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Sample records for gmel diptera tephritidae

  1. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  2. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) presenta un sistema de apareamiento tipo lek. Los machos forman grupos y, en forma conjunta, emiten senales (acusticas, visuales, o quimicas) para

  3. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  4. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...

  5. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  6. New genera, species and host plant records of Nearctic and Neotropical Tephritidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera and 5 new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are described from the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The new genera are: Agallamyia Norrbom (type species: A. pendula Norrbom, n. sp.), Neosphaeniscus Norrbom (type species: Euribia m-nigrum Hendel), and Phacelochaeta Norrbom (type spec...

  7. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Cocquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  8. Detection/monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the potential of prospective new lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...

  9. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  10. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed....

  11. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Euphorbia tehuacana (Euphorbiaceae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Castillo-Meza, Ana Lucía; García-Chávez, Juan Héctor; Aluja, Martín; Rull, Juan

    2014-03-24

    Anastrepha tehuacana, a new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico reared from seeds of Euphorbia tehuacana (Brandegee) V.W. Steinm. (Euphorbiaceae), is described and illustrated. Its probable relationship to A. relicta Hernández-Ortiz is discussed.

  12. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  13. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto."

  14. Irradiation of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) revisited: optimizing sterility induction.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Diaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, Jose

    2007-08-01

    Irradiation doses currently applied to sterilize Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for release under the sterile insect technique eradication campaign in Mexico, were reviewed in an effort to increase sterile male performance in the field. A dose maximizing sterility induction into wild populations was sought by balancing somatic fitness with genetic sterility. Doses of 40, 60, and 80 Gy induced 95% or more sterility in all males, which in turn induced similar degrees of sterility into a cohort of wild flies in the laboratory. However, a low dose of 40 Gy was sufficient to completely suppress egg production in females. Similarly, a mild carryover of genetic damage might have been transferred to the F1 progeny of males irradiated at 40 Gy crossed with fertile wild females. Our results suggest that the 80-Gy dose currently applied in Mexico can be lowered substantially without jeopardizing program goals. This view could be strengthened by comparing performance of males irradiated at different doses under more natural settings. In general, we discuss the value of determining irradiation doses for pest species where females are more radiosensitive than males, by selecting the dose that causes 100% sterility in females.

  15. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  16. Phytosanitary Treatments Against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae): Current Situation and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Hallman, Guy J; Grout, Timothy G; Clarke, Anthony R; Follett, Peter A; Cugala, Domingos R; Minh Tu, Duong; Murdita, Wayan; Hernandez, Emilio; Pereira, Rui; Myers, Scott W

    2016-12-27

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003 it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent, destroying fruits and creating regulatory barriers to their export. The insect is causing new nutritional and economic losses across Africa, as well as the losses it has caused for decades in infested areas of Asia, New Guinea, and Hawaii. This new panorama represents a challenge for fruit exportation from Africa. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export quarantined commodities out of infested areas to areas where the pest does not exist and could become established. This paper describes current phytosanitary treatments against B. dorsalis and their use throughout the world, the development of new treatments based on existing research, and recommendations for further research to provide phytosanitary solutions to the problem.

  17. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  18. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  19. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  20. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  1. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  2. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  3. Sucrose mixed with spinosad enhances kill and reduces oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under low-food conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...

  4. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  5. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  6. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo

  7. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  8. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from some localities of Paraguay: new records, checklist, and illustrated key.

    PubMed

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated.

  9. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review.

    PubMed

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements.

  10. An integrative approach to unravel the Ceratitis FAR (Diptera, Tephritidae) cryptic species complex: a review.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Ekesi, Sunday; Jordaens, Kurt; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, Aruna; Mwatawala, Maulid; Steck, Gary; Van Cann, Joannes; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews all information gathered from different disciplines and studies to resolve the species status within the Ceratitis FAR (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa) complex, a group of polyphagous fruit fly pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Africa. It includes information on larval and adult morphology, wing morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons, pheromones, microsatellites, developmental physiology and geographic distribution. The general consensus is that the FAR complex comprises Ceratitis anonae, two species within Ceratitis rosa (so-called R1 and R2) and two putatitve species under Ceratitis fasciventris. The information regarding the latter is, however, too limited to draw final conclusions on specific status. Evidence for this recognition is discussed with reference to publications providing further details.

  11. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  12. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review

    PubMed Central

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements. PMID:26798255

  13. An integrative approach to unravel the Ceratitis FAR (Diptera, Tephritidae) cryptic species complex: a review

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Ekesi, Sunday; Jordaens, Kurt; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, Aruna; Mwatawala, Maulid; Steck, Gary; Van Cann, Joannes; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews all information gathered from different disciplines and studies to resolve the species status within the Ceratitis FAR (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa) complex, a group of polyphagous fruit fly pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Africa. It includes information on larval and adult morphology, wing morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons, pheromones, microsatellites, developmental physiology and geographic distribution. The general consensus is that the FAR complex comprises Ceratitis anonae, two species within Ceratitis rosa (so-called R1 and R2) and two putatitve species under Ceratitis fasciventris. The information regarding the latter is, however, too limited to draw final conclusions on specific status. Evidence for this recognition is discussed with reference to publications providing further details. PMID:26798270

  14. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) specific recombinant monoclonal phage display antibodies for prey detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators.

  15. An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Oroblanco' Citrus Fruit.

    PubMed

    Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy

    2017-01-12

    For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco.

  16. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  17. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  18. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  19. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  20. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  1. Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

  2. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  3. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  4. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos

  5. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

  6. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations.

  7. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  8. Suitability of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pupae for Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan

    2015-06-01

    Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases.

  9. Field captures of wild melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) with an improved male attractant, raspberry ketone formate.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; Casana-Giner, Victor; Oliver, James E

    2007-08-01

    Field-trapping evaluations of the new male attractant, formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl) phenyl ester (raspberry ketone formate [RKF]) were conducted in Hawaii with wild populations of melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine its activity in the field and to evaluate new plastic matrix formulations. All tests were compared with the standard melon fly attractant 4-(4-acetoxyphenyl) -2-butanone (cuelure [CL]), which is the attractant of choice for detection programs aimed at melon fly and other cuelure-responding Bactrocera fruit flies. Results of these tests over a range of doses on cotton wicks showed that at a 1-g dose raspberry ketone formate was 1.5-2 times more attractive compared with cuelure for up to 11 wk in the field. Lower doses applied on cotton wicks were less active, presumably due to hydrolysis of RKF to raspberry ketone. Raspberry ketone formate embedded in a plastic plug formulation also was field tested, and it was shown to be more attractive to male melon fly compared with cuelure. The use of this new attractant in control and detection programs is discussed.

  10. Sperm-less males modulate female behaviour in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Di Cosimo, Alessandro; Savini, Grazia; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2016-12-01

    In the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae), mating has a strong impact on female biology, leading to a decrease in sexual receptivity and increased oviposition and fecundity. Previous studies suggest that sperm transfer may play a role in inducing these behavioural changes. Here we report the identification of a medfly innexin gene, Cc-inx5, whose expression is limited to the germ-line of both sexes. Through RNA interference of this gene, we generated males without testes and, consequently, sperm, but apparently retaining all the other reproductive organs intact. These sperm-less males were able to mate and, like their wild-type counterparts, to induce in their partners increased oviposition rates and refractoriness to remating. Interestingly, matings to sperm-less males results in oviposition rates higher than those induced by copulation with control males. In addition, the observed female post-mating behavioural changes were congruent with changes in transcript abundance of genes known to be regulated by mating in this species. Our results suggest that sperm transfer is not necessary to reduce female sexual receptivity and to increase oviposition and fecundity. These data pave the way to a better understanding of the role/s of seminal components in modulating female post-mating responses. In the long term, this knowledge will be the basis for the development of novel approaches for the manipulation of female fertility, and, consequently, innovative tools to be applied to medfly control strategies in the field.

  11. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT.

  12. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  13. Small-Scale Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Using Probability Kriging.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Q; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z L

    2016-10-01

    Understanding spatio-temporal distribution of pest in orchards can provide important information that could be used to design monitoring schemes and establish better means for pest control. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed, and activity trends were evaluated by using probability kriging. Adults of B. minax were captured in two successive occurrences in a small-scale citrus orchard by using food bait traps, which were placed both inside and outside the orchard. The weekly spatial distribution of B. minax within the orchard and adjacent woods was examined using semivariogram parameters. The edge concentration was discovered during the most weeks in adult occurrence, and the population of the adults aggregated with high probability within a less-than-100-m-wide band on both of the sides of the orchard and the woods. The sequential probability kriged maps showed that the adults were estimated in the marginal zone with higher probability, especially in the early and peak stages. The feeding, ovipositing, and mating behaviors of B. minax are possible explanations for these spatio-temporal patterns. Therefore, spatial arrangement and distance to the forest edge of traps or spraying spot should be considered to enhance pest control on B. minax in small-scale orchards.

  14. Horizontal transmission of Beauveria bassiana in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under laboratory and field cage conditions.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Jorge; Campos, Sergio E; Flores, Salvador; Liedo, Pablo; Barrera, Juan F; Villaseñior, Antonio; Montoya, Pablo

    2007-04-01

    The virulence of two products of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (LCPP and Bassianil) on adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their effect on the mating performance of infected males was evaluated in laboratory and field cage tests. The horizontal transmission capacity of the fungus during copulation or attempted copulation also was quantified using inoculated males as well as the impact of infection on female fecundity and longevity. Both fungal products were found to be highly virulent (LCPP, mortality = 98.7% at 1 x 10(8) conidia per ml, LT50 = 4.20 d, LC50 = 9.35 x 10(5) conidia per ml; Bassianil, mortality = 99.3% at 1 X 10(8) conidia per ml, LT50 = 4.04 d, LC50 = 2.69 x 10(7) conidia per ml). Mating success of inoculated males was not affected compared with the control group during the 3 d postinoculation. Horizontal transmission to females during the first day was 80.6 and 84.3% through mating and 15.4 and 21.6% through attempts to mate and contact during courtship for the LCPP and Bassianil products, respectively. The fertility of infected females was notably reduced, and longevity did not extend beyond 15 d. Our results suggest the possibility of using sterile flies as fungus vectors in sterile insect technique programs, but the potential benefits and shortcomings of this approach require further investigation.

  15. A novel attractant for Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a Concord grape product.

    PubMed

    Robacker, David C; Massa, Michelle J; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bartelt, Robert J

    2011-08-01

    An attractant for Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was developed from a commercial product called Sabor Uva containing processed Concord grape juice. The principal volatile components of Sabor Uva aroma were identified and an aqueous mixture of 15 components that was gas chromatographically similar to Sabor Uva was prepared. This mixture was equivalent to Sabor Uva in attractiveness by using wind-tunnel bioassays. After deleting chemicals that did not contribute to attractiveness, and increasing the concentrations of the remaining chemicals, the final attractant contained propylene glycol (90,000 ppm, vol/vol), acetic acid (4500), methyl anthranilate (1800), ethyl 2-methylpropionate (670), and one or both of the esters ethyl 3-methylbutyrate (44) and 2-methylbutyl propionate (44), in aqueous solution. This mixture was approximately 1.8X as attractive as Sabor Uva by indirect comparison. Deletion of propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, or ethyl 2-methylpropionate from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. Deletion of either of the other two esters seemed to diminish attractiveness although effects were not statistically significant. Deletion of water from the mixture significantly decreased attractiveness. We conclude that propylene glycol, acetic acid, methyl anthranilate, water, and at least one or as many as all three of the methyl-branched esters are essential for complete attractiveness.

  16. Olfactory response of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Citrus aurantium volatiles.

    PubMed

    Rasgado, Milton A; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Toledo, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of male and female Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of bitter orange fruit, Citrus aurantium L. In field cage tests, the number of A. ludens caught in Multilure traps baited with mature green bitter orange fruit was significantly higher than the number captured in traps baited with ripe yellow bitter orange fruit and control (unbaited traps). Both sexes were more attracted to mature green bitter orange fruit extracts than to controls in both flight tunnel and field cage assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the mature green bitter orange fruit volatiles identified 10 different compounds. Limonene was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by an unknown compound, tentatively identified as trans-ocimene. Linalool, beta-pinene, and methyl salicylate were found in lower proportions. Both sexes of A. ludens evoked higher antennal response to linalool, methyl salicylate, and to a blend of these four components in comparison with limonene, and beta-pinene. In flight tunnel, both sexes were more attracted and landed more often on spheres baited with the four-component blend compared with control spheres. In field cage tests, Multilure traps baited with the four-component blend captured significantly more A. ludens flies than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein or control traps.

  17. A new blend of white sapote fruit volatiles as potential attractant to Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    González, Ricardo; Toledo, Jorge; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo; Virgen, Armando; Santiesteban, Antonio; Malo, Edi A

    2006-12-01

    The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.

  18. Phylogeographic Structure in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations Inferred With mtDNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Owen, Christopher L; Thomas, Donald B; Barr, Norman B; McPheron, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mexican fruit fly, is a major pest of citrus and mango. It has a wide distribution in Mexico and Central America, with infestations occurring in Texas, California, and Florida with origins believed to have been centered in northeastern Mexico. This research evaluates the utility of a sequence-based approach for two mitochondrial (COI and ND6) gene regions. We use these markers to examine genetic diversity, estimate population structure, and identify diagnostic information for A. ludens populations. We analyzed 543 individuals from 67 geographic collections and found one predominant haplotype occurring in the majority of specimens. We observed 68 haplotypes in all and see differences among haplotypes belonging to northern and southern collections. Mexico haplotypes differ by few bases possibly as a result of a recent bottleneck event. In contrast to the hypothesis suggesting northeastern Mexico as the origin of this species, we see that specimens from two southern collections show high genetic variability delineating three mitochondrial groups. These data suggest that Central America is the origin for A. ludens. We show that COI and ND6 are useful for phylogeographic studies of A. ludens.

  19. Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with adult laboratory Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Kuzina, L V; Peloquin, J J; Vacek, D C; Miller, T A

    2001-04-01

    From the guts of new and old colonies (female and male) of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae), we identified a total of 18 different bacterial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Micrococcaceae, Deinococcacea, Bacillaceae, and the genus Listeria. Enterobacter, Providencia, Serratia, and Staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated genera, with Citrobacter, Streptococcus, Aerococcus, and Listeria found less frequently. We found Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Providencia stuartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only in the new colony, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae only in the old colony. We also studied resistance/sensitivity to 12 antibiotics for six bacterial isolates such as Enterobacter cloacae, E. sakazakii, K. pneumoniae spp., Providencia rettgeri, P. aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus. Isolates on the whole were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin (five of six isolates) and sensitive to rifampin and streptomycin (six of six isolates). Antibiotic resistance profiles might be useful characteristics for distinguishing among species and strains of these bacteria, probably having ecological significance with respect to intra- and inter-specific competition within host cadavers, and could have implications for the utility of these organisms for biological control, including the alternative control strategy, paratransgenesis.

  20. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  1. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  2. Identifying Insects with Incomplete DNA Barcode Libraries, African Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Test Case

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Breman, Floris C.; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general working strategy to deal with incomplete reference libraries in the DNA barcoding identification of species. Considering that (1) queries with a large genetic distance with their best DNA barcode match are more likely to be misidentified and (2) imposing a distance threshold profitably reduces identification errors, we modelled relationships between identification performances and distance thresholds in four DNA barcode libraries of Diptera (n = 4270), Lepidoptera (n = 7577), Hymenoptera (n = 2067) and Tephritidae (n = 602 DNA barcodes). In all cases, more restrictive distance thresholds produced a gradual increase in the proportion of true negatives, a gradual decrease of false positives and more abrupt variations in the proportions of true positives and false negatives. More restrictive distance thresholds improved precision, yet negatively affected accuracy due to the higher proportions of queries discarded (viz. having a distance query-best match above the threshold). Using a simple linear regression we calculated an ad hoc distance threshold for the tephritid library producing an estimated relative identification error <0.05. According to the expectations, when we used this threshold for the identification of 188 independently collected tephritids, less than 5% of queries with a distance query-best match below the threshold were misidentified. Ad hoc thresholds can be calculated for each particular reference library of DNA barcodes and should be used as cut-off mark defining whether we can proceed identifying the query with a known estimated error probability (e.g. 5%) or whether we should discard the query and consider alternative/complementary identification methods. PMID:22359600

  3. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  4. Superparasitism in laboratory rearing of Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, J; Asís, J; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Baños, L; Gayubo, S F; Beitia, F

    2012-02-01

    The frequency of superparasitism and its effects on the quality of laboratory-reared Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) parasitoids were investigated under laboratory conditions. Numerous variables were measured, such as the number of 'ovip holes' per host as a measure of superparasitism. Adult emergence and sex ratio, as well as female size, emergence ability from soil and longevity were also measured. Finally, an assessment was made of fertility and survival of adult parasitoids emerging from the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae with different levels of superparasitism. A high frequency and prevalence of superparasitism under laboratory rearing conditions was observed. The number of 'ovip holes' per host ranged from one to 17, with an average (±SD) of 2.8±3.4. Sex ratios became increasingly female-biased with increasing levels of superparasitism, although overall levels of wasp emergence (male, female) declined. Nevertheless, no relationship was discerned between female size and level of superparasitism. The 'emergence ability from the soil' was higher in those parasitoids that emerged from strongly superparasitized hosts, but not related to the type of substrate in which the host pupae were buried. The level of superparasitism did not have a significant effect on the longevity, fertility and survival of female parasitoids. Our results support the hypothesis that superparasitism in S. cameroni might be adaptive, since attributes such as 'emergence ability from the soil', longevity, fertility and survival were not affected by the level of superparasitism or the presumably detrimental effects derived from physical combats among conspecific larvae. Our findings are relevant to recommendations for rearing S. cameroni for biological control releases, as well as shedding light on superparasitism under both laboratory and field conditions.

  5. Capture probability of released males of two Bactrocera species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in detection traps in California.

    PubMed

    Shelly, T; Nishimoto, J; Diaz, A; Leathers, J; War, M; Shoemaker, R; Al-Zubaidy, M; Joseph, D

    2010-12-01

    The genus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) includes approximately 70 polyphagous species that are major pests of fruit and vegetable crops. Most Bactrocera species have limited geographic distributions, but several species are invasive, and many countries operate continuous trapping programs to detect infestations. In the United States, California maintains approximately 25,000 traps (baited with male lures) specifically for Bactrocera detection distributed over an area of approximately 6,400 km2 (2,500 miles2) in the Los Angeles area. Although prior studies have used male lures to describe movement of Bactrocera males, they do not explicitly relate capture probability with fly distance from lure-baited traps; consequently, they do not address the relative effectiveness of male lures in detecting incipient populations of Bactrocera species. The objective of this study was to measure the distance-dependent capture probability of marked, released males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (methyl eugenol- and cue lure-responding species, respectively) within the detection trapping grid operating in southern California. These data were then used to compute simple probability estimates for detecting populations of different sizes of the two species. Methyl eugenol was the more powerful attractant, and based on the mark-recapture data, we estimated that B. dorsalis populations with as few as approximately 50 males would always (>99.9%) be detected using the current trap density of five methyl eugenol-baited traps per 2.6 km2 (1 mile2). By contrast, we estimated that certain detection of B. cucurbitae populations would not occur until these contained approximately 350 males. The implications of the results for the California trapping system are discussed, and the findings are compared with mark-release-recapture data obtained for the same two species in Hawaii.

  6. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Epsky, Nancy D; Espinoza, Hernán R; Kendra, Paul E; Abernathy, Robert; Midgarden, David; Heath, Robert R

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine effective sampling range of a female-targeted protein-based synthetic attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Multilure traps were baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures (three-component attractant) and sampled over eight consecutive weeks. Field design consisted of 38 traps (over 0.5 ha) placed in a combination of standard and high-density grids to facilitate geostatistical analysis, and tests were conducted in coffee (Coffea arabica L.),mango (Mangifera indica L.),and orthanique (Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata). Effective sampling range, as determined from the range parameter obtained from experimental variograms that fit a spherical model, was approximately 30 m for flies captured in tests in coffee or mango and approximately 40 m for flies captured in orthanique. For comparison, a release-recapture study was conducted in mango using wild (field-collected) mixed sex C. capitata and an array of 20 baited traps spaced 10-50 m from the release point. Contour analysis was used to document spatial distribution of fly recaptures and to estimate effective sampling range, defined by the area that encompassed 90% of the recaptures. With this approach, effective range of the three-component attractant was estimated to be approximately 28 m, similar to results obtained from variogram analysis. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on sampling range, which was approximately 15 m greater upwind compared with downwind from the release point. Geostatistical analysis of field-captured insects in appropriately designed trapping grids may provide a supplement or alternative to release-recapture studies to estimate sampling ranges for semiochemical-based trapping systems.

  7. High summer temperatures affect the survival and reproduction of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Nadel, Hannah

    2009-10-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest in California. Identifying environmental constraints that affect the geographic distribution and abundance of any invasive insect pest is fundamental to its effective management. California's Central Valley, where most commercial olives are grown, is extremely hot during the summer, with maximum daily temperatures consistently >35.0 degrees C. This study examined the effects of two diurnal temperature regimens (low 18.3 degrees C, high 35.0 or 37.8 degrees C) reflecting summer conditions in the valley, and one control temperature regimen (low 18.3 degrees C, high 23.9 degrees C) on the fly's survival and reproductive success in the laboratory. The temperature regimen of 18.3-35.0 degrees C resulted in delayed egg maturation and reduced production of mature eggs compared with the control temperature regimen. Egg maturation was possible at the higher temperature regimen when females were provided with water and food, and egg-laying occurred during the cold phase of the temperature cycle. Access to olive fruit and oviposition itself further promoted egg maturation. Under exposure to the 18.3-35.0 degrees C temperature regimen, approximately 50% of eggs died, and the remainder that hatched died as first instars. No egg hatch occurred at the temperature treatment of 18.3-37.8 degrees C. We confirmed these laboratory results through field cage studies with adult B. oleae, conducted in the summer of 2007 and 2008. Under ambient summer temperatures, adult B. oleae survived for 1-2 wk, and females readily laid eggs when provided water and food. No offspring developed in midsummer of 2007, and <2% of the offspring developed to adults in summer 2008 trials. These results suggest that high summer temperatures limit the fly's abundance in California's Central Valley.

  8. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.

  9. Insecticide toxicity to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is influenced by environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.

  10. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.

  11. One Metarhizium brunneum Strain, Two Uses to Control Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Yousef, M; Garrido-Jurado, I; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-10-01

    We determined the virulence and insecticidal activity of the hypocrealean fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain EAMb 09/01-Su and its crude extract against Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) and we evaluated the combined use of the fungus with its crude extract. We also determined the effect of fermentation time, temperature, and initial pH of the M. brunneum culture medium on the insecticidal activity of the crude extract. When C. capitata adults were sprayed with a conidial suspension, the strain EAMb 09/01-Su caused 100% mortality with a mean lethal time (LT50) of 5.6 d and mean lethal concentration (LC50) of 2.84 f#x2013; 10(7) conidia per milliliter. Fermentation time significantly affected the lethality of the crude extract when it was provided to C. capitata per os. The highest level of mortality (73.3%) and the shortest median survival time (25.5 h) was obtained from 15-d-old cultures. The crude extract was demonstrated to be thermostable, given that the mortality was >50% at 48 h when the extract had been heated to 100°C for 3 h. Lastly, the optimum initial pH for maximum crude extract activity in terms of mortality ranged between 7 and 9. Additivity was observed for all M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain crude extract combinations tested, indicating compatibility between products. We concluded that the M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain is a promising tool for medfly control alone or in combination with its crude extract.

  12. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  13. Efficacy of commercial traps and food odor attractants for mass trapping of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lasa, Rodrigo; Velázquez, Olinda E; Ortega, Rafael; Acosta, Emilio

    2014-02-01

    One of the most important factors for the success of a mass trapping strategy to control a fruit fly involves the selection of an effective trap-lure combination. Because different species of fruit flies respond differently to the physical characteristics of a trap and to bait volatiles, the evaluation of commercial traps and lures that have proved useful against other tephtrids is necessary to determine their efficacy for mass trapping of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Under caged conditions, a commercial hemispherical trap with lateral holes (Maxitrap Plus) proved more attractive to A. ludens (both sexes) than five other commercial traps that were all baited with hydrolyzed protein. Among these traps, bottom invaginated traps and traps with invaginated lateral holes constructed with transparent cylinders had the best physical retention properties. When evaluated under field conditions, the lure was critical for the efficacy of the trap, and one of the traps that performed poorly in attraction and retention cage tests (MS2) resulted as one of the most effective traps when baited with CeraTrap lure. Considering the use of different trap models under field conditions, CeraTrap liquid bait was more effective in A. ludens capture than Biolure dry synthetic bait, but both lures were not replaced during the entire course of the experiment. The percentage of captured females was also slightly higher using CeraTrap lure (67.2%) than using Biolure baits (54.5-58.8%). In field tests, 75-81% of females were mated and no significant differences were observed among trap-lure combinations. Trap selectivity against nontarget adult lacewings also differed among trap-lure combinations.

  14. Identifying insects with incomplete DNA barcode libraries, African fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a test case.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Breman, Floris C; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general working strategy to deal with incomplete reference libraries in the DNA barcoding identification of species. Considering that (1) queries with a large genetic distance with their best DNA barcode match are more likely to be misidentified and (2) imposing a distance threshold profitably reduces identification errors, we modelled relationships between identification performances and distance thresholds in four DNA barcode libraries of Diptera (n = 4270), Lepidoptera (n = 7577), Hymenoptera (n = 2067) and Tephritidae (n = 602 DNA barcodes). In all cases, more restrictive distance thresholds produced a gradual increase in the proportion of true negatives, a gradual decrease of false positives and more abrupt variations in the proportions of true positives and false negatives. More restrictive distance thresholds improved precision, yet negatively affected accuracy due to the higher proportions of queries discarded (viz. having a distance query-best match above the threshold). Using a simple linear regression we calculated an ad hoc distance threshold for the tephritid library producing an estimated relative identification error <0.05. According to the expectations, when we used this threshold for the identification of 188 independently collected tephritids, less than 5% of queries with a distance query-best match below the threshold were misidentified. Ad hoc thresholds can be calculated for each particular reference library of DNA barcodes and should be used as cut-off mark defining whether we can proceed identifying the query with a known estimated error probability (e.g. 5%) or whether we should discard the query and consider alternative/complementary identification methods.

  15. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.

  16. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Nardi, Francesco; Hull-Sanders, Helen; Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong

    2014-01-01

    The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5′ end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the

  17. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Nardi, Francesco; Hull-Sanders, Helen; Wan, Xuanwu; Liu, Yinghong

    2014-01-01

    The complete 16,043 bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) has been sequenced. The genome encodes 37 genes usually found in insect mitogenomes. The mitogenome information for B. minax was compared to the homologous sequences of Bactrocera oleae, Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera cucurbitae and Ceratitis capitata. The analysis indicated the structure and organization are typical of, and similar to, the nine closely related species mentioned above, although it contains the lowest genome-wide A+T content (67.3%). Four short intergenic spacers with a high degree of conservation among the nine tephritid species mentioned above and B. minax were observed, which also have clear counterparts in the control regions (CRs). Correlation analysis among these ten tephritid species revealed close positive correlation between the A+T content of zero-fold degenerate sites (P0FD), the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P0FD sites to all degenerate sites (zero-fold degenerate sites, two-fold degenerate sites and four-fold degenerate sites) and amino acid sequence distance (ASD) were found. Further, significant positive correlation was observed between the A+T content of four-fold degenerate sites (P4FD) and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites; however, we found significant negative correlation between ASD and the A+T content of P4FD, and the ratio of nucleotide substitution frequency at P4FD sites to all degenerate sites. A higher nucleotide substitution frequency at non-synonymous sites compared to synonymous sites was observed in nad4, the first time that has been observed in an insect mitogenome. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end of the CR followed by a [TA(A)]n-like stretch was also found. In addition, a highly conserved G+A-rich sequence block was observed in front of the

  18. Attraction of nontarget species to fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) male lures and decaying fruit flies in traps in hawaii.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Luc; Rubinoff, Daniel; Vargas, Roger I

    2009-10-01

    Synthetic male lures are commonly used to monitor and mass trap pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). However, there has been much dispute as to the nontarget impacts of such lures on beneficial and native insects. To evaluate nontarget attraction effects, traps baited with Cue-Lure and methyl eugenol were maintained and emptied weekly in a range of native and non-native forest and commercial orchard and backyard sites on Hawaii and Maui Islands. Lure trap captures were compared against those from unbaited control traps and traps artificially baited with decaying fruit flies to mimic the effect of accumulation of dead trapped target flies in male lure traps. Cue-Lure did not attract nontargets, and methyl eugenol attracted low but significant numbers of five species of flower-associated insects (honey bees, syrphid flies, nitidulid beetles, and endemic crambid moths) and two endemic Hawaiian species of sciarids (Diptera) and mirids (Hemiptera). Saprophagous nontargets, mostly Diptera, were abundant and diverse in traps baited with decaying flies and in male lure traps where accumulation of dead flies occurred but not in male lure traps with few or no fruit fly captures. Most of the previously published records of attraction to methyl eugenol are shown to actually be secondary attraction to decaying fruit flies. Endemic nontargets were collected in native and adjacent forest, but almost exclusively invasive species were attracted to traps placed in non-native habitats. Attraction of flower-associated species may be minimized if methyl eugenol traps are placed in trees after flowering season in orchards.

  19. Infestation of apricot by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state and British Columbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Tephritidae), is native to the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. and British Columbia in Canada and is known to attack and develop in the fruit of 12 plant species in nature. Here we report that R. indifferens in nature infests yet another plant,...

  20. A new genus and species of Xyphosiini (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Memari, Fatemeh; Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Hakimitabar, Masoud

    2016-06-17

    Valera, a monotypic new genus (Tephritidae, Tephritinae, Xyphosiini) and Valera ariana n. sp., the type and only known species, are described from Iran. Systematic relationships with other Xyphosiini are discussed and a key to the genera of the tribe Xyphosiini is presented.

  1. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion.

  2. Wing morphometrics as a possible tool for the diagnosis of the Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Van Cann, Joannes; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous attempts to resolve the Ceratitis FAR complex (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa, Diptera, Tephritidae) showed contrasting results and revealed the occurrence of five microsatellite genotypic clusters (A, F1, F2, R1, R2). In this paper we explore the potential of wing morphometrics for the diagnosis of FAR morphospecies and genotypic clusters. We considered a set of 227 specimens previously morphologically identified and genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci. Seventeen wing landmarks and 6 wing band areas were used for morphometric analyses. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences both across morphospecies and genotypic clusters (for both males and females). Unconstrained and constrained ordinations did not properly resolve groups corresponding to morphospecies or genotypic clusters. However, posterior group membership probabilities (PGMPs) of the Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) allowed the consistent identification of a relevant proportion of specimens (but with performances differing across morphospecies and genotypic clusters). This study suggests that wing morphometrics and PGMPs might represent a possible tool for the diagnosis of species within the FAR complex. Here, we propose a tentative diagnostic method and provide a first reference library of morphometric measures that might be used for the identification of additional and unidentified FAR specimens. PMID:26798274

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenase activities and ethanol tolerance in Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae) fruit-fly species and their hybrids

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) system is one of the earliest known models of molecular evolution, and is still the most studied in Drosophila. Herein, we studied this model in the genus Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae). Due to the remarkable advantages it presents, it is possible to cross species with different Adh genotypes and with different phenotype traits related to ethanol tolerance. The two species studied here each have a different number of Adh gene copies, whereby crosses generate polymorphisms in gene number and in composition of the genetic background. We measured certain traits related to ethanol metabolism and tolerance. ADH specific enzyme activity presented gene by environment interactions, and the larval protein content showed an additive pattern of inheritance, whilst ADH enzyme activity per larva presented a complex behavior that may be explained by epistatic effects. Regression models suggest that there are heritable factors acting on ethanol tolerance, which may be related to enzymatic activity of the ADHs and to larval mass, although a pronounced environmental effect on ethanol tolerance was also observed. By using these data, we speculated on the mechanisms of ethanol tolerance and its inheritance as well as of associated traits. PMID:21637665

  4. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Follett, Peter A.; Liquido, Nicanor J.; Sylva, Charmaine D.

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  5. Flight Capacity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Adult Females Based on Flight Mill Studies and Flight Muscle Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yuan, Ruiling; Wang, Xiaowei; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions worldwide. To better comprehend flight capacity of B. dorsalis and its physiological basis, a computer-monitored flight mill was used to study flight capacity of B. dorsalis adult females of various ages, and the changes of its flight muscle ultrastructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The flight capacity (both speed and distance) changed significantly with age of B. dorsalis female adults, peaking at about 15 d; the myofibril diameter of the flight muscle of test insects at 15-d old was the longest, up to 1.56 µm, the sarcomere length at 15-d old was the shortest, averaging at 1.37 µm, volume content of mitochondria of flight muscle at 15-d old reached the peak, it was 32.64%. This study provides the important scientific data for better revealing long-distance movement mechanism of B. dorsalis. PMID:26450591

  6. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  7. Chemosterilant bait stations coupled with sterile insect technique: an integrated strategy to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Vacas, S; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Alfaro, C

    2011-10-01

    During 2008 and 2009, the efficacy of the combination of two Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), control techniques, sterile insect technique (SIT) and a chemosterilant bait station system (Adress), was tested in three crops: citrus (Citrus spp.), stone fruit (Prunus spp.), and persimmon (Diospyros spp.). Two thousand sterile males were released per ha each week in the whole trial area (50,000 ha, SIT area). For 3,600 ha, within the whole trial area, 24 Adress traps per ha were hung (SIT + Adress area). Ten SIT + Adress plots and 10 SIT plots in each of three different fruit crops were arranged to assess Mediterranean fruit fly population densities and fruit damage throughout the trial period. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment, the male and female populations were each monitored from August 2008 to November 2009, and injured fruit was assessed before harvest. Results showed a significant reduction in the C. capitata population in plots treated with both techniques versus plots treated only with the SIT. Likewise, a corresponding reduction in the percentage of injured fruit was observed. These data indicate the compatibility of these techniques and suggest the possibility of using Adress coupled with SIT to reduce C. capitata populations in locations with high population densities, where SIT alone is not sufficiently effective to suppress fruit fly populations to below damaging levels.

  8. The preimaginal phases and development of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D; Fernández, Severiano

    2009-10-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani, 1875) (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae) using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is granulated, and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The labrum of the first instar larva does not have sensilla, and the second to fourth instar larvae have setae on the head. The mature larva is characterized by the position and number of the integumental differentiations (sensilla and setae). On completion of larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. As for the adult, the mandibles of the pupae are toothed. Five larval instars are recorded, based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles in combination with characters such as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was 18-20 days for males and 21-23 days for females at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 relative humidity, and a 16L:8D photoperiod. The results show that the eggs and different larval instars of this parasitoid can be unambiguously identified only by scanning electron microscope.

  9. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten

    2013-10-01

    Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11 degrees C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11 degrees C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C),and irradiation (0 > 30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy. No melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degrees C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.

  10. Host status of avocado ('Hass') to Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, J

    2009-08-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are pests potentially associated with avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in South Africa. The aim of the study was to determine the host status of 'Hass' avocado to these tephritid pests over 4 yr. Unpunctured harvested avocado was exposed to fruit flies in the laboratory under no-choice conditions for 24 h. In field studies, each species was exposed for 48 h under no-choice conditions to avocado attached to the tree. Fruit was harvested immediately, 4, 8 and 18 d after exposure. In all the experiments, the fruit was incubated at 25 degrees C for 49 d after harvest. Hass avocado fruit was sourced from pack-houses throughout the avocado production areas and inspected for any internal pests. Similar inspections were done from 2005 to 2008 at arrival in Europe following standard export procedures. Analysis indicated that Hass avocado is a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and a poor but potential host for C. rosa and C. cosyra. No requirement for a risk mitigation treatment for C. capitata on South African Hass avocado was found. Fruit sampling data did not produce any infested fruit, suggesting that natural conditions and/or existing procedures functioning in a systems approach are likely to mitigate the quarantine risks of C. rosa and C. cosyra on Hass avocado in South Africa.

  11. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits.

  12. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species.

  13. Genetic identification of an unknown Rhagoletis fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Chinese crabapple: implications for apple pest management.

    PubMed

    St Jean, Gilbert; Egan, Scott P; Yee, Wee L; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2013-06-01

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious introduced quarantine pest in the apple (Malus spp.)-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. In August 2011, seven fly larvae of unknown origin were discovered infesting fruit of an exotic Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Aiton) Borkhausen, in Kennewick, Benton County, WA. If confirmed, Chinese crabapple would have represented a new host for R. pomonella in Washington and triggered quarantine measures in a surrounding three-county region of the state. Here, we establish, based on five microsatellite loci, the identity of the crabapple-infesting larvae as the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, representing a new host record for the fly. Morphological analysis of six flies reared to adulthood confirmed the genetic identification. The results demonstrate the utility of integrating rapid genetic identification methods with field surveys of economic pests, which decreased detection times by months, and avoided enacting costly quarantine measures that saved local and federal bodies > US$0.5 million in monitoring, inspection, and control costs. We discuss current ongoing efforts to develop rapid, accurate, and inexpensive on site DNA-based detection tools for R. pomonella that would have general applicability for the control of pest insects.

  14. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression.

  15. Field Efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae-Based Attractant-Contaminant Device to Control Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Navarro-Llopis, V; Ayala, I; Sanchis, J; Primo, J; Moya, P

    2015-08-01

    Biological control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using entomopathogenic fungi is being studied as a viable control strategy. The efficacy of a Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)-based attractant-contaminant device (ACD) to control C. capitata was evaluated in a medium-scale (40 ha) 2-yr field trial using a density of 24 ACD per ha. Results showed that this density was adequate to efficiently reduce fruitfly populations and that the inoculation dishes (IDs) needed replacing mid-season to provide protection for the entire season. In this study, fungal treatment was even more effective than conventional chemical treatment. Population dynamics in fungus-treated fields along with the infectivity study of field-aged IDs in the laboratory found that the ACD remained effective for at least 3 mo. The results suggest M. anisopliae-based ACD can be used to control C. capitata in the field. The implications of its use, especially as a tool in an integrated pest management program, are discussed.

  16. The distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal phenology of Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Villiers, Marelize; Manrakhan, Aruna; Addison, Pia; Hattingh, Vaughan

    2013-10-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) are fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic importance in South Africa. These pests cause direct damage to a number of commercially produced fruit and are of phytosanitary concern. A study was conducted to determine the distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal occurrence of the three species in different climatic regions of South Africa. The relative abundance and seasonal phenology of C. capitata and C. rosa were also compared between production areas and home gardens in Stellenbosch, Western Cape. Yellow bucket traps baited with Biolure were used to trap the flies over a 2-yr period in the different sampling areas. Different fruit types were sampled in Stellenbosch to determine fruit fly infestation. C. capitata was found to have a widespread distribution in South Africa, whereas C. rosa were absent from or only present in low numbers in the drier regions. C. cosyra was restricted to the North East and East coast, following a similar pattern to the distribution of marula, Sclerocarrya birrea, an important wild host. Fruit in home gardens provided a breeding ground for C. capitata and C. rosa and a source for infestation of orchards when fruit started to mature, highlighting the need for an area-wide strategy for the control of fruit flies.

