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Sample records for glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis requires

  1. In vitro biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Thierry; Smith, Terry K; Crossman, Arthur; Brimacombe, John S; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Ferguson, Michael A J

    2004-12-07

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) represents a mechanism for the attachment of proteins to the plasma membrane found in all eukaryotic cells. GPI biosynthesis has been mainly studied in parasites, yeast, and mammalian cells. Aspergillus fumigatus, a filamentous fungus, produces GPI-anchored molecules, some of them being essential in the construction of the cell wall. An in vitro assay was used to study the GPI biosynthesis in the mycelium form of this organism. In the presence of UDP-GlcNAc and coenzyme A, the cell-free system produces the initial intermediates of the GPI biosynthesis: GlcNAc-PI, GlcN-PI, and GlcN-(acyl)PI. Using GDP-Man, two types of mannosylation are observed. First, one or two mannose residues are added to GlcN-PI. This mannosylation, never described in fungi, does not require dolichol phosphomannoside (Dol-P-Man) as the monosaccharide donor. Second, one to five mannose residues are added to GlcN-(acyl)PI using Dol-P-Man as the mannose donor. The addition of ethanolamine phosphate groups to the first, second, and third mannose residue is also observed. This latter series of GPI intermediates identified in the A. fumigatus cell-free system indicates that GPI biosynthesis in this filamentous fungus is similar to the mammalian or yeast systems. Thus, these biochemical data are in agreement with a comparative genome analysis that shows that all but 3 of the 21 genes described in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPI pathways are found in A. fumigatus.

  2. ABNORMAL POLLEN TUBE GUIDANCE1, an Endoplasmic Reticulum-Localized Mannosyltransferase Homolog of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL10 in Yeast and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL GLYCAN ANCHOR BIOSYNTHESIS B in Human, Is Required for Arabidopsis Pollen Tube Micropylar Guidance and Embryo Development1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xin Ren; Gao, Xin-Qi; Chen, Guang Hui; Tang, Li Li; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The perception and response of pollen tubes to the female guidance signals are crucial for directional pollen tube growth inside female tissues, which leads to successful reproduction. In pursuing the mechanisms underlying this biological process, we identified the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) abnormal pollen tube guidance1 (aptg1) mutant, whose pollen tubes showed compromised micropylar guidance. In addition to its male defect, the aptg1 mutant showed embryo lethality. APTG1 encodes a putative mannosyltransferase homolog to human PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL GLYCAN ANCHOR BIOSYNTHESIS B and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL10 (GPI10), both of which are involved in the biosynthesis of GPI anchors. We found that APTG1 was expressed in most plant tissues, including mature pollen, pollen tubes, mature embryo sacs, and developing embryos. By fluorescence colabeling, we showed that APTG1 was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where GPI anchors are synthesized. Disruption of APTG1 affected the localization of COBRA-LIKE10, a GPI-anchored protein important for pollen tube growth and guidance. The results shown here demonstrate that APTG1 is involved in both vegetative and reproductive development in Arabidopsis, likely through processing and proper targeting of GPI-anchored proteins. PMID:24963069

  3. E1210, a new broad-spectrum antifungal, suppresses Candida albicans hyphal growth through inhibition of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Nao-Aki; Miyazaki, Mamiko; Horii, Takaaki; Sagane, Koji; Tsukahara, Kappei; Hata, Katsura

    2012-02-01

    Continued research toward the development of new antifungals that act via inhibition of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis led to the design of E1210. In this study, we assessed the selectivity of the inhibitory activity of E1210 against Candida albicans GWT1 (Orf19.6884) protein, Aspergillus fumigatus GWT1 (AFUA_1G14870) protein, and human PIG-W protein, which can catalyze the inositol acylation of GPI early in the GPI biosynthesis pathway, and then we assessed the effects of E1210 on key C. albicans virulence factors. E1210 inhibited the inositol acylation activity of C. albicans Gwt1p and A. fumigatus Gwt1p with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) of 0.3 to 0.6 μM but had no inhibitory activity against human Pig-Wp even at concentrations as high as 100 μM. To confirm the inhibition of fungal GPI biosynthesis, expression of ALS1 protein, a GPI-anchored protein, on the surfaces of C. albicans cells treated with E1210 was studied and shown to be significantly lower than that on untreated cells. However, the ALS1 protein levels in the crude extract and the RHO1 protein levels on the cell surface were found to be almost the same. Furthermore, E1210 inhibited germ tube formation, adherence to polystyrene surfaces, and biofilm formation of C. albicans at concentrations above its MIC. These results suggested that E1210 selectively inhibited inositol acylation of fungus-specific GPI which would be catalyzed by Gwt1p, leading to the inhibition of GPI-anchored protein maturation, and also that E1210 suppressed the expression of some important virulence factors of C. albicans, through its GPI biosynthesis inhibition.

  4. Arabidopsis LTPG is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein required for export of lipids to the plant surface.

    PubMed

    Debono, Allan; Yeats, Trevor H; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Bird, David; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka; Samuels, Lacey

    2009-04-01

    Plant epidermal cells dedicate more than half of their lipid metabolism to the synthesis of cuticular lipids, which seal and protect the plant shoot. The cuticle is made up of a cutin polymer and waxes, diverse hydrophobic compounds including very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives. How such hydrophobic compounds are exported to the cuticle, especially through the hydrophilic plant cell wall, is not known. By performing a reverse genetic screen, we have identified LTPG, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein that is highly expressed in the epidermis during cuticle biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems. Mutant plant lines with decreased LTPG expression had reduced wax load on the stem surface, showing that LTPG is involved either directly or indirectly in cuticular lipid deposition. In vitro 2-p-toluidinonaphthalene-6-sulfonate assays showed that recombinant LTPG has the capacity to bind to this lipid probe. LTPG was primarily localized to the plasma membrane on all faces of stem epidermal cells in the growing regions of inflorescence stems where wax is actively secreted. These data suggest that LTPG may function as a component of the cuticular lipid export machinery.

  5. Efficient Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) Modification of Membrane Proteins Requires a C-terminal Anchoring Signal of Marginal Hydrophobicity*

    PubMed Central

    Galian, Carmen; Björkholm, Patrik; Bulleid, Neil; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Many plasma membrane proteins are anchored to the membrane via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety. The GPI anchor is attached to the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum by transamidation, a reaction in which a C-terminal GPI-attachment signal is cleaved off concomitantly with addition of the GPI moiety. GPI-attachment signals are poorly conserved on the sequence level but are all composed of a polar segment that includes the GPI-attachment site followed by a hydrophobic segment located at the very C terminus of the protein. Here, we show that efficient GPI modification requires that the hydrophobicity of the C-terminal segment is “marginal”: less hydrophobic than type II transmembrane anchors and more hydrophobic than the most hydrophobic segments found in secreted proteins. We further show that the GPI-attachment signal can be modified by the transamidase irrespective of whether it is first released into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. PMID:22431723

  6. Stimulation of glycogen synthesis by insulin in human erythroleukemia cells requires the synthesis of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol.

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, D F; Knez, J J; Medof, M E; Cuatrecasas, P; Saltiel, A R

    1994-01-01

    Although the insulin-dependent hydrolysis of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) may play an important role in insulin action, an absolute requirement for this glycolipid has not been demonstrated. Human K562 cells were mutated to produce a cell line (IA) incapable of the earliest step in PI glycosylation, the formation of PI-GlcNAc. Another cell line (IVD) was deficient in the deacetylation of PI-GlcNAc to form PI-GlcN and subsequent mannosylated species. Each line was transfected with wild-type human insulin receptors. Similar insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation was observed in all three lines, along with a nearly identical increase in the association of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 with endogenous PI 3-kinase. Both normal and GPI-defective lines also displayed a similar 2- to 3-fold increase in phosphorylation of the Shc protein and its association with growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 in response to insulin. In contrast to these results, striking differences were noted in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis. In normal cells, glycogen synthesis was significantly increased by insulin, whereas no insulin stimulation was observed in GPI-deficient IA cells, and only a trace of stimulation was detected in IVD cells. These results indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation produced by insulin is not dependent on GPI synthesis, and this effect is not sufficient to elicit at least some of the metabolic effects of the hormone. In contrast, GPI synthesis is required for the stimulation of glycogen synthesis by insulin in these cells. These findings support the existence of divergent pathways in the action of insulin. Images PMID:7524086

  7. Arabidopsis LTPG Is a Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Lipid Transfer Protein Required for Export of Lipids to the Plant Surface[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    DeBono, Allan; Yeats, Trevor H.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Bird, David; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka; Samuels, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    Plant epidermal cells dedicate more than half of their lipid metabolism to the synthesis of cuticular lipids, which seal and protect the plant shoot. The cuticle is made up of a cutin polymer and waxes, diverse hydrophobic compounds including very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives. How such hydrophobic compounds are exported to the cuticle, especially through the hydrophilic plant cell wall, is not known. By performing a reverse genetic screen, we have identified LTPG, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein that is highly expressed in the epidermis during cuticle biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems. Mutant plant lines with decreased LTPG expression had reduced wax load on the stem surface, showing that LTPG is involved either directly or indirectly in cuticular lipid deposition. In vitro 2-p-toluidinonaphthalene-6-sulfonate assays showed that recombinant LTPG has the capacity to bind to this lipid probe. LTPG was primarily localized to the plasma membrane on all faces of stem epidermal cells in the growing regions of inflorescence stems where wax is actively secreted. These data suggest that LTPG may function as a component of the cuticular lipid export machinery. PMID:19366900

  8. The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Biosynthesis Genes GPI12, GAA1, and GPI8 Are Essential for Cell-Wall Integrity and Pathogenicity of the Maize Anthracnose Fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Garcia, Ely; Deising, Holger B

    2016-11-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins is one of the most common posttranslational modifications of proteins in eukaryotic cells and is important for associating proteins with the cell surface. In fungi, GPI-anchored proteins play essential roles in cross-linking of β-glucan cell-wall polymers and cell-wall rigidity. GPI-anchor synthesis is successively performed at the cytoplasmic and the luminal face of the ER membrane and involves approximately 25 proteins. While mutagenesis of auxiliary genes of this pathway suggested roles of GPI-anchored proteins in hyphal growth and virulence, essential genes of this pathway have not been characterized. Taking advantage of RNA interference (RNAi) we analyzed the function of the three essential genes GPI12, GAA1 and GPI8, encoding a cytoplasmic N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol deacetylase, a metallo-peptide-synthetase and a cystein protease, the latter two representing catalytic components of the GPI transamidase complex. RNAi strains showed drastic cell-wall defects, resulting in exploding infection cells on the plant surface and severe distortion of in planta-differentiated infection hyphae, including formation of intrahyphal hyphae. Reduction of transcript abundance of the genes analyzed resulted in nonpathogenicity. We show here for the first time that the GPI synthesis genes GPI12, GAA1, and GPI8 are indispensable for vegetative development and pathogenicity of the causal agent of maize anthracnose, Colletotrichum graminicola.

  9. Reverse signaling by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked Manduca ephrin requires a SRC family kinase to restrict neuronal migration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Coate, Thomas M; Swanson, Tracy L; Copenhaver, Philip F

    2009-03-18

    Reverse signaling via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked Ephrins may help control cell proliferation and outgrowth within the nervous system, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. In the embryonic enteric nervous system (ENS) of the moth Manduca sexta, migratory neurons forming the enteric plexus (EP cells) express a single Ephrin ligand (GPI-linked MsEphrin), whereas adjacent midline cells that are inhibitory to migration express the cognate receptor (MsEph). Knocking down MsEph receptor expression in cultured embryos with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides allowed the EP cells to cross the midline inappropriately, consistent with the model that reverse signaling via MsEphrin mediates a repulsive response in the ENS. Src family kinases have been implicated in reverse signaling by type-A Ephrins in other contexts, and MsEphrin colocalizes with activated forms of endogenous Src in the leading processes of the EP cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Src within the developing ENS induced aberrant midline crossovers, similar to the effect of blocking MsEphrin reverse signaling. Hyperstimulating MsEphrin reverse signaling with MsEph-Fc fusion proteins induced the rapid activation of endogenous Src specifically within the EP cells, as assayed by Western blots of single embryonic gut explants and by whole-mount immunostaining of cultured embryos. In longer cultures, treatment with MsEph-Fc caused a global inhibition of EP cell migration and outgrowth, an effect that was prevented by inhibiting Src activation. These results support the model that MsEphrin reverse signaling induces the Src-dependent retraction of EP cell processes away from the enteric midline, thereby helping to confine the neurons to their appropriate pathways.

  10. A novel mutation in PIGW causes glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency without hyperphosphatasia.

    PubMed

    Hogrebe, Max; Murakami, Yoshiko; Wild, Martin; Ahlmann, Martina; Biskup, Saskia; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Grüneberg, Marianne; Reunert, Janine; Linden, Tobias; Kinoshita, Taroh; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, many mutations have been identified that affect the biosynthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, a biomolecule that attaches surface molecules to cell membranes. Here, we present two second-degree cousins with unexplained patterns of seizures. Next-generation sequencing identified the homozygous c.460A>G; p.(R154G) PIGW mutation in both patients. Transfection of the mutated allele into Pigw-defective CHO cells indicated impaired enzymatic activity of the mutated PIGW product. Alkaline phosphatase did not exceed the upper normal range and flow cytometry of CD16, CD24, and CD66c on granulocytes showed subtle changes of the cellular expression of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. The patients' phenotype is therefore remarkably different from the phenotype of the only other described individual with PIGW mutations. Patients might therefore be missed when relying on traditional flow cytometry of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins only and we suggest that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-deficiency should be considered even with patients not showing the typical clinical phenotypes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Benjamin M.; Guo, Zhongwu

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cell-surface proteins and glycoproteins are anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), a family of glycolipids that are post-translationally attached to proteins at their C-termini. GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological and pathological events, such as cell recognition and adhesion, signal transduction, host defense, and acting as receptors for viruses and toxins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPI anchors and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems and exploring their potential therapeutic applications. In the first part of this comprehensive article on the chemical synthesis of GPIs, classic syntheses of naturally occurring GPI anchors from protozoan parasites, yeast, and mammals are covered. The second part of the article focuses on recent diversity-oriented strategies for the synthesis of GPI anchors containing unsaturated lipids, “click chemistry” tags, and highly branched and modified structures. PMID:22794184

  12. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis gene cluster gene cpaM is required for speradine A biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tokuoka, Masafumi; Kikuchi, Tomoki; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Koyama, Akifumi; Iio, Shin-Ichiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Koyama, Yasuji; Totsuka, Akira; Shindo, Hitoshi; Sato, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Speradine A is a derivative of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) found in culture of an Aspergillus tamarii isolate. Heterologous expression of a predicted methyltransferase gene, cpaM, in the cpa biosynthesis gene cluster of A. tamarii resulted in the speradine A production in a 2-oxoCPA producing A. oryzae strain, indicating cpaM is involved in the speradine A biosynthesis.

  13. Peroxisomes are required for efficient penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Wiebe H; Gidijala, Loknath; Fekken, Susan; Kiel, Jan A K W; van den Berg, Marco A; Lascaris, Romeo; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van der Klei, Ida J

    2010-09-01

    In the fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, penicillin (PEN) production is compartmentalized in the cytosol and in peroxisomes. Here we show that intact peroxisomes that contain the two final enzymes of PEN biosynthesis, acyl coenzyme A (CoA):6-amino penicillanic acid acyltransferase (AT) as well as the side-chain precursor activation enzyme phenylacetyl CoA ligase (PCL), are crucial for efficient PEN synthesis. Moreover, increasing PEN titers are associated with increasing peroxisome numbers. However, not all conditions that result in enhanced peroxisome numbers simultaneously stimulate PEN production. We find that conditions that lead to peroxisome proliferation but simultaneously interfere with the normal physiology of the cell may be detrimental to antibiotic production. We furthermore show that peroxisomes develop in germinating conidiospores from reticule-like structures. During subsequent hyphal growth, peroxisome proliferation occurs at the tip of the growing hyphae, after which the organelles are distributed over newly formed subapical cells. We observed that the organelle proliferation machinery requires the dynamin-like protein Dnm1.

  14. Exopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes required for social motility in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ann; Cho, Kyunyung; Black, Wesley P; Duan, Xue-Yan; Lux, Renate; Yang, Zhaomin; Kaplan, Heidi B; Zusman, David R; Shi, Wenyuan

    2005-01-01

    Social (S)-motility in Myxococcus xanthus is a flagellum-independent gliding motility system that allows bacteria to move in groups on solid surfaces. S-motility has been shown to require type IV pili (TFP), exopolysaccharide (EPS; a component of fibrils) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Previously, information concerning EPS biogenesis in M. xanthus was lacking. In this study, we screened 5000 randomly mutagenized colonies for defects in S-motility and EPS and identified two genetic regions essential for EPS biogenesis: the EPS synthesis (eps) region and the EPS-associated (eas) region. Mutants with insertions in the eps and eas regions were defective in S-motility and fruiting body formation. These mutants failed to bind the dye calcofluor white, indicating that they lacked EPS; however, they retained normal TFP and LPS. Analysis of the eps locus showed several open reading frames (ORFs) that encode homologues to glycosyltransferases, glucanases and EPS transporters as well as regulatory proteins; the eas locus contains two ORFs: one exhibits homology to hypothetical proteins with a conserved domain of unknown function and the other displays no apparent homology to other proteins in the database. Further genetic mutagenesis analysis indicates that the whole eps region is involved in the biosynthesis of fibrils and fibril EPS. The operon at the proximal end of the eps region was analysed by generating in-frame deletion mutations. These mutants showed varying degrees of defects in the bacterium's ability to produce EPS or perform EPS-related functions, confirming the involvement of these genes in M. xanthus EPS biogenesis.

  15. BODYGUARD is required for the biosynthesis of cutin in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, Liina; Lindgren, Leif Ove; Verdier, Gaëtan; Laanemets, Kristiina; Brosché, Mikael; Beisson, Fred; Kollist, Hannes

    2016-07-01

    The cuticle plays a critical role in plant survival during extreme drought conditions. There are, however, surprisingly, many gaps in our understanding of cuticle biosynthesis. An Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutant library was screened for mutants with enhanced transpiration using a simple condensation spot method. Five mutants, named cool breath (cb), were isolated. The cb5 mutant was found to be allelic to bodyguard (bdg), which is affected in an α/β-hydrolase fold protein important for cuticle structure. The analysis of cuticle components in cb5 (renamed as bdg-6) and another T-DNA mutant allele (bdg-7) revealed no impairment in wax synthesis, but a strong decrease in total cutin monomer load in young leaves and flowers. Root suberin content was also reduced. Overexpression of BDG increased total leaf cutin monomer content nearly four times by affecting preferentially C18 polyunsaturated ω-OH fatty acids and dicarboxylic acids. Whole-plant gas exchange analysis showed that bdg-6 had higher cuticular conductance and rate of transpiration; however, plant lines overexpressing BDG resembled the wild-type with regard to these characteristics. This study identifies BDG as an important component of the cutin biosynthesis machinery in Arabidopsis. We also show that, using BDG, cutin can be greatly modified without altering the cuticular water barrier properties and transpiration.

  16. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol molecules of the parasite and the host.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M A; Brimacombe, J S; Cottaz, S; Field, R A; Güther, L S; Homans, S W; McConville, M J; Mehlert, A; Milne, K G; Ralton, J E

    1994-01-01

    The glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) protein-membrane anchors are ubiquitous among the eukaryotes. However, while mammalian cells typically express in the order of 100 thousand copies of GPI-anchor per cell, the parasitic protozoa, particularly the kinetoplastids, express up to 10-20 million copies of GPI-anchor and/or GPI-related glycolipids per cell. Thus GPI-family members dominate the cell surface molecular architecture of these organisms. In several cases, GPI-anchored proteins, such as the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of the African trypanosomes, or GPI-related glycolipids, such as the lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of the Leishmania, are known to be essential for parasite survival and infectivity. The highly elevated levels and specialised nature of GPI metabolism in the kinetoplastid parasites suggest that the GPI biosynthetic pathways might be good targets for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. This article introduces the range of GPI structures found in protozoan parasites, and their mammalian hosts, and discusses some aspects of GPI biosynthesis.

  17. A regulatory gene (ECO-orf4) required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis orientalis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

    2014-02-01

    ECO-0501 is a novel linear polyene antibiotic, which was discovered from Amycolatopsis orientalis. Recent study of ECO-0501 biosynthesis pathway revealed the presence of regulatory gene: ECO-orf4. The A. orientalis ECO-orf4 gene from the ECO-0501 biosynthesis cluster was analyzed, and its deduced protein (ECO-orf4) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with large ATP-binding regulators of the LuxR (LAL) family regulators. Database comparison revealed two hypothetical domains, a LuxR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif near the C-terminal and an N-terminal nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) binding motif included. Deletion of the corresponding gene (ECO-orf4) resulted in complete loss of ECO-0501 production. Complementation by one copy of intact ECO-orf4 restored the polyene biosynthesis demonstrating that ECO-orf4 is required for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. The results of overexpression ECO-orf4 on ECO-0501 production indicated that it is a positive regulatory gene. Gene expression analysis by reverse transcription PCR of the ECO-0501 gene cluster showed that the transcription of ECO-orf4 correlates with that of genes involved in polyketide biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that ECO-orf4 is a pathway-specific positive regulatory gene that is essential for ECO-0501 biosynthesis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Minimal Streptomyces sp. strain C5 daunorubicin polyketide biosynthesis genes required for aklanonic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rajgarhia, V B; Strohl, W R

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the Streptomyces sp. strain C5 daunorubicin type II polyketide synthase (PKS) gene region is different from that of other known type II PKS gene clusters. Directly downstream of the genes encoding ketoacylsynthase alpha and beta (KS alpha, KS beta) are two genes (dpsC, dpsD) encoding proteins of unproven function, both absent from other type II PKS gene clusters. Also in contrast to other type II PKS clusters, the gene encoding the acyl carrier protein (ACP), dpsG, is located about 6.8 kbp upstream of the genes encoding the daunorubicin KS alpha and KS beta. In this work, we demonstrate that the minimal genes required to produce aklanonic acid in heterologous hosts are dpsG (ACP), dauI (regulatory activator), dpsA (KS alpha), dpsB (KS beta), dpsF (aromatase), dpsE (polyketide reductase), and dauG (putative deoxyaklanonic acid oxygenase). The two unusual open reading frames, dpsC (KASIII homolog lacking a known active site) and dpsD (acyltransferase homolog), are not required to synthesize aklanonic acid. Additionally, replacement of dpsD or dpsCD in Streptomyces sp. strain C5 with a neomycin resistance gene (aphI) results in mutant strains that still produced anthracyclines. PMID:9098068

  19. Longiborneol Synthase Gene from Fusarium Graminearum is Required for Culmorin Biosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A sesquiterpene cyclase gene, fg10397, was found in a Fusarium graminearum cDNA library that was previously used to identify trichothecene and butenolide biosynthetic genes. Gene disruption and add-back experiments showed that fg10397 was required for culmorin biosynthesis. Expression of fg10397 in...

  20. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Survival Signaling Requires Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Matt; Upadhyay, Awani; Ido, Liyana J.; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pro-cell survival signaling pathways has implications for cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disease. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal growth factor receptor LET-23 (LET-23 EGFR) has a prosurvival function in counteracting excitotoxicity, and we identify novel molecular players required for this prosurvival signaling. uv1 sensory cells in the C. elegans uterus undergo excitotoxic death in response to activation of the OSM-9/OCR-4 TRPV channel by the endogenous agonist nicotinamide. Activation of LET-23 EGFR can effectively prevent this excitotoxic death. We investigate the roles of signaling pathways known to act downstream of LET-23 EGFR in C. elegans and find that the LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway, but not the IP3 receptor pathway, is required for efficient LET-23 EGFR activity in its prosurvival function. However, activation of LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway does not appear to be sufficient to fully mimic LET-23 EGFR activity. We screen for genes that are required for EGFR prosurvival function and uncover a role for phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes in EGFR prosurvival function. Finally, we show that exogenous application of phosphatidylcholine is sufficient to prevent some deaths in this excitotoxicity model. Our work implicates regulation of lipid synthesis downstream of EGFR in cell survival and death decisions. PMID:27605519

  2. chlB Requirement for Chlorophyll Biosynthesis under Short Photoperiod in Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Minoru; Tanaka, Ayumi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls (Chls) play pivotal roles in energy absorption and transduction and also in charge separation in reaction centers in all photosynthetic organisms. In Chl biosynthesis steps, only a step for the enzymatic reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide) is mediated by both nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded genes in land plants. Many plants encode the genes for light-dependent Pchlide reductase (LPOR) and light-independent Pchlide reductase (DPOR) in the nucleus and chloroplast genome, respectively. During the diversification of land plants, the reduction step of Pchlide to Chlide has become solely dependent on LPOR, and the genes for DPOR have been lost from chloroplast genome. It remains unclear why DPOR persists in some land plants, how they were eliminated from chloroplast genomes during the diversification of land plants, and under what environmental conditions DPOR was required. We demonstrate that DPOR is functional in liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.) and plays an important role in Chl biosynthesis. Having established a plastid transformation system in liverwort, we disrupted chlB, which encodes a subunit of DPOR in the M. polymorpha chloroplast genome. Morphological and Chl content analysis of a chlB mutant grown under different photoperiods revealed that DPOR is particularly required for Chl biosynthesis under short-day conditions. Our findings suggest that an environmental condition in the form of photoperiod is an important factor that determines the loss or retention of chloroplast-encoded genes mediating Pchlide reduction to Chlide. PMID:24586029

  3. chlB requirement for chlorophyll biosynthesis under short photoperiod in Marchantia polymorpha L.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Minoru; Tanaka, Ayumi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2014-03-01

    Chlorophylls (Chls) play pivotal roles in energy absorption and transduction and also in charge separation in reaction centers in all photosynthetic organisms. In Chl biosynthesis steps, only a step for the enzymatic reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide) is mediated by both nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded genes in land plants. Many plants encode the genes for light-dependent Pchlide reductase (LPOR) and light-independent Pchlide reductase (DPOR) in the nucleus and chloroplast genome, respectively. During the diversification of land plants, the reduction step of Pchlide to Chlide has become solely dependent on LPOR, and the genes for DPOR have been lost from chloroplast genome. It remains unclear why DPOR persists in some land plants, how they were eliminated from chloroplast genomes during the diversification of land plants, and under what environmental conditions DPOR was required. We demonstrate that DPOR is functional in liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.) and plays an important role in Chl biosynthesis. Having established a plastid transformation system in liverwort, we disrupted chlB, which encodes a subunit of DPOR in the M. polymorpha chloroplast genome. Morphological and Chl content analysis of a chlB mutant grown under different photoperiods revealed that DPOR is particularly required for Chl biosynthesis under short-day conditions. Our findings suggest that an environmental condition in the form of photoperiod is an important factor that determines the loss or retention of chloroplast-encoded genes mediating Pchlide reduction to Chlide.

  4. Identification of a gene required for the biosynthesis of ornithine-derived lipids.

    PubMed

    Weissenmayer, Barbara; Gao, Jun-Lian; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2002-08-01

    Phospholipids are the membrane-forming constituents in all living organisms. In addition to phosphorus-containing lipids, the membranes of numerous bacteria contain significant amounts of phosphorus-free polar lipids, often derived from amino acids. Although lipids derived from the amino acid ornithine are widespread among bacteria, their biosynthesis is unknown. Here, we describe the isolation of mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti deficient in the biosynthesis of ornithine-derived lipids (OL). Complementation of such mutants with a sinorhi-zobial cosmid gene bank, subcloning of the complementing fragment and sequencing of the subclone led to the identification of a gene (olsA) coding for a presumptive acyltransferase. Amplification of this gene and its expression in OL-deficient mutant backgrounds of S. meliloti demonstrates that it is required for OL biosynthesis. An OL-deficient mutant of S. meliloti disrupted in olsA shows wild type-like growth behaviour and is capable of inducing nitrogen-fixing nodules on legume hosts. A lyso-ornithine lipid-dependent acyltransferase activity forming OL requires acyl-AcpP as the acyl donor and expression of the olsA gene.

  5. Oxygen is required to restore flor strain viability and lipid biosynthesis under fermentative conditions.

    PubMed

    Zara, Giacomo; Angelozzi, Daniele; Belviso, Simona; Bardi, Laura; Goffrini, Paola; Lodi, Tiziana; Budroni, Marilena; Mannazzu, Ilaria

    2009-03-01

    To further elucidate the biosynthesis of lipids in flor strains under fermentative conditions, the transcription levels of the lipid biosynthetic genes ACS1, ACS2, ACC1, OLE1, ERG1, ERG11, ARE1 and ARE2, as well as the lipid composition and cell viability of a flor strain were compared with that of a non-flor strain during hypoxic and aerobic fermentations in the absence of lipid nutrients. While no significant differences in transcription levels or lipid compositions were observed between the two strains when oxygen was not limiting, significant differences were seen during hypoxic fermentation. In this last condition, the flor strain, in spite of higher levels of transcription of hypoxic genes, lost the abilities to desaturate fatty acids and complete ergosterol biosynthesis, and showed a dramatic loss of viability. In contrast, the non-flor strain, which showed lower transcription levels, was able to reach a balanced lipid composition and maintained a higher cell viability. One possible explanation is that the flor strain requires a higher amount of oxygen than the non-flor strain in order to carry out the oxygen-dependent steps of lipid biosynthesis under fermentative conditions.

  6. Characterization of a Pipecolic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway Required for Systemic Acquired Resistance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Pingtao; Rekhter, Dmitrij; Ding, Yuli; Feussner, Kirstin; Busta, Lucas; Haroth, Sven; Xu, Shaohua; Li, Xin; Jetter, Reinhard; Feussner, Ivo; Zhang, Yuelin

    2016-10-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an immune response induced in the distal parts of plants following defense activation in local tissue. Pipecolic acid (Pip) accumulation orchestrates SAR and local resistance responses. Here, we report the identification and characterization of SAR-DEFICIENT4 (SARD4), which encodes a critical enzyme for Pip biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Loss of function of SARD4 leads to reduced Pip levels and accumulation of a Pip precursor, Δ(1)-piperideine-2-carboxylic acid (P2C). In Escherichia coli, expression of the aminotransferase ALD1 leads to production of P2C and addition of SARD4 results in Pip production, suggesting that a Pip biosynthesis pathway can be reconstituted in bacteria by coexpression of ALD1 and SARD4. In vitro experiments showed that ALD1 can use l-lysine as a substrate to produce P2C and P2C is converted to Pip by SARD4. Analysis of sard4 mutant plants showed that SARD4 is required for SAR as well as enhanced pathogen resistance conditioned by overexpression of the SAR regulator FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1. Compared with the wild type, pathogen-induced Pip accumulation is only modestly reduced in the local tissue of sard4 mutant plants, but it is below detection in distal leaves, suggesting that Pip is synthesized in systemic tissue by SARD4-mediated reduction of P2C and biosynthesis of Pip in systemic tissue contributes to SAR establishment.

  7. The ABA1 gene and carotenoid biosynthesis are required for late skotomorphogenic growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Barrero, José María; Rodríguez, Pedro L; Quesada, Víctor; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A; Boutin, Jean-Pierre; Marion-Poll, Annie; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2008-02-01

    Several plant hormones, including auxin, brassinosteroids and gibberellins, are required for skotomorphogenesis, which is the etiolated growth that seedlings undergo in the absence of light. To examine the growth of abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutants in the dark, we analysed several aba1 loss-of-function alleles, which are deficient in zeaxanthin epoxidase. The aba1 mutants displayed a partially de-etiolated phenotype, including reduced hypocotyl growth, cotyledon expansion and the development of true leaves, during late skotomorphogenic growth. In contrast, only small differences in hypocotyl growth were found between wild-type seedlings and ABA-deficient mutants impaired in subsequent steps of the pathway, namely nced3, aba2, aba3 and aao3. Interestingly, phenocopies of the partially de-etiolated phenotype of the aba1 mutants were obtained when wild-type seedlings were dark-grown on medium supplemented with fluridone, an inhibitor of phytoene desaturase, and hence, of carotenoid biosynthesis. ABA supplementation did not restore the normal skotomorphogenic growth of aba1 mutants or fluridone-treated wild-type plants, suggesting a direct inhibitory effect of fluridone on carotenoid biosynthesis. In addition, aba1 mutants showed impaired production of the beta-carotene-derived xanthophylls, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and antheraxanthin. Because fluridone treatment of wild-type plants phenocopied the phenotype of dark-grown aba1 mutants, impaired carotenoid biosynthesis in aba1 mutants is probably responsible for the observed skotomorphogenic phenotype. Thus, ABA1 is required for skotomorphogenic growth, and beta-carotene-derived xanthophylls are putative regulators of skotomorphogenesis.

  8. The Arabidopsis Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 Is Required for Osmotic Stress-Induced Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Gehring, Chris; Zhu, Jianhua; Li, Feng-Min; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xiong, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) through a pathway that is rate limited by the carotenoid cleavage enzyme 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the signal transduction mechanism underlying the activation of ABA biosynthesis, we performed a forward genetic screen to isolate mutants defective in osmotic stress regulation of the NCED3 gene. Here, we identified the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Vacuolar Sorting Receptor1 (VSR1) as a unique regulator of ABA biosynthesis. The vsr1 mutant not only shows increased sensitivity to osmotic stress, but also is defective in the feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis by ABA. Further analysis revealed that vacuolar trafficking mediated by VSR1 is required for osmotic stress-responsive ABA biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance. Moreover, under osmotic stress conditions, the membrane potential, calcium flux, and vacuolar pH changes in the vsr1 mutant differ from those in the wild type. Given that manipulation of the intracellular pH is sufficient to modulate the expression of ABA biosynthesis genes, including NCED3, and ABA accumulation, we propose that intracellular pH changes caused by osmotic stress may play a signaling role in regulating ABA biosynthesis and that this regulation is dependent on functional VSR1. PMID:25416474

  9. The Aspergillus nidulans npeA locus consists of three contiguous genes required for penicillin biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    MacCabe, A P; Riach, M B; Unkles, S E; Kinghorn, J R

    1990-01-01

    Clones of Aspergillus nidulans genomic DNA spanning 20 kb have been isolated and shown by a combination of classical and molecular genetic means to represent the npeA locus, previously found to be one of four loci (npeA, npeB, npeC and npeD) involved in the synthesis of penicillin. As well as containing the gene encoding the second enzyme for penicillin biosynthesis, namely isopenicillin N synthetase (IPNS) (designated ipnA), our results show that these clones (pSTA200, pSTA201 and pSTA207) contain two more genes to form a cluster of three contiguous penicillin biosynthetic genes. Our evidence suggests that these genes encode delta (L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) and acyl transferase (ACYT) (designated acvA and acyA respectively), the first and third enzymes required for penicillin biosynthesis, with the gene order being acvA-ipnA-acyA. Transcripts have been identified for the three genes and their approximate sizes determined--acvA 9.5 kb, ipnA 1.4 kb and acyA 1.6 kb. All three mRNA species are observed in cells grown in fermentation medium but not in cells grown in minimal medium, suggesting that the control of penicillin biosynthesis is, in part, at the level of mRNA accumulation. Finally our results show that acvA and ipnA genes are divergently transcribed, whilst acyA is transcribed in the same orientation as ipnA. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2403928

  10. Functional characterization of human COQ4, a gene required for Coenzyme Q{sub 10} biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Casarin, Alberto; Trevisson, Eva; Pertegato, Vanessa; Doimo, Mara; Ferrero-Gomez, Maria Lara; Abbadi, Sara; Quinzii, Catarina; Hirano, Michio; Basso, Giuseppe; Salviati, Leonardo

    2008-07-18

    Defects in genes involved in coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis cause primary CoQ deficiency, a severe multisystem disorders presenting as progressive encephalomyopathy and nephropathy. The COQ4 gene encodes an essential factor for biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have identified and cloned its human ortholog, COQ4, which is located on chromosome 9q34.13, and is transcribed into a 795 base-pair open reading frame, encoding a 265 amino acid (aa) protein (Isoform 1) with a predicted N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence. It shares 39% identity and 55% similarity with the yeast protein. Coq4 protein has no known enzymatic function, but may be a core component of multisubunit complex required for CoQ biosynthesis. The human transcript is detected in Northern blots as a {approx}1.4 kb single band and is expressed ubiquitously, but at high levels in liver, lung, and pancreas. Transcription initiates at multiple sites, located 333-23 nucleotides upstream of the ATG. A second group of transcripts originating inside intron 1 of the gene encodes a 241 aa protein, which lacks the mitochondrial targeting sequence (isoform 2). Expression of GFP-fusion proteins in HeLa cells confirmed that only isoform 1 is targeted to mitochondria. The functional significance of the second isoform is unknown. Human COQ4 isoform 1, expressed from a multicopy plasmid, efficiently restores both growth in glycerol, and CoQ content in COQ4{sup null} yeast strains. Human COQ4 is an interesting candidate gene for patients with isolated CoQ{sub 10} deficiency.

  11. Antituberculosis thiophenes define a requirement for Pks13 in mycolic acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Regina; Kumar, Pradeep; Parashar, Vijay; Vilchèze, Catherine; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Freundlich, Joel S.; Barnes, S. Whitney; Walker, John R.; Szymonifka, Michael J.; Marchiano, Emily; Shenai, Shubhada; Colangeli, Roberto; Jacobs, William R.; Neiditch, Matthew B.; Kremer, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We report a new class of thiophene (TP) compounds that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by the novel mechanism of Pks13 inhibition. An F79S mutation near the catalytic Ser-55 site in Pks13 conferred TP-resistance in Mtb. Over-expression of wild-type pks13 resulted in TP-resistance and over-expression of the F79S pks13 mutant conferred high-level resistance. In vitro, TP inhibited fatty acyl-AMP loading onto Pks13. TP inhibited mycolic acid biosynthesis in wild-type Mtb, but to a much lesser extent in TP-resistant Mtb. TP treatment was bactericidal and equivalent to the first-line drug isoniazid, but it was less likely to permit emergent resistance. Combined isoniazid and TP treatment exhibited sterilizing activity. Computational-docking identified a possible TP-binding groove within the Pks13 ACP domain. This study confirms that Mtb Pks13 is required for mycolic acid biosynthesis, validates it as a druggable target and demonstrates the therapeutic potential of simultaneously inhibiting multiple targets in the same biosynthetic pathway. PMID:23770708

  12. Sph3 Is a Glycoside Hydrolase Required for the Biosynthesis of Galactosaminogalactan in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Natalie C; Snarr, Brendan D; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Little, Dustin J; Lee, Mark J; Zacharias, Caitlin A; Chabot, Josée C; Geller, Alexander M; Baptista, Stefanie D; Baker, Perrin; Robinson, Howard; Howell, P Lynne; Sheppard, Donald C

    2015-11-13

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most virulent species within the Aspergillus genus and causes invasive infections with high mortality rates. The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) contributes to the virulence of A. fumigatus. A co-regulated five-gene cluster has been identified and proposed to encode the proteins required for GAG biosynthesis. One of these genes, sph3, is predicted to encode a protein belonging to the spherulin 4 family, a protein family with no known function. Construction of an sph3-deficient mutant demonstrated that the gene is necessary for GAG production. To determine the role of Sph3 in GAG biosynthesis, we determined the structure of Aspergillus clavatus Sph3 to 1.25 Å. The structure revealed a (β/α)8 fold, with similarities to glycoside hydrolase families 18, 27, and 84. Recombinant Sph3 displayed hydrolytic activity against both purified and cell wall-associated GAG. Structural and sequence alignments identified three conserved acidic residues, Asp-166, Glu-167, and Glu-222, that are located within the putative active site groove. In vitro and in vivo mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that all three residues are important for activity. Variants of Asp-166 yielded the greatest decrease in activity suggesting a role in catalysis. This work shows that Sph3 is a glycoside hydrolase essential for GAG production and defines a new glycoside hydrolase family, GH135.

  13. Transcription termination within the iron transport-biosynthesis operon of Vibrio anguillarum requires an antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Stork, Michiel; Di Lorenzo, Manuela; Welch, Timothy J; Crosa, Jorge H

    2007-05-01

    The iron transport-biosynthesis (ITB) operon in Vibrio anguillarum includes four genes for ferric siderophore transport, fatD, -C, -B, and -A, and two genes for siderophore biosynthesis, angR and angT. This cluster plays an important role in the virulence mechanisms of this bacterium. Despite being part of the same polycistronic mRNA, the relative levels of transcription for the fat portion and for the whole ITB message differ profoundly, the levels of the fat transcript being about 17-fold higher. Using S1 nuclease mapping, lacZ transcriptional fusions, and in vitro studies, we were able to show that the differential gene expression within the ITB operon is due to termination of transcription between the fatA and angR genes, although a few transcripts proceeded beyond the termination site to the end of this operon. This termination process requires a 427-nucleotide antisense RNA that spans the intergenic region and acts as a novel transcriptional terminator.

  14. A Novel Two-Gene Requirement for the Octanoyltransfer Reaction of Bacillus subtilis Lipoic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Natalia; Christensen, Quin H.; Mansilla, María C.; Cronan, John E.; de Mendoza, Diego

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The Bacillus subtilis genome encodes three apparent lipoyl ligase homologues: yhfJ, yqhM, and ywfL which we have renamed lplJ, lipM and lipL, respectively. We show that LplJ encodes the sole lipoyl ligase of this bacterium. Physiological and biochemical characterization of a ΔlipM strain showed that LipM is absolutely required for the endogenous lipoylation of all lipoate-dependent proteins, confirming its role as the B. subtilis octanoyltransferase. However, we also report that in contrast to E. coli, B. subtilis requires a third protein for lipoic acid assembly, LipL. B. subtilis ΔlipL strains are unable to synthesize lipoic acid despite the presence of LipM and the sulfur insertion enzyme, LipA, which should suffice for lipoic acid biosynthesis based on the E. coli model. LipM is only required for the endogenous lipoylation pathway, whereas LipL also plays a role in lipoic acid scavenging. Expression of E. coli lipB allows growth of B. subtilis ΔlipL or ΔlipM strains in the absence of supplements. In contrast, growth of an E. coli ΔlipB strain can be complemented with lipM, but not lipL. These data together with those of the companion paper (Christensen et al., 2011) provide evidence that LipM and LipL catalyze sequential reactions in a novel pathway for lipoic acid biosynthesis. PMID:21338420

  15. Plant science. Morphinan biosynthesis in opium poppy requires a P450-oxidoreductase fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Thilo; Kern, Marcelo; King, Andrew J; Larson, Tony R; Teodor, Roxana I; Donninger, Samantha L; Li, Yi; Dowle, Adam A; Cartwright, Jared; Bates, Rachel; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A

    2015-07-17

    Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.

  16. Protozoan parasites glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors: structures, functions and trends for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Morotti, Ana Luísa Malaco; Martins-Teixeira, Maristela Braga; Carvalho, Ivone

    2017-07-27

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors are complex molecules that support certain proteins in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. The GPI anchor scaffold is comprised of a glycan core which contains a phosphoethanolamine linker and a phospholipid chain. GPI-anchored proteins are structurally and functionally diverse and play essential roles in several biological processes, in particular cell-cell interaction. Although all eukaryotes possess GPI anchors in their cell membrane, protozoan parasites use this anchorage much more frequently than higher eukaryotes. There is extensive evidence that parasites' GPI anchors are important for virulence and interaction with host cells, as well as their own survival and viability. Structural and biosynthetic pathway differences between many parasites and mammalian cells have been explored for further understanding about functions and importance of these molecules. Some GPI biosynthesis enzymes have been proposed as alternative targets for therapy against parasitic diseases. This review discusses concisely the main differences between parasitic and mammalian GPI anchor biosynthesis, and highlights the implications of structural variation. Moreover, advances in drug discovery based on GPI anchor structures and biosynthetic pathway are outlined. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. A gene cluster required for coordinated biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide and extracellular polysaccharide also affects virulence of Pseudomonas solanacearum.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C C; Sequeira, L

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial cell surface components can be important determinants of virulence. At least three gene clusters important for extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis have been previously identified in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas solanacearum. We have found that one of these gene clusters, named ops, is also required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. Mutations in any complementation unit of this cluster decreased EPS production, prevented the binding of an LPS-specific phage, and altered the mobility of purified LPS in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, restoration of LPS biosynthesis alone was not sufficient to restore virulence to the wild-type level, suggesting that EPS is important for pathogenesis. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1744040

  18. UbiX is a flavin prenyltransferase required for bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mark D.; Payne, Karl A. P.; Fisher, Karl; Marshall, Stephen A.; Parker, David; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Trivedi, Drupad K.; Goodacre, Royston; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Hay, Sam; Leys, David

    2015-06-01

    Ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q) is a ubiquitous lipid-soluble redox cofactor that is an essential component of electron transfer chains. Eleven genes have been implicated in bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis, including ubiX and ubiD, which are responsible for decarboxylation of the 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate precursor. Despite structural and biochemical characterization of UbiX as a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding protein, no decarboxylase activity has been detected. Here we report that UbiX produces a novel flavin-derived cofactor required for the decarboxylase activity of UbiD. UbiX acts as a flavin prenyltransferase, linking a dimethylallyl moiety to the flavin N5 and C6 atoms. This adds a fourth non-aromatic ring to the flavin isoalloxazine group. In contrast to other prenyltransferases, UbiX is metal-independent and requires dimethylallyl-monophosphate as substrate. Kinetic crystallography reveals that the prenyltransferase mechanism of UbiX resembles that of the terpene synthases. The active site environment is dominated by π systems, which assist phosphate-C1' bond breakage following FMN reduction, leading to formation of the N5-C1' bond. UbiX then acts as a chaperone for adduct reorientation, via transient carbocation species, leading ultimately to formation of the dimethylallyl C3'-C6 bond. Our findings establish the mechanism for formation of a new flavin-derived cofactor, extending both flavin and terpenoid biochemical repertoires.

  19. A two-component enzyme complex is required for dolichol biosynthesis in tomato.

    PubMed

    Brasher, Megan I; Surmacz, Liliana; Leong, Bryan; Pitcher, Jocelyn; Swiezewska, Ewa; Pichersky, Eran; Akhtar, Tariq A

    2015-06-01

    Dolichol plays an indispensable role in the N-glycosylation of eukaryotic proteins. As proteins enter the secretory pathway they are decorated by a 'glycan', which is preassembled onto a membrane-anchored dolichol molecule embedded within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Genetic and biochemical evidence in yeast and animals indicate that a cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) is required for dolichol synthesis, but also point to other factor(s) that could be involved. In this study, RNAi-mediated suppression of one member of the tomato CPT family (SlCPT3) resulted in a ~60% decrease in dolichol content. We further show that the involvement of SlCPT3 in dolichol biosynthesis requires the participation of a distantly related partner protein, designated as CPT-binding protein (SlCPTBP), which is a close homolog of the human Nogo-B receptor. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that SlCPT3 and its partner protein interact in vivo and that both SlCPT3 and SlCPTBP are required to complement the growth defects and dolichol deficiency of the yeast dolichol mutant, rer2∆. Co-expression of SlCPT3 and SlCPTBP in yeast and in E. coli confirmed that dolichol synthase activity strictly requires both proteins. Finally, organelle isolation and in vivo localization of fluorescent protein fusions showed that both SlCPT3 and SlCPTBP localize to the ER, the site of dolichol accumulation and synthesis in eukaryotes.

  20. Phycobilin biosynthesis: reductant requirements and product identification for heme oxygenase from Cyanidium caldarium.

    PubMed

    Rhie, G; Beale, S I

    1995-06-20

    Algal heme oxygenase is a soluble enzyme from Cyanidium caldarium that catalyzes the first committed step of phycobilin biosynthesis by converting protoheme to biliverdin IX alpha. Although the physiological substrate (protoheme) of algal heme oxygenase is identical to that of microsomal heme oxygenase, which catalyzes heme catabolism in animals, the two enzyme systems differ in several respects including the nature of the required reductants and solubility of the enzymes. Addition of the strong Fe3+ ion chelators, desferrioxamine and Tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid), greatly increased the yield of solvent-extracted bilin product. The effect of the Fe3+ chelators was approximately equal whether they were added during or after the enzyme incubation. Postincubation treatment of the enzyme reaction mixture with strong acid also greatly increased the product yield. Addition of desferrioxamine to the reaction mixture after the incubation was terminated caused the appearance of an absorption spectrum, indicating an increase in the concentration of free bilin product. Acid and Fe3+ chelators are known to cause dissociation of Fe(III)-bilin complexes. These results indicate that the in vitro enzymic reaction product of algal heme oxygenase is a nonenzyme-bound Fe(III)-biliverdin IX alpha complex that is poorly extracted and/or quantitated unless it is first dissociated. Algal heme oxygenase required the simultaneous presence of both reduced ferredoxin and a second reductant such as ascorbate for activity. The requirement for L-ascorbate could be substituted by Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid) or D-ascorbate, but not by dehydroascorbate or dithiothreitol. Heme oxygenase was purified over 200-fold from C. caldarium by differential (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and serial column chromatography over reactive blue 2-Sepharose, DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and ferredoxin-Sepharose.

  1. Biotrophy-specific downregulation of siderophore biosynthesis in Colletotrichum graminicola is required for modulation of immune responses of maize.

    PubMed

    Albarouki, Emad; Schafferer, Lukas; Ye, Fanghua; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Haas, Hubertus; Deising, Holger B

    2014-04-01

    The hemibiotrophic maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola synthesizes one intracellular and three secreted siderophores. eGFP fusions with the key siderophore biosynthesis gene, SID1, encoding l-ornithine-N(5) -monooxygenase, suggested that siderophore biosynthesis is rigorously downregulated specifically during biotrophic development. In order to investigate the role of siderophores during vegetative development and pathogenesis, SID1, which is required for synthesis of all siderophores, and the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene NPS6, synthesizing secreted siderophores, were deleted. Mutant analyses revealed that siderophores are required for vegetative growth under iron-limiting conditions, conidiation, ROS tolerance, and cell wall integrity. Δsid1 and Δnps6 mutants were hampered in formation of melanized appressoria and impaired in virulence. In agreement with biotrophy-specific downregulation of siderophore biosynthesis, Δsid1 and Δnps6 strains were not affected in biotrophic development, but spread of necrotrophic hyphae was reduced. To address the question why siderophore biosynthesis is specifically downregulated in biotrophic hyphae, maize leaves were infiltrated with siderophores. Siderophore infiltration alone did not induce defence responses, but formation of biotrophic hyphae in siderophore-infiltrated leaves caused dramatically increased ROS formation and transcriptional activation of genes encoding defence-related peroxidases and PR proteins. These data suggest that fungal siderophores modulate the plant immune system.

  2. Biotrophy-specific downregulation of siderophore biosynthesis in C olletotrichum graminicola is required for modulation of immune responses of maize

    PubMed Central

    Albarouki, Emad; Schafferer, Lukas; Ye, Fanghua; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Haas, Hubertus; Deising, Holger B

    2014-01-01

    The hemibiotrophic maize pathogen C olletotrichum graminicola synthesizes one intracellular and three secreted siderophores. eGFP fusions with the key siderophore biosynthesis gene, SID1, encoding l-ornithine-N 5-monooxygenase, suggested that siderophore biosynthesis is rigorously downregulated specifically during biotrophic development. In order to investigate the role of siderophores during vegetative development and pathogenesis, SID1, which is required for synthesis of all siderophores, and the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene NPS6, synthesizing secreted siderophores, were deleted. Mutant analyses revealed that siderophores are required for vegetative growth under iron-limiting conditions, conidiation, ROS tolerance, and cell wall integrity. Δsid1 and Δnps6 mutants were hampered in formation of melanized appressoria and impaired in virulence. In agreement with biotrophy-specific downregulation of siderophore biosynthesis, Δsid1 and Δnps6 strains were not affected in biotrophic development, but spread of necrotrophic hyphae was reduced. To address the question why siderophore biosynthesis is specifically downregulated in biotrophic hyphae, maize leaves were infiltrated with siderophores. Siderophore infiltration alone did not induce defence responses, but formation of biotrophic hyphae in siderophore-infiltrated leaves caused dramatically increased ROS formation and transcriptional activation of genes encoding defence-related peroxidases and PR proteins. These data suggest that fungal siderophores modulate the plant immune system. PMID:24674132

  3. UbiX is a flavin prenyltransferase required for bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    White, Mark D.; Payne, Karl A.P.; Fisher, Karl; Marshall, Stephen A.; Parker, David; Rattray, Nicholas J.W.; Trivedi, Drupad K.; Goodacre, Royston; Rigby, Stephen E.J.; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Hay, Sam; Leys, David

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquinone, or coenzyme Q, is a ubiquitous lipid-soluble redox cofactor that is an essential component of electron transfer chains1. Eleven genes have been implicated in bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis, including ubiX and ubiD, which are responsible for decarboxylation of the 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate precursor2. Despite structural and biochemical characterization of UbiX as an FMN-binding protein, no decarboxylase activity has been detected3–4. We report here that UbiX produces a novel flavin-derived cofactor required for the decarboxylase activity of UbiD5. UbiX acts as a flavin prenyltransferase, linking a dimethylallyl moiety to the flavin N5 and C6 atoms. This adds a fourth non-aromatic ring to the flavin isoalloxazine group. In contrast to other prenyltransferases6–7, UbiX is metal-independent and requires dimethylallyl-monophosphate as substrate. Kinetic crystallography reveals that the prenyl transferase mechanism of UbiX resembles that of the terpene synthases8. The active site environment is dominated by π-systems, which assist phosphate-C1’ bond breakage following FMN reduction, leading to formation of the N5-C1’ bond. UbiX then acts as a chaperone for adduct reorientation, via transient carbocation species, leading ultimately to formation of the dimethylallyl C3’-C6 bond. The study establishes the mechanism for formation of a new flavin-derived cofactor, extending both flavin and terpenoid biochemical repertoire. PMID:26083743

  4. Restrictive glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor synthesis in cwh6/gpi3 yeast cells causes aberrant biogenesis of cell wall proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Vossen, J H; Müller, W H; Lipke, P N; Klis, F M

    1997-01-01

    We previously reported that the defects in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cwh6 Calcofluor white-hypersensitive cell wall mutant are caused by a mutation in SPT14/GPI3, a gene involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis. Here we describe the effect of cwh6/spt14/gpi3 on the biogenesis of cell wall proteins. It was found that the release of precursors of cell wall proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was retarded. This was accompanied by proliferation of ER structures. The majority of the cell wall protein precursors that eventually left the ER were not covalently incorporated into the cell wall but were secreted into the growth medium. Despite the inefficient incorporation of cell wall proteins, there was no net effect on the protein level in the cell wall. It is postulated that the availability of GPI-dependent cell wall proteins determines the rate of cell wall construction and limits growth rate. PMID:9079905

  5. A phosphatidylinositol-linkage-deficient T-cell mutant contains insulin-sensitive glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, M A; Clemente, R; Varela-Nieto, I

    1992-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol molecules, acting as both signal transduction elements and membrane protein anchors, have been proposed to play a role during T-cell activation. The MVB2 cell line is a mutant, derived from the wild-type T-T hybrid YH.16.33, which has a defect in the biosynthesis of PtdIns-protein linkages. As a consequence, MVB2 mutants are defective in activation through the T-cell receptor. Despite the lack of glycosyl-PtdIns anchors in the mutant MVB2 cells, a comparison of the levels and structural features of the insulin-sensitive glycosyl-PtdIns between the MVB2 and YH.16.33 lineages indicates that both cell lines are identical in this respect. The time course for insulin-responsiveness coincides in both cell lines, with maximal hydrolysis 30 s after insulin addition. The ultimate localization of insulin-regulated glycosyl-PtdIns at the outer surface of the cell membrane is also similar. These data indicate that the glycosyl-PtdIns whose hydrolysis is regulated by insulin is not anchoring proteins at the cell surface of T-lymphocytes. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1532490

  6. TRICHOME AND ARTEMISININ REGULATOR 1 Is Required for Trichome Development and Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ling; Gao, Shouhong; Li, Qing; Chen, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Ji, Qian; Chen, Ruibing; Chen, Wansheng; Zhang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    Trichomes, small protrusions on the surface of many plant species, can produce and store various secondary metabolic products. Artemisinin, the most famous and potent medicine for malaria, is synthesized, stored, and secreted by Artemisia annua trichomes. However, the molecular basis regulating the biosynthesis of artemisinin and the development of trichomes in A. annua remains poorly understood. Here, we report that an AP2 transcription factor, TRICHOME AND ARTEMISININ REGULATOR 1 (TAR1), plays crucial roles in regulating the development of trichomes and the biosynthesis of artemisinin in A. annua. TAR1, which encodes a protein specially located in the nucleus, is mainly expressed in young leaves, flower buds, and some trichomes. In TAR1-RNAi lines, the morphology of trichomes and the composition of cuticular wax were altered, and the artemisinin content was dramatically reduced, which could be significantly increased by TAR1 oeverexpression. Expression levels of several key genes that are involved in artemisinin biosynthesis were altered when TAR1 was silenced or overexpressed. By the electrophoretic mobility shift, yeast one-hybrid and transient transformation β-glucuronidase assays, we showed that ADS and CYP71AV1, two key genes in the biosynthesis pathway of artemisinin, are likely the direct targets of TAR1. Taken together, our results indicate that TAR1 is a key component of the molecular network regulating trichome development and artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Starch biosynthesis in rice endosperm requires the presence of either starch synthase I or IIIa

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Naoko; Satoh, Rui; Hayashi, Aki; Kodama, Momoko; Itoh, Rumiko; Aihara, Satomi; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    Starch synthase (SS) I and IIIa are the first and second largest components of total soluble SS activity, respectively, in developing japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) endosperm. To elucidate the distinct and overlapping functions of these enzymes, double mutants were created by crossing the ss1 null mutant with the ss3a null mutant. In the F2 generation, two opaque seed types were found to have either the ss1ss1/SS3ass3a or the SS1ss1/ss3ass3a genotype. Phenotypic analyses revealed lower SS activity in the endosperm of these lines than in those of the parent mutant lines since these seeds had different copies of SSI and SSIIIa genes in a heterozygous state. The endosperm of the two types of opaque seeds contained the unique starch with modified fine structure, round-shaped starch granules, high amylose content, and specific physicochemical properties. The seed weight was ∼90% of that of the wild type. The amount of granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) and the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) were higher than in the wild type and parent mutant lines. The double-recessive homozygous mutant prepared from both ss1 and ss3a null mutants was considered sterile, while the mutant produced by the leaky ss1 mutant×ss3a null mutant cross was fertile. This present study strongly suggests that at least SSI or SSIIIa is required for starch biosynthesis in rice endosperm. PMID:21730357

  8. A two-step sulfation in antibiotic biosynthesis requires a type III polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Eitel, Kornelia; Kaysser, Leonard; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie; Gust, Bertolt

    2013-10-01

    Caprazamycins (CPZs) belong to a group of liponucleoside antibiotics inhibiting the bacterial MraY translocase, an essential enzyme involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. We have recently identified analogs that are decorated with a sulfate group at the 2″-hydroxy of the aminoribosyl moiety, and we now report an unprecedented two-step sulfation mechanism during the biosynthesis of CPZs. A type III polyketide synthase (PKS) known as Cpz6 is used in the biosynthesis of a group of new triketide pyrones that are subsequently sulfated by an unusual 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS)-dependent sulfotransferase (Cpz8) to yield phenolic sulfate esters, which serve as sulfate donors for a PAPS-independent arylsulfate sulfotransferase (Cpz4) to generate sulfated CPZs. This finding is to our knowledge the first demonstration of genuine sulfate donors for an arylsulfate sulfotransferase and the first report of a type III PKS to generate a chemical reagent in bacterial sulfate metabolism.

  9. Comparative genomics analyses on EPS biosynthesis genes required for floc formation of Zoogloea resiniphila and other activated sludge bacteria.

    PubMed

    An, Weixing; Guo, Feng; Song, Yulong; Gao, Na; Bai, Shijie; Dai, Jingcheng; Wei, Hehong; Zhang, Liping; Yu, Dianzhen; Xia, Ming; Yu, Ying; Qi, Ming; Tian, Chunyuan; Chen, Haofeng; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Tong; Qiu, Dongru

    2016-10-01

    Activated sludge (AS) process has been widely utilized for municipal sewage and industrial wastewater treatment. Zoolgoea and its related floc-forming bacteria are required for formation of AS flocs which is the key to gravitational effluent-and-sludge separation and AS recycling. However, little is known about the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Zoogloea and its related bacteria. This report deals with the comparative genomic analyses on two Zoogloea resiniphila draft genomes and the closely related proteobacterial species commonly found in AS. In particular, the metabolic processes involved in removal of organic matters, nitrogen and phosphorus were analyzed. Furthermore, it is revealed that a large gene cluster, encoding eight glycosyltransferases and other proteins involved in biosynthesis and export of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), was required for floc formation. One of the two asparagine synthase paralogues, associated with this EPS biosynthesis gene cluster, was required for floc formation in Zoogloea. Similar EPS biosynthesis gene cluster(s) were identified in the genome of other AS proteobacteria including polyphosphate-accumulating Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (CAP) and nitrifying Nitrosopira and Nitrosomonas bacteria, but the gene composition varies interspecifically and intraspecifically. Our results indicate that floc formation of desired AS bacteria, including CAP strains, facilitate their recruitment into AS and gradual enrichment via repeated AS settling and recycling processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and Functional Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Genes That Encode Proteins of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Biosynthetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Mariana S.; Junqueira, Caroline; Trigueiro, Ricardo C.; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Macedo, Cristiana S.; Araújo, Patrícia R.; Gomes, Dawidson A.; Martinelli, Patrícia M.; Kimmel, Jürgen; Stahl, Philipp; Niehus, Sebastian; Schwarz, Ralph T.; Previato, José O.; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi is a protist parasite that causes Chagas disease. Several proteins that are essential for parasite virulence and involved in host immune responses are anchored to the membrane through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) molecules. In addition, T. cruzi GPI anchors have immunostimulatory activities, including the ability to stimulate the synthesis of cytokines by innate immune cells. Therefore, T. cruzi genes related to GPI anchor biosynthesis constitute potential new targets for the development of better therapies against Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In silico analysis of the T. cruzi genome resulted in the identification of 18 genes encoding proteins of the GPI biosynthetic pathway as well as the inositolphosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase gene. Expression of GFP fusions of some of these proteins in T. cruzi epimastigotes showed that they localize in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Expression analyses of two genes indicated that they are constitutively expressed in all stages of the parasite life cycle. T. cruzi genes TcDPM1, TcGPI10 and TcGPI12 complement conditional yeast mutants in GPI biosynthesis. Attempts to generate T. cruzi knockouts for three genes were unsuccessful, suggesting that GPI may be an essential component of the parasite. Regarding TcGPI8, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the transamidase complex, although we were able to generate single allele knockout mutants, attempts to disrupt both alleles failed, resulting instead in parasites that have undergone genomic recombination and maintained at least one active copy of the gene. Conclusions/Significance Analyses of T. cruzi sequences encoding components of the GPI biosynthetic pathway indicated that they are essential genes involved in key aspects of host-parasite interactions. Complementation assays of yeast mutants with these T. cruzi genes resulted in yeast cell lines that can now be employed in high throughput screenings of drugs against this

  11. Transcription termination Within the iron transport-biosynthesis operon of Vibrio anguillarum requires an antisense RNA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The iron transport-biosynthesis (ITB) operon in Vibrio anguillarum includes four genes for ferric-siderophore transport, fatD,C,B,A, and two genes for siderophorebiosynthesis, angR and angT and plays an important role in the virulence mechanism of this bacterium. Despite being part of the same polyc...

  12. Biosynthesis of the dichloroacetyl component of chloramphenicol in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: genes required for halogenation.

    PubMed

    Piraee, Mahmood; White, Robert L; Vining, Leo C

    2004-01-01

    Five ORFs were detected in a fragment from the Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 genomic DNA library by hybridization with a PCR product amplified from primers representing a consensus of known halogenase sequences. Sequencing and functional analyses demonstrated that ORFs 11 and 12 (but not ORFs 13-15) extended the partially characterized gene cluster for chloramphenicol (Cm) biosynthesis in the chromosome. Disruption of ORF11 (cmlK) or ORF12 (cmlS) and conjugal transfer of the insertionally inactivated genes to S. venezuelae gave mutant strains VS1111 and VS1112, each producing a similar series of Cm analogues in which unhalogenated acyl groups replaced the dichloroacetyl substituent of Cm. 1H-NMR established that the principal metabolite in the disrupted strains was the alpha-N-propionyl analogue. The sequence of CmlK implicated the protein in adenylation, and involvement in halogenation was inferred from biosynthesis of analogues by the cmlK-disrupted mutant. A role in generating the dichloroacetyl substituent was supported by partial restoration of Cm biosynthesis when a cloned copy of cmlK was introduced in trans into VS1111. Complementation of the mutant also indicated that inactivation of cmlK rather than a polar effect of the disruption on cmlS expression had interfered with dichloroacetyl biosynthesis. The deduced CmlS sequence resembled sequences of FADH2-dependent halogenases. Conjugal transfer of cmlK or cmlS into S. venezuelae cml-2, a chlorination-deficient strain with a mutation mapped genetically to the Cm biosynthesis gene cluster, did not complement the cml-2 lesion, suggesting that one or more genes in addition to cmlK and cmlS is needed to assemble the dichloroacetyl substituent. Insertional inactivation of ORF13 did not affect Cm production, and the products of ORF14 and ORF15 matched Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) proteins lacking plausible functions in Cm biosynthesis. Thus cmlS appears to mark the downstream end of the gene cluster.

  13. Survey of molecular chaperone requirement for the biosynthesis of hamster polyomavirus VP1 protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Valaviciute, Monika; Norkiene, Milda; Goda, Karolis; Slibinskas, Rimantas; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2016-07-01

    A number of viruses utilize molecular chaperones during various stages of their life cycle. It has been shown that members of the heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) chaperone family assist polyomavirus capsids during infection. However, the molecular chaperones that assist the formation of recombinant capsid viral protein 1 (VP1)-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) in yeast remain unclear. A panel of yeast strains with single chaperone gene deletions were used to evaluate the chaperones required for biosynthesis of recombinant hamster polyomavirus capsid protein VP1. The impact of deletion or mild overexpression of chaperone genes was determined in live cells by flow cytometry using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused with VP1. Targeted genetic analysis demonstrated that VP1-EGFP fusion protein levels were significantly higher in yeast strains in which the SSZ1 or ZUO1 genes encoding ribosome-associated complex components were deleted. The results confirmed the participation of cytosolic Hsp70 chaperones and suggested the potential involvement of the Ydj1 and Caj1 co-chaperones and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in the biosynthesis of VP1 VLPs in yeast. Likewise, the markedly reduced levels of VP1-EGFP in Δhsc82 and Δhsp82 yeast strains indicated that both Hsp70 and Hsp90 chaperones might assist VP1 VLPs during protein biosynthesis.

  14. The CTB1 gene encoding a fungal polyketide synthase is required for cercosporin biosynthesis and fungal virulence of Cercospora nicotianae.

    PubMed

    Choquer, Mathias; Dekkers, Katherine L; Chen, Hui-Qin; Cao, Lihua; Ueng, Peter P; Daub, Margaret E; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2005-05-01

    Cercosporin is a light-activated, non-host-selective toxin produced by many Cercospora fungal species. In this study, a polyketide synthase gene (CTB1) was functionally identified and molecularly characterized to play a key role in cercosporin biosynthesis by Cercospora nicotianae. We also provide conclusive evidence to confirm the crucial role of cercosporin in fungal pathogenesis. CTB1 encoded a polypeptide with a deduced length of 2,196 amino acids containing a keto synthase (KS), an acyltransferase (AT), a thioesterase/claisen cyclase (TE/CYC), and two acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains, and had high levels of similarity to many fungal type I polyketide synthases. Expression of a 6.8-kb CTB1 transcript was highly regulated by light and medium composition, consistent with the conditions required for cercosporin biosynthesis in cultures. Targeted disruption of CTB1 resulted in the loss of both CTB1 transcript and cercosporin biosynthesis in C. nicotianae. The ctb1-null mutants incited fewer necrotic lesions on inoculated tobacco leaves compared with the wild type. Complementation of ctb1-null mutants with a full-length CTB1 clone restored wild-type levels of cercosporin production as well as the ability to induce lesions on tobacco. Thus, we have demonstrated conclusively that cercosporin is synthesized via a polyketide pathway, and cercosporin is an important virulence factor in C. nicotianae. The results also suggest that strategies that avoid the toxicity of cercosporin will be useful in reduction of disease incidence caused by Cercospora spp.

