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Sample records for gmp-dependent calcium-activated chloride

  1. Bestrophin-3 (vitelliform macular dystrophy 2-like 3 protein) is essential for the cGMP-dependent calcium-activated chloride conductance in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Matchkov, Vladimir V; Larsen, Per; Bouzinova, Elena V; Rojek, Aleksandra; Boedtkjer, Donna M Briggs; Golubinskaya, Veronika; Pedersen, Finn Skou; Aalkjaer, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2008-10-10

    Although the biophysical fingerprints (ion selectivity, voltage-dependence, kinetics, etc) of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents are well established, their molecular identity is still controversial. Several molecular candidates have been suggested; however, none of them has been fully accepted. We have recently characterized a cGMP-dependent Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current with unique characteristics in smooth muscle cells. This novel current has been shown to coexist with a "classic" (cGMP-independent) Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current and to have characteristics distinct from those previously known for Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents. Here, we suggest that a bestrophin, a product of the Best gene family, is responsible for the cGMP-dependent Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current based on similarities between the membrane currents produced by heterologous expressions of bestrophins and the cGMP-dependent Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current. This is supported by similarities in the distribution pattern of the cGMP-dependent Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current and bestrophin-3 (the product of Best-3 gene) expression in different smooth muscle. Furthermore, downregulation of Best-3 gene expression with small interfering RNA both in cultured cells and in vascular smooth muscle cells in vivo was associated with a significant reduction of the cGMP-dependent Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current, whereas the magnitude of the classic Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current was not affected. The majority of previous suggestions that bestrophins are a new Cl(-) channel family were based on heterologous expression in cell culture studies. Our present results demonstrate that at least 1 family member, bestrophin-3, is essential for a well-defined endogenous Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current in smooth muscles in the intact vascular wall.

  2. Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the apical region of these neurons, we produced localized, rapid, and reproducible increases in calcium concentration with flash photolysis of caged calcium and measured calcium-activated currents with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. On average, a large inward calcium-activated current of −261 pA was measured at −50 mV, rising with a time constant of 13 ms. Ion substitution experiments showed that this current is anion selective. Moreover, the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid partially inhibited the calcium-activated current. These results directly demonstrate that a large chloride current can be activated by calcium in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Furthermore, we showed by immunohistochemistry that the calcium-activated chloride channels TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 are present in the apical layer of the vomeronasal epithelium, where they largely colocalize with the TRPC2 transduction channel. Immunocytochemistry on isolated vomeronasal sensory neurons showed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B coexpress in the neuronal microvilli. Therefore, we conclude that microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons have a high density of calcium-activated chloride channels that may play an important role in vomeronasal transduction. PMID:22732308

  3. Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2012-07-01

    The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the apical region of these neurons, we produced localized, rapid, and reproducible increases in calcium concentration with flash photolysis of caged calcium and measured calcium-activated currents with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. On average, a large inward calcium-activated current of -261 pA was measured at -50 mV, rising with a time constant of 13 ms. Ion substitution experiments showed that this current is anion selective. Moreover, the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid partially inhibited the calcium-activated current. These results directly demonstrate that a large chloride current can be activated by calcium in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Furthermore, we showed by immunohistochemistry that the calcium-activated chloride channels TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 are present in the apical layer of the vomeronasal epithelium, where they largely colocalize with the TRPC2 transduction channel. Immunocytochemistry on isolated vomeronasal sensory neurons showed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B coexpress in the neuronal microvilli. Therefore, we conclude that microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons have a high density of calcium-activated chloride channels that may play an important role in vomeronasal transduction.

  4. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Causes Renal Cyst Expansion through Calcium-Activated Chloride Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Schley, Gunnar; Faria, Diana; Kroening, Sven; Willam, Carsten; Schreiber, Rainer; Klanke, Bernd; Burzlaff, Nicolai; Jantsch, Jonathan; Kunzelmann, Karl; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by numerous bilateral renal cysts that continuously enlarge and, through compression of intact nephrons, lead to a decline in kidney function over time. We previously showed that cyst enlargement is accompanied by regional hypoxia, which results in the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the cyst epithelium. Here we demonstrate a correlation between cyst size and the expression of the HIF-1α–target gene, glucose transporter 1, and report that HIF-1α promotes renal cyst growth in two in vitro cyst models—principal-like MDCK cells (plMDCKs) within a collagen matrix and cultured embryonic mouse kidneys stimulated with forskolin. In both models, augmenting HIF-1α levels with the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetate enhanced cyst growth. In addition, inhibition of HIF-1α degradation through tubule-specific knockdown of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor increased cyst size in the embryonic kidney cyst model. In contrast, inhibition of HIF-1α by chetomin and knockdown of HIF-1α both decreased cyst growth in these models. Consistent with previous reports, plMDCK cyst enlargement was driven largely by transepithelial chloride secretion, which consists, in part, of a calcium-activated chloride conductance. plMDCKs deficient for HIF-1α almost completely lacked calcium-activated chloride secretion. We conclude that regional hypoxia in renal cysts contributes to cyst growth, primarily due to HIF-1α–dependent calcium-activated chloride secretion. These findings identify the HIF system as a novel target for inhibition of cyst growth. PMID:24203996

  5. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXV: Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fen; Wong, Xiuming

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are widely expressed in various tissues and implicated in physiological processes such as sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Transmembrane proteins with unknown function 16 (TMEM16A) has recently been identified as a major component of CaCCs. Detailed molecular analysis of TMEM16A will be needed to understand its structure-function relationships. The role this channel plays in physiological systems remains to be established and is currently a subject of intense investigation. PMID:22090471

  6. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Schmelzeisen, Steffen; Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum.

  7. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum. PMID:26558388

  8. Dynamic properties of calcium-activated chloride currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    PubMed Central

    M. De la Fuente, Ildefonso; Malaina, Iker; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Boyano, María Dolores; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Bringas, Carlos; Villarroel, Álvaro; Fedetz, María; Arellano, Rogelio; Cortes, Jesus M.; Martínez, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Chloride is the most abundant permeable anion in the cell, and numerous studies in the last two decades highlight the great importance and broad physiological role of chloride currents mediated anion transport. They participate in a multiplicity of key processes, as for instance, the regulation of electrical excitability, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial secretion and neuronal excitability. In addition, dysfunction of Cl− channels is involved in a variety of human diseases such as epilepsy, osteoporosis and different cancer types. Historically, chloride channels have been of less interest than the cation channels. In fact, there seems to be practically no quantitative studies of the dynamics of chloride currents. Here, for the first time, we have quantitatively studied experimental calcium-activated chloride fluxes belonging to Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the main results show that the experimental Cl− currents present an informational structure characterized by highly organized data sequences, long-term memory properties and inherent “crossover” dynamics in which persistent correlations arise at short time intervals, while anti-persistent behaviors become dominant in long time intervals. Our work sheds some light on the understanding of the informational properties of ion currents, a key element to elucidate the physiological functional coupling with the integrative dynamics of metabolic processes. PMID:28198817

  9. Dynamic properties of calcium-activated chloride currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    M De la Fuente, Ildefonso; Malaina, Iker; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Boyano, María Dolores; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Bringas, Carlos; Villarroel, Álvaro; Fedetz, María; Arellano, Rogelio; Cortes, Jesus M; Martínez, Luis

    2017-02-13

    Chloride is the most abundant permeable anion in the cell, and numerous studies in the last two decades highlight the great importance and broad physiological role of chloride currents mediated anion transport. They participate in a multiplicity of key processes, as for instance, the regulation of electrical excitability, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial secretion and neuronal excitability. In addition, dysfunction of Cl(-) channels is involved in a variety of human diseases such as epilepsy, osteoporosis and different cancer types. Historically, chloride channels have been of less interest than the cation channels. In fact, there seems to be practically no quantitative studies of the dynamics of chloride currents. Here, for the first time, we have quantitatively studied experimental calcium-activated chloride fluxes belonging to Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the main results show that the experimental Cl(-) currents present an informational structure characterized by highly organized data sequences, long-term memory properties and inherent "crossover" dynamics in which persistent correlations arise at short time intervals, while anti-persistent behaviors become dominant in long time intervals. Our work sheds some light on the understanding of the informational properties of ion currents, a key element to elucidate the physiological functional coupling with the integrative dynamics of metabolic processes.

  10. Requirement of calcium-activated chloride channels in the activation of mouse vomeronasal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SangSeong; Ma, Limei; Yu, C. Ron

    2011-01-01

    In terrestrial vertebrates, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects and transduces pheromone signals. VNO activation is thought to be mediated by the transient receptor potential C2 (TRPC2) channel. The aberrant behavioural phenotypes observed in TRPC2−/− mice are generally attributed to the lost VNO function. Recently, calcium-activated chloride channels have been shown to contribute to VNO activation. Here we show that CACCs can be activated in VNO slice preparations from the TRPC2−/− mice and this activation is blocked by pharmacological agents that inhibit intracellular Ca2+ release. Urine-evoked Cl− current is sufficient to drive spiking changes in VNO neurons from both wild-type (WT) and TRPC2−/− mice. Moreover, blocking Cl− conductance essentially abolishes VNO activation in WT neurons. These results suggest a TRPC2-independent signalling pathway in the VNO and the requirement of calcium-activated chloride channels currents to mediate pheromone activation. Our data further suggest that TRPC2−/− mice retain partial VNO function. PMID:21694713

  11. Calcium-activated chloride channels anoctamin 1 and 2 promote murine uterine smooth muscle contractility

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kyra; Vink, Joy Y; Fu, Xiao Wen; Wakita, Hiromi; Danielsson, Jennifer; Wapner, Ronald; Gallos, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the presence of calcium activated chloride channels anoctamin 1 and 2 in human and murine uterine smooth muscle and evaluate the physiologic role for these ion channels in murine myometrial contractility. Study Design We performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine if anoctamin 1 and 2 are expressed in human and murine uterine tissue to validate the study of this protein in mouse models. Immunohistochemical staining of anoctamin 1 and 2 was then performed to determine protein expression in murine myometrial tissue. The function of anoctamin 1 and 2 in murine uterine tissue was evaluated using electrophysiological studies, organ bath, and calcium flux experiments. Results Anoctamin 1 and 2 are expressed in human and murine USM cells. Functional studies show that selective antagonism of these channels promotes relaxation of spontaneous murine uterine smooth muscle contractions. Blockade of anoctamin 1 and 2 inhibits both agonist-induced and spontaneous transient inward currents and abolishes G-protein coupled receptor (oxytocin) mediated elevations in intracellular calcium. Conclusion The calcium activated chloride channels ANO 1 and 2 are present in human and murine myometrial tissue and may provide novel potential therapeutic targets to achieve effective tocolysis. PMID:24928056

  12. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl(-) currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K(+) channel activity without affecting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K(+) channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea.

  13. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl- current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl- currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K+ channel activity without affecting Na+/K+-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K+ channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  14. Molecular, Biophysical, and Pharmacological Properties of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels.

    PubMed

    Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-25

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are a family of anionic transmembrane ion channels. They are mainly responsible for the movement of Cl(-) and other anions across the biological membranes and are widely expressed in different tissues. Due to the fact that Cl(-) flow into or out of the cell plays a crucial role in hyperpolarizing or depolarizing the cells, respectively, the impact of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration on these channels is attracting a lot of attentions. After summarizing the molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of CaCCs, the role of CaCCs in normal cellular functions will be discussed, and I will emphasize how dysregulation of CaCCs in pathological conditions can account for different diseases. A better understanding of CaCCs and a pivotal regulatory role of Ca(2+) can shed more light on the therapeutic strategies for different neurological disorders that arise from chloride dysregulation, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, and neuropathic pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of permeation and blocker binding in TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, JP; Huanosta-Gutiérrez, A; López-Rodríguez, A; Martínez-Torres, A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of mutations of positively charged amino acid residues in the pore of X. tropicalis TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels: K613E, K628E, K630E; R646E and R761E. The activation and deactivation kinetics were not affected, and only K613E showed a lower current density. K628E and R761E affect anion selectivity without affecting Na+ permeation, whereas K613E, R646E and the double mutant K613E + R646E affect anion selectivity and permeability to Na+. Furthermore, altered blockade by the chloride channel blockers anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C), 4, 4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) and T16inh-A01 was observed. These results suggest the existence of 2 binding sites for anions within the pore at electrical distances of 0.3 and 0.5. These sites are also relevant for anion permeation and blockade. PMID:25853341

  16. Study of permeation and blocker binding in TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J P; Huanosta-Gutiérrez, A; López-Rodríguez, A; Martínez-Torres, A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of mutations of positively charged amino acid residues in the pore of X. tropicalis TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels: K613E, K628E, K630E; R646E and R761E. The activation and deactivation kinetics were not affected, and only K613E showed a lower current density. K628E and R761E affect anion selectivity without affecting Na(+) permeation, whereas K613E, R646E and the double mutant K613E + R646E affect anion selectivity and permeability to Na(+). Furthermore, altered blockade by the chloride channel blockers anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C), 4, 4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) and T16inh-A01 was observed. These results suggest the existence of 2 binding sites for anions within the pore at electrical distances of 0.3 and 0.5. These sites are also relevant for anion permeation and blockade.