  17. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  18. Colonization of a hybrid strain to restore male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Barreda-Landa, Abraham

    2007-06-01

    To restore male mating competitiveness of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), reared for sterile insect releases by the Mexican Fruit fly Eradication Campaign, two strain replacement techniques were evaluated. Field cage male competitiveness tests revealed that laboratory males of the Metapa strain mated 3 times less often with wild females than field-collected wild males. A strain developed from the cross of wild males and laboratory females (hybrid strain) was similar to a strain developed from the cross of laboratory males and females (laboratory strain) in that its females produced similar amounts of eggs and the eggs displayed similar levels of hatch and egg-to-pupa transformation in artificial diet. By contrast, a strain developed from the cross of wild males and females (wild strain), forced into artificial rearing, experienced a series of bottlenecks involving reduced egg laying and extremely poor development in diet. The male F1 progeny of the hybrid strain and field-collected wild males outcompeted Fl laboratory males in field cage tests for matings with field-collected wild females. In conclusion, we found that strains developed from the cross of wild males and laboratory females allowed us to restore male mating competitiveness of F1 Mexican fruit flies without compromising mass-rearing production.

  19. Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

    2005-10-01

    Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations.

  20. Random mating among Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults of geographically distant and ecologically distinct populations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Rull, J; Pérez-Staples, D; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Sivinski, J

    2009-04-01

    The Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a polyphagous pestiferous insect with a geographical range encompassing highly variable environmental conditions. Considering that cryptic species have been recently found among South American representatives of the same taxonomic group as A. ludens, we tested whether or not some populations of A. ludens have evolved assortative mating as an isolating mechanism that maintains intrapopulation genetic differences and behavioral adaptations to local conditions. Males and females stemming from widely separated locations with similar environmental conditions and males and females stemming from populations within individual-flight range, but collected in different hosts (a native and an exotic one), mated randomly amongst themselves when placed in a field cage. Despite the fact that sibling males and females from two distinct populations also mated randomly amongst themselves, siblings engaged in significantly longer copulations than non-siblings, indicating that perhaps adults discriminated mates with similar genetic compositions. Our results have important practical implications as A. ludens is the most devastating pest of citrus in Mexico and Central America, and large-scale releases of sterile flies are used to control it.

  1. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2010-08-01

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatment research against tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) has used artificially infested fruit with the unstated and untested assumption that the method adequately simulated a natural situation. We compare grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfayden, naturally infested by Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), via oviposition until larvae reached the late third instar versus insertion of diet-reared third instars into holes made in grapefruits 24 h before irradiation; the latter technique has been used in other studies. Both infestation techniques resulted in statistically indistinguishable results, indicating that insertion of diet-reared third instar Mexican fruit fly into holes bored into grapefruit and subsequently sealed 24 h before irradiation would adequately represent natural infestation and could be used to develop a radiation phytosanitary treatment of the insect in grapefruit when prevention of adult emergence is used as the measure of efficacy. Nevertheless, it may not be advisable to extend this conclusion to other fruit fly/fruit combinations without doing appropriate comparison studies. Dissection of puparia from nonirradiated control insects that failed to emerge as adults showed a relatively even distribution of mortality among the developmental stages within the puparium. In contrast, dissection of puparia from irradiated third instars that did not emerge as adults revealed a sharp attenuation in development from cryptocephalic to phanerocephalic pupae demonstrating this transition to be the developmental step most affected by radiation.

  2. Histopathological Changes in Third-Instar and Adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) After in vitro Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce. PMID:25797796

  3. Evaluation of Food Lures for Capture and Monitoring of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Temperate Fruit Trees.

    PubMed

    Rosa, J M da; Arioli, C J; Santos, J P Dos; Menezes-Netto, A C; Botton, M

    2017-03-16

    The Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the main pest of fruit trees grown in temperate climates in the southern region of Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the major commercial food lures used in Brazil for trapping and monitoring of A. fraterculus in plum, pear, and feijoa orchards. The assessed lures were hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin (CeraTrap) and plant origin (BioAnastrepha), torula yeast + borax (Torula), and grape juice. Response variables included the rate of adult capture (flies per trap per day, FTD) and the percentage of females captured. We also evaluated the number of times the weekly capture rate exceeded the traditional threshold of 0.5 FTD for each lure. Traps baited with grape juice, currently used for monitoring A. fraterculus in Southern Brazil, captured fewer adults and a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures. CeraTrap trapped a greater number of A. fraterculus adults and, in some cases, a lower percentage of females compared with the other lures in pears. Traps baited with CeraTrap had greater capture rates (FTD), particularly during the stages of fruit maturation and harvest, and even in years with low population density of A. fraterculus, thus demonstrating greater sensitivity in the detection of this pest. These results show that, in order to detect and monitor the presence of A. fraterculus in plum, feijoa, and pear crops, protein-based lures are superior to grape juice, especially the animal protein CeraTrap.

  4. Half of the European fruit fly species barcoded (Diptera, Tephritidae); a feasibility test for molecular identification

    PubMed Central

    Smit, John; Reijnen, Bastian; Stokvis, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A feasibility test of molecular identification of European fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on COI barcode sequences has been executed. A dataset containing 555 sequences of 135 ingroup species from three subfamilies and 42 genera and one single outgroup species has been analysed. 73.3% of all included species could be identified based on their COI barcode gene, based on similarity and distances. The low success rate is caused by singletons as well as some problematic groups: several species groups within the genus Terellia and especially the genus Urophora. With slightly more than 100 sequences – almost 20% of the total – this genus alone constitutes the larger part of the failure for molecular identification for this dataset. Deleting the singletons and Urophora results in a success-rate of 87.1% of all queries and 93.23% of the not discarded queries as correctly identified. Urophora is of special interest due to its economic importance as beneficial species for weed control, therefore it is desirable to have alternative markers for molecular identification. We demonstrate that the success of DNA barcoding for identification purposes strongly depends on the contents of the database used to BLAST against. Especially the necessity of including multiple specimens per species of geographically distinct populations and different ecologies for the understanding of the intra- versus interspecific variation is demonstrated. Furthermore thresholds and the distinction between true and false positives and negatives should not only be used to increase the reliability of the success of molecular identification but also to point out problematic groups, which should then be flagged in the reference database suggesting alternative methods for identification. PMID:24453563

  5. Impact of Prolonged Absence of Low Temperature on Adult Eclosion Patterns of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2017-03-25

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R. indifferens. Here, we examined this question by exposing R. indifferens pupae for 40 wk to simulated temperate and tropical conditions of 23 or 26 °C, 40 or 80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 or 12:12 (L:D) h. Eclosion patterns among fly groups in the four conditions did not differ. For all groups, fly eclosion from pupae not exposed to cold exhibited a bimodal distribution. The first major peak, comprising 3.2% of the total fly emergence, occurred at 1-10 wk. The second major peak, comprising the remaining 96.8%, occurred at a mode of ∼30 wk. Based on responses to no cold and cold (3 ± 1.5 °C) exposures, there were three distinct pupal diapause groups: the first eclosion group was likely nondiapausing pupae; the second eclosion group was likely diapausing pupae; a third group that remained viable but did not produce adults after 40 wk may represent prolonged dormancy pupae. We suggest that eclosion of adults after prolonged absence of cold exposure needs to be incorporated into models for potential fly establishment in warm climates.

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2011-02-01

    Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

  7. Thermal death kinetics of Mediterranean, Malaysian, melon, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and third instars.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, John W; Tang, Juming; Wang, Shaojin

    2009-04-01

    The late-aged egg and third-instar life stages of laboratory-reared Malaysian fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel); Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett; and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), (Diptera: Tephritidae); and the third instars of wild Mediterranean fruit fly were exposed to thermal treatments. A heating block system was used to determine the thermal death kinetics of the four fruit fly species. Treatments consisted of heating the fruit fly life stages to 44, 46, 48, and 50 degrees C and holding for different times ranging from 0 to 120 min depending on the thermal mortality response and time required to obtain 100% mortality for each species and life stage. The 0.5-order kinetic model had the best fit to the survival ratio for all the treatment temperatures and was used to predict lethal times. The thermal death time (TDT) curves showed a tolerance order of Mediterranean fruit fly eggs < or = third instars at 44, 46, and 50 degrees C, third instars < or = eggs at 48 degrees C, and wild third instars < the laboratory-reared third instars. Comparison between Mediterranean fruit fly third instar thermotolerance from Hawaii and Israel showed that Israel Mediterranean fruit fly was more thermotolerant. A comparison of minimum treatment times at a given temperature required to obtain 100% mortality of laboratory-reared Malaysian, Mediterranean (Hawaii and Israel strains), melon, Mexican, and oriental fruit fly eggs or third instars and wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Hawaii strain) eggs or third instars showed that oriental fruit fly was the most thermotolerant among the third instars, and the difference in heat tolerance between third instars and eggs was negligible at 50 degrees C.

  8. The preimaginal stages and development of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tormos, José; Beitia, Francisco; Böckmann, Elias A; Asís, Josep D

    2009-01-01

    The development and morphology of the immature phases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) are described from a laboratory rearing culture maintained on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera, Tephritidae), using microscopic techniques, including light and scanning electron microscopy. The surface of the chorion of the egg is smooth and the micropyle occurs at the anterior end. The immature larvae are similar to the mature larva, differing mainly in the size of the head capsule and mandibles. The mature larva displays tubercules on the body segments as well as a pleurostoma and superior and inferior mandibular processes. On completion of its larval development, an adecticous and exarate pupa is produced. The mandibles of the pupa, as for the adult, are toothed. Three larval instars are recorded based on statistical analyses of the sizes of the larval mandibles and head capsules, in combination with such characters as the number of exuviae and excretion of the meconium. There are significant positive correlations between mandible length and width of larval head capsule with the number of instars, thus indicating that the mandible length and width of larval capsule are good predictors of the number of instars in this parasitoid. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence was approximately 33-34 days for females and approximately 28-29 days for males at 21-26 degrees C, 55-85 RH and a L16:D8 photoperiod. Our results show that the eggs and different instars of S. cameroni can be unambiguously identified only by SEM. Therefore, characterization of the immature stages of Spalangia species using SEM should be done before subsequent routine identifications using a binocular microscope or stereomicroscope.

  9. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert R; Vazquez, Aime; Schnell, Elena Q; Villareal, Janett; Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D

    2009-12-01

    Several species of Anastrepha and Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are captured in traps baited with the protein bait NuLure combined with borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) in an aqueous solution, typically 9% NuLure (vol:vol) with 3% borax (wt:vol). NuLure is an acid hydrolysate of corn and has an acidic pH. Addition of borax makes the solution more alkaline, and increase in alkalinity results in increase of ammonia release from the bait solution. This is a very dynamic system, with resultant pH affected by factors such as the amount of borax added, the pH of the water used for preparation, the age of the bait solution, and the development of microbial growth. Problems with borax include amount needed to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions, which creates difficulties in disposing of spent bait in fruit fly trapping programs. Therefore, research was conducted to evaluate NaOH as an alternative method to increase alkalinity of NuLure solutions. Laboratory experiments compared effect of NaOH versus borax for pH modification on changes in pH and ammonia content of NuLure solutions over time. Although NuLure/NaOH solutions could be adjusted to a more alkaline pH than NuLure/borax solutions, borax plays a critical role in pH stability over time. However, the pH of NuLure/NaOH is stabilized when propylene glycol (10% vol:vol) was used to prepare the bait solution. The use of NaOH can provide an alternative to the use of borax to increase bait solution alkalinity.

  10. Intra- and interspecific competition and host race formation in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Feder, Jeffrey L; Reynolds, Katherine; Go, Wesley; Wang, Emma C

    1995-04-01

    Intra- and interspecific resource competition are potentially important factors affecting host plant use by phytophagous insects. In particular, escape from competitors could mediate a successful host shift by compensating for decreased feeding performance on a new plant. Here, we examine the question of host plant-dependent competition for apple (Malus pumila)- and hawthorn (Crataegus mollis)-infesting larvae of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) at a field site near Grant, Michigan, USA. Interspecific competition from tortricid (Cydia pomonella, Grapholita prunivora, and Grapholita packardi) and agonoxenid (subfamily Blastodacninae) caterpillars and a curculionid weevil (Conotrachelus crataegi) was much stronger for R. pomonella larvae infesting the ancestral host hawthorn than the derived host apple. Egg to pupal survivorship was estimated as 52.8% for fly larvae infesting hawthorn fruit without caterpillars and weevils compared to only 27.3% for larvae in harthorns with interspecific insects. Survivorship was essentially the same between fly larvae infesting apples in the presence (44.8%) or absence (42.6%) of interspecific insects. Intraspecific competition among maggots was also stronger in hawthorns than apples. The order or time that a larva exited a hawthorn fruit was a significant determinant of its pupal mass, with earlier emerging larvae being heavier than later emerging larvae. This was not the case for larvae in apples, as the order or time that a larva exited an apple fruit had relatively little influence on its pupal mass. Our findings suggest that decreased performance related to host plant chemistry/nutrition may restrict host range expansion and race formation in R. pomonella to those plants where biotic/ecological factors (i.e. escape from competitors and parasitoids) adequately balance the survivorship equation. This balance permits stable fly populations to persist on novel plants, setting the stage for the

  11. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana isolated from Moroccan Argan forests soil against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Imoulan, Abdessamad; Elmeziane, Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major tephritid pest in Morocco. This pest survives in Moroccan forests Argania spinosa and continually invades the nearest agricultural areas. Entomopathogenic fungi are an interesting tool for fruit fly control and hold a useful alternative to conventional insecticides. However, primary selection of effective pathogens should be taken in laboratory condition prior to applying them in the field. Here, we used third late instar larvae of C. capitata to investigate the effectiveness of 15 local Beauveria bassiana isolates. Results showed that all isolates were able to infect the larval stage, producing a large mortality rate in puparia ranging from 65 to 95 % and caused significant reduction in adult emergence. The fungal treatments revealed that the mycosis occurred also in adults escaping infection as pupariating larvae. The percentage of mycosed puparia was highest in strain TAM6.2 (95 %) followed by ERS4.16 (90 %), therefore they were the most virulent. Median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) was studied for five isolates at four concentrations ranging from 10⁵ to 10⁸ conidia ml⁻¹. The results showed that the slopes of regression lines for B. bassiana ERS4.16 (slope = 0.386) and TAM6.2 (slope = 0.41) were the most important and had the lowest LC₅₀ values (2.85 × 10³ and 3.16 × 10³ conidia ml⁻¹ respectively). This investigation suggests that the soil of Argan forests contains pathogenic B. bassiana isolates and highlights for the first time their potential as biological control toward C. capitata larval stage in Morocco.

  12. Laboratory and realized host ranges of Chaetorellia succinea (Diptera: Tephritidae), an unintentionally introduced natural enemy of yellow starthistle.

    PubMed

    Balciunas, Joe K; Villegas, Baldo

    2007-08-01

    In 1999, we reported our discovery, in California and Oregon, of Chaetorellia succinea (Costa) (Diptera: Tephritidae) destroying the seeds of yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis L., one of the worst weeds in the western United States. This fly, an unintentional introduction from Greece, dispersed rapidly throughout California and the northwest, and there is interest in using this adventive fly as a classical biological control agent for this weed. Because the host range of Ch. succinea has not been studied, this fly might pose a risk to other members of the thistle tribe Cardueae, especially the many thistle species native to California and other parts of the western United States. We determined the physiological host range of this fly in the laboratory by exposing it under no-choice conditions to 14 potential Cardueae hosts. Two introduced weed species and the native American basketflower (Centaurea americana Nuttall) were laboratory hosts. Under less restrictive choice test conditions, yellow starthistle was highly preferred, but there was a small amount of oviposition, and a few adult Ch. succinea emerged from all three of these plant species. Because Ch. succinea is now widespread throughout California, we collected flower heads from 24 potential host plant species at 111 sites to determine the realized host range in the field. These collections did not include American basketflower, which does not occur naturally in California. Ch. succinea emerged only from the other two known hosts: Ce. melitensis and Ce. sulfurea. Our results suggest that American basketflower growing in the southwestern United States may be at risk if Ch. succinea expands its range into that region.

  13. Determination of the Host Status of the 'Persian' Lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) for Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; López, Gladis; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Field and laboratory no-choice oviposition tests were performed to determine whether the 'Persian' lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka) is a host of Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae). Trapping and fruit sampling were performed to determine adult population densities and the level of infestation in the two lime orchards. Additionally, unharvested and harvested limes were exposed to sexually mature flies and the number of eggs laid and the immature developmental rates were determined. As a control, parthenocarpic 'Ataulfo' mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), a suitable host for A. ludens, were exposed to similar experimental procedures. The fecundity and fertility of adults obtained from limes and mangoes were compared. Our results demonstrate that A. ludens, under forced infestation conditions, oviposit on limes and also on control fruit. However, differences were detected in unharvested and harvested fruit, as unharvested limes were not infested. In the case of harvested fruit, the numbers of eggs laid and survival rates of immatures were significantly lower for 'Persian' limes compared with mangoes. Egg clutches were larger in limes than in mangoes, and most were deposited in the albedo rather than in the pulp. Moreover, oviposition rates were much higher in limes than in mangoes. Despite the fact that few of the immatures reached adulthood, the females obtained from limes were as fecund and fertile as those obtained from mangoes. Although adult A. ludens flies were captured in the two orchards, fruit sampling showed a complete absence of natural infestation among 'Persian' limes. We discuss the importance of our findings for determining the host status for 'Persian' limes.

  14. Economic and Highly Effective Trap-Lure Combination to Monitor the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Orchard Level.

    PubMed

    Lasa, R; Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Antonio, S; Aluja, M

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring population levels of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), at the orchard level prior and during the fruit ripening period can result in significant savings in the costs of managing this pestiferous insect. Unfortunately, to date, no highly effective and economically viable trap is available to growers. To move toward this goal, trap-lure combinations were evaluated in trials performed in citrus orchards in Veracruz, Mexico. CeraTrap, an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein from pig intestinal mucose, was 3.6 times more attractive to A. ludens than the most commonly used bait of Captor (hydrolyzed protein and borax) when using Multilure traps. When several commercial traps were evaluated, the efficacy of a simple and inexpensive transparent polyethylene (PET) bottle with 10-mm lateral holes was similar to that of the costly Multilure trap when baited with CeraTrap and significantly more effective than a Multilure trap baited with Captor. PET bottles filled with Cera Trap, rebaited at 8-wk intervals, and tested in trials encompassing 72 ha of citrus groves, were significantly more effective than Multilure traps baited with Captor that need to be serviced weekly. In addition to this relevant finding, CeraTrap baited traps detected A. ludens at lower population densities and attracted a significantly higher number of flies at all densities when compared with Captor-baited traps. We conclude that CeraTrap represents a cost-effective and highly efficient bait that will enable us to pursue the goal of developing economic thresholds, a badly needed management tool for A. ludens.

  15. Histopathological changes in third-instar and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) after in vitro heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Caro-Corrales, Lorena; Caro-Corrales, Jose; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Lopez-Valenzuela, Jose; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Coronado-Velazquez, Daniel; Hernandez-Ortiz, Emilio; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most harmful pests of mango causing direct damage by oviposition on the fruit pulp. Mango for export is subjected to hydrothermal treatment as a quarantine method for the control of this pest, but exposure to heat for long periods of time reduces considerably the quality and shelf-life of treated fruit. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes of third-instar larvae and adults of A. ludens after in vitro exposure to high temperature at sublethal times. A heating block system was used to expose larvae at 46.1°C for 19.6 and 12.9 min, producing 94.6 and 70% mortality, respectively. Treated larvae were processed for optical microscopy. A fraction of surviving treated larvae was separated into containers with artificial diet to allow development into adults. Adult sexual organs were dissected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Results showed that 94.6% of the treated larvae died at 46.1°C for 19.6 min and none of the surviving larvae eclosed to adulthood, as they developed as malformed puparia. For the in vitro treatment at 46.1°C during 12.9 min, 70% of the treated larvae died and only 3.75% reached the adult stage, but ultrastructural damage in the male testes and in the female ovaries was observed. Additionally, 11.1% of the adult flies from the in vitro treatment also showed wing malformation and were incapable of flying. The analysis showed that surviving flies were unable to reproduce.

  16. Influence of media type and moisture on adult development and pupal mortality in Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2013-06-01

    The influence of media type and moisture on adult development and pupal mortality in western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae), was assessed using the pupal-adult and the larval-pupal stage. Inside containers, a higher percent of flies that emerged from dry loam was deformed (44.2%, 1-cm-depth loam; 84.4%, 5-cm-depth loam) than flies from 16% moist loam and dry and 16% moist lab soil (peat moss-sand mix) (0-14.9%). Percent of flies deformed from dry sand (22.1%, 1-cm depth; 49.5%, 5-cm depth) was greater than from 16% moist sand and dry and 16% moist peat moss (0-10.5%). Percents of flies deformed from 8% moist loam, lab soil, sand, and peat moss (0-5.8%) did not differ. Pupae suffered higher mortality at 7 and 14 d after larvae were dropped onto dry loam and dry sand (68.2-94.0%) than dry lab soil and dry peat moss (3.0-53.0%); respective mortalities at 21 and 28 d were similar (81.3-96.0 versus 64.7-97.9%). Pupal mortality in moist media was lower (0.5-40.3%) than in dry media. In outdoor tests, pupal mortality was also higher in dry loam than other dry media. In nature, 60.9% of pupae in dry sandy loams in late summer were dead. Results suggest R. indifferens has not yet evolved to fully cope with dry soils and that pupation in media with traits similar to those of peat moss or a peat moss-sand mix could reduce negative effects of dry environments on fly survival.

  17. Temperature-Mediated Kill and Oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Presence of Spinosad.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2016-02-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the efficacy of spinosad can be useful for improving fly control. Here, the major objective was to determine if temperature mediates kill and oviposition of R. indifferens in the presence of low spinosad coverage in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted by placing flies in cages with cherries and with a Petri dish containing 3-12 small spots of dry spinosad at 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4°C. Effects of spinosad rates were also determined. More flies were killed at 23.9 and 29.4°C than at 18.3°C by 1-7 d post exposure. More flies were killed at 29.4 than 23.9°C by 1 d post exposure. However, flies laid more eggs at these temperatures than at 18.3°C. Higher spinosad rates increased kill and decreased oviposition, but even within the highest rate, oviposition was greater at 29.4 than 18.3°C. More flies walked over 5-min observation periods at 29.4 and 23.9°C than 18.3°C, suggesting higher temperatures up to 29.4°C increase kill by increasing fly contact with spinosad as well as increase oviposition rate. Results suggest that spinosad rates in sprays used against R. indifferens should be greater at higher than lower ambient temperatures.

  18. Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; Jessup, Andrew J; Islam, Amirul

    2011-02-01

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) is spreading throughout central Africa attacking a variety of fruit; quarantines are placed on fruit from this region that are considered hosts. The only phytosanitary treatment that is commercially available is an ionizing irradiation treatment for all Tephritidae at 150 Gy. The development of other treatments, such as heat, cold, or fumigation, usually requires testing tens of thousands of insects at a dose that provides efficacy and may take several years. It may be possible to shorten the time required to develop treatments by comparing tolerance of a new quarantine pest to tolerances of pests with similar behaviors and modes of infestation for which treatment schedules are available. Cold and heat tolerance ofB. invadens was compared with tolerance of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in vitro. Third-instar B. invadens was no more cold tolerant than the other species when treated in diet at 0.94 +/- 0.65 degrees C and no more heat tolerant than C. capitata when immersed in vials in water at 44.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C. The data at 0.94 +/- 0.65 degrees C was used to include B. invadens in a USDA cold treatment schedule for citrus fruit from Africa so that trade would not be interrupted while protecting U.S. agriculture from this invasive pest.

  19. Do thermal tolerances and rapid thermal responses contribute to the invasion potential of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)?

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Welma; Terblanche, John S; Addison, Pia

    2017-04-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) has shown remarkable range expansion over the past 10years and invaded several new continents including Africa. Here we report results of a detailed assessment of acute high and low temperature survival ability and the plasticity thereof, to test the hypothesis that traits of the thermal niche have contributed to the species' invasion ability. We also assess life-stage-related variation of thermal tolerances to determine potential stage-related environmental sensitivity. The temperatures at which c. 20% of the population survived of B. dorsalis were determined to be -6.5°C and 42.7°C, respectively, when using 2h exposures. Further, four life stages of B. dorsalis (egg, 3rd instar larvae, pupae and adults) were exposed to high and low discriminating temperatures to compare their thermal survival rates. The egg stage was found to be the most resistant life stage to both high and low temperatures, since 44±2.3% survived the low and 60±4.2% survived the high discriminating temperature treatments respectively. Finally, the potential for adult hardening responses to mediate tolerance of extremes was also considered using a diverse range of acute conditions (using 2h exposures to 15°C, 10°C and 5°C and 30°C, 35°C, 37°C and 39°C as hardening temperatures, and some treatments with and without recovery periods between hardening and discriminating temperature treatment). These showed that although some significant hardening responses could be detected in certain treatments (e.g. after exposure to 37°C and 39°C), the magnitude of this plasticity was generally low compared to two other wide-spread and more geographically-range-restricted con-familial species, Ceratitis capitata and C. rosa. In other words, Bactrocera dorsalis adults were unable to rapidly heat- or cold-harden to the same extent as the other Ceratitis species examined to date. These results suggest a narrower thermal niche in B. dorsalis compared

  20. Including climate change in pest risk assessment: the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Ni, W L; Li, Z H; Chen, H J; Wan, F H; Qu, W W; Zhang, Z; Kriticos, D J

    2012-04-01

    Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is one of the most harmful species of Tephritidae. It causes extensive damage in Asia and threatens many countries located along or near the Mediterranean Sea. The climate mapping program, CLIMEX 3.0, and the GIS software, ArcGIS 9.3, were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of B. zonata. The model predicts that, under current climatic conditions, B. zonata will be able to establish itself throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including some parts of the USA, southern China, southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand. Climate change scenarios for the 2070s indicate that the potential distribution of B. zonata will expand poleward into areas which are currently too cold. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion are cold, hot and dry stress. The model's predictions of the numbers of generations produced annually by B. zonata were consistent with values previously recorded for the pest's occurrence in Egypt. The ROC curve and the AUC (an AUC of 0.912) were obtained to evaluate the performance of the CLIMEX model in this study. The analysis of this information indicated a high degree of accuracy for the CLIMEX model. The significant increases in the potential distribution of B. zonata projected under the climate change scenarios considered in this study suggest that biosecurity authorities should consider the effects of climate change when undertaking pest risk assessments. To prevent the introduction and spread of B. zonata, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  1. The gene transformer-2 of Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and its evolution in insects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    relationships, probably represent the ancestral state (which still exists in the Tephritidae, Calliphoridae and Muscidae lineages) of the extant cascade found in the Drosophilidae lineage (in which tra is just another component of the sex determination gene cascade regulated by Sex-lethal). In the phylogenetic lineage that gave rise to the drosophilids, evolution co-opted for Sex-lethal, modified it, and converted it into the key gene controlling sex determination. PMID:20465812

  2. Response of female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad bait and polymer matrix mixture with extended residual effect in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Gomez, Luis E; Mau, Ronald F L; Vargas, Roger I

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of foliar applications of protein baits against pestiferous fruit flies (Tephritidae) can be adversely affected by a rapid loss of attractive volatile compounds and by rainfall due to the high water solubility of the baits. In a large coffee, Coffea arabica L., plantation in Hawaii with high and low populations of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the relative attractiveness of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait as either a 40% (vol:vol) spray solution (= GF-120 NF) or as a formulated proprietary amorphous polymer matrix (= GF-120 APM) was compared. The GF-120 APM formulations contained either, 25, 50, or 75% of GF-120 NF (wt:wt). All baits were tested in association with visually attractive yellow bait stations as a way of standardizing the evaluations. With both high and low C. capitata populations, significantly more females were attracted to the fresh sprayed GF-120 NF than to any of the three fresh GF-120 APM formulations. The attractiveness of GF-120 sprayed decreased significantly after 1 wk, whereas 1-wk-old GF-120 APM formulations were as attractive as similar fresh formulations. GF-120 APM 75% aged for 3 wk outperformed similarly-aged sprayed GF-120 NF with comparatively high C. capitata populations. With low populations, both GF-120 APM 75% and GF-120 APM 50% aged for 2 wk outperformed the similarly aged sprayed GF-120 NF. Combined findings indicate that APM mixed with either 50 or 75% GF-120 applied to bait stations can be attractive to female C. capitata for up to 3 wk longer than the standard sprayed GF-120 NF.

  3. Quality management systems for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile insect technique

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Robinson, A.; Shelly, T.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    cinco anos bajo el proyecto de Investigacion Coordinada (PIC) sobre 'el Aseguramiento de la Calidad de Moscas de las Frutas Criadas y Liberadas para su Uso en Programas de TIE'. Los participantes en el PIC representan 16 paises con experiencia en campos de investigacion basica y aplicada. Para asegurar que los procedimientos desarrollados fueran apropiados y pertinentes, se realizaron una variedad de estudios para el desarrollo de protocolos para evaluar la compatibilidad y para mejorar los procedimientos de colonizacion y manejo de cepas salvajes. Estudios especificos trataron asuntos relacionados con la nutricion de insectos, los protocolos de irradiacion, la dispersion y supervivencia en el campo, evaluacion del comportamiento en jaulas de campo, y el mejoramiento de la competitividad sexual. Los objetivos fundamentales fueron el aumentar la eficiencia y reducir los costos de los programas operacionales de control de moscas de las frutas donde TIE es utilizada. Muchos de los protocolos desarrollados o mejorados durante el PIC seran incorporados en el Manual Internacional de Control de Calidad para Moscas Estriles de la familia Tephritidae, para estandarizar componentes claves como la produccion, esterilizacion, envio, manejo y liberacion de insectos esteriles. (author)

  4. Detection of an apple-infesting popoulation of Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Colorado, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) 1867 (Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of apples (Malus domesica Borkh.) (Rosaceae) throughout much of the United States. The fly is endemic to the eastern U.S., where its primary host plants are several species of native hawthorns (C...

  5. New species of Gymnocarena Hering (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Eastern North America and Guatemala, and the redescription of G. mississippiensis Norrbom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe three new species of fruit flies (Tephritidae: Tephritinae), Gymnocarena defoei sp. n. and G. norrbomi sp. n., from eastern North America and G. monzoni sp. n. from Guatemala, and redescribe G. mississippiensis Norrbom. Gymnocarena monzoni is the first species to be recorded from Guatema...

  6. An evaluation of the species status of Bactrocera invadens and the Systematics of the Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Bactrocera (Tephritidae) contains over 500 species, including many severe pests of fruits and vegetables. While native to tropical and sub-tropical areas of Africa, India, Southeast Asia and Australasia, a number of the pest species, largely members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, have...

  7. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early research during the 1930’s focused on attractants for the Mexican fruit fly indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were ca...

  8. Insecticidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Peperomia borbonensis Miq. (Piperaceae) and its major components against the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Dorla, Emmanuelle; Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe

    2017-03-08

    The essential oil from leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC50 ) and 90% (LC90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC50 was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm² and the LC90 was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm² for the EO. The median lethal time (LT50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT50 = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT50 = 127± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Combining field phenological observations with distribution data to model the potential distribution of the fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    de Villiers, M; Hattingh, V; Kriticos, D J

    2013-02-01

    Despite the potential for phenological and abundance data to improve the reliability of species niche models, they are seldom used. The aim of this study was to combine information on the distribution, relative abundance and seasonal phenology of Natal fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae), in South Africa to model its potential global distribution. Bucket traps, baited with Biolure, were used to trap C. rosa in different climatic regions of South Africa over a two-year period. A CLIMEX niche model of the potential global distribution of C. rosa was fitted using the collected trapping data and other distribution records from South Africa. Independent distribution records for elsewhere in Africa were reserved for model validation. The CLIMEX model results conformed well to the South African trapping data, including information on relative abundance and seasonal phenology, as well as to the pattern of presence records of the species elsewhere in Africa. The model suggests that under recent historical conditions a large part of South America, Central America, Mexico and southern USA may be climatically suitable for establishment of C. rosa. In Europe, climatically suitable habitat is restricted to coastal regions of the Mediterranean, in Asia, mostly to the southern and south eastern countries, and in Australia mostly to the wetter south and east. The independent cross-validation provided by South African relative abundance and seasonal phenology data, central African distribution data and relevant species specific biological information provides greater confidence in the modelled potential distribution of C. rosa.

  10. Efficacy of ground spray application of bait sprays with malathion or spinosad on Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Texas citrus.

    PubMed

    Conway, Hugh E; Forrester, O Thomas

    2011-04-01

    An important component in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), eradication program is bait spray application to knock down localized A. ludens infestations enhancing the sterile to wild fly ratio and increasing the effectiveness of the sterile insect release program. Efficacy tests were conducted using spray equipment that applies ultralow application rates of malathion NU-LURE or GF-120 spinosad by ground into citrus. Trapit Dome traps located in fields treated with malathion NU-LURE and GF-120 spinosad high rate caught significantly fewer flies than the control in all replications. Treatments reduced the Mexican fruit fly populations by 99.1 and 92.5% with malathion and 98.2 and 89.9% with GF-120 spinosad high rate. Traps in plots with lower rates of GF-120 reduced fly populations by 76.3 and 74.3% in winter and summer test, respectively. There was no indication of fly repulsion from either malathion or GF-120 spinosad during this test. The bait spray option using ground spray equipment to apply ultra-low rates of either malathion NU-LURE or GF-120 spinosad high rate is a viable cost effective treatment method to treat small acreages for A. ludens. For organic growers, the ground spray equipment is effective in applying GF-120 spinosad at the labeled rates.

  11. The effect of irradiation and mass rearing on the anti-predator behaviour of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rao, D; Aguilar-Argüello, S; Montoya, P; Díaz-Fleischer, F

    2014-04-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are major pests worldwide. The sterile insect technique, where millions of flies are reared, sterilized by irradiation and then released, is one of the most successful and ecologically friendly methods of controlling populations of these pests. The mating behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated flies has been compared in earlier studies, but there has been little attention paid to the anti-predator behaviour of mass-reared flies, especially with respect to wild flies. Tephritid flies perform a supination display to their jumping spider predators in order to deter attacks. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using this display to determine the anti-predator capabilities of mass-reared irradiated, non-irradiated flies, and wild flies. We used an arena setup and observed bouts between jumping spiders (Phidippus audax Hentz) and male Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). We show that although all flies performed a supination display to their predator, wild flies were more likely to perform a display and were significantly more successful in avoiding attack than mass-reared flies. We suggest that this interaction can be used to develop a rapid realistic method of quality control in evaluating anti-predator abilities of mass-reared fruit flies.

  12. Effects of bait age and prior protein feeding on cumulative time-dependent mortality of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to GF-120 spinosad baits.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    A fruit fly bait to attract and kill adult fruit flies, GF-120, was tested in cages to determine effects of pretreatment diet and bait aging before use on cumulative mortality rates of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Protein-starved and protein-fed, 9-d-old flies both experienced varying overall cumulative mortality at 4, 8, 24, and 48 h. Pretreatment diet had no significant effect on mortality. Overall mortality rates were below 10% for 4 h, 39-43% at 8 h, but mortality in all treatments increased to 89-93% by 24 h, and 99% by 48 h. In a second experiment, GF-120 baits were either freshly prepared or aged for 24 h. Subtreatments consisted of protein-fed and protein-starved flies. The 24-h-aged bait killed significantly more flies at 4 and 8 h than the freshly prepared bait. Protein-starved flies had significantly higher mortality at 4 h and marginally higher mortality at 8 h than protein-fed flies. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences among treatments, and overall morality rose to 99-100% by 48 h. These results may explain differences noted in previous publications in which fruit fly mortality to GF-120 was reported as unusually low as well as reports of bait ineffectiveness for protein-fed flies. The overall impact of any initial repellency of GF-120 seems negligible as judged by overall cumulative mortality at later evaluation times.

  13. Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the Afrotropical region: host plant range and distribution in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Goergen, Georg; Vayssières, Jean-François; Gnanvossou, Désiré; Tindo, Maurice

    2011-08-01

    In 2003, the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Drew et al. 2005), of possible Sri Lankan origin, has been detected in the East and about 1 yr later in West Africa. In regular surveys in Benin and Cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. Incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in West and Central Africa (WCA) B. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits of at least 46 species from 23 plant families with guava (Psidium spp.), mango (Mangifera spp.), and citrus (spp.), and the wild hosts tropical almond (Terminalia catappa L.), African wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte) Baill.), and sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn.) showing the highest infestation index. B. invadens occurs in 22 countries of WCA with new records for Angola, Central African Republic, the Congo, DR Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Sierra Leone. Overall, the pest has spread across a North-South distance of ≍5,000 km representing a contiguous area of >8.3 million km(2) within WCA. B. invadens has adapted to a wide range of ecological and climatic conditions extending from low land rainforest to dry savanna. Because of its highly destructive and invasive potential, B. invadens poses a serious threat to horticulture in Africa if left uncontrolled. Moreover, the presence of this quarantine pest causes considerable restrictions on international trade of affected crops.

  14. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower.

    PubMed

    Knodel, Janet J; Ganehiarachchi, G A S M; Beauzay, Patrick B; Chirumamilla, Anitha; Charlet, Laurence D

    2011-08-01

    Neotephritisfinalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N. finalis and S. helianthana in several production regions of North Dakota during 2009 and 2010. Results of the nine site-year study revealed that late planting date (early to mid-June) reduced damage ratings and percentage of damaged heads for N. finalis compared with early planting dates (mid- to late May). Visual observations of adult N. finalis found that the majority of flies were found in the early planted sunflower (78.2%) compared with the late planted sunflower (21.8%). Late planting date also reduced the percentage of S. helianthana damaged heads compared with early planting dates. Yield losses were reduced with late planting date when populations of N. finalis and S. helianthana were high enough to cause damage. Results of this study showed that delayed planting is an effective integrated pest management strategy that can reduce head damage caused by N. finalis and S. helianthana and mitigate yield losses.

  15. Breakfast of champions or kiss of death? Survival and sexual performance of protein-fed, sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuval, B.; Maor, M.; Levy, K.; Kaspi, R.; Taylor, P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly being used around the world to control Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly as part of an area-wide integrated approach. One option that may improve the effectiveness of the SIT, by increasing the sexual competitiveness of released sterile males, consists of feeding males protein during the post-teneral stage, a diet that increases sexual performance of wild males. We examine the effects of diet on the successive hurdles males must overcome in order to inseminate females, i.e., joining leks, copulating females, having their sperm stored and inhibition of female remating. In addition, we address the effects of diet on post-release foraging success, longevity, and the ability to withstand starvation. While protein feeding universally increases the sexual success of wild males, its effect on sterile males varies with strain, experimental settings, and environmental conditions. In some cases, treatments that resulted in the best sexual performance were significantly associated with increased vulnerability to starvation. However, no particular diet affected the ability of sterile males to find nutrients in the field when these where available. We suggest it may be better to release relatively short-lived flies that are highly competitive, rather than long-lived, sexually ineffective ones. (author) [Spanish] El uso de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) esta aumentando alrededor del mundo para el control de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), la mosca mediterranea de la fruta como parte de un enfoque integrado por toda el area. Una opcion que puede mejorar la eficiencia de TIE, por medio del aumento de la capacidad de los machos esteriles liberados para competir, consiste en la alimentacion de los machos con proteina durante la etapa de pos-teneral, una dieta que aumenta el desempeno sexual de los machos naturales. Nosotros examinamos los efectos de la

  16. Dispersion of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at high and low densities and consequences of mismatching dispersions of wild and sterile flies

    SciTech Connect

    Meats, A.