  15. Elucidation of cladofulvin biosynthesis reveals a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase required for anthraquinone dimerization.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Scott; Mesarich, Carl H; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Vaisberg, Abraham; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Cox, Russell; Collemare, Jérôme

    2016-06-21

    Anthraquinones are a large family of secondary metabolites (SMs) that are extensively studied for their diverse biological activities. These activities are determined by functional group decorations and the formation of dimers from anthraquinone monomers. Despite their numerous medicinal qualities, very few anthraquinone biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated so far, including the enzymatic dimerization steps. In this study, we report the elucidation of the biosynthesis of cladofulvin, an asymmetrical homodimer of nataloe-emodin produced by the fungus Cladosporium fulvum A gene cluster of 10 genes controls cladofulvin biosynthesis, which begins with the production of atrochrysone carboxylic acid by the polyketide synthase ClaG and the β-lactamase ClaF. This compound is decarboxylated by ClaH to yield emodin, which is then converted to chrysophanol hydroquinone by the reductase ClaC and the dehydratase ClaB. We show that the predicted cytochrome P450 ClaM catalyzes the dimerization of nataloe-emodin to cladofulvin. Remarkably, such dimerization dramatically increases nataloe-emodin cytotoxicity against mammalian cell lines. These findings shed light on the enzymatic mechanisms involved in anthraquinone dimerization. Future characterization of the ClaM enzyme should facilitate engineering the biosynthesis of novel, potent, dimeric anthraquinones and structurally related compound families.

  16. Diphthamide biosynthesis requires an Fe-S enzyme-generated organic radical

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xuling; Torelli, Andrew T.; Lee, Michael; Dzikovski, Boris; Koralewski, Rachel M.; Wang, Eileen; Freed, Jack; Krebs, Carsten; Ealick, Steven E.; Lin, Hening

    2010-01-01

    Summary Archaeal and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 contain a unique posttranslationally modified histidine residue called “diphthamide”, the target of diphtheria toxin. The biosynthesis of diphthamide were proposed to involve three steps, with the first step being the formation of a C-C bond between the histidine residue and the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). However, details of the biosynthesis have remained unknown. Here we present structural and biochemical evidence showing that the first step of diphthamide biosynthesis in the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii uses a novel iron-sulfur cluster enzyme, Dph2. Dph2 is a homodimer and each monomer contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Biochemical data suggest that unlike the enzymes in the radical SAM superfamily, Dph2 does not form the canonical 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical. Instead, it breaks the Cγ,Met-S bond of SAM and generates a 3-amino-3-carboxylpropyl radical. This work suggests that Pyrococcus horikoshii Dph2 represents a novel SAM-dependent [4Fe-4S]-containing enzyme that catalyzes unprecedented chemistry. PMID:20559380

  17. Glutathione-Indole-3-Acetonitrile Is Required for Camalexin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tongbing; Xu, Juan; Li, Yuan; Lei, Lei; Zhao, Luo; Yang, Hailian; Feng, Jidong; Liu, Guoqin; Ren, Dongtao

    2011-01-01

    Camalexin, a major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis thaliana, consists of an indole ring and a thiazole ring. The indole ring is produced from Trp, which is converted to indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) by CYP79B2/CYP79B3 and CYP71A13. Conversion of Cys(IAN) to dihydrocamalexic acid and subsequently to camalexin is catalyzed by CYP71B15. Recent studies proposed that Cys derivative, not Cys itself, is the precursor of the thiazole ring that conjugates with IAN. The nature of the Cys derivative and how it conjugates to IAN and subsequently forms Cys(IAN) remain obscure. We found that protein accumulation of multiple glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), elevation of GST activity, and consumption of glutathione (GSH) coincided with camalexin production. GSTF6 overexpression increased and GSTF6-knockout reduced camalexin production. Arabidopsis GSTF6 expressed in yeast cells catalyzed GSH(IAN) formation. GSH(IAN), (IAN)CysGly, and γGluCys(IAN) were determined to be intermediates within the camalexin biosynthetic pathway. Inhibitor treatments and mutant analyses revealed the involvement of γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (GGTs) and phytochelatin synthase (PCS) in the catabolism of GSH(IAN). The expression of GSTF6, GGT1, GGT2, and PCS1 was coordinately upregulated during camalexin biosynthesis. These results suggest that GSH is the Cys derivative used during camalexin biosynthesis, that the conjugation of GSH with IAN is catalyzed by GSTF6, and that GGTs and PCS are involved in camalexin biosynthesis. PMID:21239642

  18. Elucidation of cladofulvin biosynthesis reveals a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase required for anthraquinone dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Scott; Mesarich, Carl H.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Vaisberg, Abraham; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Cox, Russell; Collemare, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Anthraquinones are a large family of secondary metabolites (SMs) that are extensively studied for their diverse biological activities. These activities are determined by functional group decorations and the formation of dimers from anthraquinone monomers. Despite their numerous medicinal qualities, very few anthraquinone biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated so far, including the enzymatic dimerization steps. In this study, we report the elucidation of the biosynthesis of cladofulvin, an asymmetrical homodimer of nataloe-emodin produced by the fungus Cladosporium fulvum. A gene cluster of 10 genes controls cladofulvin biosynthesis, which begins with the production of atrochrysone carboxylic acid by the polyketide synthase ClaG and the β-lactamase ClaF. This compound is decarboxylated by ClaH to yield emodin, which is then converted to chrysophanol hydroquinone by the reductase ClaC and the dehydratase ClaB. We show that the predicted cytochrome P450 ClaM catalyzes the dimerization of nataloe-emodin to cladofulvin. Remarkably, such dimerization dramatically increases nataloe-emodin cytotoxicity against mammalian cell lines. These findings shed light on the enzymatic mechanisms involved in anthraquinone dimerization. Future characterization of the ClaM enzyme should facilitate engineering the biosynthesis of novel, potent, dimeric anthraquinones and structurally related compound families. PMID:27274078

  19. Diphthamide biosynthesis requires an organic radical generated by an iron-sulphur enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xuling; Torelli, Andrew T; Lee, Michael; Dzikovski, Boris; Koralewski, Rachel M; Wang, Eileen; Freed, Jack; Krebs, Carsten; Ealick, Steve E; Lin, Hening

    2010-08-30

    Archaeal and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 contain a unique post-translationally modified histidine residue called diphthamide, which is the target of diphtheria toxin. The biosynthesis of diphthamide was proposed to involve three steps, with the first being the formation of a C-C bond between the histidine residue and the 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl group of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). However, further details of the biosynthesis remain unknown. Here we present structural and biochemical evidence showing that the first step of diphthamide biosynthesis in the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii uses a novel iron-sulphur-cluster enzyme, Dph2. Dph2 is a homodimer and each of its monomers can bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Biochemical data suggest that unlike the enzymes in the radical SAM superfamily, Dph2 does not form the canonical 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical. Instead, it breaks the Cγ,Met-S bond of SAM and generates a 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl radical. Our results suggest that P. horikoshii Dph2 represents a previously unknown, SAM-dependent, [4Fe-4S]-containing enzyme that catalyses unprecedented chemistry.

  20. Proline biosynthesis is required for endoplasmic reticulum stress tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinwen; Dickman, Martin B; Becker, Donald F

    2014-10-03

    The amino acid proline is uniquely involved in cellular processes that underlie stress response in a variety of organisms. Proline is known to minimize protein aggregation, but a detailed study of how proline impacts cell survival during accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has not been performed. To address this we examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the effect of knocking out the PRO1, PRO2, and PRO3 genes responsible for proline biosynthesis. The null mutants pro1, pro2, and pro3 were shown to have increased sensitivity to ER stress relative to wild-type cells, which could be restored by proline or the corresponding genetic complementation. Of these mutants, pro3 was the most sensitive to tunicamycin and was rescued by anaerobic growth conditions or reduced thiol reagents. The pro3 mutant cells have higher intracellular reactive oxygen species, total glutathione, and a NADP(+)/NADPH ratio than wild-type cells under limiting proline conditions. Depletion of proline biosynthesis also inhibits the unfolded protein response (UPR) indicating proline protection involves the UPR. To more broadly test the role of proline in ER stress, increased proline biosynthesis was shown to partially rescue the ER stress sensitivity of a hog1 null mutant in which the high osmolality pathway is disrupted.

  1. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity is involved in the plasma membrane redox system required for pigment biosynthesis in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Albertsen, Klaus Selk; Stougaard, Peter; Sørensen, Jens L; Nielsen, Kristian F; Olsson, Stefan; Giese, Henriette

    2010-08-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (MTHFRs) play a key role in biosynthesis of methionine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) via the recharging methionine biosynthetic pathway. Analysis of 32 complete fungal genomes showed that fungi were unique among eukaryotes by having two MTHFRs, MET12 and MET13. The MET12 type contained an additional conserved sequence motif compared to the sequences of MET13 and MTHFRs from other eukaryotes and bacteria. Targeted gene replacement of either of the two MTHFR encoding genes in Fusarium graminearum showed that they were essential for survival but could be rescued by exogenous methionine. The F. graminearum strain with a mutation of MET12 (FgDeltaMET12) displayed a delay in the production of the mycelium pigment aurofusarin and instead accumulated nor-rubrofusarin and rubrofusarin. High methionine concentrations or prolonged incubation eventually led to production of aurofusarin in the MET12 mutant. This suggested that the chemotype was caused by a lack of SAM units for the methylation of nor-rubrofusarin to yield rubrofusarin, thereby imposing a rate-limiting step in aurofusarin biosynthesis. The FgDeltaMET13 mutant, however, remained aurofusarin deficient at all tested methionine concentrations and instead accumulated nor-rubrofusarin and rubrofusarin. Analysis of MET13 mutants in F. graminearum and Aspergillus nidulans showed that both lacked extracellular reduction potential and were unable to complete mycelium pigment biosynthesis. These results are the first to show that MET13, in addition to its function in methionine biosynthesis, is required for the generation of the extracellular reduction potential necessary for pigment production in filamentous fungi.

  2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Activity Is Involved in the Plasma Membrane Redox System Required for Pigment Biosynthesis in Filamentous Fungi ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Albertsen, Klaus Selk; Stougaard, Peter; Sørensen, Jens L.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Olsson, Stefan; Giese, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (MTHFRs) play a key role in biosynthesis of methionine and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) via the recharging methionine biosynthetic pathway. Analysis of 32 complete fungal genomes showed that fungi were unique among eukaryotes by having two MTHFRs, MET12 and MET13. The MET12 type contained an additional conserved sequence motif compared to the sequences of MET13 and MTHFRs from other eukaryotes and bacteria. Targeted gene replacement of either of the two MTHFR encoding genes in Fusarium graminearum showed that they were essential for survival but could be rescued by exogenous methionine. The F. graminearum strain with a mutation of MET12 (FgΔMET12) displayed a delay in the production of the mycelium pigment aurofusarin and instead accumulated nor-rubrofusarin and rubrofusarin. High methionine concentrations or prolonged incubation eventually led to production of aurofusarin in the MET12 mutant. This suggested that the chemotype was caused by a lack of SAM units for the methylation of nor-rubrofusarin to yield rubrofusarin, thereby imposing a rate-limiting step in aurofusarin biosynthesis. The FgΔMET13 mutant, however, remained aurofusarin deficient at all tested methionine concentrations and instead accumulated nor-rubrofusarin and rubrofusarin. Analysis of MET13 mutants in F. graminearum and Aspergillus nidulans showed that both lacked extracellular reduction potential and were unable to complete mycelium pigment biosynthesis. These results are the first to show that MET13, in addition to its function in methionine biosynthesis, is required for the generation of the extracellular reduction potential necessary for pigment production in filamentous fungi. PMID:20543064

  3. Structural remodeling, trafficking and functions of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2011-10-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a glycolipid that is covalently attached to proteins as a post-translational modification. Such modification leads to the anchoring of the protein to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Proteins that are decorated with GPIs have unique properties in terms of their physical nature. In particular, these proteins tend to accumulate in lipid rafts, which are critical for the functions and trafficking of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Recent studies mainly using mutant cells revealed that various structural remodeling reactions occur to GPIs present in GPI-APs as they are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. This review examines the recent progress describing the mechanisms of structural remodeling of mammalian GPI-anchors, such as inositol deacylation, glycan remodeling and fatty acid remodeling, with particular focus on their trafficking and functions, as well as the pathogenesis involving GPI-APs and their deficiency.

  4. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Analogues Sequester Cholesterol and Reduce Prion Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Clive; Tayebi, Mourad; Williams, Alun

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of prion diseases is the conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC where C is cellular) into an alternatively folded, disease-related isoform (PrPSc, where Sc is scrapie), the accumulation of which is associated with synapse degeneration and ultimately neuronal death. The formation of PrPSc is dependent upon the presence of PrPC in specific, cholesterol-sensitive membrane microdomains, commonly called lipid rafts. PrPC is targeted to these lipid rafts because it is attached to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Here, we show that treatment of prion-infected neuronal cell lines (ScN2a, ScGT1, or SMB cells) with synthetic glycosylphosphatidylinositol analogues, glucosamine-phosphatidylinositol (glucosamine-PI) or glucosamine 2-O-methyl inositol octadecyl phosphate, reduced the PrPSc content of these cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ScGT1 cells treated with glucosamine-PI did not transmit infection following intracerebral injection to mice. Treatment with glucosamine-PI increased the cholesterol content of ScGT1 cell membranes and reduced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (PLA2), consistent with the hypothesis that the composition of cell membranes affects key PLA2-dependent signaling pathways involved in PrPSc formation. The effect of glucosamine-PI on PrPSc formation was also reversed by the addition of platelet-activating factor. Glucosamine-PI caused the displacement of PrPC from lipid rafts and reduced expression of PrPC at the cell surface, putative sites for PrPSc formation. We propose that treatment with glucosamine-PI modifies local micro-environments that control PrPC expression and activation of PLA2 and subsequently inhibits PrPSc formation. PMID:20427265

  5. Translocator Protein/Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor Is Not Required for Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Morohaku, Kanako; Pelton, Susanne H.; Daugherty, Daniel J.; Butler, W. Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Molecular events that regulate cellular biosynthesis of steroid hormones have been a topic of intense research for more than half a century. It has been established that transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria forms the rate-limiting step in steroid hormone production. In current models, both the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the translocator protein (TSPO) have been implicated to have a concerted and indispensable effort in this cholesterol transport. Deletion of StAR in mice resulted in a critical failure of steroid hormone production, but deletion of TSPO in mice was found to be embryonic lethal. As a result, the role of TSPO in cholesterol transport has been established only using pharmacologic and genetic tools in vitro. To allow us to explore in more detail the function of TSPO in cell type-specific experimental manipulations in vivo, we generated mice carrying TSPO floxed alleles (TSPOfl/fl). In this study we made conditional knockout mice (TSPOcΔ/Δ) with TSPO deletion in testicular Leydig cells by crossing with an anti-Mullerian hormone receptor type II cre/+ mouse line. Genetic ablation of TSPO in steroidogenic Leydig cells in mice did not affect testosterone production, gametogenesis, and reproduction. Expression of StAR, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase type I, and TSPO2 in TSPOcΔ/Δ testis was unaffected. These results challenge the prevailing dogma that claims an essential role for TSPO in steroid hormone biosynthesis and force reexamination of functional interpretations made for this protein. This is the first study examining conditional TSPO gene deletion in mice. The results show that TSPO function is not essential for steroid hormone biosynthesis. PMID:24174323

  6. Balanced CoQ6 biosynthesis is required for lifespan and mitophagy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    González-Mariscal, Isabel; Martín-Montalvo, Aléjandro; Ojeda-González, Cristina; Rodríguez-Eguren, Adolfo; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Purificación; Navas, Plácido; Santos-Ocaña, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Coenzyme Q is an essential lipid with redox capacity that is present in all organisms. In yeast its biosynthesis depends on a multiprotein complex in which Coq7 protein has both catalytic and regulatory functions. Coq7 modulates CoQ6 levels through a phosphorylation cycle, where dephosphorylation of three amino acids (Ser/Thr) by the mitochondrial phosphatase Ptc7 increases the levels of CoQ6. Here we analyzed the role of Ptc7 and the phosphorylation state of Coq7 in yeast mitochondrial function. The conversion of the three Ser/Thr to alanine led to a permanently active form of Coq7 that caused a 2.5-fold increase of CoQ6 levels, albeit decreased mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and oxidative stress resistance capacity. This resulted in an increase in endogenous ROS production and shortened the chronological life span (CLS) compared to wild type. The null PTC7 mutant (ptc7∆) strain showed a lower biosynthesis rate of CoQ6 and a significant shortening of the CLS. The reduced CLS observed in ptc7Δ was restored by the overexpression of PTC7 but not by the addition of exogenous CoQ6. Overexpression of PTC7 increased mitophagy in a wild type strain. This finding suggests an additional Ptc7 function beyond the regulation of CoQ biosynthesis. Genetic disruption of PTC7 prevented mitophagy activation in conditions of nitrogen deprivation. In brief, we show that, in yeast, Ptc7 modulates the adaptation to respiratory metabolism by dephosphorylating Coq7 to supply newly synthesized CoQ6, and by activating mitophagy to remove defective mitochondria at stationary phase, guaranteeing a proper CLS in yeast. PMID:28357388

  7. Organization of genes required for gellan polysaccharide biosynthesis in Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461.

    PubMed

    Harding, Nancy E; Patel, Yamini N; Coleman, Russell J

    2004-02-01

    Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461 produces gellan, a capsular polysaccharide that is useful as a gelling agent for food and microbiological media. Complementation of nonmucoid S. elodea mutants with a gene library resulted in identification of genes essential for gellan biosynthesis. A cluster of 18 genes spanning 21 kb was isolated. These 18 genes are homologous to genes for synthesis of sphingan polysaccharide S-88 from Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31554, with predicted amino acid identities varying from 61% to 98%. Both polysaccharides have the same tetrasaccharide repeat unit, comprised of [-->4)-alpha- l-rhamnose-(1-->3)-beta- d-glucose-(1-->4)-beta- d-glucuronic acid-(1-->4)-beta- d-glucose-(1-->]. Polysaccharide S-88, however, has mannose or rhamnose in the fourth position and has a rhamnosyl side chain, while gellan has no sugar side chain but is modified by glyceryl and acetyl substituents. Genes for synthesis of the precursor dTDP- l-rhamnose were highly conserved. The least conserved genes in this cluster encode putative glycosyl transferases III and IV and a gene of unknown function, gelF. Three genes ( gelI, gelM, and gelN) affected the amount and rheology of gellan produced. Four additional genes present in the S-88 sphingan biosynthetic gene cluster did not have homologs in the gene cluster for gellan biosynthesis. Three of these gene homologs, gelR, gelS, and gelG, were found in an operon unlinked to the main gellan biosynthetic gene cluster. In a third region, a gene possibly involved in positive regulation of gellan biosynthesis was identified.

  8. Effect of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-phospholipase D overexpression on GPI metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Karl J; Hepworth, Matthew R; Raikwar, Nandita S; Deeg, Mark A; Sevlever, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    GPI-PLD [glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-specific phospholipase D (PLD)] is a secreted mammalian enzyme that specifically cleaves GPI-anchored proteins. In addition, the enzyme has been shown to cleave GPI anchor intermediates in cell lysates. The biosynthesis of the GPI anchor is well characterized; however, the mechanisms by which the levels of GPI anchor intermediates are regulated are still unknown. To investigate whether GPI-PLD plays a role in this regulation, we isolated stable HeLa cells overexpressing the enzyme. GPI-PLD-HeLa (GPI-PLD-transfected HeLa) cells showed a 3-fold increase in intracellular GPI-PLD activity and drastically decreased the levels of GPI-anchored proteins when compared with untransfected HeLa controls. Intracellular cleavage of GPI-anchored proteins has been suggested to occur early in the secretory pathway and, in agreement with this proposal, GPI-PLD activity in GPI-PLD-HeLa cells was detected not only in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, but also in the plasma membrane. The enzyme was also active in lipid rafts, membrane microdomains in which GPI-anchored proteins and GPI anchor intermediates are concentrated, indicating that intracellular GPI-PLD cleavage may also occur in this compartment. Pulse-chase paradigms revealed the turnover rate of the last intermediate of the GPI anchor pathway in GPI-PLD-HeLa cells to be accelerated compared with the controls. Furthermore, 1,10-phenanthroline, a GPI-PLD inhibitor, reversed this effect. Our studies demonstrated that GPI-PLD can cleave not only GPI-anchored proteins, but also GPI anchor intermediates intracellularly. This observation opens the possibility that GPI-PLD can influence the steady-state levels of GPI-anchored proteins by hydrolysing the anchor before and after its attachment to proteins. PMID:14611645

  9. Significance of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Protein Enrichment in Lipid Rafts for the Control of Autoimmunity*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yetao; Murakami, Yoshiko; Yasui, Teruhito; Wakana, Shigeharu; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Taroh; Maeda, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI) are complex glycolipids that are covalently linked to the C terminus of proteins as a post-translational modification and tether proteins to the plasma membrane. One of the most striking features of GPI-anchored proteins (APs) is their enrichment in lipid rafts. The biosynthesis of GPI and its attachment to proteins occur in the endoplasmic reticulum. In the Golgi, GPI-APs are subjected to fatty acid remodeling, which replaces an unsaturated fatty acid at the sn-2 position of the phosphatidylinositol moiety with a saturated fatty acid. We previously reported that fatty acid remodeling is critical for the enrichment of GPI-APs in lipid rafts. To investigate the biological significance of GPI-AP enrichment in lipid rafts, we generated a PGAP3 knock-out mouse (PGAP3−/−) in which fatty acid remodeling of GPI-APs does not occur. We report here that a significant number of aged PGAP3−/− mice developed autoimmune-like symptoms, such as increased anti-DNA antibodies, spontaneous germinal center formation, and enlarged renal glomeruli with deposition of immune complexes and matrix expansion. A possible cause for this was the impaired engulfment of apoptotic cells by resident peritoneal macrophages in PGAP3−/− mice. Mice with conditional targeting of PGAP3 in either B or T cells did not develop such autoimmune-like symptoms. In addition, PGAP3−/− mice exhibited the tendency of Th2 polarization. These data demonstrate that PGAP3-dependent fatty acid remodeling of GPI-APs has a significant role in the control of autoimmunity, possibly by the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance and Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:23864655

  10. Biosynthesis of Rhizobium meliloti lipooligosaccharide Nod factors: NodA is required for an N-acyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, E.M.; Long, S.R. ); Palcic, M.M.; Hindsgaul, O. )

    1994-08-30

    Rhizobium bacteria synthesize N-acylated [beta]-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine lipooligosaccharides, called Nod factors, which act as morphogenic signal molecules to legume roots during development of nitrogen-fixing nodules. The biosynthesis of Nod factors is genetically dependent upon the nodulation (nod) genes, including the common nod genes nodABC. We used the Rhizobium meliloti NodH sulfotransferase to prepare [sup 35]S-labeled oligosaccharides which served as metabolic tracers for Nod enzyme activities. This approach provides a general method for following chitooligosaccharide modifications. We found nodAB-dependent conversion of N-acetylchitotetraose (chitotetraose) monosulfate into hydrophobic compounds which by chromatographic and chemical tests were equivalent to acylated Nod factors. Sequential incubation of labeled intermediates with Escherichia coli containing either NodA or NodB showed that NodB was required before NodA during Nod factor biosynthesis. The acylation activity was sensitive to oligosaccharide chain length, with chitotetraose serving as a better substrate than chitobiose or chitotriose. We constructed a putative Nod factor intermediate, GlcN-[beta]1,4-(GlcNac)[sub 3], by enzymatic synthesis and labeled it by NodH-mediated sulfation to create a specific metabolic probe. Acylation of this oligosaccharide required only NodA. These results confirm previous reports that NodB is an N-deacetylase and suggest that NodA is an N-acyltransferase. 31 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of genes required for the biosynthesis of type 1 capsular polysaccharide in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lin, W S; Cunneen, T; Lee, C Y

    1994-11-01

    We previously cloned a 19.4-kb DNA region containing a cluster of genes affecting type 1 capsule production from Staphylococcus aureus M. Subcloning experiments showed that these capsule (cap) genes are localized in a 14.6-kb region. Sequencing analysis of the 14.6-kb fragment revealed 13 open reading frames (ORFs). Using complementation tests, we have mapped a collection of Cap- mutations in 10 of the 13 ORFs, indicating that these 10 genes are involved in capsule biosynthesis. The requirement for the remaining three ORFs in the synthesis of the capsule was demonstrated by constructing site-specific mutations corresponding to each of the three ORFs. Using an Escherichia coli S30 in vitro transcription-translation system, we clearly identified 7 of the 13 proteins predicted from the ORFs. Homology search between the predicted proteins and those in the data bank showed very high homology (52.3% identity) between capL and vipA, moderate homology (29% identity) between capI and vipB, and limited homology (21.8% identity) between capM and vipC. The vipA, vipB, and vipC genes have been shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of Salmonella typhi Vi antigen, a homopolymer polysaccharide consisting of N-acetylgalactosamino uronic acid, which is also one of the components of the staphylococcal type 1 capsule. The homology between these sets of genes therefore suggests that capL, capI, and capM may be involved in the biosynthesis of amino sugar, N-acetylgalactosamino uronic acid. In addition, the search showed that CapG aligned well with the consensus sequence of a family of acetyltransferases from various prokaryotic organisms, suggesting that CapG may be an acetyltransferase. Using the isogenic Cap- and Cap+ strains constructed in this study, we have confirmed that type 1 capsule is an important virulence factor in a mouse lethality test.

  12. Identifying the Minimal Enzymes Required for Biosynthesis of Epoxyketone Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joyce; Zhu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors have attracted much interest due to their potential as anti-cancer drugs. While the biosynthetic gene clusters for several peptidyl epoxyketone natural products have recently been identified, the enzymatic logic involved in the formation of the terminal epoxyketone pharmacophore has been relatively unexplored. Here, we report the identification of the minimal set of enzymes from the eponemycin gene cluster necessary for the biosynthesis of novel metabolites containing a terminal epoxyketone pharmacophore in Escherichia coli, a versatile and fast-growing heterologous host. This set of enzymes includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), a polyketide synthase (PKS), and an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) homolog. In addition to the in vivo functional reconstitution of these enzymes in E. coli, in vitro studies of the eponemycin NRPS and 13C-labeled precursor feeding experiments were performed to advance the mechanistic understanding of terminal epoxyketone formation. PMID:26477320

  13. Identification of acyltransferases required for cutin biosynthesis and production of cutin with suberin-like monomers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Koo, Abraham J K; Molina, Isabel; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

    2007-11-13

    Cutin and suberin are the two major lipid-based polymers of plants. Cutin is the structural polymer of the epidermal cuticle, the waterproof layer covering primary aerial organs and which is often the structure first encountered by phytopathogens. Suberin contributes to the control of diffusion of water and solutes across internal root tissues and in periderms. The enzymes responsible for assembly of the cutin polymer are largely unknown. We have identified two Arabidopsis acyltransferases essential for cutin biosynthesis, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) 4 and GPAT8. Double knockouts gpat4/gpat8 were strongly reduced in cutin and were less resistant to desiccation and to infection by the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. They also showed striking defects in stomata structure including a lack of cuticular ledges between guard cells, highlighting the importance of cutin in stomatal biology. Overexpression of GPAT4 or GPAT8 in Arabidopsis increased the content of C16 and C18 cutin monomers in leaves and stems by 80%. In order to modify cutin composition, the acyltransferase GPAT5 and the cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acyl oxidase CYP86A1, two enzymes associated with suberin biosynthesis, were overexpressed. When both enzymes were overexpressed together the epidermal polyesters accumulated new C20 and C22 omega-hydroxyacids and alpha,omega-diacids typical of suberin, and the fine structure and water-barrier function of the cuticle were altered. These results identify GPATs as partners of fatty acyl oxidases in lipid polyester synthesis and indicate that their cooverexpression provides a strategy to probe the role of cutin composition and quantity in the function of plant cuticles.

  14. Lipoprotein biosynthesis by prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase is required for efficient spore germination and full virulence of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Okugawa, Shu; Moayeri, Mahtab; Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Sastalla, Inka; Crown, Devorah; Gupta, Pradeep K.; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play a crucial role in virulence in some Gram-positive bacteria. However, the role of lipoprotein biosynthesis in Bacillus anthracis is unknown. We created a B. anthracis mutant strain altered in lipoproteins by deleting the lgt gene encoding the enzyme prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase, which attaches the lipid anchor to prolipoproteins. 14C-palmitate labeling confirmed that the mutant strain lacked lipoproteins, and hydrocarbon partitioning showed it to have decreased surface hydrophobicity. The anthrax toxin proteins were secreted from the mutant strain at nearly the same levels as from the wild-type strain. The TLR2-dependent TNF-α response of macrophages to heat-killed lgt mutant bacteria was reduced. Spores of the lgt mutant germinated inefficiently in vitro and in mouse skin. As a result, in a murine subcutaneous infection model, lgt mutant spores had markedly attenuated virulence. In contrast, vegetative cells of the lgt mutant were as virulent as those of the wild-type strain. Thus, lipoprotein biosynthesis in B. anthracis is required for full virulence in a murine infection model. PMID:22103323

  15. Regulation of Anticancer Styrylpyrone Biosynthesis in the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus Requires Thioredoxin Mediated Transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione Reductase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxia; He, Meihong; Ding, Jianing; Xi, Qi; Loake, Gary J; Zheng, Weifa

    2016-11-21

    The medicinal macrofungus Inonotus obliquus widely utilized as folk medicine in Russia and Baltic countries is a source of phenylpropanoid-derived styrylpyrone polyphenols that can inhibit tumor proliferation. Insights into the regulatory machinery that controls I. obliquus styrylpyrone polyphenol biosynthesis will enable strategies to increase the production of these molecules. Here we show that Thioredoxin (Trx) mediated transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) underpins the regulation of styrylpyrone production, driven by nitric oxide (NO) synthesis triggered by P. morii coculture. NO accumulation results in the S-nitrosylation of PAL and 4CL required for the synthesis of precursor phenylpropanoids and styrylpyrone synthase (SPS), integral to the production of styrylpyrone, inhibiting their activities. These enzymes are targeted for denitrosylation by Trx proteins, which restore their activity. Further, this Trx S-nitrosothiol (SNO) reductase activity was potentiated following S-nitrosylation of Trx proteins at a non-catalytic cysteine (Cys) residue. Intriguingly, this process was counterbalanced by Trx denitrosylation, mediated by Trx-dependent transnitrosylation of GSNOR. Thus, unprecedented interplay between Trx and GSNOR oxidoreductases regulates the biosynthesis of styrylpyrone polyphenols in I. obliquus.

  16. Identification of the missing trans-acting enoyl reductase required for phthiocerol dimycocerosate and phenolglycolipid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Siméone, Roxane; Constant, Patricia; Guilhot, Christophe; Daffé, Mamadou; Chalut, Christian

    2007-07-01

    Phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM) and phenolglycolipids (PGL) are functionally important surface-exposed lipids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Their biosynthesis involves the products of several genes clustered in a 70-kb region of the M. tuberculosis chromosome. Among these products is PpsD, one of the modular type I polyketide synthases responsible for the synthesis of the lipid core common to DIM and PGL. Bioinformatic analyses have suggested that this protein lacks a functional enoyl reductase activity domain required for the synthesis of these lipids. We have identified a gene, Rv2953, that putatively encodes an enoyl reductase. Mutation in Rv2953 prevents conventional DIM formation and leads to the accumulation of a novel DIM-like product. This product is unsaturated between C-4 and C-5 of phthiocerol. Consistently, complementation of the mutant with a functional pks15/1 gene from Mycobacterium bovis BCG resulted in the accumulation of an unsaturated PGL-like substance. When an intact Rv2953 gene was reintroduced into the mutant strain, the phenotype reverted to the wild type. These findings indicate that Rv2953 encodes a trans-acting enoyl reductase that acts with PpsD in phthiocerol and phenolphthiocerol biosynthesis.

  17. Sph3 Is a Glycoside Hydrolase Required for the Biosynthesis of Galactosaminogalactan in Aspergillus fumigatus*♦

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Natalie C.; Snarr, Brendan D.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Little, Dustin J.; Lee, Mark J.; Zacharias, Caitlin A.; Chabot, Josée C.; Geller, Alexander M.; Baptista, Stefanie D.; Baker, Perrin; Robinson, Howard; Howell, P. Lynne; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most virulent species within the Aspergillus genus and causes invasive infections with high mortality rates. The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) contributes to the virulence of A. fumigatus. A co-regulated five-gene cluster has been identified and proposed to encode the proteins required for GAG biosynthesis. One of these genes, sph3, is predicted to encode a protein belonging to the spherulin 4 family, a protein family with no known function. Construction of an sph3-deficient mutant demonstrated that the gene is necessary for GAG production. To determine the role of Sph3 in GAG biosynthesis, we determined the structure of Aspergillus clavatus Sph3 to 1.25 Å. The structure revealed a (β/α)8 fold, with similarities to glycoside hydrolase families 18, 27, and 84. Recombinant Sph3 displayed hydrolytic activity against both purified and cell wall-associated GAG. Structural and sequence alignments identified three conserved acidic residues, Asp-166, Glu-167, and Glu-222, that are located within the putative active site groove. In vitro and in vivo mutagenesis analysis demonstrated that all three residues are important for activity. Variants of Asp-166 yielded the greatest decrease in activity suggesting a role in catalysis. This work shows that Sph3 is a glycoside hydrolase essential for GAG production and defines a new glycoside hydrolase family, GH135. PMID:26342082

  18. Regulation of Anticancer Styrylpyrone Biosynthesis in the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus Requires Thioredoxin Mediated Transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanxia; He, Meihong; Ding, Jianing; Xi, Qi; Loake, Gary J.; Zheng, Weifa

    2016-01-01

    The medicinal macrofungus Inonotus obliquus widely utilized as folk medicine in Russia and Baltic countries is a source of phenylpropanoid-derived styrylpyrone polyphenols that can inhibit tumor proliferation. Insights into the regulatory machinery that controls I. obliquus styrylpyrone polyphenol biosynthesis will enable strategies to increase the production of these molecules. Here we show that Thioredoxin (Trx) mediated transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) underpins the regulation of styrylpyrone production, driven by nitric oxide (NO) synthesis triggered by P. morii coculture. NO accumulation results in the S-nitrosylation of PAL and 4CL required for the synthesis of precursor phenylpropanoids and styrylpyrone synthase (SPS), integral to the production of styrylpyrone, inhibiting their activities. These enzymes are targeted for denitrosylation by Trx proteins, which restore their activity. Further, this Trx S-nitrosothiol (SNO) reductase activity was potentiated following S-nitrosylation of Trx proteins at a non-catalytic cysteine (Cys) residue. Intriguingly, this process was counterbalanced by Trx denitrosylation, mediated by Trx-dependent transnitrosylation of GSNOR. Thus, unprecedented interplay between Trx and GSNOR oxidoreductases regulates the biosynthesis of styrylpyrone polyphenols in I. obliquus. PMID:27869186

  19. Vibrio anguillarum colonization of rainbow trout integument requires a DNA locus involved in exopolysaccharide transport and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Croxatto, Antony; Lauritz, Johan; Chen, Chang; Milton, Debra L

    2007-02-01

    Vibrio anguillarum, part of the normal flora of the aquatic milieu, causes a fatal haemorrhagic septicaemia in marine fish. In this study, a rainbow trout model was used to characterize the colonization of fish skin by V. anguillarum. Within 5 h after infection, the bacterium penetrated the skin mucosal layer, attached to the scales within 12 h, and formed a biofilm by 24-48 h. Two divergently transcribed putative operons, orf1-wbfD-wbfC-wbfB and wza-wzb-wzc, were shown to play a role in skin colonization and virulence. The first operon encodes proteins of unknown function. The wza-wzb-wzc genes encode a secretin, tyrosine kinase and tyrosine phosphatase, respectively, which are similar to proteins in polysaccharide transport complexes. Compared with the wild type, polar mutations in wza, orf1 and wbfD caused a decrease in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis but not lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. The wza and orf1 mutants did not attach to fish scales; whereas, the wbfD mutant had a wild-type phenotype. Moreover, the wza and orf1 mutants had decreased exoprotease activity, in particular the extracellular metalloprotease EmpA, as well as mucinase activity suggesting that these mutations also affect exoenzyme secretion. Thus, the exopolysaccharide transport system in V. anguillarum is required for attachment to fish skin, possibly preventing mechanical removal of bacteria via natural sloughing of mucus.

  20. Chemical synthesis and functionalization of clickable glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Benjamin M; Guo, Zhongwu

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchorage is a common posttranslational modification of eukaryotic proteins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPIs and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems. In this work, the synthesis of several functionalized GPI anchors was accomplished using the para-methoxybenzyl (PMB) group for permanent hydroxyl protection, which allowed the incorporation of functionalities that are incompatible with permanent protecting groups traditionally used in carbohydrate synthesis. A flexible convergent-divergent assembly strategy enabled efficient access to a diverse set of target structures, including "clickable" Alkynyl-GPIs 1 and 2 and Azido-GPI 3. For global deprotection, a one-pot reaction was employed to afford the target GPIs in excellent yields (85-97%). Fully deprotected clickable GPIs 2 and 3 were readily conjugated to imaging and affinity probes via Cu(I)-catalyzed and Cu-free strain-promoted [3+2] cycloaddition, respectively, resulting in GPI-Fluor 4 and GPI-Biotin 5.

  1. Membrane Topology and Transient Acylation of Toxoplasma gondii Glycosylphosphatidylinositols

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Jürgen; Smith, Terry K.; Azzouz, Nahid; Gerold, Peter; Seeber, Frank; Lingelbach, Klaus; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2006-01-01

    Using hypotonically permeabilized Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, we investigated the topology of the free glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The morphology and permeability of parasites were checked by electron microscopy and release of a cytosolic protein. The membrane integrity of organelles (ER and rhoptries) was checked by protease protection assays. In initial experiments, GPI biosynthetic intermediates were labeled with UDP-[6-3H]GlcNAc in permeabilized parasites, and the transmembrane distribution of the radiolabeled lipids was probed with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). A new early intermediate with an acyl modification on the inositol was identified, indicating that inositol acylation also occurs in T. gondii. A significant portion of the early GPI intermediates (GlcN-PI and GlcNAc-PI) could be hydrolyzed following PI-PLC treatment, indicating that these glycolipids are predominantly present in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the ER. Permeabilized T. gondii parasites labeled with either GDP-[2-3H]mannose or UDP-[6-3H]glucose showed that the more mannosylated and side chain (Glc-GalNAc)-modified GPI intermediates are also preferentially localized in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the ER. PMID:16896225

  2. GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-linked aspartyl proteases regulate vacuole homoeostasis in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Bairwa, Gaurav; Rasheed, Mubashshir; Taigwal, Ritu; Sahoo, Rosalin; Kaur, Rupinder

    2014-03-01

    A family of 11 GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-linked cell surface-associated aspartyl proteases (yapsins) in the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is required for cell wall remodelling, pH homoeostasis, survival in macrophages and virulence in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis. In the present paper, we report new roles for yapsins in C. glabrata physiology and implicate them for the first time in the regulation of vacuole homoeostasis. In the present study we show that a C. glabrata mutant lacking all 11 yapsins, Cgyps1-11∆, possesses an enlarged vacuole and displays vma- (vacuolar membrane ATPase)-like phenotypes with elevated metal ion susceptibility in an alkaline pH medium and diminished Vma activity. The results of the present study also demonstrate a singular role for CgYps1 (C. glabrata yapsin 1) in the maintenance of ion homoeostasis under normal and calcineurin-inhibited conditions. Elevated polyphosphate levels and diminished cellular CPY (carboxypeptidase Y) activity in the Cgyps1-11∆ mutant highlight the yapsin requirement for a properly functioning vacuole. Lastly, a gross perturbation of cellular homoeostasis in the Cgyps1-11∆ mutant, even in the absence of external stressors, characterized by reduced levels of ATP and stress metabolites, elevated ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels, cell surface abnormalities, and a constitutively activated PKC (protein kinase C) signalling pathway underscore diverse physiological functions of yapsins in C. glabrata.

  3. Sterol Biosynthesis Is Required for Heat Resistance but Not Extracellular Survival in Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Baykal, Eda; Huang, Juyang; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Sterol biosynthesis is a crucial pathway in eukaryotes leading to the production of cholesterol in animals and various C24-alkyl sterols (ergostane-based sterols) in fungi, plants, and trypanosomatid protozoa. Sterols are important membrane components and precursors for the synthesis of powerful bioactive molecules, including steroid hormones in mammals. Their functions in pathogenic protozoa are not well characterized, which limits the development of sterol synthesis inhibitors as drugs. Here we investigated the role of sterol C14α-demethylase (C14DM) in Leishmania parasites. C14DM is a cytochrome P450 enzyme and the primary target of azole drugs. In Leishmania, genetic or chemical inactivation of C14DM led to a complete loss of ergostane-based sterols and accumulation of 14-methylated sterols. Despite the drastic change in lipid composition, C14DM-null mutants (c14dm −) were surprisingly viable and replicative in culture. They did exhibit remarkable defects including increased membrane fluidity, failure to maintain detergent resistant membrane fraction, and hypersensitivity to heat stress. These c14dm − mutants showed severely reduced virulence in mice but were highly resistant to itraconazole and amphotericin B, two drugs targeting sterol synthesis. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of toxic sterol intermediates in c14dm − causes strong membrane perturbation and significant vulnerability to stress. The new knowledge may help improve the efficacy of current drugs against pathogenic protozoa by exploiting the fitness loss associated with drug resistance. PMID:25340392

  4. Isorenieratene Biosynthesis in Green Sulfur Bacteria Requires the Cooperative Actions of Two Carotenoid Cyclases▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, Julia A.; Romberger, Steven P.; Bryant, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    The cyclization of lycopene to γ- or β-carotene is a major branch point in the biosynthesis of carotenoids in photosynthetic bacteria. Four families of carotenoid cyclases are known, and each family includes both mono- and dicyclases, which catalyze the formation of γ- and β-carotene, respectively. Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) synthesize aromatic carotenoids, of which the most commonly occurring types are the monocyclic chlorobactene and the dicyclic isorenieratene. Recently, the cruA gene, encoding a conserved hypothetical protein found in the genomes of all GSB and some cyanobacteria, was identified as a lycopene cyclase. Further genomic analyses have found that all available fully sequenced genomes of GSB encode an ortholog of cruA. Additionally, the genomes of all isorenieratene-producing species of GSB encode a cruA paralog, now named cruB. The cruA gene from the chlorobactene-producing GSB species Chlorobaculum tepidum and both cruA and cruB from the brown-colored, isorenieratene-producing GSB species Chlorobium phaeobacteroides strain DSM 266T were heterologously expressed in lycopene- and neurosporene-producing strains of Escherichia coli, and the cruB gene of Chlorobium clathratiforme strain DSM 5477T was also heterologously expressed in C. tepidum by inserting the gene at the bchU locus. The results show that CruA is probably a lycopene monocyclase in all GSB and that CruB is a γ-carotene cyclase in isorenieratene-producing species. Consequently, the branch point for the synthesis of mono- and dicyclic carotenoids in GSB seems to be the modification of γ-carotene, rather than the cyclization of lycopene as occurs in cyanobacteria. PMID:18676669

  5. Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis-related genes are required for colony pigmentation of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Kido, Nobuo; Murakami, Yukitaka; Hoover, Charles I; Nakayama, Koji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

    2009-04-01

    The periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis forms pigmented colonies when incubated on blood agar plates as a result of accumulation of mu-oxo haem dimer on the cell surface. Gingipain-adhesin complexes are responsible for production of mu-oxo haem dimer from haemoglobin. Non-pigmented mutants (Tn6-5, Tn7-1, Tn7-3 and Tn10-4) were isolated from P. gingivalis by Tn4351 transposon mutagenesis [Hoover & Yoshimura (1994), FEMS Microbiol Lett 124, 43-48]. In this study, we found that the Tn6-5, Tn7-1 and Tn7-3 mutants carried Tn4351 DNA in a gene homologous to the ugdA gene encoding UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase, a gene encoding a putative group 1 family glycosyltransferase and a gene homologous to the rfa gene encoding ADP heptose-LPS heptosyltransferase, respectively. The Tn10-4 mutant carried Tn4351 DNA at the same position as that for Tn7-1. Gingipain activities associated with cells of the Tn7-3 mutant (rfa) were very weak, whereas gingipain activities were detected in the culture supernatants. Immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses also revealed that gingipains, including their precursor forms, were present in the culture supernatants. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fraction of the rfa deletion mutant did not show the ladder pattern that was usually seen for the LPS of the wild-type P. gingivalis. A recombinant chimera gingipain was able to bind to an LPS fraction of the wild-type P. gingivalis in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the rfa gene product is associated with biosynthesis of LPS and/or cell-surface polysaccharides that can function as an anchorage for gingipain-adhesin complexes.

  6. A bifunctional locus (BIO3-BIO1) required for biotin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Muralla, Rosanna; Chen, Elve; Sweeney, Colleen; Gray, Jennifer A; Dickerman, Allan; Nikolau, Basil J; Meinke, David

    2008-01-01

    We identify here the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene encoding the third enzyme in the biotin biosynthetic pathway, dethiobiotin synthetase (BIO3; At5g57600). This gene is positioned immediately upstream of BIO1, which is known to be associated with the second reaction in the pathway. Reverse genetic analysis demonstrates that bio3 insertion mutants have a similar phenotype to the bio1 and bio2 auxotrophs identified using forward genetic screens for arrested embryos rescued on enriched nutrient medium. Unexpectedly, bio3 and bio1 mutants define a single genetic complementation group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrates that separate BIO3 and BIO1 transcripts and two different types of chimeric BIO3-BIO1 transcripts are produced. Consistent with genetic data, one of the fused transcripts is monocistronic and encodes a bifunctional fusion protein. A splice variant is bicistronic, with distinct but overlapping reading frames. The dual functionality of the monocistronic transcript was confirmed by complementing the orthologous auxotrophs of Escherichia coli (bioD and bioA). BIO3-BIO1 transcripts from other plants provide further evidence for differential splicing, existence of a fusion protein, and localization of both enzymatic reactions to mitochondria. In contrast to most biosynthetic enzymes in eukaryotes, which are encoded by genes dispersed throughout the genome, biotin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis provides an intriguing example of a bifunctional locus that catalyzes two sequential reactions in the same metabolic pathway. This complex locus exhibits several unusual features that distinguish it from biotin operons in bacteria and from other genes known to encode bifunctional enzymes in plants.

  7. The activation of OsEIL1 on YUC8 transcription and auxin biosynthesis is required for ethylene-inhibited root elongation in rice early seedling development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Zhang, Zhijin; Wang, Juan; Chen, Xinbing; Wei, Pengcheng; Huang, Rongfeng

    2017-08-01

    Rice is an important monocotyledonous crop worldwide; it differs from the dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis in many aspects. In Arabidopsis, ethylene and auxin act synergistically to regulate root growth and development. However, their interaction in rice is still unclear. Here, we report that the transcriptional activation of OsEIL1 on the expression of YUC8/REIN7 and indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA)-dependent auxin biosynthesis is required for ethylene-inhibited root elongation. Using an inhibitor of YUC activity, which regulates auxin biosynthesis via the conversion of IPA to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), we showed that ethylene-inhibited primary root elongation is dependent on YUC-based auxin biosynthesis. By screening phenotypes of seedling primary root from mutagenesis libraries following ethylene treatment, we identified a rice ethylene-insensitive mutant, rein7-1, in which YUC8/REIN7 is truncated at its C-terminus. Mutation in YUC8/REIN7 reduced auxin biosynthesis in rice, while YUC8/REIN7 overexpression enhanced ethylene sensitivity in the roots. Moreover, YUC8/REIN7 catalyzed the conversion of IPA to IAA, truncated version at C-terminal end of the YUC8/REIN7 resulted in significant reduction of enzymatic activity, indicating that YUC8/REIN7 is required for IPA-dependent auxin biosynthesis and ethylene-inhibited root elongation in rice early seedlings. Further investigations indicated that ethylene induced YUC8/REIN7 expression and promoted auxin accumulation in roots. Addition of low concentrations of IAA rescued the ethylene response in the rein7-1, strongly demonstrating that ethylene-inhibited root elongation depends on IPA-dependent auxin biosynthesis. Genetic studies revealed that YUC8/REIN7-mediated auxin biosynthesis functioned downstream of OsEIL1, which directly activated the expression of YUC8/REIN7. Thus, our findings reveal a model of interaction between ethylene and auxin in rice seedling primary root elongation, enhancing our understanding of

  8. Expressed Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Horseradish Peroxidase Identifies Co-Clustering Molecules in Individual Lipid Raft Domains

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa-Yamaguchi, Arisa; Kotani, Norihiro; Honke, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts that are enriched in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins serve as a platform for important biological events. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of these events, identification of co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains is required. Here we describe an approach to this issue using the recently developed method termed enzyme-mediated activation of radical source (EMARS), by which molecules in the vicinity within 300 nm from horseradish peroxidase (HRP) set on the probed molecule are labeled. GPI-anchored HRP fusion proteins (HRP-GPIs), in which the GPI attachment signals derived from human decay accelerating factor and Thy-1 were separately connected to the C-terminus of HRP, were expressed in HeLa S3 cells, and the EMARS reaction was catalyzed by these expressed HRP-GPIs under a living condition. As a result, these different HRP-GPIs had differences in glycosylation and localization and formed distinct clusters. This novel approach distinguished molecular clusters associated with individual GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that it can identify co-clustering molecules in individual raft domains. PMID:24671047

  9. Steric and not structure-specific factors dictate the endocytic mechanism of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bhagatji, Pinkesh; Leventis, Rania; Comeau, Jonathan; Refaei, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Diverse glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins enter mammalian cells via the clathrin- and dynamin-independent, Arf1-regulated GPI-enriched early endosomal compartment/clathrin-independent carrier endocytic pathway. To characterize the determinants of GPI protein targeting to this pathway, we have used fluorescence microscopic analyses to compare the internalization of artificial lipid-anchored proteins, endogenous membrane proteins, and membrane lipid markers in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Soluble proteins, anchored to cell-inserted saturated or unsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-polyethyleneglycols (PEGs), closely resemble the GPI-anchored folate receptor but differ markedly from the transferrin receptor, membrane lipid markers, and even protein-free PE-PEGs, both in their distribution in peripheral endocytic vesicles and in the manner in which their endocytic uptake responds to manipulations of cellular Arf1 or dynamin activity. These findings suggest that the distinctive endocytic targeting of GPI proteins requires neither biospecific recognition of their GPI anchors nor affinity for ordered-lipid microdomains but is determined by a more fundamental property, the steric bulk of the lipid-anchored protein. PMID:19687251

  10. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-dependent secretory transport in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, M A; Ransom, D M; Bangs, J D

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors in forward secretory trafficking using African trypanosomes as a model system. Soluble GPI-minus forms of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), in which the C-terminal GPI-addition peptide signal is deleted, are secreted from transformed procyclic trypanosomes with 5-fold reduced kinetics, relative to matched GPI-anchored constructs. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence localization studies indicate that the GPI-minus VSG reporters accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This transport defect is specific, since overexpression of GPI-minus VSG has no effect on the rate of transport of a second soluble secretory reporter (BiPN) when co-expressed in the same cells. Two results suggest that delayed forward transport cannot be accounted for by failure to fold/assemble in the absence of a GPI anchor, thereby leading to prolonged association with ER quality-control machinery. First, no evidence was found for elevated association of GPI-minus VSG with the ER molecular chaperone, BiP. Secondly, newly synthesized GPI-minus VSG is dimerized efficiently, as judged by velocity-sedimentation analysis. GPI-dependent transport is not confined to the VSG reporters, because a similar dependence is found with another trypanosomal GPI-anchored protein, trans-sialidase. These findings suggest that GPI structures act in a positive manner to mediate efficient forward transport of some, and perhaps all, GPI-anchored proteins in the early secretory pathway of trypanosomes. Possible mechanisms for GPI-dependent transport are discussed with respect to current models of vesicular trafficking. PMID:9794811

  11. Molecular cloning of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CDw108.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Kubo, K; Takeshita, T; Harashima, N; Kawano, K; Mine, T; Sagawa, K; Sugamura, K; Itoh, K

    1999-04-01

    CDw108, also known as the John-Milton-Hagen human blood group Ag, is an 80-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein that is preferentially expressed on activated lymphocytes and E. The molecular characteristics and biological function of the CDw108 were not clarified previously. In this manuscript, we identify the cDNA clone containing the entire coding sequence of the CDw108 gene and report its molecular characteristics. The 1998-base pairs of the open reading frame of the cloned cDNA encoded a protein of 666 amino acids (aa), including the 46 aa of the signal peptide and the 19 aa of the GPI-anchor motif. Thus, the membrane-anchoring form of CDw108 was the 602 aa, and the estimated molecular mass of the unglycosylated form was 68 kDa. The RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) cell attachment sequence and the five potential N-linked glycosylation sites were located on the membrane-anchoring form. Flow cytometric and immunoprecipitation analyses of the CDw108 cDNA transfectants confirmed that the cloned cDNA encoded the native form of CDw108. The CDw108 mRNA was expressed in activated PBMCs as well as in the spleen, thymus, testis, placenta, and brain, but was not expressed in any other tissues tested. Radiation hybrid mapping indicated that the CDw108 gene was located in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q23-24). This molecular information will be critical for understanding the biological function of the CDw108 Ag.

  12. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of genes required for the biosynthesis of type 1 capsular polysaccharide in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, W S; Cunneen, T; Lee, C Y

    1994-01-01

    We previously cloned a 19.4-kb DNA region containing a cluster of genes affecting type 1 capsule production from Staphylococcus aureus M. Subcloning experiments showed that these capsule (cap) genes are localized in a 14.6-kb region. Sequencing analysis of the 14.6-kb fragment revealed 13 open reading frames (ORFs). Using complementation tests, we have mapped a collection of Cap- mutations in 10 of the 13 ORFs, indicating that these 10 genes are involved in capsule biosynthesis. The requirement for the remaining three ORFs in the synthesis of the capsule was demonstrated by constructing site-specific mutations corresponding to each of the three ORFs. Using an Escherichia coli S30 in vitro transcription-translation system, we clearly identified 7 of the 13 proteins predicted from the ORFs. Homology search between the predicted proteins and those in the data bank showed very high homology (52.3% identity) between capL and vipA, moderate homology (29% identity) between capI and vipB, and limited homology (21.8% identity) between capM and vipC. The vipA, vipB, and vipC genes have been shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of Salmonella typhi Vi antigen, a homopolymer polysaccharide consisting of N-acetylgalactosamino uronic acid, which is also one of the components of the staphylococcal type 1 capsule. The homology between these sets of genes therefore suggests that capL, capI, and capM may be involved in the biosynthesis of amino sugar, N-acetylgalactosamino uronic acid. In addition, the search showed that CapG aligned well with the consensus sequence of a family of acetyltransferases from various prokaryotic organisms, suggesting that CapG may be an acetyltransferase. Using the isogenic Cap- and Cap+ strains constructed in this study, we have confirmed that type 1 capsule is an important virulence factor in a mouse lethality test. Images PMID:7961465

  13. SUPERKILLER Complex Components Are Required for the RNA Exosome-Mediated Control of Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Inflorescence Stems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lifang; Kunst, Ljerka

    2016-06-01

    ECERIFERUM7 (CER7)/AtRRP45B core subunit of the exosome, the main cellular 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease, is a positive regulator of cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stems. CER7-dependent exosome activity determines stem wax load by controlling transcript levels of the wax-related gene CER3 Characterization of the second-site suppressors of the cer7 mutant revealed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are direct effectors of CER3 expression. To explore the relationship between the exosome and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in regulating CER3 transcript levels, we investigated two additional suppressor mutants, wax restorer1 (war1) and war7. We show that WAR1 and WAR7 encode Arabidopsis SUPERKILLER3 (AtSKI3) and AtSKI2, respectively, components of the SKI complex that associates with the exosome during cytoplasmic 3'-to-5' RNA degradation, and that CER7-dependent regulation of wax biosynthesis also requires participation of AtSKI8. Our study further reveals that it is the impairment of the exosome-mediated 3'-5' decay of CER3 transcript in the cer7 mutant that triggers extensive production of siRNAs and efficient PTGS of CER3. This identifies PTGS as a general mechanism for eliminating highly abundant endogenous transcripts that is activated when 3'-to-5' mRNA turnover by the exosome is disrupted. Diminished efficiency of PTGS in ski mutants compared with cer7, as evidenced by lower accumulation of CER3-related siRNAs, suggests that reduced amounts of CER3 transcript are available for siRNA synthesis, possibly because CER3 mRNA that does not interact with SKI is degraded by 5'-to-3' XRN4 exoribonuclease. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols of Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi: a basis for the study of malarial glycolipid toxins in a rodent model.

    PubMed Central

    Gerold, P; Vivas, L; Ogun, S A; Azzouz, N; Brown, K N; Holder, A A; Schwarz, R T

    1997-01-01

    Free and protein-bound glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) of the blood stages of the rodent malarial parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS were identified and characterized. TLC analysis of material extracted by organic solvents from metabolically labelled parasites revealed a distinct set of glycolipids. These glycolipids were identified as GPIs by specific chemical and enzymic treatments and by structural analysis of their glycan and hydrophobic parts. These analyses revealed that P.c.chabaudi AS synthesizes a set of GPI-biosynthesis intermediates and two potential GPI-anchor precursors exhibiting the following structures: ethanolamine-phosphate [(alpha1-2)mannose]mannose (alpha 1-2) mannose (alpha 1-6) mannose (alpha 1-4) glucosamine - (acyl) inositol-phosphate-diacylglycerol (P.ch. alpha) and ethanolamine-phosphate - mannose (alpha 1-2) mannose (alpha 1-6) mannose (alpha 1-4) glucosamine-(acyl)inositol-phosphate-diacylglycerol (P.ch. beta). One of these GPI-anchor precursors (P.ch. alpha) possesses the same carbohydrate structure as the GPI membrane anchor of merozoite surface protein-1 from P.c.chabaudi AS. PMID:9396737

  15. Regulation of carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis genes and identification of an evolutionarily conserved gene required for bacteriochlorophyll accumulation.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, G A; Cook, D N; Ma, D; Alberti, M; Burke, D H; Hearst, J E

    1993-05-01

    The temporal expression of ten clustered genes required for carotenoid (crt) and bacteriochlorophyll (bch) biosynthesis was examined during the transition from aerobic respiration to anaerobiosis requisite for the development of the photosynthetic membrane in the bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Accumulation of crtA, crtC, crtD, crtE, crtF, crtK, bchC and bchD mRNAs increased transiently and coordinately, up to 12-fold following removal of oxygen from the growth medium, paralleling increases in mRNAs encoding pigment-binding polypeptides of the photosynthetic apparatus. The crtB and crtI genes, in contrast, were expressed similarly in the presence or absence of oxygen. The regulation patterns of promoters for the crtA and crtI genes and the bchCXYZ operon were characterized using lacZ transcriptional fusion and qualitatively reflected the corresponding mRNA accumulation patterns. We also report that the bchI gene product, encoded by a DNA sequence previously considered to be a portion of crtA, shares 49% sequence identity with the nuclear-encoded Arabidopsis thaliana Cs chloroplast protein required for normal pigmentation in plants.

  16. Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase is required for PBAN-induced sex pheromone biosynthesis in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengfang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Xiaoming; Yin, Xinming; Han, Shuangyin; Song, Qisheng; An, Shiheng

    2015-01-29

    Female moths employ their own pheromone blends as a communicational medium in mating behavior. The biosynthesis and release of sex pheromone in female moths are regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the corresponding action of PBAN has been well elucidated in Bombyx mori. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanism regarding the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor. In this study, quantitative proteomics was utilized to comprehensively elucidate the expression dynamics of pheromone glands (PGs) during development. Proteomic analysis revealed a serial of differentially expressed sex pheromone biosynthesis-associated proteins at the different time points of B. mori development. Most interestingly B. mori glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (BmGPAT) was found to be expressed during the key periods of sex pheromone biosynthesis. RNAi knockdown of BmGPAT confirmed the important function of this protein in the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, triacylglcerol (TAG), and subsequently PBAN-induced production of sex pheromone, bombykol. Behavioral analysis showed that RNAi knockdown of GPAT significantly impaired the ability of females to attract males. Our findings indicate that GPAT acts to regulate the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, TAG, thus influencing PBAN-induced sex pheromone production and subsequent mating behavior.

  17. Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase is required for PBAN-induced sex pheromone biosynthesis in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengfang; Liu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Xiaoming; Yin, Xinming; Han, Shuangyin; Song, Qisheng; An, Shiheng

    2015-01-01

    Female moths employ their own pheromone blends as a communicational medium in mating behavior. The biosynthesis and release of sex pheromone in female moths are regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the corresponding action of PBAN has been well elucidated in Bombyx mori. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanism regarding the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor. In this study, quantitative proteomics was utilized to comprehensively elucidate the expression dynamics of pheromone glands (PGs) during development. Proteomic analysis revealed a serial of differentially expressed sex pheromone biosynthesis-associated proteins at the different time points of B. mori development. Most interestingly B. mori glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (BmGPAT) was found to be expressed during the key periods of sex pheromone biosynthesis. RNAi knockdown of BmGPAT confirmed the important function of this protein in the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, triacylglcerol (TAG), and subsequently PBAN-induced production of sex pheromone, bombykol. Behavioral analysis showed that RNAi knockdown of GPAT significantly impaired the ability of females to attract males. Our findings indicate that GPAT acts to regulate the biosynthesis of sex pheromone precursor, TAG, thus influencing PBAN-induced sex pheromone production and subsequent mating behavior. PMID:25630665

  18. The plant cuticle is required for osmotic stress regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Xiong, Liming; Li, Wenbo; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Jianhua

    2011-05-01

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). One major step in ABA biosynthesis is the carotenoid cleavage catalyzed by a 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the mechanism for osmotic stress activation of ABA biosynthesis, we screened for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that failed to induce the NCED3 gene expression in response to osmotic stress treatments. The ced1 (for 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase defective 1) mutant isolated in this study showed markedly reduced expression of NCED3 in response to osmotic stress (polyethylene glycol) treatments compared with the wild type. Other ABA biosynthesis genes are also greatly reduced in ced1 under osmotic stress. ced1 mutant plants are very sensitive to even mild osmotic stress. Map-based cloning revealed unexpectedly that CED1 encodes a putative α/β hydrolase domain-containing protein and is allelic to the BODYGUARD gene that was recently shown to be essential for cuticle biogenesis. Further studies discovered that other cutin biosynthesis mutants are also impaired in osmotic stress induction of ABA biosynthesis genes and are sensitive to osmotic stress. Our work demonstrates that the cuticle functions not merely as a physical barrier to minimize water loss but also mediates osmotic stress signaling and tolerance by regulating ABA biosynthesis and signaling.

  19. Long-Term Submergence-Induced Elongation in Rumex palustris Requires Abscisic Acid-Dependent Biosynthesis of Gibberellin11

    PubMed Central

    Benschop, Joris J.; Bou, Jordi; Peeters, Anton J.M.; Wagemaker, Niels; Gühl, Kerstin; Ward, Dennis; Hedden, Peter; Moritz, Thomas; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Rumex palustris (polygonceae) responds to complete submergence with enhanced elongation of its youngest petioles. This process requires the presence of gibberellin (GA) and is associated with an increase in the concentration of GA1 in elongating petioles. We have examined how GA biosynthesis was regulated in submerged plants. Therefore, cDNAs encoding GA-biosynthetic enzymes GA 20-oxidase and GA 3-oxidase, and the GA-deactivating enzyme GA 2-oxidase were cloned from R. palustris and the kinetics of transcription of the corresponding genes was determined during a 24 h submergence period. The submergence-induced elongation response could be separated into several phases: (1) during the first phase of 4 h, petiole elongation was insensitive to GA; (2) from 4 to 6 h onward growth was limited by GA; and (3) from 15 h onward underwater elongation was dependent, but not limited by GA. Submergence induced an increase of GA1 concentration, as well as enhanced transcript levels of RpGA3ox1. Exogenous abscisic acid repressed the transcript levels of RpGA20ox1 and RpGA3ox1 and thus inhibited the submergence-induced increase in GA1. Abscisic acid had no effect on the tissue responsiveness to GA. PMID:16766669

  20. The cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19 is required for biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Haizhen; Zhang, Jingjing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Su, Xiong; Li, Tingting; Zou, Xiaoju; Liang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids with backbones containing more than one double bond, which are introduced by a series of desaturases that insert double bonds at specific carbon atoms in the fatty acid chain. It has been established that desaturases need flavoprotein-NADH-dependent cytochrome b5 reductase (simplified as cytochrome b5 reductase) and cytochrome b5 to pass through electrons for activation. However, it has remained unclear how this multi-enzyme system works for distinct desaturases. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans contains seven desaturases (FAT-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7) for the biosynthesis of PUFAS, providing an excellent model in which to characterize different desaturation reactions. Here, we show that RNAi inactivation of predicted cytochrome b5 reductases hpo-19 and T05H4.4 led to increased levels of C18:1n-9 but decreased levels of PUFAs, small lipid droplets, decreased fat accumulation, reduced brood size and impaired development. Dietary supplementation with different fatty acids showed that HPO-19 and T05H4.4 likely affect the activity of FAT-1, FAT-2, FAT-3, and FAT-4 desaturases, suggesting that these four desaturases use the same cytochrome b5 reductase to function. Collectively, these findings indicate that cytochrome b5 reductase HPO-19/T05H4.4 is required for desaturation to biosynthesize PUFAs in C. elegans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Requirement of lipid II biosynthesis for cell division in cell wall-less Wolbachia, endobacteria of arthropods and filarial nematodes.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Jennifer; Schiefer, Andrea; Schneider, Tanja; Jülicher, Karen; Johnston, Kelly L; Taylor, Mark J; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    Obligate Wolbachia endobacteria have a reduced genome and retained genes are hypothesized to be crucial for survival. Although intracellular bacteria do not need a stress-bearing peptidoglycan cell wall, Wolbachia encode proteins necessary to synthesize the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II. The activity of the enzymes catalyzing the last two steps of this pathway was previously shown, and Wolbachia are sensitive to inhibition of lipid II synthesis. A puzzling characteristic of Wolbachia is the lack of genes for l-amino acid racemases essential for lipid II synthesis. Transcription analysis showed the expression of a possible alternative racemase metC, and recombinant Wolbachia MetC indeed had racemase activity that may substitute for the absent l-Ala racemase. However, enzymes needed to form mature peptidoglycan are absent and the function of Wolbachia lipid II is unknown. Inhibition of lipid II biosynthesis resulted in enlargement of Wolbachia cells and redistribution of Wolbachia peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein, demonstrating that lipid II is required for coordinated cell division and may interact with the lipoprotein. We conclude that lipid II is essential for Wolbachia cell division and that this function is potentially conserved in the Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. MRA_1571 is required for isoleucine biosynthesis and improves Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra survival under stress

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rishabh; Keshari, Deepa; Singh, Kumar Sachin; Yadav, Shailendra; Singh, Sudheer Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Threonine dehydratase is a pyridoxal 5-phosphate dependent enzyme required for isoleucine biosynthesis. Threonine dehydratase (IlvA) participates in conversion of threonine to 2-oxobutanoate and ammonia is released as a by-product. MRA_1571 is annotated to be coding for IlvA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra). We developed a recombinant (KD) Mtb-Ra strain by down-regulating IlvA. The growth studies on different carbon sources suggested reduced growth of KD compared to wild-type (WT), also, isoleucine concentration dependent KD growth restoration was observed. The expression profiling of IlvA suggested increased expression of IlvA during oxygen, acid and oxidative stress. In addition, KD showed reduced survival under pH, starvation, nitric oxide and peroxide stresses. KD was more susceptible to antimycobacterial agents such as streptomycin (STR), rifampicin (RIF) and levofloxacin (LVF), while, no such effect was noticeable when exposed to isoniazid. Also, an increase in expression of IlvA was observed when exposed to STR, RIF and LVF. The dye accumulation studies suggested increased permeability of KD to ethidium bromide and Nile Red as compared to WT. TLC and Mass studies confirmed altered lipid profile of KD. In summary down-regulation of IlvA affects Mtb growth, increases its susceptibility to stress and leads to altered cell wall lipid profile. PMID:27353854

  3. Functional Requirements for Heparan Sulfate Biosynthesis in Morphogenesis and Nervous System Development in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Cassandra R.; Thackeray, Andrea; Perrat, Paola N.; Hekimi, Siegfried; Bénard, Claire Y.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation. In humans, mutations in either of the exostosin genes EXT1 and EXT2 lead to osteosarcomas or multiple exostoses. Complete loss of any of the exostosin glycosyltransferases in mouse, fish, flies and worms leads to drastic morphogenetic defects and embryonic lethality. Here we identify and study previously unavailable viable hypomorphic mutations in the two C. elegans exostosin glycosyltransferases genes, rib-1 and rib-2. These partial loss-of-function mutations lead to a severe reduction of HS levels and result in profound but specific developmental defects, including abnormal cell and axonal migrations. We find that the expression pattern of the HS copolymerase is dynamic during embryonic and larval morphogenesis, and is sustained throughout life in specific cell types, consistent with HSPGs playing both developmental and post-developmental roles. Cell-type specific expression of the HS copolymerase shows that HS elongation is required in both the migrating neuron and neighboring cells to coordinate migration guidance. Our findings provide insights into general principles underlying HSPG function in development. PMID:28068429

  4. Regulation of lipid raft proteins by glimepiride- and insulin-induced glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter; Schulz, Andrea; Wied, Susanne; Frick, Wendelin

    2005-03-01

    The insulin receptor-independent insulin-mimetic signalling provoked by the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, is accompanied by the redistribution and concomitant activation of lipid raft-associated signalling components, such as the acylated tyrosine kinase, pp59(Lyn), and some glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-proteins). We now found that impairment of glimepiride-induced lipolytic cleavage of GPI-proteins in rat adipocytes by the novel inhibitor of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC), GPI-2350, caused almost complete blockade of (i) dissociation from caveolin-1 of pp59(Lyn) and GPI-proteins, (ii) their redistribution from high cholesterol- (hcDIGs) to low cholesterol-containing (lcDIGs) lipid rafts, (iii) tyrosine phosphorylation of pp59(Lyn) and insulin receptor substrate-1 protein (IRS-1) and (iv) stimulation of glucose transport as well as (v) inhibition of isoproterenol-induced lipolysis in response to glimepiride. In contrast, blockade of the moderate insulin activation of the GPI-PLC and of lipid raft protein redistribution by GPI-2350 slightly reduced insulin signalling and metabolic action, only. Importantly, in response to both insulin and glimepiride, lipolytically cleaved hydrophilic GPI-proteins remain associated with hcDIGs rather than redistribute to lcDIGs as do their uncleaved amphiphilic versions. In conclusion, GPI-PLC controls the localization within lipid rafts and thereby the activity of certain GPI-anchored and acylated signalling proteins. Its stimulation is required and may even be sufficient for insulin-mimetic cross-talking to IRS-1 in response to glimepiride via redistributed and activated pp59(Lyn).