  17. Anoctamin 1 induces calcium-activated chloride secretion and proliferation of renal cyst-forming epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Bjoern; Faria, Diana; Schley, Gunnar; Schreiber, Rainer; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by multiple bilateral renal cysts that gradually enlarge and lead to a decline in renal function. Cyst enlargement is driven by transepithelial chloride secretion, stimulated by enhanced levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which activates apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channels. However, chloride secretion by calcium-dependent chloride channels, activated through stimulation of purinergic receptors, also has a major impact. To identify the molecular basis of calcium-dependent chloride secretion in cyst expansion, we determined the role of anoctamin 1 and 6, two recently discovered calcium-activated chloride channels both of which are expressed in epithelial cells. We found that anoctamin 1, which plays a role in epithelial fluid secretion and proliferation, is strongly expressed in principal-like MDCK cells (PLCs) forming cysts within a collagen matrix, in an embryonic kidney cyst model, and in human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease tissue. Knockdown of anoctamin 1 but not anoctamin 6 strongly diminished the calcium-dependent chloride secretion of PLCs. Moreover, two inhibitors of anoctamin ion channels, tannic acid and a more selective inhibitor of anoctamin 1, significantly inhibited PLC cyst growth and cyst enlargement in an embryonic kidney cyst model. Knockdown of ANO1 by morpholino analogs also attenuated embryonic cyst growth. Thus, calcium-activated chloride secretion by anoctamin 1 appears to be a crucial component of renal cyst growth.

  18. Calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A modulates mucin secretion and airway smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fen; Zhang, Hongkang; Wu, Meng; Yang, Huanghe; Kudo, Makoto; Peters, Christian J.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Solberg, Owen D.; Donne, Matthew L.; Huang, Xiaozhu; Sheppard, Dean; Fahy, John V.; Wolters, Paul J.; Hogan, Brigid L. M.; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Li, Min; Jan, Yuh-Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Rock, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    Mucous cell hyperplasia and airway smooth muscle (ASM) hyperresponsiveness are hallmark features of inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma. Here, we show that the recently identified calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) TMEM16A is expressed in the adult airway surface epithelium and ASM. The epithelial expression is increased in asthmatics, particularly in secretory cells. Based on this and the proposed functions of CaCC, we hypothesized that TMEM16A inhibitors would negatively regulate both epithelial mucin secretion and ASM contraction. We used a high-throughput screen to identify small-molecule blockers of TMEM16A-CaCC channels. We show that inhibition of TMEM16A-CaCC significantly impairs mucus secretion in primary human airway surface epithelial cells. Furthermore, inhibition of TMEM16A-CaCC significantly reduces mouse and human ASM contraction in response to cholinergic agonists. TMEM16A-CaCC blockers, including those identified here, may positively impact multiple causes of asthma symptoms. PMID:22988107

  19. Novel 5-substituted benzyloxy-2-arylbenzofuran-3-carboxylic acids as calcium activated chloride channel inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Satish; Namkung, Wan; Verkman, A. S.; Sharma, Pawan K.

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) channels are recently discovered membrane proteins that functions as a calcium activated chloride channel (CaCC). CaCCs are major regulators of various physiological processes, such as sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, smooth muscle contraction and oocyte fertilization. Thirty novel 5-substituted benzyloxy-2-arylbenzofuran-3-carboxylic acids (B01–B30) were synthesized and evaluated for their TMEM16A inhibitory activity by using short circuit current measurements in Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells expressing human TMEM16A. IC50 values were calculated using YFP fluorescence plate reader assay. Final compounds, having free carboxylic group displayed significant inhibition. Eight of the novel compounds B02, B13, B21, B23, B25, B27, B28, B29 exhibit excellent CaCCs inhibition with IC50 value <6 μM, with compound B25 exhibiting the lowest IC50 value of 2.8 ± 1.3 μM. None of the tested ester analogs of final benzofuran derivatives displayed TMEM16A/CaCCs inhibition. PMID:22739085

  20. Calcium-activated chloride current expression in axotomized sensory neurons: what for?

    PubMed Central

    Boudes, Mathieu; Scamps, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs) are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Peripheral nerve injury induces the expression of CaCCs in a subset of adult sensory neurons in primary culture including mechano- and proprioceptors, though not nociceptors. Functional screenings of potential candidate genes established that Best1 is a molecular determinant for CaCC expression among axotomized sensory neurons, while Tmem16a is acutely activated by inflammatory mediators in nociceptors. In nociceptors, such CaCCs are preferentially activated under receptor-induced calcium mobilization contributing to cell excitability and pain. In axotomized mechano- and proprioceptors, CaCC activation does not promote electrical activity and prevents firing, a finding consistent with electrical silencing for growth competence of adult sensory neurons. In favor of a role in the process of neurite growth, CaCC expression is temporally correlated to neurons displaying a regenerative mode of growth. This perspective focuses on the molecular identity and role of CaCC in axotomized sensory neurons and the future directions to decipher the cellular mechanisms regulating CaCC during neurite (re)growth. PMID:22461766

  1. Activation and Inhibition of TMEM16A Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca2+-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+, and discovered that Mg2+ competes with Ca2+ in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore–as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions–appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1. PMID:24489780

  2. Activation and inhibition of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca(2+)-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+), and discovered that Mg(2+) competes with Ca(2+) in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore-as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions-appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1.

  3. TRPC1 regulates calcium-activated chloride channels in salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuyang; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Singh, Brij B

    2015-11-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) plays an important role in modulating epithelial secretion. It has been suggested that in salivary tissues, sustained fluid secretion is dependent on Ca(2+) influx that activates ion channels such as CaCC to initiate Cl(-) efflux. However direct evidence as well as the molecular identity of the Ca(2+) channel responsible for activating CaCC in salivary tissues is not yet identified. Here we provide evidence that in human salivary cells, an outward rectifying Cl(-) current was activated by increasing [Ca(2+)]i, which was inhibited by the addition of pharmacological agents niflumic acid (NFA), an antagonist of CaCC, or T16Ainh-A01, a specific TMEM16a inhibitor. Addition of thapsigargin (Tg), that induces store-depletion and activates TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+) entry, potentiated the Cl(-) current, which was inhibited by the addition of a non-specific TRPC channel blocker SKF96365 or removal of external Ca(2+). Stimulation with Tg also increased plasma membrane expression of TMEM16a protein, which was also dependent on Ca(2+) entry. Importantly, in salivary cells, TRPC1 silencing, but not that of TRPC3, inhibited CaCC especially upon store depletion. Moreover, primary acinar cells isolated from submandibular gland also showed outward rectifying Cl(-) currents upon increasing [Ca(2+)]i. These Cl(-) currents were again potentiated with the addition of Tg, but inhibited in the presence of T16Ainh-A01. Finally, acinar cells isolated from the submandibular glands of TRPC1 knockout mice showed significant inhibition of the outward Cl(-) currents without decreasing TMEM16a expression. Together the data suggests that Ca(2+) entry via the TRPC1 channels is essential for the activation of CaCC.

  4. Identification of a dimerization domain in the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Jason; Lee, Hye Young; Minor, Daniel L.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins with unknown function 16 (TMEM16A) is a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) important for neuronal, exocrine, and smooth muscle functions. TMEM16A belongs to a family of integral membrane proteins that includes another CaCC, TMEM16B, responsible for controlling action potential waveform and synaptic efficacy, and a small-conductance calcium-activated nonselective cation channel, TMEM16F, linked to Scott syndrome. We find that these channels in the TMEM16 family share a homodimeric architecture facilitated by their cytoplasmic N termini. This dimerization domain is important for channel assembly in eukaryotic cells, and the in vitro association of peptides containing the dimerization domain is consistent with a homotypic protein–protein interaction. Amino acid substitutions in the dimerization domain affect functional TMEM16A-CaCC channel expression, as expected from its critical role in channel subunit assembly. PMID:23576756

  5. Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels (CaCCs) Regulate Action Potential and Synaptic Response in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wendy C.; Xiao, Shaohua; Huang, Fen; Harfe, Brian D.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Central neurons respond to synaptic inputs from other neurons by generating synaptic potentials. Once the summated synaptic potentials reach threshold for action potential firing, the signal propagates leading to transmitter release at the synapse. The calcium influx accompanying such signaling opens calcium-activated ion channels for feedback regulation. Here we report a novel mechanism for modulating hippocampal neuronal signaling that involves calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs). We present the first evidence that CaCCs reside in hippocampal neurons and are in close proximity of calcium channels and NMDA receptors to shorten action potential duration, dampen excitatory synaptic potentials, impede temporal summation, and raise the threshold for action potential generation by synaptic potential. Having recently identified TMEM16A and TMEM16B as CaCCs, we further show that TMEM16B but not TMEM16A is important for hippocampal CaCC, laying the groundwork for deciphering the dynamic CaCC modulation of neuronal signaling in neurons important for learning and memory. PMID:22500639

  6. A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Wong, Xiu Ming; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Yang, Huanghe

    2014-01-01

    TMEM16A forms calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) that regulate physiological processes such as the secretions of airway epithelia and exocrine glands, the contraction of smooth muscles, and the excitability of neurons. Notwithstanding intense interest in the mechanism behind TMEM16A-CaCC calcium-dependent gating, comprehensive surveys to identify and characterize potential calcium sensors of this channel are still lacking. By aligning distantly related calcium-activated ion channels in the TMEM16 family and conducting systematic mutagenesis of all conserved acidic residues thought to be exposed to the cytoplasm, we identify four acidic amino acids as putative calcium-binding residues. Alterations of the charge, polarity, and size of amino acid side chains at these sites alter the ability of different divalent cations to activate the channel. Furthermore, TMEM16A mutant channels containing double cysteine substitutions at these residues are sensitive to the redox potential of the internal solution, providing evidence for their physical proximity and solvent accessibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02772.001 PMID:24980701

  7. Calcium-activated chloride current amplifies the response to urine in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun

    2010-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an odor detection system that mediates many pheromone-sensitive behaviors. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs), located in the VNO, are the initial site of interaction with odors/pheromones. However, how an individual VSN transduces chemical signals into electrical signals is still unresolved. Here, we show that a Ca2+-activated Cl− current contributes ∼80% of the response to urine in mouse VSNs. Using perforated patch clamp recordings with gramicidin, which leaves intracellular chloride undisrupted, we found that the urine-induced inward current (Vhold = −80 mV) was decreased in the presence of chloride channel blockers. This was confirmed using whole cell recordings and altering extracellular chloride to shift the reversal potential. Further, the urine-induced currents were eliminated when both extracellular Ca2+ and Na+ were removed. Using inside-out patches from dendritic tips, we recorded Ca2+-activated Cl− channel activity. Several candidates for this Ca2+-activated Cl− channel were detected in VNO by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. In addition, a chloride cotransporter, Na+-K+-2Cl− isoform 1, was detected and found to mediate much of the chloride accumulation in VSNs. Collectively, our data demonstrate that chloride acts as a major amplifier for signal transduction in mouse VSNs. This amplification would increase the responsiveness to pheromones or odorants. PMID:20038523

  8. Chlorotoxin does not inhibit volume-regulated, calcium-activated and cyclic AMP-activated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Maertens, Chantal; Wei, Lin; Tytgat, Jan; Droogmans, Guy; Nilius, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to look for a high-affinity and selective polypeptide toxin, which could serve as a probe for the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) or the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We have partially purified chlorotoxin, including new and homologous short chain insectotoxins, from the crude venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (Lqq) by means of gel filtration chromatography. Material eluting between 280 and 420 min, corresponding to fractions 15–21, was lyophilized and tested on VRAC and CaCC, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We have also tested the commercially available chlorotoxin on VRAC, CaCC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and on the glioma specific chloride channel (GCC). VRAC and the correspondent current, ICl,swell, was activated in Cultured Pulmonary Artery Endothelial (CPAE) cells by a 25% hypotonic solution. Neither of the fractions 16–21 significantly inhibited ICl,swell (n=4–5). Ca2+-activated Cl− currents, ICl,Ca, activated by loading T84 cells via the patch pipette with 1 μM free Ca2+, were not inhibited by any of the tested fractions (15–21), (n=2–5). Chlorotoxin (625 nM) did neither effect ICl,swell nor ICl,Ca (n=4–5). The CFTR channel, transiently transfected in COS cells and activated by a cocktail containing IBMX and forskolin, was not affected by 1.2 μM chlorotoxin (n=5). In addition, it did not affect currents through GCC. We conclude that submicromolar concentrations of chlorotoxin do not block volume-regulated, Ca2+-activated and CFTR chloride channels and that it can not be classified as a general chloride channel toxin. PMID:10683204