    2007-03-15

    Both wild and released (sterile) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and wild Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) in Australia had patchy distributions and comparisons with predictions of the negative binomial model indicated that the degree of clumping was sometimes very high, particularly at low densities during eradication. An increase of mean recapture rate of sterile B. tryoni on either of 2 trap arrays was not accompanied by a reduction in its coefficient of variation and when recapture rates were high, the percentage of traps catching zero decreased only slightly with increase in recapture rate, indicating that it is not practicable to decrease the heterogeneity of dispersion of sterile flies by increasing the number released. There was often a mismatch between the dispersion patterns of the wild and sterile flies, and the implications of this for the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) were investigated with a simulation study with the observed degrees of mismatch obtained from the monitoring data and assuming the overall ratio of sterile to wild flies to be 100:1. The simulation indicated that mismatches could result in the imposed rate of increase of wild flies being up to 3.5 times higher than that intended (i.e., 0.35 instead of 0.1). The effect of a mismatch always reduces the efficiency of SIT. The reason for this asymmetry is discussed and a comparison made with host-parasitoid and other systems. A release strategy to counter this effect is suggested. (author) [Spanish] Las moscas naturales y liberadas (esteriles) de Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) y Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) en Australia tuvieron distribuciones en parches y sus compariciones con las predicciones de un modelo binomial negativo indicaron un nivel de agregacion a veces fue muy alto, particularmente en las densidades bajas durante de eradicacion. Un aumento en el promedio de la tasa de B. tryoni esteriles recapturadas en las

  17. Nonhost status of commercial Persea americana 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the host status in Mexico of commercially cultivated and marketed avocado, Persea americana (Mill.), 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Experiments in Michoacán, Mexico, were carried out in six orchards located at three altitudes above sea level during two times (August-October 2001 and April-June 2002). They included choice ('Hass' avocado plus natural host) and no-choice foraging behavior tests on trees under field cages; no-choice, forced infestation trials on caged, fruit-bearing branches in the field, and with individual fruit under laboratory conditions; infestation trials using 'Hass' avocados left unprotected over 1 and 7 d on the ground of orchards; studies to ascertain depth of oviposition and determine egg hatchability; and experiments to determine susceptibility by using time elapsed since removal of fruit from tree as the experimental variable. We trapped adult Anastrepha (n = 7,936) in all orchards and dissected fruit (n = 7,695) from orchards and packing houses (n = 1,620) in search of eggs or larvae. Most (96.7%) A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata, and A. serpentina adults were captured in low-elevation orchards. No eggs or larvae were detected in any of the fruit from foraging behavior studies or dissected fruit from orchards or packing houses. Of 5,200 mature, intact fruit on trees in the field forcibly exposed to no-choice female oviposition activity (five females/fruit), we only found four fruit infested by A. ludens but no adults emerged. 'Hass' avocados only became marginally susceptible to attack by A. ludens (but not A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and A. striata) 24 h after being removed from the tree. Fruit placed on the ground in orchards (n = 3,600) were occasionally infested by Neosilba batesi (Curran) (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), a decomposer, but not Anastrepha spp. Based on our

  18. Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Hertlein, Mark; Neto, Agenor Mafra; Coler, Reginald; Piñero, Jaime C

    2008-06-01

    Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) "attract-and-kill" sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared with other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively. Field tests were conducted with three different dispensers (Min-U-Gel, Acti-Gel, and SPLAT) and two different insecticides (naled and spinosad). SPLAT ME with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel ME with naled formulation up to 12 wk. SPLAT C-L with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel C-L with naled formulation during weeks 7 to12, but not during weeks 1-6. In subsequent comparative trials, SPLAT ME + spinosad compared favorably with the current standard of Min-U-Gel ME + naled for up to 6 wk, and it was superior from weeks 7 to 12 in two separate tests conducted in a papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchard and a guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard, respectively. In outdoor paired weathering tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers (SPLAT + spinosad, SPLAT + naled, and Min-U-Gel + naled) were effective up to 70 d. Weathered ME dispensers with SPLAT + spinosad compared favorably with SPLAT + naled and Min-U-Gel + naled, and they were equal to fresh dispensers for 21-28 d, depending on location. Our current studies indicate that SPLAT ME and SPLAT C-L sprayable attract-and-kill dispensers containing spinosad are a promising substitute for current liquid organophosphate insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.

  19. Implementing a Spinosad-Based Local Bait Station to Control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in High Rainfall Areas of Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An ‘umbrella trap’ tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  20. Effect of constant temperatures on the biology, life table, and thermal requirements of Aganaspis pelleranoi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), a parasitoid of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R S; Nava, D E; Andreazza, F; Lisbôa, H; Nunes, A M; Grützmacher, A D; Valgas, R A; Maia, A H N; Pazianotto, R A A

    2014-04-01

    Aganaspis pelleranoi (Brèthes, 1924) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of larvae of species of the genus Anastrepha and of Ceratitis capitata. It is a candidate for use as a biological control agent, as under field conditions, it may reach a parasitism rate of 62%. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different constant temperatures on biological parameters of A. pelleranoi when parasitizing the larva of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae), as well as to determine its thermal requirements. The study was conducted in environmental chambers at 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, and 30 ± 1°C; 70 ± 10% relative humidity; and a 12-h photophase. Females maintained at 18 and 20°C produced more progeny than females at other temperatures tested. The longevity of males and females was inversely proportional to temperature, ranging from 49.1 to 3.73 d for females and from 32.1 to 3.8 d for males at temperatures of 18-30°C, respectively. The duration of the biological cycle (egg-to-adult) was influenced by temperature, and ranged from 69.1 d at 18°C to 30 d at 25°C. No preimaginal development of A. pelleranoi occurred at 28 and 30°C. The relationship between temperature and the demographic parameters of A. pelleranoi showed a linear effect over the temperature range of 18-25°C. The lower temperature threshold and thermal constant were 11.69°C and 391.70 degree days, respectively.

  1. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens.

  2. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  3. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    PubMed

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  4. Pattern of association between endemic Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their symbiotic bacteria: Evidence of cospeciation events and proposal of "Candidatus Stammerula trupaneae".

    PubMed

    Viale, E; Martinez-Sañudo, I; Brown, J M; Simonato, M; Girolami, V; Squartini, A; Bressan, A; Faccoli, M; Mazzon, L

    2015-09-01

    Several insect lineages have evolved mutualistic association with symbiotic bacteria. This is the case of some species of mealybugs, whiteflies, weevils, tsetse flies, cockroaches, termites, carpenter ants, aphids and fruit flies. Some species of Tephritinae, the most specialized subfamily of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), harbour co-evolved vertically transmitted, bacterial symbionts in their midgut, known as "Candidatus Stammerula spp.". The 25 described endemic species of Hawaiian tephritids, plus at least three undescribed species, are taxonomically distributed among three genera: the cosmopolitan genus Trupanea (21 described spp.), the endemic genus Phaeogramma (2 spp.) and the Nearctic genus Neotephritis (2 spp.). We examined the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the endemic tephritids of the Hawaiian Islands, which represent a spectacular example of adaptive radiation, and tested the concordant evolution between host and symbiont phylogenies. We detected through PCR assays the presence of specific symbiotic bacteria, designated as "Candidatus Stammerula trupaneae", from 35 individuals of 15 species. The phylogeny of the insect host was reconstructed based on two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (16S rDNA and COI-tRNALeu-COII), while the bacterial 16S rRNA was used for the symbiont analysis. Host and symbiont phylogenies were then compared and evaluated for patterns of cophylogeny and strict cospeciation. Topological congruence between Hawaiian Tephritinae and their symbiotic bacteria phylogenies suggests a limited, but significant degree of host-symbiont cospeciation. We also explored the character reconstruction of three host traits, as island location, host lineage, and host tissue attacked, based on the symbiont phylogenies under the hypothesis of cospeciation.

  5. Effect of cold storage on larval and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) viability in commercially ripe, artificially infested Persea americana 'Hass'.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Arredondo, J; Valle-Mora, J; Rull, J

    2010-12-01

    Commercially ripe 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Mill, artificially exposed to wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) females 24 h after harvest were placed in a cold storage facility to determine the effect of low temperature on larval survival and adult viability. Fruit were left for 3, 6, 9, and 12 d in a cold room at 5 degrees C followed by a 20-25-d period at ambient temperature to allow for larval development and pupation. Hass avocados and grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen, maintained at ambient temperature served as controls. Overall, only 0.23% of the Hass avocados and 19.30% of the grapefruit were infested. The number of infested fruit increased with decreasing exposure time to cold. Puparia from cold-treated Hass avocados were significantly smaller than those stemming from cold-treated grapefruit. Hass avocados exposed for 12 d to 5 degrees C yielded no puparia, and those exposed for 6 and 9 d yielded 22 and two puparia, respectively, but no adults. Although Hass avocados exposed to cold temperature for 3 d yielded adults that reached sexual maturity (N = 16), females laid inviable eggs. Grapefruit exposed to cold for 12 d yielded normal-sized puparia (but no adults), whereas those exposed over 9 d yielded females able to lay viable eggs. We conclude that exposing fruit to cold storage after packing and during transport represents an effective risk-mitigating procedure in the highly improbable event that a gravid A. ludens female might lay eggs in a commercially ripe Hass avocado that had been left unprotected in a packinghouse.

  6. Mortality and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of food.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2011-02-01

    Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), by killing flies before they oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. Objectives here were to determine mortality and oviposition of reproductively mature R. indifferens exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of dried yeast extract and sucrose food. Spinosad bait (spinosad in a mix of protein, sugar, and other ingredients) was compared with acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure + sucrose bait. When flies were exposed to treatments and then offered cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., for oviposition or when they were exposed to treatments and cherries simultaneously, both thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait resulted in higher mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait. Exposures to thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait for six and 24 h were similarly effective, but 6-h exposures to spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait were less effective than 24-h exposures. There was little difference between sucrose and Nu-Lure + sucrose baits. When food was present, thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait caused greater mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait, but when food was absent, patterns were less consistent. Because of its ability to kill flies sooner after it is exposed to flies when food is present or absent, thiamethoxam or imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure bait may reduce infestations in cherries more than spinosad bait when mature R. indifferens are present in orchards.

  7. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers.

  8. Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Can Distinguish Sterile, Released Flies from Wild Flies in Various Regions of the World.

    PubMed

    Parubrub, Arlene; Reyes, Ruel; Smallridge, Catherine J; Woods, Bill; Haymer, David

    2015-02-01

    In areas infested with pest species such as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), many programs rely heavily on the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a form of biological control. However, when SIT treatments are used both for control of established infestations and for occasional outbreaks, for several reasons, programs are often unable to adequately quantify the success of this approach. Chief among these are difficulties associated with reliably and rapidly determining the strain of origin of males recaptured during and after the SIT program. In this study, we describe the use of a DNA-based marker that can be used to rapidly and reliably distinguish males originating from the two sterile strains that are most widely used in SIT rearing facilities from males originating from wild strains of various regions of the world. This method uses polymerase chain reaction amplification of material from individual specimens to directly analyze DNA sequence variants found within a portion of the mitochondrial ND4 subunit 4 (ND4) gene to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are diagnostic of different strains. Specifically, the SNPs described here reliably distinguish individual flies originating from the Vienna 7 and Vienna 8 strains used for sterile release from wild flies infesting various areas including Western Australia, Guatemala, and Hawaii. The availability of such markers for determination of the strain of origin of specimens, either from whole specimens or body parts (including their sperm), has great potential to improve the ability to monitor and quantify the success of any sterile release program.

  9. Adult diet and male-female contact effects on female reproductive potential in Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) (Diptera tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    Wild strains of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) placed into laboratory rearing conditions are subjected to selection pressures caused by the diet, cages, density of flies, and other factors. Selection that changes mating behavior of the strain may result in less effective males released in sterile insect programs. Tests were performed to examine the effects of protein in diet and adult interactions on egg production and mating during sexual maturation of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) in laboratory cages. Flies were offspring of wild flies collected from Chiapas or Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and reared on Valencia oranges. Experiments demonstrated effects of yeast hydrolysate protein in adult diet and pairing with males on production of mature and immature eggs, numbers of females producing eggs, and mating with females aged 15 d. Addition of protein to 4% fructose in the adult diet approximately tripled mature egg production in females maintained for the total maturation period with an equal number of males. Females that matured without males produced approximately 33% more-mature eggs when fed protein than those fed no protein. Total egg production of females matured without males and fed sugar only or sugar with protein was more than twice that of females matured with males. Tests to examine the effects of male and female diet separately on female egg production showed slightly higher egg production in females fed protein, or females paired with males fed protein, but these differences were not significant. The most definitive effects were that combining wild strain females and males in cages during maturation reduced egg production. This effect was greatest when flies were not fed protein.

  10. Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed.

  11. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  12. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8–1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8–1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8–1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8–1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  13. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

    PubMed

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  14. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  15. A phylogenetic assessment of the polyphyletic nature and intraspecific color polymorphism in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Barr, Norman; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Tephritidae) comprises 85 species of fruit flies, including five highly destructive polyphagous fruit pests. Despite significant work on a few key pest species within the complex, little has been published on the majority of non-economic species in the complex, other than basic descriptions and illustrations of single specimens regarded as typical representatives. To elucidate the species relationships within the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, we used 159 sequences from one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (elongation factor-1α and period) genes to construct a phylogeny containing 20 described species from within the complex, four additional species that may be new to science, and 26 other species from Bactrocera and its sister genus Dacus. The resulting concatenated phylogeny revealed that most of the species placed in the complex appear to be unrelated, emerging across numerous clades. This suggests that they were placed in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex based on the similarity of convergent characters, which does not appear to be diagnostic. Variations in scutum and abdomen color patterns within each of the non-economic species are presented and demonstrate that distantly-related, cryptic species overlap greatly in traditional morphological color patterns used to separate them in keys. Some of these species may not be distinguishable with confidence by means other than DNA data. PMID:26798267

  16. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B

    2014-04-01

    Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards.

  17. A high-throughput detection method for invasive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species based on microfluidic dynamic array.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Fu, Wei; Clarke, Anthony R; Schutze, Mark Kurt; Susanto, Agus; Zhu, Shuifang; Li, Zhihong

    2016-11-01

    Invasive species can be detrimental to a nation's ecology, economy and human health. Rapid and accurate diagnostics are critical to limit the establishment and spread of exotic organisms. The increasing rate of biological invasions relative to the taxonomic expertise available generates a demand for high-throughput, DNA-based diagnostics methods for identification. We designed species-specific qPCR primer and probe combinations for 27 economically important tephritidae species in six genera (Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Carpomya, Ceratitis, Dacus and Rhagoletis) based on 935 COI DNA barcode haplotypes from 181 fruit fly species publically available in BOLD, and then tested the specificity for each primer pair and probe through qPCR of 35 of those species. We then developed a standardization reaction system for detecting the 27 target species based on a microfluidic dynamic array and also applied the method to identify unknown immature samples from port interceptions and field monitoring. This method led to a specific and simultaneous detection for all 27 species in 7.5 h, using only 0.2 μL of reaction system in each reaction chamber. The approach successfully discriminated among species within complexes that had genetic similarities of up to 98.48%, while it also identified all immature samples consistent with the subsequent results of morphological examination of adults which were reared from larvae of cohorts from the same samples. We present an accurate, rapid and high-throughput innovative approach for detecting fruit flies of quarantine concern. This is a new method which has broad potential to be one of international standards for plant quarantine and invasive species detection.

  18. Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White has been invading central Africa attacking a variety of fruits. Quarantines are placed on fruits that might be considered hosts. The only phytosanitary treatment that is commercially available is an ionizing irradiation generic treatment for Tephritidae ...

  19. Characterizing the developmental transcriptome of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) through comparative genomic analysis with Drosophila melanogaster utilizing modENCODE datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops throughout Asia, and is considered a high risk pest for establishment in the mainland United States. It is a member of the family Tephritidae, which are the most agriculturally important family ...

  20. Comparison of two synthetic food-odor lures for captures of feral Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico and implications regarding use of irradiated flies to assess lure efficacy.

    PubMed

    Robacker, David C; Thomas, Donald B

    2007-08-01

    Feral Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were trapped in a citrus orchard in Mexico by using two types of synthetic food-odor lures, the AFF lure (Anastrepha fruit fly lure, APTIV, Inc., Portland, OR) and the BioLure (two-component MFF lure, Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR). In Multilure traps (Better World Manufacturing, Inc., Miami, FL) containing water, BioLures captured about the same numbers of flies as AFF lures. In Multilure traps containing antifreeze solution, BioLures captured 2 and 5 times more flies than AFF lures in two experiments. BioLures, and AFF lures did not differ in attractiveness when used on sticky traps (Intercept trap, APTIV, Inc.; and sticky cylinder trap). Multilure traps captured >4 times as many flies as sticky traps with the exception that captures of females did not differ between Multilure and sticky traps baited with AFF lures. The percentage of females captured in Multilure traps was greater when traps were baited with BioLures compared with AFF lures, but the reverse was true for sticky traps. Sticky cylinder traps captured a higher percentage of females than Multilure traps. The most effective trap/lure combination was the Multilure trap baited with BioLure and antifreeze. In comparison with tests of these two lures in Texas, results were similar for Multilure traps, but they differed for sticky cylinder traps in that AFF lures were consistently more attractive than BioLures in Texas, but not in Mexico.

  1. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks.

  2. Bioefficacy of Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae) rhizome extracts, (E)-p-acetoxycinnamyl alcohol, and (E)-p-coumaryl alcohol ethyl ether against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the impact on detoxification enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Sukhirun, N; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V; Koul, O

    2011-10-01

    The application of insecticides to control oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a principal component of the current management of these fruit flies. However, we evaluated four extracts of Alpinia galanga Wild Linn (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes against adult flies and found hexane and ethanol extracts to be most effective (LC50 = 4,866 and 6,337 ppm, respectively, after 24 h). This suggested that both nonpolar and polar compounds could be active in the candidate plant. Accordingly, the hexane extract was further processed to isolate nonpolar active compounds from this plant source. Two compounds, (E)-p-acetoxycinnamyl alcohol and (E)-p-coumaryl alcohol ethyl ether, were identified as active ingredients and found to be more active than total hexane extract (LC50 = 3,654 and 4,044 ppm, respectively, after 24 h). The data suggested that the compounds were not synergistic but may have some additive effect in a mixture. The activity of the hexane extract against detoxification enzymes, carboxylesterase (CE) and glutathione transferase (GST) also was determined in vitro. CE was inhibited by 70%, whereas GST was not significantly inhibited. Insect CEs mediate insecticide resistance via their induction; therefore, inhibition of these enzymes by plant allelochemicals could be a useful alternative approach for the management of the pest in the field.

  3. Effect of multiple endogenous biological factors on the response of the tephritids Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) to multilure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure in mango orchards.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    The physiological state of an insect is likely the most important endogenous factor influencing resource-oriented behavior, and it varies considerably among individuals. Trials were conducted in mango orchards to study the effect of multiple endogenous biological factors on the response of two fly species, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Maquart (Diptera: Tephritidae), to BioLure and NuLure baits. The biological factors of the two fly species that were tested were the following: 1) fertility status-sterile (irradiated) and fertile flies; 2) two types of diets (only sugar and a 3:1 mixture of sugar and hydrolyzed yeast protein; 3) sex, and 4) two sexual maturity conditions (2-4- and 15-18-d-old flies, representing immature and sexually mature flies, respectively, and 2-4-d-old flies treated with methoprene as an artificially induced sexually state male condition). The laboratory-treated flies were released into three different mango orchards. The trials were conducted in four blocks per orchard using eight traps in each block (50:50 BioLure: NuLure). The traps were replaced every 2 d during the 12-d period and the flies per trap per day values were calculated. More protein-fed, fertile, female, immature, and A. obliqua flies were caught compared with the other flies tested. In addition, the traps baited with NuLure attracted more flies than those baited with BioLure. Interaction analyses indicated that the type of bait and the sexual maturity status were the most important factors affecting the responses of the flies. Our study demonstrated that lures attract only a small segment of the fly population, those that have a specific hunger for amino acids-immature flies-and those that were protein-starved. The implications for improved trapping system designs are discussed.

  4. The first complete mitochondrial genome of Dacus longicornis (Diptera: Tephritidae) using next-generation sequencing and mitochondrial genome phylogeny of Dacini tribe

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fan; Pan, Xubin; Li, Xuankun; Yu, Yanxue; Zhang, Junhua; Jiang, Hongshan; Dou, Liduo; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-01-01

    The genus Dacus is one of the most economically important tephritid fruit flies. The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Dacus species – D. longicornis was sequenced by next-generation sequencing in order to develop the mitogenome data for this genus. The circular 16,253 bp mitogenome is the typical set and arrangement of 37 genes present in the ancestral insect. The mitogenome data of D. longicornis was compared to all the published homologous sequences of other tephritid species. We discovered the subgenera Bactrocera, Daculus and Tetradacus differed from the subgenus Zeugodacus, the genera Dacus, Ceratitis and Procecidochares in the possession of TA instead of TAA stop codon for COI gene. There is a possibility that the TA stop codon in COI is the synapomorphy in Bactrocera group in the genus Bactrocera comparing with other Tephritidae species. Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitogenome data from Tephritidae were inferred by Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood methods, strongly supported the sister relationship between Zeugodacus and Dacus. PMID:27812024

  5. Sexual communication in Tephritidae-current knowledge and potential applications for integrated pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diptera Tephritidae are an enormous threat to fruit and vegetable production throughout the world, causing both quantitative and qualitative losses. Investigating mating behavioural sequences could help to unravel mate choice dynamics, adding useful information to build behaviour-based control strat...

  6. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  7. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  8. New species and host records of New World, mostly Neotropical, opiine Braconidae (Hymenoptera) reared from flower-infesting, stem-galling, and stem-mining Tephritidae (Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Robert; Norrbom, Allen L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract New host records (all members of the family Tephritidae) are presented for 14 newly described species of opiine Braconidae from the neotropics and two previously described species, one from the neotropics and one from the Nearctic Region. Doryctobracon anneae Wharton, Opius baderae Wharton, O. baeblus Wharton, O. cablus Wharton, O. dablus Wharton, O. danielsae Wharton, O. gabriellae Wharton, O. godfrayi Wharton, O. marshi Wharton, O. nablus Wharton, O. pipitae Wharton, O. stecki Wharton, O. taramegillae Wharton, and O. yoderi Wharton are newly described. Hosts are newly recorded for the previously described species Opius nympha Fischer and O. peleus Fischer. A key is presented to Opiinae that have been reared from flower, stem, and leaf feeding tephritids in the New World. Host and host plant associations are discussed; a few of the tephritid host plant records are also new. Opius cosa (Fischer), is a comb. n. PMID:24294078

  9. There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2009-02-01

    Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed

  10. Developing diagnostic SNP panels for the identification of true fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) within the limits of COI-based species delimitation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid and reliable identification of quarantine pests is essential for plant inspection services to prevent introduction of invasive species. For insects, this may be a serious problem when dealing with morphologically similar cryptic species complexes and early developmental stages that lack distinctive characters useful for taxonomic identification. DNA based barcoding could solve many of these problems. The standard barcode fragment, an approx. 650 base pairs long sequence of the 5′end of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), enables differentiation of a very wide range of arthropods. However, problems remain in some taxa, such as Tephritidae, where recent genetic differentiation among some of the described species hinders accurate molecular discrimination. Results In order to explore the full species discrimination potential of COI, we sequenced the barcoding region of the COI gene of a range of economically important Tephritid species and complemented these data with all GenBank and BOLD entries for the systematic group available as of January 2012. We explored the limits of species delimitation of this barcode fragment among 193 putative Tephritid species and established operational taxonomic units (OTUs), between which discrimination is reliably possible. Furthermore, to enable future development of rapid diagnostic assays based on this sequence information, we characterized all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and established “near-minimal” sets of SNPs that differentiate among all included OTUs with at least three and four SNPs, respectively. Conclusions We found that although several species cannot be differentiated based on the genetic diversity observed in COI and hence form composite OTUs, 85% of all OTUs correspond to described species. Because our SNP panels are developed based on all currently available sequence information and rely on a minimal pairwise difference of three SNPs, they are highly reliable and hence

  11. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D.; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  12. Long distance movement of batrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidale in Puna, Hawaii: How far can they go?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions world-wide including the island of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian archipelago. The need to control large populations over large areas helped initiate the USDA-ARS (United Stat...

  13. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. PMID:26463064

  14. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae) Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B.; Cladera, Jorge L.; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6) pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. PMID:27362546

  15. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae) Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member.

    PubMed

    Gariou-Papalexiou, Angeliki; Giardini, María Cecilia; Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B; Cladera, Jorge L; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6) pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications.

  16. Cricket Paralysis Virus, a Potential Control Agent for the Olive Fruit Fly, Dacus oleae Gmel

    PubMed Central

    Manousis, Thanasis; Moore, Norman F.

    1987-01-01

    Representatives of several families of insect viruses were tested for growth and pathogenicity in the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae Gmel. The viruses included nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, an iridovirus, two picornaviruses, and Trichoplusia ni small RNA virus (a member of the Nudaurelia β family), in addition to two naturally occurring viruses of the olive fruit fly. Two viruses, one of the two picornaviruses (cricket paralysis virus [CrPV] and the iridovirus (type 21 from Heliothis armigera), were found to replicate in adult flies. Flies which were fed on a solution containing CrPV for 1 day demonstrated a high mortality with 50% dying within 5 days and nearly 80% dying within 12 days of being fed. The virus was transmissible from infected to noninfected flies by fecal contamination. The CrPV which replicated in the infected flies was demonstrated to be the same as input virus by infection of Drosophila melanogaster cells and examination of the expressed viral proteins, immunoprecipitation of the virus purified from flies, and electrophoretic analysis of the structural proteins. Images PMID:16347255

  17. New mariner elements in Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Marcon, Helena S; Domingues, D S; Coscrato, V E; Selivon, D; Perondini, A L P; Marion, C L

    2011-10-01

    Mariner-like elements (MLE) are members from class II of transposable elements also known as DNA transposons. These elements have a wide distribution among different groups of organisms, including insects, which can be explained by horizontal and vertical gene-transfer. MLE families have been described in tephritid flies and other genera. During screening for Wolbachia bacteria in fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha, we discovered two sequences related to mariner-like elements. Based on these sequences, we designed primers that allowed us to isolate and characterize two new mariner-like elements (Anmar1 and Anmar2) in Anastrepha flies. These elements, which belong to the mellifera and rosa subfamilies have a low nucleotide diversity, and are probably inactive and acquired by vertical transfer. This is the first report of mariner-like transposons in flies found in South America.

  18. Status of Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in the NAPPO countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) is an organization comprising plant protection regulatory officials of the three signatory countries, the United States, Canada, and México. NAPPO develops Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (RSPMs) as well as discussion papers on i...

  19. A revision of the Anastrepha robusta species group (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Anastrepha robusta species group is revised to include the following 29 species: A. amaryllis Tigrero (Ecuador), A. amazonensis, n. sp. (Brazil: Amazonas), A. bella, n. sp. (Panamá), A. binodosa Stone (Colombia, Brazil: Amazonas, Pará), A. concava Greene (Costa Rica to Ecuador and Brazil: Amazon...

  20. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present.

  1. New species of and taxonomic notes on Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven new species of Anastrepha are described: A. conflua (Costa Rica), A. levefasciata (Peru), A. nolazcoae (Peru), A. paradentata (Mexico), A. raveni (Peru), A. trivittata (Brazil: Amazonas), and A. woodleyi (Bolivia). Anastrepha nunezae Steyskal, 1977, is recognized as a synonym of A. mucronota S...

  2. New species and records of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new species of Anastrepha from Brazil are described and illustrated: A. matogrossensis (Mato Grosso), A. oiapoquensis (Amapá), and A. siculigera (Amapá). Anastrepha rafaeli Norrbom & Korytkowski also is reported from the state of Tocantins....

  3. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  4. A transgenic embryonic sexing system for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Schetelig, Marc F; Handler, Alfred M

    2012-10-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a highly successful biologically-based strategy to control pest insect populations that relies on the large-scale release of sterilized males to render females in the field non-reproductive. For medfly, a mutant-based sexing system is available as well as a transgenic system where a tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) toxic molecule is female-specifically produced. However, the former classical genetic system took many years to refine, and the latter system results in female death by a poorly understood mechanism, primarily in the pupal stage after rearing costs have been incurred. Here we describe a Tet-off transgenic embryonic sexing system (TESS) for Anastrepha suspensa that uses a driver construct having the promoter from the embryo-specific A. suspensa serendipity α gene, linked to the Tet-transactivator. This was used to drive the expression of a phospho-mutated variant of the pro-apoptotic cell death gene, Alhid, from Anastrepha ludens. The system uses a sex-specific intron splicing cassette linked to a cell death gene lethal effector. Progeny from TESS strains heterozygous for the transgene combination were 80-100% males, whereas four double homozygous TESS strains had 100% male-only progeny, with female death limited primarily to embryogenesis. In a large-scale test, more than 30,000 eggs from two strains resulted in 100% male-only progeny. The transgenic sexing approach described here is highly effective and cost-efficient by eliminating most, if not all, female insects early in embryogenesis using a well-characterized apoptotic mechanism.

  5. Patterns of inner chorion structure in Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Julia V A; Perondini, André L P; Selivon, Denise

    2017-03-01

    The inner chorion structure of Anastrepha eggs from 16 species of various infrageneric taxonomic groups is described by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The layers of the chorion, the outer egg membrane, are structurally similar. Furthermore, an additional trabecular layer (ATL) that exists in some species, together with other characteristics, facilitates the recognition of four patterns of chorion structuring: Pattern I, in which the ATL layer is absent, is found in Anastrepha amita, the Anastrepha fraterculus complex, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha sororcula, Anastrepha suspensa and Anastrepha zenildae (fraterculus group), and Anastrepha bistrigata and Anastrepha striata (striata group); Pattern II in Anastrepha serpentina (serpentina group), Anastrepha grandis (grandis group) and Anastrepha pseudoparallela (pseudoparallela group), in which the ATL presents large open spaces with pillars; Pattern III, found in Anastrepha consobrina (pseudoparallela group), in which the ATL is composed of round cavities; and Pattern IV, found in Anastrepha alveata and Anastrepha pickeli (spatulata group), where the large ATL cavities are reticulated. Comparatively, the chorion structure in Anastrepha eggs is more complex than in eggs of other fruit flies, e.g., Bactrocera, Rhagoletis and Ceratitis.

  6. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  7. Acaricidal properties of two extracts from Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel. (Combrataceae) against Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Osman, Ilham M; Mohammed, A S; Abdalla, A B

    2014-01-31

    Laboratory test were carried out on eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults of Hyalomma anatolicum to determine the acaricidal activities of petroleum ether (PE) and crude ethanolic extracts (EE) from the leaves of Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel. (Combrataceae) using immersion method. Stock solutions, of 300 mg/ml (30%) of the each two extract, were prepared. Six two-fold serial dilutions each with three replicates were used. Both extracts, at the highest concentration 150 mg/ml (15%), induced 100% failure of hatching of the treated eggs. The concentrations of PE and EE that induced 50% inhibition of the hatchability (IC50) were 1.71 and 0.508%, respectively. In the larval immersion test (LIT), EE at 15% concentration caused complete mortality while the same concentration of PE resulted in 96% mortality. The mortalities increased with concentrations. There was a correlation between the mortalities and increased concentrations, the values of the linear correlation coefficient (r) for PE and EE were 0.93 and 0.79, and The LC50 and LC99 were 2.08 and 14.09, and 0.787 and 11.054, respectively. At the concentrations of 3.75%, 7.5% and 15%, PE inhibited the molting of the nymphs by 40, 55 and 65%, respectively, while EE induced 46.49, 64.3 and 71.4% inhibition, respectively. The effectiveness of the treatment against unfed adult females was assessed by measuring the feeding performance and egg production using adult immersion test (AIT). Although, there was no mortality in unfed adults, PE and EE inhibited feeding and egg-laying of the survived females by 35-100% and 6.16-100%, respectively. Our results indicated that G. senegalensis is a promising biocontrol candidate as an acaricidal agent against H. anatolicum.

  8. Development of microsatellite markers in Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, an endangered tropical tree of eastern Africa, using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gichira, A W; Long, Z C; Hu, G W; Gituru, R W; Wang, Q F; Chen, J M

    2016-06-20

    Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel is an endangered tree species endemic to the high mountains of tropical Africa. We used Illumina paired-end technology to sequence its nuclear genome, aiming at creating the first genomic data library and developing the first set of genomic microsatellites. Seventeen microsatellite markers were validated in 24 individuals. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.6, while the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.958 and from 0.354 to 0.883, respectively. These polymorphic markers will be used as tools for further molecular studies to facilitate formulation of appropriate conservation strategies for this species.

  9. Grape Juice as an Attractant for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard A. susp...

  10. Aqueous Grape Juice Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted in Miami, Florida to evaluate attraction of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and Zaprionus indianus Gupta, to traps baited with aqueous grape juice solution (10%) with and without preservative. Microbial activity, which occurred in baits without preservative that were aged in t...

  11. Cuticular hydrocarbons corroborate the distinction between lowland and highland Natal fruit fly (Tephritidae, Ceratitis rosa) populations

    PubMed Central

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Ekesi, Sunday; Meyer, Marc De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) and morphology of two Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations, putatively belonging to two cryptic taxa, were analysed. The chemical profiles were characterised by two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. CHs of Ceratitis rosa that originated from the lowlands and highlands of Kenya comprised of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons in the range of the carbon backbone from C14 to C37. Hydrocarbons containing C29, C31, C33 and C35 carbon atoms predominated in these two populations. 2-Methyltriacontane was the predominant compound in both populations. Quantitative differences in the distribution of hydrocarbons of different chain lengths, mainly the C22, C32, C33 and C34 compounds of these two populations, were observed despite indistinct qualitative differences in these hydrocarbons. Morphological analyses of male legs confirmed that the flies belong to different morphotypes of Ceratitis rosa previously labelled as R1 and R2 for lowland and highland populations, respectively. A statistical analysis of the CH compositions of the putative R1 and R2 species showed distinct interspecific identities, with several CHs specific for each of the lowland and highland populations. This study supports a hypothesis that the taxon Ceratitis rosa consists of at least two biological species. PMID:26798275

  12. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, O P; Chandra, Harish; Behl, H M

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB(1) was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of aflatoxin in both the oil and cake samples. Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B(1) were 220.66 and 201.57ppb in oil as compared to that in cake samples where it was 87.55 and 74.35ppb, respectively. Various individual and combined plant extracts were evaluated for their efficacy against growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in vitro. Combination of botanicals were found to be more effective in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin production than individual extracts. Results of the present study suggests that synergistic effect of plant extracts can be used for control of fungal growth and aflatoxin production. These natural plant products may successfully replace synthetic chemicals and provide an alternative method to protect mahua as well as other agricultural commodities of nutritional significance from toxigenic fungi such as A. flavus and aflatoxin production.

  13. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and B. zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison...existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary cold treatments are attempted for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) by comparison with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were...

  14. Development of phytosanitary cold treatments for oranges infested with Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) by comparison with existing cold treatment schedules for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; El-Wakkad, Mokhtar F; Tadrous, Meshil D; Jessup, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    Phytosanitary cold treatments were tested for Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White and Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) using comparisons with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Oranges were infested by puncturing holes in the peel and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were initiated when the larvae reached late third instar because previous research had shown that stage to be the most cold tolerant for all three species. Results show that B. invadens is not more cold tolerant than C. capitata and B. zonata at 1.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C and lend support to the use of C. capitata cold treatment schedules for B. invadens. It cannot be concluded that B. zonata is not more cold tolerant than C. capitata.

  15. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  16. Wolbachia strains in cryptic species of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) along the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André L P; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Marino, Celso L; Selivon, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Infection by Wolbachia was described previously in eleven species of Anastrepha fruit flies some of which are important pests of fruticulture. One such species is the nominal Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, which actually comprises a complex of cryptic species. The suggestions of using Wolbachia for the control of these pest species, make imperative a more precise characterization of the existing strains of the bacteria. In this study, population samples of the A. fraterculus complex from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico were analyzed for Wolbachia infection. The bacteria were genotyped by the MLST and WSP Typing methodologies. All samples were infected with Wolbachia of supergroup "A". For each of the five MLST genes, unique as well as already known alleles were detected. Nineteen sequence types for the concatenated sequences of the five MLST genes, and twenty wsp alleles were found in the samples. Host-specific haplotypes, shared strains among distinct hosts, and more than one strain of Wolbachia were found in some population samples. Recombination among the MLST genes and intragenic recombination between wsp haplotypes was rare. Phylogenetic analysis showed a great similarity among the Wolbachia strains in the A. fraterculus complex. However, some strains of Wolbachia are found throughout the Neotropical Region and there are specific strains in determined geographical areas.

  17. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author) [Spanish] Los resultados de estudios previos que muestran que al exponer machos criados en masa de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) al aceite de la raiz del jengibre ('aromaterapia') aumento la probabilidad del apareamiento con hembras naturales fueron confirmados. El aumento en el exito de los machos puede ser debido a las respuestas de las hembras a los cambios en el comportamiento o feromonas de los machos. No hubo una diferencia significativa en la clase de los movimientos del cortejo ejecutados por los machos con y sin la aromaterapia. La duracion de los movimientos tampoco fue diferente cuando los machos criados en masa fueron apareados con hembras criadas en masa; sin embargo, cuando ellos fueron apareados con hembras naturales, resultaron unas pequenas diferencias. Los estudios previos indicaron que la eficacia de la feromona atrayente de machos de larga distancia no esta afectada por la aromaterapia, pero estos estudios no consideran las feromonas sueltas en un rango corto durante el cortejo, cuando el analisis de comportamiento sugiere que puede ser diferente. Nosotros proponemos la explicacion siguiente para los efectos diferentes de la aromaterapia con las diferentes hembras. La seleccion de machos bajo condiciones de cria en masa puede haber alterado las feromonas de rango corto de manera que puede ser remediada por la aromaterapia; y solamente las hembras naturales responden por que tambien ha cambiado la respuesta de las hembras criadas en masa a la feromona. Nosotros indicamos observaciones que pueden probar estas ideas. (author)

  18. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  19. Bacterial communities associated with invasive populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Martinez-Sañudo, I; Mazzon, L; Prabhakar, C S; Girolami, V; Deng, Y L; Dai, Y; Li, Z H

    2016-12-01

    The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a destructive insect pest of a wide range of fruits and vegetables. This pest is an invasive species and is currently distributed in some provinces of China. To recover the symbiotic bacteria of B. dorsalis from different invasion regions in China, we researched the bacterial diversity of this fruit fly among one laboratory colony (Guangdong, China) and 15 wild populations (14 sites in China and one site in Thailand) using DNA-based approaches. The construction of 16S rRNA gene libraries allowed the identification of 24 operational taxonomic units of associated bacteria at the 3% distance level, and these were affiliated with 3 phyla, 5 families, and 13 genera. The higher bacterial diversity was recovered in wild populations compared with the laboratory colony and in samples from early term invasion regions compared with samples from late term invasion regions. Moreover, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Providencia sp. were two of the most frequently recovered bacteria, present in flies collected from three different regions in China where B. dorsalis is invasive. This study for the first time provides a systemic investigation of the symbiotic bacteria of B. dorsalis from different invasion regions in China.