  5. Flagellin Glycosylation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK Requires the O-antigen Biosynthesis Enzyme WbpO*s

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wayne L.; Matewish, Mauricia J.; McNally, David J.; Ishiyama, Noboru; Anderson, Erin M.; Brewer, Dyanne; Brisson, Jean-Robert; Berghuis, Albert M.; Lam, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK (serotype O6) produces a single polar, glycosylated flagellum composed of a-type flagellin. To determine whether or not flagellin glycosylation in this serotype requires O-antigen genes, flagellin was isolated from the wild type, three O-antigen-deficient mutants wbpL, wbpO, and wbpP, and a wbpO mutant complemented with a plasmid containing a wild-type copy of wbpO. Flagellin from the wbpO mutant was smaller (42 kDa) than that of the wild type (45 kDa), or other mutants strains, and exhibited an altered isoelectric point (pI 4.8) when compared with PAK flagellin (pI 4.6). These differences were because of the truncation of the glycan moiety in the wbpO-flagellin. Thus, flagellin glycosylation in P. aeruginosa PAK apparently requires a functional WbpO but not WbpP. Because WbpP was previously proposed to catalyze a metabolic step in the biosynthesis of B-band O-antigen that precedes the action of WbpO, these results prompted us to reevaluate the two-step pathway catalyzed by WbpO and WbpP. Results from WbpO-WbpP-coupled enzymatic assays showed that either WbpO or WbpP is capable of initiating the two-step pathway; however, the kinetic parameters favored the WbpO reaction to occur first, converting UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucuronic acid prior to the conversion to UDP-N-acetyl-D-galacturonic acid by WbpP. This is the first report to show that a C4 epimerase could utilize UDP-N-acetylhexuronic acid as a substrate. PMID:18065759

  6. VIP21/caveolin, glycosphingolipid clusters and the sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zurzolo, C; van't Hof, W; van Meer, G; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1994-01-01

    We studied the role of the association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipid (GSL) clusters in apical targeting using gD1-DAF, a GPI-anchored protein that is differentially sorted by three epithelial cell lines. Differently from MDCK cells, where both gD1-DAF and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) are sorted to the apical membrane, in MDCK Concanavalin A-resistant cells (MDCK-ConAr) gD1-DAF was mis-sorted to both surfaces, but GlcCer was still targeted to the apical surface. In both MDCK and MDCK-ConAr cells, gD1-DAF became associated with TX-100-insoluble GSL clusters during transport to the cell surface. In dramatic contrast with MDCK cells, the Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cell line targeted both gD1-DAF and GlcCer basolaterally. The targeting differences for GSLs in FRT and MDCK cells cannot be accounted for by a differential ability to form clusters because, in spite of major differences in the GSL composition, both cell lines assembled GSLs into TX-100-insoluble complexes with identical isopycnic densities. Surprisingly, in FRT cells, gD1-DAF did not form clusters with GSLs and, therefore, remained completely soluble. This clustering defect in FRT cells correlated with the lack of expression of VIP21/caveolin, a protein localized to both the plasma membrane caveolae and the trans Golgi network. This suggests that VIP21/caveolin may have an important role in recruiting GPI-anchored proteins into GSL complexes necessary for their apical sorting. However, since MDCK-ConAr cells expressed caveolin and clustered GPI-anchored proteins normally, yet mis-sorted them, our results also indicate that clustering and caveolin are not sufficient for apical targeting, and that additional factors are required for the accurate apical sorting of GPI-anchored proteins. Images PMID:8306971

  7. The activation of OsEIL1 on YUC8 transcription and auxin biosynthesis is required for ethylene-inhibited root elongation in rice early seedling development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Wei, Pengcheng; Huang, Rongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Rice is an important monocotyledonous crop worldwide; it differs from the dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis in many aspects. In Arabidopsis, ethylene and auxin act synergistically to regulate root growth and development. However, their interaction in rice is still unclear. Here, we report that the transcriptional activation of OsEIL1 on the expression of YUC8/REIN7 and indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA)-dependent auxin biosynthesis is required for ethylene-inhibited root elongation. Using an inhibitor of YUC activity, which regulates auxin biosynthesis via the conversion of IPA to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), we showed that ethylene-inhibited primary root elongation is dependent on YUC-based auxin biosynthesis. By screening phenotypes of seedling primary root from mutagenesis libraries following ethylene treatment, we identified a rice ethylene-insensitive mutant, rein7-1, in which YUC8/REIN7 is truncated at its C-terminus. Mutation in YUC8/REIN7 reduced auxin biosynthesis in rice, while YUC8/REIN7 overexpression enhanced ethylene sensitivity in the roots. Moreover, YUC8/REIN7 catalyzed the conversion of IPA to IAA, truncated version at C-terminal end of the YUC8/REIN7 resulted in significant reduction of enzymatic activity, indicating that YUC8/REIN7 is required for IPA-dependent auxin biosynthesis and ethylene-inhibited root elongation in rice early seedlings. Further investigations indicated that ethylene induced YUC8/REIN7 expression and promoted auxin accumulation in roots. Addition of low concentrations of IAA rescued the ethylene response in the rein7-1, strongly demonstrating that ethylene-inhibited root elongation depends on IPA-dependent auxin biosynthesis. Genetic studies revealed that YUC8/REIN7-mediated auxin biosynthesis functioned downstream of OsEIL1, which directly activated the expression of YUC8/REIN7. Thus, our findings reveal a model of interaction between ethylene and auxin in rice seedling primary root elongation, enhancing our understanding of

  8. The master transcription factor Spo0A is required for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) accumulation and expression of genes involved in PHB biosynthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Ju; Tsai, Teng-Kuan; Pan, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Tseng, Chi-Ling; Shaw, Gwo-Chyuan

    2010-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that can accumulate poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as a carbon and energy storage substance in response to nutritional stress. The regulatory mechanism for PHB biosynthesis in B. thuringiensis and diverse Bacillus species is still poorly understood. We now report that disruption of the sigH gene or the gene encoding the master sporulation transcription factor Spo0A severely impaired PHB accumulation in B. thuringiensis. Complementation of the spo0A mutation with the spo0A gene restored PHB accumulation. We have found that the requirement of Spo0A for PHB accumulation is independent of the transition state regulator AbrB and of loss of sporulation ability. We also show that Spo0A is required for the expression of three genes involved in PHB biosynthesis. These findings have uncovered a new role of Spo0A in the regulation of stationary-phase-associated cellular events.

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Is Required for Cold Adaptation and Regulation of Sterol Biosynthesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Loertscher, Jennifer; Larson, Lynnelle L.; Matson, Clinton K.; Parrish, Mark L.; Felthauser, Alicia; Sturm, Aaron; Tachibana, Christine; Bard, Martin; Wright, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) mediates the turnover of short-lived and misfolded proteins in the ER membrane or lumen. In spite of its important role, only subtle growth phenotypes have been associated with defects in ERAD. We have discovered that the ERAD proteins Ubc7 (Qri8), Cue1, and Doa10 (Ssm4) are required for growth of yeast that express high levels of the sterol biosynthetic enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR). Interestingly, the observed growth defect was exacerbated at low temperatures, producing an HMGR-dependent cold sensitivity. Yeast strains lacking UBC7, CUE1, or DOA10 also assembled aberrant karmellae (ordered arrays of membranes surrounding the nucleus that assemble when HMGR is expressed at high levels). However, rather than reflecting the accumulation of abnormal karmellae, the cold sensitivity of these ERAD mutants was due to increased HMGR catalytic activity. Mutations that compromise proteasomal function also resulted in cold-sensitive growth of yeast with elevated HMGR, suggesting that improper degradation of ERAD targets might be responsible for the observed cold-sensitive phenotype. However, the essential ERAD targets were not the yeast HMGR enzymes themselves. The sterol metabolite profile of ubc7Δ cells was altered relative to that of wild-type cells. Since sterol levels are known to regulate membrane fluidity, the viability of ERAD mutants expressing normal levels of HMGR was examined at low temperatures. Cells lacking UBC7, CUE1, or DOA10 were cold sensitive, suggesting that these ERAD proteins have a role in cold adaptation, perhaps through effects on sterol biosynthesis. PMID:16607018

  10. DmSAS is required for sialic acid biosynthesis in cultured Drosophila third instar larvae CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Granell, Annelise E von Bergen; Palter, Karen B; Akan, Ihan; Aich, Udayanath; Yarema, Kevin J; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Thornhill, William B; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2011-11-18

    Sialylation is an important carbohydrate modification of glycoconjugates that has been shown to modulate many cellular/molecular interactions in vertebrates. In Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), using sequence homology, several enzymes of the sialylation pathway have been cloned and their function tested in expression systems. Here we investigated whether sialic acid incorporation in cultured Dm central nervous system (CNS) neurons required endogenously expressed Dm sialic acid synthase (DmSAS). We compared neurons derived from wild type Dm larvae with those containing a DmSAS mutation (148 bp deletion). The ability of these cells to produce Sia5NAz (sialic acid form) from Ac(4)ManNAz (azide-derivatized N-acetylmannosamine) and incorporate it into their glycoconjugates was measured by tagging the azide group of Sia5NAz with fluorescent agents via Click-iT chemistry. We found that most of the wild type Dm CNS neurons incorporated Sia5NAz into their glycoconjugates. Sialic acid incorporation was higher at the soma than at the neurite and could also be detected at perinuclear regions and the plasma membrane. In contrast, neurons from the DmSAS mutant did not incorporate Sia5NAz unless DmSAS was reintroduced (rescue mutant). Most of the neurons expressed α2,6-sialyltransferase. These results confirm that the mutation was a null mutation and that no redundant sialic acid biosynthetic activity exists in Dm cells, i.e., there is only one DmSAS. They also provide the strongest proof to date that DmSAS is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of sialic acids in Dm CNS neurons, and the observed subcellular distribution of the newly synthesized sialic acids offers insights into their biological function.

  11. Post-translational enzyme modification by the phosphopantetheinyl transferase is required for lysine and penicillin biosynthesis but not for roquefortine or fatty acid formation in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    García-Estrada, Carlos; Ullán, Ricardo V; Velasco-Conde, Tania; Godio, Ramiro P; Teijeira, Fernando; Vaca, Inmaculada; Feltrer, Raúl; Kosalková, Katarina; Mauriz, Elba; Martín, Juan F

    2008-10-15

    NRPSs (non-ribosomal peptide synthetases) and PKSs (polyketide synthases) require post-translational phosphopantetheinylation to become active. This reaction is catalysed by a PPTase (4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase). The ppt gene of Penicillium chrysogenum, encoding a protein that shares 50% similarity with the stand-alone large PPTases, has been cloned. This gene is present as a single copy in the genome of the wild-type and high-penicillin-producing strains (containing multiple copies of the penicillin gene cluster). Amplification of the ppt gene produced increases in isopenicillin N and benzylpenicillin biosynthesis. A PPTase-defective mutant (Wis54-PPT(-)) was obtained. It required lysine and lacked pigment and penicillin production, but it still synthesized normal levels of roquefortine. The biosynthesis of roquefortine does not appear to involve PPTase-mediated modification of the synthesizing enzymes. The PPT(-) mutant did not require fatty acids, which indicates that activation of the fatty acid synthase is performed by a different PPTase. Complementation of Wis54-PPT(-) with the ppt gene restored lysine biosynthesis, pigmentation and penicillin production, which demonstrates the wide range of processes controlled by this gene.

  12. A glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-negative phenotype produced in Leishmania major by GPI phospholipase C from Trypanosoma brucei: topography of two GPI pathways

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The major surface macromolecules of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, gp63 (a metalloprotease), and lipophosphoglycan (a polysaccharide), are glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored. We expressed a cytoplasmic glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) in L. major in order to examine the topography of the protein- GPI and polysaccharide-GPI pathways. In L. major cells expressing GPI- PLC, cell-associated gp63 could not be detected in immunoblots. Pulse- chase analysis revealed that gp63 was secreted into the culture medium with a half-time of 5.5 h. Secreted gp63 lacked anti-cross reacting determinant epitopes, and was not metabolically labeled with [3H]ethanolamine, indicating that it never received a GPI anchor. Further, the quantity of putative protein-GPI intermediates decreased approximately 10-fold. In striking contrast, lipophosphoglycan levels were unaltered. However, GPI-PLC cleaved polysaccharide-GPI intermediates (glycoinositol phospholipids) in vitro. Thus, reactions specific to the polysaccharide-GPI pathway are compartmentalized in vivo within the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby sequestering polysaccharide-GPI intermediates from GPI-PLC cleavage. On the contrary, protein-GPI synthesis at least up to production of Man(1 alpha 6)Man(1 alpha 4)GlcN-(1 alpha 6)-myo-inositol-1-phospholipid is cytosolic. To our knowledge this represents the first use of a catabolic enzyme in vivo to elucidate the topography of biosynthetic pathways. GPI-PLC causes a protein-GPI-negative phenotype in L. major, even when genes for GPI biosynthesis are functional. This phenotype is remarkably similar to that of some GPI mutants of mammalian cells: implications for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and Thy-1-negative T-lymphoma are discussed. PMID:8132715

  13. Arabidopsis phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase1 of the phosphoserine pathway is essential for development and required for ammonium assimilation and tryptophan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Benstein, Ruben Maximilian; Ludewig, Katja; Wulfert, Sabine; Wittek, Sebastian; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Frerigmann, Henning; Gierth, Markus; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Krueger, Stephan

    2013-12-01

    In plants, two independent serine biosynthetic pathways, the photorespiratory and glycolytic phosphoserine (PS) pathways, have been postulated. Although the photorespiratory pathway is well characterized, little information is available on the function of the PS pathway in plants. Here, we present a detailed characterization of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases (PGDHs) as components of the PS pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. All PGDHs localize to plastids and possess similar kinetic properties, but they differ with respect to their sensitivity to serine feedback inhibition. Furthermore, analysis of pgdh1 and phosphoserine phosphatase mutants revealed an embryo-lethal phenotype and PGDH1-silenced lines were inhibited in growth. Metabolic analyses of PGDH1-silenced lines grown under ambient and high CO2 conditions indicate a direct link between PS biosynthesis and ammonium assimilation. In addition, we obtained several lines of evidence for an interconnection between PS and tryptophan biosynthesis, because the expression of PGDH1 and phosphoserine aminotransferase1 is regulated by MYB51 and MYB34, two activators of tryptophan biosynthesis. Moreover, the concentration of tryptophan-derived glucosinolates and auxin were reduced in PGDH1-silenced plants. In essence, our results provide evidence for a vital function of PS biosynthesis for plant development and metabolism.

  14. Cloning of a Vibrio cholerae vibriobactin gene cluster: identification of genes required for early steps in siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, E E; Stoebner, J A; Reed, K E; Payne, S M

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae secretes the catechol siderophore vibriobactin in response to iron limitation. Vibriobactin is structurally similar to enterobactin, the siderophore produced by Escherichia coli, and both organisms produce 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) as an intermediate in siderophore biosynthesis. To isolate and characterize V. cholerae genes involved in vibriobactin biosynthesis, we constructed a genomic cosmid bank of V. cholerae DNA and isolated clones that complemented mutations in E. coli enterobactin biosynthesis genes. V. cholerae homologs of entA, entB, entC, entD, and entE were identified on overlapping cosmid clones. Our data indicate that the vibriobactin genes are clustered, like the E. coli enterobactin genes, but the organization of the genes within these clusters is different. In this paper, we present the organization and sequences of genes involved in the synthesis and activation of DHBA. In addition, a V. cholerae strain with a chromosomal mutation in vibA was constructed by marker exchange. This strain was unable to produce vibriobactin or DHBA, confirming that in V. cholerae VibA catalyzes an early step in vibriobactin biosynthesis. PMID:9371453

  15. A root-expressed L-phenylalanine:4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate aminotransferase is required for tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in Atropa belladonna.

    PubMed

    Bedewitz, Matthew A; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Uebler, Joseph B; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Wiegert-Rininger, Krystle E; Childs, Kevin L; Hamilton, John P; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Yeo, Yun-Soo; Chappell, Joseph; DellaPenna, Dean; Jones, A Daniel; Buell, C Robin; Barry, Cornelius S

    2014-09-01

    The tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, are medicinal compounds that are the active components of several therapeutics. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are synthesized in the roots of specific genera of the Solanaceae in a multistep pathway that is only partially elucidated. To facilitate greater understanding of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis, a de novo transcriptome assembly was developed for Deadly Nightshade (Atropa belladonna). Littorine is a key intermediate in hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis that is produced by the condensation of tropine and phenyllactic acid. Phenyllactic acid is derived from phenylalanine via its transamination to phenylpyruvate, and mining of the transcriptome identified a phylogenetically distinct aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT), designated Ab-ArAT4, that is coexpressed with known tropane alkaloid biosynthesis genes in the roots of A. belladonna. Silencing of Ab-ArAT4 disrupted synthesis of hyoscyamine and scopolamine through reduction of phenyllactic acid levels. Recombinant Ab-ArAT4 preferentially catalyzes the first step in phenyllactic acid synthesis, the transamination of phenylalanine to phenylpyruvate. However, rather than utilizing the typical keto-acid cosubstrates, 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate, and oxaloacetate, Ab-ArAT4 possesses strong substrate preference and highest activity with the aromatic keto-acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Thus, Ab-ArAT4 operates at the interface between primary and specialized metabolism, contributing to both tropane alkaloid biosynthesis and the direct conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.

  16. A cell-free assay for glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchoring in African trypanosomes. Demonstration of a transamidation reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D K; Vidugiriene, J; Bangs, J D; Menon, A K

    1999-06-04

    We established an in vitro assay for the addition of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors to proteins using procyclic trypanosomes engineered to express GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The assay is based on the premise that small nucleophiles, such as hydrazine, can substitute for the GPI moiety and effect displacement of the membrane anchor of a GPI-anchored protein or pro-protein causing release of the protein into the aqueous medium. Cell membranes containing pulse-radiolabeled VSG were incubated with hydrazine, and the VSG released from the membranes was measured by carbonate extraction, immunoprecipitation, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/fluorography. Release of VSG was time- and temperature-dependent, was stimulated by hydrazine, and occurred only for VSG molecules situated in early compartments of the secretory pathway. No nucleophile-induced VSG release was seen in membranes prepared from cells expressing a VSG variant with a conventional transmembrane anchor (i.e. a nonfunctional GPI signal sequence). Pro-VSG was shown to be a substrate in the reaction by assaying membranes prepared from cells treated with mannosamine, a GPI biosynthesis inhibitor. When a biotinylated derivative of hydrazine was used instead of hydrazine, the released VSG could be precipitated with streptavidin-agarose, indicating that the biotin moiety was covalently incorporated into the protein. Hydrazine was shown to block the C terminus of the released VSG hydrazide because the released material, unlike a truncated form of VSG lacking a GPI signal sequence, was not susceptible to proteolysis by carboxypeptidases. These results firmly establish that the released material in our assay is VSG hydrazide and strengthen the proof that GPI anchoring proceeds via a transamidation reaction mechanism. The reaction could be inhibited with sulfhydryl alkylating reagents, suggesting that the transamidase enzyme contains a functionally important sulfhydryl

  17. Expression of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Trypanosoma brucei transferrin-binding protein complex in insect cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhri, M; Steverding, D; Kittelberger, D; Tjia, S; Overath, P

    1994-01-01

    The expression site-associated gene ESAG 6 was previously implicated in transferrin binding in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. ESAG 6 and the closely related ESAG 7 of T. brucei strain AnTat1.3 have now been expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. Expression of ESAG 6 alone in insect cells gives rise to a glycosylated protein of approximately 52 kDa, which is cell surface-associated through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor at its C terminus. The ESAG 7 product of about 42 kDa is also glycosylated, but lacks the glycosylphosphatidylinositol modification, and is located intracellularly. No transferrin-binding activity is observed when either ESAG is expressed independently. However, their expression results in a cell surface complex of ESAG 6 and 7 products that specifically binds transferrin. This shows that both ESAG 6 and 7 products are necessary and sufficient for binding to transferrin. Images PMID:8022802

  18. FLO11 expression and lipid biosynthesis are required for air-liquid biofilm formation in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor strain.

    PubMed

    Zara, Giacomo; Goffrini, Paola; Lodi, Tiziana; Zara, Severino; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Budroni, Marilena

    2012-11-01

    Air-liquid biofilm formation is largely dependent on Flo11p and seems related to cell lipid content and composition. Here, it is shown that in the presence of cerulenin, a known inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase complex, biofilm formation is inhibited together with FLO11 transcription in a flor strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while the administration of saturated fatty acids to cerulenin-containing medium restores biofilm formation and FLO11 transcription. It is also shown that, in biofilm cells, the FLO11 transcription is accompanied by the transcription of ACC1, ACS1 and INO1 key genes in lipid biosynthesis and that biofilm formation is affected by the lack of inositol in flor medium. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that the air-liquid biofilm formation depends on FLO11 transcription levels as well as on fatty acids biosynthesis.

  19. Phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis is required for the development of embryos and normal membrane structures of chloroplasts and mitochondria in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Ryo; Kobayashi, Megumi; Katayama, Kenta; Nagata, Noriko; Wada, Hajime

    2014-05-02

    Phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) synthase, encoded by PGP1 and PGP2 in Arabidopsis, catalyzes a committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylglycerol (PG). In this study, we isolated a pgp1pgp2 double mutant of Arabidopsis to study the function of PG. In this mutant, embryo development was delayed and the majority of seeds did not germinate. Thylakoid membranes did not develop in plastids, mitochondrial membrane structures were abnormal in the mutant embryos, and radiolabeling of phospholipids showed that radioactivity was not significantly incorporated into PG. These results demonstrated that PG biosynthesis is essential for the development of embryos and normal membrane structures of chloroplasts and mitochondria. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The fungal α-aminoadipate pathway for lysine biosynthesis requires two enzymes of the aconitase family for the isomerization of homocitrate to homoisocitrate

    PubMed Central

    Fazius, Felicitas; Shelest, Ekaterina; Gebhardt, Peter; Brock, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Fungi produce α-aminoadipate, a precursor for penicillin and lysine via the α-aminoadipate pathway. Despite the biotechnological importance of this pathway, the essential isomerization of homocitrate via homoaconitate to homoisocitrate has hardly been studied. Therefore, we analysed the role of homoaconitases and aconitases in this isomerization. Although we confirmed an essential contribution of homoaconitases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus fumigatus, these enzymes only catalysed the interconversion between homoaconitate and homoisocitrate. In contrast, aconitases from fungi and the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus converted homocitrate to homoaconitate. Additionally, a single aconitase appears essential for energy metabolism, glutamate and lysine biosynthesis in respirating filamentous fungi, but not in the fermenting yeast S. cerevisiae that possesses two contributing aconitases. While yeast Aco1p is essential for the citric acid cycle and, thus, for glutamate synthesis, Aco2p specifically and exclusively contributes to lysine biosynthesis. In contrast, Aco2p homologues present in filamentous fungi were transcribed, but enzymatically inactive, revealed no altered phenotype when deleted and did not complement yeast aconitase mutants. From these results we conclude that the essential requirement of filamentous fungi for respiration versus the preference of yeasts for fermentation may have directed the evolution of aconitases contributing to energy metabolism and lysine biosynthesis. PMID:23106124

  1. LCAA, a Novel Factor Required for Magnesium Protoporphyrin Monomethylester Cyclase Accumulation and Feedback Control of Aminolevulinic Acid Biosynthesis in Tobacco1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Albus, Christin Anne; Salinas, Annabel; Czarnecki, Olaf; Kahlau, Sabine; Rothbart, Maxi; Thiele, Wolfram; Lein, Wolfgang; Bock, Ralph; Grimm, Bernhard; Schöttler, Mark Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Low Chlorophyll Accumulation A (LCAA) antisense plants were obtained from a screen for genes whose partial down-regulation results in a strong chlorophyll deficiency in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The LCAA mutants are affected in a plastid-localized protein of unknown function, which is conserved in cyanobacteria and all photosynthetic eukaryotes. They suffer from drastically reduced light-harvesting complex (LHC) contents, while the accumulation of all other photosynthetic complexes per leaf area is less affected. As the disturbed accumulation of LHC proteins could be either attributable to a defect in LHC biogenesis itself or to a bottleneck in chlorophyll biosynthesis, chlorophyll synthesis rates and chlorophyll synthesis intermediates were measured. LCAA antisense plants accumulate magnesium (Mg) protoporphyrin monomethylester and contain reduced protochlorophyllide levels and a reduced content of CHL27, a subunit of the Mg protoporphyrin monomethylester cyclase. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirm a direct interaction between LCAA and CHL27. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthesis rates are increased and correlate with an increased content of glutamyl-transfer RNA reductase. We suggest that LCAA encodes an additional subunit of the Mg protoporphyrin monomethylester cyclase, is required for the stability of CHL27, and contributes to feedback-control of 5-aminolevulinic acid biosynthesis, the rate-limiting step of chlorophyll biosynthesis. PMID:23085838

  2. Genetic Localization and Molecular Characterization of the nonS Gene Required for Macrotetrolide Biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus DSM40695

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wyatt C.; Xiang, Longkuan; Shen, Ben

    2000-01-01

    The macrotetrolides are a family of cyclic polyethers derived from tetramerization, in a stereospecific fashion, of the enantiomeric nonactic acid (NA) and its homologs. Isotope labeling experiments established that NA is of polyketide origin, and biochemical investigations demonstrated that 2-methyl-6,8-dihydroxynon-2E-enoic acid can be converted into NA by a cell-free preparation from Streptomyces lividans that expresses nonS. These results lead to the hypothesis that macrotetrolide biosynthesis involves a pair of enantiospecific polyketide pathways. In this work, a 55-kb contiguous DNA region was cloned from Streptomyces griseus DSM40695, a 6.3-kb fragment of which was sequenced to reveal five open reading frames, including the previously reported nonR and nonS genes. Inactivation of nonS in vivo completely abolished macrotetrolide production. Complementation of the nonS mutant by the expression of nonS in trans fully restored its macrotetrolide production ability, with a distribution of individual macrotetrolides similar to that for the wild-type producer. In contrast, fermentation of the nonS mutant in the presence of exogenous (±)-NA resulted in the production of nonactin, monactin, and dinactin but not in the production of trinactin and tetranactin. These results prove the direct involvement of nonS in macrotetrolide biosynthesis. The difference in macrotetrolide production between in vivo complementation of the nonS mutant by the plasmid-borne nonS gene and fermentation of the nonS mutant in the presence of exogenously added (±)-NA suggests that NonS catalyzes the formation of (−)-NA and its homologs, supporting the existence of a pair of enantiospecific polyketide pathways for macrotetrolide biosynthesis in S. griseus. The latter should provide a model that can be used to study the mechanism by which polyketide synthase controls stereochemistry during polyketide biosynthesis. PMID:10858335

  3. Viral serine palmitoyltransferase induces metabolic switch in sphingolipid biosynthesis and is required for infection of a marine alga

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Carmit; Malitsky, Sergey; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Wei, Yu; Zheng, Shuning; Aharoni, Asaph; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Marine viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans shaping community structure and nutrient cycling. The interaction between the bloom-forming alga Emiliania huxleyi and its specific large dsDNA virus (EhV) is a major factor determining the fate of carbon in the ocean, thus serving as a key host-pathogen model system. The EhV genome encodes for a set of genes involved in the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, not reported in any viral genome to date. We combined detailed lipidomic and biochemical analyses to characterize the functional role of this virus-encoded pathway during lytic viral infection. We identified a major metabolic shift, mediated by differential substrate specificity of virus-encoded serine palmitoyltransferase, a key enzyme of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Consequently, unique viral glycosphingolipids, composed of unusual hydroxylated C17 sphingoid bases (t17:0) were highly enriched in the infected cells, and their synthesis was found to be essential for viral assembly. These findings uncover the biochemical bases of the virus-induced metabolic rewiring of the host sphingolipid biosynthesis during the chemical “arms race” in the ocean. PMID:26984500

  4. De Novo Sphingolipid Synthesis Is Essential for Viability, but Not for Transport of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins, in African Trypanosomes▿

    PubMed Central

    Sutterwala, Shaheen S.; Creswell, Caleb H.; Sanyal, Sumana; Menon, Anant K.; Bangs, James D.

    2007-01-01

    De novo sphingolipid synthesis is required for the exit of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast. Using a pharmacological approach, we test the generality of this phenomenon by analyzing the transport of GPI-anchored cargo in widely divergent eukaryotic systems represented by African trypanosomes and HeLa cells. Myriocin, which blocks the first step of sphingolipid synthesis (serine + palmitate → 3-ketodihydrosphingosine), inhibited the growth of cultured bloodstream parasites, and growth was rescued with exogenous 3-ketodihydrosphingosine. Myriocin also blocked metabolic incorporation of [3H]serine into base-resistant sphingolipids. Biochemical analyses indicate that the radiolabeled lipids are not sphingomyelin or inositol phosphorylceramide, suggesting that bloodstream trypanosomes synthesize novel sphingolipids. Inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis with myriocin had no adverse effect on either general secretory trafficking or GPI-dependent trafficking in trypanosomes, and similar results were obtained with HeLa cells. A mild effect on endocytosis was seen for bloodstream trypanosomes after prolonged incubation with myriocin. These results indicate that de novo synthesis of sphingolipids is not a general requirement for secretory trafficking in eukaryotic cells. However, in contrast to the closely related kinetoplastid Leishmania major, de novo sphingolipid synthesis is essential for the viability of bloodstream-stage African trypanosomes. PMID:17220466

  5. The Myxococcus xanthus rfbABC operon encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter homolog required for O-antigen biosynthesis and multicellular development.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, D; Bowden, M G; Pershad, R; Kaplan, H B

    1996-01-01

    A wild-type sasA locus is critical for Myxococcus xanthus multicellular development. Mutations in the sasA locus cause defective fruiting body formation, reduce sporulation, and restore developmental expression of the early A-signal-dependent gene 4521 in the absence of A signal. The wild-type sasA locus has been located on a 14-kb cloned fragment of the M. xanthus chromosome. The nucleotide sequence of a 7-kb region containing the complete sasA locus was determined. Three open reading frames encoded by the genes, designated rfbA, B and C were identified. The deduced amino acid sequences of rfbA and rfbB show identity to the integral membrane domains and ATPase domains, respectively, of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. The highest identities are to a set of predicted ABC transporters required for the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen in certain gram-negative bacteria. The rfbC gene encodes a predicted protein of 1,276 amino acids. This predicted protein contains a region of 358 amino acids that is 33.8% identical to the Yersinia enterocolitica O3 rfbH gene product, which is also required for O-antigen biosynthesis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the sasA1 mutant, which was found to encode a nonsense codon in the beginning of rfbA, produced less O-antigen than sasA+ strains. These data indicate that the sasA locus is required for the biosynthesis of O-antigen and, when mutated, results in A-signal-independent expression of 4521. PMID:8626291

  6. Cloning and characterization of the Streptomyces peucetius dnmZUV genes encoding three enzymes required for biosynthesis of the daunorubicin precursor thymidine diphospho-L-daunosamine.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, S L; Gallo, M A; Madduri, K; Liu, X; Hutchinson, C R

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of the dnmZ, dnmU, and dnmV genes from the daunorubicin-producer Streptomyces peucetius by DNA sequence analysis indicated that these genes encode a protein of unknown function plus a putative thymidine diphospho-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose-3(5)-epimerase and thymidine diphospho-4-ketodeoxyhexulose reductase, respectively. Inactivation of each of the three genes by gene disruption and replacement in the wild-type strain demonstrated that all of them are required for daunosamine biosynthesis. PMID:9209071

  7. Metabolic Network for the Biosynthesis of Intra- and Extracellular α-Glucans Required for Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    van de Weerd, Robert; Chandra, Govind; Appelmelk, Ben; Alber, Marina; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Jacobs, William R.; Geurtsen, Jeroen; Bornemann, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesizes intra- and extracellular α-glucans that were believed to originate from separate pathways. The extracellular glucose polymer is the main constituent of the mycobacterial capsule that is thought to be involved in immune evasion and virulence. However, the role of the α-glucan capsule in pathogenesis has remained enigmatic due to an incomplete understanding of α-glucan biosynthetic pathways preventing the generation of capsule-deficient mutants. Three separate and potentially redundant pathways had been implicated in α-glucan biosynthesis in mycobacteria: the GlgC-GlgA, the Rv3032 and the TreS-Pep2-GlgE pathways. We now show that α-glucan in mycobacteria is exclusively assembled intracellularly utilizing the building block α-maltose-1-phosphate as the substrate for the maltosyltransferase GlgE, with subsequent branching of the polymer by the branching enzyme GlgB. Some α-glucan is exported to form the α-glucan capsule. There is an unexpected convergence of the TreS-Pep2 and GlgC-GlgA pathways that both generate α-maltose-1-phosphate. While the TreS-Pep2 route from trehalose was already known, we have now established that GlgA forms this phosphosugar from ADP-glucose and glucose 1-phosphate 1000-fold more efficiently than its hitherto described glycogen synthase activity. The two routes are connected by the common precursor ADP-glucose, allowing compensatory flux from one route to the other. Having elucidated this unexpected configuration of the metabolic pathways underlying α-glucan biosynthesis in mycobacteria, an M. tuberculosis double mutant devoid of α-glucan could be constructed, showing a direct link between the GlgE pathway, α-glucan biosynthesis and virulence in a mouse infection model. PMID:27513637

  8. Identification of a gene required for the formation of lyso-ornithine lipid, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of ornithine-containing lipids.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Lian; Weissenmayer, Barbara; Taylor, Adrian M; Thomas-Oates, Jane; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2004-09-01

    Under phosphate-limiting conditions, some bacteria replace their membrane phospholipids by lipids not containing any phosphorus. One of these phosphorus-free lipids is an ornithine-containing lipid (OL) that is widespread among eubacteria. In earlier work, we had identified a gene (olsA) required for OL biosynthesis that probably encodes an O-acyltransferase using acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-AcpP) as an acyl donor and that converts lyso-ornithine lipid into OL. We now report on a second gene (olsB) required for OL biosynthesis that is needed for the incorporation of radiolabelled ornithine into OL. Overexpression of OlsB in an olsA-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium (Rhizobium) meliloti leads to the transient accumulation of lyso-ornithine lipid, the biosynthetic intermediate of OL biosynthesis. Overexpression of OlsB in Escherichia coli is sufficient to cause the in vivo formation of lyso-ornithine lipid in this organism and is the cause for a 3-hydroxyacyl-AcpP-dependent acyltransferase activity forming lyso-ornithine lipid from ornithine. These results demonstrate that OlsB is required for the first step of OL biosynthesis, in which ornithine is N-acylated with a 3-hydroxy-fatty acyl residue in order to obtain lyso-ornithine lipid. OL formation in a wild-type S. meliloti is increased upon growth under phosphate-limiting conditions. Expression of OlsB from a broad host range vector leads to the constitutive formation of relatively high amounts of OL (12-14% of total membrane lipids) independently of whether strains are grown in the presence of low or high concentrations of phosphate, suggesting that in S. meliloti the formation of OlsB is usually limiting for the amount of OL formed in this organism. Open reading frames homologous to OlsA and OlsB were identified in many eubacteria and although in S. meliloti the olsB and olsA gene are 14 kb apart, in numerous other bacteria they form an operon.

  9. Removal of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor from PrP(Sc) by cathepsin D does not reduce prion infectivity.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Patrick A; Properzi, Francesca; Prodromidou, Kanella; Clarke, Anthony R; Collinge, John; Jackson, Graham S

    2006-04-15

    According to the protein-only hypothesis of prion propagation, prions are composed principally of PrP(Sc), an abnormal conformational isoform of the prion protein, which, like its normal cellular precursor (PrP(C)), has a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor at the C-terminus. To date, elucidating the role of this anchor on the infectivity of prion preparations has not been possible because of the resistance of PrP(Sc) to the activity of PI-PLC (phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C), an enzyme which removes the GPI moiety from PrP(C). Removal of the GPI anchor from PrP(Sc) requires denaturation before treatment with PI-PLC, a process that also abolishes infectivity. To circumvent this problem, we have removed the GPI anchor from PrP(Sc) in RML (Rocky Mountain Laboratory)-prion-infected murine brain homogenate using the aspartic endoprotease cathepsin D. This enzyme eliminates a short sequence at the C-terminal end of PrP to which the GPI anchor is attached. We found that this modification has no effect (i) on an in vitro amplification model of PrP(Sc), (ii) on the prion titre as determined by a highly sensitive N2a-cell based bioassay, or (iii) in a mouse bioassay. These results show that the GPI anchor has little or no role in either the propagation of PrP(Sc) or on prion infectivity.

  10. Lipid-induced insulin resistance mediated by the proinflammatory receptor TLR4 requires saturated fatty acid-induced ceramide biosynthesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Holland, William L; Bikman, Benjamin T; Wang, Li-Ping; Yuguang, Guan; Sargent, Katherine M; Bulchand, Sarada; Knotts, Trina A; Shui, Guanghou; Clegg, Deborah J; Wenk, Markus R; Pagliassotti, Michael J; Scherer, Philipp E; Summers, Scott A

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is associated with an enhanced inflammatory response that exacerbates insulin resistance and contributes to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. One mechanism accounting for the increased inflammation associated with obesity is activation of the innate immune signaling pathway triggered by TLR4 recognition of saturated fatty acids, an event that is essential for lipid-induced insulin resistance. Using in vitro and in vivo systems to model lipid induction of TLR4-dependent inflammatory events in rodents, we show here that TLR4 is an upstream signaling component required for saturated fatty acid-induced ceramide biosynthesis. This increase in ceramide production was associated with the upregulation of genes driving ceramide biosynthesis, an event dependent of the activity of the proinflammatory kinase IKKβ. Importantly, increased ceramide production was not required for TLR4-dependent induction of inflammatory cytokines, but it was essential for TLR4-dependent insulin resistance. These findings suggest that sphingolipids such as ceramide might be key components of the signaling networks that link lipid-induced inflammatory pathways to the antagonism of insulin action that contributes to diabetes.

  11. Lipid-induced insulin resistance mediated by the proinflammatory receptor TLR4 requires saturated fatty acid–induced ceramide biosynthesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Holland, William L.; Bikman, Benjamin T.; Wang, Li-Ping; Yuguang, Guan; Sargent, Katherine M.; Bulchand, Sarada; Knotts, Trina A.; Shui, Guanghou; Clegg, Deborah J.; Wenk, Markus R.; Pagliassotti, Michael J.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Summers, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an enhanced inflammatory response that exacerbates insulin resistance and contributes to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. One mechanism accounting for the increased inflammation associated with obesity is activation of the innate immune signaling pathway triggered by TLR4 recognition of saturated fatty acids, an event that is essential for lipid-induced insulin resistance. Using in vitro and in vivo systems to model lipid induction of TLR4-dependent inflammatory events in rodents, we show here that TLR4 is an upstream signaling component required for saturated fatty acid–induced ceramide biosynthesis. This increase in ceramide production was associated with the upregulation of genes driving ceramide biosynthesis, an event dependent of the activity of the proinflammatory kinase IKKβ. Importantly, increased ceramide production was not required for TLR4-dependent induction of inflammatory cytokines, but it was essential for TLR4-dependent insulin resistance. These findings suggest that sphingolipids such as ceramide might be key components of the signaling networks that link lipid-induced inflammatory pathways to the antagonism of insulin action that contributes to diabetes. PMID:21490391

  12. Cotton S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase-mediated spermine biosynthesis is required for salicylic acid- and leucine-correlated signaling in the defense response to Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Mo, Hui-Juan; Sun, Yan-Xiang; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xing-Fen; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jun; Yan, Gui-Jun; Ma, Zhi-Ying

    2016-04-01

    Cotton S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase-, rather than spermine synthase-, mediated spermine biosynthesis is required for salicylic acid- and leucine-correlated signaling in the defense response to Verticillium dahliae. Spermine (Spm) signaling is correlated with plant resistance to the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. We identified genes for key rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of Spm, namely S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (GhSAMDC) and Spm synthase (GhSPMS). These were found by screening suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA libraries of cotton (Gossypium) species tolerant to Verticillium wilt. Both were induced early and strongly by inoculation with V. dahliae and application of plant hormones. Silencing of GhSPMS or GhSAMDC in cotton leaves led to a significant accumulation of upstream substrates and, ultimately, enhanced plant susceptibility to Verticillium infection. Exogenous supplementation of Spm to the silenced cotton plants improved resistance. When compared with the wild type (WT), constitutive expression of GhSAMDC in Arabidopsis thaliana was associated with greater Verticillium wilt resistance and higher accumulations of Spm, salicylic acid, and leucine during the infection period. By contrast, transgenic Arabidopsis plants that over-expressed GhSPMS were unexpectedly more susceptible than the WT to V. dahliae and they also had impaired levels of putrescine (Put) and salicylic acid (SA). The susceptibility exhibited in GhSPMS-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants was partially reversed by the exogenous supply of Put or SA. In addition, the responsiveness of those two transgenic Arabidopsis lines to V. dahliae was associated with an alteration in transcripts of genes involved in plant resistance to epidermal penetrations and amino acid signaling. Together, these results suggest that GhSAMDC-, rather than GhSPMS-, mediated spermine biosynthesis contributes to plant resistance against V. dahliae through SA- and leucine

  13. PhDAHP1 is required for floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Petunia × hybrida cv 'Mitchell Diploid'.

    PubMed

    Langer, Kelly M; Jones, Correy R; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Rushing, Gabrielle V; Kim, Joo Young; Clark, David G; Colquhoun, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis consists of numerous enzymatic and regulatory processes. The initial enzymatic step bridging primary metabolism to secondary metabolism is the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P) carried out via 3-DEOXY-D-ARABINO-HEPTULOSONATE-7-PHOSPHATE (DAHP) synthase. Here, identified, cloned, localized, and functionally characterized were two DAHP synthases from the model plant species Petunia × hybrida cv 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD). Full-length transcript sequences for PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 were identified and cloned using cDNA SMART libraries constructed from pooled MD corolla and leaf total RNA. Predicted amino acid sequence of PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins were 76% and 80% identical to AtDAHP1 and AtDAHP2 from Arabidopsis, respectively. PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to relatively highest levels in petal limb and tube tissues, while PhDAHP2 accumulated to highest levels in leaf and stem tissues. Through floral development, PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to highest levels during open flower stages, and PhDAHP2 transcript remained constitutive throughout. Radiolabeled PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins localized to plastids, however, PhDAHP2 localization appeared less efficient. PhDAHP1 RNAi knockdown petunia lines were reduced in total FVBP emission compared to MD, while PhDAHP2 RNAi lines emitted 'wildtype' FVBP levels. These results demonstrate that PhDAHP1 is the principal DAHP synthase protein responsible for the coupling of metabolites from primary metabolism to secondary metabolism, and the ultimate biosynthesis of FVBPs in the MD flower. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GWT1 encoding an inositol acyltransferase homolog is required for laccase repression and stress resistance in the basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Wei, Dongsheng; Li, Zhongming; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Xudong

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional expression of laccase, which has been confirmed to contribute to the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans, is often repressed by a high concentration of glucose in many fungi, including C. neoformans. The underlying mechanism of the repression remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that a GWT1 gene that encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis-related protein is required for laccase repression by glucose in the basidiomycete C. neoformans. Disruption of GWT1 with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated T-DNA random insertional mutagenesis (ATMT) method resulted in constitutive expression of the laccase gene LAC1 and constant melanin formation. The loss of GWT1 also dramatically affected the cell membrane integrity and stress resistance. Our results revealed a GPI-dependent glucose repression mechanism in C. neoformans, and it may be helpful for understanding the virulence of C. neoformans.

  15. Auxin Import and Local Auxin Biosynthesis Are Required for Mitotic Divisions, Cell Expansion and Cell Specification during Female Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Panoli, Aneesh; Martin, Maria Victoria; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Simon, Marissa; Neff, Christina; Swarup, Ranjan; Bellido, Andrés; Yuan, Li; Pagnussat, Gabriela C; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2) are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development.

  16. Two Polyketide Synthase-encoding Genes are Required for Biosynthesis of the Polyketide Virulence Factor, T-toxin, by Cochliobolus heterostrophus

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Kroken, Scott; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Asvarak, Thipa; Li, Bi-Yu; Shi, Liang; Yoder, Olen C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.

    2006-03-01

    Cochliobolus heterostrophus race T, causal agent of Southern Corn Leaf Blight, requires T-toxin (a family of C35 – C49 polyketides) for high virulence on T-cytoplasm maize. Production of T-toxin is controlled by two unlinked loci, Tox1A and Tox1B, carried on 1.2 Mb of DNA not found in race O, a mildly virulent form of the fungus that does not produce T-toxin, or in any other Cochliobolus spp. or closely related fungus. PKS1, a polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding gene at Tox1A and DEC1, a decarboxylase-encoding gene at Tox1B, are necessary for T-toxin production. Although there is evidence that additional genes are required for T-toxin production, efforts to clone them have been frustrated because the genes are located in highly repeated, A+T-rich DNA. To overcome this difficulty, Ligation specificity-based Expression Analysis Display (LEAD), a comparative AFLP/gel fractionation/capillary sequencing procedure was applied to cDNAs from a near isogenic pair of race T (Tox1+) and race O (Tox1-) strains. This led to discovery of PKS2, a second PKS-encoding gene that maps at Tox1A and is required for both T-toxin biosynthesis and high virulence to maize. Thus, the carbon chain of each T-toxin family member is likely assembled by action of two PKSs, which produce two polyketides, one of which may act as the starter unit for biosynthesis of the mature T-toxin molecule.

  17. Repression by H-NS of genes required for the biosynthesis of the Vibrio cholerae biofilm matrix is modulated by the second messenger cyclic diguanylic acid

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Julio C.; Wang, Hongxia; Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Expression of Vibrio cholerae genes required for the biosynthesis of exopolysacchide (vps) and protein (rbm) components of the biofilm matrix is enhanced by cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). In a previous study, we reported that the H-NS protein represses the transcription of vpsA, vpsL and vpsT. Here we demonstrate that the regulator VpsT can disrupt repressive H-NS nucleoprotein complexes at the vpsA and vpsL promoters in the presence of c-di-GMP while H-NS could disrupt the VpsT-promoter complexes in the absence of c-di-GMP. ChiP-Seq showed a remarkable trend for H-NS to cluster at loci involved in biofilm development such as the rbmABCDEF genes. We show that the antagonistic relationship between VpsT and H-NS regulates the expression of the rbmABCDEF cluster. Epistasis analysis demonstrated that VpsT functions as an antirepressor at the rbmA/F, vpsU and vpsA/L promoters. Deletion of vpsT increased H-NS occupancy at these promoters while increasing the c-di-GMP pool had the opposite effect and included the vpsT promoter. The negative effect of c-di-GMP on H-NS occupancy at the vpsT promoter required the regulator VpsR. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP activates the transcription of genes required for the biosynthesis of the biofilm matrix by triggering a coordinated VpsR- and VpsT-dependent H-NS antirepression cascade. PMID:25982817

  18. DasR is a pleiotropic regulator required for antibiotic production, pigment biosynthesis, and morphological development in Saccharopolyspora erythraea.

    PubMed

    Liao, Cheng-Heng; Xu, Ya; Rigali, Sébastien; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2015-12-01

    The GntR-family transcription regulator, DasR, was previously identified as pleiotropic, controlling the primary amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and chitin metabolism in Saccharopolyspora erythraea and Streptomyces coelicolor. Due to the remarkable regulatory impact of DasR on antibiotic production and development in the model strain of S. coelicolor, we here identified and characterized the role of DasR to secondary metabolite production and morphological development in industrial erythromycin-producing S. erythraea. The physiological studies have shown that a constructed deletion of dasR in S. erythraea resulted in antibiotic, pigment, and aerial hyphae production deficit in a nutrient-rich condition. DNA microarray assay, combined with quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), confirmed these results by showing the downregulation of the genes relating to secondary metabolite production in the dasR null mutant. Notably, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed DasR as being the first identified regulator that directly regulates the pigment biosynthesis rpp gene cluster. In addition, further studies indicated that GlcNAc, the major nutrient signal of DasR-responsed regulation, blocked secondary metabolite production and morphological development. The effects of GlcNAc were shown to be caused by DasR mediation. These findings demonstrated that DasR is an important pleiotropic regulator for both secondary metabolism and morphological development in S. erythraea, providing new insights for the genetic engineering of S. erythraea with increased erythromycin production.

  19. Synthesis of Chromone, Quinolone, and Benzoxazinone Sulfonamide Nucleosides as Conformationally Constrained Inhibitors of Adenylating Enzymes Required for Siderophore Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Curtis A.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2013-01-01

    MbtA catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and is responsible for the incorporation of salicylic acid into the mycobactin siderophores. 5′-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS) is an extremely potent nucleoside inhibitor of MbtA that possesses excellent activity against whole-cell Mtb, but suffers from poor bioavailability. In an effort to improve the bioavailability, we have designed four conformationally constrained analogues of Sal-AMS that remove two rotatable bonds and the ionized sulfamate group based on computational and structural studies. Herein we describe the synthesis, biochemical, and microbiological evaluation of chromone-, quinolone-, and benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Sal-AMS. We developed new chemistry to assemble these three heterocycles from common β-ketosulfonamide intermediates. The synthesis of the chromone- and quinolone-3-sulfonamide intermediates features formylation of a β-ketosulfonamide employing dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal to afford an enaminone that can react intramolecularly with a phenol or intermolecularly with a primary amine via addition-elimination reaction(s). The benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide was prepared by nitrosation of a β-ketosulfonamide followed by intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Mitsunobu coupling of these bicyclic sulfonamides with a protected adenosine derivative followed by global deprotection provides a concise synthesis of the respective inhibitors. PMID:23805993

  20. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis in adult Blattella germanica requires nuclear receptors Seven-up and FTZ-F1

    PubMed Central

    Borras-Castells, Ferran; Nieva, Claudia; Maestro, José L.; Maestro, Oscar; Belles, Xavier; Martín, David

    2017-01-01

    In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity. Both factors are highly expressed in adult CA cells. Moreover, RNAi-knockdown of either BgSvp-B or BgFTZ-F1 results in adult animals with a complete block in two critical JH-dependent reproductive processes, vitellogenesis and oogenesis. We show that this reproductive blockage is the result of a dramatic impairment of JH biosynthesis, due to the CA-specific reduction in the expression of two key JH biosynthetic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase-1 (BgHMG-S1) and HMG-reductase (BgHMG-R). Our findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying the specific changes in the CA gland necessary for the proper transition to adulthood. PMID:28074850

  1. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis in adult Blattella germanica requires nuclear receptors Seven-up and FTZ-F1.

    PubMed

    Borras-Castells, Ferran; Nieva, Claudia; Maestro, José L; Maestro, Oscar; Belles, Xavier; Martín, David

    2017-01-11

    In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity. Both factors are highly expressed in adult CA cells. Moreover, RNAi-knockdown of either BgSvp-B or BgFTZ-F1 results in adult animals with a complete block in two critical JH-dependent reproductive processes, vitellogenesis and oogenesis. We show that this reproductive blockage is the result of a dramatic impairment of JH biosynthesis, due to the CA-specific reduction in the expression of two key JH biosynthetic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase-1 (BgHMG-S1) and HMG-reductase (BgHMG-R). Our findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying the specific changes in the CA gland necessary for the proper transition to adulthood.

  2. The Heme-Oxygenase Family Required for Phytochrome Chromophore Biosynthesis Is Necessary for Proper Photomorphogenesis in Higher Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Seth J.; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Durski, Adam M.; Walker, Joseph M.; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    The committed step in the biosynthesis of the phytochrome chromophore phytochromobilin involves the oxidative cleavage of heme by a heme oxygenase (HO) to form biliverdin IXα. Through positional cloning of the photomorphogenic mutant hy1, the Arabidopsis HO (designated AtHO1) responsible for much of phytochromobilin synthesis recently was identified. Using the AtHO1 sequence, we identified families of HO genes in a number of plants that cluster into two subfamilies (HO1- and HO2-like). The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) yg-2 and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia pew1 photomorphogenic mutants are defective in specific HO genes. Phenotypic analysis of a T-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis HO2 revealed that the second HO subfamily also contributes to phytochromobilin synthesis. Homozygous ho2-1 plants show decreased chlorophyll accumulation, reduced growth rate, accelerated flowering time, and reduced de-etiolation. A mixture of apo- and holo-phyA was detected in etiolated ho2-1 seedlings, suggesting that phytochromobilin is limiting in this mutant, even in the presence of functional AtHO1. The patterns of Arabidopsis HO1 and HO2 expression suggest that the products of both genes overlap temporally and spatially. Taken together, the family of HOs is important for phytochrome-mediated development in a number of plants and that each family member may uniquely contribute to the phytochromobilin pool needed to assemble holo-phytochromes. PMID:11402195

  3. Synthesis of chromone, quinolone, and benzoxazinone sulfonamide nucleosides as conformationally constrained inhibitors of adenylating enzymes required for siderophore biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, Curtis A; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2013-08-02

    MbtA catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and is responsible for the incorporation of salicylic acid into the mycobactin siderophores. 5'-O-[N-(Salicyl)sulfamoyl]adenosine (Sal-AMS) is an extremely potent nucleoside inhibitor of MbtA that possesses excellent activity against whole-cell Mtb but suffers from poor bioavailability. In an effort to improve the bioavailability, we have designed four conformationally constrained analogues of Sal-AMS that remove two rotatable bonds and the ionized sulfamate group on the basis of computational and structural studies. Herein we describe the synthesis, biochemical, and microbiological evaluation of chromone-, quinolone-, and benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide derivatives of Sal-AMS. We developed new chemistry to assemble these three heterocycles from common β-ketosulfonamide intermediates. The synthesis of the chromone- and quinolone-3-sulfonamide intermediates features formylation of a β-ketosulfonamide employing dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal to afford an enaminone that can react intramolecularly with a phenol or intermolecularly with a primary amine via addition-elimination reaction(s). The benzoxazinone-3-sulfonamide was prepared by nitrosation of a β-ketosulfonamide followed by intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Mitsunobu coupling of these bicyclic sulfonamides with a protected adenosine derivative followed by global deprotection provides a concise synthesis of the respective inhibitors.

  4. Auxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunde

    2014-01-01

    lndole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most important natural auxin in plants, is mainly synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan (Trp). Recent genetic and biochemical studies in Arabidopsis have unambiguously established the first complete Trp-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway. The first chemical step of auxin biosynthesis is the removal of the amino group from Trp by the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS (TAA) family of transaminases to generate indole-3-pyruvate (IPA). IPA then undergoes oxidative decarboxylation catalyzed by the YUCCA (YUC) family of flavin monooxygenases to produce IAA. This two-step auxin biosynthesis pathway is highly conserved throughout the plant kingdom and is essential for almost all of the major developmental processes. The successful elucidation of a complete auxin biosynthesis pathway provides the necessary tools for effectively modulating auxin concentrations in plants with temporal and spatial precision. The progress in auxin biosynthesis also lays a foundation for understanding polar auxin transport and for dissecting auxin signaling mechanisms during plant development. PMID:24955076

  5. Functional and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide Co-polymerase Proteins Required for Polymer Export in ATP-binding Cassette Transporter-dependent Capsule Biosynthesis Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Larue, Kane; Ford, Robert C.; Willis, Lisa M.; Whitfield, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and Escherichia coli K1 bacteria produce a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that is composed of α2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA). Biosynthesis of PSA in these bacteria occurs via an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter-dependent pathway. In N. meningitidis, export of PSA to the surface of the bacterium requires two proteins that form an ABC transporter (CtrC and CtrD) and two additional proteins, CtrA and CtrB, that are proposed to form a cell envelope-spanning export complex. CtrA is a member of the outer membrane polysaccharide export (OPX) family of proteins, which are proposed to form a pore to mediate export of CPSs across the outer membrane. CtrB is an inner membrane protein belonging to the polysaccharide co-polymerase (PCP) family. PCP proteins involved in other bacterial polysaccharide assembly systems form structures that extend into the periplasm from the inner membrane. There is currently no structural information available for PCP or OPX proteins involved in an ABC transporter-dependent CPS biosynthesis pathway to support their proposed roles in polysaccharide export. Here, we report cryo-EM images of purified CtrB reconstituted into lipid bilayers. These images contained molecular top and side views of CtrB and showed that it formed a conical oligomer that extended ∼125 Å from the membrane. This structure is consistent with CtrB functioning as a component of an envelope-spanning complex. Cross-complementation of CtrA and CtrB in E. coli mutants with defects in genes encoding the corresponding PCP and OPX proteins show that PCP-OPX pairs require interactions with their cognate partners to export polysaccharide. These experiments add further support for the model of an ABC transporter-PCP-OPX multiprotein complex that functions to export CPS across the cell envelope. PMID:21454677

  6. The Bifunctional Protein TtFARAT from Tetrahymena thermophila Catalyzes the Formation of both Precursors Required to Initiate Ether Lipid Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich-Domergue, Franziska; Joubès, Jérôme; Moreau, Patrick; Lessire, René; Stymne, Sten; Domergue, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis of ether lipids and wax esters requires as precursors fatty alcohols, which are synthesized by fatty acyl reductases (FARs). The presence of ether glycerolipids as well as branched wax esters has been reported in several free-living ciliate protozoa. In the genome of Tetrahymena thermophila, the only ORF sharing similarities with FARs is fused to an acyltransferase-like domain, whereas, in most other organisms, FARs are monofunctional proteins of similar size and domain structure. Here, we used heterologous expression in plant and yeast to functionally characterize the activities catalyzed by this protozoan protein. Transient expression in tobacco epidermis of a truncated form fused to the green fluorescence protein followed by confocal microscopy analysis suggested peroxisomal localization. In vivo approaches conducted in yeast indicated that the N-terminal FAR-like domain produced both 16:0 and 18:0 fatty alcohols, whereas the C-terminal acyltransferase-like domain was able to rescue the lethal phenotype of the yeast double mutant gat1Δ gat2Δ. Using in vitro approaches, we further demonstrated that this domain is a dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase that uses preferentially 16:0-coenzyme A as an acyl donor. Finally, coexpression in yeast with the alkyl-dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase from T. thermophila resulted the detection of various glycerolipids with an ether bond, indicating reconstitution of the ether lipid biosynthetic pathway. Together, these results demonstrate that this FAR-like protein is peroxisomal and bifunctional, providing both substrates required by alkyl-dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase to initiate ether lipid biosynthesis. PMID:24917677

  7. CYP93G2 Is a Flavanone 2-Hydroxylase Required for C-Glycosylflavone Biosynthesis in Rice1[W

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yegang; Chu, Hung; Chu, Ivan K.; Lo, Clive

    2010-01-01

    C-Glycosylflavones are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, and many of them have beneficial effects on human health. They are a special group of flavonoid glycosides in which the sugars are C-linked to the flavone skeleton. It has been long presumed that C-glycosylflavones have a different biosynthetic origin from O-glycosylflavonoids. In rice (Oryza sativa), a C-glucosyltransferase (OsCGT) that accepts 2-hydroxyflavanone substrates and a dehydratase activity that selectively converts C-glucosyl-2-hydroxyflavanones to 6C-glucosylflavones were recently described. In this study, we provide in vitro and in planta evidence that the rice P450 CYP93G2 protein encoded by Os06g01250 is a functional flavanone 2-hydroxylase. CYP93G2 is related to the CYP93B subfamily, which consists of dicot flavone synthase II enzymes. In the presence of NADPH, recombinant CYP93G2 converts naringenin and eriodictyol to the corresponding 2-hydroxyflavanones. In addition, CYP93G2 generates 2-hydroxyflavanones, which are modified by O-glycosylation in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Coexpression of CYP93G2 and OsCGT in Arabidopsis resulted in the production of C-glucosyl-2-hydroxyflavanones in the dibenzoylmethane tautomeric form. The same structure was reported previously for the in vitro OsCGT reaction products. Thus, CYP93G2 generates 2-hydroxyflavanone substrates from flavanones for C-glucosylation by OsCGT in planta. Furthermore, knocking down Os06g01250 in rice (O. sativa subsp. japonica 'Zhonghua 11') preferentially depleted the accumulation of C-glycosylapigenin, C-glycosylluteolin, and C-glycosylchrysoeriol but did not affect the levels of tricin, which is frequently present as O-glycosides in cereals. Taken together, our work conclusively assigned CYP93G2 as the first enzyme that channels flavanones to C-glycosylflavone biosynthesis in rice. PMID:20647377

  8. Two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encoding GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase are required for ascorbate biosynthesis and seedling viability.

    PubMed

    Dowdle, John; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Gatzek, Stephan; Rolinski, Susanne; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2007-11-01

    Plants synthesize ascorbate from guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-mannose via L-galactose/L-gulose, although uronic acids have also been proposed as precursors. Genes encoding all the enzymes of the GDP-mannose pathway have previously been identified, with the exception of the step that converts GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-P. We show that a GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene, catalyses this step in the ascorbate biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, a homologue of VTC2, At5g55120, encodes a second GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase with similar properties to VTC2. Two At5g55120 T-DNA insertion mutants (vtc5-1 and vtc5-2) have 80% of the wild-type ascorbate level. Double mutants were produced by crossing the loss-of-function vtc2-1 mutant with each of the two vtc5 alleles. These show growth arrest immediately upon germination and the cotyledons subsequently bleach. Normal growth was restored by supplementation with ascorbate or L-galactose, indicating that both enzymes are necessary for ascorbate generation. vtc2-1 leaves contain more mannose 6-P than wild-type. We conclude that the GDP-mannose pathway is the only significant source of ascorbate in A. thaliana seedlings, and that ascorbate is essential for seedling growth. A. thaliana leaves accumulate more ascorbate after acclimatization to high light intensity. VTC2 expression and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase activity rapidly increase on transfer to high light, but the activity of other enzymes in the GDP-mannose pathway is little affected. VTC2 and At5g55120 (VTC5) expression also peak in at the beginning of the light cycle and are controlled by the circadian clock. The GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase step may therefore play an important role in controlling ascorbate biosynthesis.

  9. A Bifunctional Locus (BIO3-BIO1) Required for Biotin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Muralla, Rosanna; Chen, Elve; Sweeney, Colleen; Gray, Jennifer A.; Dickerman, Allan; Nikolau, Basil J.; Meinke, David

    2008-01-01

    We identify here the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene encoding the third enzyme in the biotin biosynthetic pathway, dethiobiotin synthetase (BIO3; At5g57600). This gene is positioned immediately upstream of BIO1, which is known to be associated with the second reaction in the pathway. Reverse genetic analysis demonstrates that bio3 insertion mutants have a similar phenotype to the bio1 and bio2 auxotrophs identified using forward genetic screens for arrested embryos rescued on enriched nutrient medium. Unexpectedly, bio3 and bio1 mutants define a single genetic complementation group. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrates that separate BIO3 and BIO1 transcripts and two different types of chimeric BIO3-BIO1 transcripts are produced. Consistent with genetic data, one of the fused transcripts is monocistronic and encodes a bifunctional fusion protein. A splice variant is bicistronic, with distinct but overlapping reading frames. The dual functionality of the monocistronic transcript was confirmed by complementing the orthologous auxotrophs of Escherichia coli (bioD and bioA). BIO3-BIO1 transcripts from other plants provide further evidence for differential splicing, existence of a fusion protein, and localization of both enzymatic reactions to mitochondria. In contrast to most biosynthetic enzymes in eukaryotes, which are encoded by genes dispersed throughout the genome, biotin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis provides an intriguing example of a bifunctional locus that catalyzes two sequential reactions in the same metabolic pathway. This complex locus exhibits several unusual features that distinguish it from biotin operons in bacteria and from other genes known to encode bifunctional enzymes in plants. PMID:17993549

  10. The silkworm glutathione S-transferase gene noppera-bo is required for ecdysteroid biosynthesis and larval development.