  9. Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Wan; Yao, Zhen; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Verkman, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) expressed in secretory epithelia, smooth muscle, and other tissues. Cell-based functional screening of ∼110,000 compounds revealed compounds that activated TMEM16A CaCC conductance without increasing cytoplasmic Ca2+. By patch-clamp, N-aroylaminothiazole “activators” (Eact) strongly increased Cl− current at 0 Ca2+, whereas tetrazolylbenzamide “potentiators” (Fact) were not active at 0 Ca2+ but reduced the EC50 for Ca2+-dependent TMEM16A activation. Of 682 analogs tested, the most potent activator (Eact) and potentiator (Fact) produced large and more sustained CaCC Cl− currents than general agonists of Ca2+ signaling, with EC50 3–6 μM and Cl− conductance comparable to that induced transiently by Ca2+-elevating purinergic agonists. Analogs of activators were identified that fully inhibited TMEM16A Cl− conductance, providing further evidence for direct TMEM16A binding. The TMEM16A activators increased CaCC conductance in human salivary and airway submucosal gland epithelial cells, and IL-4 treated bronchial cells, and stimulated submucosal gland secretion in human bronchi and smooth muscle contraction in mouse intestine. Small-molecule, TMEM16A-targeted activators may be useful for drug therapy of cystic fibrosis, dry mouth, and gastrointestinal hypomotility disorders, and for pharmacological dissection of TMEM16A function.—Namkung, W., Yao, Z., Finkbeiner, W. E., Verkman, A. S. Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction. PMID:21836025

  10. Molecular and functional analyses of two new calcium-activated chloride channel family members from mouse eye and intestine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Stella R; Thoreson, Wallace B; Beck, Carol L

    2004-10-01

    Two new calcium-activated chloride channel (CLCA) family members, mCLCA5 and mCLCA6, have been cloned from mouse eye and intestine, respectively. mCLCA5 is highly homologous to hCLCA2, and mCLCA6 is highly homologous to hCLCA4. mCLCA5 is widely expressed with strong expression in eye and spleen, whereas mCLCA6 is primarily expressed in intestine and stomach. mCLCA6 is also expressed as a splice variant lacking exon 8 and part of exon 10 in intestine and stomach. Transfection of tsA201 cells with enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged versions of the three cDNAs reveals protein products of 155 and 65 kDa for mCLCA5 and mCLCA6 and 145 and 65 kDa for the mCLCA6 splice variant. In vitro translation of mCLCA5 generates a 90-kDa protein that does not appear to be glycosylated. mCLCA6 also generates a 90-kDa protein that is glycosylated to a 110-kDa product, whereas the mCLCA6 splice variant generates an 80-kDa product that is 100 kDa after glycosylation. Treatment of enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged mCLCA6 with PNGase F (peptide: N-glycosidase F) to remove N-linked glycosyl groups shows a reduction in size of the 65 kDa product to 60 kDa. Consistent with the hypothesis that mCLCA5, mCLCA6, and its splice variant encode calcium-activated chloride channels, in HEK293 cells expressing CLCAs ionomycin-evoked increases in intracellular calcium stimulated a current that reversed near Cl(-) equilibrium potential, E(Cl). Furthermore, these currents were inhibited by the chloride channel blocker niflumic acid. Given the prominent role of hCLCA2 in cancer cell adhesion and the unique high level of expression of hCLCA4 in brain, the identification of their murine counterparts presents the opportunity to clarify the role of CLCAs in disease and normal cell physiology.

  11. Functional expression of the TMEM16 family of calcium-activated chloride channels in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Remy, Kenneth E.; Danielsson, Jennifer; Funayama, Hiromi; Fu, Xiao Wen; Chang, Herng-Yu Sucie; Yim, Peter; Xu, Dingbang; Emala, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness is a key component in the pathophysiology of asthma. Although calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) flux has been described in many cell types, including human airway smooth muscle (HASM), the true molecular identity of the channels responsible for this chloride conductance remains controversial. Recently, a new family of proteins thought to represent the true CaCCs was identified as the TMEM16 family. This led us to question whether members of this family are functionally expressed in native and cultured HASM. We further questioned whether expression of these channels contributes to the contractile function of HASM. We identified the mRNA expression of eight members of the TMEM16 family in HASM cells and show immunohistochemical evidence of TMEM16A in both cultured and native HASM. Functionally, we demonstrate that the classic chloride channel inhibitor, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), inhibited halide flux in cultured HASM cells. Moreover, HASM cells displayed classical electrophysiological properties of CaCCs during whole cell electrophysiological recordings, which were blocked by using an antibody selective for TMEM16A. Furthermore, two distinct TMEM16A antagonists (tannic acid and benzbromarone) impaired a substance P-induced contraction in isolated guinea pig tracheal rings. These findings demonstrate that multiple members of this recently described family of CaCCs are expressed in HASM cells, they display classic electrophysiological properties of CaCCs, and they modulate contractile tone in airway smooth muscle. The TMEM16 family may provide a novel therapeutic target for limiting airway constriction in asthma. PMID:23997176

  12. The calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin 1 acts as a heat sensor in nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hawon; Yang, Young Duk; Lee, Jesun; Lee, Byeongjoon; Kim, Tahnbee; Jang, Yongwoo; Back, Seung Keun; Na, Heung Sik; Harfe, Brian D; Wang, Fan; Raouf, Ramin; Wood, John N; Oh, Uhtaek

    2012-05-27

    Nociceptors are a subset of small primary afferent neurons that respond to noxious chemical, thermal and mechanical stimuli. Ion channels in nociceptors respond differently to noxious stimuli and generate electrical signals in different ways. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1 also known as TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel that is essential for numerous physiological functions. We found that ANO1 was activated by temperatures over 44 °C with steep heat sensitivity. ANO1 was expressed in small sensory neurons and was highly colocalized with nociceptor markers, which suggests that it may be involved in nociception. Application of heat ramps to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons elicited robust ANO1-dependent depolarization. Furthermore, knockdown or deletion of ANO1 in DRG neurons substantially reduced nociceptive behavior in thermal pain models. These results indicate that ANO1 is a heat sensor that detects nociceptive thermal stimuli in sensory neurons and possibly mediates nociception.

  13. Calcium-activated chloride currents in olfactory sensory neurons from mice lacking bestrophin-2.

    PubMed

    Pifferi, Simone; Dibattista, Michele; Sagheddu, Claudia; Boccaccio, Anna; Al Qteishat, Ahmed; Ghirardi, Filippo; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2009-09-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons use a chloride-based signal amplification mechanism to detect odorants. The binding of odorants to receptors in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons activates a transduction cascade that involves the opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and the entry of Ca(2+) into the cilia. Ca(2+) activates a Cl(-) current that produces an efflux of Cl(-) ions and amplifies the depolarization. The molecular identity of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels is still elusive, although some bestrophins have been shown to function as Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels when expressed in heterologous systems. In the olfactory epithelium, bestrophin-2 (Best2) has been indicated as a candidate for being a molecular component of the olfactory Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel. In this study, we have analysed mice lacking Best2. We compared the electrophysiological responses of the olfactory epithelium to odorant stimulation, as well as the properties of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice for Best2. Our results confirm that Best2 is expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, while odorant responses and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents were not significantly different between WT and KO mice. Thus, Best2 does not appear to be the main molecular component of the olfactory channel. Further studies are required to determine the function of Best2 in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons.

  14. Calcium-activated chloride currents in olfactory sensory neurons from mice lacking bestrophin-2

    PubMed Central

    Pifferi, Simone; Dibattista, Michele; Sagheddu, Claudia; Boccaccio, Anna; Al Qteishat, Ahmed; Ghirardi, Filippo; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons use a chloride-based signal amplification mechanism to detect odorants. The binding of odorants to receptors in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons activates a transduction cascade that involves the opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and the entry of Ca2+ into the cilia. Ca2+ activates a Cl− current that produces an efflux of Cl− ions and amplifies the depolarization. The molecular identity of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels is still elusive, although some bestrophins have been shown to function as Ca2+-activated Cl− channels when expressed in heterologous systems. In the olfactory epithelium, bestrophin-2 (Best2) has been indicated as a candidate for being a molecular component of the olfactory Ca2+-activated Cl− channel. In this study, we have analysed mice lacking Best2. We compared the electrophysiological responses of the olfactory epithelium to odorant stimulation, as well as the properties of Ca2+-activated Cl− currents in wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice for Best2. Our results confirm that Best2 is expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, while odorant responses and Ca2+-activated Cl− currents were not significantly different between WT and KO mice. Thus, Best2 does not appear to be the main molecular component of the olfactory channel. Further studies are required to determine the function of Best2 in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons. PMID:19622610

  15. Inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of epithelium originated cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lizhao; Song, Yan; Gao, Jian; Gao, Jianjun; Wang, KeWei

    2016-11-29

    ANO1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, has been reported to be amplified or overexpressed in tissues of several cancers. However, reports on its roles in tumor progression obtained from cancer cell lines are inconsistent, suggesting that the role of ANO1 in tumorigenesis is likely dependent on either its expression level or cell-type expressing ANO1. To investigate the biological roles of ANO1 in different tumor cells, we, in this study, selected several cancer cell lines and a normal HaCaT cell line with high expression levels of ANO1, and examined the function of ANO1 in these cells using approaches of lentiviral knockdown and pharmacological inhibition. We found that ANO1 knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in either tumor cell lines or normal HaCaT cell line. Moreover, silencing ANO1 arrested cancer cells at G1 phase of cell cycle. Treatment with ANO1 inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both ANO1 inhibitors CaCCinh-A01 and T16Ainh-A01 significantly suppressed cell migration. Our findings show that ANO1 overexpression promotes cancer cell proliferation and migration; and genetic or pharmacological inhibition of ANO1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in different types of epithelium-originated cancer cells.

  16. Inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of epithelium originated cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lizhao; Song, Yan; Gao, Jian; Gao, Jianjun; Wang, KeWei

    2016-01-01

    ANO1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, has been reported to be amplified or overexpressed in tissues of several cancers. However, reports on its roles in tumor progression obtained from cancer cell lines are inconsistent, suggesting that the role of ANO1 in tumorigenesis is likely dependent on either its expression level or cell-type expressing ANO1. To investigate the biological roles of ANO1 in different tumor cells, we, in this study, selected several cancer cell lines and a normal HaCaT cell line with high expression levels of ANO1, and examined the function of ANO1 in these cells using approaches of lentiviral knockdown and pharmacological inhibition. We found that ANO1 knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in either tumor cell lines or normal HaCaT cell line. Moreover, silencing ANO1 arrested cancer cells at G1 phase of cell cycle. Treatment with ANO1 inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both ANO1 inhibitors CaCCinh-A01 and T16Ainh-A01 significantly suppressed cell migration. Our findings show that ANO1 overexpression promotes cancer cell proliferation and migration; and genetic or pharmacological inhibition of ANO1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in different types of epithelium-originated cancer cells. PMID:27732935

  17. Identification of Resveratrol, an Herbal Compound, as an Activator of the Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel, TMEM16A.

    PubMed

    Chai, Ran; Chen, Yafei; Yuan, Hongbo; Wang, Xuzhao; Guo, Shuai; Qi, Jinlong; Zhang, Hailin; Zhan, Yong; An, Hailong

    2017-08-29

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) play vital roles in a variety of physiological processes. Dysfunction of the CaCCs is implicated in many diseases. Drug discovery targeting at CaCCs has recently become possible with the determination that TMEM16A is the molecular identity of CaCCs. In this study, we demonstrated that resveratrol (RES), a Chinese traditional medicine compound, is a novel activator of TMEM16A. The yellow fluorescence protein quenching assay and measurement of intracellular calcium fluorescence intensity show that RES activates TMEM16A channels in an intracellular Ca(2+)-independent way. The data of inside-out patch clamp revealed that RES dose-dependently activates TMEM16A (EC50 = 47.92 ± 9.35 μM). Furthermore, RES enhanced the contractions of the ileum of guinea pigs by activating the TMEM16A channel, which indicated that RES might be a promising drug for the treatment of gastrointestinal hypomotility. As RES was able to induce TMEM16A channel activation, TMEM16A can be added to the list of RES drug targets.