  20. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  1. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  2. Life History and Cost Analysis for Rearing Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) in a Liquid Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid diet for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis was developed. Three hydrolyzed yeast (LS65, FNI200, FNI210), a glutamine enriched yeast (G, Fermaid SuperRelax, GSH), RDA500 (R, an enriched high vitamins yeast), Korea yeast, and their yeast products (FNI200+G, FNI200+R, FNI200+G+R, LS65 +G, LS65+R, L...

  3. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, R; Lopes, D J H; Mexia, A M M; Mumford, J D

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010-2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance's sensitivity on Terceira Island.

  4. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species.

  5. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [Spanish] La dispersion y longevidad de las moscas esteriles silvestres y de cria masiva de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) y A. obliqua (Macquart) fueron determinadas y comparadas utilizando un arreglo rectangular de 64 trampas espaciadas a 60 metros entre trampas alrededor del punto de liberacion en Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. Las trampas fueron revisadas y evaluadas diariamente durante la primera semana y despues cada tres dias hasta completar 30 dias. Para A. obliqua la cantidad de machos capturados fue mayor que la cantidad de hembras; mientras que para A. ludens las hembras fueron capturadas con mayor frecuencia que los machos. La recaptura de moscas silvestres de A. ludens fue de 0.6 a 24.8%, para A. obliqua fue del 1.3 al 16.2%, para moscas de laboratorio fue de 0.5 a 7.1 y 0.5 a 3%, respectivamente. La esperanza de vida correspondio a 4.7 y 4.3 dias para machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. obliqua respectivamente; mientras que 3 y 2 dias fueron para los machos silvestres y de laboratorio de A. ludens . La dispersion para A. ludens y A. obliqua fue de 100 a 250 m tanto para individuos silvestres como de laboratorio. Los adultos de A. ludens silvestre se desplazaron del punto central de liberacion al noroeste, los individuos de laboratorio se movieron hacia el oeste del plano Cartesiano. A su vez los adultos de A. obliqua silvestre se movieron hacia el oeste y las de laboratorio hacia el suroeste. Discutimos las implicaciones de nuestros resultados con relacion al espaciamiento y frecuencia de las liberaciones de moscas esteriles para la supresion de poblaciones silvestres. (author)

  6. Estimation of populations and sterility induction in Anastrepha luden (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Enkerlin, Walther; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between different release densities of sterile flies and fly trap captures, expressed as flies per trap per day, in the monitoring of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) populations was evaluated in mango orchards. The induction of sterility in fertile females was evaluated using different ratios of sterile: fertile males under field cage conditions. A direct relationship between recaptured flies and densities of release sterile flies was found. However, trap efficiency, expressed as percentage of recaptured flies, decreased as the density of released flies increased. Sterility induction was positively correlated to the ratio of sterile: fertile flies. A significant difference in egg fertility among treatments was observed. The trajectory of sterility induction slowed down after a sterile: wild ratio of 30:1, which suggests that this ratio could be appropriate in an sterile insect technique program with A. ludens. Sterility induction was greater when only sterile males were released than when releasing both sterile males and females, but the differences were not significant. Our findings contribute to a better interpretation of fly captures obtained from the field trapping networks, and to an improvement in the efficiency of sterile insect technique against A. ludens fruit flies, through the implementation of more rational sterile fly release densities.

  7. Analyses of volatiles produced by the African fruit fly species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Břízová, Radka; Vaníčková, Lucie; Faťarová, Mária; Ekesi, Sunday; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae and Ceratitis rosa are polyphagous agricultural pests originating from the African continent. The taxonomy of this group (the so-called Ceratitis FAR complex) is unclear. To clarify the taxonomic relationships, male and female-produced volatiles presumably involved in pre-mating communication were studied using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) followed by multivariate analysis, and gas chromatography combined with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). GC×GC-TOFMS analyses revealed sex specific differences in produced volatiles. Male volatiles are complex mixtures that differ both qualitatively and quantitatively but share some common compounds. GC-EAD analyses of male volatiles revealed that the antennal sensitivities of females significantly differ in the studied species. No female volatiles elicited antennal responses in males. The results show clear species-specific differences in volatile production and provide complementary information for the distinct delimitation of the putative species by chemotaxonomic markers.

  8. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs against this pest. PMID:26798264

  9. A new species of Urophora Robineau-Desvoidiy, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Nozari, Jamasb

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Urophora merzi sp. n. reared from flower heads of Centaurea behen Linnaeus is described from Iran. It is similar to Urophora campestris, Urophora sachalinensis, Urophora stylata, Urophora tsoii and Urophora vera in wing pattern with 3 well developed crossbands and indistinct subbasal crossband, differing in aculeus tip with two pairs of diminished preapical steps and different host plants. PMID:22287906

  10. Developmental Biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Three Cucurbitaceous Hosts at Different Temperature Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Mkiga, A. M.; Mwatawala, M. W

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies are key pests of cucurbits in many parts of the world, including Tanzania. Developmental biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) has been determined across temperature regimes in some cucurbitaceous hosts, in limited geographies. This study was conducted to determine duration and survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae in three cucurbitaceous hosts, at different temperature regimes. It was hypothesized that temperature and cucurbitaceous hosts influence duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. We conducted experiments in the environmental chamber set at 75 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, at temperatures of 20, 25, and 30°. Our results showed that duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae differed significantly among the temperature regimes but not among the hosts. Egg incubation period as well as larval and pupal stages were significantly longer (P < 0.0001) at low temperature in all three hosts Likewise, survival rate of all immature stages were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) at higher than lower temperatures. The three hosts, cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) did not significantly affect duration or survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. The low developmental thresholds were estimated at 15.88, 13.44, and 12.62 for egg, larva and pupa, respectively. These results further confirm that Z. cucurbitae is well adapted to warm climate, which dominates many areas of Tanzania. PMID:26589874

  11. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Neven, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  12. Effect of Dietary Components on Larval Life History Characteristics in the Medfly (Ceratitis capitata: Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nash, William J.; Chapman, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability to respond to heterogenous nutritional resources is an important factor in the adaptive radiation of insects such as the highly polyphagous Medfly. Here we examined the breadth of the Medfly’s capacity to respond to different developmental conditions, by experimentally altering diet components as a proxy for host quality and novelty. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested responses of larval life history to diets containing protein and carbohydrate components found in and outside the natural host range of this species. A 40% reduction in the quantity of protein caused a significant increase in egg to adult mortality by 26.5%±6% in comparison to the standard baseline diet. Proteins and carbohydrates had differential effects on larval versus pupal development and survival. Addition of a novel protein source, casein (i.e. milk protein), to the diet increased larval mortality by 19.4%±3% and also lengthened the duration of larval development by 1.93±0.5 days in comparison to the standard diet. Alteration of dietary carbohydrate, by replacing the baseline starch with simple sugars, increased mortality specifically within the pupal stage (by 28.2%±8% and 26.2%±9% for glucose and maltose diets, respectively). Development in the presence of the novel carbohydrate lactose (milk sugar) was successful, though on this diet there was a decrease of 29.8±1.6 µg in mean pupal weight in comparison to pupae reared on the baseline diet. Conclusions The results confirm that laboratory reared Medfly retain the ability to survive development through a wide range of fluctuations in the nutritional environment. We highlight new facets of the responses of different stages of holometabolous life histories to key dietary components. The results are relevant to colonisation scenarios and key to the biology of this highly invasive species. PMID:24465851

  13. The Gene Transformer of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and Its Evolution in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, Marco; Eirín-López, José María; Perondini, André L. P.; Selivon, Denise; Polito, Catello; Saccone, Giuseppe; Sánchez, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    In the tephritids Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, the gene transformer acts as the memory device for sex determination, via an auto-regulatory function; and functional Tra protein is produced only in females. This paper investigates the evolution of the gene tra, which was characterised in twelve tephritid species belonging to the less extensively analysed genus Anastrepha. Our study provided the following major conclusions. Firstly, the memory device mechanism used by this gene in sex determination in tephritids likely existed in the common ancestor of the Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha phylogenetic lineages. This mechanism would represent the ancestral state with respect to the extant cascade seen in the more evolved Drosophila lineage. Secondly, Transformer2-specific binding intronic splicing silencer sites were found in the splicing regulatory region of transformer but not in doublesex pre-mRNAs in these tephritids. Thus, these sites probably provide the discriminating feature for the putative dual splicing activity of the Tra-Tra2 complex in tephritids. It acts as a splicing activator in dsx pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the female-specific exon promotes the inclusion of this exon into the mature mRNA), and as a splicing inhibitor in tra pre-mRNA splicing (its binding to the male-specific exons prevents the inclusion of these exons into the mature mRNA). Further, a highly conserved region was found in the specific amino-terminal region of the tephritid Tra protein that might be involved in Tra auto-regulatory function and hence in its repressive splicing behaviour. Finally, the Tra proteins conserved the SR dipeptides, which are essential for Tra functionality. PMID:18043746

  14. Morphometric divergence in populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Colombia and some Neotropical locations

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, Maria R.; Selivon, Denise; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Soto, Alberto; Canal, Nelson A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is one of seven species of quarantine importance of its genus and is one of the most economically important fruit fly pests in Colombia. The taxonomic status of this species is a key issue for further implementation of any pest management program. Several molecular studies have shown enough variability within Anastrepha obliqua to suggest its taxonomic status could be revised; however, there are no morphological studies supporting this hypothesis. The aim of this work was to describe the morphological variability of Colombian populations of Anastrepha obliqua, comparing this variability with that of other samples from the Neotropics. Measurements were performed on individuals from 11 populations collected from different geographic Colombian localities and were compared with populations from Mexico (2), Dominica Island (1), Peru (1) and Brazil (2). Linear morphometric analyses were performed using 23 female morphological traits, including seven variables of the aculeus, three of the thorax, and six of the wing; seven ratios among them were also considered. Discriminant function analyses showed significant morphological differentiation among the Colombian populations, separating them into two groups. Furthermore, in the comparisons between Colombian samples with those from other countries, three clusters were observed. The possibility of finding more than one species within the nominal Anastrepha obliqua population is discussed. PMID:26798254

  15. Population structure and cryptic genetic variation in the mango fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Delatte, Hélène; Nzogela, Yasinta Beda; Simiand, Christophe; Quilici, Serge; De Meyer, Marc; Mwatawala, Maulid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The fruit fly Ceratitis cosyra is an important agricultural pest negatively affecting the mango crop production throughout Africa and also feeding on a variety of other wild and cultivated hosts. The occurrence of deeply divergent haplotypes, as well as extensive morphological variability, previously suggested possible cryptic speciation within Ceratitis cosyra. Here we provide the first large-scale characterisation of the population structure of Ceratitis cosyra with the main objective of verifying cryptic genetic variation. A total of 348 specimens from 13 populations were genotyped at 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) deviations were observed in 40.4% of locus-population combinations and suggested the occurrence of genetic substructuring within populations. Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) showed genetic divergence between the vast majority of vouchers from Burundi and Tanzania (plus a few outliers from other African countries) and all other specimens sampled. Individual Bayesian assignments confirmed the existence of two main genotypic groups also occurring in sympatry. These data provided further support to the hypothesis that Ceratitis cosyra might include cryptic species. However, additional integrative taxonomy, possibly combining morphological, ecological and physiological approaches, is required to provide the necessary experimental support to this model. PMID:26798276

  16. Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. Methods The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. Discussion The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed. PMID:25471362

  17. Analyses of volatiles produced by the African fruit fly species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Břízová, Radka; Vaníčková, Lucie; Faťarová, Mária; Ekesi, Sunday; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae and Ceratitis rosa are polyphagous agricultural pests originating from the African continent. The taxonomy of this group (the so-called Ceratitis FAR complex) is unclear. To clarify the taxonomic relationships, male and female-produced volatiles presumably involved in pre-mating communication were studied using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) followed by multivariate analysis, and gas chromatography combined with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). GC×GC-TOFMS analyses revealed sex specific differences in produced volatiles. Male volatiles are complex mixtures that differ both qualitatively and quantitatively but share some common compounds. GC-EAD analyses of male volatiles revealed that the antennal sensitivities of females significantly differ in the studied species. No female volatiles elicited antennal responses in males. The results show clear species-specific differences in volatile production and provide complementary information for the distinct delimitation of the putative species by chemotaxonomic markers. PMID:26798269

  18. Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango-Producing Areas of Arba Minch, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15 cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742

  19. Global Assessment of Seasonal Potential Distribution of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Szyniszewska, Anna M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  20. The Gene doublesex of the Fruit Fly Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, M. Fernanda; Stefani, Rominy N.; Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O.; Perondini, André L. P.; Selivon, Denise; Sánchez, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The gene doublesex of Anastrepha obliqua is composed of four instead of the usual six exons. It is transcribed in both sexes and its primary transcript undergoes sex-specific splicing, producing female DsxF and male DsxM proteins, which have in common the amino-terminal region but which differ at the carboxyl-terminal region. PMID:16085699

  1. Variations in the sensitivity of different primers for detecting Wolbachia in Anastrepha (diptera: tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Coscrato, Virgínia Elias; Selivon, Denise; Perondini, André Luiz Paranhos; Marino, Celso Luis

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiont bacteria of the family Rickettsiacea that are widespread in invertebrates and occur between 20% and 60% of Neotropical insects. These bacteria are responsible for reproductive phenomena such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, male killing, feminization and parthenogenesis. Supergroups A and B of Wolbachia are common in insects and can be identified using primers for 16S rDNA, ftsZ and wsp; these primers vary in their ability to detect Wolbachia. The ftsZ primer was the first primer used to detect Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies. The primers for 16S rDNA, ftsZ and wsp and the corresponding PCR conditions have been optimized to study the distribution of Wolbachia and their effect on the biology of Anastrepha in Brazil. In this work, we examined the ability of these primers to detect Wolbachia in Anastrepha populations from three regions in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. All of the samples were positive for Wolbachia supergroup A when screened with primers for 16S A rDNA and wsp A; the wsp B primer also gave a positive result, indicating cross-reactivity. The ftsZ primer showed a poor ability to detect Wolbachia in Anastrepha and generated false negatives in 44.9% of the samples. These findings indicate that reliable PCR detection of Wolbachia requires the use of primers for 16S rDNA and wsp to avoid cross-reactions and false negatives, and that the ftsZ primer needs to be redesigned to improve its selectivity. PMID:24031693

  2. Relevant genetic differentiation among Brazilian populations of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Manni, Mosè; Lima, Kátia Manuela; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Lanzavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Juri, Marianela; Vera, Teresa; Cladera, Jorge; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gasperi, Giuliano; Silva, Janisete Gomes; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We used a population genetic approach to detect the presence of genetic diversity among six populations of Anastrepha fraterculus across Brazil. To this aim, we used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers, which may capture the presence of differentiative processes across the genome in distinct populations. Spatial analyses of molecular variance were used to identify groups of populations that are both genetically and geographically homogeneous while also being maximally differentiated from each other. The spatial analysis of genetic diversity indicates that the levels of diversity among the six populations vary significantly on an eco-geographical basis. Particularly, altitude seems to represent a differentiating adaptation, as the main genetic differentiation is detected between the two populations present at higher altitudes and the other four populations at sea level. The data, together with the outcomes from different cluster analyses, identify a genetic diversity pattern that overlaps with the distribution of the known morphotypes in the Brazilian area. PMID:26798258

  3. Current knowledge of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Bravo, Iara Sordi Joachim; Dias, Vanessa; Roriz, Alzira Kelly Passos; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Mendonça, Adriana de Lima; Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordão; do Nascimento, Ruth Rufino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study of the species complex Anastrepha fraterculus (Af complex) in Brazil is especially important in a taxonomical, evolutionary and pest management context, because there are evidences that some of them may occur in sympatry. In this review, we analyzed the main results supporting evidences that three cryptic species occur in Brazil. The taxonomical and phylogenetic relationships based on eggshell morphology, adult morphometrics, as well as cytotaxonomy and genetic differentiations are discussed. We also review available information on sexual behavior including acoustic communication of males during courtship and sexual incompatibility; and chemical signals involved in the communication between sexes, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examined the role of long- and short-range pheromones (male-produced volatiles and cuticular hydrocarbons, respectively), their implications in sexual isolation, and their possible use for chemotaxonomic differentiation of the putative species of the Af complex. PMID:26798261

  4. Host-plant finding by the asparagus fly, Plioreocepta poeciloptera (Diptera: Tephritidae), a monophagous, monovoltine tephritid.

    PubMed

    Thibout, E; Pierre, D; Mondy, N; Lecomte, C; Biémont, J C; Auger, J

    2005-10-01

    The role of various olfactory and visual stimuli was studied in host-plant finding by the asparagus fly Plioreocepta poeciloptera (Schrank), a monophagous monovoltine tephritid causing serious damage to asparagus spears. Volatiles released by asparagus plants were extracted by diethyl ether after cryotrapping concentration, and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twelve of the 13 compounds identified were tested using electroantennography to measure the response of the fly. Behavioural response was analysed using two different flight tunnels according to circadian rhythm, age and sex of adults, presence of the plant and of different coloured lures, presence of a male congener, or exposure to four pure asparagus odour compounds that elicited responses in electroantennography, i.e. hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol and decanal. Data showed that males locate the host plant more quickly than females. Females are attracted mainly by the blend of plant odour and male pheromone. Both sexes respond to a complex of stimuli only during the afternoon. These findings will be helpful in developing new and effective approaches to control this pest insect.

  5. Random mating and reproductive compatibility among Argentinean and southern Brazilian populations of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Rull, J; Abraham, S; Kovaleski, A; Segura, D F; Islam, A; Wornoayporn, V; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Santo; Vera, M T

    2012-08-01

    As a prerequisite for area-wide application of the sterile insect technique in an area encompassing northern Argentina and southern Brazil, prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive compatibility among three geographically distant populations in the area was tested. In field cages, sexually mature adults of each population were found to be sexually compatible, mating duration was not affected by fly origin and there was no clear evidence of spatial partition of mating location. In the laboratory, homotypic and heterotypic crosses for all possible combinations displayed similar levels of fertility and yielded F1 adults without distortion of the sex ratio. Finally, F1 hybrid and parental adults produced equally viable F2 eggs. Put together, our results and those from earlier studies suggest that a large area, ranging from Buenos Aires to the surroundings of São Paulo, could be managed using a single A. fraterculus mass-reared strain. At the northern margin of this area, two A. fraterculus morphotypes appear to coexist in sympatry. We delineate future research to further delimit the distribution of the aff1 morphotype (Argentina-southern Brazil) and to gain insight into evolutionary patterns producing divergence and radiation of tropical fruit fly species.

  6. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae for Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in soil with different pesticides.

    PubMed

    Mochi, Dinalva A; Monteiro, Antonio C; De Bortoli, Sergio A; Dória, Háyda O S; Barbosa, José C

    2006-01-01

    This research intended to investigate if the presence of pesticides in the soil could affect the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae Metsch. (Sorokin) for Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and assess the effect of conidia application as suspension or dry conidia. The fungicides chlorothalonyl and tebuconazol, the acaricide abamectin, the insecticide trichlorfon, and the herbicide ametrin were applied at the manufacturer-recommended doses. Soil samples were placed in glass flasks and were given the fungus as conidial suspension or dry. After pesticide application, 20 3rd-instar larvae were placed in the soil. The flasks were sealed with voile fabric and incubated at 27 +/- 0.5 masculineC for nine days, until adult emergence; incubation continued for four more days at room temperature. The total insect survival was significantly affected and pathogenic activity was detected from the pupa stage on. Pupa survival was reduced (P<0.05); the same occurred during the adult phase. No effect was observed at the larval stage. The pesticides applied to the soil affected the activity of M. anisopliae slightly: only in the dry conidia assay the fungicides chlorothalonyl and tebuconazole reduced (86.2% and 82.5%, respectively) the survival period of C. capitata compared to the control (95.0%). The techniques used for conidia application did not influence the total insect survival rate, but conidial suspension applied on soil surface reduced survival during the pupae and adult phases.

  7. Influence of Methoprene on Pheromone Emission and Sexual Maturation of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) males.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barrios, Rodolfo; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Gómez-Simuta, Yeudiel; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that the application of juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, reduces the time required for sexual maturation and enhances mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. This study examined the effect of different concentrations of methoprene incorporated into the diet of adult flies and distinct sugar:protein (S:P) ratios on sexual maturity and pheromone emission of Anastrepha obliqua males. Diets with 0.2 and 0.5% of methoprene accelerated sexual maturation of males compared with untreated males. In subsequent assays, the enhancement of male pheromone emission and sexual maturation by the incorporation of 0.02% methoprene into a 24:1 (S: P) diet was confirmed. Among the volatiles released by males, (Z)-3-nonenol and (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienol were emitted at higher quantities by flies treated with methoprene than untreated ones. The results show that methoprene accelerates sexual maturation of mass-reared A. obliqua males and increases their mating propensity. This would reduce the time required to attain sexual maturation by sterile males, thus decreasing fly handling costs and improving the efficacy of the sterile insect technique.

  8. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  9. Morphometric Differentiation Among Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exploiting Sympatric Alternate Hosts.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cendra, P V; Paulin, L E; Oroño, L; Ovruski, S M; Vilardi, J C

    2016-04-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is currently considered a complex of cryptic species infesting fruits from Mexico to Argentina and represents an interesting biological model for evolutionary studies. Moreover, detecting and quantifying behavioral, morphological, and genetic differentiation among populations is also relevant to the application of environment-friendly control programs. Here, phenotypic differentiation among individuals coexisting in the wild in a Northern region of Argentina was unveiled and associated with host choice. Six morphometric traits were measured in sympatric flies exploiting three different host species. Phenotypic variation was shown to be host-dependent regardless of geographical or temporal overlap. Flies collected from synchronous alternate hosts (peach and walnut) differed from each other despite the lack of geographical isolation. By contrast, flies emerging from guavas that ripen about two months later than peach and walnut showed no significant differentiation in comparison to flies collected from walnuts, but they differ significantly from flies originating from peaches. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the same population of flies shifts from walnuts to guavas throughout the year, whereas the population of flies that uses peaches as a host is probably exploiting other alternate hosts when peach availability decreases. Further research is needed to study the underlying mechanism. Results are consistent with previous molecular markers (inter-simple sequence repeat-ISSR) research on flies stemming from the same hosts and the same area, suggesting that differentiation among flies emerging from alternative hosts occurs at both genetic and phenotypic levels. The contribution of host preference in long-term genetic differentiation is discussed.

  10. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), ...

  11. Attractant-based systems as pesticide alternatives for control of tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass trapping and attract-and-kill bait stations are two attractant based systems that are being used or are under development as pesticide alternatives for control of a number of pest tephritid fruit flies. Results of field trials for suppression of Caribbean fruit flies in guava orchards in Florid...

  12. Reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in managed and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus; Alston, Diane G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the timing of reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), a key pest of sweet and tart cherries in the eastern United States. To determine when cherry fruit fly females become reproductively mature in managed and natural habitats, we deployed traps in sweet and tart cherry orchards and nearby stands of the ancestral host tree, black cherry. Flies were removed from the traps and females were dissected to determine the presence of fully developed eggs. We found that capture of reproductively mature female flies occurred earlier in orchards that are not sprayed with insecticides than in sprayed orchards or in black cherry tree sites. In addition, the gap between the flights of immature and mature females in unmanaged sweet or tart cherry orchards was shorter than in managed orchards or black cherry tree sites. We also determined fruit color, size, and skin hardness to characterize the progression of fruit maturity. We found that fruit became mature earlier in sweet and tart cherry orchards than in black cherry tree sites. This study indicates that the timing of female reproductive maturity is plastic and varies among cherry fruit fly populations present in distinct habitats. Variation in the timing of reproductive maturity is related to the fruit maturity period of distinct host plant species and to orchard management.

  13. Overwintering survival of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and two introduced parasitoids in California.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Nadel, Hannah; Johnson, Marshall W; Blanchet, Arnaud; Argov, Yael; Pickett, Charles H; Daane, Kent M

    2013-06-01

    The overwintering survival and development of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and P. lounsburyi (Silvestri), were investigated at sites in California's interior valley and coastal region. In the interior valley, adult flies survived up to 4-6 mo during the winter when food was provided. Adult female flies could oviposit in late fall and early winter on nonharvested fruit and, although egg survival was low (0.23-8.50%), a portion of the overwintered cohort developed into adults the following spring; percentage of survival was negatively correlated to daily minimum temperature. P. humilis and P. lounsburyi successfully oviposited into host larvae in late fall, and their progeny developed into adults the following spring, although with a low percentage (0-11.9%) survivorship. Overwintering survival of puparia of the olive fruit fly and immature larvae of P. humilis and P. lounsburyi (inside host puparia), buried in the soil, were tested at an interior valley and coastal site. Survival of olive fruit fly ranged from 0 to 60% and was affected by the trial date and soil moisture. Overwintering survival of both the fruit fly and tested parasitoids was lower at the colder interior valley than the coastal site; P. humilis immature stages had the highest mortality levels while B. oleae pupae had the lowest mortality levels. The spring emergence pattern of the tested insects was well predicted by a degree-day model. We discuss factors potentially impeding establishment of introduced olive fruit fly parasitoids in California and elsewhere.

  14. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  15. Threshold Concentration of Limonoids (Azamax) for Preventing Infestation by Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Forim, M R; Sá, I C G

    2015-04-01

    This study identified the threshold concentration of limonoids for the complete inhibition of oviposition of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in grapes 'Itália.' Choice and no-choice experiments with the insect were performed. The three no-choice bioassays were conducted following a completely randomized design with 18 treatments (three densities of insects [one, two, or three females]×five concentrations of limonoids and control) and 20 replicates. In a free choice bioassay, two fruits per cage (a treatment grape and a control) were provided for ovipositing. Three densities of insects (one, two, or three females) were used, with 15 replicates. Bioassays were conducted at 25±2°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The inhibition of oviposition of C. capitata was concentration dependent, with infestation occurring at lower concentrations of azadirachtin (+3-tigloylazadirachtol) and complete inhibition occurring at concentrations at or exceeding 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol), maintaining protective effects even at the most densely populated treatment (three females per fruit). When the pest had a free choice of host grapes (treatment vs. control), severe inhibition was observed at concentrations≥50 ppm azadirachtin (+14.3 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol). We conclude that a threshold concentration of 100 ppm azadirachtin (+28.5 ppm of 3-tigloylazadirachtol) is capable of preventing grape infestation. This concentration is likely to provide a reliable level of protection, as the experimental population density of three females per fruit usually does not occur in the field and wild flies usually have more host options.

  16. Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) host status determination: critical conceptual, methodological, and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Mangan, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Although fruit fly host status determination/designation lies at the heart of strategic decisions on national and international trade of fruit and vegetables, all attempts thus far to define host plant status have been contentious and as a result long-standing disputes between commercial partners throughout the world have lingered over decades. Part of the problem is that too little effort has been devoted to understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in host plant use by fruit flies and that instead economic and political interests usually prevail. Here we review the most important evolutionary, biological, ecological, physiological, and behavioral aspects that drive host use by fruit flies, and then construct a flow diagram rooted in these fundamentals that outlines a series of steps and definitions to determine if a particular fruit or vegetable (and cultivars thereof) is a natural host, or a conditional (potential, artificial) host, or a nonhost. Along the way, we incorporate risk analysis considerations and propose that the underlying complexity determining host plant utilization by fruit flies requires a flexible systems approach capable of realistically dealing with fly/host/environment/geographic variability on a case-by-case basis.

  17. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  18. Exposure to tea tree oil enhances the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma of various plant essential oils has been shown to enhance the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Laboratory observations revealed that male medflies show strong short-range attraction to tea tree oil (TTO hereafter) deri...

  19. Export of commercial 'Hass' avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quarantine restrictions due to the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), prevent Argentina from exporting avocados, Persea americana Miller, cv. Hass, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata, which cou...

  20. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that ba...

  1. Development of a larval diet for the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing protocols must be developed. In particular, a cost-effective larval diet, to implement the sterile insect technique against Anastrepha fratercculus (Wiedemann). The key elements of this diet are the optimal nutrients and their concentrations, diet supports or bulking agents, and the pH ...

  2. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to terminal diamines in a food-based synthetic attractant.

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D; Montgomery, Wayne S; Heath, Robert R

    2008-10-01

    A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies uses a two-component food-based synthetic attractant consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). Development of more effective monitoring programs may be realized through identification of additional attractant chemicals. This study examined response of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), to putrescine and four homologous terminal diamines, differing only in carbon chain length. Using a fixed dose of each diamine substrate, electroantennogram (EAG) responses from mature females to putrescine and cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) were not significantly different from each other but were significantly greater than responses to longer chain diamines. Over a range of doses tested, mean female EAG response was greater than male response to both putrescine and cadaverine. In an initial field test, capture of female flies in traps baited with ammonium acetate and either putrescine or cadaverine was higher than in traps baited with ammonium acetate and any of the other diamines. In a subsequent field test, traps baited with putrescine, cadaverine, or 1,6-diaminohexane in combination with ammonium acetate captured more female flies than traps baited with ammonium acetate alone. A significantly greater synergistic effect on female captures was observed with either putrescine or cadaverine than with 1,6-diaminohexane. Thus, of the diamines evaluated, cadaverine elicited both antennal and behavioral responses comparable to that of putrescine and will be studied further as a potential attractant for pest Anastrepha species.

  3. Redescription, lectotype designation and new records of Anastrepha luederwaldti Lima (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Uramoto, Keiko; Norrbom, Allen L; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2016-09-15

    The previously poorly known species Anastrepha luederwaldti Lima, 1934 is redescribed based on a reexamination of the syntypes from São Paulo and additional specimens from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A lectotype is designated.

  4. Two new species of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera, Tephritidae) closely related to Anastrepha pickeli Lima.

    PubMed

    Canal, N A; Uramoto, K; Zucchi, R A

    2013-02-01

    Anastrepha entodonta n. sp. and Anastrepha hadropickeli n. sp. are described and illustrated. The new species belong to the spatulata group. Both species occur sympatrically with Anastrepha pickeli Lima in the semiarid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Anastrepha hadropickeli occurs also in the semiarid of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, where it was misidentified as A. pickeli.

  5. Ovary development in two genetic strains of Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olfactory reception and behavioral responses to semiochemicals are influenced by an insect's physiological state, including sexual maturity. For tephritid fruit flies, reliable methods are needed for assessing maturity status of field-caught adults. Previously, we developed a six-stage system to cla...

  6. The Effects of a Modified Hot Water Treatment on Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)-Infested Mango.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Emilio; Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Toledo, Jorge; Bravo, Bigail; Caro-Corrales, José; Montoya, Pablo; Mangan, Robert

    2017-01-10

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is a quarantine pest in mango (Mangifera indica L.) that can be controlled by using a hot water treatment (HWT). This treatment is normally followed by a 30-min hydrocooling (HYC) process that reduces the negative effects that the treatment has on fruit quality. However, if hot water-treated fruits are immediately immersed in water at 21 °C, the survival rate of third-instar A. ludens may be increased. The current approved treatment protocol states that if HYC is used, then treated fruit should undergo an additional 10-min HWT or on platform for 30 min before HYC. We aimed to determine the efficacy of HWT without an additional 10-min treatment before being subjected to HYC, while taking into consideration that the most important conditions are the temperature of the fruit core throughout treatment and the type of infestation, either oviposition or inoculation. Two experimental tests were conducted. Our first aim was to determine the effectiveness of HWT followed by HYC using three varieties and different size classes of mangoes ('Ataulfo' 200-375 and 401-570 g; 'Tommy Atkins' 401-500 and 501-700 g; 'Kent' 401-500 g). The four treatment combinations used to test HWT and immediate HYC at 21 °C were 1) HWT, 2) HWT/HYC, 3) HWT + 10 min/HYC, and 4) HWT/30 min on platform/HYC; an independent experiment was used for each variety. The second aim was to validate the HWT/HYC combination by performing confirmatory tests in commercial packing houses. The results showed that as long as the mango core temperature reached 45 °C during the HWT, it was not necessary to add the 10-min treatment to the HWT before HYC at 21 °C was applied. To ensure that the larvae are subjected to the HWT treatment for sufficient time to be lethal, the temperature of the fruit core throughout the treatment must be recorded.

  7. Population Fluctuation of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a Function of Altitude in Eastern Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Flores, S; Montoya, P; Ruiz-Montoya, L; Villaseñor, A; Valle, A; Enkerlin, W; Liedo, P

    2016-08-01

    Population fluctuations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were evaluated over a period of 12 mo in four altitudinal strata (400-750, 750-1,100, 1,100-1,450, and 1,450-1,800 meters above sea level, masl) in Eastern Guatemala. Within each altitudinal range, sampling plots were established in coffee plantations and adjacent areas, in which Jackson traps were set and baited with Trimedlure. Coffee berries and other host fruits were collected. Population density was lowest at the 400-750 masl stratum and highest at 1,450-1,800 masl. At every altitudinal range, the fluctuations of the pest were associated mainly with the availability of ripe coffee berries as a primary host. From 750-1,450 masl, the pest was also associated with the availability of sweet orange and mandarins in commercial and backyard orchards. The highest densities of the pest were recorded in the dry season. Citrus were the main alternate host where ripe coffee berries were not available. This knowledge on population dynamics of C. capitata will contribute to develop more effective area-wide pest management strategies including the use of sterile insects, natural enemies, and bait sprays.

  8. A systematic study of Ichneumonosoma Meijere, Pelmatops Enderlein, Pseudopelmatops Shiraki and Soita Walker (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four fruit fly genera, Ichneumonosoma Meijere, Pelmatops Enderlein, Pseudopelmatops Shiraki and Soita Walker, were studied and 19 species are recognized. Three new species, S. infuscata Chen et Norrbom n. sp., I. quadripunctata Chen et Freidberg, n. sp. and I. triangularis Chen et Norrbom, n. sp. ar...

  9. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  10. Redescription, lectotype designation and new records of Anastrepha luederwaldti Lima (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The previously poorly known species Anastrepha luederwaldti Lima, 1934 is redescribed based on a reexamination of the syntypes from São Paulo and additional specimens from Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A lectotype is designated....

  11. A new species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha woodi, new species, is described and illustrated based on specimens from Colombia and Costa Rica. It is compared with A. loewi Stone, the most similar species, which is also redescribed....

  12. Fluorescent sperm marking to improve the fight against the pest insect Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesca; Schetelig, Marc F; Bertin, Sabrina; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2008-06-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) involving area-wide release of mass-reared and sterilized pest insects has proven successful to reduce, control and eradicate economically important pest species, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly). For the efficient application, effective monitoring to assess the number and mating success of the released medflies is essential. Here, we report sperm-specific marking systems based on the spermatogenesis-specific Ceratitis capitata beta2-tubulin (Ccbeta2t) promoter. Fluorescent sperm can be isolated from testes or spermathecae. The marking does not cause general disadvantages in preliminary laboratory competitiveness assays. Therefore, transgenic sperm marking could serve as a major improvement for monitoring medfly SIT programs. The use of such harmless transgenic markers will serve as an ideal initial condition to transfer insect transgenesis technology from the laboratory to field applications. Moreover, effective and easily recognizable sperm marking will make novel studies possible on medfly reproductive biology which will help to further improve SIT programs.

  13. Relevant genetic differentiation among Brazilian populations of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Manni, Mosè; Lima, Kátia Manuela; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Lanzavecchia, Silvia Beatriz; Juri, Marianela; Vera, Teresa; Cladera, Jorge; Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gasperi, Giuliano; Silva, Janisete Gomes; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa

    2015-01-01

    We used a population genetic approach to detect the presence of genetic diversity among six populations of Anastrepha fraterculus across Brazil. To this aim, we used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers, which may capture the presence of differentiative processes across the genome in distinct populations. Spatial analyses of molecular variance were used to identify groups of populations that are both genetically and geographically homogeneous while also being maximally differentiated from each other. The spatial analysis of genetic diversity indicates that the levels of diversity among the six populations vary significantly on an eco-geographical basis. Particularly, altitude seems to represent a differentiating adaptation, as the main genetic differentiation is detected between the two populations present at higher altitudes and the other four populations at sea level. The data, together with the outcomes from different cluster analyses, identify a genetic diversity pattern that overlaps with the distribution of the known morphotypes in the Brazilian area.

  14. New taxa of Carpomyini, with special emphasis on Goniglossum (Diptera: Tephritidae: Trypetinae).

    PubMed

    Freidberg, Amnon

    2016-07-26

    Goniglossum Rondani, hitherto a monobasic genus, is reinstated from synonymy under Carpomya Costa. A second species, Goniglossum liat n. sp., is described nearly two centuries after the description of the first species and 160 years after the description of Goniglossum. G. liat is described from Israel (also known from Turkey) and compared with G. wiedemanni (Meigen), an essentially European species, which is the type-species of Goniglossum and the only other known congener. The two species differ in details of the mesonotal and pleural color pattern (e.g., tip of scutellum with three small black spots in G. wiedemanni, whereas with one large spot in G. liat), structure of the male and female terminalia (e.g., the aculeus of G. wiedemanni is distinctly narrower apically than that of G. liat, and its tip has significantly fewer teeth), and host plant associations (Bryonia alba L. and B. dioica Jacq. are hosts of G. wiedemanni, whereas Bryonia cretica L. and B. syriaca Boiss. are hosts of G. liat). Myiopardalis Bezzi is also reinstated from synonymy under Carpomya. C. tica Norrbom, originally described in Carpomya, is transferred to Norrbomella, new genus, as its type and only included species.

  15. Toxicological studies of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides for controlling the fruit fly Dacus ciliatus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Maklakov, A; Ishaaya, I; Freidberg, A; Yawetz, A; Horowitz, A R; Yarom, I

    2001-10-01

    The fruit fly Dacus ciliatus Loew is a pest of the fruits of many cucurbit species. We studied the effect of organaophosphate and pyrethroid compounds on the adult flies by using surface contact and oral administration. In contrast to other fruit flies, we found that organophosphates were ineffective against D. ciliatus. This was supported by the insignificant decrease of head acetylcholinesterase activity. All tested pyrethroids showed satisfactory killing ability, rapid and massive knockdown effect, and prevention of oviposition. Piperonyl butoxide considerably increased the toxicity of pyrethroids, which can be explained by oxidase detoxification of these compounds in D. ciliatus. It can be concluded that pyrethroids have high potential for controlling D. ciliatus.

  16. Revision of the Urophora xanthippe species group, with description of new species (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-07-23

    The xanthippe group of species of the genus Urophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is revised and keyed. It contains seven species with a yellow area on the scutum medial to the notopleuron: Urophora bakhtiari new species (from flowerheads of Cousinia archibaldii), Urophora dirlbeki new species (from flowerheads of Onopordum acanthium), U. iani Korneyev & Merz 1998, U. impicta (Hering 1942) (= Urophora hermonis Freidberg 1974, new synonym), U. kasachstanica (Richter 1964), U. stalker Korneyev 1985, and U. xanthippe (Munro 1934). All the species are described, illustrated and keyed.