    PubMed

    Enya, Sora; Daimon, Takaaki; Igarashi, Fumihiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Uchibori, Miwa; Sezutsu, Hideki; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2015-06-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are tightly controlled by ecdysteroids, which are important steroid hormones that are synthesized from dietary sterols in the prothoracic gland. One of the ecdysteroidogenic genes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is noppera-bo (nobo), also known as GSTe14, which encodes a member of the epsilon class of glutathione S-transferases. In D. melanogaster, nobo plays a crucial role in utilizing cholesterol via regulating its transport and/or metabolism in the prothoracic gland. However, it is still not known whether the orthologs of nobo from other insects are also involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis via cholesterol transport and/or metabolism in the prothoracic gland. Here we report genetic evidence showing that the silkworm Bombyx mori ortholog of nobo (nobo-Bm; GSTe7) is essential for silkworm development. nobo-Bm is predominantly expressed in the prothoracic gland. To assess the functional importance of nobo-Bm, we generated a B. mori genetic mutant of nobo-Bm using TALEN-mediated genome editing. We show that loss of nobo-Bm function causes larval arrest and a glossy cuticle phenotype, which are rescued by the application of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Moreover, the prothoracic gland cells isolated from the nobo-Bm mutant exhibit an abnormal accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, a cholesterol metabolite. These results suggest that the nobo family of glutathione S-transferases is essential for development and for the regulation of sterol utilization in the prothoracic gland in not only the Diptera but also the Lepidoptera. On the other hand, loss of nobo function mutants of D. melanogaster and B. mori abnormally accumulates different sterols, implying that the sterol utilization in the PG is somewhat different between these two insect species.

  11. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers.

    PubMed

    Roze, Ludmila V; Hong, Sung-Yong; Linz, John E

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

  12. Repression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 polypeptide biosynthesis requires chronic agonist exposure.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J D; Barnes, E M

    1997-06-27

    Although it is well established that the number of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors declines in cortical neurons exposed to GABAA receptor agonists, the mechanisms responsible for this use-dependent down-regulation remain unclear. Two hypotheses have been proposed: (i) agonist-evoked sequestration and degradation of surface GABAA receptors and (ii) repression of receptor subunit biosynthesis. We have addressed this problem using [35S]Met/Cys pulse-chase labeling of chick cortical neurons in culture and immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with an antibody (RP4) directed against a GABAA receptor alpha1-(331-381) fusion protein. Exposure of the cells to GABA or isoguvacine for 2 h to 4 days had no effect on the initial rate of 35S incorporation into the GABAA receptor 51-kDa alpha1 polypeptide, but this rate declined by 33% after a 7-day treatment. This is consistent with a previous report (Baumgartner, B. J., Harvey, R. J., Darlison, M. G., and Barnes, E. M. (1994) Mol. Brain Res. 26, 9-17) that a 7-day GABA treatment of this preparation produced a 45% reduction in the alpha1 subunit mRNA level, while a 4-day exposure had no detectable effect. On the other hand, after a 4-day exposure to these agonists, a 30% reduction in the level of the alpha1 polypeptide was observed on immunoblots, similar to that found previously for down-regulation of GABAA receptor ligand-binding sites. Thus, the de novo synthesis of GABAA receptor alpha1 subunits is subject to a delayed use-dependent repression that was observed after, rather than before, the decline in neuronal levels of the polypeptide. Pulse-chase experiments showed a monophasic degradation of the GABAA receptor 35S-alpha1 subunit with a t1/2 = 7.7 h, a process that was unaffected by the addition of GABA to neurons during the chase period. These nascent 35S-labeled polypeptides are presumably diluted into the neuronal pool of unlabeled unassembled alpha1 subunits, which was found to exceed by a 4:1 molar

  13. SUPERKILLER Complex Components Are Required for the RNA Exosome-Mediated Control of Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Inflorescence Stems1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lifang; Kunst, Ljerka

    2016-01-01

    ECERIFERUM7 (CER7)/AtRRP45B core subunit of the exosome, the main cellular 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease, is a positive regulator of cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stems. CER7-dependent exosome activity determines stem wax load by controlling transcript levels of the wax-related gene CER3. Characterization of the second-site suppressors of the cer7 mutant revealed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are direct effectors of CER3 expression. To explore the relationship between the exosome and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in regulating CER3 transcript levels, we investigated two additional suppressor mutants, wax restorer1 (war1) and war7. We show that WAR1 and WAR7 encode Arabidopsis SUPERKILLER3 (AtSKI3) and AtSKI2, respectively, components of the SKI complex that associates with the exosome during cytoplasmic 3′-to-5′ RNA degradation, and that CER7-dependent regulation of wax biosynthesis also requires participation of AtSKI8. Our study further reveals that it is the impairment of the exosome-mediated 3′-5′ decay of CER3 transcript in the cer7 mutant that triggers extensive production of siRNAs and efficient PTGS of CER3. This identifies PTGS as a general mechanism for eliminating highly abundant endogenous transcripts that is activated when 3′-to-5′ mRNA turnover by the exosome is disrupted. Diminished efficiency of PTGS in ski mutants compared with cer7, as evidenced by lower accumulation of CER3-related siRNAs, suggests that reduced amounts of CER3 transcript are available for siRNA synthesis, possibly because CER3 mRNA that does not interact with SKI is degraded by 5′-to-3′ XRN4 exoribonuclease. PMID:27208312

  14. Xanthomonas campestris FabH is required for branched-chain fatty acid and DSF-family quorum sensing signal biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong-Hong; Hu, Zhe; Dong, Hui-Juan; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium, causes black rot disease of cruciferous vegetables. Although Xcc has a complex fatty acid profile comprised of straight-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), and encodes a complete set of genes required for fatty acid synthesis, there is still little known about the mechanism of BCFA synthesis. We reported that expression of Xcc fabH restores the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum fabH mutant, and this allows the R. solanacearum fabH mutant to produce BCFAs. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that Xcc FabH is able to condense branched-chain acyl-CoAs with malonyl-ACP to initiate BCFA synthesis. Moreover, although the fabH gene is essential for growth of Xcc, it can be replaced with Escherichia coli fabH, and Xcc mutants failed to produce BCFAs. These results suggest that Xcc does not have an obligatory requirement for BCFAs. Furthermore, Xcc mutants lost the ability to produce cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid, a diffusible signal factor (DSF) required for quorum sensing of Xcc, which confirms that the fatty acid synthetic pathway supplies the intermediates for DSF signal biosynthesis. Our study also showed that replacing Xcc fabH with E. coli fabH affected Xcc pathogenesis in host plants. PMID:27595587

  15. Xanthomonas campestris FabH is required for branched-chain fatty acid and DSF-family quorum sensing signal biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong-Hong; Hu, Zhe; Dong, Hui-Juan; Ma, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2016-09-06

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium, causes black rot disease of cruciferous vegetables. Although Xcc has a complex fatty acid profile comprised of straight-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), and encodes a complete set of genes required for fatty acid synthesis, there is still little known about the mechanism of BCFA synthesis. We reported that expression of Xcc fabH restores the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum fabH mutant, and this allows the R. solanacearum fabH mutant to produce BCFAs. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that Xcc FabH is able to condense branched-chain acyl-CoAs with malonyl-ACP to initiate BCFA synthesis. Moreover, although the fabH gene is essential for growth of Xcc, it can be replaced with Escherichia coli fabH, and Xcc mutants failed to produce BCFAs. These results suggest that Xcc does not have an obligatory requirement for BCFAs. Furthermore, Xcc mutants lost the ability to produce cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid, a diffusible signal factor (DSF) required for quorum sensing of Xcc, which confirms that the fatty acid synthetic pathway supplies the intermediates for DSF signal biosynthesis. Our study also showed that replacing Xcc fabH with E. coli fabH affected Xcc pathogenesis in host plants.

  16. Trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Manuel; Riezman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, many cell surface proteins are attached to the plasma membrane via a glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) receive the GPI anchor as a conserved posttranslational modification in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). After anchor attachment, the GPI anchor is structurally remodeled to function as a transport signal that actively triggers the delivery of GPI-APs from the ER to the plasma membrane, via the Golgi apparatus. The structure and composition of the GPI anchor confer a special mode of interaction with membranes of GPI-APs within the lumen of secretory organelles that lead them to be differentially trafficked from other secretory membrane proteins. In this review, we examine the mechanisms by which GPI-APs are selectively transported through the secretory pathway, with special focus on the recent progress made in their actively regulated export from the ER and the trans-Golgi network. PMID:26450970

  17. Solution structure of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor glycan of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Homans, S.W.; Edge, C.J.; Ferguson, M.A.J.; Dwek, R.A.; Rademacher, T.W. )

    1989-04-04

    The average solution conformation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) has been determined by using a combination of two-dimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H NMR methods together with molecular orbital calculations and restrained molecular dynamics simulations. This allows the generation of a model to describe the orientation of the glycan with respect to the membrane. This shows that the glycan exists in an extended configuration along the plane of the membrane and spans an area of 600 {angstrom}{sup 2}, which is similar to the cross-sectional area of a monomeric N-terminal VSG domain. Taken together, these observations suggest a possible space-filling role for the GPI anchor that may maintain the integrity of the VSG coat. The potential importance of the GPI glycan as a chemotherapeutic target is discussed in light of these observations.

  18. Expression and immunological characterisation of Eimeria tenella glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigen-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Sue-Kim; Nathan, Sheila; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Eimeria tenella is the most pathogenic of the Eimeria species that infect chickens and causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigen-5 (SAG5) found on the surface of the parasite has been shown to activate the chicken's immune system. In this study, recombinant SAG5 was expressed, purified and used to investigate the immune-inducing characteristics of the molecule. Chickens were immunized with purified recombinant SAG5 and sera were subjected to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA). Results indicated that specific antibodies against rSAG5 were produced, with IgG detected at a higher level compared to IgA and IgM. Information on the immunological responses elicited by SAG5 provides essential knowledge that will contribute towards the effort to develop more effective strategies against coccidiosis.

  19. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins coordinate lipolysis inhibition between large and small adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter; Wied, Susanne; Dearey, Elisabeth-Ann; Biemer-Daub, Gabriele

    2011-07-01

    In response to palmitate, the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug glimepiride, phosphoinositoglycans, or H(2)O(2), the release of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-degrading phosphodiesterase Gce1 from adipocytes into small vesicles (adiposomes) and its translocation from adiposomes to cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LD) of adipocytes have been reported. Here the role of Gce1-harboring adiposomes in coordinating lipolysis between differently sized adipocytes was studied. Separate or mixed populations of isolated epididymal rat adipocytes of small and large size and native adipose tissue pieces from young and old rats were incubated with exogenous adiposomes or depleted of endogenous adiposomes and then analyzed for translocation of Gce1 and lipolysis in response to above antilipolytic stimuli. Large compared with small adipocytes are more efficient in releasing Gce1 into adiposomes but less efficient in translocating Gce1 from adiposomes to LDs. Maximal lipolysis inhibition by above antilipolytic stimuli, but not by insulin, was observed with mixed populations of small and large adipocytes (1:1 to 1:2) rather than with separate populations. In mixed adipocyte populations and adipose tissue pieces from young, but not old, rats, lipolysis inhibition by above antilipolytic stimuli, but not by insulin, was dependent on the function of Gce1-harboring adiposomes. Inhibition of lipolysis in rat adipose tissue in response to palmitate, glimepiride, and H(2)O(2) is coordinated via the release of adiposome-associated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Gce1 from large "donor" adipocytes and their subsequent translocation to the LDs of small "acceptor" adipocytes. This transfer of antilipolytic information may be of pathophysiologic relevance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction of Heat Shock Protein 90 and the Co-chaperone Cpr6 with Ura2, a Bifunctional Enzyme Required for Pyrimidine Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Zuehlke, Abbey D.; Wren, Nicholas; Tenge, Victoria; Johnson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential protein required for the activity and stability of multiple proteins termed clients. Hsp90 cooperates with a set of co-chaperone proteins that modulate Hsp90 activity and/or target clients to Hsp90 for folding. Many of the Hsp90 co-chaperones, including Cpr6 and Cpr7, contain tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains that bind a common acceptor site at the carboxyl terminus of Hsp90. We found that Cpr6 and Hsp90 interacted with Ura2, a protein critical for pyrimidine biosynthesis. Mutation or inhibition of Hsp90 resulted in decreased accumulation of Ura2, indicating it is an Hsp90 client. Cpr6 interacted with Ura2 in the absence of stable Cpr6-Hsp90 interaction, suggesting a direct interaction. However, loss of Cpr6 did not alter the Ura2-Hsp90 interaction or Ura2 accumulation. The TPR domain of Cpr6 was required for Ura2 interaction, but other TPR containing co-chaperones, including Cpr7, failed to interact with Ura2 or rescue CPR6-dependent growth defects. Further analysis suggests that the carboxyl-terminal 100 amino acids of Cpr6 and Cpr7 are critical for specifying their unique functions, providing new information about this important class of Hsp90 co-chaperones. PMID:23926110

  1. Requirement of NifX and other nif proteins for in vitro biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase.

    PubMed

    Shah, V K; Rangaraj, P; Chatterjee, R; Allen, R M; Roll, J T; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1999-05-01

    The iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) of nitrogenase contains molybdenum, iron, sulfur, and homocitrate in a ratio of 1:7:9:1. In vitro synthesis of FeMo-co has been established, and the reaction requires an ATP-regenerating system, dithionite, molybdate, homocitrate, and at least NifB-co (the metabolic product of NifB), NifNE, and dinitrogenase reductase (NifH). The typical in vitro FeMo-co synthesis reaction involves mixing extracts from two different mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii defective in the biosynthesis of cofactor or an extract of a mutant strain complemented with the purified missing component. Surprisingly, the in vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with only purified components failed to generate significant FeMo-co, suggesting the requirement for one or more other components. Complementation of these assays with extracts of various mutant strains demonstrated that NifX has a role in synthesis of FeMo-co. In vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with purified components is stimulated approximately threefold by purified NifX. Complementation of these assays with extracts of A. vinelandii DJ42. 48 (DeltanifENX DeltavnfE) results in a 12- to 15-fold stimulation of in vitro FeMo-co synthesis activity. These data also demonstrate that apart from the NifX some other component(s) is required for the cofactor synthesis. The in vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with purified components has allowed the detection, purification, and identification of an additional component(s) required for the synthesis of cofactor.

  2. The Plant Cuticle Is Required for Osmotic Stress Regulation of Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Xiong, Liming; Li, Wenbo; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Osmotic stress activates the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA). One major step in ABA biosynthesis is the carotenoid cleavage catalyzed by a 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). To understand the mechanism for osmotic stress activation of ABA biosynthesis, we screened for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that failed to induce the NCED3 gene expression in response to osmotic stress treatments. The ced1 (for 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase defective 1) mutant isolated in this study showed markedly reduced expression of NCED3 in response to osmotic stress (polyethylene glycol) treatments compared with the wild type. Other ABA biosynthesis genes are also greatly reduced in ced1 under osmotic stress. ced1 mutant plants are very sensitive to even mild osmotic stress. Map-based cloning revealed unexpectedly that CED1 encodes a putative α/β hydrolase domain-containing protein and is allelic to the BODYGUARD gene that was recently shown to be essential for cuticle biogenesis. Further studies discovered that other cutin biosynthesis mutants are also impaired in osmotic stress induction of ABA biosynthesis genes and are sensitive to osmotic stress. Our work demonstrates that the cuticle functions not merely as a physical barrier to minimize water loss but also mediates osmotic stress signaling and tolerance by regulating ABA biosynthesis and signaling. PMID:21610183

  3. Neurospora crassa 1,3-α-glucan synthase, AGS-1, is required for cell wall biosynthesis during macroconidia development

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ci; Tanaka, Asuma

    2014-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa genome encodes two 1,3-α-glucan synthases. One of these 1,3-α-glucan synthase genes, ags-1, was shown to be required for the synthesis of 1,3-α-glucan in the aerial hyphae and macroconidia cell walls. 1,3-α-Glucan was found in the conidia cell wall, but was absent from the vegetative hyphae cell wall. Deletion of ags-1 affected conidial development. Δags-1 produced only 5 % as many conidia as the WT and most of the conidia produced by Δags-1 were not viable. The ags-1 upstream regulatory elements were shown to direct cell-type-specific expression of red fluorescent protein in conidia and aerial hyphae. A haemagglutinin-tagged AGS-1 was found to be expressed in aerial hyphae and conidia. The research showed that 1,3-α-glucan is an aerial hyphae and conidia cell wall component, and is required for normal conidial differentiation. PMID:24847001

  4. Regulation of protein biosynthesis by non-lymphoid cells requires the participation of receptors, which recognize the same protein through a center analogous to the antibody active center

    SciTech Connect

    Kul'berg, A.Y.; Ivanovska, N.D.; Tarkhanova, I.A.

    1986-09-01

    This paper studies the mechanism for regulating the biosynthesis of one of the complement components (anti-idiotypic antibodies CI /SUB q/ ) by macrophages. The experiments were conducted on mouse resident peritoneal macrophages cultivated in medium containing C 14-glycine. The synthesis of CI /SUB q/ was evaluated according to the content of protein which was bound by rabbit antibodies against mouse CI /SUB q/ immobilized on bromocyan-Sepharose 4B. The study of the kinetics of the biosynthesis of CI /SUB q/ by propagated macrophages shows that the biosynthesis was initially recorded and in the subsequent period the culture contained no other cells apart from macrophages.

  5. N-glycosylation of Haloferax volcanii flagellins requires known Agl proteins and is essential for biosynthesis of stable flagella.

    PubMed

    Tripepi, Manuela; You, Jason; Temel, Sevcan; Önder, Özlem; Brisson, Dustin; Pohlschröder, Mechthild

    2012-09-01

    N-glycosylation, a posttranslational modification required for the accurate folding and stability of many proteins, has been observed in organisms of all domains of life. Although the haloarchaeal S-layer glycoprotein was the first prokaryotic glycoprotein identified, little is known about the glycosylation of other haloarchaeal proteins. We demonstrate here that the glycosylation of Haloferax volcanii flagellins requires archaeal glycosylation (Agl) components involved in S-layer glycosylation and that the deletion of any Hfx. volcanii agl gene impairs its swimming motility to various extents. A comparison of proteins in CsCl density gradient centrifugation fractions from supernatants of wild-type Hfx. volcanii and deletion mutants lacking the oligosaccharyltransferase AglB suggests that when the Agl glycosylation pathway is disrupted, cells lack stable flagella, which purification studies indicate consist of a major flagellin, FlgA1, and a minor flagellin, FlgA2. Mass spectrometric analyses of FlgA1 confirm that its three predicted N-glycosylation sites are modified with covalently linked pentasaccharides having the same mass as that modifying its S-layer glycoprotein. Finally, the replacement of any of three predicted N-glycosylated asparagines of FlgA1 renders cells nonmotile, providing direct evidence for the first time that the N-glycosylation of archaeal flagellins is critical for motility. These results provide insight into the role that glycosylation plays in the assembly and function of Hfx. volcanii flagella and demonstrate that Hfx. volcanii flagellins are excellent reporter proteins for the study of haloarchaeal glycosylation processes.

  6. BnMs3 is required for tapetal differentiation and degradation, microspore separation, and pollen-wall biosynthesis in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhengfu; Dun, Xiaoling; Xia, Shengqian; Shi, Dianyi; Qin, Maomao; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2012-01-01

    7365AB, a recessive genetic male sterility system, is controlled by BnMs3 in Brassica napus, which encodes a Tic40 protein required for tapetum development. However, the role of BnMs3 in rapeseed anther development is still largely unclear. In this research, cytological analysis revealed that anther development of a Bnms3 mutant has defects in the transition of the tapetum to the secretory type, callose degradation, and pollen-wall formation. A total of 76 down-regulated unigenes in the Bnms3 mutant, several of which are associated with tapetum development, callose degeneration, and pollen development, were isolated by suppression subtractive hybridization combined with a macroarray analysis. Reverse genetics was applied by means of Arabidopsis insertional mutant lines to characterize the function of these unigenes and revealed that MSR02 is only required for transport of sporopollenin precursors through the plasma membrane of the tapetum. The real-time PCR data have further verified that BnMs3 plays a primary role in tapetal differentiation by affecting the expression of a few key transcription factors, participates in tapetal degradation by modulating the expression of cysteine protease genes, and influences microspore separation by manipulating the expression of BnA6 and BnMSR66 related to callose degradation and of BnQRT1 and BnQRT3 required for the primary cell-wall degradation of the pollen mother cell. Moreover, BnMs3 takes part in pollen-wall formation by affecting the expression of a series of genes involved in biosynthesis and transport of sporopollenin precursors. All of the above results suggest that BnMs3 participates in tapetum development, microspore release, and pollen-wall formation in B. napus. PMID:22174440

  7. Human Disease Isolates of Serotype M4 and M22 Group A Streptococcus Lack Genes Required for Hyaluronic Acid Capsule Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Anthony R.; Jewell, Brittany E.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Beres, Stephen B.; Musser, James M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes human pharyngitis and invasive infections and frequently colonizes individuals asymptomatically. Many lines of evidence generated over decades have shown that the hyaluronic acid capsule is a major virulence factor contributing to these infections. While conducting a whole-genome analysis of the in vivo molecular genetic changes that occur in GAS during longitudinal human pharyngeal interaction, we discovered that serotypes M4 and M22 GAS strains lack the hasABC genes necessary for hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis. Using targeted PCR, we found that all 491 temporally and geographically diverse disease isolates of these two serotypes studied lack the hasABC genes. Consistent with the lack of capsule synthesis genes, none of the strains produced detectable hyaluronic acid. Despite the lack of a hyaluronic acid capsule, all strains tested multiplied extensively ex vivo in human blood. Thus, counter to the prevailing concept in GAS pathogenesis research, strains of these two serotypes do not require hyaluronic acid to colonize the upper respiratory tract or cause abundant mucosal or invasive human infections. We speculate that serotype M4 and M22 GAS have alternative, compensatory mechanisms that promote virulence. PMID:23131832

  8. Structural requirements of the RNA precursor for the biosynthesis of the branched RNA-linked multicopy single-stranded DNA of Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, M Y; Inouye, S; Inouye, M

    1989-04-15

    A precursor RNA molecule (pre-msdRNA) of approximately 375 bases is considered to form a stable secondary structure which serves as a primer as well as a template to synthesize the branched RNA-linked multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA) of Myxococcus xanthus. When 3-base mismatches were introduced into the stem structure immediately upstream of the branched rG residue to which msDNA is linked by a 2',5'-phosphodiester linkage, the production of msDNA was almost completely blocked. However, if additional 3-base substitutions were made on the other strand to resume the complementary base pairing, msDNA production was restored, being consistent with the proposed model of msDNA synthesis. We also found that the branched rG residue of pre-msdRNA could not be replaced with either rC or rA, while the 5' end (dC) of msDNA which is linked to the branched rG could be substituted with a dG residue. Together with several other mutations, the structural requirements of pre-msdRNA are discussed with respect to the mechanism of msDNA biosynthesis.

  9. A Novel Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetase Is Required for Pollen Development and Sporopollenin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Souza, Clarice; Kim, Sung Soo; Koch, Stefanie; Kienow, Lucie; Schneider, Katja; McKim, Sarah M.; Haughn, George W.; Kombrink, Erich; Douglas, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    Acyl-CoA Synthetase (ACOS) genes are related to 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) but have distinct functions. The Arabidopsis thaliana ACOS5 protein is in clade A of Arabidopsis ACOS proteins, the clade most closely related to 4CL proteins. This clade contains putative nonperoxisomal ACOS enzymes conserved in several angiosperm lineages and in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Although its function is unknown, ACOS5 is preferentially expressed in the flowers of all angiosperms examined. Here, we show that an acos5 mutant produced no pollen in mature anthers and no seeds by self-fertilization and was severely compromised in pollen wall formation apparently lacking sporopollenin or exine. The phenotype was first evident at stage 8 of anther development and correlated with maximum ACOS5 mRNA accumulation in tapetal cells at stages 7 to 8. Green fluorescent protein–ACOS5 fusions showed that ACOS5 is located in the cytoplasm. Recombinant ACOS5 enzyme was active against oleic acid, allowing kinetic constants for ACOS5 substrates to be established. Substrate competition assays indicated broad in vitro preference of the enzyme for medium-chain fatty acids. We propose that ACOS5 encodes an enzyme that participates in a conserved and ancient biochemical pathway required for sporopollenin monomer biosynthesis that may also include the Arabidopsis CYP703A2 and MS2 enzymes. PMID:19218397

  10. Root cap-dependent gravitropic U-turn of maize root requires light-induced auxin biosynthesis via the YUC pathway in the root apex

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiromi; Yokawa, Ken; Nakano, Sayuri; Yoshida, Yuriko; Fabrissin, Isabelle; Okamoto, Takashi; Baluška, František; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2016-01-01

    Gravitropism refers to the growth or movement of plants that is influenced by gravity. Roots exhibit positive gravitropism, and the root cap is thought to be the gravity-sensing site. In some plants, the root cap requires light irradiation for positive gravitropic responses. However, the mechanisms regulating this phenomenon are unknown. We herein report that maize roots exposed to white light continuously for ≥1–2h show increased indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels in the root tips, especially in the transition zone (1–3mm from the tip). Treatment with IAA biosynthesis inhibitors yucasin and l-kynurenine prevented any increases in IAA content and root curvature under light conditions. Analyses of the incorporation of a stable isotope label from tryptophan into IAA revealed that some of the IAA in roots was synthesized in the root apex. Furthermore, Zmvt2 and Zmyuc gene transcripts were detected in the root apex. One of the Zmyuc genes (ZM2G141383) was up-regulated by light irradiation in the 0–1mm tip region. Our findings suggest that IAA accumulation in the transition zone is due to light-induced activation of Zmyuc gene expression in the 0–1mm root apex region. Light-induced changes in IAA levels and distributions mediate the maize root gravitropic U-turn. PMID:27307546

  11. Sad3 and Sad4 Are Required for Saponin Biosynthesis and Root Development in Oat[W

    PubMed Central

    Mylona, Panagiota; Owatworakit, Amorn; Papadopoulou, Kalliopi; Jenner, Helen; Qin, Bo; Findlay, Kim; Hill, Lionel; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Melton, Rachel; Osbourn, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Avenacins are antimicrobial triterpene glycosides that are produced by oat (Avena) roots. These compounds confer broad-spectrum resistance to soil pathogens. Avenacin A-1, the major avenacin produced by oats, is strongly UV fluorescent and accumulates in root epidermal cells. We previously defined nine loci required for avenacin synthesis, eight of which are clustered. Mutants affected at seven of these (including Saponin-deficient1 [Sad1], the gene for the first committed enzyme in the pathway) have normal root morphology but reduced root fluorescence. In this study, we focus on mutations at the other two loci, Sad3 (also within the gene cluster) and Sad4 (unlinked), which result in stunted root growth, membrane trafficking defects in the root epidermis, and root hair deficiency. While sad3 and sad4 mutants both accumulate the same intermediate, monodeglucosyl avenacin A-1, the effect on avenacin A-1 glucosylation in sad4 mutants is only partial. sad1/sad1 sad3/sad3 and sad1/sad1 sad4/sad4 double mutants have normal root morphology, implying that the accumulation of incompletely glucosylated avenacin A-1 disrupts membrane trafficking and causes degeneration of the epidermis, with consequential effects on root hair formation. Various lines of evidence indicate that these effects are dosage-dependent. The significance of these data for the evolution and maintenance of the avenacin gene cluster is discussed. PMID:18203919

  12. A trilogy on. delta. -aminolevulinic acid biosynthesis in plants and algae: I. Glutamate is the sole precursor to protoheme and heme a in maize. II. The UUC glutamate anticodon is a general feature of the tRNA required for ALA biosynthesis. III. Protein and ALA biosynthesis use the same tRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Schneegurt, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specifically radiolabeled substrates can be used to determine whether the heme and chlorophyll precursor {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is synthesized via the fife-carbon pathway (incorporation from L-1-({sup 14}C)glutamate) or ALA synthase (incorporation from 2-({sup 14}C)glycine). In etiolated maize epicotyl sections, highly purified total cellular protoheme was labeled 29.7 times more effectively by glutamate than by glycine. Mitochondrial heme {alpha} was labeled 4.1 times more effectively by glutamate than by glycine. Cell-free plant and algal preparations require tRNA for the enzymatic conversion of glutamate to ALA. The tRNA required for ALA biosynthesis ahs been shown to contain the UUC glutamate anticodon, as determined by its specific retention through anticodon:anticodon interactions by tRNA{sup Phe(GAA)}-acrylamide. A fraction that was highly enriched in the RNA which supported ALA formation was obtained by affinity chromatography of RNA extracts from Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena garcilis, Cyanidium caldarium, Synechocystis, sp. PCC 6803, pea, and spinach. Other glutamate-accepting RNAs that were not retained by the affinity column were ineffective in supporting ALA formation.

  13. Mitochondrial iron supply is required for the developmental pulse of ecdysone biosynthesis that initiates metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jose V; Metzendorf, Christoph; Missirlis, Fanis; Lind, Maria I

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of ecdysone, the key hormone that signals the termination of larval growth and the initiation of metamorphosis in insects, is carried out in the prothoracic gland by an array of iron-containing cytochrome P450s, encoded by the halloween genes. Interference, either with iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in the prothoracic gland or with the ferredoxins that supply electrons for steroidogenesis, causes a block in ecdysone synthesis and developmental arrest in the third instar larval stage. Here we show that mutants in Drosophila mitoferrin (dmfrn), the gene encoding a mitochondrial carrier protein implicated in mitochondrial iron import, fail to grow and initiate metamorphosis under dietary iron depletion or when ferritin function is partially compromised. In mutant dmfrn larvae reared under iron replete conditions, the expression of halloween genes is increased and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the active form of ecdysone, is synthesized. In contrast, addition of an iron chelator to the diet of mutant dmfrn larvae disrupts 20E synthesis. Dietary addition of 20E has little effect on the growth defects, but enables approximately one-third of the iron-deprived dmfrn larvae to successfully turn into pupae and, in a smaller percentage, into adults. This partial rescue is not observed with dietary supply of ecdysone's precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. The findings reported here support the notion that a physiological supply of mitochondrial iron for the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and heme is required in the prothoracic glands of insect larvae for steroidogenesis. Furthermore, mitochondrial iron is also essential for normal larval growth.

  14. The O-methyltransferase gene MdoOMT1 is required for biosynthesis of methylated phenylpropenes in ripe apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Yauk, Yar-Khing; Chagné, David; Tomes, Sumathi; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Chen, Xiuyin; Maddumage, Ratnasiri; Hunt, Martin B; Rowan, Daryl D; Atkinson, Ross G

    2015-06-01

    Phenylpropenes, such as eugenol and trans-anethole, are important aromatic compounds that determine flavour and aroma in many herbs and spices. Some apple varieties produce fruit with a highly desirable spicy/aromatic flavour that has been attributed to the production of estragole, a methylated phenylpropene. To elucidate the molecular basis for estragole production and its contribution to ripe apple flavour and aroma we characterised a segregating population from a Royal Gala (RG, estragole producer) × Granny Smith (GS, non-producer) apple cross. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; accounting for 9.2 and 24.8% of the variation) on linkage group (LG) 1 and LG2 were identified that co-located with seven candidate genes for phenylpropene O-methyltransferases (MdoOMT1-7). Of these genes, only expression of MdoOMT1 on LG1 increased strongly with ethylene and could be correlated with increasing estragole production in ripening RG fruit. Transient over-expression in tobacco showed that MdoOMT1 utilised a range of phenylpropene substrates and catalysed the conversion of chavicol to estragole. Royal Gala carried two alleles (MdoOMT1a, MdoOMT1b) whilst GS appeared to be homozygous for MdoOMT1b. MdoOMT1a showed a higher affinity and catalytic efficiency towards chavicol than MdoOMT1b, which could account for the phenotypic variation at the LG1 QTL. Multiple transgenic RG lines with reduced MdoOMT1 expression produced lower levels of methylated phenylpropenes, including estragole and methyleugenol. Differences in fruit aroma could be perceived in these fruit, compared with controls, by sensory analysis. Together these results indicate that MdoOMT1 is required for the production of methylated phenylpropenes in apple and that phenylpropenes including estragole may contribute to ripe apple fruit aroma.

  15. Array-assisted Characterization of a Fucosyltransferase Required for the Biosynthesis of Complex Core Modifications of Nematode N-Glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shi; Serna, Sonia; Reichardt, Niels-Christian; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fucose is a common monosaccharide component of cell surfaces and is involved in many biological recognition events. Therefore, definition and exploitation of the specificity of the enzymes (fucosyltransferases) involved in fucosylation is a recurrent theme in modern glycosciences. Despite various studies, the specificities of many fucosyltransferases are still unknown, so new approaches are required to study these. The model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans expresses a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including N-linked oligosaccharides with unusual complex core modifications. Up to three fucose residues can be present on the standard N,N′-diacetylchitobiose unit of these N-glycans, but only the fucosyltransferases responsible for transfer of two of these (the core α1,3-fucosyltransferase FUT-1 and the core α1,6-fucosyltransferase FUT-8) were previously characterized. By use of a glycan library in both array and solution formats, we were able to reveal that FUT-6, another C. elegans α1,3-fucosyltransferase, modifies nematode glycan cores, specifically the distal N-acetylglucosamine residue; this result is in accordance with glycomic analysis of fut-6 mutant worms. This core-modifying activity of FUT-6 in vitro and in vivo is in addition to its previously determined ability to synthesize Lewis X epitopes in vitro. A larger scale synthesis of a nematode N-glycan core in vitro using all three fucosyltransferases was performed, and the nature of the glycosidic linkages was determined by NMR. FUT-6 is probably the first eukaryotic glycosyltransferase whose specificity has been redefined with the aid of glycan microarrays and so is a paradigm for the study of other unusual glycosidic linkages in model and parasitic organisms. PMID:23754284

  16. Characterization of CorR, a transcriptional activator which is required for biosynthesis of the phytotoxin coronatine.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza-Vázquez, A; Bender, C L

    1998-12-01

    Coronatine (COR) is a plasmid-encoded phytotoxin synthesized by several pathovars of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae. The COR biosynthetic gene cluster in P. syringae pv. glycinea PG4180 is encoded by a 32-kb region which contains both the structural and regulatory genes needed for COR synthesis. The regulatory region contains three genes: corP, corS, and corR. corS is thought to function as a histidine protein kinase, whereas corP and corR show relatedness to response regulators of the two-component regulatory paradigm. In the present study, we investigated whether CorR is a positive activator of COR gene expression. We also studied whether CorR specifically binds the DNA region located upstream of cfl, a gene located at the 5' end of the gene cluster encoding coronafacic acid, the polyketide portion of COR. Complementation analysis with a corR mutant, PG4180.P2, and transcriptional fusions to a promoterless glucuronidase gene (uidA) indicated that CorR functions as a positive regulator of COR gene expression. Deletion analysis of the 5' end of the cfl upstream region was used to define the minimal region required for COR gene expression. A 360-bp DNA fragment located over 500 bp upstream from the cfl transcriptional start site was used in DNase I protection assays to define the specific bases bound by CorR. An area extending from -704 to -650 with respect to the cfl transcriptional start site was protected by DNase I footprinting, indicating a rather large area of protection. This area was also conserved in the promoter region for cmaA, which encodes a transcript containing genes for coronamic acid synthesis, another intermediate in the COR biosynthetic pathway. The results obtained in the current study suggest that both the coronafacic acid and the coronamic acid structural genes are controlled by CorR, a positive activator of COR gene expression.

  17. Array-assisted characterization of a fucosyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of complex core modifications of nematode N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi; Serna, Sonia; Reichardt, Niels-Christian; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B H

    2013-07-19

    Fucose is a common monosaccharide component of cell surfaces and is involved in many biological recognition events. Therefore, definition and exploitation of the specificity of the enzymes (fucosyltransferases) involved in fucosylation is a recurrent theme in modern glycosciences. Despite various studies, the specificities of many fucosyltransferases are still unknown, so new approaches are required to study these. The model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans expresses a wide range of fucosylated glycans, including N-linked oligosaccharides with unusual complex core modifications. Up to three fucose residues can be present on the standard N,N'-diacetylchitobiose unit of these N-glycans, but only the fucosyltransferases responsible for transfer of two of these (the core α1,3-fucosyltransferase FUT-1 and the core α1,6-fucosyltransferase FUT-8) were previously characterized. By use of a glycan library in both array and solution formats, we were able to reveal that FUT-6, another C. elegans α1,3-fucosyltransferase, modifies nematode glycan cores, specifically the distal N-acetylglucosamine residue; this result is in accordance with glycomic analysis of fut-6 mutant worms. This core-modifying activity of FUT-6 in vitro and in vivo is in addition to its previously determined ability to synthesize Lewis X epitopes in vitro. A larger scale synthesis of a nematode N-glycan core in vitro using all three fucosyltransferases was performed, and the nature of the glycosidic linkages was determined by NMR. FUT-6 is probably the first eukaryotic glycosyltransferase whose specificity has been redefined with the aid of glycan microarrays and so is a paradigm for the study of other unusual glycosidic linkages in model and parasitic organisms.

  18. Characterization of CorR, a Transcriptional Activator Which Is Required for Biosynthesis of the Phytotoxin Coronatine

    PubMed Central

    Peñaloza-Vázquez, Alejandro; Bender, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    Coronatine (COR) is a plasmid-encoded phytotoxin synthesized by several pathovars of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas syringae. The COR biosynthetic gene cluster in P. syringae pv. glycinea PG4180 is encoded by a 32-kb region which contains both the structural and regulatory genes needed for COR synthesis. The regulatory region contains three genes: corP, corS, and corR. corS is thought to function as a histidine protein kinase, whereas corP and corR show relatedness to response regulators of the two-component regulatory paradigm. In the present study, we investigated whether CorR is a positive activator of COR gene expression. We also studied whether CorR specifically binds the DNA region located upstream of cfl, a gene located at the 5′ end of the gene cluster encoding coronafacic acid, the polyketide portion of COR. Complementation analysis with a corR mutant, PG4180.P2, and transcriptional fusions to a promoterless glucuronidase gene (uidA) indicated that CorR functions as a positive regulator of COR gene expression. Deletion analysis of the 5′ end of the cfl upstream region was used to define the minimal region required for COR gene expression. A 360-bp DNA fragment located over 500 bp upstream from the cfl transcriptional start site was used in DNase I protection assays to define the specific bases bound by CorR. An area extending from −704 to −650 with respect to the cfl transcriptional start site was protected by DNase I footprinting, indicating a rather large area of protection. This area was also conserved in the promoter region for cmaA, which encodes a transcript containing genes for coronamic acid synthesis, another intermediate in the COR biosynthetic pathway. The results obtained in the current study suggest that both the coronafacic acid and the coronamic acid structural genes are controlled by CorR, a positive activator of COR gene expression. PMID:9829934

  19. CUT1, an Arabidopsis gene required for cuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility, encodes a very-long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, A A; Clemens, S; Zachgo, S; Giblin, E M; Taylor, D C; Kunst, L

    1999-01-01

    Land plants secrete a layer of wax onto their aerial surfaces that is essential for survival in a terrestrial environment. This wax is composed of long-chain, aliphatic hydrocarbons derived from very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Using the Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag database, we have identified a gene, designated CUT1, that encodes a VLCFA condensing enzyme required for cuticular wax production. Sense suppression of CUT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants results in waxless (eceriferum) stems and siliques as well as conditional male sterility. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this was a severe waxless phenotype, because stems of CUT1-suppressed plants were completely devoid of wax crystals. Furthermore, chemical analyses of waxless plants demonstrated that the stem wax load was reduced to 6 to 7% of wild-type levels. This value is lower than that reported for any of the known eceriferum mutants. The severe waxless phenotype resulted from the downregulation of both the decarbonylation and acyl reduction wax biosynthetic pathways. This result indicates that CUT1 is involved in the production of VLCFA precursors used for the synthesis of all stem wax components in Arabidopsis. In CUT1-suppressed plants, the C24 chain-length wax components predominate, suggesting that CUT1 is required for elongation of C24 VLCFAs. The unique wax composition of CUT1-suppressed plants together with the fact that the location of CUT1 on the genetic map did not coincide with any of the known ECERIFERUM loci suggest that we have identified a novel gene involved in wax biosynthesis. CUT1 is currently the only known gene with a clearly established function in wax production. PMID:10330468

  20. Proteomic identification of mammalian cell surface derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins through selective glycan enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Leslie K; Vainauskas, Saulius; Dai, Nan; McClung, Colleen M; Shah, Manesh; Benner, Jack S; Corrêa, Ivan R; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Taron, Christopher H

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are an important class of glycoproteins that are tethered to the surface of mammalian cells via the lipid GPI. GPI-APs have been implicated in many important cellular functions including cell adhesion, cell signaling, and immune regulation. Proteomic identification of mammalian GPI-APs en masse has been limited technically by poor sensitivity for these low abundance proteins and the use of methods that destroy cell integrity. Here, we present methodology that permits identification of GPI-APs liberated directly from the surface of intact mammalian cells through exploitation of their appended glycans to enrich for these proteins ahead of LC-MS/MS analyses. We validate our approach in HeLa cells, identifying a greater number of GPI-APs from intact cells than has been previously identified from isolated HeLa membranes and a lipid raft preparation. We further apply our approach to define the cohort of endogenous GPI-APs that populate the distinct apical and basolateral membrane surfaces of polarized epithelial cell monolayers. Our approach provides a new method to achieve greater sensitivity in the identification of low abundance GPI-APs from the surface of live cells and the nondestructive nature of the method provides new opportunities for the temporal or spatial analysis of cellular GPI-AP expression and dynamics. PMID:25262930

  1. Cold acclimation is accompanied by complex responses of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cold acclimation results in changes of the plasma membrane (PM) composition. The PM is considered to contain specific lipid/protein-enriched microdomains which can be extracted as detergent-resistant plasma membrane (DRM). Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) can be targeted to microdomains and/or the apoplast. However, the functional significance of GPI-APs during cold acclimation in plants is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the responsiveness of GPI-APs to cold acclimation treatment in Arabidopsis. We isolated the PM, DRM, and apoplast fractions separately and, in addition, GPI-AP-enriched fractions were prepared from the PM preparation. Label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics identified a number of GPI-APs (163 proteins). Among them, some GPI-APs such as fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins and glycerophosphoryldiester phosphodiesterase-like proteins predominantly increased in PM- and GPI-AP-enriched fractions while the changes of GPI-APs in the DRM and apoplast fractions during cold acclimation were considerably different from those of other fractions. These proteins are thought to be associated with cell wall structure and properties. Therefore, this study demonstrated that each GPI-AP responded to cold acclimation in a different manner, suggesting that these changes during cold acclimation are involved in rearrangement of the extracellular matrix including the cell wall towards acquisition of freezing tolerance. PMID:27471282

  2. Expression of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand, growth hormone, blocks receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Guesdon, François; Kaabi, Yahia; Riley, Aiden H.; Wilkinson, Ian R.; Gray, Colin; James, David C.; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Sayers, Jon R.; Ross, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the interaction between GH (growth hormone) and GHR (GH receptor). We previously demonstrated that a truncated GHR that possesses a transmembrane domain but no cytoplasmic domain blocks receptor signalling. Based on this observation we investigated the impact of tethering the receptor's extracellular domain to the cell surface using a native lipid GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor. We also investigated the effect of tethering GH, the ligand itself, to the cell surface and demonstrated that tethering either the ecGHR (extracellular domain of GHR) or the ligand itself to the cell membrane via a GPI anchor greatly attenuates signalling. To elucidate the mechanism for this antagonist activity, we used confocal microscopy to examine the fluorescently modified ligand and receptor. GH–GPI was expressed on the cell surface and formed inactive receptor complexes that failed to internalize and blocked receptor activation. In conclusion, contrary to expectation, tethering an agonist to the cell surface can generate an inactive hormone receptor complex that fails to internalize. PMID:23013472

  3. Expression of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand, growth hormone, blocks receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Guesdon, François; Kaabi, Yahia; Riley, Aiden H; Wilkinson, Ian R; Gray, Colin; James, David C; Artymiuk, Peter J; Sayers, Jon R; Ross, Richard J

    2012-12-01

    We have investigated the interaction between GH (growth hormone) and GHR (GH receptor). We previously demonstrated that a truncated GHR that possesses a transmembrane domain but no cytoplasmic domain blocks receptor signalling. Based on this observation we investigated the impact of tethering the receptor's extracellular domain to the cell surface using a native lipid GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor. We also investigated the effect of tethering GH, the ligand itself, to the cell surface and demonstrated that tethering either the ecGHR (extracellular domain of GHR) or the ligand itself to the cell membrane via a GPI anchor greatly attenuates signalling. To elucidate the mechanism for this antagonist activity, we used confocal microscopy to examine the fluorescently modified ligand and receptor. GH-GPI was expressed on the cell surface and formed inactive receptor complexes that failed to internalize and blocked receptor activation. In conclusion, contrary to expectation, tethering an agonist to the cell surface can generate an inactive hormone receptor complex that fails to internalize.

  4. Identification of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor-modifying β1-3 galactosyltransferase in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Luis; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael AJ

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and the cattle disease nagana.  Trypanosoma brucei is dependent on glycoproteins for its survival and infectivity throughout its life cycle. Here we report the functional characterization of TbGT3, a glycosyltransferase expressed in the bloodstream and procyclic form of the parasite. Bloodstream and procyclic form TbGT3 conditional null mutants were created and both exhibited normal growth under permissive and nonpermissive conditions. Under nonpermissive conditions, the normal glycosylation of the major glycoprotein of bloodstream form T. brucei, the variant surface glycoprotein and the absence of major alterations in lectin binding to other glycoproteins suggested that the major function of TbGT3 occurs in the procyclic form of the parasite. Consistent with this, the major surface glycoprotein of the procyclic form, procyclin, exhibited a marked reduction in molecular weight due to changes in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor side chains. Structural analysis of the mutant procyclin GPI anchors indicated that TbGT3 encodes a UDP-Gal: β-GlcNAc-GPI β1-3 Gal transferase. Despite the alterations in GPI anchor side chains, TbGT3 conditional null mutants remained infectious to tsetse flies under nonpermissive conditions. PMID:25467966

  5. Loss of Dfg5 glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein confers enhanced heat tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nasution, Olviyani; Lee, Jaok; Srinivasa, Kavitha; Choi, In-Geol; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Eunjung; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Wankee

    2015-08-01

    The protein product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DFG5 gene is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored plasma membrane protein and a putative glycosidase/glycosyltransferase that links other GPI-anchored proteins to β-glucans in the cell wall. Upon exposure to heat (41°C), DFG5 deletion mutant dfg5Δ displayed significantly enhanced heat tolerance as well as lowered level of reactive oxygen species and decreased membrane permeability compared with those in the control (BY4741). Comparative transcriptome profiles of BY4741 and dfg5Δ revealed that 38 and 23 genes were up- and down-regulated in dfg5Δ respectively. Of the 23 down-regulated genes, 11 of 13 viable deletion mutants were identified to be tolerant to heat, suggesting that the down-regulation of those genes might have contributed to the enhanced heat tolerance in dfg5Δ. Deletion of DFG5 caused slight activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases Hog1 in the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and Slt2 in the cell wall integrity pathway. Therefore, a model is proposed on the signal transduction pathways associated with deletion of DFG5 upon heat stress.

  6. Controlled release process to recover heterologous glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchored proteins from CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Kennard, M L; Food, M R; Jefferies, W A; Piret, J M

    1993-08-05

    A semicontinuous process has been developed to recover heterologous proteins at increased concentrations and purities. Proteins attached to mammalian cell membranes by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors can be selectively released into the supernatant by the enzyme phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, genetically engineered to express the GPI anchored, human melanoma antigen (p97), were used as a model system. These cells were grown in protein containing growth medium. During a brief harvesting phase the medium was replaced by phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 10 mU/mL of PI-PLC and the GPI anchored protein was cleaved from the cell surface and recovered in soluble form at up to 30% purity. After harvesting, the cells were returned to growth medium where the protein was re-expressed within 40 h. The growth rate, viability, and protein production of cells, repeatedly harvested over a 44-day period, were not adversely affected. This continuous cyclic harvesting process allowed recovery of a heterologous protein at high purity and concentrations and could be applied to the recovery of other GPI anchored proteins and genetically engineered GPI anchored fusion proteins. (c) 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Phosphatase from Spirodela oligorrhiza Is a Purple Acid Phosphatase1

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Takashi; Nishikoori, Miwa; Washio, Kenji; Morita, Naoki; Haraguchi, Kensaku; Thompson, Guy A.; Okuyama, Hidetoshi

    1998-01-01

    We recently presented clear evidence that the major low-phosphate-inducible phosphatase of the duckweed Spirodela oligorrhiza is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, and, to our knowledge, is the first described from higher plants (N. Morita, H. Nakazato, H. Okuyama, Y. Kim, G.A. Thompson, Jr. [1996] Biochim Biophys Acta 1290: 53–62). In this report the purified 57-kD phosphatase is shown to be a purple metalloenzyme containing Fe and Mn atoms and having an absorption maximum at 556 nm. The phosphatase activity was only slightly inhibited by tartrate, as expected for a purple acid phosphatase (PAP). Furthermore, the protein cross-reacted with an anti-Arabidopsis PAP antibody on immunoblots. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the phosphatase was very similar to those of Arabidopsis, red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and soybean (Glycine max) PAP. Extracts of S. oligorrhiza plants incubated with the GPI-specific precursor [3H]ethanolamine were treated with antibodies raised against the purified S. oligorrhiza phosphatase. Radioactivity from the resulting immunoprecipitates was specifically associated with a 57-kD band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. These results, together with previous findings, strongly indicate that the GPI-anchored phosphatase of S. oligorrhiza is a PAP. PMID:9808746

  8. Phosphatidylethanolamine is the donor of the terminal phosphoethanolamine group in trypanosome glycosylphosphatidylinositols.

    PubMed Central

    Menon, A K; Eppinger, M; Mayor, S; Schwarz, R T

    1993-01-01

    A variety of eukaryotic cell surface proteins, including the variant surface glycoproteins of African trypanosomes, rely on a covalently attached lipid, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), for membrane attachment. GPI anchors are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum by stepwise glycosylation of phosphatidylinositol (via UDP-GlcNAc and dolichol-P-mannose) followed by the addition of phosphoethanolamine. The experiments described in this paper are aimed at identifying the biosynthetic origin of the terminal phosphoethanolamine group. We show that trypanosome GPIs can be labelled via CDP-[3H]ethanolamine or [beta-32P]CDP-ethanolamine in a cell-free system, indicating that phosphoethanolamine is acquired en bloc. In pulse-chase experiments with CDP-[3H]ethanolamine we show that the GPI phosphoethanolamine is not derived directly from CDP-ethanolamine, but instead from a relatively stable metabolite, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), generated from CDP-ethanolamine in the cell-free system. To test the possibility that PE is the immediate donor of the GPI phosphoethanolamine moiety, we describe metabolic labelling experiments with [3H]serine and show that GPIs can be labelled in the absence of detectable radiolabelled CDP-ethanolamine, presumably via [3H]PE generated from [3H]phosphatidylserine (PS). The data support the proposal that the terminal phosphoethanolamine group in trypanosome GPIs is derived from PE. PMID:8491183

  9. Procyclin Null Mutants of Trypanosoma brucei Express Free Glycosylphosphatidylinositols on Their Surface

    PubMed Central

    Vassella, Erik; Bütikofer, Peter; Engstler, Markus; Jelk, Jennifer; Roditi, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Procyclins are abundant, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins on the surface of procyclic (insect) form trypanosomes. To investigate whether trypanosomes are able to survive without a procyclin coat, all four procyclin genes were deleted sequentially. Bloodstream forms of the null mutant exhibited no detectable phenotype and were able to differentiate to procyclic forms. Initially, differentiated null mutant cells were barely able to grow, but after an adaptation period of 2 mo in culture they proliferated at the same rate as wild-type trypanosomes. Analysis of these culture-adapted null mutants revealed that they were covered by free GPIs. These were closely related to the mature procyclin anchor in structure and were expressed on the surface in numbers comparable with that of procyclin in wild-type cells. However, free GPIs were smaller than the procyclin anchor, indicative of a lower number of poly-N-acetyllactosamine repeats, and a proportion contained diacylphosphatidic acid. Free GPIs are also expressed by wild-type cells, although to a lesser extent. These have been overlooked in the past because they partition in a solvent fraction (chloroform/water/methanol) that is normally discarded when GPI-anchored proteins are purified. PMID:12686589

  10. Intracellular Glycosylphosphatidylinositols Accumulate on Endosomes: Toxicity of Alpha-Toxin to Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhifeng; Tweten, Rodney K.; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo

    2005-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are ubiquitous glycolipids in eukaryotes. In the protozoan Leishmania major, GPIs occur “free” or covalently linked to proteins (e.g., gp63) and polysaccharides. While some free GPIs are detected on the plasma membrane, specific sites where GPIs accumulate intracellularly are unknown in most cells, although the glycolipids are synthesized within the secretory system. Herein, we describe a protocol for identifying intracellular sites of GPI accumulation by using alpha-toxin (from Clostridium septicum). Alpha-toxin bound to gp63 and GPIs from L. major. Intracellular binding sites for alpha-toxin were determined in immunofluorescence assays after removal of GPI-anchored macromolecules (e.g., gp63) from the plasma membrane of fixed cells by using detergent. Endosomes were a major site for GPI accretion in L. major. GPI-less gp63 was detected at the endoplasmic reticulum. In studies with live parasites, alpha-toxin killed L. major with a 50% lethal concentration of 0.77 nM. PMID:15755918

  11. The immunogenic properties of protozoan glycosylphosphatidylinositols in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Romanico B G; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Schwarz, Ralph T; Faye, Ingrid

    2009-02-01

    In contrast to humans, mosquitoes do not have an adaptive immune response to deal with pathogens, and therefore must rely on their innate immune system to deal with invaders. This facilitates the recognition of different microbes on the basis of surface components or antigens. Such antigens have been identified in various types of microbe such as bacteria and fungi, yet none has been identified in the genus protozoa, which includes pathogens such as the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. This study allowed us to test the antigenic properties of protozoan glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) on the mosquito immune system. We found that both P. falciparum GPI and T. gondii GPI induce the strong expression of several antimicrobial peptides following ingestion, and that as a result of the immune response against the GPIs, the number of eggs produced by the mosquito is reduced dramatically. Such effects have been associated with malaria infected mosquitoes, but never associated with a Plasmodium specific antigen. This study demonstrates that protozoan GPIs can be considered as protozoan specific immune elicitors in mosquitoes, and that P. falciparum GPI plays a critical role in the malaria parasite manipulation of the mosquito vector to facilitate its transmission.

  12. Life Stage-Specific Cargo Receptors Facilitate Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Surface Coat Protein Transport in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Kruzel, Emilia K; Zimmett, George P; Bangs, James D

    2017-01-01

    The critical virulence factor of bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei is the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit of VSG is GPI dependent and relies on a discrete subset of COPII machinery (TbSec23.2/TbSec24.1). In other systems, p24 transmembrane adaptor proteins selectively recruit GPI-anchored cargo into nascent COPII vesicles. Trypanosomes have eight putative p24s (TbERP1 to TbERP8) that are constitutively expressed at the mRNA level. However, only four TbERP proteins (TbERP1, -2, -3, and -8) are detectable in bloodstream-form parasites. All four colocalize to ER exit sites, are required for efficient GPI-dependent ER exit, and are interdependent for steady-state stability. These results suggest shared function as an oligomeric ER GPI-cargo receptor. This cohort also mediates rapid forward trafficking of the soluble lysosomal hydrolase TbCatL. Procyclic insect-stage trypanosomes have a distinct surface protein, procyclin, bearing a different GPI anchor structure. A separate cohort of TbERP proteins (TbERP1, -2, -4, and -8) are expressed in procyclic parasites and also function in GPI-dependent ER exit. Collectively, these results suggest developmentally regulated TbERP cohorts, likely in obligate assemblies, that may recognize stage-specific GPI anchors to facilitate GPI-cargo trafficking throughout the parasite life cycle. IMPORTANCE African trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause African sleeping sickness. Critical to the success of the parasite is the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), which covers the parasite cell surface and which is essential for evasion of the host immune system. VSG is membrane bound by a glycolipid (GPI) anchor that is attached in the earliest compartment of the secretory pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the anchor acts as a positive forward trafficking signal for ER exit, implying a cognate receptor mechanism for

  13. ubiJ, a New Gene Required for Aerobic Growth and Proliferation in Macrophage, Is Involved in Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Aussel, Laurent; Loiseau, Laurent; Hajj Chehade, Mahmoud; Pocachard, Bérengère; Fontecave, Marc; Pierrel, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or Q8) is a redox active lipid which functions in the respiratory electron transport chain and plays a crucial role in energy-generating processes. In both Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the yigP gene is located between ubiE and ubiB, all three being likely to constitute an operon. In this work, we showed that the uncharacterized yigP gene was involved in Q8 biosynthesis in both strains, and we have renamed it ubiJ. Under aerobic conditions, an ubiJ mutant was found to be impaired for Q8 biosynthesis and for growth in rich medium but did not present any defect anaerobically. Surprisingly, the C-terminal 50 amino acids, predicted to interact with lipids, were sufficient to restore Q8 biosynthesis and growth of the ubiJ mutant. Salmonella ubiE and ubiB mutants were impaired in Q8 biosynthesis and in respiration using different electron acceptors. Moreover, ubiE, ubiJ, and ubiB mutants were all impaired for Salmonella intracellular proliferation in macrophages. Taken together, our data establish an important role for UbiJ in Q8 biosynthesis and reveal an unexpected link between Q8 and virulence. They also emphasize that Salmonella organisms in an intracellular lifestyle rely on aerobic respiration to survive and proliferate within macrophages. PMID:24142253

  14. Echinomycin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Michio; Nakazawa, Takehito; Tsunematsu, Yuta; Hotta, Kinya; Watanabe, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    Echinomycin is an antitumor antibiotic secondary metabolite isolated from streptomycetes, whose core structure is biosynthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). The echinomycin biosynthetic pathway was successfully reconstituted in Escherichia coli. NRPS often contains a thioesterase domain at its C terminus for cyclorelease of the elongating peptide chain. Those thioesterase domains were shown to exhibit significant substrate tolerance. More recently, an oxidoreductase Ecm17, which forms the disulfide bridge in triostin A, was characterized. Surprisingly, an unrelated disulfide-forming enzyme GliT for gliotoxin biosynthesis was also able to catalyze the same reaction, providing another example of broad substrate specificity in secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Those promiscuous catalysts can be a valuable tool in generating diversity in natural products analogs we can produce heterologously.

  15. Insertional mutagenesis and cloning of the genes required for biosynthesis of the host-specific AK-toxin in the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, A; Shiotani, H; Yamamoto, M; Tsuge, T

    1999-08-01

    The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction enzyme used to linearize the plasmid. Of 984 REMI transformants recovered, three produced no detectable AK-toxin and lost pathogenicity on pear leaves. Genomic DNA flanking the integrated plasmid was recovered from one of the mutants. With the recovered DNA used as a probe, a cosmid clone of the wild-type strain was isolated. Structural and functional analyses of an 8.0-kb region corresponding to the tagged site indicated the presence of two genes. One, designated AKT1, encodes a member of the class of carboxyl-activating enzymes. The other, AKT2, encodes a protein of unknown function. The essential roles of these two genes in both AK-toxin production and pathogenicity were confirmed by transformation-mediated gene disruption experiments. DNA gel blot analysis detected AKT1 and AKT2 homologues not only in the Japanese pear pathotype strains but also in strains from the tangerine and strawberry pathotypes. The host-specific toxins of these two pathotypes are similar in structure to AK-toxin. Homologues were not detected in other pathotypes or in non-pathogenic strains of A. alternata, suggesting acquisition of AKT1 and AKT2 by horizontal transfer.

  16. Three-dimensional structure of DesVI from Streptomyces venezuelae: a sugar N,N-dimethyltransferase required for dTDP-desosamine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Burgie, E Sethe; Holden, Hazel M

    2008-04-01

    D-Desosamine, or 3-(dimethylamino)-3,4,6-trideoxyglucose, is an unusual sugar found on the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin, and it has been shown to play a critical role in the biological activity of the drug. Desosamine is added to the parent aglycone via the action of a glycosyltransferase that utilizes dTDP-desosamine as its substrate. Six enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of dTDP-desosamine in Streptomyces venezuelae, with the last step catalyzed by DesVI, an N, N-dimethyltransferase. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure determined to 2.0 A resolution of DesVI complexed with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and the substrate analogue UDP-benzene. Each subunit of the DesVI dimer contains a seven-stranded mixed beta-sheet flanked on either side by alpha-helices. In addition to this major tertiary structural element, there is a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet that provides the platform necessary for subunit-subunit assembly. On the basis of the UDP-benzene binding mode, the DesVI substrate, dTDP-3-(methylamino)-3,4,6-trideoxyglucose, has been modeled into the active site. This model places the C-6' methyl group of the sugar into a hydrophobic patch that is well-conserved among putative nucleotide-linked sugar dimethyltransferases. It is formed by Trp 140, Met 178, and Ile 200. The sugar C-2' hydroxyl sits near Tyr 14, and its C-3' amino group is properly positioned for direct in-line attack of the cofactor's reactive methyl group. While methyltransferases that catalyze single alkylations at carbons, oxygens, sulfurs, and nitrogens have been well characterized, little is known regarding enzymes capable of N,N-dimethylation reactions. As such, the ternary structure of DesVI reported here serves as a structural paradigm for a new family of dimethyltransferases that function on nucleotide-linked sugars.

  17. Three-Dimensional Structure of DesVI from Streptomyces venezuelae: A Sugar N,N-Dimethyltransferase Required for dTDP-Desosamine Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Burgie, E. Sethe; Holden, Hazel M.

    2008-07-28

    d-Desosamine, or 3-(dimethylamino)-3,4,6-trideoxyglucose, is an unusual sugar found on the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin, and it has been shown to play a critical role in the biological activity of the drug. Desosamine is added to the parent aglycone via the action of a glycosyltransferase that utilizes dTDP-desosamine as its substrate. Six enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of dTDP-desosamine in Streptomyces venezuelae, with the last step catalyzed by DesVI, an N,N-dimethyltransferase. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure determined to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution of DesVI complexed with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and the substrate analogue UDP-benzene. Each subunit of the DesVI dimer contains a seven-stranded mixed {beta}-sheet flanked on either side by {alpha}-helices. In addition to this major tertiary structural element, there is a four-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet that provides the platform necessary for subunit-subunit assembly. On the basis of the UDP-benzene binding mode, the DesVI substrate, dTDP-3-(methylamino)-3,4,6-trideoxyglucose, has been modeled into the active site. This model places the C-6' methyl group of the sugar into a hydrophobic patch that is well-conserved among putative nucleotide-linked sugar dimethyltransferases. It is formed by Trp 140, Met 178, and Ile 200. The sugar C-2' hydroxyl sits near Tyr 14, and its C-3' amino group is properly positioned for direct in-line attack of the cofactor's reactive methyl group. While methyltransferases that catalyze single alkylations at carbons, oxygens, sulfurs, and nitrogens have been well characterized, little is known regarding enzymes capable of N,N-dimethylation reactions. As such, the ternary structure of DesVI reported here serves as a structural paradigm for a new family of dimethyltransferases that function on nucleotide-linked sugars.

  18. Inhibiting GPI anchor biosynthesis in fungi stresses the endoplasmic reticulum and enhances immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Catherine A; Whitesell, Luke; King, Oliver D; Lancaster, Alex K; Mazitschek, Ralph; Lindquist, Susan

    2012-09-21

    In fungi, the anchoring of proteins to the plasma membrane via their covalent attachment to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is essential and thus provides a valuable point of attack for the development of antifungal therapeutics. Unfortunately, studying the underlying biology of GPI-anchor synthesis is difficult, especially in medically relevant fungal pathogens because they are not genetically tractable. Compounding difficulties, many of the genes in this pathway are essential in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report the discovery of a new small molecule christened gepinacin (for GPI acylation inhibitor) which selectively inhibits Gwt1, a critical acyltransferase required for the biosynthesis of fungal GPI anchors. After delineating the target specificity of gepinacin using genetic and biochemical techniques, we used it to probe key, therapeutically relevant consequences of disrupting GPI anchor metabolism in fungi. We found that, unlike all three major classes of antifungals in current use, the direct antimicrobial activity of this compound results predominantly from its ability to induce overwhelming stress to the endoplasmic reticulum. Gepinacin did not affect the viability of mammalian cells nor did it inhibit their orthologous acyltransferase. This enabled its use in co-culture experiments to examine Gwt1's effects on host-pathogen interactions. In isolates of Candida albicans, the most common fungal pathogen in humans, exposure to gepinacin at sublethal concentrations impaired filamentation and unmasked cell wall β-glucan to stimulate a pro-inflammatory cytokine response in macrophages. Gwt1 is a promising antifungal drug target, and gepanacin is a useful probe for studying how disrupting GPI-anchor synthesis impairs viability and alters host-pathogen interactions in genetically intractable fungi.

  19. A Root-Expressed l-Phenylalanine:4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Aminotransferase Is Required for Tropane Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Atropa belladonna[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Bedewitz, Matthew A.; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Uebler, Joseph B.; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Wiegert-Rininger, Krystle E.; Childs, Kevin L.; Hamilton, John P.; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Yeo, Yun-Soo; Chappell, Joseph; DellaPenna, Dean; Jones, A. Daniel; Buell, C. Robin; Barry, Cornelius S.

    2014-01-01

    The tropane alkaloids, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, are medicinal compounds that are the active components of several therapeutics. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine are synthesized in the roots of specific genera of the Solanaceae in a multistep pathway that is only partially elucidated. To facilitate greater understanding of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis, a de novo transcriptome assembly was developed for Deadly Nightshade (Atropa belladonna). Littorine is a key intermediate in hyoscyamine and scopolamine biosynthesis that is produced by the condensation of tropine and phenyllactic acid. Phenyllactic acid is derived from phenylalanine via its transamination to phenylpyruvate, and mining of the transcriptome identified a phylogenetically distinct aromatic amino acid aminotransferase (ArAT), designated Ab-ArAT4, that is coexpressed with known tropane alkaloid biosynthesis genes in the roots of A. belladonna. Silencing of Ab-ArAT4 disrupted synthesis of hyoscyamine and scopolamine through reduction of phenyllactic acid levels. Recombinant Ab-ArAT4 preferentially catalyzes the first step in phenyllactic acid synthesis, the transamination of phenylalanine to phenylpyruvate. However, rather than utilizing the typical keto-acid cosubstrates, 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate, and oxaloacetate, Ab-ArAT4 possesses strong substrate preference and highest activity with the aromatic keto-acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Thus, Ab-ArAT4 operates at the interface between primary and specialized metabolism, contributing to both tropane alkaloid biosynthesis and the direct conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. PMID:25228340

  20. Arabidopsis Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase1 of the Phosphoserine Pathway Is Essential for Development and Required for Ammonium Assimilation and Tryptophan Biosynthesis[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Benstein, Ruben Maximilian; Ludewig, Katja; Wulfert, Sabine; Wittek, Sebastian; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Frerigmann, Henning; Gierth, Markus; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Krueger, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    In plants, two independent serine biosynthetic pathways, the photorespiratory and glycolytic phosphoserine (PS) pathways, have been postulated. Although the photorespiratory pathway is well characterized, little information is available on the function of the PS pathway in plants. Here, we present a detailed characterization of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases (PGDHs) as components of the PS pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. All PGDHs localize to plastids and possess similar kinetic properties, but they differ with respect to their sensitivity to serine feedback inhibition. Furthermore, analysis of pgdh1 and phosphoserine phosphatase mutants revealed an embryo-lethal phenotype and PGDH1-silenced lines were inhibited in growth. Metabolic analyses of PGDH1-silenced lines grown under ambient and high CO2 conditions indicate a direct link between PS biosynthesis and ammonium assimilation. In addition, we obtained several lines of evidence for an interconnection between PS and tryptophan biosynthesis, because the expression of PGDH1 and PHOSPHOSERINE AMINOTRANSFERASE1 is regulated by MYB51 and MYB34, two activators of tryptophan biosynthesis. Moreover, the concentration of tryptophan-derived glucosinolates and auxin were reduced in PGDH1-silenced plants. In essence, our results provide evidence for a vital function of PS biosynthesis for plant development and metabolism. PMID:24368794

  1. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-PLC in Trypanosoma brucei forms a linear array on the exterior of the flagellar membrane before and after activation.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Orla; Webb, Helena; O'Byrne, Robert; Brabazon, Elaine; Treumann, Achim; Sunter, Jack D; Carrington, Mark; Voorheis, H Paul

    2009-06-01

    Bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei contain a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) that cleaves the GPI-anchor of the variable surface glycoprotein (VSG). Its location in trypanosomes has been controversial. Here, using confocal microscopy and surface labelling techniques, we show that the GPI-PLC is located exclusively in a linear array on the outside of the flagellar membrane, close to the flagellar attachment zone, but does not co-localize with the flagellar attachment zone protein, FAZ1. Consequently, the GPI-PLC and the VSG occupy the same plasma membrane leaflet, which resolves the topological problem associated with the cleavage reaction if the VSG and the GPI-PLC were on opposite sides of the membrane. The exterior location requires the enzyme to be tightly regulated to prevent VSG release under basal conditions. During stimulated VSG release in intact cells, the GPI-PLC did not change location, suggesting that the release mechanism involves lateral diffusion of the VSG in the plane of the membrane to the fixed position of the GPI-PLC.