  18. The Transition from Proliferation to Differentiation in Colorectal Cancer Is Regulated by the Calcium Activated Chloride Channel A1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; McCaig, Colin D.; Pu, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Breaking the balance between proliferation and differentiation in animal cells can lead to cancer, but the mechanisms maintaining this balance remain largely undefined. The calcium activated chloride channel A1 (CLCA1) is a member of the calcium sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins and is expressed mainly in the colon, small intestine and appendix. We show that CLCA1 plays a functional role in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells and of intestinal tissue. Caco-2 cells spontaneously differentiate either in confluent culture or when treated with butyrate, a molecule present naturally in the diet. Here, we compared CLCA1 expressional levels between patients with and without colorectal cancer (CRC) and determined the functional role of CLCA1 in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells. We showed that: 1) CLCA1 and CLCA4 expression were down-regulated significantly in CRC patients; 2) CLCA1 expression was up-regulated in Caco-2 cells induced to differentiate by confluent culture or by treatment with sodium butyrate (NaBT); 3) Knockdown of CLCA1 with siRNA significantly inhibited cell differentiation and promoted cell proliferation in Caco-2 confluent cultures, and 4) In Caco-2 3D culture, suppression of CLCA1 significantly increased cell proliferation and compromised NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation. In conclusion, CLCA1 may contribute to promoting spontaneous differentiation and reducing proliferation of Caco-2 cells and may be a target of NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation and therefore a potential diagnostic marker for CRC prognosis. PMID:23593331

  19. Calcium-activated chloride channels in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nilius, B; Prenen, J; Szücs, G; Wei, L; Tanzi, F; Voets, T; Droogmans, G

    1997-01-01

    1. We characterized Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells by using a combined patch clamp and fura-2 microfluorescence technique to simultaneously measure ionic currents and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i. 2. Various procedures that increased [Ca2+]i, such as stimulation with ATP or ionomycin, or loading the cells with Ca2+ via the patch pipette, activated a strongly outwardly rectifying current with a reversal potential close to the Cl- equilibrium potential. Changing the extracellular Cl- concentration shifted this reversal potential as predicted for a Cl- current. Buffering Ca2+ rises with BAPTA prevented ATP from activating the current. 3. Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents could be distinguished from volume-activated Cl- currents, which were sometimes coactivated in the same cell. The latter showed much less outward rectification, their activation was voltage independent, and they could be inhibited by exposing the cells to hypertonic solutions. 4. The permeability ratio for the Ca(2+)-activated conductance of the anions iodide:chloride: gluconate was 1.71 +/- 0.06:1:0.39 +/- 0.03 (n = 12). 5. This Ca(2+)-activated Cl- current, ICl, Ca, inactivated rapidly at negative potentials and activated slowly at positive potentials. Outward tail currents were slowly decaying, while inward tail currents decayed much faster. 6. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic-acid (DIDS) and niflumic acid inhibited Icl,Ca in a voltage-dependent manner, i.e. they exerted a more potent block at positive potentials. The block by N-phenylanthracilic acid (NPA), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB) and tamoxifen was voltage independent. Niflumic acid and tamoxifen were the most potent blockers. 7. The single-channel conductance was 7.9 +/- 0.7 pS (n = 15) at 300 mM extracellular Cl-. The channel open probability was high at positive potentials, but very small at negative potentials. 8. It is concluded that [Ca2+]i

  20. Location of Release Sites and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels Relative to Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, A. J.; Rabl, K.; Riccardi, G. E.; Brecha, N. C.; Stella, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca2+ channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl− moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca2+ channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca2+ buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca2+ channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca2+ diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca2+ channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca2+ channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC50 values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca2+]i in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca2+] nanodomains near Ca2+ channels, average submembrane [Ca2+]i remained below the vesicle release threshold (∼400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca2+ channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca2+ influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca2+ channels. PMID:21084687

  1. Hypoxia augments the calcium-activated chloride current carried by anoctamin-1 in cardiac vascular endothelial cells of neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Ming; Lou, Jie; Song, Bin-Lin; Gong, Yuan-Feng; Li, Yan-Chao; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Ma, Tian-Xing; Ma, Ke; Hartzell, H Criss; Duan, Dayue Darrel; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The molecular identity of calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) in vascular endothelial cells remains unknown. This study sought to identify whether anoctamin-1 (Ano1, also known as TMEM16A) functions as a CaCC and whether hypoxia alters the biophysical properties of Ano1 in mouse cardiac vascular endothelial cells (CVECs). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR, confocal imaging analysis and patch-clamp analysis combined with pharmacological approaches were used to determine whether Ano1 was expressed and functioned as CaCC in CVECs. KEY RESULTS Ano1 was expressed in CVECs. The biophysical properties of the current generated in the CVECs, including the Ca2+ and voltage dependence, outward rectification, anion selectivity and the pharmacological profile, are similar to those described for CaCCs. The density of ICl(Ca) detected in CVECs was significantly inhibited by T16Ainh-A01, an Ano1 inhibitor, and a pore-targeting, specific anti-Ano1 antibody, and was markedly decreased in Ano1 gene knockdown CVECs. The density of ICl(Ca) was significantly potentiated in CVECs exposed to hypoxia, and this hypoxia-induced increase in the density of ICl(Ca) was inhibited by T16Ainh-A01 or anti-Ano1 antibody. Hypoxia also increased the current density of ICl(Ca) in Ano1 gene knockdown CVECs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Ano1 formed CaCC in CVECs of neonatal mice. Hypoxia enhances Ano1-mediated ICl(Ca) density via increasing its expression, altering the ratio of its splicing variants, sensitivity to membrane voltage and to Ca2+. Ano1 may play a role in the pathophysiological processes during ischaemia in heart, and therefore, Ano1 might be a potential therapeutic target to prevent ischaemic damage. PMID:24758567

  2. Bile acids stimulate chloride secretion through CFTR and calcium-activated Cl- channels in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Siobhán M; Mroz, Magdalena S; Greene, Catherine M; Keely, Stephen J; Harvey, Brian J

    2014-09-01

    Bile acids resulting from the aspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate are often present in the lower airways of people with cystic fibrosis and other respiratory distress diseases. Surprisingly, there is little or no information on the modulation of airway epithelial ion transport by bile acids. The secretory effect of a variety of conjugated and unconjugated secondary bile acids was investigated in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells grown under an air-liquid interface and mounted in Ussing chambers. Electrogenic transepithelial ion transport was measured as short-circuit current (Isc). The taurine-conjugated secondary bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), was found to be the most potent modulator of basal ion transport. Acute treatment (5 min) of Calu-3 cells with TDCA (25 μM) on the basolateral side caused a stimulation of Isc, and removal of extracellular Cl(-) abolished this response. TDCA produced an increase in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent current that was abolished by pretreatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172. TDCA treatment also increased Cl(-) secretion through calcium-activated chloride (CaCC) channels and increased the Na(+)/K(+) pump current. Acute treatment with TDCA resulted in a rapid cellular influx of Ca(2+) and increased cAMP levels in Calu-3 cells. Bile acid receptor-selective activation with INT-777 revealed TGR5 localized at the basolateral membrane as the receptor involved in TDCA-induced Cl(-) secretion. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that low concentrations of bile acids can modulate Cl(-) secretion in airway epithelial cells, and this effect is dependent on both the duration and sidedness of exposure to the bile acid.

  3. Effect of steroids, acetyl-cysteine and calcium-activated chloride channel inhibitors on allergic mucin expression in sinus mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Steffen, Armin; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Hung, Hsiao-Ling; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Allergic inflammation of the upper airways is commonly associated with mucus hypersecretion. At present, there is no specific mucus regulating drug available. Our goal was to investigate the effect of glucocorticosteroids, acetyl-cysteine (ACC), and calcium-activated chloride channel (CLCA) inhibitors in a model of Th2 type cytokine induced mucin expression in human airway mucosa. Prospective. Explanted tissue from human sinus mucosa was stimulated with interleukin (IL)-4, IL-9, or IL-13. Different concentrations of dexamethasone, ACC, or CLCA inhibitors [niflumic acid (NFA) or MSI-2216] were added to stimulated tissue. Epithelial mucin expression was quantified using periodic acid-Schiff staining. IL-4, IL-9, and IL-13 significantly increased epithelial mucin expression (P < .05). Dexamethasone reduced Th2 type cytokine induced mucin expression in a dose-dependent manner being statistically significant at concentrations >or=4.0 micromol/L (IL-4) and >or=40.0 micromol/L (IL-9 and IL-13) (P < .05). ACC had no significant effect on IL-4 and IL-13 induced mucin expression, whereas IL-9 induced mucin expression was significantly decreased at concentrations >or=3.0 mmol/L (P < .05). NFA and MSI-2216 decreased Th2 type cytokine induced mucin expression in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was statistically significant at concentrations >or=100 micromol/L (NFA) and >or=50 micromol/L (MSI-2216) (P < .05). Th2 type cytokines can induce mucin expression in a model of explanted human airway mucosa. Th2 type cytokine induced mucin expression can be effectively reduced by either glucocorticosteroids or CLCA inhibitors ex vivo. Besides glucocorticosteroids CLCA inhibitors may offer an alternative therapeutic approach to treat allergic mucus hypersecretion.

  4. Antagonists of the TMEM16A Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Modulate Airway Smooth Muscle Tone and Intracellular Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Jennifer; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Bernstein, Kyra; Barajas, Matthew B.; Zhang, Yi; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Pawan K.; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Perioperative bronchospasm refractory to β-agonists continues to challenge anesthesiologists and intensivists. The TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel modulates airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. We hypothesized that TMEM16A antagonists would relax ASM contraction by modulating membrane potential and calcium flux. Methods Human ASM, guinea pig tracheal rings or mouse peripheral airways were contracted with acetylcholine (Ach) or leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and then treated with the TMEM16A antagonists: benzbromarone, T16Ainh-A01, MONNA or B25. In separate studies, guinea pig tracheal rings were contracted with Ach and then exposed to increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (0.01nM-10μM) ± benzbromarone. Plasma membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentrations were measured in human ASM cells. Results Benzbromarone was the most potent TMEM16A antagonist tested for relaxing an Ach-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings (n=6). Further studies were done to investigate benzbromarone’s clinical utility. In human ASM, benzbromarone relaxed either an acetylcholine- or LTD4-induced contraction (n=8). Benzbromarone was also effective in relaxing peripheral airways (n=9) and potentiating relaxation by β-agonists (n=5–10). In cellular mechanistic studies, benzbromarone hyperpolarized human ASM cells (n=9–12) and attenuated intracellular calcium flux from both the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum (n=6–12). Conclusions TMEM16A antagonists work synergistically with β-agonists and through a novel pathway of interrupting ion flux both at the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum to acutely relax human airway smooth muscle. PMID:26181339

  5. Self-cleavage of Human CLCA1 Protein by a Novel Internal Metalloprotease Domain Controls Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Activation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Randolph, David T.; Scheaffer, Suzanne M.; Roswit, William T.; Alevy, Yael G.; Patel, Anand C.; Heier, Richard F.; Romero, Arthur G.; Nichols, Colin G.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Tom J.

    2012-01-01

    The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. Despite relevance to homeostasis and disease, the mechanism of CLCA1 function remains largely undefined. We address this void by showing that CLCA proteins contain a consensus proteolytic cleavage site recognized by a novel zincin metalloprotease domain located within the N terminus of CLCA itself. CLCA1 mutations that inhibit self-cleavage prevent activation of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)-mediated chloride transport. CaCC activation requires cleavage to unmask the N-terminal fragment of CLCA1, which can independently gate CaCCs. Gating of CaCCs mediated by CLCA1 does not appear to involve proteolytic cleavage of the channel because a mutant N-terminal fragment deficient in proteolytic activity is able to induce currents comparable with that of the native fragment. These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface. PMID:23112050

  6. Self-cleavage of human CLCA1 protein by a novel internal metalloprotease domain controls calcium-activated chloride channel activation.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Randolph, David T; Scheaffer, Suzanne M; Roswit, William T; Alevy, Yael G; Patel, Anand C; Heier, Richard F; Romero, Arthur G; Nichols, Colin G; Holtzman, Michael J; Brett, Tom J

    2012-12-07

    The chloride channel calcium-activated (CLCA) family are secreted proteins that regulate both chloride transport and mucin expression, thus controlling the production of mucus in respiratory and other systems. Accordingly, human CLCA1 is a critical mediator of hypersecretory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, that manifest mucus obstruction. Despite relevance to homeostasis and disease, the mechanism of CLCA1 function remains largely undefined. We address this void by showing that CLCA proteins contain a consensus proteolytic cleavage site recognized by a novel zincin metalloprotease domain located within the N terminus of CLCA itself. CLCA1 mutations that inhibit self-cleavage prevent activation of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC)-mediated chloride transport. CaCC activation requires cleavage to unmask the N-terminal fragment of CLCA1, which can independently gate CaCCs. Gating of CaCCs mediated by CLCA1 does not appear to involve proteolytic cleavage of the channel because a mutant N-terminal fragment deficient in proteolytic activity is able to induce currents comparable with that of the native fragment. These data provide both a mechanistic basis for CLCA1 self-cleavage and a novel mechanism for regulation of chloride channel activity specific to the mucosal interface.