  17. A systematic study of Ichneumonosoma de Meijere, Pelmatops Enderlein, Pseudopelmatops Shiraki and Soita Walker (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Lin; Norrbom, Allen; Freidberg, Amnon; Chesters, Douglas; Islam, Md Sajedul; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2015-09-09

    Four fruit fly genera, Ichneumonosoma de Meijere, Pelmatops Enderlein, Pseudopelmatops Shiraki and Soita Walker, were studied and 19 species are recognized. Three new species, Soita infuscata Chen & Norrbom, Ichneumonosoma quadripunctata Chen & Freidberg, and I. triangularis Chen & Norrbom are described and illustrated. Ichneumonosoma and Soita are revised, and keys to all the species are provided. Ichneumonosoma imitans (de Meijere) is newly recorded from Thailand. One new synonym is established: Soita Walker = Xaniosternum Enderlein, and Xaniosternum ophioneum Enderlein is moved from Xaniosternum to Soita (n. comb.). In addition, new morphological, geographic and biological information for two stalk-eyed fruit fly genera, Pelmatops and Pseudopelmatops, are provided. Pelmatops fukienensis Zia & Chen is newly recorded from Burma, Pelmetops ichneumoneus (Westwood) is newly recorded from Thailand and Burma, Pseudopelmatops angustifasciatus Zia & Chen is newly recorded from Vietnam, and the male of P. angustifasciatus is described and illustrated for the first time. The morphology of the compound eye and occipital protuberance of Pelmatops and Pseudopelmatops is described and illustrated for the first time. A cladistic analysis based on morphological characters of adults, a partial molecular analysis using the nuclear 28S rDNA (28S) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes and a combined dataset were conducted to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four genera and their species. The results showed good support for monophyly of each of the four genera and the clade of the stalk-eyed fruit flies (Pelmatops + Pseudopelmatops). However, relationships of the stalk-eyed fruit flies with Soita and Ichneumonosoma are not clearly resolved, with the morphological analysis indicating that Ichneumonosoma is the sister group of the stalk-eyed fruit flies, but the 28S analysis and the combined analysis group Soita closer to the stalk-eyed fruit flies. Regarding relationships amongst congeners, Pelmatops was well resolved; Ichneumonosoma and Soita were partly resolved, and Pseudopelmatops was unresolved. In addition, a hypothesis about the biology of Pseudopelmatops and its relationship with Sesiidae (Lepidoptera) is discussed.

  18. Seasonality of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands, Azores, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, R.; Lopes, D.J.H.; Mexia, A.M.M.; Mumford, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Population dynamics studies are very important for any area-wide control program as they provide detailed knowledge about the relationship of Medfly [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)] life cycle with host availability and abundance. The main goal of this study is to analyse seasonality of C. capitata in Terceira and Sao Jorge Islands (Azores archipelago) using field and laboratory data collected during (2010–2014) CABMEDMAC (MAC/3/A163) project. The results from Sao Jorge Island indicate significantly lower male/female ratio than on Terceira Island. This is an important finding specially regarding when stablishing the scenario parameters for a sterile insect technique application in each island. The population dynamics of C. capitata are generally linked with host fruit availability and abundance. However, on Terceira Island fruit infestation levels are not synchronized with the trap counts. For example, there was Medfly infestations in some fruits [e.g., Solanum mauritianum (Scop.)] while in the nearby traps there were no captures at the same time. From this perspective, it is important to denote the importance of wild invasive plants, on the population dynamics of C. capitata, as well important to consider the possibility of having different densities of traps according to the characteristics of each area in order to improve the network of traps surveillance’s sensitivity on Terceira Island. PMID:28082349

  19. Identification of grape juice aroma volatiles and attractiveness to the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatiles from a Concord grape juice produced in Mexico were identified, tested for attractiveness and mixed into an attractant blend. Volatiles were sampled using solid phase microextraction (SPME). Chemicals were analyzed by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Identi...

  20. Identification of chemicals emitted by calling males of the Sapote fruit fly, Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions from sexually active Anastrepha serpentine males were collected by solid-phase microextraction. Calling behavior of wild-type males showed no clear peak during the day except that calling was less frequent immediately after daybreak and just before dark. Calling by laboratory males was h...

  1. Identification of Chemicals Emitted by Calling Males of the Sapote Fruit Fly, Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions from sexually active Anastrepha serpentine males were collected by solid-phase microextraction. Calling behavior of wild-type males showed no clear peak during the day, except that it was evident less frequently immediately after daybreak and just before dark. Calling by laboratory males...

  2. Phylogenetic relationships between flies of the Tephritinae subfamily (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their symbiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mazzon, Luca; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Simonato, Mauro; Squartini, Andrea; Savio, Claudia; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2010-07-01

    The Tephritinae is considered the most specialized subfamily of fruit flies, predominantly infesting flowerheads of Asteraceae. Some species are known to host specific non-culturable symbiont bacteria ("Candidatus Stammerula spp.") in the midgut. In this work we (i) examined the phylogenetic relationships among the insect hosts, (ii) investigated the presence of bacteria in other hitherto unexamined species, and (iii) evaluated the phylogenetic congruence between insects and symbionts. A total of 33 Tephritinae species in 17 different genera were analyzed. Two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (16S rDNA and COI-tRNALeu-COII) were examined in the insect host, while the 16S was analyzed in the bacteria. From the phylogenetic trees, four of the five tribes considered were statistically supported by each of the clustering methods used. Species belonging to the tribe Noeetini never clustered at significant levels. The phylogenetic COI-tRNALeu-COII tree showed internal nodes more highly supported than the 16S phylogeny. The analysis of the distribution of symbiosis across the subfamily has highlighted the presence of bacteria only in the tribe Tephritini and in the genus Noeeta from the tribe Noeetini. A cophylogenetic analysis revealed a substantial congruence between hosts and symbionts. The interesting exceptions can be justified by events like losses, duplications and hosts switching opportunities, which are likely to arise during the biological cycle of the fly in consideration of the extracellular status of these symbionts.

  3. The current and future potential geographic range of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Liao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Guan-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Xia; Ni, Wen-Long; Qü, Wei-Wei

    2014-04-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), is one of the most important pests throughout the Americas. CLIMEX 3.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of this pest. Under current climatic conditions, A. obliqua is predicted to be able to establish throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including not only North and South America, where it has been reported, but also southern Asia, northeastern Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion may be cold stress. Climate change expands the potential distribution of A. obliqua poleward as cold stress boundaries recede, but the predicted distribution in northwestern Australia and northern parts of Sub-Saharan Africa will decrease because of heat stress. Considering the widely suitable range for A. obliqua globally and in China, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  4. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to putrescine and ammonium bicarbonate lures.

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2009-08-01

    At present, the most effective synthetic lures for pest Anastrepha fruit flies are multicomponent blends that include ammonia and the diamine synergist putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). Both chemicals generally have been regarded as protein cues that result in female-biased attraction. Using electroantennography (EAG) and flight tunnel bioassays, this study evaluated response of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) to vapors released from commercial lure formulations of ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine. Over a range of doses tested, EAG response to ammonium bicarbonate was equivalent for both sexes, but female response was significantly greater than male response to putrescine and to a 1:1 mixture of ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine. Amplitude of EAG response to the mixture was approximately equal to the summation of responses to the individual substrates. Using a fixed dose of substrate, EAG measurements from females 1-14 d old indicated that antennal sensitivity to both lures varied according to physiological state of the fly. Peak response to ammonium bicarbonate was recorded from immature females, peak response to putrescine from sexually mature females. In bioassays, more females were captured with ammonium bicarbonate plus putrescine than with ammonium bicarbonate alone. This difference was not observed in males, resulting in a higher female to male ratio in captures with ammonium bicarbonate plus putreseine (3:1) versus ammonium bicarbonate alone (1:1). Results suggest that separate olfactory receptors are involved in detection of the two semiochemicals, and that the putrescine component is primarily responsible for the female-biased attraction.

  5. Antennal and behavioral responses of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a series of homologous terminal diamines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current monitoring programs for Anastrepha fruit flies use a two-component synthetic attractant consisting of ammonium acetate (AA) and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). Identification of additional attractant chemicals may improve trapping efficacy. We examined response of the Caribbean fruit fly, ...

  6. Antennal and behavioral responses to putrescine and ammonium bicarbonate in the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies uses a 2-component lure that emits ammonia and putrescine, both regarded as protein cues. This study used electroantennography and flight tunnel bioassays to quantify olfactory and behavioral responses of A. suspensa to vapors from ammonium bicar...

  7. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to putrescine and ammonium bicarbonate lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At present, the most effective synthetic lures for pest Anastrepha fruit flies are multi-component blends that include an ammonia-emitting substrate and the diamine synergist, putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). Both chemicals are regarded as protein-feeding cues which result in female-biased attractio...

  8. Effective sampling range of food-based attractants for female Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Release/recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (hydrolyzed torula yeast) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were d...

  9. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to terminal diamines in a food-based synthetic attractant.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies utilizes a two-component food-based synthetic attractant consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) lures. Development of more effective monitoring programs may be realized through identification of additional attractant ch...

  10. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Unahawutti, Udorn; Intarakumheng, Rachada; Oonthonglang, Pitawat; Phankum, Salukjit; Follett, Peter A

    2014-08-01

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly) and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (carambola fruit fly). Ripe commercial quality fruit (1 wk after harvest) that were either undamaged or damaged by puncturing or peeling the pericarp were exposed to a high density of gravid flies in screen cages and then held for 10 d and dissected to inspect for immature life stages. Undamaged mangosteen fruit were not infested by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae. Partially damaged fruit with shallow punctures in the pericarp that did not extend to the aril also were not infested. Both fruit flies could infest damaged fruit if the pericarp damage allowed oviposition in the aril. Results suggest that natural infestation of mangosteen by B. dorsalis and B. carambolae can only occur if fruit exhibit physical cracks or mechanical injury. Resistance appears to be due to the pericarp hardness and thickness as well as latex secretion. Nonhost status could be used without additional quarantine measures to achieve quarantine security against B. dorsalis and B. carambolae in mangosteen exported from Thailand.

  11. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host f...

  12. Methoprene treatment reduces the pre-copulatory period in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha fraterculus is a major fruit pest in South America. Ongoing studies encourage the implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest. Sexual readiness of sterile males is a key point for SIT. The time required for A. fraterculus males to become sexually mature is unkn...

  13. Induction of sterility in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) by gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Allinghi, A.; Gramajo, C.; Willink, E.; Vilardi, J.

    2007-03-15

    In relation to the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), we analyzed the effect on adult fertility of different doses of gamma irradiation and the age of pupae at the time of irradiation. In a first experiment, we applied doses of 50, 70, and 90 Gy to pupae at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h before adult emergence. In a second experiment we irradiated pupae 48 h before emergence with 20, 40, and 60 Gy and estimated male and female fertility and sperm transfer by irradiated males. The results indicated pupal age at irradiation does not significantly affect male fertility. If males irradiated with 60 Gy are crossed to non-irradiated females the fertility is about 1%. Females irradiated with 40 Gy did not lay eggs independently of the male to which they mated. No significant effects of radiation were observed with respect to the ability of males to transfer sperm. A dose of 70 Gy applied 48 h before adult emergence induces 100% sterility in both males and females. (author) [Spanish] Para la aplicacion de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), en este trabajo analizamos el efecto de diferentes dosis de irradiacion gamma y la edad optima de la pupa al momento de la irradiacion. En el primer experimento se evaluaron las dosis de 50, 70, y 90 Gy en pupas de 24, 48, 72, y 96 h antes de la emergencia del adulto. En el segundo experimento se irradiaron pupas 48 h antes de la emergencia con dosis de 20, 40, 60 Gy y se estimo la fertilidad de los machos y las hembras, y la transferencia de espermas por los machos irradiados. Los resultados indicaron que la irradiacion no modifico significativamente la fertilidad de los machos. En las cruzas de machos irradiados a 60 Gy con hembras no irradiadas se observo 1% de eclosion larvaria, mientras que las hembras irradiadas a 40 Gy no pusieron huevos. La irradiacion no afecto significativamente la transferencia de espermas de los machos tratados. Por lo tanto, una dosis de 70 Gy aplicada 48 h antes de la emergencia del adulto induce 100% de esterilidad tanto en machos como en hembras. (a0011uth.

  14. Long distance movement of Bactroceira dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Puna, Hawaii: How far can they go?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: The invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendell), is considered a major economic threat in many regions world-wide including the island of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian archipelago. Large populations helped initiate USDA-ARS (United States Department of Agriculture – Agr...

  15. Controlled-release panel traps for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, B A; Cunningham, R T; Chambers, D L; Avery, J W; Harte, E M

    1994-10-01

    Solid, controlled-release dispensers containing 2 g of the synthetic attractant trimedlure now are used in Jackson traps to detect the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Panel traps consisting of trimedlure mixed in a sticky substance and spread on the surfaces of a plastic panel are used to delineate the limits of discovered insect infestations in California. We describe the development of controlled-release, polymeric panels that prolong release of trimedlure and a highly attractive analog, ceralure. Attractants were incorporated in a polyethylene matrix to form panels and in a polymer coating on cardboard panels that then were evaluated by biological and chemical assay. In addition, commercial polymer matrix panels were evaluated. Field bioassay tests conducted in Hilo, HI, using released flies and in Guatemala in a natural population showed that the polyethylene matrix panel became brittle and cracked during field exposure and that release rates of the attractants were relatively low. The coated cardboard panels were stable under field conditions and yielded high fly captures for up to 6 wk. Farma Tech commercial panels containing 12.3 and 23.4 g of trimedlure remained highly attractive throughout a 134-d test in Hawaii and appear to be a long-lasting alternative to panels coated with trimedlure in Stikem. The cost of the relatively high dose of trimedlure is offset by the prolonged active life of the panel. Commercial panels from AgriSense (10 g trimedlure and 10 g ceralure) released the attractants at a slower rate and were less attractive.

  16. Hot-water phytosanitary treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Ataulfo' mangoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Emilio; Rivera, Pedro; Bravo, Bigail; Toledo, Jorge; Caro-Corrales, José; Montoya, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    We determined the thermal death rate constants and mortality curves for the eggs and different instars of Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Wiedemann) submerged in isolation in water at 44, 46, and 48 degrees C and submerged within fruits of Mangifera indica (mango) (L.) in water at 43.1, 44.1, 45.1, and 46.1 degrees C. The first instar was the most tolerant to this treatment, with estimated times for achieving 99.9968% mortality of 103.28, 92.73, and 92.49 min at temperatures of 43.1, 44.1, and 45.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of the study indicate that 'Ataulfo' mangoes weighing < 329 +/- 2.11 g and at risk immature Mediterranean fruit fly infestation should be immersed for 95 min at 46.1-47 degrees C to ensure that the fruit pulp remains at this temperature for 10 min. An efficacy test was conducted that involved treating 730 mangoes, with an average weight of 326 +/- 2.11 g (mean +/- SE) and infested with 84 +/- 1.15 first instars. In this test, none of the 61,720 larvae treated survived. The confirmatory test was performed using commercial equipment in which 1,112 infested mango fruit weighing an average of 329 +/- 2.11 g were treated. Each fruit was previously infested with an average of 59 +/- 0.61 first instars (= 65,825 total larvae) of which none survived. The data collected on mango quality indicate that hot water immersion for 95 min at 46.1-47 degrees C can produce a more uniform fruit-color and positively modify the pH (producing more palatable fruits), but can also produce a loss of firmness and weight (5%). Taking all factors into consideration, we conclude that this treatment is sufficient to meet quarantine restrictions against C. capitata while maintaining market quality at least for 15 d.

  17. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in...

  18. Global assessment of seasonal potential distribution of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, Anna M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression of nanos in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    The gene nanos (nos) is a maternal-effect gene that plays an important role in posterior patterning and germ cell development in early stage embryos. nos is known from several diverse insect species, but has so far not been described for any Tephritid fruit fly. Here, we report the molecular cloning and expression pattern of the nos orthologous gene, Ccnos, in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, which is a destructive pest of high agricultural importance. CcNOS contains 398 amino acids and has a C-terminal region with two conserved CCHC zinc-binding motifs known to be essential for NOS function. Transcripts of Ccnos were confirmed by in situ hybridization to be maternally-derived and localized to the posterior pole of early stage embryos. Regulatory regions of nos have been employed in genetic engineering in some dipterans such as Drosophila and mosquitoes. Given the similarity in spatial and temporal expression between Ccnos and nos orthologs from other dipterans, its regulatory regions will be valuable to generate additional genetic tools that can be applied for engineering purposes to improve the fight against this devastating pest.

  20. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Ogaugwu, Christian E; Schetelig, Marc F; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    Fruit fly pest species have been successfully controlled and managed via the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), a control strategy that uses infertile matings of sterile males to wild females to reduce pest populations. Biological efficiency in the field is higher if only sterile males are released in SIT programs and production costs are also reduced. Sexing strains developed in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly) through classical genetics are immensely beneficial to medfly SIT programs but exhibit reduced fertility and fitness. Moreover, transfer of such classical genetic systems to other tephritid species is difficult. Transgenic approaches can overcome this limitation of classical genetic sexing strains (GSSs), but had resulted so far in transgenic sexing strains (TSSs) with dominant lethality at late larval and pupal stages. Here we present a transgene-based female-specific lethality system for early embryonic sexing in medfly. The system utilizes the sex-specifically spliced transformer intron to restrict ectopic mRNA translation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid(Ala5) to females only. The expression of this lethal effector gene is driven by a tetracycline-repressible transactivator gene tTA that is under the control of promoters/enhancers of early-acting cellularization genes. Despite observed position effects on the sex-specific splicing, we could effectively establish this early-acting transgenic sexing system in the medfly C. capitata. After satisfactory performance in large scale tests, TSSs based on this system will offer cost-effective sexing once introduced into SIT programs. Moreover, this approach is straight forward to be developed also for other insect pest and vector species.

  1. Photosensitizing effect of hematoporphyrin IX on immature stages of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Massaldi, Ana; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Immature stages of Ceratitis capitata were tested as a model for hematoporphyrin IX (HP IX) phototoxicity. The lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)) of HP IX in the food was determined during postembryonic development until adult emergence as 0.173 mm (95% CI: 0.138-0.209). The corresponding HP IX LC(50) during the dispersal period alone was 0.536 mm (95% CI: 0.450-0.633). HP IX toxicity was compared against Phloxine B (PhB) (0.5 mm). HP IX elicited a mortality of 90.87%, which was mainly concentrated during prepupal and early pupal stages. PhB mortality was much lower (56.88%) and occurred mainly during the adult pharate stage. A direct correlation between light-dependent HP IX mortality, evidence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) was established in C. capitata larvae. ROS were found to be very significant in both the brain and in the gut.

  2. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine sampling range for female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for pest tephritid fruit flies. Field studies were conducted in shaded coffee and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were captured. Traps (38 traps ...

  3. Phylogeographic structure in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations inferred with mtDNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anastrepha ludens (Loew), the Mexican fruit fly, is a major pest of citrus and mango. It has a wide distribution in Mexico and Central America with infestations occurring in Texas, California and Florida with origins believed to be centered in northeastern Mexico. This research evaluates the utilit...

  4. Attraction and electroantennographic responses of male mediterranean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) to six plant essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile secondary metabolites emitted from plants (and concentrated in plant essential oils) are suspected to attract males of the Mediterranean fruit fly to their calling sites. We investigated the differential attractiveness of various natural essential oils in comparison with trimedlure to (1) s...

  5. Improving trapping systems for early detection and eradication of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP insecticide were evaluated in traps as potential detection and male annihilation devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure an...

  6. Insecticidal Activity of a Destruxin-Containing Extract of Metarhizium brunneum Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lozano-Tovar, M D; Garrido-Jurado, I; Lafont, F; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2015-04-01

    Tephritid fruit flies are major pests that limit fruit production around the world; they cause important damages, increasing directly and indirectly annual costs, and their management is predominately based on the use of chemical insecticides. This research investigated the insecticidal activity of the crude extract obtained of Metarhizium brunneum Petch EAMb 09/01-Su strain and its capacity to secrete secondary metabolites including destruxins (dtx). Dtx A and A2 had insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) when administered per os. The crude extract of seven Metarhizium and one Beauveria isolates were evaluated per os against medfly adults. The crude extracts of the isolate EAMb 09/01-Su resulted in mortality ranging between 95 and 100% at 48 h. The high-pressure liquid chromatography profile showed two active peaks (F5B and F6 subfractions) related with dtx A2 and dtx A, which caused 70 and 100% mortality on C. capitata at 48 h postfeeding, respectively. The LC50 was 104.92 ppm of dtx A, contained in the F6 subfraction, and the LT50 was 4.16 h at a concentration of 400 ppm of dtx A contained in the F6 subfraction. Moreover, the average survival time of adults exposed to this subfraction was 12.6 h with only 1 h of exposure. The insecticide metabolites of the F6 subfraction of the EAMb 09/01-Su isolate retained >90% of its insecticidal activity after exposure to 60°C for 2 h and 120°C for 20 min. These results highlight the potential of this strain as a source of new insecticidal compounds of natural origin for fruit fly control.

  7. New species of Rhagoletotrypeta (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the Dominican Republic and southern Brazil and Paraguay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhagoletotrypeta chapecensis Norrbom & Savaris, new species, and R. gelabertae Norrbom & Savaris, new species, are described and illustrated from specimens from southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina) and Paraguay, and from the Dominican Republic, respectively. The larvae of R. chapecensis develop ...

  8. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J.; Rendon, P.

    2007-03-15

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [Spanish] En Guatemala, se compararon dos sistemas de trampeo durante la epoca lluviosa de Mayo a Deciembre, 2001. Combinaciones de trampa/atrayente que consistieron de trampas de plastico con bases verdes o amarillos y con atrayentes sinteticos (acetate de amoniaco y putrecina) fueron comparadas con el sistema de trampeo tradicional McPhail de vidrio cebada con torula y borax en agua. Los dos sistemas capturaron moscas del genero Anastrepha incluyendo Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann y Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Ademas, se capturaron 13 especias adicionales de Anastrepha asi como Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker con el cebo sintetico. El cebo sintetico fue efectivo por diez semanas sin recebar. Las trampas de plastico capturaron mas moscas del genero Anastrepha que la trampa de cristal McPhail. Las excepciones fueron A. distincta en donde no hubo differencias el la captura con la trampa de plastico con base amarillo y la trampa McPhail de cristal asi como A. fraterculus en donde no hubo differencias comparando la captura de moscas con ambos sistemas. La proporcion sexual de las moscas capturadas con los dos sistemas fue al favor de las hembras. La captura de otros tipos de insectos fue significantemente elevado, sin embargo, las moscas capturadas con los cebos sinteticos no fueron afectados adversamente por estos insectos. El 10% del anticongelante, glicol propilico, fue superior al borax/agua como conservador de las moscas capturardas. (author)

  9. New species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae), with a key for the species of the megacantha clade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. anopla (Brazil, Ecuador), A. grandicarina (Brazil, Ecuador, Perú), A. hadracantha (Ecuador), A. haplacantha (Ecuador), A. hyperacantha (Ecuador), A. inaequalis (Trinidad), A. intermedia (Panamá), A. lopezi (Guatemala), A. macracant...

  10. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  11. Female receptivity in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is not modulated by male accessory gland products.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Solana; Nuñez-Beverido, Nicolás; Contreras-Navarro, Yair; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2014-11-01

    In numerous insects, accessory gland products (AGPs) transferred from males to females during mating are responsible for female sexual inhibition, but these products can be affected by male condition. Here, we investigated the effect of AGPs on female receptivity of the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and the effect of male and female strain, male irradiation, AGP dose and sexual activity period on the effectiveness of these AGPs in inhibiting female remating. Injections of aqueous extracts of male accessory glands into the abdomen of females did not reduce their receptivity either at 0.2 or 0.8 male equivalent. Females injected with AGPs behaved like virgin females and not as mated females. Neither male origin, female origin (wild versus mass-reared), nor male irradiation (sterile versus fertile males) had an effect in inhibiting female remating. Also, injections of glands obtained during the sexual calling period of males, or obtained during the morning when males are not sexually active had no effect on female remating behavior. Mated mass-reared females were more likely to remate than wild females. We conclude that inhibition of female sexual receptivity of A. ludens is mediated by factors other than AGPs, such as the number of sperm stored by females, the stimulus of copulation per se or more probably, mediated by a combination of factors. More research is needed to elucidate the role of AGPs in this species.

  12. Insect thermotolerance comparing host infestation methods: Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared in grapefruit or diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on insect control should be conducted in a manner that mimics as closely as is feasible its commercial application in all of its practicably conceivable forms. When significant deviations from commercial application are used in research the effect of the deviations on efficacy should be eva...

  13. Copula duration, insemination and sperm allocation in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The juxtaposition and functional relationship of the sperm storage organs in Anastrepha ludens is described. The spermatheca squash technique has been used to determine mated status in tephritid fruit flies and thus as a measure of compatability and coverage for SIT programs. Female Anastrepha luden...

  14. Residual control and lethal concentrations of GF-120 (spinosad) for Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Gomez, Luis E; Montoya, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between residual time of GF-120 (spinosad) treatment and mortality in three species of Anastrepha Schiner. Concentrations of 96, 72, 48, and 24 ppm were aged on mango leaves under field conditions for 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 d after application. We found that Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, and A. serpentina were highly sensitive to spinosad. The effects of spinosad were not reduced over the 4 d after the initial application, even at a concentration of 24 ppm. Mortality at 14 d after the application of 72 and 96 ppm of spinosad was similar in each of the three fruit fly species. In addition, we found that 24 ppm of spinosad was consumed the most by each species even though no direct relationship between the rate of consumption per female and the dose of the product was observed, in this test, higher consumption of active ingredient was observed at a concentration of 72 ppm, for A. ludens, 48 ppm for A. obliqua, and 96 ppm for A. serpentina. Our results suggest that a spinosad concentration of 72 ppm may effectively control these pests for at least 10 d under field conditions.

  15. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, "GT" screen towers and "MX" screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fly densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm²) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb® and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb® and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb® powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fly sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fly species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs.

  16. Irradiation of mangoes as a postharvest quarantine treatment for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bustos, María E; Enkerlin, Walther; Reyes, Jesús; Toledo, Jorge

    2004-04-01

    Mangoes infested with third instar larvae were irradiated using Co-60 gamma rays and a dose interval of 2-250 Gy to assess the irradiation dose required to prevent adult emergence of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), the West Indies fruit fly (A. obliqua), the sapote fruit fly (A. serpentina), and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Doses of 76.9, 87.3, 91.4 and 112.7 Gy, were estimated to inhibit 99.9968% (probit 9) of adult emergence forA. obliqua, A. serpentina, A. ludens, and C. capitata, respectively. Using mangoes infested with a total of 100,000 larvae of each species, the results obtained in the laboratory were confirmed using a dose of 100 Gy for the Anastrepha species and 150 Gy for C. capitata. No adult emergence was observed for any of the four species compared with approximately 80% emergence in the controls. A dose of 150 Gy is recommended as a generic quarantine treatment against potential infestation of these species in exported mangoes. A minor decrease in the ascorbic acid content was the only adverse effects observed in irradiated mangoes.

  17. Population Dynamics of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Citrus Areas in Southern Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vanoye-Eligio, V; Barrientos-Lozano, L; Pérez-Castañeda, R; Gaona-García, G; Lara-Villalon, M

    2015-12-01

    An analysis of adult population fluctuation of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was performed in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2008 to 2011. The aim was to analyze population dynamics of A. ludens and its relationships with climatic factors in the citrus region of Llera, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Population densities were weekly examined to identify variation through the year and study period. Four periods were identified according to population size, amplitude, host availability and season of the year. The correlation between population density vs. rainfall and temperature (average, minimum and maximum) was determined by linear and multiple regression analyses. Simple linear regression analysis showed that population density with minimum temperature and rainfall was the most consistent correlation, whereas in multiple regression analysis, rainfall and maximum temperature showed more consistency. A seasonal association between the availability of commercial host, climatic variation, and population peaks of A. ludens was determined. This study may have practical implications for the design of specific control strategies, monitoring, and infestation prevention based on different phases of the pest through the year. This strategy, along with the area-wide approach implemented by the Plant Protection Service may lead to an optimization of material, financial and human resources.

  18. Insect thermotolerance comparing host infestation methods: Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared in grapefruit or diet.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J

    2014-08-01

    Research on insect control should be conducted in a manner that mimics as closely as is feasible its commercial application in all of its practicably conceivable forms. When significant deviations from commercial application are used in research, the effect of the deviations on efficacy should be evaluated. Pest control techniques are sometimes based on research that used untested assumptions about variables that might affect efficacy. For example, some phytosanitary treatments are based on research done with diet-reared larvae inserted into holes bored in fruits, although the effect of this manipulation has not been evaluated. This research compares this type of infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), third instars with a more natural infestation technique whereby females were allowed to oviposit on picked grapefruit in laboratory cages and third instars were reared inside the fruit. Although the results did not show statistically significant differences between infestation techniques, tendencies in the data caution against researchers making assumptions about efficacy without testing them when experimental techniques stray from more natural situations for which the research is designed.

  19. Potential increase in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) interceptions using ionizing irradiation phytosanitary treatments.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J

    2008-06-01

    Irradiation postharvest phytosanitary treatments are used increasingly and show further promise because of advantages compared with other treatments. Its chief disadvantage is that, unlike all other commercially used treatments, it does not provide acute mortality, although it prevents insects from completing development or reproducing. The objective of this research was to determine to what extent irradiated egg and early instars of tephritids would develop to later instars that could be found by phytosanitary inspectors or consumers. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), eggs and first instars in grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfayden, were irradiated with 70-250 Gy and held at approximately equal to 27 degrees C until third instars completed development. The accepted minimum absorbed phytosanitary dose for this pest is 70 Gy, although higher doses may be applied under commercial conditions. The more developed a fruit fly before it was irradiated, the greater the proportion that survived to the third instar. Also, dose was inversely related to developmental success, e.g., a mean of approximately 65 and 35%, respectively, of late first instars reached the third instar when irradiated with 70 and 250 Gy. Of those, 65.1 and 23.4%, respectively, pupariated, although no adults emerged. Irradiation may result in a greater frequency of live (albeit incapable of resulting in an infestation) larvae being found than would be expected compared with other treatments that provide acute mortality. The regulatory community should be aware of this and the fact that it does not increase the risk of irradiation phytosanitary treatments resulting in an infestation of quarantine pests.

  20. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Myers, Scott W; Taret, Gustavo; Fontenot, Emily A; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2013-12-01

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the United States. Phytosanitary treatments may be required to export fruit hosts of this insect from countries where it is endemic to countries where it is absent but could become established. This research describes comparative studies to determine if B. zonata could be phytosanitarily controlled by cold treatment schedules existing for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and the development of a cold treatment of 18 d at 1.7 degrees C for B. zonata infesting oranges. Fruit were infested by puncturing holes in oranges and allowing tephritids to oviposit in the holes. The treatments were initiated when the larvae reached late third instar because previous research had shown that stage to be the most cold-tolerant. B. zonata was not found to be confidently as or less cold tolerant than C. capitata; therefore, treatment schedules for the latter are not supported by this research for the former. B. zonata was found to be more susceptible to 1.7 degrees C than A. ludens; therefore, the use of treatment schedules for A. ludens is supported by this research for B. zonata. However, the treatment for A. ludens requires 22 d. A shorter treatment was verified for B. zonata when 36,820 third instars reared from the eggs in oranges were stored at 1.7 degrees C for 18 d with no larvae moving on examination 24 h after removal from the cold treatment chamber.

  1. Copulatory behaviour and the process of intromission in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Briceño, R D; Orozco, Dina; Luis Quintero, J; Hanson, Paul; del Refugio Hernández, Ma

    2011-03-01

    Complex genitalia occur in many arthropods and in some species extreme female morphologies lead to serious mechanical difficulties for males. Tephritid flies offer examples of such complex genitalia. Because of their economic importance and the extensive use of sterile male releases for tephritid control in Texas and Mexico, studies have been done on various aspects of their basic reproductive biology, but the process of intromission has received little attention. The distiphallus of the male of Anastrepha ludens is complex. One membranous sac on the distiphallus is capable of rhythmic cycles of inflation and deflation. Inflations of the sac near the base of the distiphallus probably help propel the aedeagus deeper into the female along with stiffening of the basiphallus and may drive the genital rod (which does not transfer sperm) into the ventral receptacle. We were unable to establish an association between some of the behaviours displayed by males during mating and intromission process.

  2. Virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) on Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae): laboratory and field trials.

    PubMed

    Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Trujillo-de la Luz, A; Molina-Ochoa, J; Rebolledo-Dominguez, O; Pescador, A R; López-Edwards, M; Aluja, M

    2000-08-01

    Twenty isolates of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch). Sorkin (Ma) were evaluated to determine their virulence against last instar and adult emergence of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Larvae were exposed by immersion in a conidial suspension at a concentration of 10(8) UFC/ml under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae cumulative mortality rates ranged from 37.9 to 98.75%. Thirteen isolates caused mortality rates > 83.7%, and their LT50 values ranged from 1.8 to 6.2 d. The Ma2, Ma8, and Ma16 isolates were evaluated at seven different concentrations ranging from 10(1) to 10(7) UFC/ml, showing LC50 values from 3.7 to 4.8 x 10(5) UFC/ml. In a field-cage experiment, 200 ml of a conidial suspension of Ma2, at a concentration of 2.5 x 10(6) UFC/ml, was applied on 2,500 cm2 soil surface (2 x 10(5) UFC/cm2). The fungus reduced adult emergence, 22% fewer adults emerging in a sandy loam soil, and 43% fewer in loam soil, compared with the controls. M. anisopliae may offer a preferable alternative to chemicals as a biological control agent against A. ludens.

  3. Predation of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Norops serranoi (Reptilia: Polychrotidae): functional response and evasion ability.

    PubMed

    Dor, Ariane; Valle-Mora, Javier; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Susana Eva; Liedo, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is one of the 10 worldwide more important fruit crop pests. Orchards of southeastern Chiapas also shelter the tree-dwelling lizard Norops serranoi (Köhler), which likely prey upon these flies. In standard laboratory conditions, we determined the functional response of four male and four female lizards on mass-reared fruit flies. We used a general logistic analysis of proportion of killed prey versus available prey to determine the shape of the functional response. Male lizards showed a type II functional response, while females showed a type III functional response. For the highest fruit fly densities, female lizards caught significantly more fruit flies than males did. The predator evasion ability and the survival of mass-reared and wild fruit flies were compared. Wild fruit flies evaded more male lizard attacks than mass-reared flies. However, when female lizards attacked, there was no significant difference between strains. Fruit flies survival was higher with male than with female lizards, but it did not depend on fruit fly strains. This is the first report of a vertebrate preying on the Mexican fruit fly, demonstrating that female lizards impose a higher predation pressure and are more efficient at capturing wild fruit flies than males. We discuss the implications of our results on mass-rearing and quality control of sterile flies.

  4. Mitotic and polytene chromosome analysis in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martinez, V; Hernandez-Ortiz, E; Zepeta-Cisneros, C S; Robinson, A S; Zacharopoulou, A; Franz, G

    2009-01-01

    The present study constitutes the first attempt to construct a polytene chromosome map of an Anastrepha species, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), a major agricultural pest. The mitotic karyotype has a diploid complement of 12 acrocentric chromosomes, including five pairs of autosomes and an XX/XY sex chromosome pair. The analysis of salivary gland polytene chromosomes has shown a total number of five polytene elements that correspond to the five autosomes. The characteristic features and the most prominent landmarks of each chromosome are described. By comparing chromosome banding patterns, the possible chromosomal homology between A. ludens and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) is presented. This work shows that polytene maps of A. ludens are suitable for cytogenetic studies in this species and may be used as reference for other Anastrepha species, most of which are also serious agricultural pests.

  5. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infes...

  6. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  7. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente, y el salto sobre la hembra eran relativamente menos variables entre cepas excepto la cepa de Costa Rica. Moscas de Madeira cortejaron mas tiempo y el macho moviosu cabeza y zumbaba sus alas mas prolongadamente que las otras cepas. (author)

  8. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  9. A liquid larval diet for rearing Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis fasciventris (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White and Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi) are the major fruit fly pests of fruits and vegetables in Africa. The effects of two types of larval diet, liquid and solid (carrot based), on various quality control parameters (pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergenc...

  10. Habitat-specific flight period in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus; Gut, Larry J

    2007-12-01

    Flight periods of the cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), were compared in the major sweet and tart cherry-growing regions of Michigan, among neglected orchards, managed orchards, and natural areas containing the ancestral host, black cherry. Traps were deployed from early June to late September 2005 and 2006. Captures indicated that cherry fruit fly has an early flight (June-July) in neglected orchards, a mid-season flight peaking immediately after harvest (June-August) in managed orchards, and an extended flight covering most of the season (June-September) in natural areas. We found that the period of fruit infestation mirrored the flight period in neglected and managed orchards. In natural areas, we found infestation late in the season only. The relative emergence periods for adults reared from pupae collected from the three habitats and maintained under the same conditions coincided with adult flight periods for each habitat. We also studied factors related to fruit availability that may have a role in shaping the flight periods. Fruit abundance decreased rapidly early in the season in neglected orchards, whereas in managed orchards, fruit left after harvest remained on the trees until late August. Measurements of fruit size and skin firmness revealed that fly activity in neglected and managed orchards began immediately after fruit increased in size and skin firmness decreased, whereas in natural areas, the flight began before fruit matured. In managed orchards, fruit harvest and insecticide sprays likely maintain the late flight period of resident fly populations by preventing the use of fruit earlier in the season. However, a significant proportion of these resident flies may still emerge before harvest and increase the risk of costly fruit infestation.

  11. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California table olives, USA: Invasion, distribution, and management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was discovered in California in late 1998. Thereafter, intensive research was conducted to develop pest control methods in table olives. The life history of olive fruit fly was elucidated, and the distribution and abundance of the adults determined through ...

  12. Populations of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Its Parasitoids in Himalayan Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For a biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Rossi, olives were collected in the Himalayan foothills (China, Nepal, India, and Pakistan) to discover new natural enemies. Wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall ex. G. Don), were sparsely distributed and fly-infe...

  13. An EST database of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrephas suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to create transgenic strains of economically and medically important insect species has the potential to greatly improve existing biological control methods, which is a major goal of our laboratory at the Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, USDA, Agricultural Rese...

  14. Host breadth and parasitoids of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David A; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Twenty fruit species representing 12 families were collected from various regions in western Puerto Rico and monitored for the emergence of Anastrepha spp. pupae. We collected 14,154 tephritid pupae from 16 fruit species representing 10 families. The relative infestations of these fruits (pupae per kilogram of fruit) were recorded. Recorded host ranges were not in complete agreement with those reported in the literature. This host-use pattern should give pause to regulators of fruit importation and exportation that base their decisions on literature from regions other than those of immediate interest to them. We recovered the braconid parasitoid Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) from tephritid pupae collected from Mangifera indica L., Spondias mombin L., Psidium guajava L., Chrysobalanus icacos L., Terminalia catappa L., and Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel. We collected one specimen of the parasitoid Doryctobracon aerolatus (Szepligeti) from the west coast (Añasco), which had not been previously reported in Puerto Rico. We present a preliminary phenology of what are probably the primary fruit hosts of the Anastrepha spp. of Puerto Rico. We also present the first report of Garcinia intermedia (Pittier) Hammel and Coffea arabica L. as reproductive hosts of A. suspensa.