  2. An apparent association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and a sphingolipid in Tetrahymena mimbres.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Thompson, G A

    1997-01-01

    Sphingolipids are thought to stabilize glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein-rich membrane domains of yeast and polarized higher animal cells during the processing and targeting of these proteins to the plasma membrane. A widely used criterion for identifying the stable sphingolipid- and GPI-anchored protein-enriched membrane domains is the resistance of these lipid-modified proteins to solubilization by the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) at low temperature. Surprisingly, there have been no reports of sphingolipid/GPI-anchored protein association in protozoans, despite the fact that these cells contain considerably higher levels of GPI-anchored proteins than does any other organism. We report here the presence in Tetrahymena mimbres of a significant pool of GPI-anchored proteins which resisted extraction by 1% TX-100 at 4 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C. Of the total cellular complement of GPI-anchored proteins, which together accounted for more than 2% of whole-cell protein and were especially enriched in surface membranes, 10% of the major 63kDa component (gpi63) and 23% of a somewhat less abundant component (gpi23) were insoluble in TX-100 at 4 degrees C. A substantial proportion of the cell's only abundant sphingolipid, ceramideaminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), was also insoluble in 1% TX-100 at 4 degrees C. Radiolabelling studies involving [3H]leucine incorporation into proteins and [3H]palmitic acid incorporation into lipids revealed that the TX-100-resistant gpi63, gpi23 and CAEP molecules were all metabolically distinct from their TX-100-soluble counterparts in other compartments of the cell. The presence of detergent-resistant sphingolipid/GPI-anchored protein domains in non-polarized ciliate and trypanosomatid cells was probably obscured in previous studies by the profusion of accompanying detergent-soluble molecules. PMID:9173882

  3. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218

  4. Transport and expression in human melanomas of a transferrin-like glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein.

    PubMed

    Food, M R; Rothenberger, S; Gabathuler, R; Haidl, I D; Reid, G; Jefferies, W A

    1994-01-28

    Melanotransferrin, also called p97, is a cell surface glycoprotein which was first described as a marker antigen for human melanoma cells. Although p97 has a striking structural similarity to human serum transferrin and lactoferrin, its function has not yet been determined. One feature that distinguishes p97 from the other members of the transferrin family is the presence of a stretch of 24 hydrophobic amino acids at the C terminus, previously assumed to form a proteinacious transmembrane domain. In this study, sensitivity to bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, biosynthetic labeling with [3H]ethanolamine, and partitioning in Triton X-114 are used to establish that p97 is expressed at the cell surface as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. In addition, to gain insight into the intracellular transport of p97, biosynthetic transport studies were performed on a melanoma cell line. These studies resulted in the identification of an additional form of p97 which is found in the medium and which likely does not originate from an alternatively spliced form of the p97 mRNA. These findings, together with our recent observation of the co-localization of p97 and the transferrin receptor in brain capillary endothelium (W. A. Jefferies, M. R. Food, R. Gabathuler, S. Rothenberger, T. Yamada, and P. L. McGeer, manuscript submitted) raise important questions about the function of the two forms of p97 detected and the possible involvement of this protein in a cellular iron uptake mechanism that is independent from the transferrin/transferrin receptor system.

  5. Sialic Acid on the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Regulates PrP-mediated Cell Signaling and Prion Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-01-01

    The prion diseases occur following the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into disease-related isoforms (PrPSc). In this study, the role of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor attached to PrPC in prion formation was examined using a cell painting technique. PrPSc formation in two prion-infected neuronal cell lines (ScGT1 and ScN2a cells) and in scrapie-infected primary cortical neurons was increased following the introduction of PrPC. In contrast, PrPC containing a GPI anchor from which the sialic acid had been removed (desialylated PrPC) was not converted to PrPSc. Furthermore, the presence of desialylated PrPC inhibited the production of PrPSc within prion-infected cortical neurons and ScGT1 and ScN2a cells. The membrane rafts surrounding desialylated PrPC contained greater amounts of sialylated gangliosides and cholesterol than membrane rafts surrounding PrPC. Desialylated PrPC was less sensitive to cholesterol depletion than PrPC and was not released from cells by treatment with glimepiride. The presence of desialylated PrPC in neurons caused the dissociation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 from PrP-containing membrane rafts and reduced the activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2. These findings show that the sialic acid moiety of the GPI attached to PrPC modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrPSc formation. These results suggest that pharmacological modification of GPI glycosylation might constitute a novel therapeutic approach to prion diseases. PMID:26553874

  6. Structure of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored domain from a trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicola G; Nietlispach, Daniel; Sharma, Reuben; Burke, David F; Eyres, Isobel; Mues, Marsilius; Mott, Helen R; Carrington, Mark

    2008-02-08

    The cell surface of African trypanosomes is covered by a densely packed monolayer of a single protein, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The VSG protects the trypanosome cell surface from effector molecules of the host immune system and is the mediator of antigenic variation. The sequence divergence between VSGs that is necessary for antigenic variation can only occur within the constraints imposed by the structural features necessary to form the monolayer barrier. Here, the structures of the two domains that together comprise the C-terminal di-domain of VSG ILTat1.24 have been determined. The first domain has a structure similar to the single C-terminal domain of VSG MITat1.2 and provides proof of structural conservation in VSG C-terminal domains complementing the conservation of structure present in the N-terminal domain. The second domain, although based on the same fold, is a minimized version missing several structural features. The structure of the second domain contains the C-terminal residue that in the native VSG is attached to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that retains the VSG on the external face of the plasma membrane. The solution structures of this domain and a VSG GPI glycan have been combined to produce the first structure-based model of a GPI-anchored protein. The model suggests that the core glycan of the GPI anchor lies in a groove on the surface of the domain and that there is a close association between the GPI glycan and protein. More widely, the GPI glycan may be an integral part of the structure of other GPI-anchored proteins.

  7. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) Modification Serves as a Primary Plasmodesmal Sorting Signal1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Epel, Bernard L.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (Pd) are membranous channels that serve as a major conduit for cell-to-cell communication in plants. The Pd-associated β-1,3-glucanase (BG_pap) and CALLOSE BINDING PROTEIN1 (PDCB1) were identified as key regulators of Pd conductivity. Both are predicted glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) carrying a conserved GPI modification signal. However, the subcellular targeting mechanism of these proteins is unknown, particularly in the context of other GPI-APs not associated with Pd. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the subcellular targeting of the two Pd-resident and two unrelated non-Pd GPI-APs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that GPI modification is necessary and sufficient for delivering both BG_pap and PDCB1 to Pd. Moreover, the GPI modification signal from both Pd- and non-Pd GPI-APs is able to target a reporter protein to Pd, likely to plasma membrane microdomains enriched at Pd. As such, the GPI modification serves as a primary Pd sorting signal in plant cells. Interestingly, the ectodomain, a region that carries the functional domain in GPI-APs, in Pd-resident proteins further enhances Pd accumulation. However, in non-Pd GPI-APs, the ectodomain overrides the Pd targeting function of the GPI signal and determines a specific GPI-dependent non-Pd localization of these proteins at the plasma membrane and cell wall. Domain-swap analysis showed that the non-Pd localization is also dominant over the Pd-enhancing function mediated by a Pd ectodomain. In conclusion, our results indicate that segregation between Pd- and non-Pd GPI-APs occurs prior to Pd targeting, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence of the mechanism of GPI-AP sorting in plants. PMID:27559035

  8. Acetylations of Ftz-F1 and histone H4K5 are required for the fine-tuning of ecdysone biosynthesis during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Borsos, Barbara N; Pankotai, Tibor; Kovács, Dávid; Popescu, Christina; Páhi, Zoltán; Boros, Imre M

    2015-08-01

    The molting during Drosophila development is tightly regulated by the ecdysone hormone. Several steps of the ecdysone biosynthesis have been already identified but the regulation of the entire process has not been clarified yet. We have previously reported that dATAC histone acetyltransferase complex is necessary for the steroid hormone biosynthesis process. To reveal possible mechanisms controlled by dATAC we made assumptions that either dATAC may influence directly the transcription of Halloween genes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis or it may exert an indirect effect on it by acetylating the Ftz-F1 transcription factor which regulates the transcription of steroid converting genes. Here we show that the lack of dATAC complex results in increased mRNA level and decreased protein level of Ftz-F1. In this context, decreased mRNA and increased protein levels of Ftz-F1 were detected upon treatment of Drosophila S2 cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. We showed that Ftz-F1, the transcriptional activator of Halloween genes, is acetylated in S2 cells. In addition, we found that ecdysone biosynthetic Halloween genes are transcribed in S2 cells and their expression can be influenced by deacetylase inhibitors. Furthermore, we could detect H4K5 acetylation at the regulatory regions of disembodied and shade Halloween genes, while H3K9 acetylation is absent on these genes. Based on our findings we conclude that the dATAC HAT complex might play a dual regulatory role in Drosophila steroid hormone biosynthesis through the acetylation of Ftz-F1 protein and the regulation of the H4K5 acetylation at the promoters of Halloween genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vacuole-Localized Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like Proteins Are Required for a Late Step of Nicotine Biosynthesis in Tobacco1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Shoji, Tsubasa; Kato, Akira; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants synthesize nicotine and related pyridine-type alkaloids, such as anatabine, in their roots and accumulate them in their aerial parts as chemical defenses against herbivores. Herbivory-induced jasmonate signaling activates structural genes for nicotine biosynthesis and transport by way of the NICOTINE (NIC) regulatory loci. The biosynthesis of tobacco alkaloids involves the condensation of an unidentified nicotinic acid-derived metabolite with the N-methylpyrrolinium cation or with itself, but the exact enzymatic reactions and enzymes involved remain unclear. Here, we report that jasmonate-inducible tobacco genes encoding flavin-containing oxidases of the berberine bridge enzyme family (BBLs) are expressed in the roots and regulated by the NIC loci. When expression of the BBL genes was suppressed in tobacco hairy roots or in tobacco plants, nicotine production was highly reduced, with a gradual accumulation of a novel nicotine metabolite, dihydromethanicotine. In the jasmonate-elicited cultured tobacco cells, suppression of BBL expression efficiently inhibited the formation of anatabine and other pyridine alkaloids. Subcellular fractionation and localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged BBLs showed that BBLs are localized in the vacuoles. These results indicate that BBLs are involved in a late oxidation step subsequent to the pyridine ring condensation reaction in the biosynthesis of tobacco alkaloids. PMID:21343426

  10. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 and the intravascular processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Adeyo, O; Goulbourne, C N; Bensadoun, A; Beigneux, A P; Fong, L G; Young, S G

    2012-12-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is produced by parenchymal cells, mainly adipocytes and myocytes, but is involved in hydrolysing triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins at the capillary lumen. For decades, the mechanism by which LPL reaches its site of action in capillaries was unclear, but this mystery was recently solved. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, 'picks up' LPL from the interstitial spaces and shuttles it across endothelial cells to the capillary lumen. When GPIHBP1 is absent, LPL is mislocalized to the interstitial spaces, leading to severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Some cases of hypertriglyceridaemia in humans are caused by GPIHBP1 mutations that interfere with the ability of GPIHBP1 to bind to LPL, and some are caused by LPL mutations that impair the ability of LPL to bind to GPIHBP1. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the role of GPIHBP1 in health and disease and discuss some of the remaining unresolved issues regarding the processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. © 2012 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  11. De Novo Guanine Biosynthesis but Not the Riboswitch-Regulated Purine Salvage Pathway Is Required for Staphylococcus aureus Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Donghong; Katakam, Anand K.; Reichelt, Mike; Lin, Baiwei; Kim, Janice; Park, Summer; Date, Shailesh V.; Monk, Ian R.; Xu, Min; Austin, Cary D.; Maurer, Till

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT De novo guanine biosynthesis is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that creates sufficient nucleotides to support DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Bacteria can also salvage nutrients from the environment to supplement the de novo pathway, but the relative importance of either pathway during Staphylococcus aureus infection is not known. In S. aureus, genes important for both de novo and salvage pathways are regulated by a guanine riboswitch. Bacterial riboswitches have attracted attention as a novel class of antibacterial drug targets because they have high affinity for small molecules, are absent in humans, and regulate the expression of multiple genes, including those essential for cell viability. Genetic and biophysical methods confirm the existence of a bona fide guanine riboswitch upstream of an operon encoding xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (xpt), xanthine permease (pbuX), inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (guaB), and GMP synthetase (guaA) that represses the expression of these genes in response to guanine. We found that S. aureus guaB and guaA are also transcribed independently of riboswitch control by alternative promoter elements. Deletion of xpt-pbuX-guaB-guaA genes resulted in guanine auxotrophy, failure to grow in human serum, profound abnormalities in cell morphology, and avirulence in mouse infection models, whereas deletion of the purine salvage genes xpt-pbuX had none of these effects. Disruption of guaB or guaA recapitulates the xpt-pbuX-guaB-guaA deletion in vivo. In total, the data demonstrate that targeting the guanine riboswitch alone is insufficient to treat S. aureus infections but that inhibition of guaA or guaB could have therapeutic utility. IMPORTANCE De novo guanine biosynthesis and purine salvage genes were reported to be regulated by a guanine riboswitch in Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrate here that this is not true, because alternative promoter elements that uncouple the de novo pathway from

  12. The Arabidopsis TUMOR PRONE5 Gene Encodes an Acetylornithine Aminotransferase Required for Arginine Biosynthesis and Root Meristem Maintenance in Blue Light1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Frémont, Nathalie; Riefler, Michael; Stolz, Andrea; Schmülling, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Arginine is an essential amino acid necessary for protein synthesis and is also a nitrogen storage compound. The genes encoding the enzymes of arginine biosynthesis in plants are not well characterized and have mainly been predicted from homologies to bacterial and fungal genes. We report the cloning and characterization of the TUMOR PRONE5 (TUP5) gene of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encoding an acetylornithine aminotransferase (ACOAT), catalyzing the fourth step of arginine biosynthesis. The free arginine content was strongly reduced in the chemically induced recessive mutant tup5-1, root growth was restored by supplementation with arginine and its metabolic precursors, and a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ACOAT mutant was complemented by TUP5. Two null alleles of TUP5 caused a reduced viability of gametes and embryo lethality, possibly caused by insufficient Arg supply from maternal tissue. TUP5 expression is positively regulated by light, and a TUP5-green fluorescent protein was localized in chloroplasts. tup5-1 has a unique light-dependent short root phenotype. Roots of light-grown tup5-1 seedlings switch from indeterminate growth to determinate growth with arresting cell production and an exhausted root apical meristem. The inhibitory activity was specific for blue light, and the inhibiting light was perceived by the root. Thus, tup5-1 reveals a novel role of amino acids and blue light in regulating root meristem function. PMID:23321422

  13. Fungal cell wall organization and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Free, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    The composition and organization of the cell walls from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Neurospora crassa, and Cryptococcus neoformans are compared and contrasted. These cell walls contain chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan, β-1,6-glucan, mixed β-1,3-/β-1,4-glucan, α-1,3-glucan, melanin, and glycoproteins as major constituents. A comparison of these cell walls shows that there is a great deal of variability in fungal cell wall composition and organization. However, in all cases, the cell wall components are cross-linked together to generate a cell wall matrix. The biosynthesis and properties of each of the major cell wall components are discussed. The chitin and glucans are synthesized and extruded into the cell wall space by plasma membrane-associated chitin synthases and glucan synthases. The glycoproteins are synthesized by ER-associated ribosomes and pass through the canonical secretory pathway. Over half of the major cell wall proteins are modified by the addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. The cell wall glycoproteins are also modified by the addition of O-linked oligosaccharides, and their N-linked oligosaccharides are extensively modified during their passage through the secretory pathway. These cell wall glycoprotein posttranslational modifications are essential for cross-linking the proteins into the cell wall matrix. Cross-linking the cell wall components together is essential for cell wall integrity. The activities of four groups of cross-linking enzymes are discussed. Cell wall proteins function as cross-linking enzymes, structural elements, adhesins, and environmental stress sensors and protect the cell from environmental changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-dependent impairment of IgG responses to glycosylphosphatidylinositol with equal exposure to Plasmodium falciparum among Javanese migrants to Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hudson Keenihan, Sarah N; Ratiwayanto, Sutanti; Soebianto, Saraswati; Krisin; Marwoto, Harijani; Krishnegowda, Gowdahalli; Gowda, D Channe; Bangs, Michael J; Fryauff, David J; Richie, Thomas L; Kumar, Sanjai; Baird, J Kevin

    2003-07-01

    Immune responses directed at glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors of Plasmodium falciparum may offer protection against symptomatic malaria. To independently explore the effect of age on generation of the anti-GPI IgG response, we measured serum anti-GPI IgGs in a longitudinal cohort of migrant Javanese children (6-12 years old) and adults (> or = 20 years old) with equivalent numbers of exposures to P. falciparum in Papua, Indonesia. While the peak response in adults was achieved after a single infection, comparable responses in children required > or = 3-4 infections. Significantly fewer children (16%) than adults (41%) showed a high (optical density > 0.44) anti-GPI IgG response (odds ratio [OR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3-6.3, P < 0.0001), and adults were more likely to show a persistently high response (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.0-56.8, P = 0.03). However, the minority of children showing a strong response were significantly less likely to experience symptoms with subsequent parasitemia compared with those with a weak response (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.1-13.8, P = 0.02). This effect was not seen among high- and low-responding adults (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.5-2.8, P = 0.60). Host age, independent of cumulative exposure, apparently represents a key determinant of the quantitative and qualitative nature of the IgG response to P. falciparum GPI.

  15. Stimulation of receptor-associated kinase, tyrosine kinase, and MAP kinase is required for prolactin-mediated macromolecular biosynthesis and mitogenesis in Nb2 lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Carey, G B; Liberti, J P

    1995-01-10

    Lactogens [prolactin (Prl) and growth hormone] stimulate phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein, S6, in Nb2 cells by mechanisms that do not involve participation of cAMP or protein kinase A, protein kinase C, or cGMP-dependent protein kinase. However, inhibition of tyrosine kinase (TK) abrogates Prl-mediated macromolecular biosynthesis. Inasmuch as lactogen signaling may involve sequential activation of protein kinases, the effect of Prl on the well-characterized mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and S6 kinase (S6K), the enzyme responsible for S6 phosphorylation in vivo, and their relationship to Nb2 macromolecular biosynthesis and mitogenesis were investigated. The results show that MAPK stimulation is transient (peak activity, 30 min) and precedes that of S6K, which reaches a maximum at 1.5-2 h, and slowly returns towards control levels at 6 h. Both staurosporine which inhibits GH receptor-associated kinase (JAK2) and genistein (GEN), an inhibitor of membrane-associated and cytoplasmic TKs, abrogate Prl-stimulated TK, MAPK, and S6K. Rapamycin (RAP), a specific inhibitor of p70S6K, completely blocks S6K but does not affect TK and MAPK. TK and MAPK activity correlates with Prl-stimulated anabolism, i.e., protein and DNA synthesis and mitogenesis. Thus, concentrations of STR and GEN which abrogate TK and MAPK inhibit anabolism virtually 100%. However, RAP, which inhibits S6K (ca. 100%) but not TK or MAPK, only delays Prl-mediated anabolism. These results indicate that Prl signaling in Nb2 cells involves a protein kinase cascade and that regulation of receptor-associated kinase, TK, and MAPK correlates with anabolism. The role of S6K (and S6 phosphorylation) appears to be ancillary.

  16. Decay-accelerating factor (CD55), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored complement regulatory protein, is a receptor for several echoviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Bergelson, J M; Chan, M; Solomon, K R; St John, N F; Lin, H; Finberg, R W

    1994-01-01

    Echoviruses are human pathogens belonging to the picornavirus family. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface protein that protects cells from lysis by autologous complement. Anti-DAF monoclonal antibodies prevented echovirus 7 attachment to susceptible cells and protected cells from infection. HeLa cells specifically lost the capacity to bind echovirus 7 when treated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, an enzyme that releases GPI-anchored proteins from the cell surface, indicating that the virus receptor, like DAF, is a GPI-anchored protein. Although Chinese hamster ovary cells do not bind echovirus 7, transfectants expressing human DAF bound virus efficiently, and binding was prevented by pretreatment with an anti-DAF monoclonal antibody. Anti-DAF antibodies prevented infection by at least six echovirus serotypes. These results indicate that DAF is the receptor mediating attachment and infection by several echoviruses. Images PMID:7517044

  17. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols are potential targets for the development of novel inhibitors for aerolysin-type of pore-forming bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu

    2010-03-01

    Many bacteria produce toxins that cause damage through the formation of pores in the host cell membrane. Some of these toxins, such as aerolysin, use glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) as their binding receptors to assist the pore formation on the host cell surface and the subsequent insertion of the resultant pores into the cell membrane. GPIs are a class of complex glycolipids that anchor surface proteins and glycoproteins onto the cell membrane in eukaryotic species. This review has summarized the reported evidences supporting the GPI-dependent pore-forming mechanism for aerolysin-type of toxins and analyzed the possibility of targeting this unique process for the design and development of novel GPI-based inhibitors for these pore-forming bacterial toxins. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Review: Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    King, Jerry D; Kocíncová, Dana; Westman, Erin L; Lam, Joseph S

    2009-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes serious nosocomial infections, and an important virulence factor produced by this organism is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This review summarizes knowledge about biosynthesis of all three structural domains of LPS - lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O polysaccharides. In addition, based on similarities with other bacterial species, this review proposes new hypothetical pathways for unstudied steps in the biosynthesis of P. aeruginosa LPS. Lipid A biosynthesis is discussed in relation to Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and the biosyntheses of core sugar precursors and core oligosaccharide are summarised. Pseudomonas aeruginosa attaches a Common Polysaccharide Antigen and O-Specific Antigen polysaccharides to lipid A-core. Both forms of O polysaccharide are discussed with respect to their independent synthesis mechanisms. Recent advances in understanding O-polysaccharide biosynthesis since the last major review on this subject, published nearly a decade ago, are highlighted. Since P. aeruginosa O polysaccharides contain unusual sugars, sugar-nucleotide biosynthesis pathways are reviewed in detail. Knowledge derived from detailed studies in the O5, O6 and O11 serotypes is applied to predict biosynthesis pathways of sugars in poorly-studied serotypes, especially O1, O4, and O13/O14. Although further work is required, a full understanding of LPS biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa is almost within reach.

  19. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  20. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L; Wildung, Mark R

    2005-12-01

    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint (Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general "allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction" scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1R, 3R, 4S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure and Binding Studies of PqqD, a Chaperone Required in the Biosynthesis of the Bacterial Dehydrogenase Cofactor Pyrroloquinoline Quinone.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert L; Latham, John A; Xia, Youlin; Klinman, Judith P; Wilmot, Carrie M

    2017-05-30

    Biosynthesis of the ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP), pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), is initiated when the precursor peptide, PqqA, is recognized and bound by the RiPP precursor peptide recognition element (RRE), PqqD, for presentation to the first enzyme in the pathway, PqqE. Unlike other RiPP-producing, postribosomal peptide synthesis (PRPS) pathways in which the RRE is a component domain of the first enzyme, PqqD is predominantly a separate scaffolding protein that forms a ternary complex with the precursor peptide and first tailoring enzyme. As PqqD is a stable, independent RRE, this makes the PQQ pathway an ideal PRPS model system for probing RRE interactions using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Herein, we present both the solution NMR structure of Methylobacterium extorquens PqqD and results of (1)H-(15)N HSQC binding experiments that identify the PqqD residues involved in binding the precursor peptide, PqqA, and the enzyme, PqqE. The reported structural model for an independent RRE, along with the mapped binding surfaces, will inform future efforts both to understand and to manipulate PRPS pathways.

  2. Untargeted metabolite profiling reveals that nitric oxide bioynthesis is an endogenous modulator of carotenoid biosynthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans and is required for extreme ionizing radiation resistance.

    PubMed

    Hansler, Alex; Chen, Qiuying; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S

    2016-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans (Drad) is the most radioresistant organism known. Although mechanisms that underlie the extreme radioresistance of Drad are incompletely defined, resistance to UV irradiation-induced killing was found to be greatly attenuated in an NO synthase (NOS) knockout strain of Drad (Δnos). We now show that endogenous NO production is also critical for protection of Drad against γ-irradiation (3000 Gy), a result of accelerated growth recovery, not protection against killing. NO-donor treatment rescued radiosensitization in Δnos Drad but did not influence radiosensitivity in wild type Drad. To discover molecular mechanisms by which endogenous NO confers radioresistance, metabolite profiling studies were performed. Untargeted LC-MS-based metabolite profiling in Drad quantified relative abundances of 1425 molecules and levels of 294 of these were altered by >5-fold (p < 0.01). Unexpectedly, these studies identified a dramatic perturbation in carotenoid biosynthetic intermediates in Δnos Drad, including a reciprocal switch in the pathway end-products from deoxydeinoxanthin to deinoxanthin. NO supplementation rescued these nos deletion-associated changes in carotenoid biosynthesis, and fully-restored radioresistance to wildtype levels. Because carotenoids were shown to be important contributors to radioprotection in Drad, our findings suggest that endogenously-produced NO serves to maintain a spectrum of carotenoids critical for Drad's ability to withstand radiation insult.

  3. Untargeted Metabolite Profiling Reveals that Nitric Oxide Bioynthesis is an Endogenous Modulator of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans and is Required for Extreme Ionizing Radiation Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hansler, Alex; Chen, Qiuying; Ma, Yuliang; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans (Drad) is the most radioresistant organism known. Although mechanisms that underlie the extreme radioresistance of Drad are incompletely defined, resistance to UV irradiation-induced killing was found to be greatly attenuated in an NO synthase (NOS) knockout strain of Drad (Δnos). We now show that endogenous NO production is also critical for protection of Drad against γ-irradiation (3000 Gy), a result of accelerated growth recovery, not protection against killing. NO-donor treatment rescued radiosensitization in Δnos Drad but did not influence radiosensitivity in wild type Drad. To discover molecular mechanisms by which endogenous NO confers radioresistance, metabolite profiling studies were performed. Untargeted LC-MS-based metabolite profiling in Drad quantified relative abundances of 1,425 molecules and levels of 294 of these were altered by >5-fold (p< 0.01). Unexpectedly, these studies identified a dramatic perturbation in carotenoid biosynthetic intermediates in Δnos Drad, including a reciprocal switch in the pathway end-products from deoxydeinoxanthin to deinoxanthin. NO supplementation rescued these nos deletion-associated changes in carotenoid biosynthesis, and fully-restored radioresistance to wildtype levels. Because carotenoids were shown to be important contributors to radioprotection in Drad, our findings suggest that endogenously-produced NO serves to maintain a spectrum of carotenoids critical for Drad’s ability to withstand radiation insult. PMID:26550929

  4. A Second Galacturonic Acid Transferase Is Required for Core Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis and Complete Capsule Association with the Cell Surface in Klebsiella pneumoniae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fresno, Sandra; Jiménez, Natalia; Canals, Rocío; Merino, Susana; Corsaro, Maria Michela; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Pieretti, Giuseppina; Regué, Miguel; Tomás, Juan M.

    2007-01-01

    The core lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Klebsiella pneumoniae contains two galacturonic acid (GalA) residues, but only one GalA transferase (WabG) has been identified. Data from chemical and structural analysis of LPS isolated from a wabO mutant show the absence of the inner core β-GalA residue linked to l-glycero-d-manno-heptose III (l,d-Hep III). An in vitro assay demonstrates that the purified WabO is able to catalyze the transfer of GalA from UDP-GalA to the acceptor LPS isolated from the wabO mutant, but not to LPS isolated from waaQ mutant (deficient in l,d-Hep III). The absence of this inner core β-GalA residue results in a decrease in virulence in a capsule-dependent experimental mouse pneumonia model. In addition, this mutation leads to a strong reduction in cell-bound capsule. Interestingly, a K66 Klebsiella strain (natural isolate) without a functional wabO gene shows reduced levels of cell-bound capsule in comparison to those of other K66 strains. Thus, the WabO enzyme plays an important role in core LPS biosynthesis and determines the level of cell-bound capsule in Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:17142396

  5. Identification and characterization of SMU.244 encoding a putative undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase protein required for cell wall biosynthesis and bacitracin resistance in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Naif; Tian, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Gaofeng; Upham, Jacqueline; Chen, Chao; Parcells, Madison; Li, Yung-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans in dental biofilms often faces life-threatening threats such as killing by antimicrobial molecules from competing species or from the host. The ability of S. mutans to cope with such threats is crucial for its survival and persistence in dental biofilms. By screening a transposon mutant library, we identified 11 transposon insertion mutants that were sensitive to bacitracin. Two of these mutants, XTn-01 and XTn-03, had an independent insertion in the same locus, SMU.244, which encoded a homologue of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (UppP). In this study, we describe the genetic and phenotypic characterization of SMU.244 in antibiotic resistance. The results revealed that deletion of SMU.244 results in a mutant (XTΔ244) that is highly sensitive to bacitracin, but confers more resistance to lactococcin G, a class IIb bacteriocin. Introduction of the intact SMU.244 into XTΔ244 in trans completely restores its resistance to bacitracin and the susceptibility to lactococcin G. The XTΔ244 was also defective in forming the WT biofilm, although its growth was not significantly affected. Using recombinant protein technology, we demonstrated that the SMU.244-encoded protein displays enzyme activity to catalyse dephosphorylation of the substrate. The lux transcriptional reporter assays showed that S. mutans maintains a moderate level of expression of SMU.244 in the absence of bacitracin, but bacitracin at sub-MICs can further induce its expression. We concluded that SMU.244 encodes an UppP protein that plays important roles in cell wall biosynthesis and bacitracin resistance in S. mutans. The results described here may further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which S. mutans copes with antibiotics such as bacitracin.

  6. Identification of the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase WSD1 required for stem wax ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-09-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C(16) and C(18)) or very-long-chain (C(20) and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment.

  7. Identification of a gene cluster in Klebsiella pneumoniae which includes citX, a gene required for biosynthesis of the citrate lyase prosthetic group.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Karin; Kästner, Christopher N; Meyer, Margareta; Wessel, Mirja; Dimroth, Peter; Bott, Michael

    2002-05-01

    The biosynthesis of the 2'-(5"-phosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-coenzyme A (CoA) prosthetic group of citrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.6), a key enzyme of citrate fermentation, proceeds via the initial formation of the precursor 2'-(5"-triphosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA and subsequent transfer to apo-citrate lyase with removal of pyrophosphate. In Escherichia coli, the two steps are catalyzed by CitG and CitX, respectively, and the corresponding genes are part of the citrate lyase gene cluster, citCDEFXG. In the homologous citCDEFG operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae, citX is missing. A search for K. pneumoniae citX led to the identification of a second genome region involved in citrate fermentation which comprised the citWX genes and the divergent citYZ genes. The citX gene was confirmed to encode holo-citrate lyase synthase, whereas citW was shown to encode a citrate carrier, the third one identified in this species. The citYZ genes were found to encode a two-component system consisting of the sensor kinase CitY and the response regulator CitZ. Remarkably, both proteins showed >or=40% sequence identity to the citrate-sensing CitA-CitB two-component system, which is essential for the induction of the citrate fermentation genes in K. pneumoniae. A citZ insertion mutant was able to grow anaerobically with citrate, indicating that CitZ is not essential for expression of citrate fermentation genes. CitX synthesis was induced to a basal level under anaerobic conditions, independent of citrate, CitB, and CitZ, and to maximal levels during anaerobic growth with citrate as the sole carbon source. Similar to the other citrate fermentation enzymes, CitX synthesis was apparently subject to catabolite repression.

  8. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

  9. Biosynthesis: Imaging cell-wall biosynthesis live

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugg, Timothy D. H.

    2013-01-01

    The biosynthesis of peptidoglycan is an important step in bacterial cell division and cell-wall maturation. Now it has been shown that fluorescent D-amino acids can be used to label the peptidoglycan cell wall of living bacteria, providing a new tool to study this important process.

  10. Architecture and Biosynthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Orlean, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The wall gives a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell its osmotic integrity; defines cell shape during budding growth, mating, sporulation, and pseudohypha formation; and presents adhesive glycoproteins to other yeast cells. The wall consists of β1,3- and β1,6-glucans, a small amount of chitin, and many different proteins that may bear N- and O-linked glycans and a glycolipid anchor. These components become cross-linked in various ways to form higher-order complexes. Wall composition and degree of cross-linking vary during growth and development and change in response to cell wall stress. This article reviews wall biogenesis in vegetative cells, covering the structure of wall components and how they are cross-linked; the biosynthesis of N- and O-linked glycans, glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, β1,3- and β1,6-linked glucans, and chitin; the reactions that cross-link wall components; and the possible functions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic cell wall proteins. PMID:23135325

  11. Protein biosynthesis in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenko, A V; Levitskii, S A; Vinogradova, E N; Atkinson, G C; Hauryliuk, V; Zenkin, N; Kamenski, P A

    2013-08-01

    Translation, that is biosynthesis of polypeptides in accordance with information encoded in the genome, is one of the most important processes in the living cell, and it has been in the spotlight of international research for many years. The mechanisms of protein biosynthesis in bacteria and in the eukaryotic cytoplasm are now understood in great detail. However, significantly less is known about translation in eukaryotic mitochondria, which is characterized by a number of unusual features. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about mitochondrial translation in different organisms while paying special attention to the aspects of this process that differ from cytoplasmic protein biosynthesis.

  12. Protein Biosynthesis in Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmenko, A. V.; Levitskii, S. A.; Vinogradova, E. N.; Atkinson, G. C.; Hauryliuk, V.; Zenkin, N.; Kamenski, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Translation, that is biosynthesis of polypeptides in accordance with information encoded in the genome, is one of the most important processes in the living cell, and it has been in the spotlight of international research for many years. The mechanisms of protein biosynthesis in bacteria and in the eukaryotic cytoplasm are now understood in great detail. However, significantly less is known about translation in eukaryotic mitochondria, which is characterized by a number of unusual features. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about mitochondrial translation in different organisms while paying special attention to the aspects of this process that differ from cytoplasmic protein biosynthesis. PMID:24228873

  13. Quantification of growth-defense trade-offs in a common currency: nitrogen required for phenolamide biosynthesis is not derived from ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase turnover.

    PubMed

    Ullmann-Zeunert, Lynn; Stanton, Mariana A; Wielsch, Nathalie; Bartram, Stefan; Hummert, Christian; Svatoš, Aleš; Baldwin, Ian T; Groten, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Induced defenses are thought to be economical: growth and fitness-limiting resources are only invested into defenses when needed. To date, this putative growth-defense trade-off has not been quantified in a common currency at the level of individual compounds. Here, a quantification method for ¹⁵N-labeled proteins enabled a direct comparison of nitrogen (N) allocation to proteins, specifically, ribulose-1,5-bisposphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), as proxy for growth, with that to small N-containing defense metabolites (nicotine and phenolamides), as proxies for defense after herbivory. After repeated simulated herbivory, total N decreased in the shoots of wild-type (WT) Nicotiana attenuata plants, but not in two transgenic lines impaired in jasmonate defense signaling (irLOX3) and phenolamide biosynthesis (irMYB8). N was reallocated among different compounds within elicited rosette leaves: in the WT, a strong decrease in total soluble protein (TSP) and RuBisCO was accompanied by an increase in defense metabolites, irLOX3 showed a similar, albeit attenuated, pattern, whereas irMYB8 rosette leaves were the least responsive to elicitation, with overall higher levels of RuBisCO. Induced defenses were higher in the older compared with the younger rosette leaves, supporting the hypothesis that tissue developmental stage influences defense investments. We propose that MYB8, probably by regulating the production of phenolamides, indirectly mediates protein pool sizes after herbivory. Although the decrease in absolute N invested in TSP and RuBisCO elicited by simulated herbivory was much larger than the N-requirements of nicotine and phenolamide biosynthesis, ¹⁵N flux studies revealed that N for phenolamide synthesis originates from recently assimilated N, rather than from RuBisCO turnover.

  14. Quantification of growth-defense trade-offs in a common currency: nitrogen required for phenolamide biosynthesis is not derived from ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase turnover

    PubMed Central

    Wielsch, Nathalie; Bartram, Stefan; Hummert, Christian; Svatoš, Aleš; Baldwin, Ian T.; Groten, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Induced defenses are thought to be economical: growth and fitness-limiting resources are only invested into defenses when needed. To date, this putative growth-defense trade-off has not been quantified in a common currency at the level of individual compounds. Here, a quantification method for 15N-labeled proteins enabled a direct comparison of nitrogen (N) allocation to proteins, specifically, ribulose-1,5-bisposphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) as proxy for growth, with that into small N-containing defense metabolites (nicotine, phenolamides) as proxies for defense after herbivory. After repeated simulated herbivory, total N decreased in the shoots of wild type (WT) Nicotiana attenuata plants, but not in two transgenic lines impaired in jasmonate defense signaling (irLOX3) and phenolamide biosynthesis (irMYB8). N was reallocated among different compounds within elicited rosette leaves: in WT, a strong decrease in total soluble protein (TSP) and RuBisCO was accompanied by an increase in defense metabolites; irLOX3 showed a similar, albeit attenuated pattern; while irMYB8 rosette leaves were the least responsive to elicitation with overall higher levels of RuBisCO. Induced defenses were higher in the older compared to the younger rosette leaves, supporting the hypothesis that tissue developmental stage influences defense investments. We propose that MYB8, probably by regulating the production of phenolamides, indirectly mediates protein pool sizes after herbivory. Although the decrease in absolute N invested in TSP and RuBisCO elicited by simulated herbivory was much larger than the N-requirements of nicotine and phenolamide biosynthesis, 15N flux studies revealed that N for phenolamide synthesis originates from recently assimilated N rather than from RuBisCO turnover. PMID:23590461

  15. Transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant plant biopolymer mainly present in the secondary walls of tracheary elements and fibers in wood. Understanding how lignin is biosynthesized has long been an interest to plant biologists and will have a significant impact on tree biotechnology. Lignin is polymerized from monolignols that are synthesized through the lignin biosynthetic pathway. To make lignin, all the genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway need to be coordinately turned on. It has been shown that a common cis-element, namely the AC element, is present in the majority of the lignin biosynthetic genes and required for their expression in lignifying cells. Important progress has been made in the identification of transcription factors that bind to the AC elements and are potentially involved in the coordinated regulation of lignin biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis MYB58 and MYB63 as well as their poplar ortholog PtrMYB28 are transcriptional activators of the lignin biosynthetic pathway, whereas the eucalyptus EgMYB2 and pine PtMYB4 transcription factors are likely Arabidopsis MYB46 orthologs involved in the regulation of the entire secondary wall biosynthetic program. It was found that the transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis is under the control of the same transcriptional network regulating the biosynthesis of other secondary wall components, including cellulose and xylan. The identification of transcription factors directly activating lignin biosynthetic genes provides unprecedented tools to potentially manipulate the amount of lignin in wood and other plant products based on our needs.

  16. Starch biosynthesis in cereal endosperm.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ryoo, Nayeon; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Walia, Harkamal; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2010-06-01

    Stored starch generally consists of two d-glucose homopolymers, the linear polymer amylose and a highly branched glucan amylopectin that connects linear chains. Amylopectin structurally contributes to the crystalline organization of the starch granule in cereals. In the endosperm, amylopectin biosynthesis requires the proper execution of a coordinated series of enzymatic reactions involving ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), soluble starch synthase (SS), starch branching enzyme (BE), and starch debranching enzyme (DBE), whereas amylose is synthesized by AGPase and granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS). It is highly possible that plastidial starch phosphorylase (Pho1) plays an important role in the formation of primers for starch biosynthesis in the endosperm. Recent advances in our understanding of the functions of individual enzyme isoforms have provided new insights into how linear polymer chains and branch linkages are synthesized in cereals. In particular, genetic analyses of a suite of mutants have formed the basis of a new model outlining the role of various enzyme isoforms in cereal starch production. In our current review, we summarize the recent research findings related to starch biosynthesis in cereal endosperm, with a particular focus on rice.

  17. Parallels in lignin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Banks, Jo Ann

    2008-01-01

    A hallmark of vascular plants is the development of a complex water-conducting system, which is physically reinforced by the heterogeneous aromatic polymer lignin. Syringyl lignin, a major building block of lignin, is often thought to be uniquely characteristic of angiosperms; however, it was demonstrated over fifty years ago that that syringyl lignin is found in another group of plants, known as the lycophytes, the ancestors of which diverged from all the other vascular plant lineages 400 million years ago.1 To determine the biochemical basis for this common biosynthetic ability, we isolated and characterized cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (P450s) from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii and compared them to the enzyme that is required for syringyl lignin synthesis in angiosperms. Our results showed that one of these P450s encodes an enzyme that is functionally analogous to but phylogenetically independent from its angiosperm counterpart. Here, we discuss the evolution of lignin biosynthesis in vascular plants and the role of Selaginella moellendorffii in plant comparative biology and genomics. PMID:19704782

  18. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins are preferentially targeted to the basolateral surface in Fischer rat thyroid epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) acts as an apical targeting signal in MDCK cells and other kidney and intestinal cell lines. In striking contrast with these model polarized cell lines, we show here that Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) epithelial cells do not display a preferential apical distribution of GPI-anchored proteins. Six out of nine detectable endogenous GPI-anchored proteins were localized on the basolateral surface, whereas two others were apical and one was not polarized. Transfection of several model GPI proteins, previously shown to be apically targeted in MDCK cells, also led to unexpected results. While the ectodomain of decay accelerating factor (DAF) was apically secreted, 50% of the native, GPI-anchored form, of this protein was basolateral. Addition of a GPI anchor to the ectodomain of Herpes simplex gD-1, secreted without polarity, led to basolateral localization of the fusion protein, gD1-DAF. Targeting experiments demonstrated that gD1-DAF was delivered vectorially from the Golgi apparatus to the basolateral surface. These results indicate that FRT cells have fundamental differences with MDCK cells with regard to the mechanisms for sorting GPI-anchored proteins: GPI is not an apical signal but, rather, it behaves as a basolateral signal. The "mutant" behavior of FRT cells may provide clues to the nature of the mechanisms that sort GPI-anchored proteins in epithelial cells. PMID:7684737

  19. Traffic, polarity, and detergent solubility of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein after LDL-deprivation of MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, GPI-proteins, are selectively delivered to the apical surfaces of many types of morphologically polarized epithelial cells. It has been proposed that the unit for targeting GPI-proteins to the apical surface is a membrane lipid domain. This sorting domain or molecular cluster has been equated to detergent (Triton X-100)-insoluble membrane fractions that are enriched in enriched in GPI-proteins, glycosphingolipids, and cholesterol. To determine the role of cholesterol in the formation of sorting domains and to examine its importance in the intracellular traffic and membrane polarity of GPI-proteins, we studied the behavior of a model GPI-protein, gD1-DAF, in MDCK cells cultured for 3 or 14 d without their principal source of cholesterol, serum LDL. LDL deprivation affects the intracellular traffic of gD1-DAF. Surface expression of gD1-DAF is reduced in LDL-deprived cells; this reduction is most marked after 3 d of LDL deprivation. We also find a great reduction in the fraction of gD1-DAF that is detergent-insoluble in these cells and a change in its membrane milieu defined by susceptibility to cleavage with PI-specific phospholipase C. Despite these changes, the surface polarity of gD1-DAF is no different in LDL- deprived cells than in control cells. PMID:8682863

  20. Aspergillus nidulans ChiA is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored chitinase specifically localized at polarized growth sites.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Harutake; Tanaka, Aya; Kaneko, Jun-ichi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki

    2008-06-01

    It is believed that chitinases play important physiological roles in filamentous fungi since chitin is one of the major cell wall components in these organisms. In this paper we investigated a chitinase gene, chiA, of Aspergillus nidulans and found that the gene product of chiA consists of a signal sequence, a region including chitinase consensus motifs, a Ser/Thr/Pro-rich region and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor attachment motif. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C treatment of the fusion protein of ChiA and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-ChiA-EGFP-caused a change in its hydrophobicity, indicating that ChiA is a GPI-anchored protein. ChiA-EGFP localized at the germ tubes of conidia, at hyphal branching sites and hyphal tips. chiA expression was specifically high during conidia germination and in the marginal growth regions of colonies. These results suggest that ChiA functions as a GPI-anchored chitinase at the sites where cell wall remodeling and/or cell wall maturation actively take place.

  1. Generation of a monoclonal antibody against the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein Rae-1 using genetically engineered tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiemiao; Vien, Long T; Xia, Xueqing; Bover, Laura; Li, Shulin

    2014-02-04

    Although genetically engineered cells have been used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against numerous proteins, no study has used them to generate mAbs against glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. The GPI-linked protein Rae-1, an NKG2D ligand member, is responsible for interacting with immune surveillance cells. However, very few high-quality mAbs against Rae-1 are available for use in multiple analyses, including Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. The lack of high-quality mAbs limits the in-depth analysis of Rae-1 fate, such as shedding and internalization, in murine models. Moreover, currently available screening approaches for identifying high-quality mAbs are excessively time-consuming and costly. We used Rae-1-overexpressing CT26 tumor cells to generate 60 hybridomas that secreted mAbs against Rae-1. We also developed a streamlined screening strategy for selecting the best anti-Rae-1 mAb for use in flow cytometry assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Our cell line-based immunization approach can yield mAbs against GPI-anchored proteins, and our streamlined screening strategy can be used to select the ideal hybridoma for producing such mAbs.

  2. Clustering of sialylated glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors mediates PrP-induced activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A 2 and synapse damage.

    PubMed

    Bate, Clive; Williams, Alun

    2012-01-01

    Precisely how the accumulation of PrP (Sc) causes the neuronal degeneration that leads to the clinical symptoms of prion diseases is poorly understood. Our recent paper showed that the clustering of specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors attached to PrP proteins triggered synapse damage in cultured neurons. First, we demonstrated that small, soluble PrP (Sc) oligomers caused synapse damage via a GPI-dependent process. Our hypothesis, that the clustering of specific GPIs caused synapse damage, was supported by observations that cross-linkage of PrP (C), either chemically or by monoclonal antibodies, also triggered synapse damage. Synapse damage was preceded by an increase in the cholesterol content of synapses and activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2). The presence of a terminal sialic acid moiety, a rare modification of mammalian GPI anchors, was essential in the activation of cPLA 2 and synapse damage induced by cross-linked PrP (C). We conclude that the sialic acid modifies local membrane microenvironments (rafts) surrounding clustered PrP molecules resulting in aberrant activation of cPLA 2 and synapse damage. A recent observation, that toxic amyloid-β assemblies cross-link PrP (C), suggests that synapse damage in prion and Alzheimer diseases is mediated via a common molecular mechanism, and raises the possibility that the pharmacological modification of GPI anchors might constitute a novel therapeutic approach to these diseases.

  3. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as chaperones and co-receptors for FERONIA receptor kinase signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Cheung, Alice Y; Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Luu, Emily J; Wu, Brendan W; Gates, Laura; Jalal, Methun; Kwong, Amy; Carpenter, Hunter; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06587.001 PMID:26052747

  4. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein–binding protein 1 plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons

    PubMed Central

    Beigneux, Anne P.; Davies, Brandon S. J.; Gin, Peter; Weinstein, Michael M.; Farber, Emily; Qiao, Xin; Peale, Franklin; Bunting, Stuart; Walzem, Rosemary L.; Wong, Jinny S.; Blaner, William S.; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Melford, Kristan; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn; Shu, Xiao; de Sauvage, Fred; Ryan, Robert O.; Fong, Loren G.; Bensadoun, André; Young, Stephen G.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The triglycerides in chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) along the luminal surface of the capillaries. However, the endothelial cell molecule that facilitates chylomicron processing by LpL has not yet been defined. Here, we show that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein–binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons. Gpihbp1-deficient mice exhibit a striking accumulation of chylomicrons in the plasma, even on a low-fat diet, resulting in milky plasma and plasma triglyceride levels as high as 5,000 mg/dl. Normally, Gpihbp1 is expressed highly in heart and adipose tissue, the same tissues that express high levels of LpL. In these tissues, GPIHBP1 is located on the luminal face of the capillary endothelium. Expression of GPIHBP1 in cultured cells confers the ability to bind both LpL and chylomicrons. These studies strongly suggest that GPIHBP1 is an important platform for the LpL-mediated processing of chylomicrons in capillaries. PMID:17403372

  5. Generation of a monoclonal antibody against the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein Rae-1 using genetically engineered tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although genetically engineered cells have been used to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against numerous proteins, no study has used them to generate mAbs against glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. The GPI-linked protein Rae-1, an NKG2D ligand member, is responsible for interacting with immune surveillance cells. However, very few high-quality mAbs against Rae-1 are available for use in multiple analyses, including Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. The lack of high-quality mAbs limits the in-depth analysis of Rae-1 fate, such as shedding and internalization, in murine models. Moreover, currently available screening approaches for identifying high-quality mAbs are excessively time-consuming and costly. Results We used Rae-1–overexpressing CT26 tumor cells to generate 60 hybridomas that secreted mAbs against Rae-1. We also developed a streamlined screening strategy for selecting the best anti–Rae-1 mAb for use in flow cytometry assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Conclusions Our cell line–based immunization approach can yield mAbs against GPI-anchored proteins, and our streamlined screening strategy can be used to select the ideal hybridoma for producing such mAbs. PMID:24495546

  6. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as chaperones and co-receptors for FERONIA receptor kinase signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Cheung, Alice Y; Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Luu, Emily J; Wu, Brendan W; Gates, Laura; Jalal, Methun; Kwong, Amy; Carpenter, Hunter; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-06-08

    The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor.

  7. Involvement of ZFR1 of Fusarium verticilliodes in kernel colonization and the regulation of FST1, a putative sugar transporter gene required for fumonisin biosynthesis on maize kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisins comprise a class of carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides during colonization of maize kernels. In previous work, we identified ZFR1, which is predicted to encode a Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fumonisin B1 (FB1) production during growt...

  8. Efficiency of Lignin Biosynthesis: a Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    AMTHOR, JEFFREY S.

    2003-01-01

    Lignin is derived mainly from three alcohol monomers: p‐coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. Biochemical reactions probably responsible for synthesizing these three monomers from sucrose, and then polymerizing the monomers into lignin, were analysed to estimate the amount of sucrose required to produce a unit of lignin. Included in the calculations were amounts of respiration required to provide NADPH (from NADP+) and ATP (from ADP) for lignin biosynthesis. Two pathways in the middle stage of monomer biosynthesis were considered: one via tyrosine (found in monocots) and the other via phenylalanine (found in all plants). If lignin biosynthesis proceeds with high efficiency via tyrosine, 76·9, 70·4 and 64·3 % of the carbon in sucrose can be retained in the fraction of lignin derived from p‐coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, respectively. The corresponding carbon retention values for lignin biosynthesis via phenylalanine are less, at 73·2, 65·7 and 60·7 %, respectively. Energy (i.e. heat of combustion) retention during lignin biosynthesis via tyrosine could be as high as 81·6, 74·5 and 67·8 % for lignin derived from p‐coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, respectively, with the corresponding potential energy retention values for lignin biosynthesis via phenylalanine being less, at 77·7, 69·5 and 63·9 %, respectively. Whether maximum efficiency occurs in situ is unclear, but these values are targets that can be considered in: (1) plant breeding programmes aimed at maximizing carbon or energy retention from photosynthate; (2) analyses of (minimum) metabolic costs of responding to environmental change or pest attack involving increased lignin biosynthesis; (3) understanding costs of lignification in older tissues; and (4) interpreting carbon balance measurements of organs and plants with large lignin concentrations. PMID:12714366

  9. A novel heptameric sequence (TTAGTAA) is the binding site for a protein required for high level expression of pcbAB, the first gene of the penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Kosalková, K; Marcos, A T; Fierro, F; Hernando-Rico, V; Gutiérrez, S; Martín, J F

    2000-01-28

    The first two genes pcbAB and pcbC of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway are expressed from a 1.01-kilobase bidirectional promoter region. A series of sequential deletions were made in the pcbAB promoter region, and the constructions with the modified promoters coupled to the lacZ reporter gene were introduced as single copies at the pyrG locus in Penicillium chrysogenum npe10. Three regions, boxes A, B, and C, produced a significant decrease in expression of the reporter gene when deleted. Protein-DNA complexes were observed by using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay with boxes A and B (complexes AG1, BG1, BG2, and BL1) but not with box C. Uracil interference assay showed that a protein in P. chrysogenum cell extracts interacts with the thymines in a palindromic heptanucleotide TTAGTAA. Point mutations and deletion of the entire TTAGTAA sequence supported the involvement of this sequence in the binding of a transcriptional activator named penicillin transcriptional activator 1 (PTA1). In vivo studies using constructions carrying point mutations in the TTAGTAA sequence (or a deletion of the complete heptanucleotide) confirmed that this intact sequence is required for high level expression of the pcbAB gene. The TTAGTAA sequence resembles the target sequence of BAS2 (PHO2), a factor required for expression of several genes in yeasts.

  10. Studies on the later stage of the biosynthesis of pleuromutilin.

    PubMed

    Tsukagoshi, Tae; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2007-12-01

    Mutilin (4) and deoxy analogues 2 and 3 are biosynthetic precursors of pleuromutilin (1) in the later stage of biosynthesis. Precursors 2 and 3 are required for studies on the oxygenation steps in biosynthesis, and were synthesized from readily available 1 via 4 by deoxygenation of the hydroxy groups. Feeding experiments with the (2)H-labeled precursors confirmed their microbial conversion into 1.

  11. Conserved aspartate and lysine residues of RcsB are required for amylovoran biosynthesis, virulence, and DNA binding in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Ancona, Veronica; Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Zhao, Youfu

    2015-08-01

    In Erwinia amylovora, the Rcs phosphorelay system is essential for amylovoran production and virulence. To further understand the role of conserved aspartate residue (D56) in the phosphor receiver (PR) domain and lysine (K180) residue in the function domain of RcsB, amino acid substitutions of RcsB mutant alleles were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and complementation of various rcs mutants were performed. A D56E substitution of RcsB, which mimics the phosphorylation state of RcsB, complemented the rcsB mutant, resulting in increased amylovoran production and gene expression, reduced swarming motility, and restored pathogenicity. In contrast, D56N and K180A or K180Q substitutions of RcsB did not complement the rcsB mutant. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays showed that D56E, but not D56N, K180Q and K180A substitutions of RcsB bound to promoters of amsG and flhD, indicating that both D56 and K180 are required for DNA binding. Interestingly, the RcsBD56E allele could also complement rcsAB, rcsBC and rcsABCD mutants with restored virulence and increased amylovoran production, indicating that RcsB phosphorylation is essential for virulence of E. amylovora. In addition, mutations of T904 and A905, but not phosphorylation mimic mutation of D876 in the PR domain of RcsC, constitutively activate the Rcs system, suggesting that phosphor transfer is required for activating the Rcs system and indicating both A905 and T904 are required for the phosphatase activity of RcsC. Our results demonstrated that RcsB phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, phosphor transfer from RcsC are essential for the function of the Rcs system, and also suggested that constitutive activation of the Rcs system could reduce the fitness of E. amylovora.

  12. Queuosine biosynthesis is required for sinorhizobium meliloti-induced cytoskeletal modifications on HeLa Cells and symbiosis with Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Marta; Capela, Delphine; Poincloux, Renaud; Benmeradi, Nacer; Auriac, Marie-Christine; Le Ru, Aurélie; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Batut, Jacques; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobia are symbiotic soil bacteria able to intracellularly colonize legume nodule cells and form nitrogen-fixing symbiosomes therein. How the plant cell cytoskeleton reorganizes in response to rhizobium colonization has remained poorly understood especially because of the lack of an in vitro infection assay. Here, we report on the use of the heterologous HeLa cell model to experimentally tackle this question. We observed that the model rhizobium Sinorhizobium meliloti, and other rhizobia as well, were able to trigger a major reorganization of actin cytoskeleton of cultured HeLa cells in vitro. Cell deformation was associated with an inhibition of the three major small RhoGTPases Cdc42, RhoA and Rac1. Bacterial entry, cytoskeleton rearrangements and modulation of RhoGTPase activity required an intact S. meliloti biosynthetic pathway for queuosine, a hypermodifed nucleoside regulating protein translation through tRNA, and possibly mRNA, modification. We showed that an intact bacterial queuosine biosynthetic pathway was also required for effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis of S. meliloti with its host plant Medicago truncatula, thus indicating that one or several key symbiotic functions of S. meliloti are under queuosine control. We discuss whether the symbiotic defect of que mutants may originate, at least in part, from an altered capacity to modify plant cell actin cytoskeleton.

  13. Streptolysin-O induces release of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored alkaline phosphatase from ROS cells by vesiculation independently of phospholipase action.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, M; Low, M G

    1995-01-01

    Streptolysin-O (SLO), a cholesterol-binding agent, was used for studies on the release of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored alkaline phosphatase (AP) from ROS cells. Treatment of cells with SLO resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent release of AP into the extracellular medium. This release was potentiated by Ca2+ and bovine serum, but not by GPI-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) purified from bovine serum. The released AP distributed to the detergent phase after Triton X-114 phase separation. This result suggested that the released AP contained an intact GPI anchor, and thus both proteolysis and anchor degradation by anchor-specific hydrolases, including GPI-PLD, as the potential mechanisms for SLO-mediated AP release were ruled out. The released AP sedimented at 100,000 g. A substantial amount of lipids was detected in the 100,000 g pellet. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin were enriched in SLO-released material, compared with intact cells. These results were consistent with vesiculation as the mechanism for SLO induction of AP release. Two other cholesterol-binding agents, saponin and digitonin, were also able to release AP, possibly by a similar vesiculation mechanism, whereas others, including nystatin, filipin and beta-escin, failed to elicit any AP release. Eight GPI-anchored proteins were identified in ROS cells, and all were substantially enriched in the vesicles released by SLO. Taken together, these results do not provide any support for the hypothesis that the clustering of GPI-anchored proteins in the plasma membrane is responsible for their resistance to GPI-PLD cleavage. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7832771

  14. Determination of the non-ionic detergent insolubility and phosphoprotein associations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins expressed on T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Mallory, M A; Finberg, R W

    1998-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are poorly solublized in non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 and Nonidet P40, but are easily solublized by detergents with high critical micelle concentrations such as octylglucoside. This solubility profile has been suggested to be due to the localization of GPI-anchored proteins to lipid microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Additionally, GPI-anchored proteins expressed on haemopoietic cells have been shown to associate with src-family tyrosine kinases and heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite these observations, the non-ionic detergent insolubility of GPI-anchored proteins on haemopoietic cells has not been quantified nor has a relationship between the non-ionic detergent insolubility of these proteins and their association with signal-transduction molecules been identified. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins found on T-cell tumours and activated T cells, although significantly more insoluble then transmembrane proteins, are not uniform in their detergent insolubility. Whereas CD59 was between 4% and 13% soluble, CD48 was between 13% and 25% soluble, CD55 was between 20% and 30% soluble, and CD109 was between 34% and 75% soluble. The ability of these GPI-anchored proteins to associate with phosphoproteins was correlated with their detergent insolubility: the more detergent-insoluble that a GPI-anchored protein was, the greater the level of phosphoprotein associations. These experiments reveal a relationship between non-ionic detergent insolubility and association with signal-transduction molecules and suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between these two properties. In total, these experiments support the hypothesis that the association of GPI-anchored proteins with signalling molecules is due to their sorting to lipid microdomains. PMID:9716490

  15. The affected gene underlying the class K glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) surface protein defect codes for the GPI transamidase

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianliang; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Knez, Jansen J.; Udenfriend, Sidney; Chen, Rui; Medof, M. Edward

    1997-01-01

    The final step in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of cell surface proteins consists of a transamidation reaction in which preassembled GPI donors are substituted for C-terminal signal sequences in nascent polypeptides. In previous studies we described a human K562 cell mutant, termed class K, that accumulates fully assembled GPI units but is unable to transfer them to N-terminally processed proproteins. In further work we showed that, unlike wild-type microsomes, microsomes from these cells are unable to support C-terminal interaction of proproteins with the small nucleophiles hydrazine or hydroxylamine, and that the cells thus are defective in transamidation. In this study, using a modified recombinant vaccinia transient transfection system in conjunction with a composite cDNA prepared by 5′ extension of an existing GenBank sequence, we found that the genetic element affected in these cells corresponds to the human homolog of yGPI8, a gene affected in a yeast mutant strain exhibiting similar accumulation of GPI donors without transfer. hGPI8 gives rise to mRNAs of 1.6 and 1.9 kb, both encoding a protein of 395 amino acids that varies in cells with their ability to couple GPIs to proteins. The gene spans ≈25 kb of DNA on chromosome 1. Reconstitution of class K cells with hGPI8 abolishes their accumulation of GPI precursors and restores C-terminal processing of GPI-anchored proteins. Also, hGPI8 restores the ability of microsomes from the mutant cells to yield an active carbonyl in the presence of a proprotein which is considered to be an intermediate in catalysis by a transamidase. PMID:9356492

  16. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferases from chicken.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Masaharu; Osago, Harumi; Hara, Nobumasa; Tanigawa, Yoshinori; Shimoyama, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Mikako

    2005-08-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that regulates the functions of target proteins or peptides by attaching an ADP-ribose moiety. Here we report the purification, molecular cloning, characterization and tissue-specific distribution of novel arginine-specific Arts (ADP-ribosyltransferases) from chicken. Arts were detected in various chicken tissues as GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchored forms, and purified from the lung membrane fraction. By molecular cloning based on the partial amino acid sequence using 5'- and 3'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), two full-length cDNAs of chicken GPI-anchored Arts, cgArt1 (chicken GPI-anchored Art1) and cgArt2, were obtained. The cDNA of cgArt1 encoded a novel polypeptide of 298 amino acids which shows a high degree of identity with cgArt2 (82.9%), Art6.1 (50.2%) and rabbit Art1 (42.1%). In contrast, the nucleotide sequence of cgArt2 was identical with that of Art7 cloned previously from chicken erythroblasts. cgArt1 and cgArt2 proteins expressed in DT40 cells were shown to be GPI-anchored Arts with a molecular mass of 45 kDa, and these Arts showed different enzymatic properties from the soluble chicken Art, Art6.1. RNase protection assays and real-time quantitative PCR revealed distinct expression patterns of the two Arts; cgArt1 was expressed predominantly in the lung, spleen and bone marrow, followed by the heart, kidney and muscle, while cgArt2 was expressed only in the heart and skeletal muscle. Thus GPI-anchored Arts encoded by the genes cgArt1 and cgArt2 are expressed extensively in chicken tissues. It may be worthwhile determining the functional roles of ADP-ribosylation in each tissue.

  17. Transfer of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored 5′-nucleotidase CD73 from adiposomes into rat adipocytes stimulates lipid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, G; Jung, C; Wied, S; Biemer-Daub, G; Frick, W

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: In addition to predominant localization at detergent-insoluble, glycolipid-enriched plasma membrane microdomains (DIGs), glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-proteins) have been found associated with lipid droplets (LDs) and adiposomes. Adiposomes are vesicles that are released from adipocytes in response to anti-lipolytic and lipogenic signals, such as H2O2, palmitate and the antidiabetic sulfonylurea drug, glimepiride, and harbour (c)AMP-degrading GPI-proteins, among them the 5-nucleotidase CD73. Here the role of adiposomes in GPI-protein-mediated information transfer was studied. Experimental approach: Adiposomes were incubated with isolated rat adipocytes under various conditions. Trafficking of CD73 and lipid synthesis were analysed. Key results: Upon blockade of GPI-protein trafficking, CD73 specifically associated with DIGs of small, and to a lower degree, large, adipocytes. On reversal of the blockade, CD73 appeared at cytosolic LD in time- adiposome concentration- and signal (H2O2 > glimepiride > palmitate)-dependent fashion. The salt- and carbonate-resistant association of CD73 with structurally intact DIGs and LD was dependent on its intact GPI anchor. Upon incubation with small and to a lower degree, large adipocytes, adiposomes increased lipid synthesis in the absence or presence of H2O2, glimepiride and palmitate and improved the sensitivity toward these signals. Upregulation of lipid synthesis by adiposomes was dependent on the translocation of CD73 with intact GPI anchors from DIGs to LD. Conclusions: The signal-induced transfer of GPI-anchored CD73 from adiposomes via DIGs to LD of adipocytes mediates paracrine upregulation of lipid synthesis within the adipose tissue. PMID:20590586

  18. Determination of the non-ionic detergent insolubility and phosphoprotein associations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins expressed on T cells.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K R; Mallory, M A; Finberg, R W

    1998-09-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are poorly solublized in non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 and Nonidet P40, but are easily solublized by detergents with high critical micelle concentrations such as octylglucoside. This solubility profile has been suggested to be due to the localization of GPI-anchored proteins to lipid microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Additionally, GPI-anchored proteins expressed on haemopoietic cells have been shown to associate with src-family tyrosine kinases and heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite these observations, the non-ionic detergent insolubility of GPI-anchored proteins on haemopoietic cells has not been quantified nor has a relationship between the non-ionic detergent insolubility of these proteins and their association with signal-transduction molecules been identified. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins found on T-cell tumours and activated T cells, although significantly more insoluble then transmembrane proteins, are not uniform in their detergent insolubility. Whereas CD59 was between 4% and 13% soluble, CD48 was between 13% and 25% soluble, CD55 was between 20% and 30% soluble, and CD109 was between 34% and 75% soluble. The ability of these GPI-anchored proteins to associate with phosphoproteins was correlated with their detergent insolubility: the more detergent-insoluble that a GPI-anchored protein was, the greater the level of phosphoprotein associations. These experiments reveal a relationship between non-ionic detergent insolubility and association with signal-transduction molecules and suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between these two properties. In total, these experiments support the hypothesis that the association of GPI-anchored proteins with signalling molecules is due to their sorting to lipid microdomains.