  7. CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels in primary cultures of human airway gland cells of serous or mucous phenotype.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Sachs, Lorne; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H

    2010-10-01

    Using cell culture models, we have investigated the relative importance of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) in Cl secretion by mucous and serous cells of human airway glands. In transepithelial recordings in Ussing chambers, the CFTR inhibitor CFTR(inh)-172 abolished 60% of baseline Cl secretion in serous cells and 70% in mucous. Flufenamic acid (FFA), an inhibitor of CaCC, reduced baseline Cl secretion by ∼20% in both cell types. Methacholine and ATP stimulated Cl secretion in both cell types, which was largely blocked by treatment with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) and partially by mucosal FFA or CFTR(inh)-172 with the exception of methacholine responses in mucous cells, which were not blocked by FFA and partially (∼60%) by CFTR(inh)-172. The effects of ionomycin on short-circuit current (I(sc)) were less than those of ATP or methacholine. Forskolin stimulated Cl secretion only if Cl in the mucosal medium was replaced by gluconate. In whole cell patch-clamp studies of single isolated cells, cAMP-induced Cl currents were ∼3-fold greater in serous than mucous cells. Ionomycin-induced Cl currents were 13 times (serous) or 26 times (mucous) greater than those generated by cAMP and were blocked by FFA. In serous cells, mRNA for transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A) was ∼10 times more abundant than mRNA for CFTR. In mucous cells it was ∼100 times more abundant. We conclude: 1) serous and mucous cells both make significant contributions to gland fluid secretion; 2) baseline Cl secretion in both cell types is mediated predominantly by CFTR, but CaCC becomes increasingly important after mediator-induced elevations of intracellular Ca; and 3) the high CaCC currents seen in patch-clamp studies and the high TMEM16A expression in intact polarized cells sheets are not reflected in transepithelial current recordings.

  8. Action of niflumic acid on evoked and spontaneous calcium-activated chloride and potassium currents in smooth muscle cells from rabbit portal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, R. C.; Wang, Q.; Large, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. The action of niflumic acid was studied on spontaneous and evoked calcium-activated chloride (ICl(Ca)) and potassium (IK(Ca)) currents in rabbit isolated portal vein cells. 2. With the nystatin perforated patch technique in potassium-containing solutions at a holding potential of -77 mV (the potassium equilibrium potential), niflumic acid produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous transient inward current (STIC, calcium-activated chloride current) amplitude. The concentration to reduce the STIC amplitude by 50% (IC50) was 3.6 x 10(-6) M. 3. At -77 mV holding potential, niflumic acid converted the STIC decay from a single exponential to 2 exponential components. In niflumic acid the fast component of decay was faster, and the slow component was slower than the control decay time constant. Increasing the concentration of niflumic acid enhanced the decay rate of the fast component and reduced the decay rate of the slow component. 4. The effect of niflumic acid on STIC amplitude was voltage-dependent and at -50 and +50 mV the IC50 values were 2.3 x 10(-6) M and 1.1 x 10(-6) M respectively (cf. 3.6 x 10(-6) M at -77 mV). 5. In K-free solutions at potentials of -50 mV and +50 mV, niflumic acid did not induce a dual exponential STIC decay but just increased the decay time constant at both potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. 6. Niflumic acid, in concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) M, had no effect on spontaneous calcium-activated potassium currents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921628

  9. New selective inhibitors of calcium-activated chloride channels … T16Ainh-A01, CaCCinh-A01 and MONNA … what do they inhibit?

    PubMed Central

    Boedtkjer, D M B; Kim, S; Jensen, A B; Matchkov, V M; Andersson, K E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose T16Ainh-A01, CaCCinh-A01 and MONNA are identified as selective inhibitors of the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). The aim of this study was to examine the chloride-specificity of these compounds on isolated resistance arteries in the presence and absence (±) of extracellular chloride. Experimental Approach Isolated resistance arteries were maintained in a myograph and tension recorded, in some instances combined with microelectrode impalement for membrane potential measurements or intracellular calcium monitoring using fura-2. Voltage-dependent calcium currents (VDCC) were measured in A7r5 cells with voltage-clamp electrophysiology using barium as a charge carrier. Key Results Rodent arteries preconstricted with noradrenaline or U46619 were concentration-dependently relaxed by T16Ainh-A01 (0.1–10 μM): IC50 and maximum relaxation were equivalent in ±chloride (30 min aspartate substitution) and the T16Ainh-A01-induced vasorelaxation ±chloride were accompanied by membrane hyperpolarization and lowering of intracellular calcium. However, agonist concentration–response curves ±chloride, with 10 μM T16Ainh-A01 present, achieved similar maximum constrictions although agonist-sensitivity decreased. Contractions induced by elevated extracellular potassium were concentration-dependently relaxed by T16Ainh-A01 ±chloride. Moreover, T16Ainh-A01 inhibited VDCCs in A7r5 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. CaCCinh-A01 and MONNA (0.1–10 μM) induced vasorelaxation ±chloride and both compounds lowered maximum contractility. MONNA, 10 μM, induced substantial membrane hyperpolarization under resting conditions. Conclusions and Implications T16Ainh-A01, CaCCinh-A01 and MONNA concentration-dependently relax rodent resistance arteries, but an equivalent vasorelaxation occurs when the transmembrane chloride gradient is abolished with an impermeant anion. These compounds therefore display poor selectivity for TMEM16A

  10. Recessive Mutations in the Putative Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 5 Cause Proximal LGMD2L and Distal MMD3 Muscular Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Véronique; Marlow, Gareth; Boycott, Kym M.; Saleki, Khalil; Inoue, Hiroshi; Kroon, Johan; Itakura, Mitsuo; Robitaille, Yves; Parent, Lucie; Baas, Frank; Mizuta, Kuniko; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Richard, Isabelle; Linssen, Wim H.J.P.; Mahjneh, Ibrahim; de Visser, Marianne; Bashir, Rumaisa; Brais, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The recently described human anion channel Anoctamin (ANO) protein family comprises at least ten members, many of which have been shown to correspond to calcium-activated chloride channels. To date, the only reported human mutations in this family of genes are dominant mutations in ANO5 (TMEM16E, GDD1) in the rare skeletal disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. We have identified recessive mutations in ANO5 that result in a proximal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) in three French Canadian families and in a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3) in Dutch and Finnish families. These mutations consist of a splice site, one base pair duplication shared by French Canadian and Dutch cases, and two missense mutations. The splice site and the duplication mutations introduce premature-termination codons and consequently trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, suggesting an underlining loss-of-function mechanism. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal weakness, with prominent asymmetrical quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness, of calf muscles in particular. With the use of electron microscopy, multifocal sarcolemmal lesions were observed in both phenotypes. The phenotypic heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with Dysferlin (DYSF) mutations that can cause both LGMD2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MMD1). In one MMD3-affected individual, defective membrane repair was documented on fibroblasts by membrane-resealing ability assays, as observed in dysferlinopathies. Though the function of the ANO5 protein is still unknown, its putative calcium-activated chloride channel function may lead to important insights into the role of deficient skeletal muscle membrane repair in muscular dystrophies. PMID:20096397

  11. Action of niflumic acid on evoked and spontaneous calcium-activated chloride and potassium currents in smooth muscle cells from rabbit portal vein.

    PubMed

    Hogg, R C; Wang, Q; Large, W A

    1994-07-01

    1. The action of niflumic acid was studied on spontaneous and evoked calcium-activated chloride (ICl(Ca)) and potassium (IK(Ca)) currents in rabbit isolated portal vein cells. 2. With the nystatin perforated patch technique in potassium-containing solutions at a holding potential of -77 mV (the potassium equilibrium potential), niflumic acid produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous transient inward current (STIC, calcium-activated chloride current) amplitude. The concentration to reduce the STIC amplitude by 50% (IC50) was 3.6 x 10(-6) M. 3. At -77 mV holding potential, niflumic acid converted the STIC decay from a single exponential to 2 exponential components. In niflumic acid the fast component of decay was faster, and the slow component was slower than the control decay time constant. Increasing the concentration of niflumic acid enhanced the decay rate of the fast component and reduced the decay rate of the slow component. 4. The effect of niflumic acid on STIC amplitude was voltage-dependent and at -50 and +50 mV the IC50 values were 2.3 x 10(-6) M and 1.1 x 10(-6) M respectively (cf. 3.6 x 10(-6) M at -77 mV). 5. In K-free solutions at potentials of -50 mV and +50 mV, niflumic acid did not induce a dual exponential STIC decay but just increased the decay time constant at both potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. 6. Niflumic acid, in concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) M, had no effect on spontaneous calcium-activated potassium currents. 7. Niflumic acid inhibited noradrenaline- and caffeine-evoked IO(Ca) with an ICM50 of 6.6 x 10-6 M, i.e.was less potent against evoked currents compared to spontaneous currents. In contrast niflumic acid(2 x 10-6 M-5 x 105 M) increased noradrenaline- and caffeine-induced IK(ca).8. The results are discussed with respect to the mechanism of block of ICl(Ca) by niflumic acid and its suitability as a pharmacological tool for assessing the role of Ic(ca) in physiological mechanisms.

  12. TMEM16A Inhibitors Reveal TMEM16A as a Minor Component of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Conductance in Airway and Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Wan; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Verkman, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1) functions as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). We developed pharmacological tools to investigate the contribution of TMEM16A to CaCC conductance in human airway and intestinal epithelial cells. A screen of ∼110,000 compounds revealed four novel chemical classes of small molecule TMEM16A inhibitors that fully blocked TMEM16A chloride current with an IC50 < 10 μm, without interfering with calcium signaling. Following structure-activity analysis, the most potent inhibitor, an aminophenylthiazole (T16Ainh-A01), had an IC50 of ∼1 μm. Two distinct types of inhibitors were identified. Some compounds, such as tannic acid and the arylaminothiophene CaCCinh-A01, fully inhibited CaCC current in human bronchial and intestinal cells. Other compounds, including T16Ainh-A01 and digallic acid, inhibited total CaCC current in these cells poorly, but blocked mainly an initial, agonist-stimulated transient chloride current. TMEM16A RNAi knockdown also inhibited mainly the transient chloride current. In contrast to the airway and intestinal cells, all TMEM16A inhibitors fully blocked CaCC current in salivary gland cells. We conclude that TMEM16A carries nearly all CaCC current in salivary gland epithelium, but is a minor contributor to total CaCC current in airway and intestinal epithelia. The small molecule inhibitors identified here permit pharmacological dissection of TMEM16A/CaCC function and are potential development candidates for drug therapy of hypertension, pain, diarrhea, and excessive mucus production. PMID:21084298

  13. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  14. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders.

  15. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH.

  16. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  17. Inhibitory role of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate on TMEM16A-encoded calcium-activated chloride channels in rat pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, H A T; Leblanc, N; Albert, A P; Greenwood, I A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are key depolarizing mechanisms that have an important role in vascular smooth muscle contraction. Here, we investigated whether these channels are regulated by phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate [P(4,5)P2], a known regulator of various ion channels. Experimental Approach Calcium-activated Cl− currents (IClCa) were recorded by patch clamp electrophysiology of rat isolated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. TMEM16A protein-phosphoinositide interaction was studied by co-immunoprecipitation and phosphoinositide binding arrays on protein lysates from whole pulmonary arteries and HEK293 cells overexpressing TMEM16A, the molecular correlate. Key Results PI(4,5)P2 and other phospholipids were shown to bind directly to TMEM16A isolated from whole pulmonary artery (PA) and TMEM16A-eGFP expressed in HEK293 cells. Agents that reduced PI(4,5)P2 levels through different routes [PLC activation, PI4K inhibition, PI(4,5)P2 scavenging and absorption] all increased IClCa evoked by solutions containing clamped-free [Ca2+], whereas enrichment of activating solutions with PI(4,5)P2 inhibited IClca in PA smooth muscle cells with approximately 50% reduction at 1 μM. Conclusions and Implications These data are the first to show a negative regulation of TMEM16A-encoded CaCCs by PI(4,5)P2 and propose that control of PI(4,5)P2 levels is a key determinant of arterial physiology. PMID:24834965

  18. Calcium-activated chloride channels in müller cells acutely isolated from tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nicole C; Lalonde, Melanie R; Barnes, Steven; Kelly, Melanie E M

    2006-01-01

    Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels were identified with whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques in salamander retinal Müller cells. Cl(Ca) channels were activated by membrane depolarizations that elicited Ca2+ influx or the application of the Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin. The Ca channel blocker, Cd2+, abolished the Cl(Ca) channel tail currents. Increasing the duration of the depolarizing pulse resulted in enhancement of the Cl(Ca) channel tail current. Repetitive depolarizations with rapid pulses to +20 mV produced a buildup of I(Cl(Ca)), which reversed at 0 mV in symmetrical [Cl-] and at -40 mV when intracellular [Cl-] was reduced to 10% of the external concentration. I(Cl(Ca)) was blocked by the Cl channel blocker niflumic acid, while niflumic acid had no effect on voltage-gated Ca channels. These results offer the first demonstration of Cl(Ca) channels in a nonastrocytic glial cell and expand our understanding of the functional capacities of retinal glial cells.