  15. Emergence of blueberry maggot flies (Diptera: tephritidae) from mulches and soil at various depths.

    PubMed

    Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J

    2012-04-01

    Control of blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran, typically is achieved with insecticides targeting adult flies before females oviposit in ripening fruit. Management strategies targeting other life stages have received less attention. We tested effects of compost or pine needle mulches on emergence of blueberry maggot flies under laboratory and field conditions. Few flies emerged from pupae that were buried under 20 cm of pine needles in all experiments, but burial in 20 cm of compost did not always result in low fly emergence. Burial of pupae in 5 cm of compost or pine needles did not reduce fly emergence compared with 1 cm in soil. Low emergence with increased mulch depth appeared to be primarily because of failure of flies to ascend to the surface after they exited puparia. Low emergence also was associated with high moisture levels causing rotten, discolored pupae, particularly in the laboratory in compost. No flies emerged from pupae buried in 1 cm of pine needles in the field. In this case no flies exited puparia, likely because high temperatures (>30°C) at the surface killed pupae. Thus, mulch application under highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) after maggots drop from berries can reduce emergence success of flies from buried pupae, but the level of control will depend on mulch depth and may vary with rainfall and temperature.

  16. Higher phylogeny of frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritidae, Dacini): localised partition conflicts and a novel generic classification.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Verwimp, Christophe; White, Ian M; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships within and among subtribes of the fruit fly tribe Dacini (Ceratitidina, Dacina, Gastrozonina) were investigated by sequencing four mitochondrial and one nuclear gene fragment. Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses were implemented on two datasets. The first, aiming at obtaining the strongest phylogenetic signal (yet, having lower taxon coverage), consisted of 98 vouchers and 2338 concatenated base pairs (bp). The second, aiming at obtaining the largest taxonomic coverage (yet, providing lower resolution), included 159 vouchers and 1200 concatenated bp. Phylogenetic relationships inferred by different tree reconstruction methods were largely congruent and showed a general agreement between concatenated tree topologies. Yet, local conflicts in phylogenetic signals evidenced a number of critical sectors in the phylogeny of Dacini fruit flies. All three Dacini subtribes were recovered as monophyletic. Yet, within the subtribe Ceratitidina only Perilampsis and Capparimyia formed well-resolved monophyletic groups while Ceratitis and Trirhithrum did not. Carpophthoromyia was paraphyletic because it included Trirhithrum demeyeri and Ceratitis connexa. Complex phylogenetic relationships and localised conflict in phylogenetic signals were observed within subtribe Dacina with (a) Dacus, (b) Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) and (c) all other Bactrocera species forming separate clades. The subgenus Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) is therefore raised to generic rank (Zeugodacus Hendel stat. nov.). Additionally, Bactrocera subgenera grouped under the Zeugodacus group should be considered under new generic combinations. Although there are indications that Zeugodacus and Dacus are sister groups, the exact relationship between Zeugodacus stat. nov., Dacus and Bactrocera still needs to be properly resolved.

  17. A new species of Molynocoelia Giglio-Tos (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molynocoelia erwini, a new species of fruit fly from Ecuador is described and illustrated. It differs from its previously known congeners in wing pattern (not banded, distal half brown), scutal and scutellar markings, and male femoral setation....

  18. New host plant and distribution records for Peruvian Tephritinae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distribution and host plant records (all Asteraceae) are reported for 17 species of Tephritinae: Acinia reticulata (stem galls on Tessaria integrifolia); Dracontomyia footei (Baccharis salicifolia); Ensina hyalipennis (Argentina; flowerheads of Sonchus asper); E. longiceps (flowerheads of Hypochaeri...

  19. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose {ge}20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  1. Compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) after irradiation treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Allinghi, A.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.C.; Petit-Marty, N.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.; Vera, T.; Gramajo, C.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    We evaluated under semi-natural field cage conditions sexual compatibility and competitiveness of a laboratory strain (LAB) compared to a wild population (TUC) of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). The LAB strain is produced under semi-mass rearing conditions at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres facility (Tucuman, Argentina). Wild flies were obtained at Horco Molle (Tucuman, Argentina) from infested guava fruits. LAB pupae were irradiated ({sup 60}Co) 48 h before adult emergence. The tested doses were 0 (control), 40, 70, and 100 Gy. Twenty-five males and 25 females each of TUC and LAB were released into cages and mating pairs collected. Only 1 irradiation dose was considered at a time. Females were separated and allowed to lay eggs into artificial fruits to estimate induced sterility from the corresponding hatching rate. Copulation start time did not differ significantly between strains nor among irradiation treatments. Copulation duration showed highly significant differences among irradiation doses, but no differences between strains. The index of sexual isolation (ISI) and the relative sterility index (RSI) indices indicated that LAB and TUC are fully compatible, males from TUC and LAB did not differ in mating competitiveness, and irradiation within the range tested did not affect these indices. Non-irradiated LAB females exhibited higher mating propensity than TUC ones. However, a significant reduction in the female relative performance index (FRPI) index was observed with increasing irradiation dose. The analysis of induced sterility indicated that treatment with 40 Gy reduces male fertility from about 80% to 0.75%, and higher doses produce total sterility. In females, the 40 Gy dose reduces fertility to about 2% and higher doses prevent egg laying. (author) [Spanish] Se evaluo bajo condiciones semi-naturales en jaulas de campo la compatibilidad y la competitividad sexual de una linea de laboratorio (LAB) con respecto a una poblacion salvaje (TUC) de Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). La linea de laboratorio se produce en condiciones de cria semi-masiva en las instalaciones de la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres (Tucuman, Argentina). Las moscas salvajes se obtuvieron de frutas infestadas de guayabos en Horco Molle (Tucuman, Argentina). Las pupas de laboratorio fueron irradiadas ({sup 60}Co) 48 horas antes de la emergencia del adulto. Las dosis utilizadas fueron 0 (control), 40, 70, y 100 Gy. Se liberaron 25 machos y 25 hembras de TUC y LAB dentro de las jaulas y se recolectaron las parejas formadas. Solo se considero 1 dosis de irradiacion por vez. Las hembras apareadas fueron separadas y se les permitio poner huevos en frutas artificiales para estimar la esterilidad inducida a traves del porcentaje de eclosion. La hora de inicio de la copula no difirio significativamente entre poblaciones ni entre los tratamientos de irradiacion. La duracion de la copula mostro grandes diferencias entre dosis de irradiacion pero no entre cepas. Los indices ISI (aislamiento) y el RSI (esterilidad relativa) indican que LAB y TUC son totalmente compatibles, los machos de TUC y LAB no difieren en su competitividad y la irradiacion dentro del rango de dosis utilizadas tampoco afecto este indice. Las hembras LAB no irradiadas muestran una mayor propension para el apareamiento que las hembras de TUC. Sin embargo se observo una reduccion significativa del indice FRPI (actuacion relativa de hembras) a medida que se aumenta la dosis de irradiacion. El analisis de la esterilidad inducida indica que con dosis de 40 Gy la fertilidad disminuye del 80% al 0.75%, y con dosis mayores la esterilidad fue total. Las hembras irradiadas con dosis de 40 Gy tienen una fertilidad de aproximadamente 2% y con dosis mayores no ponen huevos. (author)

  2. Phytosanitary cold treatment for oranges infested with Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), attacks a wide range of tree fruits in countries from Egypt to Vietnam and is occasionally trapped in the US. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export fruit hosts of this insect from infested countries to non-infested countries where it might...

  3. Nearctic Diptera: Twenty years later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of our knowledge of the Diptera of Nearctic America is presented. About two-thirds of all the flies estimated to occur in Nearctic America have been named and documented. Unfortunately, less than one percent of these flies are treated comprehensively in monographs and less than a quart...

  4. Global Establishment Risk of Economically Important Fruit Fly Species (Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yujia; Paini, Dean R.; Wang, Cong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The global invasion of Tephritidae (fruit flies) attracts a great deal of attention in the field of plant quarantine and invasion biology because of their economic importance. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive fruit fly species is most likely to establish in a region presents a significant challenge, but can be facilitated using a self organising map (SOM), which is able to analyse species associations to rank large numbers of species simultaneously with an index of establishment. A global presence/absence dataset including 180 economically significant fruit fly species in 118 countries was analysed using a SOM. We compare and contrast ranked lists from six countries selected from each continent, and also show that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar fruit fly assemblages. These closely clustered countries therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive fruit fly species. Finally, we indicate how this SOM method could be utilized as an initial screen to support prioritizing fruit fly species for further research into their potential to invade a region. PMID:25588025

  5. Global establishment risk of economically important fruit fly species (Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Qin, Yujia; Paini, Dean R; Wang, Cong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    The global invasion of Tephritidae (fruit flies) attracts a great deal of attention in the field of plant quarantine and invasion biology because of their economic importance. Predicting which one in hundreds of potential invasive fruit fly species is most likely to establish in a region presents a significant challenge, but can be facilitated using a self organising map (SOM), which is able to analyse species associations to rank large numbers of species simultaneously with an index of establishment. A global presence/absence dataset including 180 economically significant fruit fly species in 118 countries was analysed using a SOM. We compare and contrast ranked lists from six countries selected from each continent, and also show that those countries geographically close were clustered together by the SOM analysis because they have similar fruit fly assemblages. These closely clustered countries therefore represent greater threats to each other as sources of invasive fruit fly species. Finally, we indicate how this SOM method could be utilized as an initial screen to support prioritizing fruit fly species for further research into their potential to invade a region.

  6. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  7. Detection of Caribbean fruit fly [(Anastrepha suspensa Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)]-infested grapefruit with portable gas chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New technologies are being sought by plant protection officials to more quickly and efficiently identify concealed pests in imported commodities. The zNose portable gas chromatography unit was investigated as a tool for identifying organic volatile signatures indicative of Caribbean fruit fly infest...

  8. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  9. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  10. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [Spanish] El exito de los programas de control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) que integran la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) esta basado en la capacidad de machos esteriles para competir en el campo por sus parejas. Las Islas de Madeira consisten de 2 islas pobladas (Madeira y Porto Santo) donde la mosca mediterranea de la fruta esta presente. Para evaluar la compatibilidad y el funcionamiento sexual de moscas esteriles nosotros realizamos una serie de pruebas de jaula en el campo. Al mismo tiempo, el proceso de la domesticacion en el laboratorio fue evaluado. Tres poblaciones naturales, una poblacion semi-natural y una poblacion criada en masa fueron evaluadas: las poblaciones natural de (1) Isla de Madeira (costa norte), (2) Isla de Madeira (costa sur) y (3) Isla de Porto Santo; (4) una poblacion semi-natural despues de 7 a 10 generaciones de domesticacion en el laboratorio (respectivamente, para el primero y segundo experimento); y (5) la raza para separar sexos geneticamente que es usada en el laboratorio de la mosca mediterranea de Madeira (VIENNA 7mix2000). Los experimentos usando jaulas en el campo mostraron que las poblaciones de diferentes origines fueron en su mayor parte compatibles. No hubo diferencias significativas en la capacidad para competir sexualmente entre las poblaciones naturales. Los machos semi-naturales y los machos criados en masa mostraron un desempeno significativamente bajo en ambos experimentos que los machos naturales en el logro de copula con las hembras naturales. Este estudio indica que no hay un aislamiento significativo entre las razas probadas, aunque el desempeno en el apareamiento fue reducido en las moscas criadas en masa y semi-naturales despues de 7 a 10 generaciones en el laboratorio. (author)

  11. Effect of acclimation to outdoor condition on the sexual performance of mass-produced Medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    Application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated area-wide programs to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) require that the released males attract wild females and transfer sterile sperm. However, knowledge about male sexual performance after they are released is scarce. We conducted a study to evaluate male sexual performance in field cage tests, according to standard quality control procedures. Mass-reared 5-d-old sterile males from the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 7mix2000 were acclimated for 0, 1, and 3 d to outdoor conditions before competing with wild males for wild females. Although the proportion of mating (PM) in the test was satisfactory, the resulting relative sterility index (RSI) data showed no significant differences among the treatments. The data indicate that pre-conditioning males to outdoor conditions in Madeira did not confer an advantage in field cage sexual performance. (author) [Spanish] La aplicacion de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) como parte de un programa integrado de amplio efecto para el control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) requiere que los machos liberados atraigan las hembras naturales y transfieran su esperma. Sin embargo, el conocimiento del desempeno sexual de los machos despues de ser liberados es muy escaso. Nosotros realizamos un estudio para evaluar el desempeno sexual de los machos en pruebas usando jaulas del campo, segun los procedimientos estandardizados de calidad. Machos esteriles de 5 dias de edad de la raza que separa los sexos geneticamente VIENNA 7mix2000 criados en masa fueron aclimatados por 0, 1 y 3 dias en condiciones de campo antes de competir con machos naturales para las hembras naturales. Aunque la proporcion del apareamiento en la prueba fue satisfactorio, el indice relativo de esterilidad (IRS) resultante no mostro ninguna diferencia significativa entre los tratamientos. Los datos indicaron que al condicionar los machos anteriormente a las condiciones de campo en Madeira no conferio ventaja alguna en el desempeno sexual en la jaula de campo. (author)

  12. Comparison of longevity between a laboratory strain and a natural population of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) under field cage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    The South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is one of the most destructive fruit pests in this region, infesting major fruit crops. Implementation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated approach against this species requires information on the survival of mass-reared and sterilized insects in the field and their ability to mate with wild females. The survival rates in field cages of both non-irradiated and irradiated laboratory flies were compared with that of wild flies. Both types of laboratory flies survived longer than their wild counterparts over the 8 days under the experimental conditions. The irradiation dose (70 Gy) did not affect survival of the laboratory reared flies. Our results improve the prospect of integrating the SIT into the control of A. fraterculus populations in Argentina. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), la mosca sudamericana de la fruta, es una de las plagas mas destructivas en la region que infesta a los principales cultivos de frutas. La implementacion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) como parte de un manejo integrado en areas extensivas contra esta especie requiere ensayos que demuestren que los insectos producidos en forma masiva y esterilizados son capaces de sobrevivir en el campo y aparearse con las hembras silvestres. Se comparo la supervivencia de individuos de una linea de laboratorio, tanto irradiados como no irradiados con la de individuos de una poblacion natural. Los dos tratamientos de moscas de laboratorio sobrevivieron mas tiempo que las salvajes durante los 8 dias y en las condiciones ensayadas. La dosis de radiacion (70 Gy.) no afecto la supervivencia de las moscas criadas en laboratorio. Nuestros resultados mejoran las perspectivas de integrar la TIE en el control de las poblaciones argentinas de A. fraterculus. (author)

  13. Analysis of Surstylus and Aculeus Shape and Size Using Geometric Morphometrics to Discriminate Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis zephyria (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) and Rhagoletis zephyria Snow both occur in the Pacific Northwest of the U. S. and are frequently confused with one another due to their morphological similarity. The apple maggot, R. pomonella, is a threat to commercial apples in the Pacific Northwest, whereas R. zephyr...

  14. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

  15. Effects of Several Newer Insecticides and Kaolin on Oviposition and Adult Mortality in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of newer insecticides and kaolin-based particle film (Surround™ WP Crop Protectant), on oviposition and mortality in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In a no-choice experiment, azinphos-methyl sprayed on cherries reduced oviposition by 98.5% comp...

  16. Comparison of aggregation and feeding responses by normal and irradiated fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Galun, R.; Gothilf, S.; Blondheim, S.; Sharp, J.L.; Mazor, M.; Lachman, A.

    1985-12-01

    Olfactory, aggregatory, and feeding responses of normal (untreated) laboratory stocks of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and of Caribbean fruit fly (caribfly), Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were compared to those of flies irradiated (10 krad in air) 2 days before eclosion. Females of both species consumed greater quantities of protein hydrolysate solutions, entered protein hydrolysate-baited olfactory traps, and aggregated on agar plates containing protein hydrolysate in greater numbers than males of the same age and condition. However, male medflies consumed more sucrose than did females of the same age and condition. In the medfly, irradiation resulted in reduced olfactory response, reduced total food intake by flies of both sexes, and a significant reduction in aggregation on and intake of protein hydrolysate by females and of sugar consumption by males. In the irradiated caribfly, there was a significant reduction in olfactory response of females to yeast hydrolysate. In both sexes, aggregation on and consumption of yeast hydrolysate were reduced. Effects of irradiation on feeding behavior are discussed in relation to the biology of the flies and their control by the sterile insect release method.

  17. Effects of laboratory colonization on Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera, Tephritidae) mating behaviour: ‘what a difference a year makes’

    PubMed Central

    Schutze, Mark K.; Dammalage, Thilak; Jessup, Andrew; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Laboratory-reared insects are widely known to have significantly reduced genetic diversity in comparison to wild populations; however, subtle behavioural changes between laboratory-adapted and wild or ‘wildish’ (i.e., within one or very few generations of field collected material) populations are less well understood. Quantifying alterations in behaviour, particularly sexual, in laboratory-adapted insects is important for mass-reared insects for use in pest management strategies, especially those that have a sterile insect technique component. We report subtle changes in sexual behaviour between ‘wildish’ Bactrocera dorsalis flies (F1 and F2) from central and southern Thailand and the same colonies 12 months later when at six generations from wild. Mating compatibility tests were undertaken under standardised semi-natural conditions, with number of homo/heterotypic couples and mating location in field cages analysed via compatibility indices. Central and southern populations of Bactrocera dorsalis displayed positive assortative mating in the 2010 trials but mated randomly in the 2011 trials. ‘Wildish’ southern Thailand males mated significantly earlier than central Thailand males in 2010; this difference was considerably reduced in 2011, yet homotypic couples from southern Thailand still formed significantly earlier than all other couple combinations. There was no significant difference in couple location in 2010; however, couple location significantly differed among pair types in 2011 with those involving southern Thailand females occurring significantly more often on the tree relative to those with central Thailand females. Relative participation also changed with time, with more southern Thailand females forming couples relative to central Thailand females in 2010; this difference was considerably decreased by 2011. These results reveal how subtle changes in sexual behaviour, as driven by laboratory rearing conditions, may significantly influence mating behaviour between laboratory-adapted and recently colonised tephritid fruit flies over a relatively short period of time. PMID:26798268

  18. Development, genetic and cytogenetic analyses of genetic sexing strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha ludens is among the pests that have a major impact on México's economy because it attacks fruits as citrus and mangoes. The Mexican Federal government uses integrated pest management to control A. ludens through the Programa Nacional Moscas de la Fruta [National Fruit Fly Program, SAGARPA-SENASICA]. One of the main components of this program is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which is used to control field populations of the pest by releasing sterile flies. Results To increase the efficiency of this technique, we have developed a genetic sexing strain (GSS) in which the sexing mechanism is based on a pupal colour dimorphism (brown-black) and is the result of a reciprocal translocation between the Y chromosome and the autosome bearing the black pupae (bp) locus. Ten strains producing wild-type (brown pupae) males and mutant (black pupae) females were isolated. Subsequent evaluations for several generations were performed in most of these strains. The translocation strain named Tapachula-7 showed minimal effect on survival and the best genetic stability of all ten strains. Genetic and cytogenetic analyses were performed using mitotic and polytene chromosomes and we succeeded to characterize the chromosomal structure of this reciprocal translocation and map the autosome breakpoint, despite the fact that the Y chromosome is not visible in polytene nuclei following standard staining. Conclusions We show that mitotic and polytene chromosomes can be used in cytogenetic analyses towards the development of genetic control methods in this pest species. The present work is the first report of the construction of GSS of Anastrepha ludens, with potential use in a future Moscafrut operational program. PMID:25472896

  19. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3–5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6–7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2–5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6–7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  20. Case 3693 Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae): Proposed suppression of Cryptodacus Gundlach, 1862 (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norrbom, Allen L.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Chen, Xiao-Lin; David, King J.; De Meyer, Marc; Freidberg, Amnon; Han, Ho-Yeon; Steck, Gary J.; Thompson, F. Christian; White, Ian M.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this application, under Article 23.9.3, is to conserve current usage of the well-established genus-group name Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by suppression of the earlier, unused name Crypto- dacus Gundlach, 1862, currently a junior synonym of Arrhyton Günther, 1858, a genus of snakes, under the plenary power of the Commission, in the interest of nomenclatural stability. Cryptodacus Gundlach has not been used as a valid name since 1883, whereas Cryptodacus Hendel has been used in a significant body of literature relating to fruit fly systematics, morphology and phylogeny and is the currently used name in various name and molecular databases. 

  1. Bacterial Communities in the Gut and Reproductive Organs of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) Based on 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    The citrus fruit fly Bactrocera minax is associated with diverse bacterial communities. We used a 454 pyrosequencing technology to study in depth the microbial communities associated with gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax. Our dataset consisted of 100,749 reads with an average length of 400 bp. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicate that the sampling was comprehensive. We found highly diverse bacterial communities, with individual sample containing approximately 361 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 17 bacterial phyla were obtained from the flies. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Proteobacteria was dominant in all samples (75%–95%). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also commonly found in the total clones. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were the major genera. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices) and community structure (PCA analysis) varied across samples. Female ovary has the most diverse bacteria, followed by male testis, and the bacteria diversity of reproductive organs is richer than that of the gut. The observed variation can be caused by sex and tissue, possibly to meet the host's physiological demands. PMID:25215866

  2. High-Throughput Sequencing to Reveal Genes Involved in Reproduction and Development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Peng, Tao; He, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Tephritid fruit flies in the genus Bactrocera are of major economic significance in agriculture causing considerable loss to the fruit and vegetable industry. Currently, there is no ideal control program. Molecular means is an effective method for pest control at present, but genomic or transcriptomic data for members of this genus remains limited. To facilitate molecular research into reproduction and development mechanisms, and finally effective control on these pests, an extensive transcriptome for the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis was produced using the Roche 454-FLX platform. Results We obtained over 350 million bases of cDNA derived from the whole body of B. dorsalis at different developmental stages. In a single run, 747,206 sequencing reads with a mean read length of 382 bp were obtained. These reads were assembled into 28,782 contigs and 169,966 singletons. The mean contig size was 750 bp and many nearly full-length transcripts were assembled. Additionally, we identified a great number of genes that are involved in reproduction and development as well as genes that represent nearly all major conserved metazoan signal transduction pathways, such as insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, transcriptome changes during development were analyzed. A total of 2,977 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between larvae and pupae libraries, while there were 1,621 DEGs between adults and larvae, and 2,002 between adults and pupae. These DEGs were functionally annotated with KEGG pathway annotation and 9 genes were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusion Our data represent the extensive sequence resources available for B. dorsalis and provide for the first time access to the genetic architecture of reproduction and development as well as major signal transduction pathways in the Tephritid fruit fly pests, allowing us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying courtship, ovipositing, development and detailed analyses of the signal transduction pathways. PMID:22570719

  3. Taxonomy and phenotypic relationships of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex in the Mesoamerican and Pacific Neotropical dominions (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Canal, Nelson A.; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Ruíz-Hurtado, Freddy M.; Dzul-Cauich, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous morphometric studies based on linear measurements of female structures of the aculeus, mesonotum, and wing revealed the existence of seven morphotypes within the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex along the Neotropical Region. The current research followed linear and geometric morphometric approaches in 40 population samples of the nominal species Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) spread throughout the Meso-American and Pacific Neotropical dominions (including Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru). The goals were to explore the phenotypic relationships of the morphotypes in these biogeographical areas; evaluate the reliability of procedures used for delimitation of morphotypes; and describe their current distribution. Findings determined that morphotypes previously recognized via the linear morphometrics were also supported by geometric morphometrics of the wing shape. In addition, we found an eighth morphotype inhabiting the highlands of Ecuador and Peru. Morphotypes are related into three natural phenotypic groups nominated as Mesoamerican-Caribbean lineage, Andean lineage, and Brazilian lineage. The hypothesis that lineages are not directly related to each other is discussed, supported by their large morphological divergence and endemicity in these three well-defined biogeographic areas. In addition, this hypothesis of the non-monophyly of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex is also supported by evidence from other authors based on molecular studies and the strong reproductive isolation between morphs from different lineages. PMID:26798256

  4. Characterisation of the chemical profiles of Brazilian and Andean morphotypes belonging to the Anastrepha fraterculus complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Ferreira, Luana Lima; de Aquino, Nathaly Costa; Tavares, Raphael de Farias; Rodriguez, Laura D.; Mendonça, Adriana de Lima; Canal, Nelson Augusto; do Nascimento, Ruth Rufino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fruit fly sexual behaviour is directly influenced by chemical and non-chemical cues that play important roles in reproductive isolation. The chemical profiles of pheromones and cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) of eight fruit fly populations of the Andean, Brazilian-1 and Brazilian-3 morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex originating from Colombia (four populations) and Brazil (four populations) were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The resulting chemical diversity data were studied using principal component analyses. Andean morphotypes could be discriminated from the Brazilian-1 and Brazilian-3 morphotypes by means of male-borne pheromones and/or male and female CH profiles. The Brazilian-1 and Brazilian-3 morphotypes were found to be monophyletic. The use of chemical profiles as species- and sex-specific signatures for cryptic species separations is discussed. PMID:26798260

  5. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  6. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae), by High-Throughput Illumina Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Xiong, Ke-Cai; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), is one of the most devastating pests of citrus in the temperate areas of Asia. So far, studies involving molecular biology and physiology of B. minax are still scarce, partly because of the lack of genomic information and inability to rear this insect in laboratory. In this study, de novo assembly of a transcriptome was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 20,928,907 clean reads were obtained and assembled into 33,324 unigenes, with an average length of 908.44 bp. Unigenes were annotated by alignment against NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database. Genes potentially involved in stress tolerance, including 20 heat shock protein (Hsps) genes, 26 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes, and 2 ferritin subunit genes, were identified. These genes may play roles in stress tolerance in B. minax diapause stage. It has previously been found that 20E application on B. minax pupae could avert diapause, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, genes encoding enzymes in 20E biosynthesis pathway, including Neverland, Spook, Phantom, Disembodied, Shadow, Shade, and Cyp18a1, and genes encoding 20E receptor proteins, ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), were identified. The expression patterns of 20E-related genes among developmental stages and between 20E-treated and untreated pupae demonstrated their roles in diapause program. In addition, 1,909 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected, which will contribute to molecular marker development. The findings in this study greatly improve our genetic understanding of B. minax, and lay the foundation for future studies on this species. PMID:27331903

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure in Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) inferred from mtDNA cox1 and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu-Jia; Buahom, Nopparat; Krosch, Matthew N.; Du, Yu; Wu, Yi; Malacrida, Anna R.; Deng, Yu-Liang; Liu, Jia-Qi; Jiang, Xiao-Long; Li, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera correcta is one of the most destructive pests of horticultural crops in tropical and subtropical regions. Despite the economic risk, the population genetics of this pest have remained relatively unexplored. This study explores population genetic structure and contemporary gene flow in B. correcta in Chinese Yunnan Province and attempts to place observed patterns within the broader geographical context of the species’ total range. Based on combined data from mtDNA cox1 sequences and 12 microsatellite loci obtained from 793 individuals located in 7 countries, overall genetic structuring was low. The expansion history of this species, including likely human-mediated dispersal, may have played a role in shaping the observed weak structure. The study suggested a close relationship between Yunnan Province and adjacent countries, with evidence for Western and/or Southern Yunnan as the invasive origin of B. correcta within Yunnan Province. The information gleaned from this analysis of gene flow and population structure has broad implications for quarantine, trade and management of this pest, especially in China where it is expanding northward. Future studies should concentrate effort on sampling South Asian populations, which would enable better inferences of the ancestral location of B. correcta and its invasion history into and throughout Asia. PMID:27929126

  8. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Nelson A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O. Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex. PMID:26798253

  9. Historical perspective on the synonymization of the four major pest species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Wee, Suk-Ling; Nishida, Ritsuo; Ono, Hajime; Hendrichs, Jorge; Haymer, David S.; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An FAO/IAEA-sponsored coordinated research project on integrative taxonomy, involving close to 50 researchers from at least 20 countries, culminated in a significant breakthrough in the recognition that four major pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera invadens, belong to the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. The successful conclusion of this initiative is expected to significantly facilitate global agricultural trade, primarily through the lifting of quarantine restrictions that have long affected many countries, especially those in regions such as Asia and Africa that have large potential for fresh fruit and vegetable commodity exports. This work stems from two taxonomic studies: a revision in 1994 that significantly increased the number of described species in the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex; and the description in 2005 of Bactrocera invadens, then newly incursive in Africa. While taxonomically valid species, many biologists considered that these were different names for one biological species. Many disagreements confounded attempts to develop a solution for resolving this taxonomic issue, before the FAO/IAEA project commenced. Crucial to understanding the success of that initiative is an accounting of the historical events and perspectives leading up to the international, multidisciplinary collaborative efforts that successfully achieved the final synonymization. This review highlights the 21 year journey taken to achieve this outcome. PMID:26798266

  10. Hybridization and the spread of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), in the northwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Arcella, Tracy; Hood, Glen R; Powell, Thomas H Q; Sim, Sheina B; Yee, Wee L; Schwarz, Dietmar; Egan, Scott P; Goughnour, Robert B; Smith, James J; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization may be an important process interjecting variation into insect populations enabling host plant shifts and the origin of new economic pests. Here, we examine whether hybridization between the native snowberry-infesting fruit fly Rhagoletis zephyria (Snow) and the introduced quarantine pest R. pomonella (Walsh) is occurring and may aid the spread of the latter into more arid commercial apple-growing regions of central Washington state, USA. Results for 19 microsatellites implied hybridization occurring at a rate of 1.44% per generation between the species. However, there was no evidence for increased hybridization in central Washington. Allele frequencies for seven microsatellites in R. pomonella were more ‘R. zephyria-like’ in central Washington, suggesting that genes conferring resistance to desiccation may be adaptively introgressing from R. zephyria. However, in only one case was the putatively introgressing allele from R. zephyria not found in R. pomonella in the eastern USA. Thus, many of the alleles changing in frequency may have been prestanding in the introduced R. pomonella population. The dynamics of hybridization are therefore complex and nuanced for R. pomonella, with various causes and factors, including introgression for a portion, but not all of the genome, potentially contributing to the pest insect's spread. PMID:26366200

  11. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pascacio-Villafán, C.; Williams, T.; Sivinski, J.; Birke, A.; Aluja, M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  12. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene expression profiling of the same tissues taking the sexual differences into consideration. This work not only formed a solid basis for future gene expression study in B. dorsalis, but also will serve as a resource to screen reference genes for gene expression studies in any other insects. PMID:20923571

  13. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Gary J.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis. PMID:26798272

  14. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I. Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  15. A compound produced by Fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determi...

  16. Humoral immunocompetence shifts in response to developmental stage change and mating access in Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; Lin, Y; Hou, Y; Zhang, H

    2015-04-01

    Because immune defenses are often costly employed, insect immunocompetence cannot be always maintained at its maximum level. Here, the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was used as a study object to investigate how its immune defenses varied with the developmental stage change and mating access. Our data indicated that both phenoloxidase (PO) activity and antibacterial activity significantly increased from new larvae to pupae but decreased in adults after emergence. Furthermore, both the PO activity and antibacterial activity in the hemolymph of copulated male and female adults were dramatically higher than that of virgin male and female ones, respectively. It provided the evidence that copulation could increase the magnitude of immune defense in hemolymph of B. dorsalis. Together, these results suggest that B. dorsalis possess a flexible investment strategy in immunity to meet its specific needs based on the endo- and exogenous factors, such as their distinct food source and living environments.

  17. Juvenile hormone analog enhances calling behavior, mating success, and quantity of volatiles released by Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chacón-Benavente, Roxana; López-Guillen, Guillermo; Hernández, Emilio; Rojas, Julio C; Malo, Edi A

    2013-04-01

    The application of a juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, to newly emerged adult males reduced the time required for sexual maturation and enhanced mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. In this work, we investigated the effect of topical methoprene application on West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), male calling, mating, and volatile release. Males treated with topical methoprene exhibited sexual maturation and reproductive behavior 2 d earlier when compared with control males treated with acetone. Methoprene-treated males began calling and mating at 4 d old, whereas control males did not call and mate until 6 d old. The gas chromotography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles showed that during calling A. obliqua males consistently released four compounds; three of them were identified as (Z)-3-nonenol, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and a fourth compound with the appearance of a farnesene isomer. Both treated and control males released the same compounds, although treated males started to release volatiles before that control males. The results are discussed in view of possible methoprene application with the aim of reducing costs in fly emergence and release facilities before eventual release of A. obliqua in the field, thus improving the sterile insect technique.

  18. First instar larvae morphology of Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitoids of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies. Implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Félix D; Liedo, Pablo; Nieto-López, María Guadalupe; Cabrera-Mireles, Héctor; Barrera, Juan F; Montoya, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    The morphology of the first instars of the Opiinae braconids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon areolatus, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Utetes anastrephae and Opius hirtus (the first is exotic, and the others are natives to Mexico), parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies, are described and compared. The possible implications on interspecific competition among these species are discussed. The most significant adaptations found were: (1) the mouth apparatus, where the large mandibles and fang-shaped maxillary lobes present in D. longicaudata and U. anastrephae larvae were absent in O. hirtus, D. areolatus and D. crawfordi larvae, and (2) the degree of mobility for exploration and escape, such as the lateral and caudal appendages that were only present in D. longicaudata (ventrolateral appendages in the base of the head capsule), U. anastrephae (caudal lobe with two appendages) and D. areolatus (caudal lobe with a round apex with a globular shape). The first instar larvae of the species D. longicaudata show morphological adaptations that apparently confer competitive advantages against the larvae of D. areolatus, D. crawfordi and O. hirtus. However, the first instar larvae of U. anastrephae show larger mandibles, an adaptation that could enable this species to resist competition from D. longicaudata.

  19. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements.

    PubMed

    Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

    2013-02-01

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency.

  20. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  1. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  2. Functional analysis of five trypsin-like protease genes in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Li; Hou, Ming-Zhe; Shen, Guang-Mao; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Jia, Fu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Insect midgut proteases catalyze the release of free amino acids from dietary proteins and are essential for insect normal development. To date, digestive proteases as potential candidates have made great progress in pest control. To clarify the function of trypsin-like protease genes in the digestive system of Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of a wide range of tropical and subtropical fruit and vegetable crops, five trypsin genes (BdTry1, BdTry2, BdTry3, BdTry4 and BdTry5) were identified from transcriptome dataset, and the effects of feeding condition on their expression levels were examined subsequently. RNA interference (RNAi) was applied to further explore their function on the growth of B. dorsalis. The results showed that all the BdTrys in starving midgut expressed at a minimal level but up-regulated upon feeding (except BdTry3). Besides, RNAi by feeding dsRNAs to larvae proved to be an effective method to cause gene silencing and the mixed dsRNAs of the five BdTrys slowed larvae growth of B. dorsalis. The current data suggest that trypsin genes are actively involved in digestion process of B. dorsalis larvae and thereafter play crucial roles in their development.

  3. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-02-01

    The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California olive fruit fly infestations.

  4. Evaluation of the Host Status of Mature Green Papayas 'Maradol' for the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    The suitability of mature green 'Maradol' papaya as a host of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was studied under field and laboratory conditions. Field tests were conducted on commercial-ripened and spot-ripened fruit in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas. Fruits at exportation ripeness are in "commercial ripeness", while fruits that are harvested immediately preceding exportation ripeness are in "spot ripeness." The field tests consisted of forced infestation experiments that evaluated papayas at two ripeness stages: the commercial- or exportation-ripened fruit (green fruits with one or two yellow stripes) and fruit before exportation ripeness called "spot ripeness." These tests were conducted in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Laboratory trials were performed with commercial-ripened fruit only. Fruit from four different postharvest periods (3, 24, 48, and 72 h) were exposed to groups of gravid flies. No larvae emerged from the fruit that was collected in the field experiments. However, some larvae and several fertile flies were obtained from the commercial-ripened fruit 72 h postharvest but not 3, 24, and 48 h postharvest in the laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the commercially ripe fruits of papaya Maradol were resistant to or free from infestation of A. ludens flies under field conditions, though these fruits must be considered nonnatural, conditional host because they became infested in the laboratory.

  5. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae.

  6. Captures of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in biolure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BioLure, a synthetic food attractant for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) that uses a combination of three chemical components (ammonium acetate, trimethylamine hydrochloride and putrescine), was deployed in MultiLure traps in predominantly native forests, non-native forests,...

  7. Capture of Anastrepha suspensa and sterile male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in multilure traps versus phase 4 traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of wild Caribbean fruit flies, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), and sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Multilure traps, which are McPhail-type traps that use an aqueous solution to retain attracted fli...

  8. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  9. Field estimates of attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to methyl eugenol in varying environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation and control of invasive pests. Here we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)...

  10. An Evaluation of Alternative Insecticides to Diazinon for Control of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diazinon has been used extensively in the past as part of California eradication programs for tephritid fruit flies, but is being phased out for this purpose in the United States. Therefore, in this study, the toxicity of Platinum®, Force®, Admire®, Regent®, and Warrior® was estimated after applica...

  11. Evaluating the use of irradiated caribean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) larvae for laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing and augmentative release of hymenopterous parasitoids has been a component of area-wide management programs for several tephritid fruit flies, including pestiferous species of the genus Anastrepha (Cancino and Montoya, in press). Laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szeplige...

  12. Species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a guava orchard (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J

    2013-11-01

    The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.

  13. Redescription of three species of Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae) rediscovered in Brazil with the establishment of a new synonym

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The descriptions of Anastrepha matertela Zucchi and A. tenella Zucchi were based exclusively on the holotypes (female). Based on additional specimens collected in Brazil since their original descriptions, both species are redescribed and illustrated. A lectotype is designated for Anastrepha bivittat...

  14. New species and records of Euphranta Loew and other Adramini (Diptera: Tephritidae: Trypetinae) from south and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    David, K J; Hancock, D L; Freidberg, A; Goodger, K F M

    2013-01-01

    Seven new species of Euphranta Loew are described, viz., Euphranta dysoxyli David, sp. nov., E. hyalipennis David & Freidberg, sp. nov, E. diffusa David, sp. nov., E. haldwanica Hancock & Goodger, sp. nov. and E. thandikudi David, sp. nov. from India; E. neochrysopila David, Freidberg, Hancock & Goodger, sp. nov. from Sri Lanka and E. ridleyi Hancock & Goodger, sp. nov. from Singapore. Notes are provided on the identities of E. corticicola (Hering) and E. klugii (Wiedemann); E. signatifacies Hardy is synonymised with E. klugii; E. dissoluta (Bezzi) and E. burtoni Hardy are synonymised with E. crux (Fabricius) and Dimeringophrys parilis (Hardy) is reinstated as a valid species. Coelotrypes latilimbatus (Enderlein), Dimeringophrys pallidipennis Hardy, D. parilis (Hardy) and Hardyadrama excoecariae Lee are newly recorded from India, E. crux from Sri Lanka and E. klugii from Indonesia. An unnamed species of Coelopacidia Enderlein from India is illustrated. An illustrated key to species of Euphranta Loew from India is also provided.

  15. Intrinsic competition and competitor-free-space influence the coexistence of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) of neotropical tephritidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endoparasitoid larvae may eliminate heterospecific competitors by physical or physiological means. The outcomes of these intrinsic competitions are often predictable with one species typically eliminating the other. The opiine braconids Doryctobracon areolatus (Szepligeti) and Utetes anastrephae (Vi...

  16. Enhancement of attraction of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) by addition of a synergist, cade oil.