  19. A recessive mutation in the RUB1-conjugating enzyme, RCE1, reveals a requirement for RUB modification for control of ethylene biosynthesis and proper induction of basic chitinase and PDF1.2 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Paul B; Cancel, Jesse D

    2004-05-01

    By screening etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings for mutants with aberrant ethylene-related phenotypes, we identified a mutant that displays features of the ethylene-mediated triple response even in the absence of ethylene. Further characterization showed that the phenotype observed for the dark-grown seedlings of this mutant is reversible by prevention of ethylene perception and is dependent on a modest increase in ethylene production correlated with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (ACO) activity in the hypocotyl. Molecular characterization of leaves of the mutant revealed severely impaired induction of basic chitinase (chiB) and plant defensin (PDF)1.2 following treatment with jasmonic acid and/or ethylene. Positional cloning of the mutation resulted in identification of a 49-bp deletion in RCE1 (related to ubiquitin 1 (RUB1)-conjugating enzyme), which has been demonstrated to be responsible for covalent attachment of RUB1 to the SCF (Skpl Cdc 53 F-box) ubiquitin ligase complex to modify its activity. Our analyses with rce1-2 demonstrate a previously unknown requirement for RUB1 modification for regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and proper induction of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis.

  20. [Direct biosynthesis of ethylene].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhilan; Chen, Yifeng

    2013-10-01

    Ethylene is the most widely used petrochemical feedstock globally. The development of bio-ethylene is essential due to limited fossil fuels and rising oil prices. Bio-ethylene is produced primarily by the dehydration of ethanol, but can alternatively be directly produced from ethylene biosynthesis pathways in plants, algae, or microorganisms by using cheap and renewable substrates. This review addressed the biosynthesis of ethylene in plants and microorganisms, the characterization of key enzymes, genetic engineering strategies for ethylene biosynthesis in microorganisms, and evaluated its perspective and successful cases toward the industrial application. The direct production of bio-ethylene from a biological process in situ is promising to supplement and even replace the petrochemical ethylene production.

  1. The yeast gene ERG6 is required for normal membrane function but is not essential for biosynthesis of the cell-cycle-sparking sterol.

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, R F; Copple, D M; Kennedy, B K; Vidal, M; Bard, M

    1989-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, methylation of the principal membrane sterol at C-24 produces the C-28 methyl group specific to ergosterol and represents one of the few structural differences between ergosterol and cholesterol. C-28 in S. cerevisiae has been suggested to be essential for the sparking function (W. J. Pinto and W. R. Nes, J. Biol. Chem. 258:4472-4476, 1983), a cell cycle event that may be required to enter G1 (C. Dahl, H.-P. Biemann, and J. Dahl, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:4012-4016, 1987). The sterol biosynthetic pathway in S. cerevisiae was genetically altered to assess the functional role of the C-28 methyl group of ergosterol. ERG6, the putative structural gene for S-adenosylmethionine: delta 24-methyltransferase, which catalyzes C-24 methylation, was cloned, and haploid strains containing erg6 null alleles (erg6 delta 1 and erg6 delta ::LEU2) were generated. Although erg6 delta cells are unable to methylate ergosterol precursors at C-24, they exhibit normal vegatative growth, suggesting that C-28 sterols are not essential in S. cerevisiae. However, erg6 delta cells exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes that include defective conjugation, hypersensitivity to cycloheximide, resistance to nystatin, a severely diminished capacity for genetic transformation, and defective tryptophan uptake. These phenotypes reflect the role of ergosterol as a regulator of membrane permeability and fluidity. Genetic mapping experiments revealed that ERG6 is located on chromosome XIII, tightly linked to sec59. Images PMID:2677674

  2. Calnexin and calreticulin bind to enzymically active tissue-type plasminogen activator during biosynthesis and are not required for folding to the native conformation.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, S; Bulleid, N J

    1997-01-01

    The roles of the endoplasmic-reticulum lectins calnexin and calreticulin in the folding of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) have been investigated using an in vitro translation system that reconstitutes these processes as they would occur in the intact cell. Using co-immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized tPA with antibodies to calnexin and calreticulin, it was demonstrated that the interaction of tPA with both lectins was dependent upon tPA glycosylation and glucosidase trimming. When tPA was synthesized in the presence of semi-permeabilized cells under conditions preventing complex formation with calnexin and calreticulin, the translation product had a specific plasminogenolytic activity identical with that when synthesized under conditions permitting interactions with both lectins. Furthermore, complexes of tPA bound to calnexin and calreticulin were shown to be enzymically active. These results demonstrate that calnexin and calreticulin can form a stable interaction with correctly folded tPA; however, such interactions are not required for the synthesis of enzymically active tPA. PMID:9359841

  3. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of WlbA from Bordetella pertussis and Chromobacterium violaceum: Enzymes Required for the Biosynthesis of 2,3-Diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Thoden, James B.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2011-12-22

    The unusual sugar 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic acid, or ManNAc3NAcA, has been observed in the lipopolysaccharides of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. It is added to the lipopolysaccharides of these organisms by glycosyltransferases that use as substrates UDP-ManNAc3NAcA. Five enzymes are ultimately required for the biosynthesis of UDP-ManNAc3NAcA starting from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. The second enzyme in the pathway, encoded by the wlba gene and referred to as WlbA, catalyzes the NAD-dependent oxidation of the C-3' hydroxyl group of the UDP-linked sugar. Here we describe a combined structural and functional investigation of the WlbA enzymes from Bordetella pertussis and Chromobacterium violaceum. For this investigation, ternary structures were determined in the presence of NAD(H) and substrate to 2.13 and 1.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both of the enzymes display octameric quaternary structures with their active sites positioned far apart. The octamers can be envisioned as tetramers of dimers. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the reaction mechanisms for these enzymes are sequential and that they do not require {alpha}-ketoglutarate for activity. These results are in sharp contrast to those recently reported for the WlbA enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Thermus thermophilus, which function via ping-pong mechanisms that involve {alpha}-ketoglutarate. Taken together, the results reported here demonstrate that there are two distinct families of WlbA enzymes, which differ with respect to amino acid sequences, quaternary structures, active site architectures, and kinetic mechanisms.

  5. Biochemical and structural characterization of WlbA from Bordetella pertussis and Chromobacterium violaceum: enzymes required for the biosynthesis of 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid.

    PubMed

    Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2011-03-08

    The unusual sugar 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic acid, or ManNAc3NAcA, has been observed in the lipopolysaccharides of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. It is added to the lipopolysaccharides of these organisms by glycosyltransferases that use as substrates UDP-ManNAc3NAcA. Five enzymes are ultimately required for the biosynthesis of UDP-ManNAc3NAcA starting from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. The second enzyme in the pathway, encoded by the wlba gene and referred to as WlbA, catalyzes the NAD-dependent oxidation of the C-3' hydroxyl group of the UDP-linked sugar. Here we describe a combined structural and functional investigation of the WlbA enzymes from Bordetella pertussis and Chromobacterium violaceum. For this investigation, ternary structures were determined in the presence of NAD(H) and substrate to 2.13 and 1.5 Å resolution, respectively. Both of the enzymes display octameric quaternary structures with their active sites positioned far apart. The octamers can be envisioned as tetramers of dimers. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the reaction mechanisms for these enzymes are sequential and that they do not require α-ketoglutarate for activity. These results are in sharp contrast to those recently reported for the WlbA enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Thermus thermophilus, which function via ping-pong mechanisms that involve α-ketoglutarate. Taken together, the results reported here demonstrate that there are two distinct families of WlbA enzymes, which differ with respect to amino acid sequences, quaternary structures, active site architectures, and kinetic mechanisms.

  6. Biosynthesis of Polyisoprenoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invention is a process for synthesis of a polymer with the same chemical structure as Natural Rubber (NR) obtained from Hevea brasiliensis and other plant species. The research collaborators recently proposed that NR biosynthesis proceeds via a carbocationic polymerization. Based on this theory...

  7. The biosynthesis of dicoumarol

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, D. M.; Spring, M. S.; Stoker, J. R.

    1967-01-01

    Micro-organisms have been isolated that can utilize o-coumaric acid as a sole carbon source with the subsequent production of 4-hydroxycoumarin and dicoumarol. One of these organisms, Penicillium jenseni, has been used to examine the biosynthesis of dicoumarol. Certain thermophilic fungi have also been found that can convert o-coumaric acid into dicoumarol. PMID:6033758

  8. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sohlenkamp, Christian; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2003-03-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes and can be synthesized by either of two pathways, the methylation pathway or the CDP-choline pathway. Many prokaryotes lack PC, but it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of rather diverse bacteria and based on genomic data, we estimate that more than 10% of all bacteria possess PC. Enzymatic methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine via the methylation pathway was thought to be the only biosynthetic pathway to yield PC in bacteria. However, a choline-dependent pathway for PC biosynthesis has been discovered in Sinorhizobium meliloti. In this pathway, PC synthase, condenses choline directly with CDP-diacylglyceride to form PC in one step. A number of symbiotic (Rhizobium leguminosarum, Mesorhizobium loti) and pathogenic (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Brucella melitensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Borrelia burgdorferi and Legionella pneumophila) bacteria seem to possess the PC synthase pathway and we suggest that the respective eukaryotic host functions as the provider of choline for this pathway. Pathogens entering their hosts through epithelia (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae) require phosphocholine substitutions on their cell surface components that are biosynthetically also derived from choline supplied by the host. However, the incorporation of choline in these latter cases proceeds via choline phosphate and CDP-choline as intermediates. The occurrence of two intermediates in prokaryotes usually found as intermediates in the eukaryotic CDP-choline pathway for PC biosynthesis raises the question whether some bacteria might form PC via a CDP-choline pathway.

  9. Does triacylglycerol biosynthesis require diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DAGAT)?

    PubMed

    Fraser, T; Waters, A; Chatrattanakunchai, S; Stobart, K

    2000-12-01

    Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) catalyse the conversion of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and acyl-CoA to triacylglycerol via phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. The formation of diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid was Mg2+ dependent and in the presence of EDTA phosphatidic acid accumulated. This property was used to generate large quantities of endogenous radioactive phosphatidic acid in the membranes. On addition of Mg2+ the phosphatidic acid was used in triacylglycerol formation. Acyl-CoA had little effect on the label which accumulated in triacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase, therefore, may not play a major role in oil formation as originally envisaged and other enzymes, including diacylglycerol:diacylglycerol transacylase [Stobart, Mancha, Lenman, Dahlqvist and Stymne (1997) Planta 203, 58-66] may have important biosynthetic functions.

  10. A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Is Important for Rhoptry Biogenesis and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chasen, Nathan M.; Asady, Beejan; Lemgruber, Leandro; Vommaro, Rossiane C.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Coppens, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related to α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs). These CARPs are found in animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and viruses as either independent proteins or domains of other proteins. We report here the identification of a new CARP (TgCA_RP) in the unicellular organism Toxoplasma gondii that is related to the recently described η-class CA found in Plasmodium falciparum. TgCA_RP is posttranslationally modified at its C terminus with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor that is important for its localization in intracellular tachyzoites. The protein localizes throughout the rhoptry bulbs of mature tachyzoites and to the outer membrane of nascent rhoptries in dividing tachyzoites, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy using specific antibodies. T. gondii mutant tachyzoites lacking TgCA_RP display a growth and invasion phenotype in vitro and have atypical rhoptry morphology. The mutants also exhibit reduced virulence in a mouse model. Our results show that TgCA_RP plays an important role in the biogenesis of rhoptries. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular pathogen that infects humans and animals. The pathogenesis of T. gondii is linked to its lytic cycle, which starts when tachyzoites invade host cells and secrete proteins from specialized organelles. Once inside the host cell, the parasite creates a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) where it divides. Rhoptries are specialized secretory organelles that contain proteins, many of which are secreted during invasion. These proteins have important roles not only during the initial interaction between parasite and host but also in the formation of the PV and in the modification of the host cell. We report here the identification of a new T. gondii carbonic anhydrase-related protein (TgCA_RP), which localizes to rhoptries of mature tachyzoites. TgCA_RP is

  11. A Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Carbonic Anhydrase-Related Protein of Toxoplasma gondii Is Important for Rhoptry Biogenesis and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Chasen, Nathan M; Asady, Beejan; Lemgruber, Leandro; Vommaro, Rossiane C; Kissinger, Jessica C; Coppens, Isabelle; Moreno, Silvia N J

    2017-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related to α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs). These CARPs are found in animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and viruses as either independent proteins or domains of other proteins. We report here the identification of a new CARP (TgCA_RP) in the unicellular organism Toxoplasma gondii that is related to the recently described η-class CA found in Plasmodium falciparum. TgCA_RP is posttranslationally modified at its C terminus with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor that is important for its localization in intracellular tachyzoites. The protein localizes throughout the rhoptry bulbs of mature tachyzoites and to the outer membrane of nascent rhoptries in dividing tachyzoites, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy using specific antibodies. T. gondii mutant tachyzoites lacking TgCA_RP display a growth and invasion phenotype in vitro and have atypical rhoptry morphology. The mutants also exhibit reduced virulence in a mouse model. Our results show that TgCA_RP plays an important role in the biogenesis of rhoptries. IMPORTANCEToxoplasma gondii is an intracellular pathogen that infects humans and animals. The pathogenesis of T. gondii is linked to its lytic cycle, which starts when tachyzoites invade host cells and secrete proteins from specialized organelles. Once inside the host cell, the parasite creates a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) where it divides. Rhoptries are specialized secretory organelles that contain proteins, many of which are secreted during invasion. These proteins have important roles not only during the initial interaction between parasite and host but also in the formation of the PV and in the modification of the host cell. We report here the identification of a new T. gondii carbonic anhydrase-related protein (TgCA_RP), which localizes to rhoptries of mature tachyzoites. TgCA_RP is important

  12. Insect Cell-Derived Cofactors Become Fully Functional after Proteinase K and Heat Treatment for High-Fidelity Amplification of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Recombinant Scrapie and BSE Prion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Morikazu; Kato, Nobuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Miyako; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi; Murayama, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    The central event in prion infection is the conformational conversion of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the pathogenic isoform (PrPSc). Diverse mammalian species possess the cofactors required for in vitro replication of PrPSc by protein-misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), but lower organisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, and insects, reportedly lack the essential cofactors. Various cellular components, such as RNA, lipids, and other identified cofactor molecules, are commonly distributed in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, but the reasons for the absence of cofactor activity in lower organisms remain to be elucidated. Previously, we reported that brain-derived factors were necessary for the in vitro replication of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored baculovirus-derived recombinant PrP (Bac-PrP). Here, we demonstrate that following protease digestion and heat treatment, insect cell lysates had the functional cofactor activity required for Bac-PrP replication by PMCA. Mammalian PrPSc seeds and Bac-PrPSc generated by PMCA using Bac-PrP and insect cell-derived cofactors showed similar pathogenicity and produced very similar lesions in the brains of inoculated mice. These results suggested that the essential cofactors required for the high-fidelity replication of mammalian PrPSc were present in the insect cells but that the cofactor activity was masked or inhibited in the native state. We suggest that not only RNA, but also DNA, are the key components of PMCA, although other cellular factors were necessary for the expression of the cofactor activity of nucleic acids. PMCA using only insect cell-derived substances (iPMCA) was highly useful for the ultrasensitive detection of PrPSc of some prion strains. PMID:24367521

  13. Glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yim, Grace; Thaker, Maulik N; Koteva, Kalinka; Wright, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Glycopeptides such as vancomycin, teicoplanin and telavancin are essential for treating infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Unfortunately, the dwindled pipeline of new antibiotics into the market and the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and other resistant bacteria are increasingly making effective antibiotic treatment difficult. We have now learned a great deal about how bacteria produce antibiotics. This information can be exploited to develop the next generation of antimicrobials. The biosynthesis of glycopeptides via nonribosomal peptide assembly and unusual amino acid synthesis, crosslinking and tailoring enzymes gives rise to intricate chemical structures that target the bacterial cell wall. This review seeks to describe recent advances in our understanding of both biosynthesis and resistance of these important antibiotics.

  14. BIOSYNTHESIS OF YEAST CAROTENOIDS

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kenneth L.; Nakayama, T. O. M.; Chichester, C. O.

    1964-01-01

    Simpson, Kenneth L. (University of California, Davis), T. O. M. Nakayama, and C. O. Chichester. Biosynthesis of yeast carotenoids. J. Bacteriol. 88:1688–1694. 1964.—The biosynthesis of carotenoids was followed in Rhodotorula glutinis and in a new strain, 62-506. The treatment of the growing cultures by methylheptenone, or ionone, vapors permitted observations of the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway. On the basis of concentration changes and accumulation in blocked pathways, the sequence of carotenoid formation is postulated as phytoene, phytofluene, ζ-carotene, neurosporene, β-zeacarotene, γ-carotene, torulin, a C40 aldehyde, and torularhodin. Torulin and torularhodin were established as the main carotenoids of 62-506. PMID:14240958

  15. Histidine biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Stepansky, A; Leustek, T

    2006-03-01

    The study of histidine metabolism has never been at the forefront of interest in plant systems despite the significant role that the analysis of this pathway has played in development of the field of molecular genetics in microbes. With the advent of methods to analyze plant gene function by complementation of microbial auxotrophic mutants and the complete analysis of plant genome sequences, strides have been made in deciphering the histidine pathway in plants. The studies point to a complex evolutionary origin of genes for histidine biosynthesis. Gene regulation studies have indicated novel regulatory networks involving histidine. In addition, physiological studies have indicated novel functions for histidine in plants as chelators and transporters of metal ions. Recent investigations have revealed intriguing connections of histidine in plant reproduction. The exciting new information suggests that the study of plant histidine biosynthesis has finally begun to flower.

  16. Biosynthesis of Hemes.

    PubMed

    Beale, Samuel I

    2007-04-01

    This review is concerned specifically with the structures and biosynthesis of hemes in E. coli and serovar Typhimurium. However, inasmuch as all tetrapyrroles share a common biosynthetic pathway, much of the material covered here is applicable to tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in other organisms. Conversely, much of the available information about tetrapyrrole biosynthesis has been gained from studies of other organisms, such as plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and anoxygenic phototrophs, which synthesize large quantities of these compounds. This information is applicable to E. coli and serovar Typhimurium. Hemes play important roles as enzyme prosthetic groups in mineral nutrition, redox metabolism, and gas-and redox-modulated signal transduction. The biosynthetic steps from the earliest universal precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), to protoporphyrin IX-based hemes constitute the major, common portion of the pathway, and other steps leading to specific groups of products can be considered branches off the main axis. Porphobilinogen (PBG) synthase (PBGS; also known as ALA dehydratase) catalyzes the asymmetric condensation of two ALA molecules to form PBG, with the release of two molecules of H2O. Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPX) catalyzes the removal of six electrons from the tetrapyrrole macrocycle to form protoporphyrin IX in the last biosynthetic step that is common to hemes and chlorophylls. Several lines of evidence converge to support a regulatory model in which the cellular level of available or free protoheme controls the rate of heme synthesis at the level of the first step unique to heme synthesis, the formation of GSA by the action of GTR.

  17. Suppressors (scsl-scs7) of CSG2, a Gene Required by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Growth in Media Containing 10 mMCa(2+), Identify Genes Required for Sphingolipid Biosynthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    activity and requires phytosphingosine or dihydrosphingarune for growth indicating that SCSI encodes serine palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme... phytosphingosine on the growth rate of scsI csg2, scsI CSG2, scsI::LEUZ’ CSGZ, SCSI csgZ and SCSI CSGZ. 87 20. Acid titration of wild·type and scsI-I cells. 21...ceramide) and a polar head group. The ceramide consists of a long-chain base (sphingosine in animals, phytosphingosine (PHS) in fungi and plants) and a

  18. Glycosyl Phosphatidylinositol Anchor Biosynthesis Is Essential for Maintaining Epithelial Integrity during Caenorhabditis elegans Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a post-translational modification resulting in the attachment of modified proteins to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Tissue culture experiments have shown GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) to be targeted to the apical membrane of epithelial cells. However, the in vivo importance of this targeting has not been investigated since null mutations in GPI biosynthesis enzymes in mice result in very early embryonic lethality. Missense mutations in the human GPI biosynthesis enzyme pigv are associated with a multiple congenital malformation syndrome with a high frequency of Hirschsprung disease and renal anomalies. However, it is currently unknown how these phenotypes are linked to PIGV function. Here, we identify a temperature-sensitive hypomorphic allele of PIGV in Caenorhabditis elegans, pigv-1(qm34), enabling us to study the role of GPI-APs in development. At the restrictive temperature we found a 75% reduction in GPI-APs at the surface of embryonic cells. Consequently, ~80% of pigv-1(qm34) embryos arrested development during the elongation phase of morphogenesis, exhibiting internal cysts and/or surface ruptures. Closer examination of the defects revealed them all to be the result of breaches in epithelial tissues: cysts formed in the intestine and excretory canal, and ruptures occurred through epidermal cells, suggesting weakening of the epithelial membrane or membrane-cortex connection. Knockdown of piga-1, another GPI biosynthesis enzymes resulted in similar phenotypes. Importantly, fortifying the link between the apical membrane and actin cortex by overexpression of the ezrin/radixin/moesin ortholog ERM-1, significantly rescued cyst formation and ruptures in the pigv-1(qm34) mutant. In conclusion, we discovered GPI-APs play a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the epithelial tissues, allowing them to withstand the pressure and stresses of morphogenesis. Our findings may help to explain some of the

  19. Heme and heme biosynthesis intermediates induce heme oxygenase-1 and cytochrome P450 2A5, enzymes with putative sequential roles in heme and bilirubin metabolism: different requirement for transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid- derived 2-like 2.

    PubMed

    Lämsä, Virpi; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Sormunen, Raija; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hakkola, Jukka

    2012-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) oxidizes bilirubin to biliverdin and represents a putative candidate for maintaining bilirubin at safe but adequate antioxidant levels. Curiously, CYP2A5 is induced by both excessive heme and chemicals that inhibit heme synthesis. We hypothesized that heme homeostasis is a key modifier of Cyp2a5 expression via transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) and characterized the coordination of CYP2A5 and heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) responses using wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) primary mouse hepatocytes. HMOX1 was rapidly elevated by exogenous hemin, thereby limiting the transactivation of Cyp2a5 until high heme (> 5µM) exposure. Nrf2 was mandatory for CYP2A5 but not for HMOX1 induction by heme. CYP2A5 was intensively and HMOX1 moderately elevated in heme synthesis blockades by succinylacetone and N-methyl protoporphyrin IX, and Nrf2 partially mediated the induction of CYP2A5. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that CYP2A5 is targeted Nrf2 dependently both to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. However, excessive heme increased CYP2A5 predominantly in the ER. Phenobarbital, dibutyryl-cAMP, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) overexpression stimulate heme biosynthesis and induce CYP2A5. Acute but not chronic CYP2A5 induction by phenobarbital required Nrf2, whereas CYP2A5 induction by dibutyryl-cAMP and PGC-1α was potentiated by Nrf2 knockout. Collectively, heme homeostasis is established as a crucial regulator of hepatic Cyp2a5 expression mediated via Nrf2 activation, whereas Nrf2 is redundant for Hmox1 induction by heme. Similar subcellular targeting and coordination of CYP2A5 and HMOX1 responses suggest favorable conditions for enhanced CYP2A5-mediated bilirubin maintenance in altered heme homeostasis that predisposes to oxidative stress.

  20. Enzymology of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Strijbis, Karin; Vaz, Frédéric M; Distel, Ben

    2010-05-01

    The water-soluble zwitterion carnitine is an essential metabolite in eukaryotes required for fatty acid oxidation as it functions as a carrier during transfer of activated acyl and acetyl groups across intracellular membranes. Most eukaryotes are able to synthesize carnitine endogenously, besides their capacity to take up carnitine from the diet or extracellular medium through plasma membrane transporters. This review discusses the current knowledge on carnitine homeostasis with special emphasis on the enzymology of the four steps of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway.

  1. Chirality and protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Banik, Sindrila Dutta; Nandi, Nilashis

    2013-01-01

    Chirality is present at all levels of structural hierarchy of protein and plays a significant role in protein biosynthesis. The macromolecules involved in protein biosynthesis such as aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and ribosome have chiral subunits. Despite the omnipresence of chirality in the biosynthetic pathway, its origin, role in current pathway, and importance is far from understood. In this review we first present an introduction to biochirality and its relevance to protein biosynthesis. Major propositions about the prebiotic origin of biomolecules are presented with particular reference to proteins and nucleic acids. The problem of the origin of homochirality is unresolved at present. The chiral discrimination by enzymes involved in protein synthesis is essential for keeping the life process going. However, questions remained pertaining to the mechanism of chiral discrimination and concomitant retention of biochirality. We discuss the experimental evidence which shows that it is virtually impossible to incorporate D-amino acids in protein structures in present biosynthetic pathways via any of the two major steps of protein synthesis, namely aminoacylation and peptide bond formation reactions. Molecular level explanations of the stringent chiral specificity in each step are extended based on computational analysis. A detailed account of the current state of understanding of the mechanism of chiral discrimination during aminoacylation in the active site of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and peptide bond formation in ribosomal peptidyl transferase center is presented. Finally, it is pointed out that the understanding of the mechanism of retention of enantiopurity has implications in developing novel enzyme mimetic systems and biocatalysts and might be useful in chiral drug design.

  2. Glucose enhances indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis without reducing primary sulfur assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wei, Jia; Huang, Jirong; Chang, Jiaqi; Qian, Hongmei; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yanting; Sun, Bo; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of glucose as a signaling molecule on induction of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis was reported in our former study. Here, we further investigated the regulatory mechanism of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis by glucose in Arabidopsis. Glucose exerted a positive influence on indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which was demonstrated by induced accumulation of indolic glucosinolates and enhanced expression of related genes upon glucose treatment. Genetic analysis revealed that MYB34 and MYB51 were crucial in maintaining the basal indolic glucosinolate accumulation, with MYB34 being pivotal in response to glucose signaling. The increased accumulation of indolic glucosinolates and mRNA levels of MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122 caused by glucose were inhibited in the gin2-1 mutant, suggesting an important role of HXK1 in glucose-mediated induction of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In contrast to what was known on the function of ABI5 in glucose-mediated aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, ABI5 was not required for glucose-induced indolic glucosinolate accumulation. In addition, our results also indicated that glucose-induced glucosinolate accumulation was due to enhanced sulfur assimilation instead of directed sulfur partitioning into glucosinolate biosynthesis. Thus, our data provide new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying glucose-regulated glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:27549907

  3. Upstream regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Alkhayyat, Fahad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are natural contaminants of food and feed products, posing a substantial health risk to humans and animals throughout the world. A plethora of filamentous fungi has been identified as mycotoxin producers and most of these fungal species belong to the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium. A number of studies have been conducted to better understand the molecular mechanisms of biosynthesis of key mycotoxins and the regulatory cascades controlling toxigenesis. In many cases, the mycotoxin biosynthetic genes are clustered and regulated by one or more pathway-specific transcription factor(s). In addition, as biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites is coordinated with fungal growth and development, there are a number of upstream regulators affecting biosynthesis of mycotoxins in fungi. This review presents a concise summary of the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis, focusing on the roles of the upstream regulatory elements governing biosynthesis of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin in Aspergillus.

  4. Biosynthesis of the Potent Antimalarial Compound FR900098

    PubMed Central

    Eliot, Andrew C.; Griffin, Benjamin M.; Thomas, Paul M.; Johannes, Tyler W.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Zhao, Huimin; Metcalf, William W.

    2008-01-01

    The antibiotics fosmidomycin and FR900098 are members of a unique class of phosphonic acid natural products that inhibit the nonmevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Both are potent anti-bacterial and anti-malarial compounds, but despite their efficacy, little is known regarding their biosynthesis. Here we report the identification of the Streptomyces rubellomurinus genes required for the biosynthesis of FR900098. Expression of these genes in Streptomyces lividans results in production of FR900098, demonstrating their role in synthesis of the antibiotic. Analysis of the putative gene products suggests that FR900098 is synthesized by metabolic reactions analogous to portions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. These data greatly expand our knowledge of phosphonate biosynthesis and enable efforts to overproduce this highly useful therapeutic agent. PMID:18721747

  5. Complete biosynthesis of opioids in yeast.

    PubMed

    Galanie, Stephanie; Thodey, Kate; Trenchard, Isis J; Filsinger Interrante, Maria; Smolke, Christina D

    2015-09-04

    Opioids are the primary drugs used in Western medicine for pain management and palliative care. Farming of opium poppies remains the sole source of these essential medicines, despite diverse market demands and uncertainty in crop yields due to weather, climate change, and pests. We engineered yeast to produce the selected opioid compounds thebaine and hydrocodone starting from sugar. All work was conducted in a laboratory that is permitted and secured for work with controlled substances. We combined enzyme discovery, enzyme engineering, and pathway and strain optimization to realize full opiate biosynthesis in yeast. The resulting opioid biosynthesis strains required the expression of 21 (thebaine) and 23 (hydrocodone) enzyme activities from plants, mammals, bacteria, and yeast itself. This is a proof of principle, and major hurdles remain before optimization and scale-up could be achieved. Open discussions of options for governing this technology are also needed in order to responsibly realize alternative supplies for these medically relevant compounds.

  6. Natural rubber biosynthesis in plants: rubber transferase.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Katrina; Xie, Wenshuang

    2012-01-01

    Rubber biosynthesis in plants is a fascinating biochemical system, which evolved at the dawn of the dicotyledoneae and is present in at least four of the dictolydonous superorders. Rubber biosynthesis is catalyzed by a membrane complex in a monolayer membrane envelope, requires two distinct substrates and a divalent cation cofactor, and produces a high-molecular-weight isoprenoid polymer. A solid understanding of this system underpins valuable papers in the literature. However, the published literature is rife with unreliable reports in which the investigators have fallen into traps created by the current incomplete understanding of the biochemistry of rubber synthesis. In this chapter, we attempt to guide both new and more established researchers around these pitfalls.

  7. Complete biosynthesis of opioids in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Galanie, Stephanie; Thodey, Kate; Trenchard, Isis J.; Interrante, Maria Filsinger; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are the primary drugs used in Western medicine for pain management and palliative care. Farming of opium poppies remains the sole source of these essential medicines despite diverse market demands and uncertainty in crop yields due to weather, climate change, and pests. Here, we engineered yeast to produce the selected opioid compounds thebaine and hydrocodone starting from sugar. All work was conducted in a laboratory that is permitted and secured for work with controlled substances. We combined enzyme discovery, enzyme engineering, and pathway and strain optimization to realize full opiate biosynthesis in yeast. The resulting opioid biosynthesis strains required expression of 21 (thebaine) and 23 (hydrocodone) enzyme activities from plants, mammals, bacteria, and yeast itself. This is a proof-of-principle, and major hurdles remain before optimization and scale up could be achieved. Open discussions of options for governing this technology are also needed in order to responsibly realize alternative supplies for these medically relevant compounds. PMID:26272907

  8. The Arabidopsis RCC1 Family Protein TCF1 Regulates Freezing Tolerance and Cold Acclimation through Modulating Lignin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Gareth I.; Wang, Shuangfeng; Shang, Zhonglin; Shi, Yiting; Yang, Shuhua; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cell water permeability and cell wall properties are critical to survival of plant cells during freezing, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that a specifically cold-induced nuclear protein, Tolerant to Chilling and Freezing 1 (TCF1), interacts with histones H3 and H4 and associates with chromatin containing a target gene, BLUE-COPPER-BINDING PROTEIN (BCB), encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that regulates lignin biosynthesis. Loss of TCF1 function leads to reduced BCB transcription through affecting H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 levels within the BCB gene, resulting in reduced lignin content and enhanced freezing tolerance. Furthermore, plants with knocked-down BCB expression (amiRNA-BCB) under cold acclimation had reduced lignin accumulation and increased freezing tolerance. The pal1pal2 double mutant (lignin content reduced by 30% compared with WT) also showed the freezing tolerant phenotype, and TCF1 and BCB act upstream of PALs to regulate lignin content. In addition, TCF1 acts independently of the CBF (C-repeat binding factor) pathway. Our findings delineate a novel molecular pathway linking the TCF1-mediated cold-specific transcriptional program to lignin biosynthesis, thus achieving cell wall remodeling with increased freezing tolerance. PMID:26393916

  9. Designer microbes for biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Quin, Maureen B.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have long been adapted for the biosynthetic production of useful compounds. There is increasing demand for the rapid and cheap microbial production of diverse molecules in an industrial setting. Microbes can now be designed and engineered for a particular biosynthetic purpose, thanks to recent developments in genome sequencing, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology. Advanced tools exist for the genetic manipulation of microbes to create novel metabolic circuits, making new products accessible. Metabolic processes can be optimized to increase yield and balance pathway flux. Progress is being made towards the design and creation of fully synthetic microbes for biosynthetic purposes. Together, these emerging technologies will facilitate the production of designer microbes for biosynthesis. PMID:24646570

  10. Genetics of Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, Martin S; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Crick, Dean C

    2014-08-01

    The complex cell envelope is a hallmark of mycobacteria and is anchored by the peptidoglycan layer, which is similar to that of Escherichia coli and a number of other bacteria but with modifications to the monomeric units and other structural complexities that are likely related to a role for the peptidoglycan in stabilizing the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex (MAPc). In this article, we will review the genetics of several aspects of peptidoglycan biosynthesis in mycobacteria, including the production of monomeric precursors in the cytoplasm, assembly of the monomers into the mature wall, cell wall turnover, and cell division. Finally, we will touch upon the resistance of mycobacteria to β-lactam antibiotics, an important class of drugs that, until recently, have not been extensively exploited as potential antimycobacterial agents. We will also note areas of research where there are still unanswered questions.

  11. Terpenoid biosynthesis in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Boronat, Albert; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotic organisms (archaea and eubacteria) are found in all habitats where life exists on our planet. This would not be possible without the astounding biochemical plasticity developed by such organisms. Part of the metabolic diversity of prokaryotes was transferred to eukaryotic cells when endosymbiotic prokaryotes became mitochondria and plastids but also in a large number of horizontal gene transfer episodes. A group of metabolites produced by all free-living organisms is terpenoids (also known as isoprenoids). In prokaryotes, terpenoids play an indispensable role in cell-wall and membrane biosynthesis (bactoprenol, hopanoids), electron transport (ubiquinone, menaquinone), or conversion of light into chemical energy (chlorophylls, bacteriochlorophylls, rhodopsins, carotenoids), among other processes. But despite their remarkable structural and functional diversity, they all derive from the same metabolic precursors. Here we describe the metabolic pathways producing these universal terpenoid units and provide a complete picture of the main terpenoid compounds found in prokaryotic organisms.

  12. Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Andreas; Rude, Mathew A; Li, Xuezhi; Popova, Emanuela; del Cardayre, Stephen B

    2010-07-30

    Alkanes, the major constituents of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, are naturally produced by diverse species; however, the genetics and biochemistry behind this biology have remained elusive. Here we describe the discovery of an alkane biosynthesis pathway from cyanobacteria. The pathway consists of an acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and an aldehyde decarbonylase, which together convert intermediates of fatty acid metabolism to alkanes and alkenes. The aldehyde decarbonylase is related to the broadly functional nonheme diiron enzymes. Heterologous expression of the alkane operon in Escherichia coli leads to the production and secretion of C13 to C17 mixtures of alkanes and alkenes. These genes and enzymes can now be leveraged for the simple and direct conversion of renewable raw materials to fungible hydrocarbon fuels.

  13. Methionine Biosynthesis in Lemna

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Gregory A.; Datko, Anne H.; Mudd, S. Harvey; Giovanelli, John

    1982-01-01

    Regulation of enzymes of methionine biosynthesis was investigated by measuring the specific activities of O-phosphohomoserine-dependent cystathionine γ-synthase, O-phosphohomoserine sulfhydrylase, and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase in Lemna paucicostata Hegelm. 6746 grown under various conditions. For cystathionine γ-synthase, it was observed that (a) adding external methionine (2 μm) decreased specific activity to 15% of control, (b) blocking methionine synthesis with 0.05 μml-aminoethoxyvinylglycine or with 36 μm lysine plus 4 μm threonine (Datko, Mudd 1981 Plant Physiol 69: 1070-1076) caused a 2- to 3-fold increase in specific activity, and (c) blocking methionine synthesis and adding external methionine led to the decreased specific activity characteristic of methionine addition alone. Activity in extracts from control cultures was unaffected by addition of methionine, lysine, threonine, lysine plus threonine, S-adenosylmethionine, or S-methylmethionine sulfonium to the assay mixture. Parallel studies of O-phosphohomoserine sulfhydrylase and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase showed that O-phosphohomoserine sulfhydrylase activity responded to growth conditions identically to cystathionine γ-synthase activity, whereas O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase activity remained unaffected. Lemna extracts did not catalyze lanthionine formation from O-acetylserine and cysteine. Estimates of kinetic constants for the three enzyme activities indicate that O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase has much higher activity and affinity for sulfide than O-phosphohomoserine sulfhydrylase. The results suggest that (a) methionine, or one of its products, regulates the amount of active cystathionine γ-synthase in Lemna, (b) O-phosphohomoserine sulfhydrylase and cystathionine γ-synthase are probably activities of one enzyme that has low specificity for its sulfur-containing substrate, and (c) O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase is a separate enzyme. The relatively high activity and affinity for sulfide of

  14. Biosynthesis of methanopterin

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.H. )

    1990-06-05

    The biosynthetic pathway for the generation of the methylated pterin in methanopterins was determined for the methanogenic bacteria Methanococcus volta and Methanobacterium formicicum. Extracts of M. volta were found to readily cleave L-7,8-dihydroneopterin to 7,8-dihydro-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin, which was confirmed to be a precursor of the pterin portion of the methanopterin. (methylene{sup 2}H)-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin was incorporated into methanopterin by growing cells of M. volta to an extent of 30%. Both the C-11 and C-12 methyl groups of methanopterin originate from (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine. Cells grown in the presence of (methylene-{sup 2}H)-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin, (ethyl-{sup 2}H{sub 4})-6-(1 (RS)-hydroxyethyl)pterin, (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})-6-(hydroxymethyl)-7-methylpterin, (ethyl-{sup 2}H{sub 4}, methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})-6-(1 (RS)-hydroxyethyl)-7-methylpterin, and (1-ethyl-{sup 3}H)-6-(1 (RS)-hydroxyethyl)-7-methylpterin showed that only the non-7-methylated pterins were incorporated into methanopterin. Cells extracts of M. formicicum readily condensed synthetic (methylene-{sup 3}H)-7,8-H{sub 2}-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin-PP with methaniline to generate demethylated methanopterin, which is then methylated to methanopterin by the cell extract in the presence of S-adenosylmethionine. These observations indicate that the pterin portion of methanopterin is biosynthetically derived from 7,8-H{sub 2}-6-(hydroxymethyl)pterin, which is coupled to methaniline by a pathway analogous to the biosynthesis of folic acid. This pathway for the biosynthesis of methanopterin represents the first example of the modification of the specificity of a coenzyme through a methylation reaction.

  15. Update on selenoprotein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Chavatte, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element that is incorporated in the small but vital family of proteins, namely the selenoproteins, as the selenocysteine amino acid residue. In humans, 25 selenoprotein genes have been characterized. The most remarkable trait of selenoprotein biosynthesis is the cotranslational insertion of selenocysteine by the recoding of a UGA codon, normally decoded as a stop signal. In eukaryotes, a set of dedicated cis- and trans-acting factors have been identified as well as a variety of regulatory mechanisms, factors, or elements that control the selenoprotein expression at the level of the UGA-selenocysteine recoding process, offering a fascinating playground in the field of translational control. It appeared that the central players are two RNA molecules: the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element within selenoprotein mRNA and the selenocysteine-tRNA([Ser]Sec); and their interacting partners. After a couple of decades, despite many advances in the field and the discovery of many essential and regulatory components, the precise mechanism of UGA-selenocysteine recoding remains elusive and more complex than anticipated, with many layers of control. This review offers an update of selenoproteome biosynthesis and regulation in eukaryotes. The regulation of selenoproteins in response to a variety of pathophysiological conditions and cellular stressors, including selenium levels, oxidative stress, replicative senescence, or cancer, awaits further detailed investigation. Clearly, the efficiency of UGA-selenocysteine recoding is the limiting stage of selenoprotein synthesis. The sequence of events leading Sec-tRNA([Ser]Sec) delivery to ribosomal A site awaits further analysis, notably at the level of a three-dimensional structure.

  16. Biosynthesis of GPI-anchored proteins: special emphasis on GPI lipid remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Taroh; Fujita, Morihisa

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) act as membrane anchors of many eukaryotic cell surface proteins. GPIs in various organisms have a common backbone consisting of ethanolamine phosphate (EtNP), three mannoses (Mans), one non-N-acetylated glucosamine, and inositol phospholipid, whose structure is EtNP-6Manα-2Manα-6Manα-4GlNα-6myoinositol-P-lipid. The lipid part is either phosphatidylinositol of diacyl or 1-alkyl-2-acyl form, or inositol phosphoceramide. GPIs are attached to proteins via an amide bond between the C-terminal carboxyl group and an amino group of EtNP. Fatty chains of inositol phospholipids are inserted into the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. More than 150 different human proteins are GPI anchored, whose functions include enzymes, adhesion molecules, receptors, protease inhibitors, transcytotic transporters, and complement regulators. GPI modification imparts proteins with unique characteristics, such as association with membrane microdomains or rafts, transient homodimerization, release from the membrane by cleavage in the GPI moiety, and apical sorting in polarized cells. GPI anchoring is essential for mammalian embryogenesis, development, neurogenesis, fertilization, and immune system. Mutations in genes involved in remodeling of the GPI lipid moiety cause human diseases characterized by neurological abnormalities. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has >60 GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). GPI is essential for growth of yeast. In this review, we discuss biosynthesis of GPI-APs in mammalian cells and yeast with emphasis on the lipid moiety. PMID:26563290

  17. The regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bulley, Sean; Laing, William

    2016-10-01

    We review the regulation of ascorbate (vitamin C) biosynthesis, focusing on the l-galactose pathway. We discuss the regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis at the level of gene transcription (both repression and enhancement) and translation (feedback inhibition of translation by ascorbate concentration) and discuss the eight proteins that have been demonstrated to date to affect ascorbate concentration in plant tissues. GDP-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and GDP-mannose epimerase are critical steps that regulate ascorbate biosynthesis. These and other biosynthetic genes are controlled at the transcriptional level, while GGP is also controlled at the translational level. Ascorbate feedback on enzyme activity has not been observed unequivocally.

  18. Investigating the Elusive Mechanism of Glycosaminoglycan Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Xylophone V.; Nguyen, Thao K. N.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Tran, Vy M.; Nguyen, Khiem V.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2009-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis requires numerous biosynthetic enzymes and activated sulfate and sugar donors. Although the sequence of biosynthetic events is resolved using reconstituted systems, little is known about the emergence of cell-specific GAG chains (heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate) with distinct sulfation patterns. We have utilized a library of click-xylosides that have various aglycones to decipher the mechanism of GAG biosynthesis in a cellular system. Earlier studies have shown that both the concentration of the primers and the structure of the aglycone moieties can affect the composition of the newly synthesized GAG chains. However, it is largely unknown whether structural features of aglycone affect the extent of sulfation, sulfation pattern, disaccharide composition, and chain length of GAG chains. In this study, we show that aglycones can switch not only the type of GAG chains, but also their fine structures. Our findings provide suggestive evidence for the presence of GAGOSOMES that have different combinations of enzymes and their isoforms regulating the synthesis of cell-specific combinatorial structures. We surmise that click-xylosides are differentially recognized by the GAGOSOMES to generate distinct GAG structures as observed in this study. These novel click-xylosides offer new avenues to profile the cell-specific GAG chains, elucidate the mechanism of GAG biosynthesis, and to decipher the biological actions of GAG chains in model organisms. PMID:19628873

  19. β-Alanine Biosynthesis in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Xu, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    One efficient approach to assigning function to unannotated genes is to establish the enzymes that are missing in known biosynthetic pathways. One group of such pathways is those involved in coenzyme biosynthesis. In the case of the methanogenic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii as well as most methanogens, none of the expected enzymes for the biosynthesis of the β-alanine and pantoic acid moieties required for coenzyme A are annotated. To identify the gene(s) for β-alanine biosynthesis, we have established the pathway for the formation of β-alanine in this organism after experimentally eliminating other known and proposed pathways to β-alanine from malonate semialdehyde, l-alanine, spermine, dihydrouracil, and acryloyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Our data showed that the decarboxylation of aspartate was the only source of β-alanine in cell extracts of M. jannaschii. Unlike other prokaryotes where the enzyme producing β-alanine from l-aspartate is a pyruvoyl-containing l-aspartate decarboxylase (PanD), the enzyme in M. jannaschii is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent l-aspartate decarboxylase encoded by MJ0050, the same enzyme that was found to decarboxylate tyrosine for methanofuran biosynthesis. A Km of ∼0.80 mM for l-aspartate with a specific activity of 0.09 μmol min−1 mg−1 at 70°C for the decarboxylation of l-aspartate was measured for the recombinant enzyme. The MJ0050 gene was also demonstrated to complement the Escherichia coli panD deletion mutant cells, in which panD encoding aspartate decarboxylase in E. coli had been knocked out, thus confirming the function of this gene in vivo. PMID:24891443

  20. Cytochrome P450 Family Member CYP704B2 Catalyzes the ω -Hydroxylation of Fatty Acids and Is Required for Anther Cutin Biosynthesis and Pollen Exine Formation in Rice[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Pinot, Franck; Sauveplane, Vincent; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Diehl, Patrik; Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Liang; Gao, Yawei; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2010-01-01

    The anther cuticle and microspore exine act as protective barriers for the male gametophyte and pollen grain, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of the monomers of which they are composed. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile mutant, cyp704B2, which exhibits a swollen sporophytic tapetal layer, aborted pollen grains without detectable exine, and undeveloped anther cuticle. In addition, chemical composition analysis indicated that cutin monomers were hardly detectable in the cyp704B2 anthers. These defects are caused by a mutation in a cytochrome P450 family gene, CYP704B2. The CYP704B2 transcript is specifically detected in the tapetum and the microspore from stage 8 of anther development to stage 10. Heterologous expression of CYP704B2 in yeast demonstrated that CYP704B2 catalyzes the production of ω -hydroxylated fatty acids with 16 and 18 carbon chains. Our results provide insights into the biosynthesis of the two biopolymers sporopollenin and cutin. Specifically, our study indicates that the ω -hydroxylation pathway of fatty acids relying on this ancient CYP704B family, conserved from moss to angiosperms, is essential for the formation of both cuticle and exine during plant male reproductive and spore development. PMID:20086189

  1. Cytochrome P450 family member CYP704B2 catalyzes the {omega}-hydroxylation of fatty acids and is required for anther cutin biosynthesis and pollen exine formation in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Pinot, Franck; Sauveplane, Vincent; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Diehl, Patrik; Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Liang; Gao, Yawei; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2010-01-01

    The anther cuticle and microspore exine act as protective barriers for the male gametophyte and pollen grain, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of the monomers of which they are composed. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male sterile mutant, cyp704B2, which exhibits a swollen sporophytic tapetal layer, aborted pollen grains without detectable exine, and undeveloped anther cuticle. In addition, chemical composition analysis indicated that cutin monomers were hardly detectable in the cyp704B2 anthers. These defects are caused by a mutation in a cytochrome P450 family gene, CYP704B2. The CYP704B2 transcript is specifically detected in the tapetum and the microspore from stage 8 of anther development to stage 10. Heterologous expression of CYP704B2 in yeast demonstrated that CYP704B2 catalyzes the production of omega -hydroxylated fatty acids with 16 and 18 carbon chains. Our results provide insights into the biosynthesis of the two biopolymers sporopollenin and cutin. Specifically, our study indicates that the omega -hydroxylation pathway of fatty acids relying on this ancient CYP704B family, conserved from moss to angiosperms, is essential for the formation of both cuticle and exine during plant male reproductive and spore development.

  2. Plasma membrane microdomains from hybrid aspen cells are involved in cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bessueille, Laurence; Sindt, Nicolas; Guichardant, Michel; Djerbi, Soraya; Teeri, Tuula T; Bulone, Vincent

    2009-04-28

    Detergent-resistant plasma membrane microdomains [DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes)] were isolated recently from several plant species. As for animal cells, a large range of cellular functions, such as signal transduction, endocytosis and protein trafficking, have been attributed to plant lipid rafts and DRMs. The data available are essentially based on proteomics and more approaches need to be undertaken to elucidate the precise function of individual populations of DRMs in plants. We report here the first isolation of DRMs from purified plasma membranes of a tree species, the hybrid aspen Populus tremula x tremuloides, and their biochemical characterization. Plasma membranes were solubilized with Triton X-100 and the resulting DRMs were isolated by flotation in sucrose density gradients. The DRMs were enriched in sterols, sphingolipids and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and thus exhibited similar properties to DRMs from other species. However, they contained key carbohydrate synthases involved in cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis, namely callose [(1-->3)-beta-D-glucan] and cellulose synthases. The association of these enzymes with DRMs was demonstrated using specific glucan synthase assays and antibodies, as well as biochemical and chemical approaches for the characterization of the polysaccharides synthesized in vitro by the isolated DRMs. More than 70% of the total glucan synthase activities present in the original plasma membranes was associated with the DRM fraction. In addition to shedding light on the lipid environment of callose and cellulose synthases, our results demonstrate the involvement of DRMs in the biosynthesis of important cell wall polysaccharides. This novel concept suggests a function of plant membrane microdomains in cell growth and morphogenesis.

  3. Stereoselectivity in Polyphenol Biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.

    1992-01-01

    Stereoselectivity plays an important role in the late stages of phenyl-propanoid metabolism, affording lignins, lignans, and neolignans. Stereoselectivity is manifested during monolignol (glucoside) synthesis, e.g., where the geometry (E or Z) of the pendant double bond affects the specificity of UDPG:coniferyl alcohol glucosyltransferases in different species. Such findings are viewed to have important ramifications in monolignol transport and storage processes, with roles for both E- and Z-monolignols and their glucosides in lignin/lignan biosynthesis being envisaged. Stereoselectivity is also of great importance in enantiose-lective enzymatic processes affording optically active lignans. Thus, cell-free extracts from Forsythia species were demonstrated to synthesize the enantiomerically pure lignans, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, and (-)-pinoresinol, when NAD(P)H, H2O2 and E-coniferyl alcohol were added. Progress toward elucidating the enzymatic steps involved in such highly stereoselective processes is discussed. Also described are preliminary studies aimed at developing methodologies to determine the subcellular location of late-stage phenylpropanoid metabolites (e.g., coniferyl alcohol) and key enzymes thereof, in intact tissue or cells. This knowledge is essential if questions regarding lignin and lignan tissue specificity and regulation of these processes are to be deciphered.

  4. Biosynthesis of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gong-Li; Tang, Man-Cheng; Song, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) alkaloids are naturally occurring antibiotics isolated from a variety of microorganisms and marine invertebrates. This family of natural products exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial and strong antitumor activities, and the potency of clinical application has been validated by the marketing of ecteinascidin 743 (ET-743) as anticancer drug. In the past 20 years, the biosynthetic gene cluster of six THIQ antibiotics has been characterized including saframycin Mx1 from Myxococcus xanthus, safracin-B from Pseudomonas fluorescens, saframycin A, naphthyridinomycin, and quinocarcin from Streptomyces, as well as ET-743 from Ecteinascidia turbinata. This review gives a brief summary of the current status in understanding the molecular logic for the biosynthesis of these natural products, which provides new insights on the biosynthetic machinery involved in the nonribosomal peptide synthetase system. The proposal of the THIQ biosynthetic pathway not only shows nature's route to generate such complex molecules, but also set the stage to develop a different process for production of ET-743 by synthetic biology.

  5. A Mutation in the Catalytic Subunit of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Transamidase Disrupts Growth, Fertility, and Stomata Formation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are essential for plant growth and development; knockout mutations in enzymes responsible for anchor biosynthesis or attachment are gametophyte or embryo lethal. In a genetic screen targeted to identify genes regulating stomata formation, we discovered a missense mutation in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog of GPI8/PIG-K, a Cys protease that transfers an assembled GPI anchor to proteins. The Arabidopsis genome has a single copy of AtGPI8, and the atgpi8-1 mutation reduces the efficiency of this enzyme, leading to reduced accumulation of GPI-anchored proteins. While the atgpi8-1 mutation strongly disrupts plant growth, it is not lethal. Phenotypic analysis of atgpi8-1 mutants suggests that GPI-APs are important for root and shoot growth, stomata formation, apical dominance, transition to flowering, and male gametophyte viability. In addition, atgpi8-1 mutants accumulate higher levels of callose and have reduced plasmodesmata permeability. Genetic interactions of atgpi8-1 with mutations in ERECTA family (ERf) genes suggest the existence of a GPI-AP in a branch of the ERf signaling pathway that regulates stomata formation. Activation of the ERf signal transduction cascade by constitutively active YODA rescues stomata clustering in atgpi8-1, indicating that a GPI-AP functions upstream of the MAP kinase cascade. TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) is a receptor-like protein that is able to form heterodimers with ERfs. Our analysis demonstrates that tmm-1 is epistatic to atgpi8-1, indicating that either TMM is a GPI-AP or there is another GPI-AP regulating stomata development whose function is dependent upon TMM. PMID:27208238

  6. Efficient cell surface display of Lip2 lipase using C-domains of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell wall proteins of Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Yuzbasheva, Evgeniya Y; Yuzbashev, Tigran V; Laptev, Ivan A; Konstantinova, Tatiana K; Sineoky, Sergey P

    2011-08-01

    The cell surface display of enzymes is of great interest because of its simplified purification stage and the possibility for recycling in industrial processes. In this study, we have focused on the cell wall immobilization of Yarrowia lipolytica Lip2 protein--an enzyme that has a wide technological application. By genome analysis of Y. lipolytica in addition to already characterized Ylcwp1, we identified five putative open reading frames encoding glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. Lip2 translation fusion with the carboxyl termini of these proteins revealed that all proteins were capable of immobilizing lipase in active form on the cell surface. The highest level of cell-bound lipase activity was achieved using C-domains encoded by YlCWP1, YlCWP3 (YALI0D27214g) and YlCWP6 (YALI0F18282g) comprising 16,173 ± 1,800, 18,785 ± 1,130 and 17,700 ± 2,101 U/g dry cells, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these results significantly exceed the highest cell-bound lipase activity previously reported for engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris strains. Furthermore, the lyophilized biomass retained the activity and was robust to collecting/resuspending procedures. Nevertheless, in most cases, a substantial amount of lipase activity was also found in the growth medium. Further work will be necessary to better understand the nature of this phenomenon.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol toxin interacts with the membrane of non-parasitized red blood cells: a putative mechanism contributing to malaria anemia.

    PubMed

    Brattig, Norbert W; Kowalsky, Katharina; Liu, Xinyu; Burchard, Gerd D; Kamena, Faustin; Seeberger, Peter H

    2008-07-01

    Following exposure to synthetic Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol (P.f.-GPI), red blood cells (RBCs) reacted with antibodies in the serum of a patient with severe acute P. falciparum malaria. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of the patient's serum confirmed the presence of both, IgM and IgG antibodies against P.f.-GPI. The antibodies failed to bind to RBCs when P.f.-GPI lacking the lipid portion was applied. Addition of the detergent Triton X-100 during preincubation with P.f.-GPI resulted in increased recognition. Recognition of P.f.-GPI was dependent on the concentrations of synthetic P.f.-GPI, the serum and the numbers of RBCs. IgM antibodies dominated P.f.-GPI-sensitized RBCs recognition. Recognition by IgM antibodies proved highest during the 1st week of acute malaria and decreased during the following 2 weeks as assessed by flow cytometry and carbohydrate microarray analysis. These results strongly support the notion that released P.f.-GPI can insert into non-parasitized RBC membranes and results in recognition by circulating anti-GPI antibodies and possibly subsequent elimination. This process may contribute to malaria-associated anemia.

  8. Asymptomatic infection in individuals from the municipality of Barcelos (Brazilian Amazon) is not associated with the anti-Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol antibody response

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Larissa Rodrigues; Totino, Paulo Renato Rivas; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Daniel, Elsa Paula da Silva Kaingona; de Macedo, Cristiana Santos; Fortes, Filomeno; Coura, José Rodrigues; Santi, Silvia Maria Di; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria de Fátima; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2013-01-01

    Anti-glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) antibodies (Abs) may reflect and mediate, at least partially, anti-disease immunity in malaria by neutralising the toxic effect of parasitic GPI. Thus, we assessed the anti-GPI Ab response in asymptomatic individuals living in an area of the Brazilian Amazon that has a high level of malaria transmission. For comparative purposes, we also investigated the Ab response to a crude extract prepared from Plasmodium falciparum, the merozoite surface protein (MSP)3 antigen of P. falciparum and the MSP 1 antigen of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP1-19) in these individuals and in Angolan patients with acute malaria. Our data suggest that the Ab response against P. falciparum GPI is not associated with P. falciparum asymptomatic infection in individuals who have been chronically exposed to malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. However, this Ab response could be related to ongoing parasitaemia (as was previously shown) in the Angolan patients. In addition, our data show that PvMSP1-19may be a good marker antigen to reflect previous exposure to Plasmodium in areas that have a high transmission rate of P. vivax. PMID:24037204

  9. GPI-80, a beta2 integrin associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, concentrates on pseudopodia without association with beta2 integrin during neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Takeda, Yuji; Nitto, Takeaki; Sendo, Fujiro; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    Previously, we identified a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, designated GPI-80, present on human neutrophils and monocytes. GPI-80 is physically associated with beta2 integrin on the surface of human neutrophils and may be a regulator of neutrophil adherence and migration. However, it is not yet known how GPI-80 regulates cell adhesion and migration. To investigate the physiological role(s) of GPI-80, we examined the topological relationship of GPI-80 and the beta2 integrin subunit (CD18) on resting and migrating human neutrophils by confocal laser microscopy. On resting neutrophils, GPI-80 was evenly distributed on the cell surface and was associated with CD18. On the other hand, during the early phase of migration (5 - 30 minutes), GPI-80 was detected on cell bodies and also on pseudopodia, but CD18 was detected only on cell bodies, where it was associated with GPI-80. In the late phase of migration (60 minutes), GPI-80 was detected only on pseudopodia and its association with CD18 was hardly observed. Furthermore, some of the GPI-80 on pseudopodia of migrating neutrophils during the late phase was associated with urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a regulator of beta2 integrin-dependent adherence and migration. The distribution of GPI-80 on cell surfaces is similar to that of uPAR. These observations suggest that GPI-80 belongs to the beta2 integrin-associated GPI-anchored protein family, which has regulatory activity in cell adherence.

  10. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and photon counting histogram on membrane proteins: functional dynamics of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored urokinase plasminogen activator receptor.

    PubMed

    Malengo, Gabriele; Andolfo, Annapaola; Sidenius, Nicolai; Gratton, Enrico; Zamai, Moreno; Caiolfa, Valeria R

    2008-01-01

    The oligomerization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins is thought to regulate their association with membrane microdomains, subcellular sorting, and activity. However, these mechanisms need to be comprehensively explored in living, unperturbed cells, without artificial clustering agents, and using fluorescent protein-tagged chimeras that are fully biologically active. We expressed in human embryo kidnay 293 (HEK293) cells a biologically active chimera of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), the uPAR-mEGFP-GPI. We also produced HEK293/D2D3-mEGFP-GPI cells expressing the truncated form of the receptor, lacking biological activity. We studied the dynamics and oligomerization of the two proteins, combining fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and photon counting histogram (PCH) analyses, and using subclones with homogenously low expression levels. Overall, the mobile fractions of the two proteins, constituted by monomers and dimers, had comparable diffusion coefficients. However, the diffusion coefficient decreased in monomer-enriched fractions only for the active receptor, suggesting that uPAR monomers might be preferentially engaged in multiprotein transmembrane signaling complexes. Our approach helps in limiting the alteration of the data due to out-of-focus effects and in minimizing the overestimation of the molecular brightness. In addition to a careful design of the cellular model, it gives reliable estimates of diffusion coefficients and oligomerization of GPI-anchored proteins, in steady-state conditions, at low expression levels, and in live, unperturbed cells.

  11. Incorporation of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Granulocyte- Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor or CD40 Ligand Enhances Immunogenicity of Chimeric Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Like Particles▿

    PubMed Central

    Skountzou, Ioanna; Quan, Fu-Shi; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Ye, Ling; Vzorov, Andrei; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Jacob, Joshy; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2007-01-01

    The rapid worldwide spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mandates the development of successful vaccination strategies. Since live attenuated HIV is not accepted as a vaccine due to safety concerns, virus-like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive safe alternative because they lack the viral genome yet they are perceived by the immune system as a virus particle. We hypothesized that adding immunostimulatory signals to VLPs would enhance their efficacy. To accomplish this we generated chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) VLPs containing either glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or CD40 ligand (CD40L) and investigated their biological activity and ability to enhance immune responses in vivo. Immunization of mice with chimeric SIV VLPs containing GM-CSF induced SIV Env-specific antibodies as well as neutralizing activity at significantly higher levels than those induced by standard SIV VLPs, SIV VLPs containing CD40L, or standard VLPs mixed with soluble GM-CSF. In addition, mice immunized with chimeric SIV VLPs containing either GM-CSF or CD40L showed significantly increased CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell responses to SIV Env, compared to standard SIV VLPs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the incorporation of immunostimulatory molecules enhances humoral and cellular immune responses. We propose that anchoring immunostimulatory molecules into SIV VLPs can be a promising approach to augmenting the efficacy of VLP antigens. PMID:17108046

  12. COBRA-LIKE2, a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE family, plays a role in cellulose deposition in arabidopsis seed coat mucilage secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-03-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Expression of GPI-80, a beta2-integrin-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, requires neutrophil differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yuji; Fu, Junfen; Suzuki, Kichiya; Sendo, Dai; Nitto, Takeaki; Sendo, Fujiro; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2003-06-10

    GPI-80 is a member of the amidohydrolase family that has been proposed as a potential regulator of beta2-integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion. GPI-80 is expressed mainly in human neutrophils. Our previous studies suggested that GPI-80 expression might be associated with myeloid differentiation. To verify this, we examined whether GPI-80 is expressed on the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 following treatment with differentiation inducers. GPI-80 expression was induced in cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to stimulate differentiation down the neutrophil pathway. On the other hand, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), another neutrophil-inducing reagent, induced no clear GPI-80 expression. Potent monocyte-inducing reagents such as 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also had no significant effect on the protein expression. GPI-80-positive cells were found in the well-differentiated CD11b-positive and transferrin-receptor-negative cell population. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which augments neutrophil differentiation of HL-60 cells, up-regulated GPI-80 expression in the presence of DMSO. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which is known to suppress the neutrophil maturation of cells, inhibited expression. Adhesion of DMSO-induced cells was regulated by anti-GPI-80 monoclonal antibody, similar to the regulation observed in neutrophils. These results suggest that use of DMSO to induce neutrophil differentiation provides suitable conditions for GPI-80 expression, and that this culture system may be a helpful model for further study of the regulation of GPI-80 expression during myeloid differentiation.

  14. Complexity of the transcriptional network controlling secondary wall biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2014-12-01

    Secondary walls in the form of wood and fibers are the most abundant biomass produced by vascular plants, and are important raw materials for many industrial uses. Understanding how secondary walls are constructed is of significance in basic plant biology and also has far-reaching implications in genetic engineering of plant biomass better suited for various end uses, such as biofuel production. Secondary walls are composed of three major biopolymers, i.e., cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, the biosynthesis of which requires the coordinated transcriptional regulation of all their biosynthesis genes. Genomic and molecular studies have identified a number of transcription factors, whose expression is associated with secondary wall biosynthesis. We comprehensively review how these secondary wall-associated transcription factors function together to turn on the secondary wall biosynthetic program, which leads to secondary wall deposition in vascular plants. The transcriptional network regulating secondary wall biosynthesis employs a multi-leveled feed-forward loop regulatory structure, in which the top-level secondary wall NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) master switches activate the second-level MYB master switches and they together induce the expression of downstream transcription factors and secondary wall biosynthesis genes. Secondary wall NAC master switches and secondary wall MYB master switches bind to and activate the SNBE (secondary wall NAC binding element) and SMRE (secondary wall MYB-responsive element) sites, respectively, in their target gene promoters. Further investigation of what and how developmental signals trigger the transcriptional network to regulate secondary wall biosynthesis and how different secondary wall-associated transcription factors function cooperatively in activating secondary wall biosynthetic pathways will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional control of secondary wall biosynthesis.

  15. Aromatic Prenylation in Phenazine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Orwah; Gust, Bertolt; Boll, Björn; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Heide, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    The bacterium Streptomyces anulatus 9663, isolated from the intestine of different arthropods, produces prenylated derivatives of phenazine 1-carboxylic acid. From this organism, we have identified the prenyltransferase gene ppzP. ppzP resides in a gene cluster containing orthologs of all genes known to be involved in phenazine 1-carboxylic acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas strains as well as genes for the six enzymes required to generate dimethylallyl diphosphate via the mevalonate pathway. This is the first complete gene cluster of a phenazine natural compound from streptomycetes. Heterologous expression of this cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor M512 resulted in the formation of prenylated derivatives of phenazine 1-carboxylic acid. After inactivation of ppzP, only nonprenylated phenazine 1-carboxylic acid was formed. Cloning, overexpression, and purification of PpzP resulted in a 37-kDa soluble protein, which was identified as a 5,10-dihydrophenazine 1-carboxylate dimethylallyltransferase, forming a C–C bond between C-1 of the isoprenoid substrate and C-9 of the aromatic substrate. In contrast to many other prenyltransferases, the reaction of PpzP is independent of the presence of magnesium or other divalent cations. The Km value for dimethylallyl diphosphate was determined as 116 μm. For dihydro-PCA, half-maximal velocity was observed at 35 μm. Kcat was calculated as 0.435 s-1. PpzP shows obvious sequence similarity to a recently discovered family of prenyltransferases with aromatic substrates, the ABBA prenyltransferases. The present finding extends the substrate range of this family, previously limited to phenolic compounds, to include also phenazine derivatives. PMID:19339241

  16. Cryogenian evolution of stigmasteroid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Yosuke; Poshibaeva, Aleksandra; Meredith, William; Snape, Colin; Poshibaev, Vladimir; Versteegh, Gerard J. M.; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Leider, Arne; van Maldegem, Lennart; Neumann, Mareike; Naeher, Sebastian; Moczydłowska, Małgorzata; Brocks, Jochen J.; Jarrett, Amber J. M.; Tang, Qing; Xiao, Shuhai; McKirdy, David; Das, Supriyo Kumar; Alvaro, José Javier; Sansjofre, Pierre; Hallmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentary hydrocarbon remnants of eukaryotic C26–C30 sterols can be used to reconstruct early algal evolution. Enhanced C29 sterol abundances provide algal cell membranes a density advantage in large temperature fluctuations. Here, we combined a literature review with new analyses to generate a comprehensive inventory of unambiguously syngenetic steranes in Neoproterozoic rocks. Our results show that the capacity for C29 24-ethyl-sterol biosynthesis emerged in the Cryogenian, that is, between 720 and 635 million years ago during the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth glaciations, which were an evolutionary stimulant, not a bottleneck. This biochemical innovation heralded the rise of green algae to global dominance of marine ecosystems and highlights the environmental drivers for the evolution of sterol biosynthesis. The Cryogenian emergence of C29 sterol biosynthesis places a benchmark for verifying older sterane signatures and sets a new framework for our understanding of early algal evolution. PMID:28948220

  17. Biosynthesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer pheromone.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Li, Weiqing; Ruvkun, Gary; Clardy, Jon; Mak, Ho Yi

    2009-02-10

    To sense its population density and to trigger entry into the stress-resistant dauer larval stage, Caenorhabditis elegans uses the dauer pheromone, which consists of ascaroside derivatives with short, fatty acid-like side chains. Although the dauer pheromone has been studied for 25 years, its biosynthesis is completely uncharacterized. The daf-22 mutant is the only known mutant defective in dauer pheromone production. Here, we show that daf-22 encodes a homolog of human sterol carrier protein SCPx, which catalyzes the final step in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. We also show that dhs-28, which encodes a homolog of the human d-bifunctional protein that acts just upstream of SCPx, is also required for pheromone production. Long-term daf-22 and dhs-28 cultures develop dauer-inducing activity by accumulating less active, long-chain fatty acid ascaroside derivatives. Thus, daf-22 and dhs-28 are required for the biosynthesis of the short-chain fatty acid-derived side chains of the dauer pheromone and link dauer pheromone production to metabolic state.