  19. Variomics screen identifies the re-entrant loop of the calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 that facilitates channel activation.

    PubMed

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A; Auld, Douglas S; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J; Gaither, L Alex

    2015-01-09

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases.

  20. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy. PMID:26305547

  1. Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 and chloride channel modulate chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced migration of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhifei; Gaurav, Rohit; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-07-01

    The role of ion channels is largely unknown in chemokine-induced migration in nonexcitable cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we examined the role of intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa3.1) and chloride channel (CLC3) in lymphatic chemokine-induced migration of DCs. The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca(2+) influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 expression levels, extracellular-free Ca(2+) and Cl(-), and independent of extracellular K(+). Chemokines (CCL19 and CCL21) and KCa3.1 activator (1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one) induced plasma membrane hyperpolarization and K(+) efflux, which was blocked by 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole, suggesting that KCa3.1 carried larger conductance than the inward calcium release-activated calcium channel. Blockade of KCa3.1, low Cl(-) in the medium, and low dose of 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) impaired CCL19/CCL21-induced Ca(2+) influx, cell volume change, and DC migration. High doses of DIDS completely blocked DC migration possibly by significantly disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, KCa3.1 and CLC3 are critical in human DC migration by synergistically regulating membrane potential, chemokine-induced Ca(2+) influx, and cell volume.

  2. The Porcine Chloride Channel Calcium-Activated Family Member pCLCA4a Mirrors Lung Expression of the Human hCLCA4

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Grötzsch, Tanja; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Kobalz, Ursula; Gruber, Achim D.

    2012-01-01

    Pig models of cystic fibrosis (CF) have recently been established that are expected to mimic the human disease closer than mouse models do. The human CLCA (originally named chloride channels, calcium-activated) member hCLCA4 is considered a potential modifier of disease severity in CF, but its murine ortholog, mCLCA6, is not expressed in the mouse lung. Here, we have characterized the genomic structure, protein processing, and tissue expression patterns of the porcine ortholog to hCLCA4, pCLCA4a. The genomic structure and cellular protein processing of pCLCA4a were found to closely mirror those of hCLCA4 and mCLCA6. Similar to human lung, pCLCA4a mRNA was strongly expressed in porcine lungs, and the pCLCA4a protein was immunohistochemically detected on the apical membranes of tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. This stands in sharp contrast to mouse mCLCA6, which has been detected exclusively in intestinal epithelia but not the murine lung. The results may add to the understanding of species-specific differences in the CF phenotype and support the notion that the CF pig model may be more suitable than murine models to study the role of hCLCA4. PMID:22205680

  3. Variomics Screen Identifies the Re-entrant Loop of the Calcium-activated Chloride Channel ANO1 That Facilitates Channel Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M. Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T.; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A.; Auld, Douglas S.; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J.; Gaither, L. Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

  4. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy.

  5. Up-Regulation of Interleukin-9 and the Interleukin-9-Associated Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel hCLCA1 in Nasal Mucosa Following In Vivo Allergen Challenge

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-9 is a pleiotropic T helper 2-type cytokine that has been shown to be up-regulated in allergic airway disease, including asthma. IL-9 has been demonstrated to be a potent stimulus for the production and secretion of mucus from airway epithelial cells via induction of a calcium-activated chloride channel, hCLCA1. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of IL-9 and hCLCA1 following allergen challenge in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal biopsies were obtained from allergic rhinitis patients out of allergen season both before (baseline) and after local antigen challenge with either ragweed or diluent (control). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to assess IL-9 protein and hCLCA1 messenger ribonucleic acid. Eosinophils and T cells were detected using immunohistochemistry. IL-9 and hCLCA1 were very low at baseline, and expression was significantly up-regulated following ragweed challenge. Whereas the number of eosinophils increased after allergen challenge, T-cell counts did not change significantly. The results of this study demonstrate the relationship between specific allergen challenge and expression of both IL-9 and hCLCA1, suggesting a possible mechanism for the increased production of mucus from airway epithelial cells in allergic rhinitis. PMID:20525149

  6. Presynaptic Localization and Possible Function of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 1 in the Mammalian Retina

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Myung-Hoon; Oh, Uhtaek; Kim, In-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+)-activated chloride (Cl−) channels (CaCCs) play a role in the modulation of action potentials and synaptic responses in the somatodendritic regions of central neurons. In the vertebrate retina, large Ca2+-activated Cl− currents (ICl(Ca)) regulate synaptic transmission at photoreceptor terminals; however, the molecular identity of CaCCs that mediate ICl(Ca) remains unclear. The transmembrane protein, TMEM16A, also called anoctamin 1 (ANO1), has been recently validated as a CaCC and is widely expressed in various secretory epithelia and nervous tissues. Despite the fact that tmem16a was first cloned in the retina, there is little information on its cellular localization and function in the mammalian retina. In this study, we found that ANO1 was abundantly expressed as puncta in 2 synaptic layers. More specifically, ANO1 immunoreactivity was observed in the presynaptic terminals of various retinal neurons, including photoreceptors. ICl(Ca) was first detected in dissociated rod bipolar cells expressing ANO1. ICl(Ca) was abolished by treatment with the Ca2+ channel blocker Co2+, the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, and the Cl− channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) and niflumic acid (NFA). More specifically, a recently discovered ANO1-selective inhibitor, T16Ainh-A01, and a neutralizing antibody against ANO1 inhibited ICl(Ca) in rod bipolar cells. Under a current-clamping mode, the suppression of ICl(Ca) by using NPPB and T16Ainh-A01 caused a prolonged Ca2+ spike-like depolarization evoked by current injection in dissociated rod bipolar cells. These results suggest that ANO1 confers ICl(Ca) in retinal neurons and acts as an intrinsic regulator of the presynaptic membrane potential during synaptic transmission. PMID:23840801

  7. Four basic residues critical for the ion selectivity and pore blocker sensitivity of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Christian J.; Yu, Haibo; Tien, Jason; Jan, Yuh Nung; Li, Min; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2015-01-01

    TMEM16A (transmembrane protein 16) (Anoctamin-1) forms a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that regulates a broad array of physiological properties in response to changes in intracellular calcium concentration. Although known to conduct anions according to the Eisenman type I selectivity sequence, the structural determinants of TMEM16A anion selectivity are not well-understood. Reasoning that the positive charges on basic residues are likely contributors to anion selectivity, we performed whole-cell recordings of mutants with alanine substitution for basic residues within the putative pore region and identified four residues on four different putative transmembrane segments that significantly increased the permeability of the larger halides and thiocyanate relative to that of chloride. Because TMEM16A permeation properties are known to shift with changes in intracellular calcium concentration, we further examined the calcium dependence of anion selectivity. We found that WT TMEM16A but not mutants with alanine substitution at those four basic residues exhibited a clear decline in the preference for larger anions as intracellular calcium was increased. Having implicated these residues as contributing to the TMEM16A pore, we scrutinized candidate small molecules from a high-throughput CaCC inhibitor screen to identify two compounds that act as pore blockers. Mutations of those four putative pore-lining basic residues significantly altered the IC50 of these compounds at positive voltages. These findings contribute to our understanding regarding anion permeation of TMEM16A CaCC and provide valuable pharmacological tools to probe the channel pore. PMID:25733897

  8. Four basic residues critical for the ion selectivity and pore blocker sensitivity of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christian J; Yu, Haibo; Tien, Jason; Jan, Yuh Nung; Li, Min; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2015-03-17

    TMEM16A (transmembrane protein 16) (Anoctamin-1) forms a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that regulates a broad array of physiological properties in response to changes in intracellular calcium concentration. Although known to conduct anions according to the Eisenman type I selectivity sequence, the structural determinants of TMEM16A anion selectivity are not well-understood. Reasoning that the positive charges on basic residues are likely contributors to anion selectivity, we performed whole-cell recordings of mutants with alanine substitution for basic residues within the putative pore region and identified four residues on four different putative transmembrane segments that significantly increased the permeability of the larger halides and thiocyanate relative to that of chloride. Because TMEM16A permeation properties are known to shift with changes in intracellular calcium concentration, we further examined the calcium dependence of anion selectivity. We found that WT TMEM16A but not mutants with alanine substitution at those four basic residues exhibited a clear decline in the preference for larger anions as intracellular calcium was increased. Having implicated these residues as contributing to the TMEM16A pore, we scrutinized candidate small molecules from a high-throughput CaCC inhibitor screen to identify two compounds that act as pore blockers. Mutations of those four putative pore-lining basic residues significantly altered the IC50 of these compounds at positive voltages. These findings contribute to our understanding regarding anion permeation of TMEM16A CaCC and provide valuable pharmacological tools to probe the channel pore.

  9. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1)*

    PubMed Central

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S.; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted. PMID:26004777

  10. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1).

    PubMed

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2015-07-10

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted.

  11. Activation of P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors induces chloride secretion via calcium-activated chloride channels in kidney inner medullary collecting duct cells

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Kathpalia, Paru P.; Thomas, Sheela V.

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of urinary sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion can result in extracellular fluid (ECF) volume expansion and hypertension. Recent studies demonstrated that urinary nucleotide excretion increases in mice ingesting a high-salt diet and that these increases in extracellular nucleotides can signal through P2Y2 receptors in the kidney collecting duct to inhibit epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC). However, under conditions of ECF volume expansion brought about by high-dietary salt intake, ENaC activity should already be suppressed. We hypothesized that alternative pathways exist by which extracellular nucleotides control renal NaCl excretion. We used an inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD-K2) cell line in an Ussing chamber system as a model to study additional ion transport pathways that are regulated by extracellular nucleotides. When ENaC was inhibited, the addition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the basal side of cell sheets activated both P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors, inducing a transient increase in short-circuit current (Isc); addition of ATP to the apical side activated only P2Y2 receptors, inducing first a transient and then a sustained increase in Isc. The ATP-induced increases in Isc were blocked by pretreatment with a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, a calcium (Ca2+) chelator, or Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) inhibitors, suggesting that ATP signals through both PLC and intracellular Ca2+ to activate CACC. We propose that P2Y1 and P2Y2 receptors operate in tandem in IMCD cells to provide an adaptive mechanism for enhancing urinary NaCl excretion in the setting of high-dietary NaCl intake. PMID:21653634

  12. 9-Anthracene carboxylic acid is more suitable than DIDS for characterization of calcium-activated chloride current during canine ventricular action potential.

    PubMed

    Váczi, Krisztina; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Kistamás, Kornél; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Nánási, Péter P; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Magyar, János

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of ionic currents in shaping the cardiac action potential (AP) has great importance as channel malfunctions can lead to sudden cardiac death by inducing arrhythmias. Therefore, researchers frequently use inhibitors to selectively block a certain ion channel like 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (9-AC) for calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)). This study aims to explore which blocker is preferable to study ICl(Ca). Whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to record ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1, while action potentials were measured using sharp microelectrodes. DIDS- (0.2 mM) and 9-AC-sensitive (0.5 mM) currents were identical in voltage-clamp conditions, regardless of intracellular Ca(2+) buffering. DIDS-sensitive current amplitude was larger with the increase of stimulation rate and correlated well with the rate-induced increase of calcium transients. Both drugs increased action potential duration (APD) to the same extent, but the elevation of the plateau potential was more pronounced with 9-AC at fast stimulation rates. On the contrary, 9-AC did not influence either the AP amplitude or the maximal rate of depolarization (V max), but DIDS caused marked reduction of V max. Both inhibitors reduced the magnitude of phase-1, but, at slow stimulation rates, this effect of DIDS was larger. All of these actions on APs were reversible upon washout of the drugs. Increasing concentrations of 9-AC between 0.1 and 0.5 mM in a cumulative manner gradually reduced phase-1 and increased APD. 9-AC at 1 mM had no additional actions upon perfusion after 0.5 mM. The half-effective concentration of 9-AC was approximately 160 μM with a Hill coefficient of 2. The amplitudes of ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1 were not changed by 0.5 mM 9-AC. These results suggest that DIDS is equally useful to study ICl(Ca) during voltage-clamp but 9-AC is superior in AP measurements for studying the physiological role of

  13. AB310. SPR-37 Cholinergic excitatory motor responses in the colon are mediated through the calcium-activated chloride conductance Ano1

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Jin; Blair, Peter J.; Rock, Jason; Pardo, David; Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is a growing body of evidence that gastrointestinal smooth muscle excitability is regulated by several different classes of interstitial cells [interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα(+) cells] that are electrically coupled to SMC. Thus, ‘myogenic’ activity results from the integrated behavior of the SMC/ICC/PDGFRα(+) cell (SIP) syncytium. Inputs from excitatory and inhibitory motor neurons are required to produce the complex motor patterns of the gut and coordinate GI motility. Motor neurons innervate these three cell types in the SIP syncytium, and receptors, second messenger pathways, and ion channels in these cells mediate postjunctional responses. Cholinergic neurotransmission in GI muscles from several species has long been thought to be dependent upon activation of a non-selective cation conductance in smooth muscle cells and the molecular candidates for mediating cholinergic excitation have been reported to be the transient receptor protein channels Trpc4 and Trpc6. However, we have shown that cholinergic responses in the GI tract involve ICC and in their absence these motor responses are greatly diminished or absent. We sought to determine the conductance(s) responsible for cholinergic motor responses in the colon. Methods Cre-LoxP recombinase technology was utilized to determine the role of the calcium-activated chloride conductance, Ano1 in post-junctional motor responses in the mouse colon in a cell-specific manner (Kit+ ICC). c-KitCreERT2/+ (Kit-Cre) mice and Ano f/f mice were crossed to generate c-KitCreERT2/+; Ano1f/f (mutants) and c-KitCreERT2/+; Ano1f/+ (controls) animals that were subsequently treated with tamoxifen to induce Cre recombinase expression in ICC. Confocal microscopy was used to determine the cell type Cre expression was switched on. Intracellular microelectrode recordings were performed to determine changes in post-junctional neural responses to nerve stimulation in c-KitCreERT2/+ (Kit-Cre) mice and Anof

  14. A short history of cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Kots, Alexander Y; Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida G; Murad, Ferid

    2009-01-01

    Here, we review the early studies on cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases to facilitate understanding of development of this exciting but complex field of research encompassing pharmacology, biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology of these important regulatory molecules.