    PubMed

    McQuate, G T; Peck, S L

    2001-02-01

    Male lures are known for many tephritid fruit fly species and are often preferred over food bait based traps for detection trapping because of their high specificity and ability to attract flies over a wide area. Alpha-ionol has been identified as a male lure for the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). The attraction of this compound to male B. latifrons individuals, however, is not as strong as is the attraction of other tephritid fruit fly species to their respective male lures. Cade oil, an essential oil produced by destructive distillation of juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus L.) twigs, synergizes the attraction of alpha-ionol to male B. latifrons. Catches of male B. latifrons at traps baited with a mixture of alpha-ionol and cade oil were more than three times greater than at traps baited with alpha-ionol alone. Substitution of alpha-ionol + cade oil for alpha-ionol alone in detection programs could considerably improve the chance of detecting invading or incipient populations of B. latifrons. However, detection programs should not rely solely on this lure but also make use of protein baited traps as well as fruit collections. Further work with fractions of cade oil may help to identify the active ingredient(s), which could help to further improve this male lure for B. latifrons.

  17. Active ingredients in cade oil that synergize attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Keum, Young Soo; Sylva, Charmaine D; Li, Qing X; Jang, Eric B

    2004-06-01

    Cade oil, a commercially available essential oil produced by destructive distillation of juniper, Juniperus oxycedrus L., twigs, is known to synergize the attractancy of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). Through chemical fractionation and outdoor olfactometer-based bioassays, seven compounds in cade oil were identified that potentially could provide some level of synergism. Tests with sterile laboratory flies showed that four of the seven compounds (eugenol, isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-ethylphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol), together with a closely related compound not found in cade oil, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol, are capable of synergizing the attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male B. latifrons under field conditions. The similarity in structures of these five synergistic compounds shows that there is a response to a core 2-methoxyphenol structure, with fly response little affected by some variation in the composition of the side chain on the number 4 carbon. Because identified synergists were structurally similar, only one compound, eugenol, was selected for further field studies. In an 8-wk weathering test, using released sterile flies, traps baited with alpha-ionol + eugenol had catches comparable with catches at traps baited with alpha-ionol + cade oil, with catches generally increased with a higher eugenol loading. For both eugenol and cade oil, catches tended to be better when these synergists were deployed on separate wicks from the alpha-ionol. Eugenol and alpha-ionol, however, were unable to provide attraction comparable with that of cade oil and alpha-ionol in tests with wild fly populations.

  18. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  19. Ammonium carbonate is more attractive than apple and hawthorn fruit volatile lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Nash, Meralee J; Goughnour, Robert B; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are more attractive than ammonium carbonate (AC) to R. pomonella in apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn trees in western Washington State. In all three host trees, sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with AC generally caught more flies than traps baited with lures containing the four newly developed fruit blends (modified eastern apple, western apple, western ornamental hawthorn, and western black hawthorn) or two older blends (eastern apple and eastern downy hawthorn). Fruit volatiles also displayed more variation among trapping studies conducted at different sites, in different host trees, and across years than AC. The results imply that traps baited with AC represent the best approach to monitoring R. pomonella in Washington State.

  20. Heating rate and induced thermotolerance in Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae, a quarantine pest of citrus and mangoes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D B; Shellie, K C

    2000-08-01

    A bioassay and graduated temperature water baths were used to document the induction of thermotolerance in third-instar Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). The 99% lethal time dose for larvae exposed to 44 degrees C core temperatures in artificial fruit is 61.5 min when a slow heating rate (120 min ramp) is applied, but only 41.9 min when a fast heating rate (15 min ramp) is applied. In electrophoretic profiles a heat inducible protein of molecular weight 32 kDa was detected in 76% of the larvae exposed to the slow ramp treatment, but only 42% of the larvae in the fast ramp treatment. Results from this research demonstrate that thermotolerance can be induced under conditions used to commercially disinfest fresh produce and highlight the necessity for specifying heating rates in quarantine treatment schedules.

  1. Comparison of synthetic food-based lures and liquid protein baits for capture of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests that were conducted in south Florida to compare capture of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), in Multilure traps baited with liquid protein baits torula yeast/borax or NuLure/borax, or with food-based synthetic lures including two component (ammonium acetate, putrescine...

  2. Dynamics of pH modification of an acidic protein bait used for tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  3. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  4. Effectiveness of a sprayable male annihilation treatment with a biopesticide against fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) attacking tropical fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT-MAT Spinosad ME(aka STATIC Spinosad ME),an "attract and kill" sprayable biopesticide, was evaluated as an area wide suppression treatment against Bactrocera carambolae(Drew & Hancock),carambola fruit fly, in Brazil and Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel),oriental fruit fly, in Hawaii. In Brazil, a sin...

  5. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  6. Incipient speciation revealed in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera; Tephritidae) by studies on mating compatibility, sex pheromones, hybridisation and cytology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is suggested that the nominal species Anastrepha fraterculus is a species complex and previous studies showed high levels of pre-zygotic isolation between two laboratory strains from Argentina and Peru. To further analyze this observation, experiments were carried out on the same populations and...

  7. Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competit...

  8. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Galarza, Lourdes; Follett, Peter A

    2011-02-01

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment on various life stages of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, oriental fruit fly; and Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, melon fly, in petri dishes and in papaya, Carica papaya L., fruit. In some experiments, the ethanol vapor phase was withheld to separate the effects of the physical (low pressure/ambient pressure cycles) and chemical (ethanol vapor plus low pressure) phases of treatment. In the experiments with tephritid fruit fly larvae and adults in petri dishes, mortality was generally high when insects were exposed to ethanol and low when ethanol was withheld during MSDD treatment, suggesting that ethanol vapor is highly lethal but that fruit flies are quite tolerant of short periods of low pressure treatment alone. When papaya fruit infested with fruit fly eggs or larvae were treated by MSDD, they produced fewer pupae than untreated control fruit, but a substantial number of individuals developed nonetheless. This suggests that internally feeding insects in fruit may be partially protected from the toxic effects of the ethanol because the vapor does not easily penetrate the fruit pericarp and pulp. MSDD treatment using the atmospheric conditions tested has limited potential as a disinfestation treatment for internal-feeding quarantine pests such as fruit flies infesting perishable commodities.

  9. Genetic Diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an Introduction Pathway Into California.

    PubMed

    Barr, Norman B; Ledezma, Lisa A; Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel; Geib, Scott M; Fujita, Brian; Bartels, David W; Garza, Daniel; Kerr, Peter; Hauser, Martin; Gaimari, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. In total, 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across the four islands were sequenced for a 1,500-bp fragment of the gene named the C1500 marker. Genetic variation was low on the Hawaiian Islands with >96% of flies having just two haplotypes: C1500-Haplotype 1 (63.2%) or C1500-Haplotype 2 (33.3%). The other 33 flies (3.5%) had haplotypes similar to the two dominant haplotypes. No population structure was detected among the islands or within islands. The two haplotypes were present at similar frequencies at each sample site, suggesting that flies on the various islands can be considered one population. Comparison of the Hawaiian data set to DNA sequences of 165 flies from outbreaks in California between 2006 and 2012 indicates that a single-source introduction pathway of Hawaiian origin cannot explain many of the flies in California. Hawaii, however, could not be excluded as a maternal source for 69 flies. There was no clear geographic association for Hawaiian or non-Hawaiian haplotypes in the Bay Area or Los Angeles Basin over time. This suggests that California experienced multiple, independent introductions from different sources.

  10. Karyotypic and molecular identification of laboratory stocks of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Basso, Alicia; Sonvico, Ariane; Quesada-Allue, Luis A; Manso, Fanny

    2003-08-01

    The taxonomic status of the tephritid pest Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is a controversial subject, mainly because of misinterpretation of the observed genetic variation. In this work, the different karyotypes and DNA polymorphism of a geographically defined population from Northeastern Argentina were studied, using derived stocks maintained in the laboratory during 25 generations. The karyotypes were analyzed using C-banding and N-banding techniques, while DNA analysis was performed through the DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The variants isolated from both the wild Montecarlo population and the derived laboratory stocks were fully compatible and are present in other wild populations from South Brazil (lat 31 degrees 30' S) to Mid-Argentina (lat 34 degrees 30' S). Single-pair crosses among stocks carrying different chromosomal variants demonstrated the absence of isolation barriers. The polymorphic fragments isolated by RAPDs/PCR showed polymorphisms among stocks whereas the analysis of rDNA ITS1 exhibit a unique ITS1 length. Our results seem to indicate that all the examined variants belong to a single species with extended polymorphism and therefore do not support the hypothesis that the extended chromosomal polymorphism in A. fraterculus implies the existence of a complex of cryptic species.

  11. Costly nutritious diets do not necessarily translate into better performance of artificaially reared fruit files (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1 and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique (SIT) program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adu...

  12. Suitability of a liquid larval diet for rearing the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid larval diet as an artificial rearing medium was successfully tested for the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock. The biological parameters studied were pupal weight, adult emergence and fliers, sex ratio, fecundity and fertility. The insects performed most satisfa...

  13. Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C.

    2007-03-15

    Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O{sub 2}) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O{sub 2} level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O{sub 2} atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O{sub 2} level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O{sub 2} consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O{sub 2} conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O{sub 2} levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [Spanish] La irradiacion de pupas en proyectos de mosca esteril usualmente se hace bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Esta condicion ha demostrado ser menos detrimente a la calidad de las moscas que la irradiacion en atmosferas con proporcion normal de oxigeno. Aunque esta ha sido por mucho tiempo parte del protocolo de irradiacion en plantas de produccion de mosca esteril, hasta ahora no se ha medido el contenido de oxigeno dentro de los recipientes de empaque de pupa durante la irradiacion. El presente estudio investigo los contenidos de O{sub 2} en los contenedores de pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman), la habilidad de pupas de crear hipoxia dentro de los contenedores, y los efectos del contenido de O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion del contenedor en la calidad y capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Pupas de un dia antes de emerger como adultos crearon atmosferas de maxima hipoxia dentro del empaque en aproximadamente una hora. La proporcion de consumo de O{sub 2} en contenedores sellados es dependiente de la edad de la pupa, y de la temperatura de incubacion. La temperatura de incubacion no afecto significativamente la calidad ni la capacidad de apareamiento de machos derivados de pupas irradiadas bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Sin embargo, la capacidad de apareamiento de machos irradiados como pupas en contenedores abiertos y en condiciones oxigenadas fue drasticamente afectada. En comparacion a los resultados anteriores, atmosferas de 2% y 10% O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion no afectaron la capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Polvo fluorescente, aplicado a pupas para marcar las moscas esteriles, no tuvo efectos sobre la capacidad de las pupas de crear hipoxia. Los resultados de este estudio se discuten en base a las practicas actuales de produccion e irradiacion. (author)

  14. Gas-exchange patterns of Mediterranean fruit fly Pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): A tool to forecast developmental stage

    SciTech Connect

    Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E.; Alchanatis, V.

    2007-03-15

    The pattern of gas-exchange (CO{sub 2} emission) was investigated for developing Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) pupae incubated at different temperatures. This study was undertaken to explore the usefulness of gas-exchange systems in the determination of physiological age in developing pupae that are mass produced for sterile insect technique projects. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission was measured in a closed flow-through system connected to commercial infrared gas analysis equipment. Metabolic activity (rate of CO{sub 2} emission) was related to pupal eye-color, which is the current technique used to determine physiological age. Eye-color was characterized digitally with 3 variables (Hue, Saturation and Intensity), and color separated by discriminant analysis. The rate of CO{sub 2} emission throughout pupal development followed a U-shape, with high levels of emission during pupariation, pupal transformation and final pharate adult stages. Temperature affected the development time of pupae, but not the basic CO{sub 2} emission patterns during development. In all temperatures, rates of CO{sub 2} emission 1 and 2 d before adult emergence were very similar. After mid larval-adult transition (e.g., phanerocephalic pupa), digital eye-color was significantly correlated with CO{sub 2} emission. Results support the suggestion that gas-exchange should be explored further as a system to determine pupal physiological age in mass production of fruit flies. (author) [Spanish] En el presente estudio se investigaron los patrones de intercambio gaseoso (emision de CO{sub 2}) en pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) incubadas a diferentes temperaturas. El estudio fue realizado con la finalidad de explorar la utilizacion de sistemas de intercambio gaseoso en la determinacion de la edad fisiologica de pupas durante su produccion masiva en proyectos de mosca esteril. La proporcion de emision de CO{sub 2} fue medido en un sistema cerrado de 'flujo a traves del sistema' conectado a un detector infrarrojo de gases. La actividad metabolica de la pupa (emision de CO{sub 2}) fue contrastado al color del ojo de la pupa en desarrollo, que constituye la actual tecnica de determinacion de la edad fisiologica. El color de ojos en pupa fue determinado digitalmente, usando tres variables (Tendencia, Saturacion e Intensidad). Los colores fueron separados utilizando el analisis discriminatorio. Los patrones de emision de CO{sub 2} durante el desarrollo de la pupa sugieren una tendencia de U: una alta actividad metabolica durante la fase inicial de pupacion y transformacion y durante la fase final del adulto. La temperatura de incubacion afecto el tiempo de desarrollo pero no el patron basico de actividad metabolica. La proporcion de emision de CO{sub 2} uno y dos dias antes de la emergencia del adulto fue muy similar para pupas mantenidas en las diversas temperaturas. El color digital del ojo de la pupa se correlaciono significativamente con los patrones de emision de CO{sub 2} detectados a partir de la fase media de la transformacion de larva a adulto. Los resultados soportan la utilizacion de sistemas de intercambio gaseoso como un sistema auxiliar para la determinacion de la edad fisiologica en cria masiva de moscas de la fruta. (author)

  15. Integration of insecticidal, phagostimulatory, and visual elements of an attract-and-kill system for apple maggot fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In development of a trap-based control system for apple maggot fly, we evaluated lethality of spinosad in cylindrical and contoured controlled-release caps atop visually stimulating sphere bases. For both trap styles, spinosad at or near 1.0% (a.i.) proved to be a useful and relatively durable fly-...

  16. Larinus minutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Urophora quadrifasciata (Diptera: Tephritidae), evidence for interaction and impact on spotted knapweed in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition between seed-feeding insects is well noted in the literature, with many of these interactions being asymmetrical and causing a disadvantage for one of the species involved. While often effective, the use of the “cumulative stress” approach to biological control (where multiple natural e...

  17. Cuelure but not zingerone make the sex pheromone of male Bactrocera tryoni (Tephritidae: Diptera) more attractive to females.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; Hayes, R Andrew; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-01

    In tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera Macquart, a group of plant derived compounds (sensu amplo 'male lures') enhance the mating success of males that have consumed them. For flies responding to the male lure methyl eugenol, this is due to the accumulation of chemicals derived from the male lure in the male rectal gland (site of pheromone synthesis) and the subsequent release of an attractive pheromone. Cuelure, raspberry ketone and zingerone are a second, related group of male lures to which many Bactrocera species respond. Raspberry ketone and cuelure are both known to accumulate in the rectal gland of males as raspberry ketone, but it is not known if the emitted male pheromone is subsequently altered in complexity or is more attractive to females. Using Bactrocera tryoni as our test insect, and cuelure and zingerone as our test chemicals, we assess: (i) lure accumulation in the rectal gland; (ii) if the lures are released exclusively in association with the male pheromone; and (iii) if the pheromone of lure-fed males is more attractive to females than the pheromone of lure-unfed males. As previously documented, we found cuelure was stored in its hydroxyl form of raspberry ketone, while zingerone was stored largely in an unaltered state. Small but consistent amounts of raspberry ketone and β-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid were also detected in zingerone-fed flies. Males released the ingested lures or their analogues, along with endogenous pheromone chemicals, only during the dusk courtship period. More females responded to squashed rectal glands extracted from flies fed on cuelure than to glands from control flies, while more females responded to the pheromone of calling cuelure-fed males than to control males. The response to zingerone treatments in both cases was not different from the control. The results show that male B. tryoni release ingested lures as part of their pheromone blend and, at least for cuelure, this attracts more females.

  18. Integration of insecticidal, phagostimulatory, and visual elements of an attract and kill system for apple maggot fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wright, Starker E; Leskey, Tracy C; Jacome, Isabel; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2012-10-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is a key pest of apple in eastern North America that has been historically controlled with organophosphate insecticide applications. Here we report on progress toward development of an effective and maintenance-free attracticidal sphere system for this pest species. In our studies, we evaluated lethality of spinosad in combination with a feeding stimulant (sucrose) to replace a Tangletrap sticky coating as the killing agent of a sphere-based behavioral control system. Spinosad was incorporated into cylindrical and contoured controlled-release caps that were fixed atop visually stimulating sphere bases. For both cap styles, spinosad at or near 1.0% (a.i.) proved to be a relatively durable fly-killing agent, providing approximately equal to 85% mortality after simulated rainfall exposure reflective of average season-long precipitation levels experienced during the primary period of risk of apple maggot injury to fruit in the northeastern United States. In field trials, we assessed the impact of color degradation of contoured controlled-release caps on visual responsiveness of apple maggot fly and found that it had no significant impact on captures. In commercial orchard trials designed to evaluate the potential of attracticidal spheres with contoured caps for direct control of apple maggot, a perimeter-based deployment provided protection comparable to plots receiving 1-2 whole-plot insecticide applications.

  19. Interspecific Competition Between Ceratitis capitata and Two Bactrocera Spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) Evaluated via Adult Behavioral Interference Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Can; Hou, Bo-Hua; Ou-Yang, Ge-Cheng; Ma, Jun

    2017-03-15

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the most invasive tephritid species. It has spread and established populations successfully throughout many of the tropical temperate regions, partially owing to the increase in global trading activity that facilitates diffusion of species. However, C. capitata has never been detected in China, even though some areas of the country have favorable climate and ample food resources. Historically, some researchers have hypothesized that the principal reasons for its absence are the defenses mounted by native Bactrocera species against C. capitata. We evaluated the modes and strengths of interspecific competition between C. capitata and two Bactrocera species (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel and Bactrocera correcta Bezzi) by conducting experiments on behavioral interference between the adults of these fruit fly species. Under appropriate conditions, the two Bactrocera species showed a distinct advantage in competition for oviposition, noticeably suppressing C. capitata. Although no mating interference between C. capitata and the two Bactrocera species was observed, the role of interference competition in the prevention of C. capitata invasion is still worthy of being discussed.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three natural regions of southwestern Colombia using mitochondrial sequences.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Franco, Jenny Johana; Velasco-Cuervo, Sandra Marcela; Aguirre-Ramirez, Elkin; González Obando, Ranulfo; Carrejo, Nancy Soraya; Toro-Perea, Nelson

    2017-02-01

    Anastrepha striata is widely distributed across the Americas and is a pest of economically important crops, especially crops of the Myrtaceae family. Insect population structures can be influenced by the presence of physical barriers or characteristics associated with habitat differences. This study evaluated the effect of the Western Andes on the population structure of A. striata. Individuals were collected from Psidium guajava fruits from three natural regions of southwestern Colombia (Pacific Coast, mountainous region and the inter-Andean valley of the Cauca River). Based on a 1318 bp concatenated of the genes Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6), 14 haplotypes with few changes among them (between 1 and 3) were found. There was only one dominant haplotype in all three regions. No genetic structure associated with the three eco-geographical regions of the study was found. Moreover, the Western Andes are not an effective barrier for the genetic isolation of the populations from the Pacific Coast compared with the inter-Andean valley populations. This genetic homogeneity could be partially due to anthropogenic intervention, which acts as a dispersal agent of infested fruits. Another hypothesis to explain the lack of structure would be the relatively recent arrival of A. striata to the region, as indicated by an analysis of the demographic history, which reveals a process of population expansion. This study represents the first attempt to understand the population genetics of A. striata in Colombia and could contribute to the integral management of this pest.

  1. Performance of methyl eugenol + matrix + toxicant combinations under field conditions in Hawaii and California for trapping Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Carvalho, Lori A

    2013-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of many fruit crops worldwide. Current detection programs by federal and state agencies in the United States use a grid of traps consisting of liquid methyl eugenol (lure) and naled (toxicant) applied to cotton wicks and hung inside the trap. In recent years efforts have been made to incorporate these chemicals into various solid-type matrices that could be individually packaged to reduce human exposure to the chemicals and improve handling. New solid formulations containing methyl eugenol and either naled or dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate toxicants were compared with the standard formulations on cotton wicks in large scale field evaluation in Hawaii. Two reduced risk toxicants (spinosad and Rynaxypyr) were also evaluated. In one test the solid lure-toxicant-matrix combinations were sent to California to be weathered under California climate conditions and then sent back to Hawaii for evaluation. The polymer matrices with lure and toxicant were found to be as attractive as baited wicks and have the same longevity of attraction regardless of being weathered in Hawaii or in California. The new ingestible toxicants were also effective, although further testing of these ingestible lure + toxicant + matrix products is necessary.

  2. Solid phase microextraction of volatile emissions of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of fly sex, age, and mating status.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Cristina; Vacas, Sandra; Zarzo, Manuel; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Primo, Jaime

    2011-01-12

    Considerable efforts have been devoted to understanding the courtship behavior and pheromone communication of medflies; however, the sex pheromone composition is still a controversial subject. The discovery of new components affecting medfly behavior would be of interest for medfly control methods based on semiochemicals. This work describes volatile compounds emitted by Ceratitis capitata collected using solid phase microextraction. The volatile study was conducted according to an experimental design with three factors (sex, age, and mating status) assumed to be relevant for better understanding the chemical communication. Emission data were treated by means of principal component analysis, a statistical methodology not previously applied to the study of volatiles emitted by fruit flies. The characterization of emission patterns could be useful for the selection of compounds to be further investigated in biological assays to improve knowledge of the key semiochemicals involved in medfly behavior.

  3. Development of a transgenic sexing system based on female-specific embryonic lethality in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is more efficient and cost-effective when only sterile males are released. A female-specific lethality system based on a female-specifically spliced intron was developed for transgenic sexing in Ceratitis capitata (Fu et al., 2007) possibly to overcome the fitness ...

  4. Rhythmicity of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) attraction to cuelure: Insights from an interruptable lure and computer vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe and validate an Agent-Based Simulation (ABS) of invasive insects and use it to investigate the time to extirpation of Ceratitis capitata using data from seven outbreaks that occurred in California from 2008-2010. Results are compared with the length of intervention and quarantine imposed...

  5. Risk of introducing exotic fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa (Diptera: Tephritidae), into southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Wu, Jiajiao; Chen, Hongjun; Zhang, Runjie

    2010-08-01

    Exotic fruit flies (Ceratitis spp.) are often serious agricultural pests. Here, we used, pathway analysis and Monte Carlo simulations to assess the risk of introduction of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch, into southern China with fruit consignments and incoming travelers. Historical data, expert opinions, relevant literature, and archives were used to set appropriate parameters in the pathway analysis. Based on the ongoing quarantine/ inspection strategies of China, as well as the interception records, we estimated the annual number of each fruit fly species entering Guangdong province undetected with commercially imported fruit, and the associated risk. We also estimated the gross number of pests arriving at Guangdong ports with incoming travelers and the associated risk. Sensitivity analysis also was performed to test the impact of parameter changes and to assess how the risk could be reduced. Results showed that the risk of introduction of the three fruit fly species into southern China with fruit consignments, which are mostly transported by ship, exists but is relatively low. In contrast, the risk of introduction with incoming travelers is high and hence deserves intensive attention. Sensitivity analysis indicated that either ensuring all shipments meet current phytosanitary requirements or increasing the proportion of fruit imports sampled for inspection could substantially reduce the risk associated with commercial imports. Sensitivity analysis also provided justification for banning importation of fresh fruit by international travelers. Thus, inspection and quarantine in conjunction with intensive detection were important mitigation measures to reduce the risk of Ceratitis spp. introduced into China.

  6. Field Estimates of Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Varying Environments.

    PubMed

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Siderhurst, Matthew; Jang, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation, and control of invasive pests. Here, we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to estimate the relationship between distance from a trap baited with trimedlure and methyl eugenol, respectively, and probability of capture for a receptive male insect. Experiments were conducted using a grid of traps with a central release point at two sites on Hawaii Island, a Macadamia orchard on the East side of the island and a lava field on the West side. We found that for B. dorsalis and methyl eugenol there is a 65% probability of capture at ∼36 m from a single trap, regardless of habitat. For C. capitata, we found a 65% probability of capture at a distance of ∼14 m from a single trap in the orchard and 7 m in the lava field. We also present results on the spatial and temporal pattern of recaptures. The attraction data are analyzed via a hyperbolic secant-based capture probability model.

  7. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Steck, Gary J; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis.

  8. Pupal development of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at different moisture values in four soil types.

    PubMed

    Bento, F de M M; Marques, R N; Costa, M L Z; Walder, J M M; Silva, A P; Parra, J R P

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate adult emergence and duration of the pupal stage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and emergence of the fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), under different moisture conditions in four soil types, using soil water matric potential. Pupal stage duration in C. capitata was influenced differently for males and females. In females, only soil type affected pupal stage duration, which was longer in a clay soil. In males, pupal stage duration was individually influenced by moisture and soil type, with a reduction in pupal stage duration in a heavy clay soil and in a sandy clay, with longer duration in the clay soil. As matric potential decreased, duration of the pupal stage of C. capitata males increased, regardless of soil type. C. capitata emergence was affected by moisture, regardless of soil type, and was higher in drier soils. The emergence of D. longicaudata adults was individually influenced by soil type and moisture factors, and the number of emerged D. longicaudata adults was three times higher in sandy loam and lower in a heavy clay soil. Always, the number of emerged adults was higher at higher moisture conditions. C. capitata and D. longicaudata pupal development was affected by moisture and soil type, which may facilitate pest sampling and allow release areas for the parasitoid to be defined under field conditions.

  9. Response of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) to metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment designed to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities that combines short cycles of low pressure/vacuum and high CO2 with ethanol vapor. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of MSDD treatment o...

  10. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos esteriles de moscas para el proyecto de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) en huertos de frutos y vinas comerciales en la provincia del Cabo Occidental del Sudafrica. El procedimiento de criar en masa fue en su mayor parte basado en los sistemas desarrollados por el Laboratorio de Agricultura y Biotecnologia de la FAO/IAEA, Seibersdorf, Austria. Un numero de razas que separara los sexos geneticamente fueron utilizadas para producir solo machos para la liberacion. La congestionada condicion inicial para criar las moscas y su manejo de calidad fueron aliviadas en 2001 con la construccion de un nuevo cuarto de cria para adultos y un laboratorio de control de calidad. En 2002, un Sistema de Manejo de Calidad comprensivo fue implementado, y en 2003 una raza mejorada que separa los sexos geneticamente, VIENNA 8, fue proveido por el Laboratorio de la FAO/IAEA en Seibersdorf. En la mayor parte de los primeros 3 anos la facilidad no pudo suplir el numero requerido de machos esteriles de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta para el programa de TIE sin la necesidad para importar machos esteriles de otra facilidad. Desde medio del ano de 2002, despues que el sistema de manejo de calidad fue implementado, la produccion y la calidad mejoraron pero aun quedaron por debajo del nivel optimo. Despues de la introduccion de la raza VIENNA 8 que separa los sexos geneticamente, y junto con el equipo mejorado de control de clima, la estabilidad y los parametros de seguridad de calidad mejoraron substancialmente. Los factores criticos que influyeron en la produccion y la calidad fueron la infraestructura inadecuada para criar las moscas, problemas con la calidad de la dieta para las larvas y la ausencia inicial de un sistema de manejo de calidad. Los resultados muestran claramente la importancia de un manejo efectivo de la calidad, el valor de una raza productiva que separa los sexos geneticamente y la necesidad de contar con una base solida de financimiento para la infraestructura de una cria en masa. (author)

  11. Sex chromosomes and associated rDNA form a heterochromatic network in the polytene nuclei of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Drosopoulou, Elena; Nakou, Ifigeneia; Síchová, Jindra; Kubíčková, Svatava; Marec, František; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2012-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, has a diploid set of 2n = 12 chromosomes including a pair of sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, but polytene nuclei show only five polytene chromosomes, obviously formed by five autosome pairs. Here we examined the fate of the sex chromosomes in the polytene complements of this species using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the X and Y chromosome-derived probes, prepared by laser microdissection of the respective chromosomes from mitotic metaphases. Specificity of the probes was verified by FISH in preparations of mitotic chromosomes. In polytene nuclei, both probes hybridized strongly to a granular heterochromatic network, indicating thus underreplication of the sex chromosomes. The X chromosome probe (in both female and male nuclei) highlighted most of the granular mass, whereas the Y chromosome probe (in male nuclei) identified a small compact body of this heterochromatic network. Additional hybridization signals of the X probe were observed in the centromeric region of polytene chromosome II and in the telomeres of six polytene arms. We also examined distribution of the major ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe in both mitotic and polytene chromosome complements of B. oleae. In mitotic metaphases, the probe hybridized exclusively to the sex chromosomes. The probe signals localized a discrete rDNA site at the end of the short arm of the X chromosome, whereas they appeared dispersed over the entire dot-like Y chromosome. In polytene nuclei, the rDNA was found associated with the heterochromatic network representing the sex chromosomes. Only in nuclei with preserved nucleolar structure, the probe signals were scattered in the restricted area of the nucleolus. Thus, our study clearly shows that the granular heterochromatic network of polytene nuclei in B. oleae is formed by the underreplicated sex chromosomes and associated rDNA.

  12. Phenetic structure of two Bactrocera tau cryptic species (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) in Thailand and Laos.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kitthawee, Sangvorn

    2013-04-01

    Morphometric variation with respect to wing venation patterns was explored for 777 specimens of the Bactrocera tau complex collected in Thailand (nine provinces) and Laos (one locality). Cryptic species B. tau A and C were identified based on their wing shape similarity to published reference images. In Thailand, the B. tau A species was identified in four provinces and the B. tau C species in seven provinces, and both species in one locality of Laos. The objective of the study was to explain the geographic variation of size and shape in two cryptic species collected from the same host (Momordica cochinchinensis). Although collected from the same host, the two species did not show the same morphological variance: it was higher in the B. tau A species, which currently infests a wide range of different fruit species, than in the B. tau C species, which is specific to only one fruit (M. cochinchinensis). Moreover, the two species showed a different population structure. An isolation by distance model was apparent in both sexes of species C, while it was not detected in species A. Thus, the metric differences were in apparent accordance with the known behavior of these species, either as a generalist (species A) or as a specialist (species C), and for each species our data suggested different sources of shape diversity: genetic drift for species C, variety of host plants (and probably also pest-host-relationship) for species A. In addition to these distinctions, the larger species, B. tau C, showed less sexual size and shape dimorphism. The data presented here confirm the previously established wing shape differences between the two cryptic species. Character displacement has been discussed as a possible origin of this interspecific variation. The addition of previously published data on species A from other hosts allowed the testing of the character displacement hypothesis. The hypothesis was rejected for interspecific shape differences, but was maintained for size differences.

  13. A safe and effective propylene glycol based capture liquid for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) traps baited with synthetic lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antifreeze is often used as the capture liquid in insect traps for its preservation and evaporation attributes. In tests reported herein, fruit fly traps using non-toxic household propylene glycol based antifreeze captured significantly more Anastrepha ludens than did traps with the automotive anti...

  14. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this coul...

  15. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  16. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  17. Attraction and electroantennogram responses of male Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to volatile chemicals from Persea, Litchi and Ficus wood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trimedlure is the most effective male-targeted lure for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). A similar response is elicited by plant substances that contain a-copaene, a naturally-occurring sesquiterpene. a-copaene is a complex, highly-volatile, widely-distributed plant comp...

  18. Larinus minutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Urophora quadrifasciata (Diptera: Tephritidae), Evidence for Interaction and Impact on Spotted Knapweed in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Minteer, C R; Kring, T J; Wiedenmann, R N

    2016-03-25

    Interactions among seed-feeding insects are well noted in the literature, with many of these interactions being asymmetrical and causing a disadvantage for one of the species involved. While often effective, the use of the cumulative stress approach to biological control (where multiple natural enemy species are released) may increase the risk of interaction, which may lead to less effective biological control programs. Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp.micranthos(Gugler) Hayek) is an invasive plant that causes damage in rangelands and pastures. In Arkansas, two biological control agents for spotted knapweed,Larinus minutus Gyllenhal andUrophora quadrifasciata Meigen, are established. Both species attack the capitula of spotted and diffuse knapweeds. There is potential for interactions between these species, and this could affect the efficacy of the biological control program. To evaluate these potential interactions, we collected spotted knapweed capitula weekly from three sites in Arkansas from 2010 to 2012. Capitula were monitored for emergence ofL. minutus andU. quadrifasciata, and the effect on seed reduction was analyzed. Over all three years,L. minutusandU. quadrifasciata were present in 35.8% (492) and 22.8% (313) of the capitula, respectively. We determined that the occurrences ofL. minutus andU. quadrifasciatawere not independent of each other, and thatL. minutusis more effective at reducing spotted knapweed seed production thanU. quadrifasciatawithin individual capitula. Seed production in capitula with both natural enemies present was no different from capitula withL. minutus.

  19. Purification and biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferases from four field populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jing-Jing; Jia, Fu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2011-12-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a group of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the nucleophilic addition of glutathione to a wide variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In this study, GSTs were purified from four field populations of Bactrocera dorsalis with different insecticide susceptibilities by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography. The populations were collected from Dongguan (DG) and Guangzhou (GZ) of the Guangdong Province, Haikou of the Hainan province (HN), and Kunming of the Yunnan province (YN), China. Differences in GST characteristics among the four populations were studied using purified enzyme samples through comparative SDS-PAGE, kinetic, and inhibition experiments. The specific activities of the purified enzymes were similar, but the purification yield of the GZ population (31.54%) was the lowest. SDS-PAGE analysis showed only one band at approximately 23 kDa for these four populations. Kinetic analyses showed that the affinities of the purified GSTs from the GZ and YN populations for 1-chloro-2.4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) were much higher than those of GSTs from the other two populations, whereas the HN population had the highest catalytic capability in terms of V(max) value. The optimum temperature for CDNB conjugation was 37 °C and the optimum pH was 7.5 in all four populations. Inhibition kinetics showed that ethacrynic acid, diethyl maleate, tetraethylthiuram disulfide, curcumin, bromosulfalein, and β-cypermethrin had excellent inhibitory effects on GSTs in the four populations of B. dorsalis, but the low inhibitory effects of malathion and avermectin did not differ between populations. These results suggest that GSTs may have a role in detoxification of β-cypermethrin in B. dorsalis.

  20. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    PubMed

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  1. Seasonal changes in english walnut (Juglans regia L.) (Juglandaceae), fruit properties and host use patterns by Rhagoletis zoqui (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhagoletis zoqui Bush is a Neosubtropical, univoltine, frugivorous tephritid fly that exploits both native Juglans spp. and the introduced, Palearctic English walnut, Juglans regia. The seasonal development of commercial J. regia fruit and the pattern of host exploitation by R. zoqui were tracked ov...

  2. Random mating among Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults of geographically distant and ecologically distinct populations in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) is a polyphagous pestiferous insect with a geographical range encompassing highly variable environmental conditions. Considering that cryptic species have been recently found among South American representatives of the same taxonomic group as A. ludens...

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide fumigation is a major phytosanitary treatment for a wide variety of quarantine pests, including tephritid fruit flies. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is a quarantine pest of a number of fruits, including citrus exported from Texas, Mexico and Central American countries....

  4. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some phytosanitary irradiation treatments against tephritid fruit flies have been developed using artificial infestation of fruit without first comparing its effect on efficacy. In this study, efficacy was compared using infestation of grapefruit with Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), vi...

  5. Efficacy of two synthetic food-odor lures for Mexican fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) is determined by trap type.

    PubMed

    Robacker, David C; Czokajlo, Darek

    2005-10-01

    Sterile mass-reared Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), were trapped in a citrus orchard by using multilure traps and cylindrical sticky traps baited with Advanced Pheromone Technologies Anastrepha fruit fly (AFF) lures or Suterra BioLure two-component (ammonium acetate and putrescine) MFF lures (BioLures). The cylinder trap/AFF lure combination was the best trap over the first 6 wk, the multilure trap/BioLure combination was best during weeks 6-12, and the multilure trap/AFF lure combination was best during the last 6 wk. The multilure trap/BioLure combination was best overall by 36% over the cylinder trap/AFF lure combination, and 57% over the multilure trap/AFF lure combination. Cylinder traps with BioLures were the least effective trap/lure combination throughout the experiment, capturing only half as many flies as cylinder traps with AFF lures. Captures with cylinder traps baited with either lure and multilure traps with BioLures were female biased. For the most part, both lures remained highly attractive and emitted detectable amounts of attractive components under hot field conditions for the duration of the 18-wk experiment. Total emission of ammonia was 4 times greater and 1-pyrroline at least 10 times greater from AFF lures compared with BioLures. Correlations of trap and lure performance with ammonia emission and weather were determined, but no conclusions were possible. Results indicate that BioLures would be the lure of choice in multilure or other McPhail-type traps and AFF lures would be superior with most sticky traps or kill stations that attract flies to outer (not enclosed) surfaces.

  6. Influence of methoprene and dietary protein on maturation and sexual performance of sterile, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile hormone levels and adult diet have important effects on the attractiveness and competitiveness of the male Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Mexican fruit fly). Since the success of the sterile insect technique requires the release of males that can compete in the wild, these effects are very impor...

  7. Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and the phenology of its native host plant, Yellow Chapote (Rutaceae) in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In northeastern Mexico, the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), breeds on its native host, yellow chapote, Casimiroa greggii (Wats.), which typically produces fruit in the spring. Peak populations of the fly occur in late spring or early summer when adults emerge from the generation of lar...

  8. Nonhost status of Citrus sinensis cultivar valencia and C. paradisi cultivar ruby red to Mexican Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio; Piñero, Jaime; McPheron, Bruce; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente

    2003-12-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is recognized as a pest of citrus, apples, and blackberries in South America. In Mexico, it is mainly found in fruit of the family Myrtaceae and has never been reported infesting citrus. Here, we sought to determine whether females stemming from Mexican A. fraterculus populations (collected in the state of Veracruz) would lay eggs in 'Valencia' oranges and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit and, if so, whether larvae would hatch and develop. We worked under laboratory and seminatural conditions (i.e., gravid females released in fruit-bearing, bagged branches in a commercial citrus grove) and used Anastrepha ludens (Loew), a notorious pest of citrus, as a control species. Under laboratory conditions, A. ludens readily accepted both oranges and grapefruit as oviposition substrates, but A. fraterculus rarely oviposited in these fruit (but did so in guavas, a preferred host) and no larvae ever developed. Eggs were deposited in the toxic flavedo (A. fraterculus) and nontoxic albedo (A. ludens) regions. Field studies revealed that, as was the case in the laboratory, A. fraterculus rarely oviposited into oranges or grapefruit and that, when such was the case, either no larvae developed (oranges) or of the few (13) that developed and pupated (grapefruit), only two adults emerged that survived 1 and 3 d, respectively (5-17% of the time necessary to reach sexual maturity). In sharp contrast, grapefruit exposed to A. ludens yielded up to 937 pupae and adults survived for >6 mo. Therefore, the inability of Mexican A. fraterculus to successfully develop in citrus renders the status of Mexican A. fraterculus as a pest of citrus in Mexico as unsubstantiated.