  18. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms.

    PubMed

    Korasick, David A; Enders, Tara A; Strader, Lucia C

    2013-06-01

    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development.

  19. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms

    PubMed Central

    Strader, Lucia C.

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development. PMID:23580748

  20. Lovastatin Biosynthesis by Aspergillus terreus in a Chemically Defined Medium

    PubMed Central

    Hajjaj, Hassan; Niederberger, Peter; Duboc, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Lovastatin is a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus. A chemically defined medium was developed in order to investigate the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin biosynthesis. Among several organic and inorganic defined nitrogen sources metabolized by A. terreus, glutamate and histidine gave the highest lovastatin biosynthesis level. For cultures on glucose and glutamate, lovastatin synthesis initiated when glucose consumption levelled off. When A. terreus was grown on lactose, lovastatin production initiated in the presence of residual lactose. Experimental results showed that carbon source starvation is required in addition to relief of glucose repression, while glutamate did not repress biosynthesis. A threefold-higher specific productivity was found with the defined medium on glucose and glutamate, compared to growth on complex medium with glucose, peptonized milk, and yeast extract. PMID:11375168

  1. Genetic Basis for Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Biosynthesis in Bordetellae

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Andrew; Allen, Andrew G.; Cadisch, Joanna; Thomas, Richard; Stevens, Kim; Churcher, Carol M.; Badcock, K. L.; Parkhill, Julian; Barrell, Bart; Maskell, Duncan J.

    1999-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis express a surface polysaccharide, attached to a lipopolysaccharide, which has been called O antigen. This structure is absent from Bordetella pertussis. We report the identification of a large genetic locus in B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis that is required for O-antigen biosynthesis. The locus is replaced by an insertion sequence in B. pertussis, explaining the lack of O-antigen biosynthesis in this species. The DNA sequence of the B. bronchiseptica locus has been determined and the presence of 21 open reading frames has been revealed. We have ascribed putative functions to many of these open reading frames based on database searches. Mutations in the locus in B. bronchiseptica and B. parapertussis prevent O-antigen biosynthesis and provide tools for the study of the role of O antigen in infections caused by these bacteria. PMID:10417135

  2. Phermone biosynthesis activation in fire ants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), was identified to stimulate sex pheromone biosynthesis in a moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in mot...

  3. Regulation of Oil Biosynthesis in Algae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-25

    genes and mutants are currently under investigation for their potential roles in oil biosynthesis in microalgae . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Target genes for oil ...engineering, transcriptional profile comparison, lipid mutants, microalgae oil biosynthesis, enzymes involved in oil body formation in micro algae 16...addressed by exploring oil (triacylglycerol) biosynthesis in microalgae . Many algae including Chlamydomonas accumulate triacylglycerols when cultures

  4. Deficiency in riboflavin biosynthesis affects tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in etiolated Arabidopsis tissue.

    PubMed

    Hedtke, Boris; Alawady, Ali; Albacete, Alfonso; Kobayashi, Koichi; Melzer, Michael; Roitsch, Thomas; Masuda, Tatsuru; Grimm, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is controlled by multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Etiolated T-DNA insertion mutants were screened for red fluorescence as result of elevated levels of protochlorophyllide and four red fluorescent in the dark (rfd) mutants were isolated and identified. rfd3 and rfd4 belong to the group of photomorphogenic cop/det/fus mutants. rfd1 and rfd2 had genetic lesions in RIBA1 and FLU encoding the dual-functional protein GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase and a negative regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, respectively. RIBA1 catalyses the initial reaction of the metabolic pathway of riboflavin biosynthesis and rfd1 contains reduced contents of riboflavin and the flavo-coenzymes FMN and FAD. Transcriptome analysis of rfd1 revealed up-regulated genes encoding nucleus-localized factors involved in cytokinin signalling and numerous down-regulated LEA genes as well as an auxin-inducible GH3 gene. Alteration of cytokinin metabolism of rfd1was confirmed by elevated contents of active forms of cytokinin and stimulated expression of an ARR6::GUS reporter construct. An etiolated quadruple ckx (cytokinin oxidase) mutant with impaired cytokinin degradation as well as different knockout mutants for the negative AUX/IAA regulators shy2-101 (iaa3), axr2-1 (iaa7) and slr-1 (iaa14) showed also excessive protochlorophyllide accumulation. The transcript levels of CHLH and HEMA1 encoding Mg chelatase and glutamyl-tRNA reductase were increased in rfd1 and the AUX/IAA loss-of-function mutants. It is proposed that reduced riboflavin synthesis impairs the activity of the flavin-containing cytokinin oxidase, increases cytokinin contents and de-represses synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid of tetrapyrrole metabolism in darkness. As result of the mutant analyses, the antagonistic cytokinin and auxin signalling is required for a balanced tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in the dark.

  5. Molecular cloning of murine Pig-a, a gene for GPI-anchor biosynthesis, and demonstration of interspecies conservation of its structure, function, and genetic locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kawagoe, Kazuyoshi; Takeda, Junji; Kinoshita, Taroh

    1994-10-01

    Many membrane proteins are anchored to the cell membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). The core structure and biosynthesis of the GPI anchor are well conserved in eukaryote cells. We previously cloned a human PIGA gene that participates in GPI anchor biosynthesis. We have now cloned complementary and genomic DNA of Pig-a, the murine homologue of PIGA, and compared its function and gene structure with those of PIGA. The deduced amino acid sequence of mouse PIG-A is 88% identical with that of human PIG-A. Transfection of Pig-a cDNA complemented the defects of both a PIG-A-deficient murine cell line and a PIG-A-deficient human cell line, demonstrating that functions of mouse and human PIG-A are conserved. Like human PIGA, the chromosomal Pig-a gene has six exons and spans approximately 16 kb. Moreover, Pig-a was mapped to X-F3/4, which is syntenic to human Xp22.1, where PIGA is located. Thus, murine Pig-a provides a good animal model to study paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, a disease caused by a somatic mutation of PIGA. Database analysis demonstrated that a yeast gene, SPT14, is homologous to Pig-a and PIGA and that these genes are members of a glycosyltransferase gene family.

  6. Transcription factors in alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2013-01-01

    Higher plants produce a large variety of low-molecular weight secondary compounds. Among them, nitrogen-containing alkaloids are the most biologically active and are often used pharmaceutically. Whereas alkaloid chemistry has been intensively investigated, alkaloid biosynthesis, including the relevant biosynthetic enzymes, genes and their regulation, and especially transcription factors, is largely unknown, as only a limited number of plant species produce certain types of alkaloids and they are difficult to study. Recently, however, several groups have succeeded in isolating the transcription factors that are involved in the biosynthesis of several types of alkaloids, including bHLH, ERF, and WRKY. Most of them show Jasmonate (JA) responsiveness, which suggests that the JA signaling cascade plays an important role in alkaloid biosynthesis. Here, we summarize the types and functions of transcription factors that have been isolated in alkaloid biosynthesis, and characterize their similarities and differences compared to those in other secondary metabolite pathways, such as phenylpropanoid and terpenoid biosyntheses. The evolution of this biosynthetic pathway and regulatory network, as well as the application of these transcription factors to metabolic engineering, is discussed.

  7. SEMI-ROLLED LEAF1 Encodes a Putative Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Protein and Modulates Rice Leaf Rolling by Regulating the Formation of Bulliform Cells1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guang-Heng; Qian, Qian; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Leaf rolling is an important agronomic trait in rice (Oryza sativa) breeding and moderate leaf rolling maintains the erectness of leaves and minimizes shadowing between leaves, leading to improved photosynthetic efficiency and grain yields. Although a few rolled-leaf mutants have been identified and some genes controlling leaf rolling have been isolated, the molecular mechanisms of leaf rolling still need to be elucidated. Here we report the isolation and characterization of SEMI-ROLLED LEAF1 (SRL1), a gene involved in the regulation of leaf rolling. Mutants srl1-1 (point mutation) and srl1-2 (transferred DNA insertion) exhibit adaxially rolled leaves due to the increased numbers of bulliform cells at the adaxial cell layers, which could be rescued by complementary expression of SRL1. SRL1 is expressed in various tissues and is expressed at low levels in bulliform cells. SRL1 protein is located at the plasma membrane and predicted to be a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Moreover, analysis of the gene expression profile of cells that will become epidermal cells in wild type but probably bulliform cells in srl1-1 by laser-captured microdissection revealed that the expression of genes encoding vacuolar H+-ATPase (subunits A, B, C, and D) and H+-pyrophosphatase, which are increased during the formation of bulliform cells, were up-regulated in srl1-1. These results provide the transcript profile of rice leaf cells that will become bulliform cells and demonstrate that SRL1 regulates leaf rolling through inhibiting the formation of bulliform cells by negatively regulating the expression of genes encoding vacuolar H+-ATPase subunits and H+-pyrophosphatase, which will help to understand the mechanism regulating leaf rolling. PMID:22715111

  8. Disruption of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Lipid Transfer Protein Gene Altered Cuticular Lipid Composition, Increased Plastoglobules, and Enhanced Susceptibility to Infection by the Fungal Pathogen Alternaria brassicicola1[W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saet Buyl; Go, Young Sam; Bae, Hyun-Jong; Park, Jong Ho; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Hong Joo; Lee, Dong Sook; Park, Ohkmae K.; Hwang, Inhwan; Suh, Mi Chung

    2009-01-01

    All aerial parts of vascular plants are covered with cuticular waxes, which are synthesized by extensive export of intracellular lipids from epidermal cells to the surface. Although it has been suggested that plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are involved in cuticular lipid transport, the in planta evidence is still not clear. In this study, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored LTP (LTPG1) showing higher expression in epidermal peels of stems than in stems was identified from an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome-wide microarray analysis. The expression of LTPG1 was observed in various tissues, including the epidermis, stem cortex, vascular bundles, mesophyll cells, root tips, pollen, and early-developing seeds. LTPG1 was found to be localized in the plasma membrane. Disruption of the LTPG1 gene caused alterations of cuticular lipid composition, but no significant changes on total wax and cutin monomer loads were seen. The largest reduction (10 mass %) in the ltpg1 mutant was observed in the C29 alkane, which is the major component of cuticular waxes in the stems and siliques. The reduced content was overcome by increases of the C29 secondary alcohols and C29 ketone wax loads. The ultrastructure analysis of ltpg1 showed a more diffuse cuticular layer structure, protrusions of the cytoplasm into the vacuole in the epidermis, and an increase of plastoglobules in the stem cortex and leaf mesophyll cells. Furthermore, the ltpg1 mutant was more susceptible to infection by the fungus Alternaria brassicicola than the wild type. Taken together, these results indicated that LTPG1 contributed either directly or indirectly to cuticular lipid accumulation. PMID:19321705

  9. Post-translational modification of the NKG2D ligand RAET1G leads to cell surface expression of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked isoform.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Maki; Eagle, Robert A; Trowsdale, John

    2010-05-28

    NKG2D is an important activating receptor on lymphocytes. In human, it interacts with two groups of ligands: the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A/B (MICA/B) family and the UL-16 binding protein (ULBP) family, also known as retinoic acid early transcript (RAET1). MIC proteins are membrane-anchored, but all of the ULBP/RAET1 proteins, except for RAET1E and RAET1G, are glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored. To address the reason for these differences we studied the association of RAET1G with the membrane. Using epitope-tagged RAET1G protein in conjunction with antibodies to different parts of the molecule and in pulse-chase experiments, we showed that the C terminus of the protein was cleaved soon after protein synthesis. Endoglycosidase H and peptide N-glycosidase treatment and cell surface immunoprecipitation indicated that most of the protein stayed in the endoplasmic reticulum, but some of the cleaved form was modified in the Golgi and transported to the cell surface. We examined the possibility of GPI anchoring of the protein in three ways: (i) Phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C released the PI-linked form of the protein. (ii) The surface expression pattern of RAET1G decreased in cells defective in GPI anchoring through mutant GPI-amidase. (iii) Site-directed mutagenesis, to disrupt residues predicted to facilitate GPI-anchoring, resulted in diminished surface expression of RAET1G. Thus, a form of RAET1G is GPI-anchored, in line with most other ULBP/RAET1 family proteins. The cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domains appear to result from gene duplication and frameshift mutation. Together with our previous results, our data suggest that RAET1G is regulated post-translationally to produce a GPI-anchored isoform.

  10. Post-translational Modification of the NKG2D Ligand RAET1G Leads to Cell Surface Expression of a Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked Isoform*

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Maki; Eagle, Robert A.; Trowsdale, John

    2010-01-01

    NKG2D is an important activating receptor on lymphocytes. In human, it interacts with two groups of ligands: the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related A/B (MICA/B) family and the UL-16 binding protein (ULBP) family, also known as retinoic acid early transcript (RAET1). MIC proteins are membrane-anchored, but all of the ULBP/RAET1 proteins, except for RAET1E and RAET1G, are glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored. To address the reason for these differences we studied the association of RAET1G with the membrane. Using epitope-tagged RAET1G protein in conjunction with antibodies to different parts of the molecule and in pulse-chase experiments, we showed that the C terminus of the protein was cleaved soon after protein synthesis. Endoglycosidase H and peptide N-glycosidase treatment and cell surface immunoprecipitation indicated that most of the protein stayed in the endoplasmic reticulum, but some of the cleaved form was modified in the Golgi and transported to the cell surface. We examined the possibility of GPI anchoring of the protein in three ways: (i) Phosphatidylinositol (PI)-specific phospholipase C released the PI-linked form of the protein. (ii) The surface expression pattern of RAET1G decreased in cells defective in GPI anchoring through mutant GPI-amidase. (iii) Site-directed mutagenesis, to disrupt residues predicted to facilitate GPI-anchoring, resulted in diminished surface expression of RAET1G. Thus, a form of RAET1G is GPI-anchored, in line with most other ULBP/RAET1 family proteins. The cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domains appear to result from gene duplication and frameshift mutation. Together with our previous results, our data suggest that RAET1G is regulated post-translationally to produce a GPI-anchored isoform. PMID:20304922

  11. Normal patterns of expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins on different subsets of peripheral blood cells: a frame of reference for the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Campo, Pilar María; Almeida, Julia; Sánchez, María Luz; Malvezzi, Mariester; Orfao, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    Evaluation of the expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins (GPI-AP) is currently used for the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). In this study, we analyzed the amount of expression of a wide variety of GPI-AP in different subsets of hematopoietic cells present in normal peripheral blood (PB), to establish their normal patterns of expression and provide a frame of reference for the definition of the best combination of GPI-AP and PB cell subsets to be applied in the diagnosis and monitoring of PNH. Our results show variable patterns of expression of different GPI-AP in distinct subsets of normal PB cells. Combined use of CD55 and CD59 represented the most useful dual-marker combination; however, its utility remained suboptimal for several subsets of leukocytes and for platelets. For some cell subsets such as the neutrophils additional useful markers could be selected from a relatively broad panel (CD16/CD24/CD55/CD59/CD66b/CD157), whereas for other cell subsets the number of useful antigens was either restricted (monocytes: CD14/CD55/CD157; B cells: CD24/CD48/CD52/CD55; CD4+ T cells: CD48/CD52/CD55; eosinophils: CD55/CD59; CD8+ T cells: CD48/CD55) or limited to a single marker (CD48 on CD56low NK cells, CD55 on BDCA3- dendritic cells and CD56high NK cells, and CD59 for red cells), from all antigens analyzed. Copyright 2005 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  12. Lack of an Association between Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glycosylphosphatidylinositols and Malaria-Associated Placental Changes in Cameroonian Women with Preterm and Full-Term Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Gowda, D. Channe; Fouda, Genevieve; Thuita, Lucy; Zhou, Ainong; Djokam, Rosine; Metenou, Simon; Leke, Rose G. F.; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum parasites within the placenta often leads to an accumulation of macrophages within the intervillous space and increased production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a cytokine associated with placental pathology and poor pregnancy outcomes. P. falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors have been shown to be the major parasite component that induces TNF-α production by monocytes and macrophages. Antibodies against P. falciparum GPI (anti-PfGPI), however, can inhibit the induction of TNF-α and inflammation. Thus, the study was undertaken to determine whether anti-PfGPI antibodies down-regulate inflammatory-type changes in the placentas of women with malaria. Anti-PfGPI immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG levels were measured in 380 pregnant women with or without placental malaria, including those who delivered prematurely and at term. Results showed that anti-PfGPI antibody levels increased with gravidity and age and that malaria infection boosted anti-PfGPI antibodies in pregnant women. However, no association was found between anti-PfGPI antibodies and placental TNF-α levels or the presence of acute or chronic placental malaria. Furthermore, anti-PfGPI antibody levels were similar in women with preterm and full-term deliveries and were not associated with an increase in infant birth weight. Thus, these results fail to support a strong role for anti-PfGPI antibodies in the prevention of chronic placental malaria infections and malaria-associated poor birth outcomes. PMID:15322022

  13. Regulatory genes and environmental regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The requirement of the exopolysaccharide amylovoran for Erwinia amylovora pathogenesis is well documented. However, regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis has not been comprehensively studied. We have previously reported that amylovoran production is strain-dependent in E. amylovora isolates. We have...

  14. LAP6/POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE A and LAP5/POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE B Encode Hydroxyalkyl α-Pyrone Synthases Required for Pollen Development and Sporopollenin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Soo; Grienenberger, Etienne; Lallemand, Benjamin; Colpitts, Che C.; Kim, Sun Young; Souza, Clarice de Azevedo; Geoffroy, Pierrette; Heintz, Dimitri; Krahn, Daniel; Kaiser, Markus; Kombrink, Erich; Heitz, Thierry; Suh, Dae-Yeon; Legrand, Michel; Douglas, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the condensation of malonyl-CoA units with various CoA ester starter molecules to generate a diverse array of natural products. The fatty acyl-CoA esters synthesized by Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE5 (ACOS5) are key intermediates in the biosynthesis of sporopollenin, the major constituent of exine in the outer pollen wall. By coexpression analysis, we identified two Arabidopsis PKS genes, POLYKETIDE SYNTHASE A (PKSA) and PKSB (also known as LAP6 and LAP5, respectively) that are tightly coexpressed with ACOS5. Recombinant PKSA and PKSB proteins generated tri-and tetraketide α-pyrone compounds in vitro from a broad range of potential ACOS5-generated fatty acyl-CoA starter substrates by condensation with malonyl-CoA. Furthermore, substrate preference profile and kinetic analyses strongly suggested that in planta substrates for both enzymes are midchain- and ω-hydroxylated fatty acyl-CoAs (e.g., 12-hydroxyoctadecanoyl-CoA and 16-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoA), which are the products of sequential actions of anther-specific fatty acid hydroxylases and acyl-CoA synthetase. PKSA and PKSB are specifically and transiently expressed in tapetal cells during microspore development in Arabidopsis anthers. Mutants compromised in expression of the PKS genes displayed pollen exine layer defects, and a double pksa pksb mutant was completely male sterile, with no apparent exine. These results show that hydroxylated α-pyrone polyketide compounds generated by the sequential action of ACOS5 and PKSA/B are potential and previously unknown sporopollenin precursors. PMID:21193570

  15. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  16. Biosynthesis of ethylene glycol in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaiwei; Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Nisola, Grace M; Lee, Won-Keun; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important platform chemical with steadily expanding global demand. Its commercial production is currently limited to fossil resources; no biosynthesis route has been delineated. Herein, a biosynthesis route for EG production from D-xylose is reported. This route consists of four steps: D-xylose → D-xylonate → 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate → glycoaldehyde → EG. Respective enzymes, D-xylose dehydrogenase, D-xylonate dehydratase, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-pentonate aldolase, and glycoaldehyde reductase, were assembled. The route was implemented in a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli, in which the D-xylose → D-xylulose reaction was prevented by disrupting the D-xylose isomerase gene. The most efficient construct produced 11.7 g L(-1) of EG from 40.0 g L(-1) of D-xylose. Glycolate is a carbon-competing by-product during EG production in E. coli; blockage of glycoaldehyde → glycolate reaction was also performed by disrupting the gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase, but from this approach, EG productivity was not improved but rather led to D-xylonate accumulation. To channel more carbon flux towards EG than the glycolate pathway, further systematic metabolic engineering and fermentation optimization studies are still required to improve EG productivity.

  17. Auxin stimulates DWARF4 expression and brassinosteroid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuhee; Maharjan, Puna M; Lee, Oksun; Fujioka, Shozo; Jang, Suyoun; Kim, Bokyung; Takatsuto, Suguru; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Kim, Hobang; Cho, Seoae; Park, Taesung; Cho, Hyunwoo; Hwang, Ildoo; Choe, Sunghwa

    2011-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting steroidal hormones. Despite the importance of BRs in plant biology, the signal that initiates BR biosynthesis remains unknown. Among the enzymes involved in BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), DWARF4 catalyzes the rate-determining step. Through both the histochemical analysis of DWF4pro:GUS plants and the direct measurement of endogenous BR content, we discovered that BR biosynthesis is stimulated by auxin. When DWF4pro:GUS was subjected to auxin dose-response tests and a time-course analysis, GUS activity started to increase at an auxin concentration of 10 nm, rising noticeably after 1 h of auxin treatment. In addition, the analysis of the DWF4pro:GUS line in BR- and auxin-mutant backgrounds revealed that the induction by auxin requires auxin-signaling pathways but not BRs, which implies that auxin signaling directly controls BR biosynthesis. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that auxin inhibits the binding of the transcriptional repressor, BZR1, to the DWF4 promoter. A microarray analysis that was designed to examine the transcriptomes after treatment with auxin alone or auxin plus brassinazole (a BR biosynthetic inhibitor) revealed that genes previously characterized as being auxin responsive are not properly regulated when BR biosynthesis is disrupted by brassinazole. Therefore, our results support the idea that auxin regulates BR biosynthesis, and that auxin thus relies on synthesized BRs for some of its growth-promoting effects in Arabidopsis. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberlla fujikuroi

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.W.; Coolbaugh, R.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of plant growth hormones which were first isolated from the fungus Gibberella fujikuori. We have examined the biosynthesis of GAs in this fungus in liquid cultures using HPLC followed by GC-MS. Furthermore we have used cell-free enzyme extracts with {sup 14}C-labeled intermediates to examine the regulation of specific parts of the biosynthetic pathway. GA{sub 3} is the predominant GA in well aerated cultures. GA{sub 4} and GA{sub 7}, intermediates in GA{sub 3} biosynthesis, accumulate in cultures with low levels of dissolved oxygen, but are not detectable in more aerated cultures. Light stimulates GA production in G. fujikuroi cultures grown from young stock. Cell-free enzyme studies indicate that light has no effect on incorporation of mevalonic acid into kaurene, but does significantly stimulate the oxidation of kaurenoic acid.

  19. Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cell Walls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    amino acid accumulation level in Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus faecalis despite a normal initial transport rate. In the course of these...biosynthesis of a dipeptide, D-alanylcysteine; A demonstration that a pantothenic acid deficiency renders L. plantarum unusually sensitive to lysozyme digestion...A quantitative description of the lipid constituents of S. faecalis and L. plantarum ; An investigation of the biochemical basis of a marked lytic

  20. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis and release.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Denise P; Dupuy, Corinne

    2017-01-31

    Thyroid hormones (TH) 3,5,3',5'- tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'- triiodothyronine (T3) contain iodine atoms as part of their structure, and their synthesis occur in the unique structures called thyroid follicles. Iodide reaches thyroid cells through the bloodstream that supplies the basolateral plasma membrane of thyrocytes, where it is avidly taken up through the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Thyrocytes are also specialized in the secretion of the high molecular weight protein thyroglobulin (TG) in the follicular lumen. The iodination of the tyrosyl residues of TG preceeds TH biosynthesis, which depends on the interaction of iodide, TG, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) at the apical plasma membrane of thyrocytes. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis is under the tonic control of thyrotropin (TSH), while the iodide recycling ability is very important for normal thyroid function. We discuss herein the biochemical aspects of TH biosynthesis and release, highlighting the novel molecules involved in the process.

  1. Marine Molecular Machines: Heterocyclization in Cyanobactin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural products that contain amino acid-derived (Cys, Ser, Thr) heterocycles are ubiquitous in nature, yet key aspects of their biosynthesis remain undefined. Cyanobactins are heterocyclic ribosomal peptide natural products from cyanobacteria, including symbiotic bacteria living with marine ascidians. In contrast to other ribosomal peptide heterocyclases that have been studied, the cyanobactin heterocyclase is a single protein that does not require an oxidase enzyme. Using this simplifying condition, we provide new evidence to support the hypothesis that these enzymes are molecular machines, using ATP in a product binding or orientation cycle. Further, we show that both protease inhibitors and ATP analogues inhibit heterocyclization and define the order of biochemical steps in the cyanobactin biosynthetic pathway. The cyanobactin pathway enzymes, PatD and TruD, are thiazoline and oxazoline synthetases. PMID:20540059

  2. Biosynthesis of Nitrogenase FeMoco

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2010-01-01

    Biosynthesis of nitrogenase FeMoco is a highly complex process that requires, minimally, the participation of nifS, nifU, nifB, nifE, nifN, nifV, nifH, nifD and nifK gene products. Previous genetic analyses have identified the essential factors for the assembly of FeMoco; however, the exact functions of these factors and the precise sequence of events during the assembly process had remained unclear until recently, when a number of the biosynthetic intermediates of FeMoco were identified and characterized by combined biochemical, spectroscopic and structural analyses. This review gives a brief account of the recent progress toward understanding the assembly process of FeMoco, which has identified some important missing pieces of this biosynthetic puzzle. PMID:21503270

  3. Biosynthesis of cholesteryl glucoside by Mycoplasma gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Smith, P F

    1971-12-01

    The biosynthesis of cholesteryl glucoside by Mycoplasma gallinarum strain J proceeds by the transfer of glucose from uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose to membrane-bound sterol. Galactose also can be coupled to cholesterol via uridine-5'-diphosphogalactose. The reaction is specific for the uridine-5'-diphospho sugars. Enzymatic activity is associated with the membrane. Treatment of the membrane to remove endogenous sterol inactivates the enzyme. Only sterol which has been bound to the membrane participates in the reaction. The optimum pH is about 8.0, and Mg(2+) is required. The reaction is unaffected by nucleotide triphosphate, uridine-5'-monophosphate, and uridine-5'-diphosphate. Reduction of pH to the optimum for beta-glucosidase in the membrane results in loss of synthesized glucoside. The enzyme is saturated at 0.5 mm uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose. The apparent K(m) of 2.05 x 10(-7) indicates a high affinity of the enzyme for the nucleotide sugar.

  4. Phosphatidylethanolamine Biosynthesis in Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yasushi; Onguka, Ouma; Itoh, Kie; Endo, Toshiya; Iijima, Miho; Claypool, Steven M.; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plays important roles for the structure and function of mitochondria and other intracellular organelles. In yeast, the majority of PE is produced from phosphatidylserine (PS) by a mitochondrion-located PS decarboxylase, Psd1p. Because PS is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), PS is transported from the ER to mitochondria and converted to PE. After its synthesis, a portion of PE moves back to the ER. Two mitochondrial proteins located in the intermembrane space, Ups1p and Ups2p, have been shown to regulate PE metabolism by controlling the export of PE. It remains to be determined where PS is decarboxylated in mitochondria and whether decarboxylation is coupled to trafficking of PS. Here, using fluorescent PS as a substrate in an in vitro assay for Psd1p-dependent PE production in isolated mitochondria, we show that PS is transferred from the mitochondrial outer membrane to the inner membrane independently of Psd1p, Ups1p, and Ups2p and decarboxylated to PE by Psd1p in the inner membrane. Interestingly, Ups1p is required for the maintenance of Psd1p and therefore PE production. Restoration of Psd1p levels rescued PE production defects in ups1Δ mitochondria. Our data provide novel mechanistic insight into PE biogenesis in mitochondria. PMID:23124206

  5. Microbial biosynthesis of halometabolites.

    PubMed

    van Pée, K H

    2001-04-01

    Halometabolites are compounds that are commonly found in nature and they are produced by many different organisms. Whereas bromometabolites can mainly be found in the marine environment, chlorometabolites are predominately produced by terrestrial organisms; iodo- and fluorocompounds are only produced infrequently. The halogen atoms are incorporated into organic compounds by enzyme-catalyzed reactions with halide ions as the halogen source. For over 40 years haloperoxidases were thought to be responsible for the incorporation of halogen atoms into organic molecules. However, haloperoxidases lack substrate specificity and regioselectivity, and the connection of haloperoxidases with the in vivo formation of halometabolites has never been demonstrated. Recently, molecular genetic investigations showed that, at least in bacteria, a different class of halogenases is involved in halometabolite formation. These halogenases were found to require FADH2, which can be produced from FAD and NADH by unspecific flavin reductases. In addition to FADH2, oxygen and halide ions (chloride and bromide) are necessary for the halogenation reaction. The FADH2-dependent halogenases show substrate specificity and regioselectivity, and their genes have been detected in many halometabolite-producing bacteria, suggesting that this type of halogenating enzymes constitutes the major source for halometabolite formation in bacteria and possibly also in other organisms.

  6. Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl-Inositol (GPI)-Anchors and Metalloproteases: Their Roles in the Regulation of Exosome Composition and NKG2D-Mediated Immune Recognition

    PubMed Central

    López-Cobo, Sheila; Campos-Silva, Carmen; Valés-Gómez, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Communication within the immune system depends on the release of factors that can travel and transmit information at points distant from the cell that produced them. In general, immune cells use two key strategies that can occur either at the plasma membrane or in intracellular compartments to produce such factors, vesicle release and proteolytic cleavage. Release of soluble factors in exosomes, a subset of vesicles that originate from intracellular compartments, depends generally on biochemical and lipid environment features. This physical environment allows proteins to be recruited to membrane microdomains that will be later endocytosed and further released to the extracellular milieu. Cholesterol and sphingolipid rich domains (also known as lipid rafts or detergent-resistant membranes, DRMs) often contribute to exosomes and these membrane regions are rich in proteins modified with Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl-Inositol (GPI) and lipids. For this reason, many palmitoylated and GPI-anchored proteins are preferentially recruited to exosomes. In this review, we analyse the biochemical features involved in the release of NKG2D-ligands as an example of functionally related gene families encoding both transmembrane and GPI-anchored proteins that can be released either by proteolysis or in exosomes, and modulate the intensity of the immune response. The immune receptor NKG2D is present in all human Natural Killer and T cells and plays an important role in the first barrier of defense against tumor and infection. However, tumor cells can evade the immune system by releasing NKG2D-ligands to induce down-regulation of the receptor. Some NKG2D-ligands can be recruited to exosomes and potently modulate receptor expression and immune function, while others are more susceptible to metalloprotease cleavage and are shed as soluble molecules. Strikingly, metalloprotease inhibition is sufficient to drive the accumulation in exosomes of ligands otherwise released by metalloprotease

  7. Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl-Inositol (GPI)-Anchors and Metalloproteases: Their Roles in the Regulation of Exosome Composition and NKG2D-Mediated Immune Recognition.

    PubMed

    López-Cobo, Sheila; Campos-Silva, Carmen; Valés-Gómez, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Communication within the immune system depends on the release of factors that can travel and transmit information at points distant from the cell that produced them. In general, immune cells use two key strategies that can occur either at the plasma membrane or in intracellular compartments to produce such factors, vesicle release and proteolytic cleavage. Release of soluble factors in exosomes, a subset of vesicles that originate from intracellular compartments, depends generally on biochemical and lipid environment features. This physical environment allows proteins to be recruited to membrane microdomains that will be later endocytosed and further released to the extracellular milieu. Cholesterol and sphingolipid rich domains (also known as lipid rafts or detergent-resistant membranes, DRMs) often contribute to exosomes and these membrane regions are rich in proteins modified with Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl-Inositol (GPI) and lipids. For this reason, many palmitoylated and GPI-anchored proteins are preferentially recruited to exosomes. In this review, we analyse the biochemical features involved in the release of NKG2D-ligands as an example of functionally related gene families encoding both transmembrane and GPI-anchored proteins that can be released either by proteolysis or in exosomes, and modulate the intensity of the immune response. The immune receptor NKG2D is present in all human Natural Killer and T cells and plays an important role in the first barrier of defense against tumor and infection. However, tumor cells can evade the immune system by releasing NKG2D-ligands to induce down-regulation of the receptor. Some NKG2D-ligands can be recruited to exosomes and potently modulate receptor expression and immune function, while others are more susceptible to metalloprotease cleavage and are shed as soluble molecules. Strikingly, metalloprotease inhibition is sufficient to drive the accumulation in exosomes of ligands otherwise released by metalloprotease

  8. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Amrita B.; Han, Andrew W.; Mehta, Angad P.; Mok, Kenny C.; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P.; Taga, Michiko E.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  9. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Amrita B; Han, Andrew W; Mehta, Angad P; Mok, Kenny C; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P; Taga, Michiko E

    2015-08-25

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism.

  10. Regulation of kynurenine biosynthesis during influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gaelings, Lana; Söderholm, Sandra; Bugai, Andrii; Fu, Yu; Nandania, Jatin; Schepens, Bert; Lorey, Martina B; Tynell, Janne; Vande Ginste, Liesbeth; Le Goffic, Ronan; Miller, Matthew S; Kuisma, Marika; Marjomäki, Varpu; De Brabander, Jef; Matikainen, Sampsa; Nyman, Tuula A; Bamford, Dennis H; Saelens, Xavier; Julkunen, Ilkka; Paavilainen, Henrik; Hukkanen, Veijo; Velagapudi, Vidya; Kainov, Denis E

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) remain serious threats to public health because of the shortage of effective means of control. Developing more effective virus control modalities requires better understanding of virus-host interactions. It has previously been shown that IAV induces the production of kynurenine, which suppresses T-cell responses, enhances pain hypersensitivity and disturbs behaviour in infected animals. However, the regulation of kynurenine biosynthesis during IAV infection remains elusive. Here we showed that IAV infection induced expression of interferons (IFNs), which upregulated production of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), which catalysed the kynurenine biosynthesis. Furthermore, IAV attenuated the IDO1 expression and the production of kynurenine through its NS1 protein. Interestingly, inhibition of viral replication prior to IFN induction limited IDO1 expression, while inhibition after did not. Finally, we showed that kynurenine biosynthesis was activated in macrophages in response to other stimuli, such as influenza B virus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Thus, the tight regulation of the kynurenine biosynthesis by host cell and, perhaps, pathogen might be a basic signature of a wide range of host-pathogen interactions, which should be taken into account during development of novel antiviral and antibacterial drugs. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Involvement of snapdragon benzaldehyde dehydrogenase in benzoic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael C; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Ho, Kwok Ki; Kish, Christine M; Schnepp, Jennifer; Sherman, Debra; Weiner, Henry; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is an important building block in a wide spectrum of compounds varying from primary metabolites to secondary products. Benzoic acid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine requires shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons, which can occur via a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway, with benzaldehyde as a key intermediate. The non-beta-oxidative route requires benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BALDH) to convert benzaldehyde to BA. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified an Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) BALDH, which exhibits 40% identity to bacterial BALDH. Transcript profiling, biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant protein, molecular homology modeling, in vivo stable isotope labeling, and transient expression in petunia flowers reveal that BALDH is capable of oxidizing benzaldehyde to BA in vivo. GFP localization and immunogold labeling studies show that this biochemical step occurs in the mitochondria, raising a question about the role of subcellular compartmentalization in BA biosynthesis.

  12. Evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Abdullah, Yana; Benner, Johannes; Eberle, David; Gehlen, Katja; Hücherig, Stephanie; Janiak, Verena; Kim, Kyung Hee; Sander, Marion; Weitzel, Corinna; Wolters, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid and chlorogenic acid are caffeic acid esters widely found in the plant kingdom and presumably accumulated as defense compounds. In a survey, more than 240 plant species have been screened for the presence of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. Several rosmarinic acid-containing species have been detected. The rosmarinic acid accumulation in species of the Marantaceae has not been known before. Rosmarinic acid is found in hornworts, in the fern family Blechnaceae and in species of several orders of mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms. The biosyntheses of caffeoylshikimate, chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid use 4-coumaroyl-CoA from the general phenylpropanoid pathway as hydroxycinnamoyl donor. The hydroxycinnamoyl acceptor substrate comes from the shikimate pathway: shikimic acid, quinic acid and hydroxyphenyllactic acid derived from l-tyrosine. Similar steps are involved in the biosyntheses of rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acids: the transfer of the 4-coumaroyl moiety to an acceptor molecule by a hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from the BAHD acyltransferase family and the meta-hydroxylation of the 4-coumaroyl moiety in the ester by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the CYP98A family. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferases as well as the meta-hydroxylases show high sequence similarities and thus seem to be closely related. The hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and CYP98A14 from Coleus blumei (Lamiaceae) are nevertheless specific for substrates involved in RA biosynthesis showing an evolutionary diversification in phenolic ester metabolism. Our current view is that only a few enzymes had to be "invented" for rosmarinic acid biosynthesis probably on the basis of genes needed for the formation of chlorogenic and caffeoylshikimic acid while further biosynthetic steps might have been recruited from phenylpropanoid metabolism, tocopherol/plastoquinone biosynthesis and photorespiration.

  13. Targeting Methanopterin Biosynthesis To Inhibit Methanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dumitru, Razvan; Palencia, Hector; Schroeder, Scott D.; DeMontigny, Bree A.; Takacs, James M.; Rasche, Madeline E.; Miner, Jess L.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design, synthesis, and successful employment of inhibitors of 4-(β-d-ribofuranosyl)aminobenzene-5′-phosphate (RFA-P) synthase, which catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of methanopterin, to specifically halt the growth of methane-producing microbes. RFA-P synthase catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of tetrahydromethanopterin, a key cofactor required for methane formation and for one-carbon transformations in methanogens. A number of inhibitors, which are N-substituted derivatives of p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), have been synthesized and their inhibition constants with RFA-P synthase have been determined. Based on comparisons of the inhibition constants among various inhibitors, we propose that the pABA binding site in RFA-P synthase has a relatively large hydrophobic pocket near the amino group. These enzyme-targeted inhibitors arrest the methanogenesis and growth of pure cultures of methanogens. Supplying pABA to the culture relieves the inhibition, indicating a competitive interaction between pABA and the inhibitor at the cellular target, which is most likely RFAP synthase. The inhibitors do not adversely affect the growth of pure cultures of the bacteria (acetogens) that play a beneficial role in the rumen. Inhibitors added to dense ruminal fluid cultures (artificial rumena) halt methanogenesis; however, they do not inhibit volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and, in some cases, VFA levels are slightly elevated in the methanogenesis-inhibited cultures. We suggest that inhibiting methanopterin biosynthesis could be considered in strategies to decrease anthropogenic methane emissions, which could have an environmental benefit since methane is a potent greenhouse gas. PMID:14660371

  14. Biosynthesis of mycobacterial methylglucose lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Vitor; Maranha, Ana; Alarico, Susana; Empadinhas, Nuno

    2012-08-01

    Mycobacterial pathogenesis is closely associated with a unique cell envelope rich in complex carbohydrates and unique lipids, among which are the mycolic acids. Mycobacteria also synthesize unique intracellular polymethylated polysaccharides (PMPSs), namely methylglucose lipopolysaccharides (MGLPs), which are acylated with short-chain fatty acids, and methylmannose polysaccharides (MMPs). Since PMPSs modulate the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids in vitro, the possibility of a similar role in vivo and the regulation of mycolic acids assembly have been anticipated. Unlike MGLPs, MMPs have been identified in M. smegmatis and other fast-growing mycobacteria but not in M. tuberculosis, implying an essential role for MGLPs in this pathogen and turning the biosynthetic enzymes into attractive drug targets. The genome of M. tuberculosis was decoded 14 years ago but only recently has the identity of the genes involved in MGLPs biosynthesis been investigated. Two gene clusters (Rv1208-Rv1213 and Rv3030-Rv3037c) containing a few genes considered to be essential for M. tuberculosis growth, have initially been proposed to coordinate MGLPs biosynthesis. Among these genes, only the product of Rv1208 for the first step in the MGLPs pathway has, so far, been crystallized and its three-dimensional structure been determined. However, recent results indicate that at least three additional clusters may be involved in this pathway. The functional assignment of authentic roles to some of these M. tuberculosis H37Rv genes sheds new light on the intricacy of MGLPs biogenesis and renewed interest on their biological role.

  15. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation for elucidating the type II FAS pathways in other bacteria (White et al., 2005). However, fatty acid biosynthesis is more diverse in the phylum Actinobacteria: Mycobacterium, possess both FAS systems while Streptomyces species have only the multi-enzyme FAS II system and Corynebacterium species exclusively FAS I. In this review we present an overview of the genome organization, biochemical properties and physiological relevance of the two FAS systems in the three genera of actinomycetes mentioned above. We also address in detail the biochemical and structural properties of the acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCases) that catalyzes the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis in actinomycetes, and discuss the molecular bases of their substrate specificity and the structure-based identification of new ACCase inhibitors with anti-mycobacterial properties. PMID:21204864

  16. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in Eruca sativa.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Dimitra; Omirou, Michalis; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Tsikou, Daniela; Delis, Costas; Garagounis, Constantine; Krokida, Afrodite; Zambounis, Antonis; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2016-12-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a highly important group of secondary metabolites in the Caparalles order, both due to their significance in plant-biome interactions and to their chemoprotective properties. This study identified genes involved in all steps of aliphatic and indolic GSL biosynthesis in Eruca sativa, a cultivated plant closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana with agronomic and nutritional value. The impact of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability on GSL biosynthetic pathways at a transcriptional level, and on the final GSL content of plant leaf and root tissues, was investigated. N and S supply had a significant and interactive effect on the GSL content of leaves, in a structure-specific and tissue-dependent manner; the metabolites levels were significantly correlated with the relative expression of the genes involved in their biosynthesis. A more complex effect was observed in roots, where aliphatic and indolic GSLs and related biosynthetic genes responded differently to the various nutritional treatments suggesting that nitrogen and sulfur availability are important factors that control plant GSL content at a transcriptional level. The biological activity of extracts derived from these plants grown under the specific nutritional schemes was examined. N and S availability were found to significantly affect the cytotoxicity of E. sativa extracts on human cancer cells, supporting the notion that carefully designed nutritional schemes can promote the accumulation of chemoprotective substances in edible plants.

  17. Regulation of Oil Biosynthesis in Algae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-14

    transportation fuels can potentially be addressed by exploring oil (triacylglycerol) biosynthesis in microalgae . Many microalgae , including Chlamydomonas...biosynthesis in microalgae have not been studied at the molecular level. Chlamydomonas is being used as a microalgal model to identify genes and regulatory...of this phenomenon will shed light on the physiological significance of oil production in microalgae . A first paper describing this interesting

  18. Site-directed mutagenesis of IRX9, IRX9L and IRX14 proteins involved in xylan biosynthesis: glycosyltransferase activity is not required for IRX9 function in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yanfang; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Ebert, Berit; Lau, Jane; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2014-01-01

    Xylans constitute the main non-cellulosic polysaccharide in the secondary cell walls of plants. Several genes predicted to encode glycosyltransferases are required for the synthesis of the xylan backbone even though it is a homopolymer consisting entirely of β-1,4-linked xylose residues. The putative glycosyltransferases IRX9, IRX14, and IRX10 (or the paralogs IRX9L, IRX14L, and IRX10L) are required for xylan backbone synthesis in Arabidopsis. To investigate the function of IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14, we identified amino acid residues known to be essential for catalytic function in homologous mammalian proteins and generated modified cDNA clones encoding proteins where these residues would be mutated. The mutated gene constructs were used to transform wild-type Arabidopsis plants and the irx9 and irx14 mutants, which are deficient in xylan synthesis. The ability of the mutated proteins to complement the mutants was investigated by measuring growth, determining cell wall composition, and microscopic analysis of stem cross-sections of the transgenic plants. The six different mutated versions of IRX9 and IRX9-L were all able to complement the irx9 mutant phenotype, indicating that residues known to be essential for glycosyltransferases function in homologous proteins are not essential for the biological function of IRX9/IRX9L. Two out of three mutated IRX14 complemented the irx14 mutant, including a mutant in the predicted catalytic amino acid. A IRX14 protein mutated in the substrate-binding DxD motif did not complement the irx14 mutant. Thus, substrate binding is important for IRX14 function but catalytic activity may not be essential for the function of the protein. The data indicate that IRX9/IRX9L have an essential structural function, most likely by interacting with the IRX10/IRX10L proteins, but do not have an essential catalytic function. Most likely IRX14 also has primarily a structural role, but it cannot be excluded that the protein has an important enzymatic

  19. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Anti-HIV scFv Efficiently Protects CD4 T Cells from HIV-1 Infection and Deletion in hu-PBL Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chaobaihui; Wang, Weiming; Cheng, Liang; Li, Guangming; Wen, Michael; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Li, Dan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite success in viral inhibition and CD4 T cell recovery by highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), HIV-1 is still not curable due to the persistence of the HIV-1 reservoir during treatment. One patient with acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a homozygous CCR5 Δ32 donor has had no detectable viremia for 9 years after HAART cessation. This case has inspired a field of HIV-1 cure research focusing on engineering HIV-1 resistance in permissive cells. Here, we employed a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-scFv X5 approach to confer resistance of human primary CD4 T cells to HIV-1. We showed that primary CD4 T cells expressing GPI-scFv X5 were resistant to CCR5 (R5)-, CXCR4 (X4)-, and dual-tropic HIV-1 and had a survival advantage compared to control cells ex vivo. In a hu-PBL mouse study, GPI-scFv X5-transduced CD4 T cells were selected in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues upon HIV-1 infection. Finally, GPI-scFv X5-transduced CD4 T cells, after being cotransfused with HIV-infected cells, showed significantly reduced viral loads and viral RNA copy numbers relative to CD4 cells in hu-PBL mice compared to mice with GPI-scFv AB65-transduced CD4 T cells. We conclude that GPI-scFv X5-modified CD4 T cells could potentially be used as a genetic intervention against both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 infections. IMPORTANCE Blocking of HIV-1 entry is one of most promising approaches for therapy. Genetic disruption of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 by nucleases in T cells is under 2 clinical trials and leads to reduced viremia in patients. However, the emergence of viruses using the CXCR4 coreceptor is a concern for therapies applying single-coreceptor disruption. Here, we report that HIV-1-permissive CD4 T cells engineered with GPI-scFv X5 are resistant to R5-, X4-, or dual-tropic virus infection ex vivo. In a preclinical study using hu-PBL mice, we show that CD4 T cells were protected and that GPI-scFv X5

  20. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Anti-HIV scFv Efficiently Protects CD4 T Cells from HIV-1 Infection and Deletion in hu-PBL Mice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chaobaihui; Wang, Weiming; Cheng, Liang; Li, Guangming; Wen, Michael; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Li, Dan; Zhou, Paul; Su, Lishan

    2017-02-01

    Despite success in viral inhibition and CD4 T cell recovery by highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), HIV-1 is still not curable due to the persistence of the HIV-1 reservoir during treatment. One patient with acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a homozygous CCR5 Δ32 donor has had no detectable viremia for 9 years after HAART cessation. This case has inspired a field of HIV-1 cure research focusing on engineering HIV-1 resistance in permissive cells. Here, we employed a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-scFv X5 approach to confer resistance of human primary CD4 T cells to HIV-1. We showed that primary CD4 T cells expressing GPI-scFv X5 were resistant to CCR5 (R5)-, CXCR4 (X4)-, and dual-tropic HIV-1 and had a survival advantage compared to control cells ex vivo In a hu-PBL mouse study, GPI-scFv X5-transduced CD4 T cells were selected in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues upon HIV-1 infection. Finally, GPI-scFv X5-transduced CD4 T cells, after being cotransfused with HIV-infected cells, showed significantly reduced viral loads and viral RNA copy numbers relative to CD4 cells in hu-PBL mice compared to mice with GPI-scFv AB65-transduced CD4 T cells. We conclude that GPI-scFv X5-modified CD4 T cells could potentially be used as a genetic intervention against both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 infections. Blocking of HIV-1 entry is one of most promising approaches for therapy. Genetic disruption of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 by nucleases in T cells is under 2 clinical trials and leads to reduced viremia in patients. However, the emergence of viruses using the CXCR4 coreceptor is a concern for therapies applying single-coreceptor disruption. Here, we report that HIV-1-permissive CD4 T cells engineered with GPI-scFv X5 are resistant to R5-, X4-, or dual-tropic virus infection ex vivo In a preclinical study using hu-PBL mice, we show that CD4 T cells were protected and that GPI-scFv X5-transduced cells were

  1. Polyamine biosynthesis is critical for growth and differentiation of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Mastracci, Teresa L.; Robertson, Morgan A.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Anderson, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    The pancreas, in most studied vertebrates, is a compound organ with both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine compartment makes and secretes digestive enzymes, while the endocrine compartment, organized into islets of Langerhans, produces hormones that regulate blood glucose. High concentrations of polyamines, which are aliphatic amines, are reported in exocrine and endocrine cells, with insulin-producing β cells showing the highest concentrations. We utilized zebrafish as a model organism, together with pharmacological inhibition or genetic manipulation, to determine how polyamine biosynthesis functions in pancreatic organogenesis. We identified that inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis reduces exocrine pancreas and β cell mass, and that these reductions are at the level of differentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate that inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, phenocopies inhibition or knockdown of the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). These data identify that the pancreatic requirement for polyamine biosynthesis is largely mediated through a requirement for spermidine for the downstream posttranslational modification of eIF5A by its enzymatic activator DHS, which in turn impacts mRNA translation. Altogether, we have uncovered a role for polyamine biosynthesis in pancreatic organogenesis and identified that it may be possible to exploit polyamine biosynthesis to manipulate pancreatic cell differentiation. PMID:26299433

  2. The biosynthesis of peptidoglycan lipid-linked intermediates.

    PubMed

    Bouhss, Ahmed; Trunkfield, Amy E; Bugg, Timothy D H; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique

    2008-03-01

    The biosynthesis of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan is a complex process involving many different steps taking place in the cytoplasm (synthesis of the nucleotide precursors) and on the inner and outer sides of the cytoplasmic membrane (assembly and polymerization of the disaccharide-peptide monomer unit, respectively). This review summarizes the current knowledge on the membrane steps leading to the formation of the lipid II intermediate, i.e. the substrate of the polymerization reactions. It makes the point on past and recent data that have significantly contributed to the understanding of the biosynthesis of undecaprenyl phosphate, the carrier lipid required for the anchoring of the peptidoglycan hydrophilic units in the membrane, and to the characterization of the MraY and MurG enzymes which catalyze the successive transfers of the N-acetylmuramoyl-peptide and N-acetylglucosamine moieties onto the carrier lipid, respectively. Enzyme inhibitors and antibacterial compounds interfering with these essential metabolic steps and interesting targets are presented.

  3. Biosynthesis and Chemical Synthesis of Presilphiperfolanol Natural Products**

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Allen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Presilphiperfolanols constitute a family of biosynthetically important sesquiterpenes that can rearrange to diverse sesquiterpenoid skeletons. While the origin of these natural products can be traced to simple linear terpene precursors, the details of the enzymatic cyclization mechanism that form the stereochemically dense tricyclic skeleton have required extensive biochemical, computational, and synthetic investigation. Parallel efforts to prepare the unique and intriguing structures of these compounds by total synthesis have also inspired novel strategies, resulting in two synthetic approaches and two completed syntheses. While the biosynthesis and chemical synthesis studies performed to date have provided much insight into the role and properties of these molecules, new questions regarding the biosynthesis of newer members of the family and subtle details of the cyclization mechanism have yet to be explored. PMID:24771653

  4. Biosynthesis and function of simple amides in Xenorhabdus doucetiae.

    PubMed

    Bode, Edna; He, Yue; Vo, Tien Duy; Schultz, Roland; Kaiser, Marcel; Bode, Helge B

    2017-09-11

    Xenorhabdus doucetiae, the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema diaprepesi produces several different fatty acid amides. Their biosynthesis has been studied using a combination of analysis of gene deletions and promoter exchanges in X. doucetiae and heterologous expression of candidate genes in E. coli. While a decarboxylase is required for the formation of all observed phenylethylamides and tryptamides, the acyltransferase XrdE encoded in the xenorhabdin biosynthesis gene cluster is responsible for the formation of short chain acyl amides. Additionally, new, long-chain and cytotoxic acyl amides were identified in X. doucetiae infected insects and when X. doucetiae was grown in Galleria Instant Broth (GIB). When the bioactivity of selected amides were tested, a quorum sensing modulating activity was observed for the short chain acyl amides against the two different quorum sensing systems from Chromobacterium and Janthinobacterium. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Lipid Flippases for Bacterial Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Natividad

    2015-01-01

    The biosynthesis of cellular polysaccharides and glycoconjugates often involves lipid-linked intermediates that need to be translocated across membranes. Essential pathways such as N-glycosylation in eukaryotes and biogenesis of the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall in bacteria share a common strategy where nucleotide-sugars are used to build a membrane-bound oligosaccharide precursor that is linked to a phosphorylated isoprenoid lipid. Once made, these lipid-linked intermediates must be translocated across a membrane so that they can serve as substrates in a different cellular compartment. How translocation occurs is poorly understood, although it clearly requires a transporter or flippase. Identification of these transporters is notoriously difficult, and, in particular, the identity of the flippase of lipid II, an intermediate required for PG biogenesis, has been the subject of much debate. Here, I will review the body of work that has recently fueled this controversy, centered on proposed flippase candidates FtsW, MurJ, and AmJ. PMID:26792999

  6. Lipid Flippases for Bacterial Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Natividad

    2015-01-01

    The biosynthesis of cellular polysaccharides and glycoconjugates often involves lipid-linked intermediates that need to be translocated across membranes. Essential pathways such as N-glycosylation in eukaryotes and biogenesis of the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall in bacteria share a common strategy where nucleotide-sugars are used to build a membrane-bound oligosaccharide precursor that is linked to a phosphorylated isoprenoid lipid. Once made, these lipid-linked intermediates must be translocated across a membrane so that they can serve as substrates in a different cellular compartment. How translocation occurs is poorly understood, although it clearly requires a transporter or flippase. Identification of these transporters is notoriously difficult, and, in particular, the identity of the flippase of lipid II, an intermediate required for PG biogenesis, has been the subject of much debate. Here, I will review the body of work that has recently fueled this controversy, centered on proposed flippase candidates FtsW, MurJ, and AmJ.

  7. Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Guggisberg, Ann M.; Amthor, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria kills nearly 1 million people each year, and the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum has become increasingly resistant to current therapies. Isoprenoid synthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway represents an attractive target for the development of new antimalarials. The phosphonic acid antibiotic fosmidomycin is a specific inhibitor of isoprenoid synthesis and has been a helpful tool to outline the essential functions of isoprenoid biosynthesis in P. falciparum. Isoprenoids are a large, diverse class of hydrocarbons that function in a variety of essential cellular processes in eukaryotes. In P. falciparum, isoprenoids are used for tRNA isopentenylation and protein prenylation, as well as the synthesis of vitamin E, carotenoids, ubiquinone, and dolichols. Recently, isoprenoid synthesis in P. falciparum has been shown to be regulated by a sugar phosphatase. We outline what is known about isoprenoid function and the regulation of isoprenoid synthesis in P. falciparum, in order to identify valuable directions for future research. PMID:25217461

  8. Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Nambara, Eiji; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2005-01-01

    The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in any particular tissue in a plant is determined by the rate of biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. Therefore, identifying all the genes involved in the metabolism is essential for a complete understanding of how this hormone directs plant growth and development. To date, almost all the biosynthetic genes have been identified through the isolation of auxotrophic mutants. On the other hand, among several ABA catabolic pathways, current genomic approaches revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A genes encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases, which catalyze the first committed step in the predominant ABA catabolic pathway. Identification of ABA metabolic genes has revealed that multiple metabolic steps are differentially regulated to fine-tune the ABA level at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, recent ongoing studies have given new insights into the regulation and site of ABA metabolism in relation to its physiological roles.

  9. Starch granules: structure and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Buléon, A; Colonna, P; Planchot, V; Ball, S

    1998-08-01

    The emphasis of this review is on starch structure and its biosynthesis. Improvements in understanding have been brought about during the last decade through the development of new physicochemical and biological techniques, leading to real scientific progress. All this literature needs to be kept inside the general literature about biopolymers, despite some confusing results or discrepancies arising from the biological variability of starch. However, a coherent picture of starch over all the different structural levels can be presented, in order to obtain some generalizations about its structure. In this review we will focus first on our present understanding of the structures of amylose and amylopectin and their organization within the granule, and we will then give insights on the biosynthetic mechanisms explaining the biogenesis of starch in plants.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of cuticle biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Borisjuk, Nikolai; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2014-01-01

    Plant cuticle is the hydrophobic protection layer that covers aerial plant organs and plays a pivotal role during plant development and interactions of plants with the environment. The mechanical structure and chemical composition of cuticle lipids and other secondary metabolites vary considerably between plant species, and in response to environmental stimuli and stresses. As the cuticle plays an important role in responses of plants to major abiotic stresses such as drought and high salinity, close attention has been paid to molecular processes underlying the stress-induced biosynthesis of cuticle components. This review addresses the genetic networks responsible for cuticle formation and in particular highlights the role of transcription factors that regulate cuticle formation in response to abiotic stresses.

  11. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases. PMID:18757836

  12. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class X containing complex promotes cancer cell proliferation through suppression of EHD2 and ZIC1, putative tumor suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Nakakido, Makoto; Tamura, Kenji; Chung, Suyoun; Ueda, Koji; Fujii, Risa; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    We identified phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class X (PIGX), which plays a critical role in the biosynthetic pathway of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor motif, to be upregulated highly and frequently in breast cancer cells. Knockdown of PIGX as well as reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1) and reticulocalbin 2 (RCN2), which we found to interact with PIGX and was indicated to regulate calcium-dependent activities, significantly suppressed the growth of breast cancer cells. We also identified PIGX to be a core protein in an RCN1/PIGX/RCN2 complex. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of two putative tumor suppressor genes, Zic family member 1 (ZIC1) and EH-domain containing 2 (EHD2), were upregulated commonly in cells in which PIGX, RCN1, or RCN2 was knocked down, suggesting that this RCN1/PIGX/RCN2 complex could negatively regulate the expression of these two genes and thereby contribute to human breast carcinogenesis. Our results imply that PIGX may be a good candidate molecule for development of novel anticancer drugs for breast cancer. PMID:27572108

  14. GPI biosynthesis is essential for rhodopsin sorting at the trans-Golgi network in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Takunori; Inagaki, Tsuyoshi; Liu, Ziguang; Watanabe, Reika; Satoh, Akiko K

    2013-01-15

    Sorting of integral membrane proteins plays crucial roles in establishing and maintaining the polarized structures of epithelial cells and neurons. However, little is known about the sorting mechanisms of newly synthesized membrane proteins at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). To identify which genes are essential for these sorting mechanisms, we screened mutants in which the transport of Rhodopsin 1 (Rh1), an apical integral membrane protein in Drosophila photoreceptors, was affected. We found that deficiencies in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) synthesis and attachment processes cause loss of the apical transport of Rh1 from the TGN and mis-sorting to the endolysosomal system. Moreover, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, a basolateral membrane protein, and Crumbs (Crb), a stalk membrane protein, were mistransported to the apical rhabdomeric microvilli in GPI-deficient photoreceptors. These results indicate that polarized sorting of integral membrane proteins at the TGN requires the synthesis and anchoring of GPI-anchored proteins. Little is known about the cellular biological consequences of GPI deficiency in animals in vivo. Our results provide new insights into the importance of GPI synthesis and aid the understanding of pathologies involving GPI deficiency.

  15. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Florian I.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Dougan, Stephanie; Dougan, Michael; Esteban, Alexandre; Maruyama, Takeshi; Strijbis, Karin; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans. PMID:26431038

  16. Plant-like biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Baccile, Joshua A.; Spraker, Joseph E.; Le, Henry H.; Brandenburger, Eileen; Gomez, Christian; Bok, Jin Woo; Macheleidt, Juliane; Brakhage, Axel A.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Keller, Nancy P.; Schroeder, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Natural product discovery efforts have focused primarily on microbial biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) containing large multi-modular PKSs and NRPSs; however, sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed a vast number of BGCs containing smaller NRPS-like genes of unknown biosynthetic function. Using comparative metabolomics, we show that a BGC in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus named fsq, which contains an NRPS-like gene lacking a condensation domain, produces several novel isoquinoline alkaloids, the fumisoquins. These compounds derive from carbon-carbon bond formation between two amino acid-derived moieties followed by a sequence that is directly analogous to isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. Fumisoquin biosynthesis requires the N-methyltransferase FsqC and the FAD-dependent oxidase FsqB, which represent functional analogs of coclaurine N-methyltransferase and berberine bridge enzyme in plants. Our results show that BGCs containing incomplete NRPS modules may reveal new biosynthetic paradigms and suggest that plant-like isoquinoline biosynthesis occurs in diverse fungi. PMID:27065235

  17. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in Conifers.

    PubMed

    Pascual, María B; El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando N; Cañas, Rafael A; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions, and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined.

  18. Deconvoluting heme biosynthesis to target blood-stage malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Sigala, Paul A; Crowley, Jan R; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Heme metabolism is central to blood-stage infection by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Parasites retain a heme biosynthesis pathway but do not require its activity during infection of heme-rich erythrocytes, where they can scavenge host heme to meet metabolic needs. Nevertheless, heme biosynthesis in parasite-infected erythrocytes can be potently stimulated by exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), resulting in accumulation of the phototoxic intermediate protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Here we use photodynamic imaging, mass spectrometry, parasite gene disruption, and chemical probes to reveal that vestigial host enzymes in the cytoplasm of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes contribute to ALA-stimulated heme biosynthesis and that ALA uptake depends on parasite-established permeability pathways. We show that PPIX accumulation in infected erythrocytes can be harnessed for antimalarial chemotherapy using luminol-based chemiluminescence and combinatorial stimulation by low-dose artemisinin to photoactivate PPIX to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen. This photodynamic strategy has the advantage of exploiting host enzymes refractory to resistance-conferring mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09143.001 PMID:26173178

  19. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 regulates hepcidin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Rhee, David K; Malhotra, Rajeev; Mayeur, Claire; Hurst, Liam A; Ager, Emily; Shelton, Georgia; Kramer, Yael; McCulloh, David; Keefe, David; Bloch, Kenneth D; Bloch, Donald B; Peterson, Randall T

    2016-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated by the membrane iron exporter ferroportin and its regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin. The hepcidin/ferroportin axis is considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases of iron overload or deficiency. Here, we conducted a chemical screen in zebrafish to identify small molecules that decrease ferroportin protein levels. The chemical screen led to the identification of 3 steroid molecules, epitiostanol, progesterone, and mifepristone, which decrease ferroportin levels by increasing the biosynthesis of hepcidin. These hepcidin-inducing steroids (HISs) did not activate known hepcidin-inducing pathways, including the BMP and JAK/STAT3 pathways. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) was required for HIS-dependent increases in hepcidin biosynthesis, as PGRMC1 depletion in cultured hepatoma cells and zebrafish blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Neutralizing antibodies directed against PGRMC1 attenuated the ability of HISs to induce hepcidin gene expression. Inhibiting the kinases of the SRC family, which are downstream of PGRMC1, blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Furthermore, HIS treatment increased hepcidin biosynthesis in mice and humans. Together, these data indicate that PGRMC1 regulates hepcidin gene expression through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. These studies have identified drug candidates and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases of abnormal iron metabolism.

  20. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Tafesse, Fikadu G; Rashidfarrokhi, Ali; Schmidt, Florian I; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Dougan, Stephanie; Dougan, Michael; Esteban, Alexandre; Maruyama, Takeshi; Strijbis, Karin; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2015-10-01

    The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans.

  1. Secondary cell walls: biosynthesis, patterned deposition and transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Secondary walls are mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses (xylan and glucomannan) and lignin, and are deposited in some specialized cells, such as tracheary elements, fibers and other sclerenchymatous cells. Secondary walls provide strength to these cells, which lend mechanical support and protection to the plant body and, in the case of tracheary elements, enable them to function as conduits for transporting water. Formation of secondary walls is a complex process that requires the co-ordinated expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes, biosynthesis and targeted secretion of secondary wall components, and patterned deposition and assembly of secondary walls. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of genes involved in secondary wall biosynthesis and deposition. Most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary wall components, including cellulose, xylan, glucomannan and lignin, have been identified and their co-ordinated activation has been shown to be mediated by a transcriptional network encompassing the secondary wall NAC and MYB master switches and their downstream transcription factors. It has been demonstrated that cortical microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play important roles in the targeted secretion of cellulose synthase complexes, the oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils and the patterned deposition of secondary walls. Further investigation of many secondary wall-associated genes with unknown functions will provide new insights into the mechanisms controlling the formation of secondary walls that constitute the bulk of plant biomass.

  2. Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd.-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd.-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2012-01-01

    The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

  3. Biosynthesis and Metabolic Fate of Phenylalanine in Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, María B.; El-Azaz, Jorge; de la Torre, Fernando N.; Cañas, Rafael A.; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    The amino acid phenylalanine (Phe) is a critical metabolic node that plays an essential role in the interconnection between primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Phe is used as a protein building block but it is also as a precursor for numerous plant compounds that are crucial for plant reproduction, growth, development, and defense against different types of stresses. The metabolism of Phe plays a central role in the channeling of carbon from photosynthesis to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. The study of this metabolic pathway is particularly relevant in trees, which divert large amounts of carbon into the biosynthesis of Phe-derived compounds, particularly lignin, an important constituent of wood. The trunks of trees are metabolic sinks that consume a considerable percentage of carbon and energy from photosynthesis, and carbon is finally immobilized in wood. This paper reviews recent advances in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of Phe in conifer trees. Two alternative routes have been identified: the ancient phenylpyruvate pathway that is present in microorganisms, and the arogenate pathway that possibly evolved later during plant evolution. Additionally, an efficient nitrogen recycling mechanism is required to maintain sustained growth during xylem formation. The relevance of phenylalanine metabolic pathways in wood formation, the biotic interactions, and ultraviolet protection is discussed. The genetic manipulation and transcriptional regulation of the pathways are also outlined. PMID:27468292

  4. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 regulates hepcidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Rhee, David K.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Mayeur, Claire; Hurst, Liam A.; Ager, Emily; Shelton, Georgia; Kramer, Yael; McCulloh, David; Keefe, David; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Bloch, Donald B.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated by the membrane iron exporter ferroportin and its regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin. The hepcidin/ferroportin axis is considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases of iron overload or deficiency. Here, we conducted a chemical screen in zebrafish to identify small molecules that decrease ferroportin protein levels. The chemical screen led to the identification of 3 steroid molecules, epitiostanol, progesterone, and mifepristone, which decrease ferroportin levels by increasing the biosynthesis of hepcidin. These hepcidin-inducing steroids (HISs) did not activate known hepcidin-inducing pathways, including the BMP and JAK/STAT3 pathways. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) was required for HIS-dependent increases in hepcidin biosynthesis, as PGRMC1 depletion in cultured hepatoma cells and zebrafish blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Neutralizing antibodies directed against PGRMC1 attenuated the ability of HISs to induce hepcidin gene expression. Inhibiting the kinases of the SRC family, which are downstream of PGRMC1, blocked the ability of HISs to increase hepcidin mRNA levels. Furthermore, HIS treatment increased hepcidin biosynthesis in mice and humans. Together, these data indicate that PGRMC1 regulates hepcidin gene expression through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. These studies have identified drug candidates and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diseases of abnormal iron metabolism. PMID:26657863

  5. The MYB96 Transcription Factor Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis under Drought Conditions in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Pil Joon; Lee, Saet Buyl; Suh, Mi Chung; Park, Mi-Jeong; Go, Young Sam; Park, Chung-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress activates several defense responses in plants, such as stomatal closure, maintenance of root water uptake, and synthesis of osmoprotectants. Accumulating evidence suggests that deposition of cuticular waxes is also associated with plant responses to cellular dehydration. Yet, how cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated in response to drought is unknown. We have recently reported that an Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, MYB96, promotes drought resistance. Here, we show that transcriptional activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by MYB96 contributes to drought resistance. Microarray assays showed that a group of wax biosynthetic genes is upregulated in the activation-tagged myb96-1D mutant but downregulated in the MYB96-deficient myb96-1 mutant. Cuticular wax accumulation was altered accordingly in the mutants. In addition, activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis by drought and ABA requires MYB96. By contrast, biosynthesis of cutin monomers was only marginally affected in the mutants. Notably, the MYB96 protein acts as a transcriptional activator of genes encoding very-long-chain fatty acid–condensing enzymes involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis by directly binding to conserved sequence motifs present in the gene promoters. These results demonstrate that ABA-mediated MYB96 activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis serves as a drought resistance mechanism. PMID:21398568

  6. Requirement of siderophore biosynthesis for plant colonization by Salmonella enterica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contaminated fresh produce has become the number one vector of non-typhoidal salmonellosis to humans. However, Salmonella enterica genes essential for the life cycle of this organism outside the mammalian host are for the most part unknown. Screening deletion mutants led to the discovery that an aro...