  15. A Short History of cGMP, Guanylyl Cyclases, and cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Kots, Alexander Y.; Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we review the early studies on cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases to facilitate understanding of development of this exciting but complex field of research encompassing pharmacology, biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology of these important regulatory molecules. PMID:19089322

  16. Lipoxin A4 Stimulates Calcium-Activated Chloride Currents and Increases Airway Surface Liquid Height in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Mazen; Costello, Richard W.; McNally, Paul; Chiron, Raphaël; Harvey, Brian J.; Urbach, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl− secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA4 is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA4 are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA4 produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. We have investigated, the effect of LXA4 on Cl− secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA4 stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca2+ increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA4 stimulated whole-cell Cl− currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl− channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca2+) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA4 increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA4 effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl− secretion. The LXA4 stimulation of intracellular Ca2+, whole-cell Cl− currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA4 in the stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling leading to Ca2+-activated Cl− secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia. PMID:22662206

  17. Extracellular zinc stimulates a calcium-activated chloride conductance through mobilisation of intracellular calcium in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Linley, J E; Simmons, N L; Gray, M A

    2007-01-01

    We have used the perforated patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence techniques to study the effect of extracellular Zn(2+) on whole-cell Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I (CLCA)) in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3). I (CLCA) was spontaneously active in 74% of cells under basal conditions and displayed time and voltage-independent kinetics and an outwardly rectifying current/voltage relationship (I/V). Addition of zinc chloride (10-400 microM) to the bathing solution resulted in a dose-dependent increase in I (CLCA) with little change in Cl(-) selectivity or biophysical characteristics, whereas gadolinium chloride (30 microM) and lanthanum chloride (100 microM) had no significant effect on the whole-cell current. Using fura-2-loaded mIMCD-3 cells, extracellular Zn(2+) (400 microM) stimulated an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) to an elevated plateau. The Zn(2+)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase was inhibited by thapsigargin (200 nM), the IP(3) receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (10 microM) and removal of bath Ca(2+). Pre-exposure to Zn(2+) (400 microM) markedly attenuated the ATP (100 microM)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that extracellular Zn(2+) stimulates an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by a release of calcium from thapsigargin/IP(3) sensitive stores. A possible physiological role for a divalent metal ion receptor, distinct from the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor, in IMCD cells is discussed.

  18. Immunohistochemical Localization of Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase in Mammalian Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Suzanne M.; Walter, Ulrich; Miller, Penelope E.; Greengard, Paul; de Camilli, Pietro

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in rat brain has been studied by an immunological approach involving radioimmunoassay and fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Data obtained by radioimmunoassay indicate that cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase is 20- to 40-fold more concentrated in cerebellum than in other brain regions. Immunohistochemical experiments demonstrate that the high concentration of immunoreactivity of the protein kinase in cerebellum is attributable to Purkinje cells. Immunoreactivity in these cells is homogeneously distributed throughout the cell (perikarya, dendrites, and axons) with the exception of the nucleus. No other neurons either in the cerebellum or in other brain regions were stained by antiserum to the protein kinase. Immunoreactivity, however, was found throughout the brain on smooth muscle cells of blood vessels.

  19. Intermediate-conductance Calcium-activated Potassium Channel KCa3.1 and Chloride Channel Modulate Chemokine Ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Migration of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhifei; Gaurav, Rohit; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    The role of ion channels is largely unknown in chemokine-induced migration in non-excitable cells such as dendritic cells. Here, we examined the role of KCa3.1 and chloride channels in lymphatic chemokines-induced migration of dendritic cells. The amplitude and kinetics of CCL19/21-induced Ca2+ influx were associated with CCR7 expression levels, extracellular free Ca2+ and Cl−, and independent of extracellular K+. Chemokines, CCL19 and CCL21, and KCa3.1 activator, 1-EBIO, induced plasma membrane hyperpolarization and K+ efflux, which was blocked by TRAM-34, suggesting that KCa3.1 carried larger conductance than the inward CRAC. Blockade of KCa3.1, low Cl− in the medium, and low dose of DIDS impaired CCL19/CCL21-induced Ca2+ influx, cell volume change, and DC migration. High doses of DIDS completely blocked DC migration possibly by significantly disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, KCa3.1 and chloride channel are critical in human DC migration by synergistically regulating membrane potential, chemokine-induced Ca2+ influx, and cell volume. PMID:25583444

  20. Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a cGMP-dependent kinase anchoring protein (GKAP) specific for the cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iβ isoform.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Eleonora; Burgers, Pepijn P; Plank, Michael; Heck, Albert J R; Scholten, Arjen

    2015-03-20

    Protein-protein interactions are important in providing compartmentalization and specificity in cellular signal transduction. Many studies have hallmarked the well designed compartmentalization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) through its anchoring proteins. Much less data are available on the compartmentalization of its closest homolog, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), via its own PKG anchoring proteins (GKAPs). For the enrichment, screening, and discovery of (novel) PKA anchoring proteins, a plethora of methodologies is available, including our previously described chemical proteomics approach based on immobilized cAMP or cGMP. Although this method was demonstrated to be effective, each immobilized cyclic nucleotide did not discriminate in the enrichment for either PKA or PKG and their secondary interactors. Hence, with PKG signaling components being less abundant in most tissues, it turned out to be challenging to enrich and identify GKAPs. Here we extend this cAMP-based chemical proteomics approach using competitive concentrations of free cyclic nucleotides to isolate each kinase and its secondary interactors. Using this approach, we identified Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) as a putative novel GKAP. Through sequence alignment with known GKAPs and secondary structure prediction analysis, we defined a small sequence domain mediating the interaction with PKG Iβ but not PKG Iα. In vitro binding studies and site-directed mutagenesis further confirmed the specificity and affinity of HAP1 binding to the PKG Iβ N terminus. These data fully support that HAP1 is a GKAP, anchoring specifically to the cGMP-dependent protein kinase isoform Iβ, and provide further evidence that also PKG spatiotemporal signaling is largely controlled by anchoring proteins. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Huntingtin-associated Protein 1 (HAP1) Is a cGMP-dependent Kinase Anchoring Protein (GKAP) Specific for the cGMP-dependent Protein Kinase Iβ Isoform*

    PubMed Central

    Corradini, Eleonora; Burgers, Pepijn P.; Plank, Michael; Heck, Albert J. R.; Scholten, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are important in providing compartmentalization and specificity in cellular signal transduction. Many studies have hallmarked the well designed compartmentalization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) through its anchoring proteins. Much less data are available on the compartmentalization of its closest homolog, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), via its own PKG anchoring proteins (GKAPs). For the enrichment, screening, and discovery of (novel) PKA anchoring proteins, a plethora of methodologies is available, including our previously described chemical proteomics approach based on immobilized cAMP or cGMP. Although this method was demonstrated to be effective, each immobilized cyclic nucleotide did not discriminate in the enrichment for either PKA or PKG and their secondary interactors. Hence, with PKG signaling components being less abundant in most tissues, it turned out to be challenging to enrich and identify GKAPs. Here we extend this cAMP-based chemical proteomics approach using competitive concentrations of free cyclic nucleotides to isolate each kinase and its secondary interactors. Using this approach, we identified Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) as a putative novel GKAP. Through sequence alignment with known GKAPs and secondary structure prediction analysis, we defined a small sequence domain mediating the interaction with PKG Iβ but not PKG Iα. In vitro binding studies and site-directed mutagenesis further confirmed the specificity and affinity of HAP1 binding to the PKG Iβ N terminus. These data fully support that HAP1 is a GKAP, anchoring specifically to the cGMP-dependent protein kinase isoform Iβ, and provide further evidence that also PKG spatiotemporal signaling is largely controlled by anchoring proteins. PMID:25653285

  2. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of 5,6-disubstituted thiopyrimidine aryl aminothiazoles as inhibitors of the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A/Ano1.

    PubMed

    Piechowicz, Katarzyna A; Truong, Eric C; Javed, Kashif M; Chaney, Rachelle R; Wu, Johnny Y; Phuan, Puay W; Verkman, Alan S; Anderson, Marc O

    2016-12-01

    Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), also called Ano1, is a Ca(2+) activated Cl(-) channel expressed widely in mammalian epithelia, as well as in vascular smooth muscle and some tumors and electrically excitable cells. TMEM16A inhibitors have potential utility for treatment of disorders of epithelial fluid and mucus secretion, hypertension, some cancers and other diseases. 4-Aryl-2-amino thiazole T16Ainh-01 was previously identified by high-throughput screening. Here, a library of 47 compounds were prepared that explored the 5,6-disubstituted pyrimidine scaffold found in T16Ainh-01. TMEM16A inhibition activity was measured using fluorescence plate reader and short-circuit current assays. We found that very little structural variation of T16Ainh-01 was tolerated, with most compounds showing no activity at 10 μM. The most potent compound in the series, 9bo, which substitutes 4-methoxyphenyl in T16Ainh-01 with 2-thiophene, had IC50 ∼1 μM for inhibition of TMEM16A chloride conductance.

  4. Mapping of long-range INS promoter interactions reveals a role for calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 in insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhixiong; Lefevre, Gaelle M; Gavrilova, Oksana; Foster St Claire, Mark B; Riddick, Gregory; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2014-11-25

    We used circular chromatin conformation capture (4C) to identify a physical contact in human pancreatic islets between the region near the insulin (INS) promoter and the ANO1 gene, lying 68 Mb away on human chromosome 11, which encodes a Ca(2+)-dependent chloride ion channel. In response to glucose, this contact was strengthened and ANO1 expression increased, whereas inhibition of INS gene transcription by INS promoter targeting siRNA decreased ANO1 expression, revealing a regulatory effect of INS promoter on ANO1 expression. Knockdown of ANO1 expression caused decreased insulin secretion in human islets, establishing a physical proximity-dependent feedback loop involving INS transcription, ANO1 expression, and insulin secretion. To explore a possible role of ANO1 in insulin metabolism, we carried out experiments in Ano1(+/-) mice. We observed reduced serum insulin levels and insulin-to-glucose ratios in high-fat diet-fed Ano1(+/-) mice relative to Ano1(+/+) mice fed the same diet. Our results show that determination of long-range contacts within the nucleus can be used to detect novel and physiologically relevant mechanisms. They also show that networks of long-range physical contacts are important to the regulation of insulin metabolism.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of 5,6-disubstituted thiopyrimidine aryl aminothiazoles as inhibitors of the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A/Ano1

    PubMed Central

    Piechowicz, Katarzyna A.; Truong, Eric C.; Javed, Kashif M.; Chaney, Rachelle R.; Wu, Johnny Y.; Phuan, Puay W.; Verkman, Alan S.; Anderson, Marc O.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), also called Ano1, is a Ca2+ activated Cl− channel expressed widely in mammalian epithelia, as well as in vascular smooth muscle and some tumors and electrically excitable cells. TMEM16A inhibitors have potential utility for treatment of disorders of epithelial fluid and mucus secretion, hypertension, some cancers and other diseases. 4-Aryl-2-amino thiazole T16Ainh-01 was previously identified by high-throughput screening. Here, a library of 47 compounds were prepared that explored the 5,6-disubstituted pyrimidine scaffold found in T16Ainh-01. TMEM16A inhibition activity was measured using fluorescence plate reader and short-circuit current assays. We found that very little structural variation of T16Ainh-01 was tolerated, with most compounds showing no activity at 10 µM. The most potent compound in the series, 9bo, which substitutes 4-methoxyphenyl in T16Ainh-01 with 2-thiophene, had IC50 ~1 µM for inhibition of TMEM16A chloride conductance. PMID:26796863