  9. Sexual Competitiveness of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Males Exposed to Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Morató, Santiago; Shelly, Todd; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. Here, we aimed to establish whether males of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). Under seminatural conditions, we observed that, in trials using wildish males (from a young laboratory colony started with wild flies) exclusively, exposure to the aroma of bitter orange had no effect on male mating success but exposure to the odor grapefruit oil increased male mating success significantly. In a separate test involving both exposed and nonexposed wildish and mass-reared, sterile males, although wildish males were clearly more competitive than sterile males, exposure to grapefruit oil had no detectable effect on either male type. Exposure to oils had no effect on copulation duration in any of the experiments. We discuss the possibility that the positive effect of grapefruit essential oils on wildish male competitiveness may have been linked to exposure of females to grapefruit as a larval food, which may have imprinted them with grapefruit odors during pupal eclosion and biased their response as adults to odors of their maternal host.

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of Two Commercial Abamectin-Based Insecticides Against Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae): Lethal and Sublethal Effects.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Valle-Mora, Javier; Antonio García-Pérez, José

    2016-10-05

    Toxic environmental effects of most insecticides have led to a search for bio-organic insecticides. In this study, we tested the effects of lethal and sublethal exposure to two abamectin-based insecticides (VOLIAM TARGO and LUQ-THOR) on survival, mating, and oviposition of the tephritid Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Different doses of insecticides (0.001-2.00% of the commercial products) were offered mixed with the phagostimulant bait Captor commonly used in spraying and in trapping activities for the control of flies. Both insecticides exhibited 90% killing effectiveness (Abbott index) when offered in doses between 0.02 to 2.00%. The LC50 obtained from the bioassay at 72 h after treatment was 0.003% of commercial product for TARGO and 0.008% for LUQ-THOR. Sublethal exposures to insecticides (0.003%; LC50 for TARGO and LC30 for LUQ-THOR) caused a reduction in oviposition but not in mating parameters, indicating that females were more susceptible than males to reduced doses of insecticide. The mean amount of eggs deposited 5 d after feeding on the insecticide-bait mixtures was reduced up to a third compared with the amount of eggs deposited by untreated females. Both insecticides are promising bio-organic alternatives to malathion in bait control programs against A. ludens.

  11. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies.

  12. Pupariation time as a source of variability in mating performance in mass-reared Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Meza, José S; Díaz Fleischer, Francisco; Orozco, Dina

    2005-12-01

    The effect of time of pupariation on pupal weight and adult sexual competitiveness under field cage conditions was studied in mass-reared Anastrepha ludens (Loew) males. Larvae that took 72 h to pupariate after separation from diet resulted in lighter pupae than those that took 24 and 48 h. Wild pupae were heavier than the 48- and the 72-h pupae but not the 24-h pupae. Interestingly, no differences in mating performance were found between males of the 24- and 48-h pupae despite differences in pupal weight. In general, lower-than expected levels of mating compatibility between sterile and wild A. ludens resulted from the interaction of both strains as more homotypic pairs were observed. Discussion focuses on the effect of the mass-rearing process on male fruit fly mating performance.

  13. Comparative Responses of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) to the Synthetic Attractant BioLure.

    PubMed

    Déctor, Nayeli; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The responses of wild and sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Mcquart) fruit flies to the synthetic attractant BioLure were determined by electroantennography (EAG), in field cage tests using MultiLure traps, and by release-recapture field experiments using sterile flies. In EAG bioassays, no differences were found between species, sexes, sterile and wild flies. There were only specific differences and interactions in dose responses. More A. ludens than A. obliqua individuals were captured in multilure traps in field cage test. In A. ludens, there was not significant difference between the number of females and males captured, whereas in A. obliqua more females than males were caught. Age showed a bimodal response in both species and both sexes, with peaks at 4 and 14 d old. In the release-recapture experiments, there were significant differences between species, sexes, and orchards and among the days after release. More individuals of A. ludens than A obliqua were recaptured. Only in A. obliqua the difference between the sexes was significant, with a 3.60:1 female:male ratio. Orchard conditions affected the recapture rate, but in both orchards the largest number of flies recaptured occurred during the first day after release (46 and 88% in each orchard). Our results show that the response to this synthetic lure is species-specific and contribute to better interpret trapping data.

  14. Tapachula-7, a new genetic sexing strain of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): sexual compatibility and competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Dina; Meza, J Salvador; Zepeda, Silvia; Solís, Eduardo; Quintero-Fong, J Luis

    2013-04-01

    A new genetic sexing strain of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), was evaluated in tests of sexual behavior to determine its possible application using the sterile insect technique. Tests in field cages measuring time to sexual maturity, compatibility with wild flies, and competitiveness were compared between the genetic sexing strain, Tapachula-7, and the mass-reared standard bisexual strain. The results indicated that the onset of sexual maturity was similar for both laboratory strains. Males from the Tapachula-7 strain do not differ from the standard bisexual strain in compatibility and competitiveness with wild insects. The results indicate that the release of Tapachula-7 males in the field would be viable in programs that use the sterile insect technique for the control of the Mexican fruit fly.

  15. Revision of the Tephritis maccus species group (Diptera: Tephritidae) with description of a new species from Iran.

    PubMed

    Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Korneyev, Severyn V; Parchami-Araghi, Mehrdad; Gilasian, Ebrahim

    2015-05-12

    The maccus species group of the genus Tephritis Latreille 1804 is revised. The maccus group contains five species with a radiate wing pattern, cell r without or with only one large hyaline spot or indentation on the anterior wing margin, and the aculeus moderately broad, sharply narrowing and pointed at the very apex. The included species are: Tephritis azari Mohamadzade Namin & Korneyev, Tephritis gharalii sp. nov., Tephritis maccus Hering, Tephritis sophus and Tephritis urelliosomima Korneyev & Dirlbek.

  16. Antennal responses of West Indian and Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to monitor and detect tephritid fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha currently involve MultiLure traps baited with two food-based synthetic attractants; ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). These baits are used in Central America, Florida, Texas, and the Caribbean, each region...

  17. Analysis of Body Measurements and Wing Shape to Discriminate Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis zephyria (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is a quarantine pest of apple in Washington state, and is morphologically almost indistinguishable from the snowberry maggot fly, R. zephyria Snow, which does not attack apples. Current methods used to distinguish R. pomonella from R. zephyria, such a...

  18. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.], and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this could affect various life history traits of flies. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) if body size and egg loads of flies infesting sweet, tart, and bitter cherries differ from one another; and 2) if any observed body size differences are genetically based or caused by the host fruit environment. Pupae and adults of both sexes reared from larval-infested sweet and tart cherries collected in Washington and Montana were larger than those reared from bitter cherries. In addition, flies of both sexes caught on traps in sweet and tart cherry trees were larger than those caught in bitter cherry trees and females trapped from sweet and tart cherry trees had 54.0-98.8% more eggs. The progeny of flies from naturally-infested sweet and bitter cherries reared for one generation in the laboratory on sweet cherry did not differ in size. The same also was true for progeny of sweet and bitter cherry flies reared in the field on bitter cherry. The results suggest that the larger body sizes of flies from sweet and tart cherries than bitter cherries in the field are caused by host fruit and not genetic factors.

  19. Alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for killing pupae and preventing emergence of apple maggot fly (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of methyl bromide, ECO2FUME (phosphine gas + CO2), Vapam (sodium methyldithiocarbamate), chloropicrin, Telone II (1, 3 dichloropropene), and chloropicrin + Telone II on killing the pupae and preventing adult emergence of apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) was determined. In an e...

  20. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  1. Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

  2. [Random amplified polymorphic DNA identification of six Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) species in Yunnan Province of southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhi-ying

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, the genetic relationships among six fruit fly species of Bactrocera in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, i.e., B. tau, B. scutellaris, B. scutellata, B. cucurbitae, B. dorsalis and B. correcta, were studied by using the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Five primers with good repetition and high polymorphism were screened from 131 primers, and a total of 302 bands were amplified, among which, 111 bands were of genetic polymorphism. The primers OPC-01, OPI-17, OPL-07, OPL-08 and OPL-16 could be used for the identification of the 6 fruit fly species.

  3. Genetic diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an introduction pathway into California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. A total of 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across...

  4. Are apple and hawthorn fruit volatiles more attractive than ammonium carbonate to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. In the eastern U.S. where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonel...

  5. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  6. Genetically Engineered Ricin Suppresses Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on Demographic Analysis of Group-Reared Life Table.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng; Huang, Chun-Yen; Dai, Shu-Mei; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-04-27

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), reduces the quantity and quality of many host fruits through the process of oviposition and larval feeding, and this insect has been considered a major insect pest in several Asian countries for decades. Using an earlier-developed, female-specific system that combines the toxicity of the ricin A chain (RTA) and the alternative RNA splicing property of doublesex (Bddsx), we show that transgenic male flies harboring the RTA-Bddsx transgene unevenly repress the pest population through inheritable effects. In age-stage, two-sex life-table analyses, high larval mortality and a delay in pupation were observed after introducing the transgene. The high male to female ratio in DsRed(+) flies demonstrates the lethal effect of ricin on females. The fitness of both the DsRed(+)- and DsRed(-)-transformed females was reduced as shown in the decrease of the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate (r), and finite rate (λ) values compared with the wild-type populations. The integrity of the RTA-Bddsx transgene remained in more than 80% of DsRed(+) males after ten generations, supporting the stable inheritance of the transgene. All of the data from this study support the proposed RTA-Bddsx SIT approach, which provides a species-specific and environmentally friendly method of suppressing, rather than eradiating, B. dorsalis.

  7. Hybridization and the spread of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), in the Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization could be an important process interjecting variation into insect populations enabling host plant shifts and the origin of new economic pests. Here, we examine whether hybridization between the native snowberry-infesting fruit fly Rhagoletis zephyria (Snow) and the introduced quarantine...

  8. Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 (Insecta: Diptera: TEPHRITIDAE): Proposed conservation by suppression of Cryptodacus Gundlach, 1862 (Reptilia: Serpentes: COLUBRIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this application under Articles 78.1, 80.2.2, and 81.2.1 is to conserve current usage of the well-established genus-group name Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by suppression of the earlier name Cryptodacus Gundlach, 1862, currently a junior synonym of A...

  9. Attraction of Mosquitoes to Diethyl Methylbenzamide and Ethyl Hexanediol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Deet, dimethyl the Mediteranean fruit fly Ceratitis capita phthalate, benzimine, and repudin were attrac- (Wied.) ( Tephritidae ). Barrows (1907) reported...repellent to Drosophila melanogaster Mei- Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae ) (Wright 1982). gen. Triethylamine hydrochloride was repellent Butoxy polypropylene

  10. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  11. Landing and Oviposition Responses of Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) on Sweet Cherry Treated with Kaolin- and Limestone-Based Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kaolin- and limestone-based products were compared for their effects on landing and oviposition on sweet cherry by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae). Surround (95% calcined kaolin), Cocoon (100% hydrous kaolin), Eclipse (>97% limestone), and Purshade (62.5% limestone) were studied....

  12. MicroRNAs in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis: extending Drosophilid miRNA clusters to the Tephritidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is an important pest species in the family Tephritidae. It is a phytophagous species with broad host range, and while not established in the mainland United States, is a species of great concern for introduction. Despite of the vast amount of informatio...

  13. Trapping Female Medflies (Ceratitis capitata) by Broadcast of Male Calling Song

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    systems for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in seven countries," J. Econ. Entomol. 92, 156-164. 2. Hendrichs, J., Franz, G., and Rendon, P...Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae ) in Israel: Comparison of lures and trap type,". J. Econ. Entomol. 91, 1335-1339. 4. Prokopy, R.J., and...Diptera: Tephritidae )," Fla. Entomol. 83, 411-421. 8. Anderson, J.B., and Mankin, R.W.. (2002). "Comparison of particle velocity and sound pressure

  14. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  15. Evaluation of traps for monitoring higher Diptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two main members of the higher Diptera for which monitoring traps have been developed (at least in countries where tsetse does not exist) are the house fly, Musca domestica, and the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Both flies are major pest species in the US and elsewhere and the development of ...

  16. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  17. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  18. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  19. Checklist of the Empidoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016

  20. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  1. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  2. Revision of the family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora).

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S A

    2016-04-05

    The family Nothybidae (Diptera: Schizophora) is revised. The family consists of 11 species in the single genus Nothybus Rondani, which occurs in Papua New Guinea, Nepal and much of the Oriental Region. Three species are described as new: N. absens spec. nov. (China), N. cataractus spec. nov. (Laos, Thailand) and N. procerus spec. nov. (India). Nothybus longithorax Rondani, 1875 is treated as a junior synonym of N. longicollis (Walker, 1856). Nothybus decorus Meijere, 1924 syn. nov. is included as a junior synonym of N. lineifer Enderlein, 1922.

  3. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  4. Potential for hypobaric storage as a phytosanitary treatment: mortality of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in apples and effects on fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Hulasare, Rajshekhar; Payton, Mark E; Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    The efficacy of low-oxygen atmospheres using low pressure, referred to as hypobaric conditions, to kill egg and third-instar Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in apples was investigated. Infested apples were exposed to 3.33 and 6.67 kPa in glass jars at 25 and 30 degrees C for times ranging from 3 to 120 h. Probit analyses and lethal dose ratio tests were performed to determine differences in lethal time values. Eggs were more tolerant of low pressure compared with third-instar R. pomonella. Mortality of eggs and larvae increased with increase in time of exposure to low pressure and temperature. Lower pressures increased percent mortality of eggs, but these values were not significantly different at the pressures tested in this investigation. The LT99 for R. pomonella eggs at 3.33 kPa was 105.98 and 51.46 h, respectively, at 25 and 30 degrees C, which was a significant effect of the higher temperature on egg mortality. Investigation into consumer acceptance of low-pressure-treated apples was done with 'Red Delicious' and 'Golden Delicious'. Apples exposed to 3.33 kPa at 25 and 30 degrees C for 3 and 5 d were stored at 1 degrees C for 2 wk and presented to a sensory panel for evaluation. The panelists rated treated apples with untreated controls for external and internal appearance and taste. Golden Delicious apples were unaffected for all three sensory factors across both temperatures and exposure times. Although taste was unaffected for Red Delicious, the internal and external appearances deteriorated. Use of low pressure for disinfestation and preservation of apples is a potential nonchemical alternative to chemical fumigants such as methyl bromide and phosphine.

  5. Niche breadth and interspecific competition between Doryctobracon crawfordi and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), native and introduced of Anastrepha spp. fruit files (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interactions among multiple natural enemies can enhance or interfere with their impacts on host/ prey populations. Two species of Braconidae are currently considered for augmentative biological control of pestiferous tephritid fruit flies in Mexico, the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead)...

  6. Evaluation of SPLAT with Spinosad and Methyl Eugenol or Cue-Lure for "Attract-and-Kill" of Oriental and Melon Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SPLAT(TM) ME (methyl eugenol) and C-L (cue-lure) “attract and kill” sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared to other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, and B. cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly, respectively. Fie...

  7. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-02-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade.

  8. Performance of Methyl Eugenol + Matrix + Toxicant combinations under field conditions in Hawaii and California for trapping B. dorsalis (Diptera:Tephritidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New solid formulations containing methyl eugenol and either naled or DDVP toxicants were compared to the standard formulations on cotton wicks in large scale field evaluation in Hawaii. Two “reduced risk” toxicants (spinosad and Rynaxypyr®) were also evaluated. In one test the solid lure-toxicant-ma...

  9. Effects of superparasitism on immature and adult stages of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Nussenbaum, A L; Viscarret, M M; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

    2017-04-06

    The optimal use of available host by parasitoid insects should be favoured by natural selection. For solitary parasitoids, superparasitism (i.e. the egg-laying of several eggs/host) may represent a detrimental phenomenon both in a biological and an applied sense, but under certain circumstances it may be adaptive. Here, we studied the effects of increasing levels of superparasitism (LSPs, number of parasitoid larvae/host) on fitness-related parameters of the immature and adult stages of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a solitary endoparasitoid parasitizing Ceratitis capitata. We investigated the moment when supernumerary parasitoid larvae are eliminated and the effects produced by this process, together with its repercussion on female fecundity, parasitism rate, sex ratio, adult survival, flight ability and body size. Complete elimination of competitors occurred soon after larval hatching, before reaching the second larval stage. Elimination process took longer at higher LSPs, although a normal developmental (egg-adult) time was achieved. For LSPs 1, 2, 3 and 5 the effects on parasitoid emergence were mild, but LSP 10 led to the death of all developing parasitoids. Aside from this, to develop in superparasitized hosts did not significantly affect any of the evaluated parameters, and only a female-biased sex ratio was observed at higher LSPs. However, the effects of superparasitism on the adults may have a different outcome under more variable conditions in the field, once they are released for biological control purposes.

  10. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C.; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  11. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has improved the fruit fly control. However, matings between B. dorsalis s.s. and B. carambolae are incompatible, which hinder the application of the Salaya1 strain to control the carambola fruit fly. To solve this problem, we introduced genetic sexing components from the Salaya1 strain into the B. carambolae genome by interspecific hybridization. Results Morphological characteristics, mating competitiveness, male pheromone profiles, and genetic relationships revealed consistencies that helped to distinguish Salaya1 and B. carambolae strains. A Y-autosome translocation linking the dominant wild-type allele of white pupae gene and a free autosome carrying a recessive white pupae homologue from the Salaya1 strain were introgressed into the gene pool of B. carambolae. A panel of Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite loci of the Salaya1 strain served as markers for the introgression experiments. This resulted in a newly derived genetic sexing strain called Salaya5, with morphological characteristics corresponding to B. carambolae. The rectal gland pheromone profile of Salaya5 males also contained a distinctive component of B. carambolae. Microsatellite DNA analyses confirmed the close genetic relationships between the Salaya5 strain and wild B. carambolae populations. Further experiments showed that the sterile males of Salaya5 can compete with wild males for mating with wild females in field cage conditions. Conclusions Introgression of sex sorting components from the Salaya1 strain to a closely related B. carambolae strain generated a new genetic sexing strain, Salaya5. Morphology-based taxonomic characteristics, distinctive pheromone components, microsatellite DNA markers, genetic relationships, and mating competitiveness provided parental baseline data and validation tools for the new strain. The Salaya5 strain shows a close similarity with those features in the wild B. carambolae strain. In addition, mating competitiveness tests suggested that Salaya5 has a potential to be used in B. carambolae SIT programs based on male-only releases. PMID:25471905

  12. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable marking systems are critical to the prospective field release of transgenic insect strains. This is to unambiguously distinguish released insects from wild insects in the field that are collected in field traps, and tissue-specific markers, such as those that are sperm-specific, have particular uses such as identifying wild females that have mated with released males. For tephritid fruit flies such as the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, polyubiquitin-regulated fluorescent protein body markers allow transgenic fly identification, and fluorescent protein genes regulated by the spermatocyte-specific β2-tubulin promoter effectively mark sperm. For sterile male release programs, both marking systems can be made male-specific by linkage to the Y chromosome. Results An A. ludens wild type strain was genetically transformed with a piggyBac vector, pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3}, having the polyubiquitin-regulated EGFP body marker, and the β2-tubulin-regulated DsRed.T3 sperm-specific marker. Autosomal insertion lines effectively expressed both markers, but a single Y-linked insertion (YEGFP strain) expressed only PUbnlsEGFP. This insertion was remobilized by transposase helper injection, which resulted in three new autosomal insertion lines that expressed both markers. This indicated that the original Y-linked Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3 marker was functional, but specifically suppressed on the Y chromosome. The PUbnlsEGFP marker remained effective however, and the YEGFP strain was used to create a sexing strain by translocating the wild type allele of the black pupae (bp+) gene onto the Y, which was then introduced into the bp- mutant strain. This allows the mechanical separation of mutant female black pupae from male brown pupae, that can be identified as adults by EGFP fluorescence. Conclusions A Y-linked insertion of the pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3} transformation vector in A. ludens resulted in male-specific expression of the EGFP fluorescent protein marker, and was integrated into a black pupae translocation sexing strain (T(YEGFP/bp+), allowing the identification of male adults when used in sterile male release programs for population control. A unique observation was that expression of the Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3 sperm-specific marker, which was functional in autosomal insertions, was specifically suppressed in the Y-linked insertion. This may relate to the Y chromosomal regulation of male-specific germ-line genes in Drosophila. PMID:25472528

  13. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Yang, Wen-Jia; Cong, Lin; Xu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS), a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2) was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis. PMID:23965972

  14. Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Isasawin, Siriwan; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from Bactrocera dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of Bactrocera carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of Bactrocera carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of Bactrocera carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of Bactrocera dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between Bactrocera carambolae and Bactrocera dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries may not be rejected. Alleles at microsatellite loci could be introgressed rather than other nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Bactrocera carambolae may be an incipient rather than a distinct species of Bactrocera dorsalis. Regarding the pest management aspect, the genetic sexing Salaya5 strain (SY5) was included for comparison with wild populations. The SY5 strain was genetically assigned to the Bactrocera carambolae cluster. Likewise, the genetic network showed that the strain shared greatest genetic similarity to JK, suggesting that SY5 did not divert away from its original genetic makeup. Under laboratory conditions, at least 12 generations apart, selection did not strongly affect genetic compatibility between the strain and wild populations. This knowledge further confirms the potential utilization of the Salaya5 strain in regional programs of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT. PMID:26798262

  15. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  16. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Leblanc, Luc; Harris, Ernest J.; Manoukis, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri); similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway) were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa). Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more recent successes against Bactrocera spp. and related tephritids, and outline simple rearing and release methods to facilitate this goal. PMID:26466626

  17. Irradiation of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Eggs to Inhibit Fly Emergence in the Mass-Rearing of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M. L. Z.; Pacheco, M. G.; Lopes, L. A.; Botteon, V. W.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2016-01-01

    As the incidence of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) has increased in Southern Brazil in the past 3 yr, an initiative to release sterile flies and parasitoids has started. In order to make feasible the mass-rearing of the parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmed), this study investigated the suitability of A. fraterculus larvae derived from irradiated eggs as host for D. longicaudata. Two different ages of A. fraterculus eggs (24 and 48 h old) were analyzed for hatchability after the exposure to a range of radiation doses. The hatchability of 48-h-old eggs was not affected by radiation, and no fly emerged at doses higher than 27.5 Gy. The larvae derived from irradiated eggs proved to be suitable hosts for the parasitoid development, with observed parasitism rates higher than 70% and sex ratio values above 0.6. The parasitism capability and longevity of D. longicaudata reared on larvae derived from irradiated eggs were also assessed. During the 10 d of parasitism evaluated, D. longicaudata from the treatments were able to parasitize nonirradiated larvae similarly as the parasitoids from controls and the laboratory colony. The longevity of D. longicaudata from the treatments was not affected either, with survival rates higher than 80% after 20 d of evaluation. The age of 48 h and a dose of 30 Gy could be considered the best age and dose for A. fraterculus eggs to be used in the mass-rearing of D. longicaudata. The results of this study will decrease the costs of mass-rearing D. longicaudata on A. fraterculus. PMID:27638956

  18. Functional analysis of a NF-κB transcription factor in the immune defense of Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; Liang, H; Hou, Y

    2017-04-01

    Although some novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been successfully isolated from Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these peptides are still elusive. The homolog of NF-κB transcription factor Relish, designated as BdRelish, was cloned from B. dorsalis. The full length cDNA of BdRelish is 3954 bp with an open reading frame that encodes 1013 amino acids. Similar to Drosophila Relish and the mammalian p100, it is a compound protein containing a conserved Rel homology domain, an IPT (Ig-like, plexins, transcription factors) domain and an IκB-like domain (four ankyrin repeats), the nuclear localization signal RKRRR is also detected at the residues 449-453, suggesting that it has homology to Relish and it is a member of the Rel family of transcription activator proteins. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis reveals that BdRelish mRNAs are detected in different quantities from various tissues and the highest transcription level of BdRelish is determined in fat body. The injection challenge of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureas significantly upregulated the expression of BdRelish. The injection of BdRelish dsRNA markedly reduced the expression of BdRelish and decreased the transcription magnitude of antimicrobial peptides. Individuals injected BdRelish dsRNA died at a significantly faster rate compared with the control groups. Therefore, BdRelish is vital for the transcription of AMPs to attack the invading bacteria.

  19. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  20. Fitness Cost Implications of PhiC31-Mediated Site-Specific Integrations in Target-Site Strains of the Mexican Fruit Fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Meza, José S.; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R.; Zepeda-Cisneros, Cristina Silvia; Handler, Alfred M.; Schetelig, Marc F.

    2014-01-01

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understanding the fitness cost implications of these manipulations for transgenic strain applications is critical. In this study independent piggyBac-mediated attP target-sites marked with DsRed were created in several genomic positions in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. Two of these strains, one having an autosomal (attP_F7) and the other a Y-linked (attP_2-M6y) integration, exhibited fitness parameters (dynamic demography and sexual competitiveness) similar to wild type flies. These strains were thus selected for targeted insertion using, for the first time in mexfly, the phiC31-integrase recombination system to insert an additional EGFP-marked transgene to determine its effect on host strain fitness. Fitness tests showed that the integration event in the int_2-M6y recombinant strain had no significant effect, while the int_F7 recombinant strain exhibited significantly lower fitness relative to the original attP_F7 target-site host strain. These results indicate that while targeted transgene integrations can be achieved without an additional fitness cost, at some genomic positions insertion of additional DNA into a previously integrated transgene can have a significant negative effect. Thus, for targeted transgene insertions fitness costs must be evaluated both previous to and subsequent to new site-specific insertions in the target-site strain. PMID:25303238

  1. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Deus, E. G.; Godoy, W. A. C.; Sousa, M. S. M.; Lopes, G. N.; Jesus-Barros, C. R.; Silva, J. G.; Adaime, R.

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae. The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  2. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanga, Chrysantus M.; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A.; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15–35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20–30 °C (87–95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61–76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed. PMID:26798273

  3. Insecticidal activity of a Moroccan strain of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes LD-37 on larvae, pupae and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Samri, S E; Baz, M; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Zitouni, A; El Meziane, A; Barakate, M

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is considered the most important fruit pest worldwide. Its management is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Although these conventional pesticides are effective at high doses, they cause considerable human health and environment problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria against C. capitata. A total of 12 preselected actinobacteria isolated from various Moroccan habitats were screened for their insecticidal activity against larvae, pupae and adults of C. capitata. Four actinobacteria isolates were significantly active against the first-instar larvae, and nine were active against the medfly adult, while no significant mortality was obtained against the third-instar larval and pupal stages. Among the selected isolates, the biological screening revealed that strain Streptomyces LD-37, which showed 99.4% similarity with Streptomyces phaeochromogenes, exhibited the maximal corrected larval mortality of 98%. Moreover, the isolates AS1 and LD-37 showed the maximum significant corrected mortality against adults of 32.5 and 28.2%, respectively. The crude extract obtained from a fermented culture of strain S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 was separated into six fractions by thin layer chromatography. Fractions F3 and F4 caused a significant corrected larval mortality of 66.7 and 53.3%, respectively; whereas the maximum reduction in adult emergence was obtained with fraction F4. This finding could be useful for utilizing S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 as an alternative to chemical insecticides in pest management of C. capitata.

  4. Niche partitioning among two Ceratitis rosa morphotypes and other Ceratitis pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) along an altitudinal transect in Central Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwatawala, Maulid; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Joseph, Jane; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two standard parapheromones, trimedlure (routinely used for monitoring Ceratitis rosa and Ceratitis capitata) and terpinyl acetate (routinely used for monitoring Ceratitis cosyra) were compared with enriched ginger root oil (EGO) lure for detecting and monitoring the presence and relative population abundance of these particular pest species. Standard yellow fruit fly traps were used for the comparison, which was conducted at 10 sites along an altitudinal transect ranging from 540 to 1650 masl on the Uluguru mountains, in Morogoro Region (Central Tanzania). A gradual change of relative occurrence of the two Ceratitis rosa morphotypes was clear from the EGO lure trapping. The morphotype R1 was predominant at lower altitudes while morphotype R2 was predominant at higher altitudes. Further experiments are needed to confirm the consistency of the observed pattern across regions, seasons and years as well as possible differences in the developmental physiology of both morphotypes. The mango fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra, showed a distinct predominance at altitudes below 800 masl as shown in both the EGO lure and the terpinyl acetate trapping. The catches of all three target species were higher in traps with the EGO lure compared to the conventional lures trimedlure and terpinyl acetate. It is argued that for these species EGO lure can act as a suitable and more effective alternative for trimedlure and terpinyl acetate parapheromones. In addition, EGO lure has the added advantage that it combines the taxon spectrum for the two latter substances, thus requiring the use of only a single attractant. PMID:26798271

  5. A Role of Corazonin Receptor in Larval-Pupal Transition and Pupariation in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qiu-Li; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Gui, Shun-Hua; Chen, Er-Hu; Wei, Dan-Dan; Li, Hui-Min; Wang, Jin-Jun; Smagghe, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Corazonin (Crz) is a neuropeptide hormone, but also a neuropeptide modulator that is internally released within the CNS, and it has a widespread distribution in insects with diverse physiological functions. Here, we identified and cloned the cDNAs of Bactrocera dorsalis that encode Crz and its receptor CrzR. Mature BdCrz has 11 residues with a unique Ser11 substitution (instead of the typical Asn) and a His in the evolutionary variable position 7. The BdCrzR cDNA encodes a putative protein of 608 amino acids with 7 putative transmembrane domains, typical for the structure of G-protein-coupled receptors. When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the BdCrzR exhibited a high sensitivity and selectivity for Crz (EC50 ≈ 52.5 nM). With qPCR, the developmental stage and tissue-specific expression profiles in B. dorsalis demonstrated that both BdCrz and BdCrzR were highly expressed in the larval stage, and BdCrzR peaked in 2-day-old 3rd-instar larvae, suggesting that the BdCrzR may play an important role in the larval-pupal transition behavior. Immunochemical localization confirmed the production of Crz in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically by a group of three neurons in the dorso-lateral protocerebrum and eight pairs of lateral neurons in the ventral nerve cord. qPCR analysis located the BdCrzR in both the CNS and epitracheal gland, containing the Inka cells. Importantly, dsRNA-BdCrzR-mediated gene-silencing caused a delay in larval-pupal transition and pupariation, and this phenomenon agreed with a delayed expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa-decarboxylase genes. We speculate that CrzR-silencing blocked dopamine synthesis, resulting in the inhibition of pupariation and cuticular melanization. Finally, injection of Crz in head-ligated larvae could rescue the effects. These findings provide a new insight into the roles of Crz signaling pathway components in B. dorsalis and support an important role of CrzR in larval-pupal transition and pupariation behavior. PMID:28261106

  6. A review of the current knowledge on Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Africa, with a list of species included in Zeugodacus

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Mwatawala, Maulid; Quilici, Serge; Vayssières, Jean-François; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews all available information regarding the occurrence and biology of the melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), in the Afrotropical Region, including data on invasion history, distribution patterns, population genetics, host range, and interspecific competition. Although limited intraspecific variability has been observed within the region regarding the above mentioned aspects, there seems to be no indication that Zeugodacus cucurbitae represents a species complex. A checklist of all of the species included in Zeugodacus as recently proposed by Virgilio et al. (2015) is provided. PMID:26798277

  7. A COMPOUND PRODUCED BY FRUIGIVOROUS TEPHRITIDAE (DIPTERA) LARVAE PROMOTES OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOR BY THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We co...

  8. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead)(Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a guava orchard in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined temporal and spatial patterns of both sexes of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava orchard. Bactrocera dorsalis spatial patterns were initially random, but became high...

  9. Performance of a Genetically Modified Strain of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management With the Sterile Insect Technique.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Santos, Edwin M; Rendón, Pedro; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-12-23

    The genetically modified strain of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) VIENNA 8 1260 has two morphological markers that exhibit fluorescence in body and sperm. To assess the feasibility of its use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs using the sterile insect technique, its rearing performance and quality control profile under small, medium, and large scales was evaluated, as well as in field cages. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain had a lower yield than the control strains, VIENNA 8 with D53 inversion (VIENNA 8) and without D53 inversion (VIENNA 8 D53-). At mass-rearing scale, yield gradually increased in three generations without reaching the control strain values. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain was stable in the genetic sexing mechanism (>99.9%) and expression of fluorescence (100%). In field cages, the VIENNA 8 1260 males reduced the mating potential of wild males in the same magnitude as the VIENNA 8, when evaluated in independent cage tests. However, the relative sterility index and the strain male relative performance index of VIENNA 8 1260 males were significantly lower than those of the VIENNA 8. There were no significant differences in longevity of these strains. The potential application of the VIENNA 8 1260 in AW-IPM programs is further discussed.

  10. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest.

  11. Regional suppression of Bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the Pacific through biological control and prospects for future introductions into other areas of the world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera fruit fly species are important economically throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS, U.S Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world wide leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawa...

  12. Fitness cost implications of phiC31-mediated site-specific integrations in target-site strains of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific recombination technologies are powerful new tools for the manipulation of genomic DNA in insects that can improve transgenesis strategies such as targeting transgene insertions, allowing transgene cassette exchange and DNA mobilization for transgene stabilization. However, understandin...

  13. Presence of specific symbiotic bacteria in flies of the subfamily Tephritinae (Diptera Tephritidae) and their phylogenetic relationships: proposal of 'Candidatus Stammerula tephritidis'.

    PubMed

    Mazzon, Luca; Piscedda, Alessia; Simonato, Mauro; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    The presence of symbiotic bacteria in flies belonging to the subfamily Tephritinae, which predominantly infest the flower heads of composite flowers (Asteraceae), was investigated. Twenty-five species of flies, collected mainly in northern Italy, were examined. The bacteria adhered to the midgut epithelium in a space external to the peritrophic membrane and therefore not in direct contact with the gut contents. Specific, unique and live, but unculturable bacteria were consistently found in the majority of the fly species and their presence was also shown to be persistent in flies reared under microbiologically controlled conditions and devoid of any residual culturable intestinal bacteria. Sequencing of the small subunit rRNA gene from the novel bacteria indicated that they belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Three main strongly supported clades were delineated by phylogenetic trees, the first of which featured a coherent set of sequences displaying gene sequence similarities lower than 96 % compared with recognized taxa. The second and third clades featured cases with higher gene sequence similarities to culturable bacteria, including Erwinia persicina and Ewingella americana, respectively. Relative rate tests were supportive of a fast genetic evolution for the majority of the bacterial symbionts of the subfamily Tephritinae. In agreement with the interpretation suggested in 1929 after pioneering observations made by H. J. Stammer, a symbiotic relationship between the novel bacteria and the tephritid flies is postulated. The origin of this apparently polyphyletic relationship is discussed and a novel candidate organism is proposed for the first clade under the designation 'Candidatus Stammerula tephritidis'.

  14. Temporal Diversity and Abundance Patterns of Parasitoids of Fruit-Infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in the Argentinean Yungas: Implications for Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martin; Rull, Juan; Ovruski, Sergio M

    2016-10-01

    A 4-yr study was done to analyze seasonal patterns underlying host plant-fruit fly-parasitoid interactions in a secondary forest in the Argentinean Yunga and its importance for the implementation of conservation and augmentative biological control. Larval-pupal hymenopteran parasitoids associated with all host plants and fruit fly species were identified and the seasonal occurrence of fruit, infestation levels, parasitism percentage, and relative parasitoid abundance were determined. Three fruit fly species in two genera were found in association with surveyed plants, two of which (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)) are of major economic importance. Infestation levels were strongly influenced by environmental factors and peak fruit availability. Five fruit fly parasitoid species were recovered from fly pupae, four braconid species, and one figitid. Time windows for fruit fly population growth were pinpointed. Based on results, the present analysis proposes an effective fruit fly biological control strategy tailored for the northwestern Argentinean citrus-producing area.

  15. Analysis of Seasonal Risk for Importation of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), via Air Passenger Traffic Arriving in Florida and California.

    PubMed

    Szyniszewska, A M; Leppla, N C; Huang, Z; Tatem, A J

    2016-09-04

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the most economically damaging pests in the world and has repeatedly invaded two major agricultural states in the United States, Florida and California, each time requiring costly eradication. The Mediterranean fruit fly gains entry primarily in infested fruit carried by airline passengers and, since Florida and California each receive about 13 million international passengers annually, the risk of Mediterranean fruit fly entering the United States is potentially very high. The risk of passengers bringing the pest into Florida or California from Mediterranean fruit fly-infested countries was determined with two novel models, one estimated seasonal variation in airline passenger number and the other defined the seasonal and spatial variability in Mediterranean fruit fly abundance. These models elucidated relationships among the risk factors for Mediterranean fruit fly introduction, such as amount of passenger traffic, routes traveled, season of travel, abundance of Mediterranean fruit fly in countries where flights departed, and risk of the pest arriving at destination airports. The risk of Mediterranean fruit fly being introduced into Florida was greatest from Colombia, Brazil, Panama, Venezuela, Argentina, and Ecuador during January-August, whereas primarily the risk to California was from Brazil, Panama, Colombia, and Italy in May-August. About three times more Mediterranean fruit flies were intercepted in passenger baggage at airports in Florida than California, although the data were compromised by a lack of systematic sampling and other limitations. Nevertheless, this study achieved the goal of analyzing available data on seasonal passenger flow and Mediterranean fruit fly population levels to determine when surveillance should be intensified at key airports in Florida and California.

  16. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  17. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control.

  18. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David A; Kendra, Paul E; Van Bloem, Skip; Whitmire, Stefanie; Mizell, Russ; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) in two orchards with hosts of these flies (mango, Mangifera indica L., and carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), as well as in forest fragments bordering these orchards. Contour maps were constructed to measure population distributions in and around orchards. Our results indicate that Anastrepha populations are focused around host fruit in both space and time, that traps do not draw fruit flies away from hosts, even when placed within 15 m of the host, and that lures continue to function for 6 mo in the field. The contour mapping analyses reveal that populations of fruit flies are focused around ovipositional hosts. Although the trapping system does not have a very long effective sampling range, it is ideal, when used in combination with contour analyses, for assessing fine-scale (on the order of meters) population distributions, including identifying resources around which fly populations are focused or, conversely, assessing the effectiveness of management tools. The results are discussed as they pertain to monitoring and detecting Anastrepha spp. with the McPhail-type trap and ammonium acetate and putrescine baiting system and the dispersal of these flies within Puerto Rico.

  19. Spatial dynamics of two oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids, Fopius arisanus and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in a Guava orchard in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Banks, John; Leblanc, Luc; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Peck, Steven

    2013-10-01

    We examined spatial patterns of both sexes of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and its two most abundant parasitoids, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) in a commercial guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard. Oriental fruit fly spatial patterns were initially random, but became highly aggregated with host fruit ripening and the subsequent colonization of, first, F. arisanus (egg-pupal parasitoid) and, second, D. longicaudata (larval-pupal parasitoid). There was a significant positive relationship between populations of oriental fruit fly and F. arisanus during each of the F. arisanus increases, a pattern not exhibited between oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata. Generally, highest total numbers of males and females (oriental fruit fly, F. arisanus, and D. longicaudata) occurred on or about the same date. There was a significant positive correlation between male and female populations of all three species; we measured a lag of 2-4 wk between increases of female F. arisanus and conspecific males. There was a similar trend in one of the two years for the second most abundant species, D. longicaudata, but no sign of a time lag between the sexes for oriental fruit fly. Spatially, we found a significant positive relationship between numbers of F. arisanus in blocks and the average number in adjoining blocks. We did not find the same effect for oriental fruit fly and D. longicaudata, possibly a result of lower overall numbers of the latter two species or less movement of F. arisanus within the field.

  20. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.