  7. Control of triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-31

    Seeds of most species of the Umbelliferae (Apiaciae), Araliaceae, and Garryaceae families are characterized by their high content of the unusual C[sub 18] monounsaturated fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:l[Delta][sup 6cis]). Prior to a recent report of this lab, little was known of the biosynthetic origin of the cis[Delta][sup 6] double bond of petroselinic acid. Such knowledge may be of both biochemical and biotechnological significance. Because petroselinic acid is potentially the product of a novel desaturase, information regarding its synthesis may contribute to an understanding of fatty acid desaturation mechanisms in plants. Through chemical cleavage at its double bond, petroselinic acid can be used as a precursor of lauric acid (12:0), a component of detergents and surfactants, and adipic acid (6:0 dicarboxylic), the monomeric component of nylon 6,6. Therefore, the development of an agronomic source of an oil rich in petroselinic acid is of biotechnological interest. As such, studies of petroselinic acid biosynthesis may provide basic information required for any attempt to genetically engineer the production and accumulation of this fatty acid in an existing oilseed.

  8. Mitochondrial fusion is essential for steroid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alejandra; Poderoso, Cecilia; Cooke, Mariana; Soria, Gastón; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2012-01-01

    Although the contribution of mitochondrial dynamics (a balance in fusion/fission events and changes in mitochondria subcellular distribution) to key biological process has been reported, the contribution of changes in mitochondrial fusion to achieve efficient steroid production has never been explored. The mitochondria are central during steroid synthesis and different enzymes are localized between the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum to produce the final steroid hormone, thus suggesting that mitochondrial fusion might be relevant for this process. In the present study, we showed that the hormonal stimulation triggers mitochondrial fusion into tubular-shaped structures and we demonstrated that mitochondrial fusion does not only correlate-with but also is an essential step of steroid production, being both events depend on PKA activity. We also demonstrated that the hormone-stimulated relocalization of ERK1/2 in the mitochondrion, a critical step during steroidogenesis, depends on mitochondrial fusion. Additionally, we showed that the SHP2 phosphatase, which is required for full steroidogenesis, simultaneously modulates mitochondrial fusion and ERK1/2 localization in the mitochondrion. Strikingly, we found that mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression, a central protein for mitochondrial fusion, is upregulated immediately after hormone stimulation. Moreover, Mfn2 knockdown is sufficient to impair steroid biosynthesis. Together, our findings unveil an essential role for mitochondrial fusion during steroidogenesis. These discoveries highlight the importance of organelles' reorganization in specialized cells, prompting the exploration of the impact that organelle dynamics has on biological processes that include, but are not limited to, steroid synthesis.

  9. Enzymology of gallotannin and ellagitannin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Niemetz, Ruth; Gross, Georg G

    2005-09-01

    Gallotannins and ellagitannins, the two subclasses of hydrolyzable tannins, are derivatives of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose. Enzyme studies with extracts from oak leaves (Quercus robur, syn. Quercus pedunculata; Quercus rubra) and from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) revealed that this pivotal intermediate is synthesized from beta-glucogallin (1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose) by a series of strictly position-specific galloylation steps, affording so-called 'simple' gallotannins, i.e., mono- to pentagallyoylglucose esters. Besides its role as starter molecule, beta-glucogallin was also recognized as the principal energy-rich acyl donor required in these transformations. Subsequent pathways to 'complex' gallotannins have recently been elucidated by the isolation of five different enzymes from sumac leaves that were purified to apparent homogeneity. They catalyzed the beta-glucogallin-dependent galloylation of pentagallyoylglucose to a variety of hexa- and heptagalloylglucoses, plus several not yet characterized higher substituted analogous galloylglucoses. With respect to the biosynthesis of ellagitannins, postulates that had been formulated already decades ago were proven by the purification of a new laccase-like phenol oxidase from leaves of fringe cups (Tellima grandiflora) that regio- and stereospecifically oxidized pentagallyoylglucose to the monomeric ellagitannin, tellimagrandin II. This compound was further oxidized by a similar but different laccase-like oxidase to yield a dimeric ellagitannin, cornusiin E.

  10. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  11. Insights into phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis point toward metabolic channeling.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Thorben; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2006-09-15

    Phycoerythrobilin is a linear tetrapyrrole molecule found in cyanobacteria, red algae, and cryptomonads. Together with other bilins such as phycocyanobilin it serves as a light-harvesting pigment in the photosynthetic light-harvesting structures of cyanobacteria called phycobilisomes. The biosynthesis of both pigments starts with the cleavage of heme by heme oxygenases to yield biliverdin IXalpha, which is further reduced at specific positions by ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBRs), a new family of radical enzymes. The biosynthesis of phycoerythrobilin requires two subsequent two-electron reductions, each step being catalyzed by one FDBR. This is in contrast to the biosynthesis of phycocyanobilin, where the FDBR phycocyanobilin: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) catalyzes a four-electron reduction. The first reaction in phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis is the reduction of the 15,16-double bond of biliverdin IXalpha by 15,16-dihydrobiliverdin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PebA). This reaction reduces the conjugated pi -electron system thereby blue-shifting the absorbance properties of the linear tetrapyrrole. The second FDBR, phycoerythrobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PebB), then reduces the A-ring 2,3,3(1),3(2)-diene structure of 15,16-dihydrobiliverdin to yield phycoerythrobilin. Both FDBRs from the limnic filamentous cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon and the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH8020 were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and their enzymatic activities were determined. By using various natural bilins, the substrate specificity of each FDBR was established, revealing conformational preconditions for their unique specificity. Preparation of the semi-reduced intermediate, 15,16-dihydrobiliverdin, enabled us to perform steady state binding experiments indicating distinct spectroscopic and fluorescent properties of enzyme.bilin complexes. A combination of substrate/product binding analyses and gel permeation

  12. Cloning and characterization of the Streptomyces peucetius dnrQS genes encoding a daunosamine biosynthesis enzyme and a glycosyl transferase involved in daunorubicin biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, S L; Liu, X; Ferguson, J; Hutchinson, C R

    1995-01-01

    The dnrQS genes from the daunorubicin producer Streptomyces peucetius were characterized by DNA sequencing, complementation analysis, and gene disruption. The dnrQ gene is required for daunosamine biosynthesis, and dnrS appears to encode a glycosyltransferase for the addition of the 2,3,6-trideoxy-3-aminohexose, daunosamine, to epsilon-rhodomycinone. PMID:7592454

  13. Antibacterial Targets in Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, H. Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for development of new anti-bacterial agents. The extended use of the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for anti-bacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multi-enzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host vs. target specificity. Platensimycin, platencin, and phomallenic acids, newly discovered natural product inhibitors of the condensation steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, represent new classes of compounds with antibiotic potential. An almost complete catalogue of crystal structures for the enzymes of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway can now be exploited in the rational design of new inhibitors, as well as the recently published crystal structures of type I FAS complexes. PMID:17707686

  14. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  15. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  16. Advances in Understanding the Biosynthesis of Fumonisins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisins are a group of economically important mycotoxins that are derived polyketides. Since the cloning of the fumonisin polyketide synthase (PKS) gene from Fusarium verticillioides in 1999, significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms for fumonisin biosynthesis...

  17. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  18. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  19. Antibacterial targets in fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wright, H Tonie; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2007-10-01

    The fatty acid biosynthesis pathway is an attractive but still largely unexploited target for the development of new antibacterial agents. The extended use of the antituberculosis drug isoniazid and the antiseptic triclosan, which are inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis, validates this pathway as a target for antibacterial development. Differences in subcellular organization of the bacterial and eukaryotic multienzyme fatty acid synthase systems offer the prospect of inhibitors with host versus target specificity. Platensimycin, platencin, and phomallenic acids, newly discovered natural product inhibitors of the condensation steps in fatty acid biosynthesis, represent new classes of compounds with antibiotic potential. An almost complete catalog of crystal structures for the enzymes of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway can now be exploited in the rational design of new inhibitors, as well as the recently published crystal structures of type I FAS complexes.

  20. Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, D'Maris Amick; Vlot, A. Corina; Wildermuth, Mary C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to regulate various aspects of growth and development; it also serves as a critical signal for activating disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. This review surveys the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of this critical plant hormone. While a complete biosynthetic route has yet to be established, stressed Arabidopsis appear to synthesize SA primarily via an isochorismate-utilizing pathway in the chloroplast. A distinct pathway utilizing phenylalanine as the substrate also may contribute to SA accumulation, although to a much lesser extent. Once synthesized, free SA levels can be regulated by a variety of chemical modifications. Many of these modifications inactivate SA; however, some confer novel properties that may aid in long distance SA transport or the activation of stress responses complementary to those induced by free SA. In addition, a number of factors that directly or indirectly regulate the expression of SA biosynthetic genes or that influence the rate of SA catabolism have been identified. An integrated model, encompassing current knowledge of SA metabolism in Arabidopsis, as well as the influence other plant hormones exert on SA metabolism, is presented. PMID:22303280

  1. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kevin; Cerda, Ariel; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the most important vegetable cultivated worldwide and the main source of dietary provitamin A. Contrary to other plants, almost all carrot varieties accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids in the root, resulting in a wide variety of colors, including those with purple, yellow, white, red and orange roots. During the first weeks of development the root, grown in darkness, is thin and pale and devoid of carotenoids. At the second month, the thickening of the root and the accumulation of carotenoids begins, and it reaches its highest level at 3 months of development. This normal root thickening and carotenoid accumulation can be completely altered when roots are grown in light, in which chromoplasts differentiation is redirected to chloroplasts development in accordance with an altered carotenoid profile. Here we discuss the current evidence on the biosynthesis of carotenoid in carrot roots in response to environmental cues that has contributed to our understanding of the mechanism that regulates the accumulation of carotenoids, as well as the carotenogenic gene expression and root development in D. carota.

  2. Iron-Sulphur Cluster Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Sibali; Chandramouli, Kala; Johnson, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Iron-sulphur clusters are present in more than 200 different types of enzymes or proteins and constitute one of the most ancient, ubiquitous and structurally diverse classes of biological prosthetic groups. Hence the process of iron-sulphur biosynthesis is essential to almost all forms of life and is remarkably conserved in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Three distinct types of iron-sulphur cluster assembly machinery have been established in bacteria, termed the NIF, ISC and SUF systems, and in each case the overall mechanism involves cysteine desulphurase-mediated assembly of transient clusters on scaffold proteins and subsequent transfer of preformed clusters to apo proteins. A molecular level understanding of the complex processes of iron-sulphur cluster assembly and transfer is now beginning to emerge from the combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches. This review highlights recent developments in understanding the mechanism of iron-sulphur cluster assembly and transfer involving the ubiquitous U-type scaffold proteins and the potential roles of accessory proteins such as Nfu proteins and monothiol glutaredoxins in the assembly, storage or transfer of iron-sulphur clusters. PMID:19021507

  3. Stereochemical control of DNA biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sosunov, Vasily V.; Santamaria, Fanny; Victorova, Lyubov S.; Gosselin, Gilles; Rayner, Bernard; Krayevsky, Alexander A.

    2000-01-01

    Stereochemical control of DNA biosynthesis was studied using several DNA-synthesizing complexes containing, in each case, a single substitution of a 2′-deoxy-d-nucleotide residue by an enantiomeric l-nucleotide residue in a DNA chain (either in the primer or in the template) as well as 2′-deoxy-l-ribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates (l-dNTPs) as substrates. Three template-dependent DNA polymerases were tested, Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment, Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase and avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase, as well as template-independent calf-thymus terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Very stringent control of stereoselectivity was demonstrated for template-dependent DNA polymerases, whereas terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase was less selective. DNA polymerase I and reverse transcriptase catalyzed formation of dinucleoside 5′,5′-tetraphosphates when l-dTTP was used as substrate. Comparison between models of template–primer complexes, modified or not by a single l-nucleotide residue, revealed striking differences in their geometry. PMID:10666459

  4. Biosynthesis of trichothecenes and apotrichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Zamir, L O; Nikolakakis, A; Sauriol, F; Mamer, O

    1999-05-01

    Fusarium culmorum produces two major trichothecenes, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and sambucinol, and some minor apotrichothecenes. It was desired to investigate if during their biosynthesis a C-11-keto intermediate was involved. To verify this postulate, trichodiene, a known precursor to trichothecenes, was synthesized with two deuteriums at C-11 and one at C-15. It was then fed to F. culmorum cultures, and the derived metabolites were purified and analyzed. The results ruled out the involvement of an 11-keto intermediate but revealed two novel apotrichothecenes. The characterization of their structures suggested that one of the 2-hydroxy-11alpha-apotrichothecene stereoisomers (2alpha or 2beta) could be converted to sambucinol. These apotrichothecenes were therefore synthesized labeled specifically with two deuteriums at C-4 and C-15 and fed to F. culmorum cultures. Indeed, the result established for the first time that 2alpha-hydroxy-11alpha-apotrichothecene was a precursor to sambucinol. A biosynthetic scheme for the production of trichothecenes and apotrichothecenes is described.

  5. Gene inactivation in Lactococcus lactis: histidine biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, C; Godon, J J; Ehrlich, S D; Renault, P

    1993-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis strains from dairy and nondairy sources were tested for the ability to grow in the absence of histidine. Among 60 dairy strains tested, 56 required histidine, whereas only 1 of 11 nondairy strains had this requirement. Moreover, 10 of the 56 auxotrophic strains were able to grow in the presence of histidinol (Hol+), the immediate histidine precursor. This indicates that adaptation to milk often results in histidine auxotrophy. The histidine operon was detected by Southern hybridization in eight dairy auxotrophic strains tested. A large part of the histidine operon (8 kb, containing seven histidine biosynthetic genes and three unrelated open reading frames [ORFs]) was cloned from an auxotroph, which had an inactive hisD gene, as judged by its inability to grow on histidinol. Complementation analysis of three genes, hisA, hisB, and hisG, in Escherichia coli showed that they also were inactive. Sequence analysis of the cloned histidine region, which revealed 98.6% overall homology with that of the previously analyzed prototrophic strain, showed the presence of frameshift mutations in three his genes, hisC, hisG, and hisH, and two genes unrelated to histidine biosynthesis, ORF3 and ORF6. In addition, several mutations were detected in the promoter region of the operon. Northern (RNA) hybridization analysis showed a much lower amount of the his transcript in the auxotrophic strain than in the prototrophic strain. The mutations detected account for the histidine auxotrophy of the analyzed strain. Certain other dairy auxotrophic strains carry a lower number of mutations, since they were able to revert either to a Hol+ phenotype or to histidine prototrophy. Images PMID:7687248

  6. Aflatoxin biosynthesis is a novel source of reactive oxygen species—a potential redox signal to initiate resistance to oxidative stress?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxin biosynthesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus parasiticus involves a minimum of 21 enzymes, encoded by genes located in a 70 kb gene cluster. For aflatoxin biosynthesis to be completed, the required enzymes must be transported to specialized early and late endosomes called aflatoxisom...

  7. Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis and Transport of Acinetobactin in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Tarik; Choi, Chul Hee

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria survive in iron-limited host environments by using several iron acquisition mechanisms. Acinetobacter baumannii, causing serious infections in compromised patients, produces an iron-chelating molecule, called acinetobactin, which is composed of equimolar quantities of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), L-threonine, and N-hydroxyhistamine, to compete with host cells for iron. Genes that are involved in the production and transport of acinetobactin are clustered within the genome of A. baumannii. A recent study showed that entA, located outside of the acinetobactin gene cluster, plays important roles in the biosynthesis of the acinetobactin precursor DHBA and in bacterial pathogenesis. Therefore, understanding the genes that are associated with the biosynthesis and transport of acinetobactin in the bacterial genome is required. This review is intended to provide a general overview of the genes in the genome of A. baumannii that are required for acinetobactin biosynthesis and transport. PMID:25873846

  8. Lipid-based transfection reagents can interfere with cholesterol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Danielli, Mauro; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2016-02-15

    Lipid-based transfection reagents are widely used for delivery of small interfering RNA into cells. We examined whether the commonly used commercial transfection reagents DharmaFECT-4 and Lipofectamine 2000 can interfere with lipid metabolism by studying cholesterogenesis. Cholesterol de novo synthesis from [(14)C]acetate was assessed in human hepatocyte-derived Huh-7 cells. The results revealed that DharmaFECT, but not Lipofectamine, markedly inhibited cholesterol biosynthesis by approximately 70%. Cell viability was not significantly altered. These findings suggest that caution is required in the choice of certain lipid-based transfection reagents for gene silencing experiments, particularly when assessing cholesterol metabolism.

  9. The role of FeS clusters for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and molybdoenzymes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Leimkühler, Silke

    2015-06-01

    The biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) has been intensively studied, in addition to its insertion into molybdoenzymes. In particular, a link between the assembly of molybdoenzymes and the biosynthesis of FeS clusters has been identified in the recent years: 1) the synthesis of the first intermediate in Moco biosynthesis requires an FeS-cluster containing protein, 2) the sulfurtransferase for the dithiolene group in Moco is also involved in the synthesis of FeS clusters, thiamin and thiolated tRNAs, 3) the addition of a sulfido-ligand to the molybdenum atom in the active site additionally involves a sulfurtransferase, and 4) most molybdoenzymes in bacteria require FeS clusters as redox active cofactors. In this review we will focus on the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor in bacteria, its modification and insertion into molybdoenzymes, with an emphasis to its link to FeS cluster biosynthesis and sulfur transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolutionary diversification in polyamine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Minguet, Eugenio G; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Marina, Alberto; Carbonell, Juan; Blázquez, Miguel A

    2008-10-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis is an ancient metabolic pathway present in all organisms. Aminopropyltransferases are key enzymes that mediate the synthesis of spermidine, spermine, and thermospermine. The relatively high sequence similarity between aminopropyltransferases and their similarity with putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMT) raises the question of whether they share a common ancestor or have evolved by convergence. Here we show that aminopropyltransferases and PMT are phylogenetically interconnected, and the different activities have been generated by unusually frequent events of diversification of existing functions. Although all spermidine synthases (SPDSs) derive from a common ancestor preceding the separation between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, they have been the origin of a variety of new activities. Among those, spermine synthases (SPMSs) represent a novelty independently arisen at least 3 times, in animals, fungi, and plants. The most parsimonious mechanism would involve the duplication and change of function of preexisting SPDS genes in each phylum. Although spermine is not essential for life, the repeated invention of SPMS and its conservation strongly argues for an evolutionary advantage derived from its presence. Moreover, the appearance of thermospermine synthase (tSPMS) in several genera of Archaea and Bacteria was accompanied by a loss of SPDS, suggesting that the new activity originated as a change of function of this enzyme. Surprisingly, tSPMS was later acquired by plants at an early stage of evolution by horizontal gene transfer and has proven to be essential for vascular development in tracheophytes. Finally, the synthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids in Solanales was favored by the origination of a new activity, PMT, as a duplication and change of function from SPDS.

  11. Mitochondrial respiration without ubiquinone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), a.k.a. coenzyme Q, is a redox-active lipid that participates in several cellular processes, in particular mitochondrial electron transport. Primary UQ deficiency is a rare but severely debilitating condition. Mclk1 (a.k.a. Coq7) encodes a conserved mitochondrial enzyme that is necessary for UQ biosynthesis. We engineered conditional Mclk1 knockout models to study pathogenic effects of UQ deficiency and to assess potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of UQ deficiencies. We found that Mclk1 knockout cells are viable in the total absence of UQ. The UQ biosynthetic precursor DMQ9 accumulates in these cells and can sustain mitochondrial respiration, albeit inefficiently. We demonstrated that efficient rescue of the respiratory deficiency in UQ-deficient cells by UQ analogues is side chain length dependent, and that classical UQ analogues with alkyl side chains such as idebenone and decylUQ are inefficient in comparison with analogues with isoprenoid side chains. Furthermore, Vitamin K2, which has an isoprenoid side chain, and has been proposed to be a mitochondrial electron carrier, had no efficacy on UQ-deficient mouse cells. In our model with liver-specific loss of Mclk1, a large depletion of UQ in hepatocytes caused only a mild impairment of respiratory chain function and no gross abnormalities. In conjunction with previous findings, this surprisingly small effect of UQ depletion indicates a nonlinear dependence of mitochondrial respiratory capacity on UQ content. With this model, we also showed that diet-derived UQ10 is able to functionally rescue the electron transport deficit due to severe endogenous UQ deficiency in the liver, an organ capable of absorbing exogenous UQ. PMID:23847050

  12. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits

    PubMed Central

    Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern. PMID:25346743

  13. Light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits.

    PubMed

    Zoratti, Laura; Karppinen, Katja; Luengo Escobar, Ana; Häggman, Hely; Jaakola, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern.

  14. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: A green approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Annu; Ikram, Saiqa; Yudha S, Salprima

    2016-08-01

    Nanotechnology is an immensely developing field due to its extensive range of applications in different areas of technology and science. Different types of methods are employed for synthesis of nanoparticles due to their wide applications. The conventional chemical methods have certain limitations with them either in the form of chemical contaminations during their syntheses procedures or in later applications and use of higher energy. During the last decade research have been focussed on developing simple, clean, non-toxic, cost effective and eco-friendly protocols for synthesis of nanoparticles. In order to get this objective, biosynthesis methods have been developed in order to fill this gap. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles is simple, single step, eco-friendly and a green approach. The biochemical processes in biological agents reduce the dissolved metal ions into nano metals. The various biological agents like plant tissues, fungi, bacteria, etc. are used for biosynthesis for metal nanoparticles. In this review article, we summarised recent literature on biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles which have revolutionised technique of synthesis for their applications in different fields. Due to biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles, it has find its applications in biomedical applications. The protocol and mechanism of biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles along with various applications have also been discussed.

  15. Folate rescues vitamin B12 depletion-induced inhibition of nuclear thymidylate biosynthesis and genome instability.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Ashley M; Kamynina, Elena; Field, Martha S; Stover, Patrick J

    2017-05-16

    Clinical vitamin B12 deficiency can result in megaloblastic anemia, which results from the inhibition of DNA synthesis by trapping folate cofactors in the form of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) and subsequent inhibition of de novo thymidylate (dTMP) biosynthesis. In the cytosol, vitamin B12 functions in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, which regenerates THF from 5-methylTHF. In the nucleus, THF is required for de novo dTMP biosynthesis, but it is not understood how 5-methylTHF accumulation in the cytosol impairs nuclear dTMP biosynthesis. The impact of vitamin B12 depletion on nuclear de novo dTMP biosynthesis was investigated in methionine synthase-null human fibroblast and nitrous oxide-treated HeLa cell models. The nucleus was the most sensitive cellular compartment to 5-methylTHF accumulation, with levels increasing greater than fourfold. Vitamin B12 depletion decreased de novo dTMP biosynthesis capacity by 5-35%, whereas de novo purine synthesis, which occurs in the cytosol, was not affected. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks, was increased in vitamin B12 depletion, and this effect was exacerbated by folate depletion. These studies also revealed that 5-formylTHF, a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), was enriched in nuclei, accounting for 35% of folate cofactors, explaining previous observations that nuclear SHMT is not a robust source of one-carbons for de novo dTMP biosynthesis. These findings indicate that a nuclear 5-methylTHF trap occurs in vitamin B12 depletion, which suppresses de novo dTMP biosynthesis and causes DNA damage, accounting for the pathophysiology of megaloblastic anemia observed in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

  16. SidL, an Aspergillus fumigatus transacetylase involved in biosynthesis of the siderophores ferricrocin and hydroxyferricrocin.

    PubMed

    Blatzer, Michael; Schrettl, Markus; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert H; Pfaller, Kristian; Haas, Hubertus

    2011-07-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces four types of siderophores, low-molecular-mass iron chelators: it excretes fusarinine C (FsC) and triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC) for iron uptake and accumulates ferricrocin (FC) for hyphal and hydroxyferricrocin (HFC) for conidial iron distribution and storage. Siderophore biosynthesis has recently been shown to be crucial for fungal virulence. Here we identified a new component of the fungal siderophore biosynthetic machinery: AFUA_1G04450, termed SidL. SidL is conserved only in siderophore-producing ascomycetes and shows similarity to transacylases involved in bacterial siderophore biosynthesis and the N(5)-hydroxyornithine:anhydromevalonyl coenzyme A-N(5)-transacylase SidF, which is essential for TAFC biosynthesis. Inactivation of SidL in A. fumigatus decreased FC biosynthesis during iron starvation and completely blocked FC biosynthesis during iron-replete growth. In agreement with these findings, SidL deficiency blocked conidial accumulation of FC-derived HFC under iron-replete conditions, which delayed germination and decreased the size of conidia and their resistance to oxidative stress. Remarkably, the sidL gene is not clustered with other siderophore-biosynthetic genes, and its expression is not affected by iron availability. Tagging of SidL with enhanced green fluorescent protein suggested a cytosolic localization of the FC-biosynthetic machinery. Taken together, these data suggest that SidL is a constitutively active N(5)-hydroxyornithine-acetylase required for FC biosynthesis, in particular under iron-replete conditions. Moreover, this study revealed the unexpected complexity of siderophore biosynthesis, indicating the existence of an additional, iron-repressed N(5)-hydroxyornithine-acetylase.

  17. Biotin biosynthesis, transport and utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Guillén-Navarro, Karina; Encarnación, Sergio; Dunn, Michael F

    2005-05-15

    Biotin, a B-group vitamin, performs an essential metabolic function in all organisms. Rhizobia are alpha-proteobacteria with the remarkable ability to form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in combination with a compatible legume host, a process in which the importance of biotin biosynthesis and/or transport has been demonstrated for some rhizobia-legume combinations. Rhizobia have also been used to delimit the biosynthesis, metabolic effects and, more recently, transport of biotin. Molecular genetic analysis shows that an orthodox biotin biosynthesis pathway occurs in some rhizobia while others appear to synthesize the vitamin using alternative pathways. In addition to its well established function as a prosthetic group for biotin-dependent carboxylases, we are beginning to delineate a role for biotin as a metabolic regulator in rhizobia.

  18. Abscisic acid: biosynthesis, inactivation, homoeostasis and signalling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ting; Park, Youngmin; Hwang, Inhwan

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in numerous physiological processes during plant growth and abiotic stress responses. The endogenous ABA level is controlled by complex regulatory mechanisms involving biosynthesis, catabolism, transport and signal transduction pathways. This complex regulatory network may target multiple levels, including transcription, translation and post-translational regulation of genes involved in ABA responses. Most of the genes involved in ABA biosynthesis, catabolism and transport have been characterized. The local ABA concentration is critical for initiating ABA-mediated signalling during plant development and in response to environmental changes. In this chapter we discuss the mechanisms that regulate ABA biosynthesis, catabolism, transport and homoeostasis. We also present the findings of recent research on ABA perception by cellular receptors, and ABA signalling in response to cellular and environmental conditions. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  19. Flavonoids: biosynthesis, biological functions, and biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Falcone Ferreyra, María L.; Rius, Sebastián P.; Casati, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed secondary metabolites with different metabolic functions in plants. The elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways, as well as their regulation by MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40-type transcription factors, has allowed metabolic engineering of plants through the manipulation of the different final products with valuable applications. The present review describes the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, as well as the biological functions of flavonoids in plants, such as in defense against UV-B radiation and pathogen infection, nodulation, and pollen fertility. In addition, we discuss different strategies and achievements through the genetic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis with implication in the industry and the combinatorial biosynthesis in microorganisms by the reconstruction of the pathway to obtain high amounts of specific compounds. PMID:23060891

  20. The Terpenoid Biosynthesis Toolkit of Trichoderma.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ravindra; Mukherjee, Prasun Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The widely used biotechnologically important fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma are rich sources of secondary metabolites. Even though the genomes of several Trichoderma spp. have been published, and data are available on the genes involved in biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, no genome-wide data are available for the terpenoid biosynthesis machinery in these organisms. In the present study, we have identified the genes involved in terpene biosynthesis in the genomes of three Trichoderma spp., viz., T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. While the genes involved in the condensation steps are highly conserved across the three species, these fungi differed in the number and organization of terpene cyclases. T. virens genome harbours eleven terpene cyclases, while T. atroviride harbours seven, and T. reeseisix in their genomes; seven, three and two being part of putative secondary metabolism related gene clusters.

  1. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Leon, J.; Raskin, I.

    1995-05-09

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-{beta}-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. 62 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Triterpenoid Biosynthesis and Engineering in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Satoru; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are a diverse group of natural products in plants and are considered defensive compounds against pathogenic microbes and herbivores. Because of their various beneficial properties for humans, saponins are used in wide-ranging applications in addition to medicinally. Saponin biosynthesis involves three key enzymes: oxidosqualene cyclases, which construct the basic triterpenoid skeletons; cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, which mediate oxidations; and uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, which catalyze glycosylations. The discovery of genes committed to saponin biosynthesis is important for the stable supply and biotechnological application of these compounds. Here, we review the identified genes involved in triterpenoid biosynthesis, summarize the recent advances in the biotechnological production of useful plant terpenoids, and discuss the bioengineering of plant triterpenoids. PMID:22639586

  3. Biosynthesis and metabolism of salicylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H I; León, J; Raskin, I

    1995-01-01

    Pathways of salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and metabolism in tobacco have been recently identified. SA, an endogenous regulator of disease resistance, is a product of phenylpropanoid metabolism formed via decarboxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to benzoic acid and its subsequent 2-hydroxylation to SA. In tobacco mosaic virus-inoculated tobacco leaves, newly synthesized SA is rapidly metabolized to SA O-beta-D-glucoside and methyl salicylate. Two key enzymes involved in SA biosynthesis and metabolism: benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase, which converts benzoic acid to SA, and UDPglucose:SA glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.35), which catalyzes conversion of SA to SA glucoside have been partially purified and characterized. Progress in enzymology and molecular biology of SA biosynthesis and metabolism will provide a better understanding of signal transduction pathway involved in plant disease resistance. PMID:11607533

  4. Bacterial exopolysaccharides: biosynthesis pathways and engineering strategies

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Jochen; Sieber, Volker; Rehm, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria produce a wide range of exopolysaccharides which are synthesized via different biosynthesis pathways. The genes responsible for synthesis are often clustered within the genome of the respective production organism. A better understanding of the fundamental processes involved in exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the regulation of these processes is critical toward genetic, metabolic and protein-engineering approaches to produce tailor-made polymers. These designer polymers will exhibit superior material properties targeting medical and industrial applications. Exploiting the natural design space for production of a variety of biopolymer will open up a range of new applications. Here, we summarize the key aspects of microbial exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and highlight the latest engineering approaches toward the production of tailor-made variants with the potential to be used as valuable renewable and high-performance products for medical and industrial applications. PMID:26074894

  5. [Advances in the biosynthesis research of ginsenosides].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ling; Gao, Li-Li; Zhu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    Ginsenosides are the main active components of medicinal herbs including Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, which have potent effects of anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis inhibition. But the low content of ginsenosides limits its development and usage. At present, how to improve the production of ginsenosides by biological technology has been a new research focus. Some advances in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides by tissue culture and biotransformation have been made in recent years. So far at least twenty genes related to the biosynthesis of ginsenosides from Panax genus plants have been cloned and functionally identified, which has laid a good foundation for the study on the synthetic biology of ginsenosides. This review outlines recent advances in several aspects and is expected to provide a theoretical support to the thorough research of the pathway and regulation of ginsenosides biosynthesis.

  6. Unconventional membrane lipid biosynthesis in Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Meriyem; Narberhaus, Franz

    2015-09-01

    All bacteria are surrounded by at least one bilayer membrane mainly composed of phospholipids (PLs). Biosynthesis of the most abundant PLs phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipin (CL) is well understood in model bacteria such as Escherichia coli. It recently emerged, however, that the diversity of bacterial membrane lipids is huge and that not yet explored biosynthesis pathways exist, even for the common PLs. A good example is the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. It contains PE, PG and CL as major lipids and small amounts of the N-methylated PE derivatives monomethyl PE and phosphatidylcholine (PC = trimethylated PE). Xanthomonas campestris uses a repertoire of canonical and non-canonical enzymes for the synthesis of its membrane lipids. In this minireview, we briefly recapitulate standard pathways and integrate three recently discovered pathways into the overall picture of bacterial membrane biosynthesis.

  7. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Issatchenkia orientalis GPI-Anchored Protein, IoGas1, Required for Resistance to Low pH and Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Negi, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1), was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58-59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0) of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262) in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the presence of

  8. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Issatchenkia orientalis GPI-Anchored Protein, IoGas1, Required for Resistance to Low pH and Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Matsushika, Akinori; Negi, Kanako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2016-01-01

    The use of yeasts tolerant to acid (low pH) and salt stress is of industrial importance for several bioproduction processes. To identify new candidate genes having potential roles in low-pH tolerance, we screened an expression genomic DNA library of a multiple-stress-tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis (Pichia kudriavzevii), for clones that allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to grow under highly acidic conditions (pH 2.0). A genomic DNA clone containing two putative open reading frames was obtained, of which the putative protein-coding gene comprising 1629 bp was retransformed into the host. This transformant grew significantly at pH 2.0, and at pH 2.5 in the presence of 7.5% Na2SO4. The predicted amino acid sequence of this new gene, named I. orientalis GAS1 (IoGAS1), was 60% identical to the S. cerevisiae Gas1 protein, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein essential for maintaining cell wall integrity, and 58–59% identical to Candida albicans Phr1 and Phr2, pH-responsive proteins implicated in cell wall assembly and virulence. Northern hybridization analyses indicated that, as for the C. albicans homologs, IoGAS1 expression was pH-dependent, with expression increasing with decreasing pH (from 4.0 to 2.0) of the medium. These results suggest that IoGAS1 represents a novel pH-regulated system required for the adaptation of I. orientalis to environments of diverse pH. Heterologous expression of IoGAS1 complemented the growth and morphological defects of a S. cerevisiae gas1Δ mutant, demonstrating that IoGAS1 and the corresponding S. cerevisiae gene play similar roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that two conserved glutamate residues (E161 and E262) in the IoGas1 protein play a crucial role in yeast morphogenesis and tolerance to low pH and salt stress. Furthermore, overexpression of IoGAS1 in S. cerevisiae remarkably improved the ethanol fermentation ability at pH 2.5, and at pH 2.0 in the presence of

  9. Pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy studies of the mycobactin biosynthesis inhibitor salicyl-AMS in mice.

    PubMed

    Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Adamson, John; Cisar, Justin S; Davis, Tony D; Chavadi, Sivagami Sundaram; Warren, J David; Quadri, Luis E N; Tan, Derek S; Bishai, William R

    2013-10-01

    Mycobactin biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis facilitates iron acquisition, which is required for growth and virulence. The mycobactin biosynthesis inhibitor salicyl-AMS [5'-O-(N-salicylsulfamoyl)adenosine] inhibits M. tuberculosis growth in vitro under iron-limited conditions. Here, we conducted a single-dose pharmacokinetic study and a monotherapy study of salicyl-AMS with mice. Intraperitoneal injection yielded much better pharmacokinetic parameter values than oral administration did. Monotherapy of salicyl-AMS at 5.6 or 16.7 mg/kg significantly inhibited M. tuberculosis growth in the mouse lung, providing the first in vivo proof of concept for this novel antibacterial strategy.

  10. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics.

  11. Carotenoid biosynthesis regulatory mechanisms in plants.

    PubMed

    Othman, Rashidi; Mohd Zaifuddin, Fatimah Azzahra; Hassan, Norazian Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are bioactive compounds with remarkably special properties produced by plants in response to internal and external stresses. In this review paper, we focus on the subject of carotenoid biosynthesis and several factors that have been reported to significantly enhance or reduce carotenoid accumulation in studied plant species. These factors include varietal aspects, location, growing season, and type of stress experienced by a plant. In addition, we propose that there are three stress resistance mechanisms in plants: avoidance, tolerance, and acclimation. Better understanding of the environmental factors affecting carotenoid biosynthesis will help researchers to develop methods for enhancing the production of carotenoids and other pigments to desired concentrations in plant crops.

  12. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, T.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  13. The structural biology of phenazine biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Parsons, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The phenazines are a class of over 150 nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds of bacterial and archeal origin. Their redox properties not only explain their activity as broad-specificity antibiotics and virulence factors but also enable them to function as respiratory pigments, thus extending their importance to the primary metabolism of phenazine-producing species. Despite their discovery in the mid-19th century, the molecular mechanisms behind their biosynthesis have only been unraveled in the last decade. Here, we review the contribution of structural biology that has led to our current understanding of phenazine biosynthesis. PMID:25215885

  14. The expanding universe of alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    De Luca, V; Laflamme, P

    2001-06-01

    Characterization of many of the major gene families responsible for the generation of central intermediates and for their decoration, together with the development of large genomics and proteomics databases, has revolutionized our capability to identify exotic and interesting natural-product pathways. Over the next few years, these tools will facilitate dramatic advances in our knowledge of the biosynthesis of alkaloids, which will far surpass that which we have learned in the past 50 years. These tools will also be exploited for the rapid characterization of regulatory genes, which control the development of specialized cell factories for alkaloid biosynthesis.

  15. [Jasmonate biosynthesis--the latest discoveries].

    PubMed

    Wilmowicz, Emilia; Frankowski, Kamil; Sidłowska, Magdalena; Kućko, Agata; Kesy, Jacek; Gasiorowski, Adam; Glazińska, Paulina; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Jasmonates are plant hormones involved in many growth and development processes. They also participate in plant defense responses. Current progress in the study on biosynthesis and signaling of jasmonates has contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms regulating concentration of these hormones in the cell. Sustaining a proper level of jasmonates allow the plant to respond appropriately to changing conditions. It is possible due to the large number of enzymes and genes involved in biosynthesis of these hormones as well as multilevel control of their expression.

  16. Characterization of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae riboflavin biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, T E; Mulks, M H

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we report the identification, cloning, and complete nucleotide sequence of four genes from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae that are involved in riboflavin biosynthesis. The cloned genes can specify production of large amounts of riboflavin in Escherichia coli, can complement several defined genetic mutations in riboflavin biosynthesis in E. coli, and are homologous to riboflavin biosynthetic genes from E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Bacillus subtilis. The genes have been designated A. pleuropneumoniae ribGBAH because of their similarity in both sequence and arrangement to the B. subtilis ribGBAH operon. PMID:8522537

  17. Plant biochemistry: anthocyanin biosynthesis in roses.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Jun; Kanno, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Tsugawa, Hidehito; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2005-06-09

    Anthocyanin is the principal pigment in flowers, conferring intense red-to-blue cyanic colours on petals and helping to attract pollinators. Its biosynthesis involves glycosylation steps that are important for the stability of the pigment and for its aqueous solubility in vacuoles. Here we describe anthocyanin biosynthesis in roses (Rosa hybrida), which is unlike the pathway used in other flowers in that it relies on a single enzyme to achieve glycosylation at two different positions on the precursor molecule. Phylogenetic analysis also indicates that this previously unknown glucosyltransferase enzyme may be unique to roses, with glycosylation having apparently evolved into a single stabilizing step in other plants.

  18. Elevated auxin biosynthesis and transport underlie high vein density in C4 leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Fa; Yu, Chun-Ping; Wu, Yeh-Hua; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Tu, Shih-Long; Wu, Shu-Hsing; Shiu, Shin-Han; Ku, Maurice S B; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2017-08-15

    High vein density, a distinctive trait of C4 leaves, is central to both C3-to-C4 evolution and conversion of C3 to C4-like crops. We tested the hypothesis that high vein density in C4 leaves is due to elevated auxin biosynthesis and transport in developing leaves. Up-regulation of genes in auxin biosynthesis pathways and higher auxin content were found in developing C4 leaves compared with developing C3 leaves. The same observation held for maize foliar (C4) and husk (C3) leaf primordia. Moreover, auxin content and vein density were increased in loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis MYC2, a suppressor of auxin biosynthesis. Treatment with an auxin biosynthesis inhibitor or an auxin transport inhibitor led to much fewer veins in new leaves. Finally, both Arabidopsis thaliana auxin efflux transporter pin1 and influx transporter lax2 mutants showed reduced vein numbers. Thus, development of high leaf vein density requires elevated auxin biosynthesis and transport.

  19. Optimization of recombinant expression enables discovery of novel cytochrome P450 activity in rice diterpenoid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Wu, Yisheng; Xu, Meimei; Peters, Reuben J.

    2015-01-01

    The oxygenation reactions catalyzed by cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play critical roles in plant natural products biosynthesis. At the same time, CYPs are one of most challenging enzymes to functionally characterize due to the difficulty of recombinantly expressing these membrane-associated monooxygenases. In the course of investigating rice diterpenoid biosynthesis we have developed a synthetic biology approach for functional expression of relevant CYPs in Escherichia coli. In certain cases activity was observed for only one of two closely related paralogs although it seems clear that related reactions are required for production of the known diterpenoids. Here we report that optimization of the recombinant expression system enabled characterization of not only these previously recalcitrant CYPs, but also discovery of additional activity relevant to rice diterpenoid biosynthesis. Of particular interest, CYP701A8 was found to catalyze 3β-hydroxylation of syn-pimaradiene, which is presumably relevant to momilactone biosynthesis, while CYP71Z6 & 7 were found to catalyze multiple reactions, with CYP71Z6 catalyzing the production of 2α,3α-dihydroxy-ent-isokaurene via 2α-hydroxy- ent-isokaurene, and CYP71Z7 catalyzing the production of 3α-hydroxy-ent-cassadien-2- one via 2α-hydroxy-ent-cassadiene and ent-cassadien-2-one, which may be relevant to oryzadione and phytocassane biosynthesis, respectively. PMID:25758958

  20. Vitamin and co-factor biosynthesis pathways in Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Sylke; Kappes, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Vitamins are essential components of the human diet. By contrast, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and related apicomplexan parasites synthesise certain vitamins, de novo, either completely or in parts. The occurrence of the various biosynthesis pathways is specific to different apicomplexan parasites, emphasising their distinct requirements for nutrients and growth factors. The absence of vitamin biosynthesis from the human host implies that inhibition of the parasite pathways may be a way to interfere specifically with parasite development. However, the precise role of biosynthesis and potential uptake of vitamins for the overall regulation of vitamin homeostasis in the parasites needs to be established first. In this review Sylke Müller and Barbara Kappes focus mainly on the procurement of vitamin B1, B5 and B6 by Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites. PMID:17276140

  1. Vitamin and cofactor biosynthesis pathways in Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sylke; Kappes, Barbara

    2007-03-01

    Vitamins are essential components of the human diet. By contrast, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and related apicomplexan parasites synthesize certain vitamins de novo, either completely or in parts. The various biosynthesis pathways are specific to different apicomplexan parasites and emphasize the distinct requirements of these parasites for nutrients and growth factors. The absence of vitamin biosynthesis in humans implies that inhibition of the parasite pathways might be a way to interfere specifically with parasite development. However, the roles of biosynthesis and uptake of vitamins in the regulation of vitamin homeostasis in parasites needs to be established first. In this article, the procurement of vitamins B(1), B(5) and B(6) by Plasmodium and other apicomplexan parasites is discussed.

  2. Initiator-independent and initiator-dependent rubber biosynthesis in Ficus elastica.

    PubMed

    Espy, Stephanie C; Keasling, Jay D; Castillón, Javier; Cornish, Katrina

    2006-04-15

    The rubber-producing tree, Ficus elastica (the Indian rubber tree), requires the same substrates for rubber production as other rubber-producing plants, such as Hevea brasiliensis (the Brazilian or Para rubber tree), the major source of commercial natural rubber in the world, and Parthenium argentatum (guayule), a widely studied alternative for natural rubber production currently under commercial development. Rubber biosynthesis can be studied, in vitro, using purified, enzymatically active rubber particles, an initiator such as FPP, IPP as the source of monomer, and a metal cofactor such as Mg2+. However, unlike H. brasiliensis and P. argentatum, we show that enzymatically active rubber particles purified from F. elastica are able to synthesize rubber, in vitro, in the absence of added initiator. In this paper, we characterize, for the first time, the kinetic differences between initiator-dependent rubber biosynthesis, and initiator-independent rubber biosynthesis, and the effect of cofactor concentration on both of these processes.

  3. Radical SAM enzymes in the biosynthesis of sugar-containing natural products☆

    PubMed Central

    Ruszczycky, Mark W.; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Liu, Hung-wen

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a key role in the biological activity of numerous natural products. In many instances their biosynthesis requires radical mediated rearrangements, some of which are catalyzed by radical SAM enzymes. BtrN is one such enzyme responsible for the dehydrogenation of a secondary alcohol in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine. DesII is another example that catalyzes a deamination reaction necessary for the net C4 deoxygenation of a glucose derivative en route to desosamine formation. BtrN and DesII represent the two most extensively characterized radical SAM enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the biosynthetic roles of these two enzymes, their mechanisms of catalysis, the questions that have arisen during these investigations and the insight they can offer for furthering our understanding of radical SAM enzymology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Radical SAM enzymes and Radical Enzymology. PMID:22172915

  4. A new strategy for inhibition of the spoilage yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii based on combination of a membrane-active peptide with an oligosaccharide that leads to an impaired glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-dependent yeast wall protein layer.

    PubMed

    Bom, I J; Klis, F M; de Nobel, H; Brul, S

    2001-12-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-dependent cell wall proteins in yeast are connected to the beta-1,3-glucan network via a beta-1,6-glucan moiety. Addition of gentiobiose or beta-1,6-glucan oligomers to growing cells affected the construction of a normal layer of GPI-dependent cell wall proteins at the outer rim of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. Treated S. cerevisiae cells secreted significant amounts of cell wall protein 2, were much more sensitive to the lytic action of zymolyase 20T and displayed a marked increase in sensitivity to the small amphipathic antimicrobial peptide MB-21. Similar results in terms of sensitization of yeast cells to the antimicrobial peptide were obtained with the notorious food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Our results indicate that treating cells with a membrane-perturbing compound together with compounds that lead to an impaired construction of a normal GPI-dependent yeast wall protein layer represents an effective strategy to prevent the growth of major food spoilage yeasts.

  5. COBRA-LIKE2, a Member of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored COBRA-LIKE Family, Plays a Role in Cellulose Deposition in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Secretory Cells1,2[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J.; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:25583925

  6. The role of FeS clusters for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and molybdoenzymes in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Leimkühler, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum is the only second row transition metal essential for biological systems, which is biologically available as molybdate ion. In eukarya, bacteria and archaea, molybdenum is bound to either to a tricyclic pyranopterin, thereby forming the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), or in some bacteria to the FeS cluster based iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMoco), which forms the active site of nitrogenase. To date more than 50 Moco-containing enzymes have been purified and biochemically or structurally characterized. The physiological role of molybdenum in these enzymes is fundamental to organisms, since the reactions include the catalysis of key steps in carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. The catalyzed reactions are in most cases oxo-transfer reactions or the hydroxylation of carbon centers. The biosynthesis of Moco has been intensively studied, in addition to its insertion into molybdoenzymes. In particular, a link between the biosynthesis and maturation of molybdoenzymes and the biosynthesis and distribution of FeS clusters has been identified in the last years: 1) The synthesis of the first intermediate in Moco biosynthesis requires an FeS-cluster containing protein, 2) The sulfurtransferase for the dithiolene group in Moco is common also for the synthesis of FeS clusters, thiamin and thiolated tRNAs, 3) the modification of the active site with a sulfur atom additionally involves a sulfurtransferase, 4) most molybdoenzymes in bacteria require FeS clusters as additional redox active cofactors. In this review we will focus on the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor in bacteria, its modification and insertion into molybdoenzymes, with an emphasis to its link to FeS cluster biosynthesis and sulfur transfer. PMID:25268953

  7. Genetic dissection of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Zachary N; Gilroy, Caslin A; Boitz, Jan M; Ullman, Buddy; Yates, Phillip A

    2012-04-13

    Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus express the metabolic machinery to synthesize pyrimidine nucleotides via both de novo and salvage pathways. To evaluate the relative contributions of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage to pyrimidine homeostasis in both life cycle stages of Leishmania donovani, individual mutant lines deficient in either carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), the first enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a salvage enzyme, or both CPS and UPRT were constructed. The Δcps lesion conferred pyrimidine auxotrophy and a growth requirement for medium supplementation with one of a plethora of pyrimidine nucleosides or nucleobases, although only dihydroorotate or orotate could circumvent the pyrimidine auxotrophy of the Δcps/Δuprt double knockout. The Δuprt null mutant was prototrophic for pyrimidines but could not salvage uracil or any pyrimidine nucleoside. The capability of the Δcps parasites to infect mice was somewhat diminished but still robust, indicating active pyrimidine salvage by the amastigote form of the parasite, but the Δcps/Δuprt mutant was completely attenuated with no persistent parasites detected after a 4-week infection. Complementation of the Δcps/Δuprt clone with either CPS or UPRT restored infectivity. These data establish that an intact pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is essential for the growth of the promastigote form of L. donovani in culture, that all uracil and pyrimidine nucleoside salvage in the parasite is mediated by UPRT, and that both the biosynthetic and salvage pathways contribute to a robust infection of the mammalian host by the amastigote. These findings impact potential therapeutic design and vaccine strategies for visceral leishmaniasis.

  8. Genetic Dissection of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Salvage in Leishmania donovani*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Zachary N.; Gilroy, Caslin A.; Boitz, Jan M.; Ullman, Buddy; Yates, Phillip A.

    2012-01-01

    Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus express the metabolic machinery to synthesize pyrimidine nucleotides via both de novo and salvage pathways. To evaluate the relative contributions of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage to pyrimidine homeostasis in both life cycle stages of Leishmania donovani, individual mutant lines deficient in either carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), the first enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a salvage enzyme, or both CPS and UPRT were constructed. The Δcps lesion conferred pyrimidine auxotrophy and a growth requirement for medium supplementation with one of a plethora of pyrimidine nucleosides or nucleobases, although only dihydroorotate or orotate could circumvent the pyrimidine auxotrophy of the Δcps/Δuprt double knockout. The Δuprt null mutant was prototrophic for pyrimidines but could not salvage uracil or any pyrimidine nucleoside. The capability of the Δcps parasites to infect mice was somewhat diminished but still robust, indicating active pyrimidine salvage by the amastigote form of the parasite, but the Δcps/Δuprt mutant was completely attenuated with no persistent parasites detected after a 4-week infection. Complementation of the Δcps/Δuprt clone with either CPS or UPRT restored infectivity. These data establish that an intact pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is essential for the growth of the promastigote form of L. donovani in culture, that all uracil and pyrimidine nucleoside salvage in the parasite is mediated by UPRT, and that both the biosynthetic and salvage pathways contribute to a robust infection of the mammalian host by the amastigote. These findings impact potential therapeutic design and vaccine strategies for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22367196

  9. Inhibition of Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Cercospora rosicola by Inhibitors of Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Plant Growth Retardants

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Shirley M.; Poling, Stephen M.; Maier, Vincent P.; Orme, Edward D.

    1983-01-01

    The fungus Cercospora rosicola produces abscisic acid (ABA) as a secondary metabolite. We developed a convenient system using this fungus to determine the effects of compounds on the biosynthesis of ABA. Inasmuch as ABA and the gibberellins (GAs) both arise via the isoprenoid pathway, it was of interest to determine if inhibitors of GA biosynthesis affect ABA biosynthesis. All five putative inhibitors of GA biosynthesis tested inhibited ABA biosynthesis. Several plant growth retardants with poorly understood actions in plants were also tested; of these, six inhibited ABA biosynthesis to varying degrees and two had no effect. Effects of plant growth retardants on various branches of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway may help to explain some of the diverse and unexpected results reported for these compounds. Knowledge that certain inhibitors of GA biosynthesis also have the ability to inhibit ABA biosynthesis in C. rosicola indicates the need for further studies in plants on the mode of action of these compounds. PMID:16662775

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Oligoribonuclease Contributes to Tolerance to Ciprofloxacin by Regulating Pyocin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Gukui; Liu, Yiwei; Jin, Yongxin; Cheng, Zhihui; Liu, Yang; Yang, Liang; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial oligoribonuclease (Orn) is a conserved 3'-to-5' exonuclease. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it has been demonstrated that Orn plays a major role in the hydrolysis of pGpG, which is required for cyclic-di-GMP homeostasis. Meanwhile, Orn is involved in the degradation of nanoRNAs, which can alter global gene expression by serving as transcription initiation primers. Previously, we found that Orn is required for the type III secretion system and pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, indicating a role of Orn in the bacterial response to environmental stimuli. Here we report that Orn is required for the tolerance of P. aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin. Transcriptome analysis of an orn mutant revealed the upregulation of pyocin biosynthesis genes. Mutation of genes involved in pyocin biosynthesis in the background of an orn mutant restored bacterial tolerance to ciprofloxacin. We further demonstrate that the upregulation of pyocin biosynthesis genes is due to RecA-mediated autoproteolysis of PrtR, which is the major negative regulator of pyocin biosynthesis genes. In addition, the SOS response genes were upregulated in the orn mutant, indicating a DNA damage stress. Therefore, our results revealed a novel role of Orn in bacterial tolerance to ciprofloxacin. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Control of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergilli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Expression of the genes in the AF biosynthesis cluster is mainly controlled by the pathway specific Cys6Zn2 DNA binding protein, AflR. While AflR appears to be necessary for the activation, a number of coactivators are important for fine-tuning of the timing of AflR’s activity. These proteins, AflJ,...

  12. Cyclopiazonic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid mycotoxin produced by some strains of Aspergillus flavus. Characterization of the CPA biosynthesis gene cluster confirmed that formation of CPA is via a three-enzyme pathway. This review examines the structure and organization of the CPA genes, elu...

  13. Hypoxia reduces and redirects selenoprotein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Niels-Peter; Martitz, Janine; Renko, Kostja; Stoedter, Mette; Hybsier, Sandra; Cramer, Thorsten; Schomburg, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Selenium deficiency constitutes a risk factor for the incidence and negative course of severe diseases including sepsis, stroke, autoimmune diseases or cancer. In this study, hypoxia is identified as a powerful stimulus to redirect selenoprotein biosynthesis causing reduced selenoprotein P expression and diminished selenium export from hepatocytes in favour of increased biosynthesis of the essential protective intracellular phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase GPX4. Specifically, hypoxia decreases transcript concentrations of central factors controlling selenium and selenocysteine metabolism including selenophosphate synthetase-2, phosphoseryl-tRNA(SerSec) kinase and selenocysteine lyase, which are all proven to be rate-limiting enzymes in selenoprotein biosynthesis. These effects are paralleled by a general decline of selenoprotein expression; however, not all selenoproteins are affected to the same extent by hypoxia, and GPX4 constitutes an exception as its expression becomes slightly increased. Supplemental selenium is able to overcome the hypoxia-dependent down regulation of selenoprotein expression in our cell culture model system, supporting the concept of using selenium as an adjuvant treatment option in severe diseases. Although it remains to be tested whether these effects constitute a hepatocyte-specific response, the selenium-dependent decline of selenoprotein P biosynthesis under hypoxic conditions may explain the progressive selenium deficit developing in severe diseases.

  14. Biosynthesis of coumarin and herniarin in lavender.

    PubMed

    BROWN, S A

    1962-09-21

    Coumarin and herniarin are formed in lavender from labeled o- and p-coumaric acids, respectively. At least part of the herniarin exists in lavender as a glycoside, presumably a 4-methoxycoumarinic acid glycoside, which yields free herniarin on hydrolysis. Biosynthesis of herniarin by successive para- and ortho- hydroxylation of cinnamic acid is indicated.

  15. The lipid biosynthesis hole in the rickettsiales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using a complementation assay in E. coli, we have shown that the propionyl-CoA carboxylase complex (PCC) from Wolbachia pipientis wMel, order Rickettsiales, provides for lipid biosynthesis through malonyl-CoA production. Normally, the prototypical prokaryote fatty acid synthesis (FASII) initiation ...

  16. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  17. Methionine salvage pathway in relation to ethylene biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The recycling of methionine during ethylene biosynthesis (the methionine cycle) was studied. During ethylene biosynthesis, the H/sub 3/CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is released at 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is recycled to methionine via 5'-methylthioribose (MTS). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado fruit, (/sup 14/C)MTR was converted to labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB) as intermediates. Radioactive tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract required an amino group donor. Among several potential donors tested, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Incubation of (ribose-U-/sup 14/C)MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of (/sup 14/C)formate, with little evolution of other /sup 14/C-labeled one-carbon compounds, indicating that the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR.

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Sunflower Grain Filling and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Durruty, Ignacio; Aguirrezábal, Luis A N; Echarte, María M

    2016-01-01

    Grain growth and oil biosynthesis are complex processes that involve various enzymes placed in different sub-cellular compartments of the grain. In order to understand the mechanisms controlling grain weight and composition, we need mathematical models capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of the main components of the grain during the grain filling stage. In this paper, we present a non-structured mechanistic kinetic model developed for sunflower grains. The model was first calibrated for sunflower hybrid ACA855. The calibrated model was able to predict the theoretical amount of carbohydrate equivalents allocated to the grain, grain growth and the dynamics of the oil and non-oil fraction, while considering maintenance requirements and leaf senescence. Incorporating into the model the serial-parallel nature of fatty acid biosynthesis permitted a good representation of the kinetics of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the relative influence of input parameters changed along grain development. Grain growth was mostly affected by the specific growth parameter (μ') while fatty acid composition strongly depended on their own maximum specific rate parameters. The model was successfully applied to two additional hybrids (MG2 and DK3820). The proposed model can be the first building block toward the development of a more sophisticated model, capable of predicting the effects of environmental conditions on grain weight and composition, in a comprehensive and quantitative way.

  19. Aspartate aminotransferase and tylosin biosynthesis in Streptomyces fradiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S H; Lee, K J

    1993-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase as well as valine dehydrogenase and threonine dehydratase was required for the biosynthesis of tylosin in Streptomyces fradiae NRRL 2702. The biosynthesis of these enzymes and tylosin production were repressed by high concentrations of ammonium ions. The change in specific tylosin production rates in batch cultures with different initial concentrations of ammonium ions showed patterns similar to those of the specific production rates of aspartate aminotransferase, valine dehydrogenase, and threonine dehydratase. Aspartate aminotransferase has been purified by acetone precipitation, DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite, and preparative electrophoresis chromatographies. The purified enzyme (120 kDa) consisted of two subunits identical in molecular mass (54 kDa) and showed homogeneity, giving one band with a pI of 4.2 upon preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme was specific for L-aspartate in the forward reaction; the Km values were determined to be 2.7 mM for L-aspartate, 0.7 mM for 2-oxyglutarate, 12.8 mM for L-glutamate, and 0.15 mM for oxaloacetate. The enzyme was somewhat thermostable, having a maximum activity at 55 degrees C, and had a broad pH optimum that ranged from 5.5 to 8.0. The mode of action was a ping-pong-bi-bi mechanism. Images PMID:8481008

  20. Kinetic Modeling of Sunflower Grain Filling and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Durruty, Ignacio; Aguirrezábal, Luis A. N.; Echarte, María M.

    2016-01-01

    Grain growth and oil biosynthesis are complex processes that involve various enzymes placed in different sub-cellular compartments of the grain. In order to understand the mechanisms controlling grain weight and composition, we need mathematical models capable of simulating the dynamic behavior of the main components of the grain during the grain filling stage. In this paper, we present a non-structured mechanistic kinetic model developed for sunflower grains. The model was first calibrated for sunflower hybrid ACA855. The calibrated model was able to predict the theoretical amount of carbohydrate equivalents allocated to the grain, grain growth and the dynamics of the oil and non-oil fraction, while considering maintenance requirements and leaf senescence. Incorporating into the model the serial-parallel nature of fatty acid biosynthesis permitted a good representation of the kinetics of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids production. A sensitivity analysis showed that the relative influence of input parameters changed along grain development. Grain growth was mostly affected by the specific growth parameter (μ′) while fatty acid composition strongly depended on their own maximum specific rate parameters. The model was successfully applied to two additional hybrids (MG2 and DK3820). The proposed model can be the first building block toward the development of a more sophisticated model, capable of predicting the effects of environmental conditions on grain weight and composition, in a comprehensive and quantitative way. PMID:27242809

  1. Genetic, molecular, and biochemical basis of fungal tropolone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Davison, Jack; al Fahad, Ahmed; Cai, Menghao; Song, Zhongshu; Yehia, Samar Y; Lazarus, Colin M; Bailey, Andrew M; Simpson, Thomas J; Cox, Russell J

    2012-05-15

    A gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of the fungal tropolone stipitatic acid was discovered in Talaromyces stipitatus (Penicillium stipitatum) and investigated by targeted gene knockout. A minimum of three genes are required to form the tropolone nucleus: tropA encodes a nonreducing polyketide synthase which releases 3-methylorcinaldehyde; tropB encodes a FAD-dependent monooxygenase which dearomatizes 3-methylorcinaldehyde via hydroxylation at C-3; and tropC encodes a non-heme Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase which catalyzes the oxidative ring expansion to the tropolone nucleus via hydroxylation of the 3-methyl group. The tropA gene was characterized by heterologous expression in Aspergillus oryzae, whereas tropB and tropC were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified TropB and TropC proteins converted 3-methylorcinaldehyde to a tropolone in vitro. Finally, knockout of the tropD gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, indicated its place as the next gene in the pathway, probably responsible for hydroxylation of the 6-methyl group. Comparison of the T. stipitatus tropolone biosynthetic cluster with other known gene clusters allows clarification of important steps during the biosynthesis of other fungal compounds including the xenovulenes, citrinin, sepedonin, sclerotiorin, and asperfuranone.

  2. Genetic, molecular, and biochemical basis of fungal tropolone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Jack; al Fahad, Ahmed; Cai, Menghao; Song, Zhongshu; Yehia, Samar Y.; Lazarus, Colin M.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Simpson, Thomas J.; Cox, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    A gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of the fungal tropolone stipitatic acid was discovered in Talaromyces stipitatus (Penicillium stipitatum) and investigated by targeted gene knockout. A minimum of three genes are required to form the tropolone nucleus: tropA encodes a nonreducing polyketide synthase which releases 3-methylorcinaldehyde; tropB encodes a FAD-dependent monooxygenase which dearomatizes 3-methylorcinaldehyde via hydroxylation at C-3; and tropC encodes a non-heme Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase which catalyzes the oxidative ring expansion to the tropolone nucleus via hydroxylation of the 3-methyl group. The tropA gene was characterized by heterologous expression in Aspergillus oryzae, whereas tropB and tropC were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified TropB and TropC proteins converted 3-methylorcinaldehyde to a tropolone in vitro. Finally, knockout of the tropD gene, encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, indicated its place as the next gene in the pathway, probably responsible for hydroxylation of the 6-methyl group. Comparison of the T. stipitatus tropolone biosynthetic cluster with other known gene clusters allows clarification of important steps during the biosynthesis of other fungal compounds including the xenovulenes, citrinin, sepedonin, sclerotiorin, and asperfuranone. PMID:22508998

  3. Biosynthesis of Selenocysteine on Its tRNA in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Mix, Heiko; Zhang, Yan; Saira, Kazima; Glass, Richard S; Berry, Marla J; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Hatfield, Dolph L

    2007-01-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is cotranslationally inserted into protein in response to UGA codons and is the 21st amino acid in the genetic code. However, the means by which Sec is synthesized in eukaryotes is not known. Herein, comparative genomics and experimental analyses revealed that the mammalian Sec synthase (SecS) is the previously identified pyridoxal phosphate-containing protein known as the soluble liver antigen. SecS required selenophosphate and O-phosphoseryl-tRNA[Ser]Sec as substrates to generate selenocysteyl-tRNA[Ser]Sec. Moreover, it was found that Sec was synthesized on the tRNA scaffold from selenide, ATP, and serine using tRNA[Ser]Sec, seryl-tRNA synthetase, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA[Ser]Sec kinase, selenophosphate synthetase, and SecS. By identifying the pathway of Sec biosynthesis in mammals, this study not only functionally characterized SecS but also assigned the function of the O-phosphoseryl-tRNA[Ser]Sec kinase. In addition, we found that selenophosphate synthetase 2 could synthesize monoselenophosphate in vitro but selenophosphate synthetase 1 could not. Conservation of the overall pathway of Sec biosynthesis suggests that this pathway is also active in other eukaryotes and archaea that synthesize selenoproteins. PMID:17194211

  4. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

  5. Pyrimidine biosynthesis links mitochondrial respiration to the p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Khutornenko, Anastasia A.; Roudko, Vladimir V.; Chernyak, Boris V.; Vartapetian, Andrey B.; Chumakov, Peter M.; Evstafieva, Alexandra G.

    2010-01-01

    While many functions of the p53 tumor suppressor affect mitochondrial processes, the role of altered mitochondrial physiology in a modulation of p53 response remains unclear. As mitochondrial respiration is affected in many pathologic conditions such as hypoxia and intoxications, the impaired electron transport chain could emit additional p53-inducing signals and thereby contribute to tissue damage. Here we show that a shutdown of mitochondrial respiration per se does not trigger p53 response, because inhibitors acting in the proximal and distal segments of the respiratory chain do not activate p53. However, strong p53 response is induced specifically after an inhibition of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 (the electron transport chain complex III). The p53 response is triggered by the deficiency in pyrimidines that is developed due to a suppression of the functionally coupled mitochondrial pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). In epithelial carcinoma cells the activation of p53 in response to mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III inhibitors does not require phosphorylation of p53 at Serine 15 or up-regulation of p14ARF. Instead, our data suggest a contribution of NQO1 and NQO2 in stabilization of p53 in the nuclei. The results establish the deficiency in pyrimidine biosynthesis as the cause of p53 response in the cells with impaired mitochondrial respiration. PMID:20566882

  6. Fungal biosynthesis of the bibenzoquinone oosporein to evade insect immunity

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Peng; Shang, Yanfang; Cen, Kai; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-01-01

    Quinones are widely distributed in nature and exhibit diverse biological or pharmacological activities; however, their biosynthetic machineries are largely unknown. The bibenzoquinone oosporein was first identified from the ascomycete insect pathogen Beauveria bassiana >50 y ago. The toxin can also be produced by different plant pathogenic and endophytic fungi with an array of biological activities. Here, we report the oosporein biosynthetic machinery in fungi, a polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway including seven genes for quinone biosynthesis. The PKS oosporein synthase 1 (OpS1) produces orsellinic acid that is hydroxylated to benzenetriol by the hydroxylase OpS4. The intermediate is oxidized either nonenzymatically to 5,5′-dideoxy-oosporein or enzymatically