prepared state as well as excellent retention of bond strength after exposure to solder in ambient conditions are obtained. It is recommended that long term aging studies be performed with and without the block copolymer. In addition, the functionalized block copolymer method should be evaluated for another system that has inherently poor bonding, such as the nickel/silicone interface, and for systems involving metals and alloys which form oxides very rapidly, such as aluminum and stainless steel, where bonding strategies involve stabilizing the native oxide.

  14. Fabrication of honeycomb-structured poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) porous films and biomedical applications for cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bingjian; Zhu, Qingzeng; Yao, Linli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-03-01

    A series of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) copolymers with a hydrophobic PLA block of different molecular weights and a fixed length hydrophilic PEG were synthesized successfully and characterized. These amphiphilic block copolymers were used to fabricate honeycomb-structured porous films using the breath figure (BF) templating technique. The surface topology and composition of the highly ordered pattern film were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that the PEG-to-PLA block molecular weight ratio influenced the BF film surface topology. The film with the best ordered pores was obtained with a PEG-to-PLA ratio of 2.0 × 103:3.0 × 104. The self-organization of the hydrophilic PEG chains within the pores was confirmed by XPS and fluorescence labeled PEG. A model is proposed to elucidate the stabilization process of the amphiphilic PEG-PLA aggregated architecture on the water droplet-based templates. In addition, GFP-U87 cell viability has been investigated by MTS test and the cell morphology on the honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA porous film has been evaluated using phase-contrast microscope. This porous film is shown to be suitable as a matrix for cell growth.

  15. Paclitaxel-loaded poly(glycolide-co-ε-caprolactone)-b-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 succinate nanoparticles for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiejun; Chen, Hezhong; Dong, Yuchao; Zhang, Jiajun; Huang, Haidong; Zhu, Ji; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy and minimize the side effects of lung cancer chemotherapy, the formulation of paclitaxel-loaded poly(glycolide-co-ε-caprolactone)-b-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 succinate nanoparticles (PTX-loaded [PGA-co-PCL]-b-TPGS2k NPs) was prepared. The novel amphiphilic copolymer (PGA-co-PCL)-b-TPGS2k was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The PTX-loaded (PGA-co-PCL)-b-TPGS2k NPs were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, surface morphology, and drug release. In vitro cellular uptakes of NPs were investigated with confocal laser scanning microscopy, indicating the coumarin 6-loaded (PGA-co-PCL)-b-TPGS2k NPs could be internalized by human lung cancer A-549 cells. The antitumor effect of PTX-loaded NPs was evaluated, both in vitro and in vivo, on an A-549 cell tumor-bearing mouse model via intratumoral injection. The commercial PTX formulation Taxol was chosen as the reference. Experimental results showed that the PTX-loaded NPs possessed higher cytotoxicity and could effectively inhibit the growth of tumor. All the results suggested that amphiphilic copolymer (PGA-co-PCL)-b-TPGS2k could act as a potential biological material for nanoformulation in the treatment of lung cancer.

  16. Paclitaxel-loaded poly(glycolide-co-ε-caprolactone)-b-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 succinate nanoparticles for lung cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tiejun; Chen, Hezhong; Dong, Yuchao; Zhang, Jiajun; Huang, Haidong; Zhu, Ji; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the therapeutic efficacy and minimize the side effects of lung cancer chemotherapy, the formulation of paclitaxel-loaded poly(glycolide-co-ε-caprolactone)-b-D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 succinate nanoparticles (PTX-loaded [PGA-co-PCL]-b-TPGS2k NPs) was prepared. The novel amphiphilic copolymer (PGA-co-PCL)-b-TPGS2k was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The PTX-loaded (PGA-co-PCL)-b-TPGS2k NPs were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, surface morphology, and drug release. In vitro cellular uptakes of NPs were investigated with confocal laser scanning microscopy, indicating the coumarin 6-loaded (PGA-co-PCL)-b-TPGS2k NPs could be internalized by human lung cancer A-549 cells. The antitumor effect of PTX-loaded NPs was evaluated, both in vitro and in vivo, on an A-549 cell tumor-bearing mouse model via intratumoral injection. The commercial PTX formulation Taxol was chosen as the reference. Experimental results showed that the PTX-loaded NPs possessed higher cytotoxicity and could effectively inhibit the growth of tumor. All the results suggested that amphiphilic copolymer (PGA-co-PCL)-b-TPGS2k could act as a potential biological material for nanoformulation in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:23696703

  17. Hyperviscous diblock copolymer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova, R.; Seifert, U.; Pouligny, B.; Förster, S.; Döbereiner, H.-G.

    2002-03-01

    Giant vesicles prepared from the diblock copolymer polybutadien-b-polyethyleneoxide (PB-PEO) exhibit a shear surface viscosity, which is about 500 times higher than those found in common phospholipid bilayers. Our result constitutes the first direct measurement of the shear surface viscosity of such polymersomes. At the same time, we measure bending and stretching elastic constants, which fall in the range of values typical for lipid membranes. Pulling out a tether from an immobilized polymersome and following its relaxation back to the vesicle body provides an estimate of the viscous coupling between the two monolayers composing the polymer membrane. The detected intermonolayer friction is about an order of magnitude higher than the characteristic one for phospholipid membranes. Polymersomes are tough vesicles with a high lysis tension. This, together with their robust rheological properties, makes them interesting candidates for a number of technological applications.

  18. Preparation and characterization of poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Suggs, L J; Kao, E Y; Palombo, L L; Krishnan, R S; Widmer, M S; Mikos, A G

    1998-01-01

    We describe the preparation and bulk characterization of a cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol), p(PF-co-EG), hydrogel. Eight block copolymer formulations were made varying four different design parameters including: poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecular weight, poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) molecular weight, copolymer molecular weight, and ratio of PEG to PPF. Two different cross-linking formulations were also tested, one with a cross-linking monomer and one without. The extent of the cross-linking reaction and the degree of swelling in aqueous solution were determined on copolymer formulations made without a cross-linking monomer. The values of molecular weight between cross-links, Mc ranged from 300 +/- 120 to 1190 +/- 320 as determined from swelling data (n = 3). The equilibrium volume swelling ratios, Q, varied from 1.5 +/- 0.1 to 3.0 +/- 0.1. This ratio was found to increase with increasing PEG content in the copolymer and decrease with increasing PPF molecular weight. The values for complex dynamic elastic moduli magnitudes of E*, ranged from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 13.1 +/- 1.1 MPa for the formulations with the cross-linking monomer, N-vinyl pyrrolidinone (VP) (n = 3). The ultimate tensile stresses on the formulations made with VP ranged from 0.15 +/- 0.03 to 1.44 +/- 1.06 MPa, and tensile moduli ranged from 1.11 +/- 0.20 to 20.66 +/- 2.42 MPa (n = 5). All of the mechanical properties increased with increasing PPF molecular weight and decreased with increasing PEG content in the copolymer. These data show that the physical properties of p(PF-co-EG) hydrogels can be tailored for specific applications by altering the material composition.

  19. Novel "star anise"-like nano aggregate prepared by self-assembling of preformed microcrystals from branched crystalline-coil alternating multi-block copolymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-Chong; Wu, Gang; Shi, Jing; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2011-04-14

    Nano aggregates in aqueous medium with a novel "star anise"-like morphology were prepared from a branched alternating multi-block copolymer composed of 3-arm star-like hydrophobic poly(p-dioxanone) block and linear hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block. The influence of block length on the morphology of the nano aggregate was investigated.

  20. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compar