  6. Mapping of long-range INS promoter interactions reveals a role for calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 in insulin secretion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhixiong; Lefevre, Gaelle M.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Foster St. Claire, Mark B.; Riddick, Gregory; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2014-01-01

    We used circular chromatin conformation capture (4C) to identify a physical contact in human pancreatic islets between the region near the insulin (INS) promoter and the ANO1 gene, lying 68 Mb away on human chromosome 11, which encodes a Ca2+-dependent chloride ion channel. In response to glucose, this contact was strengthened and ANO1 expression increased, whereas inhibition of INS gene transcription by INS promoter targeting siRNA decreased ANO1 expression, revealing a regulatory effect of INS promoter on ANO1 expression. Knockdown of ANO1 expression caused decreased insulin secretion in human islets, establishing a physical proximity-dependent feedback loop involving INS transcription, ANO1 expression, and insulin secretion. To explore a possible role of ANO1 in insulin metabolism, we carried out experiments in Ano1+/− mice. We observed reduced serum insulin levels and insulin-to-glucose ratios in high-fat diet–fed Ano1+/− mice relative to Ano1+/+ mice fed the same diet. Our results show that determination of long-range contacts within the nucleus can be used to detect novel and physiologically relevant mechanisms. They also show that networks of long-range physical contacts are important to the regulation of insulin metabolism. PMID:25385647

  7. Potassium channel stimulation by natriuretic peptides through cGMP-dependent dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    White, R E; Lee, A B; Shcherbatko, A D; Lincoln, T M; Schonbrunn, A; Armstrong, D L

    1993-01-21

    Natriuretic peptides inhibit the release and action of many hormones through cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), but the mechanism of cGMP action is unclear. In frog ventricular muscle and guinea-pig hippocampal neurons, cGMP inhibits voltage-activated Ca2+ currents by stimulating phosphodiesterase activity and reducing intracellular cyclic AMP; however, this mechanism is not involved in the action of cGMP on other channels or on Ca2+ channels in other cells. Natriuretic peptide receptors in the rat pituitary also stimulate guanylyl cyclase activity but inhibit secretion by increasing membrane conductance to potassium. In an electrophysiological study on rat pituitary tumour cells, we identified the large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK) as the primary target of another inhibitory neuropeptide, somatostatin. Here we report that atrial natriuretic peptide also stimulates BK channel activity in GH4C1 cells through protein dephosphorylation. Unlike somatostatin, however, the effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on BK channel activity is preceded by a rapid and potent stimulation of cGMP production and requires cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity. Protein phosphatase activation by cGMP-dependent kinase could explain the inhibitory effects of natriuretic peptides on electrical excitability and the antagonism of cGMP and cAMP in many systems.

  8. Nitric oxide signaling modulates synaptic inhibition in the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN) via cGMP-dependent suppression of KCC2

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Lina; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Asraf, Hila; Grothe, Benedikt; Hershfinkel, Michal; Forsythe, Ian D.; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Glycinergic inhibition plays a central role in the auditory brainstem circuitries involved in sound localization and in the encoding of temporal action potential firing patterns. Modulation of this inhibition has the potential to fine-tune information processing in these networks. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the auditory brainstem (where activity-dependent generation of NO is documented) modulates the strength of inhibition by changing the chloride equilibrium potential. Recent evidence demonstrates that large inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in neurons of the superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN) are enhanced by a very low intracellular chloride concentration, generated by the neuronal potassium chloride co-transporter (KCC2) expressed in the postsynaptic neurons. Our data show that modulation by NO caused a 15 mV depolarizing shift of the IPSC reversal potential, reducing the strength of inhibition in SPN neurons, without changing the threshold for action potential firing. Regulating inhibitory strength, through cGMP-dependent changes in the efficacy of KCC2 in the target neuron provides a postsynaptic mechanism for rapidly controlling the inhibitory drive, without altering the timing or pattern of the afferent spike train. Therefore, this NO-mediated suppression of KCC2 can modulate inhibition in one target nucleus (SPN), without influencing inhibitory strength of other target nuclei (MSO, LSO) even though they are each receiving collaterals from the same afferent nucleus (a projection from the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, MNTB). PMID:24987336

  9. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  10. Activity of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Habituation in "Drosophila melanogaster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiner, Ricarda; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Erber, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has many cellular functions in vertebrates and insects that affect complex behaviors such as locomotion and foraging. The "foraging" ("for") gene encodes a PKG in "Drosophila melanogaster." Here, we demonstrate a function for the "for" gene in sensory responsiveness and nonassociative learning. Larvae of the…

  11. Activity of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Habituation in "Drosophila melanogaster"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiner, Ricarda; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Erber, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has many cellular functions in vertebrates and insects that affect complex behaviors such as locomotion and foraging. The "foraging" ("for") gene encodes a PKG in "Drosophila melanogaster." Here, we demonstrate a function for the "for" gene in sensory responsiveness and nonassociative learning. Larvae of the…

  12. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  13. Structural Basis of Cyclic Nucleotide Selectivity in cGMP-dependent Protein Kinase II

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, James C.; Kim, Jeong Joo; Li, Kevin Y.; ...

    2016-01-14

    Membrane-bound cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) II is an important regulator of bone growth, renin secretion, and memory formation. Despite its crucial physiological roles, little is known about its cyclic nucleotide selectivity mechanism due to a lack of structural information. Here, we find that the C-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB-B) domain of PKGII binds cGMP with higher affinity and selectivity when compared with its N-terminal CNB (CNB-A) domain. To understand the structural basis of cGMP selectivity, we solved co-crystal structures of the CNB domains with cyclic nucleotides. Our structures combined with mutagenesis demonstrate that the guanine-specific contacts at Asp-412 and Arg-415more » of the αC-helix of CNB-B are crucial for cGMP selectivity and activation of PKG II. Structural comparison with the cGMP selective CNB domains of human PKG I and Plasmodium falciparum PKG (PfPKG) shows different contacts with the guanine moiety, revealing a unique cGMP selectivity mechanism for PKG II.« less

  14. Structural Basis of Cyclic Nucleotide Selectivity in cGMP-dependent Protein Kinase II

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James C.; Kim, Jeong Joo; Li, Kevin Y.; Huang, Gilbert Y.; Reger, Albert S.; Matsuda, Shinya; Sankaran, Banumathi; Link, Todd M.; Yuasa, Keizo; Ladbury, John E.; Casteel, Darren E.; Kim, Choel

    2016-01-14

    Membrane-bound cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) II is an important regulator of bone growth, renin secretion, and memory formation. Despite its crucial physiological roles, little is known about its cyclic nucleotide selectivity mechanism due to a lack of structural information. Here, we find that the C-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB-B) domain of PKGII binds cGMP with higher affinity and selectivity when compared with its N-terminal CNB (CNB-A) domain. To understand the structural basis of cGMP selectivity, we solved co-crystal structures of the CNB domains with cyclic nucleotides. Our structures combined with mutagenesis demonstrate that the guanine-specific contacts at Asp-412 and Arg-415 of the αC-helix of CNB-B are crucial for cGMP selectivity and activation of PKG II. Structural comparison with the cGMP selective CNB domains of human PKG I and Plasmodium falciparum PKG (PfPKG) shows different contacts with the guanine moiety, revealing a unique cGMP selectivity mechanism for PKG II.

  15. Redox regulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Eaton, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of oxidants in biological systems have been historically referred to as “oxidative stress,” a choice of words that perhaps conveys an imbalanced view of reactive oxygen species in cells and tissues. The term stress suggests a harmful role, whereas a contemporary view is that oxidants are also crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis or adaptive signaling that can actually limit injury. This regulatory role for oxidants is achieved in part by them inducing oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins which may alter their function or interactions. Such mechanisms allow changes in cell oxidant levels to be coupled to regulated alterations in enzymatic function (i.e., signal transduction), which enables “redox signaling.” In this review we focus on the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) Ia disulfide dimerisation, an oxidative modification that is induced by oxidants that directly activates the enzyme, discussing how this impacts on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, how this oxidative activation of PKG may coordinate with or differ from classical activation of this kinase by cGMP is also considered. PMID:26236235

  16. The C. elegans cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase EGL-4 Regulates Nociceptive Behavioral Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowski, Michelle C.; Michaels, Kerry L.; Jackson, Christopher A.; Juang, Bi-Tzen; Collins, Kimberly D.; Yu, Michael C.; L'Etoile, Noelle D.; Ferkey, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    Signaling levels within sensory neurons must be tightly regulated to allow cells to integrate information from multiple signaling inputs and to respond to new stimuli. Herein we report a new role for the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in the negative regulation of G protein-coupled nociceptive chemosensory signaling. C. elegans lacking EGL-4 function are hypersensitive in their behavioral response to low concentrations of the bitter tastant quinine and exhibit an elevated calcium flux in the ASH sensory neurons in response to quinine. We provide the first direct evidence for cGMP/PKG function in ASH and propose that ODR-1, GCY-27, GCY-33 and GCY-34 act in a non-cell-autonomous manner to provide cGMP for EGL-4 function in ASH. Our data suggest that activated EGL-4 dampens quinine sensitivity via phosphorylation and activation of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins RGS-2 and RGS-3, which in turn downregulate Gα signaling and behavioral sensitivity. PMID:23874221

  17. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I, the circadian clock, sleep and learning.

    PubMed

    Feil, Robert; Hölter, Sabine M; Weindl, Karin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Langmesser, Sonja; Gerling, Andrea; Feil, Susanne; Albrecht, Urs

    2009-07-01

    The second messenger cGMP controls cardiovascular and gastrointestinal homeostasis in mammals. However, its physiological relevance in the nervous system is poorly understood.1 Now, we have reported that the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1) is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness.2Prkg1 mutant mice showed altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness as well as reduction in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) duration and in non-REMS consolidation. Furthermore, the ability to sustain waking episodes was compromised. These observations were also reflected in wheel-running and drinking activity. A decrease in electroencephalogram power in the delta frequency range (1-4 Hz) under baseline conditions was observed, which was normalized after sleep deprivation. Together with the finding that circadian clock amplitude is reduced in Prkg1 mutants these results indicate a decrease of the wake-promoting output of the circadian system affecting sleep. Because quality of sleep might affect learning we tested Prkg1 mutants in several learning tasks and find normal spatial learning but impaired object recognition memory in these animals. Our findings indicate that Prkg1 impinges on circadian rhythms, sleep and distinct aspects of learning.

  18. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 controls body size and lifespan in C elegans.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Takashi; Nakano, Yoshiya; Nagamatsu, Yasuko; Misumi, Takashi; Ohta, Hiromitsu; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2003-03-01

    We designed an automatic system to measure body length, diameters and volume of a C. elegans worm. By using this system, mutants with an increased body volume exceeding 50% were isolated. Four of them are grossly normal in morphology and development, grow longer to be almost twice as big, and have weak egg-laying defects and extended lifespan. All the four mutants have a mutation in the egl-4 gene. We show that the egl-4 gene encodes cGMP-dependent protein kinases. egl-4 promoter::gfp fusion genes are mainly expressed in head neurons, hypodermis, intestine and body wall muscles. Procedures to analyze morphology and volume of major organs were developed. The results indicate that volumes of intestine, hypodermis and muscle and cell volumes in intestine and muscle are increased in the egl-4 mutants, whereas cell numbers are not. Experiments on genetic interaction suggest that the cGMP-EGL-4 signaling pathway represses body size and lifespan through DBL-1/TGF-beta and insulin pathways, respectively.

  19. An ant-plant mutualism through the lens of cGMP-dependent kinase genes.

    PubMed

    Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Turner, Kyle M; Doha, Manjima; Anreiter, Ina; Allen, Aaron M; Sokolowski, Marla B; Frederickson, Megan E

    2017-09-13

    In plant-animal mutualisms, how an animal forages often determines how much benefit its plant partner receives. In many animals, foraging behaviour changes in response to foraging gene expression or activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) that foraging encodes. Here, we show that this highly conserved molecular mechanism affects the outcome of a plant-animal mutualism. We studied the two PKG genes of Allomerus octoarticulatus, an Amazonian ant that defends the ant-plant Cordia nodosa against herbivores. Some ant colonies are better 'bodyguards' than others. Working in the field in Peru, we found that colonies fed with a PKG activator recruited more workers to attack herbivores than control colonies. This resulted in less herbivore damage. PKG gene expression in ant workers correlated with whether an ant colony discovered an herbivore and how much damage herbivores inflicted on leaves in a complex way; natural variation in expression levels of the two genes had significant interaction effects on ant behaviour and herbivory. Our results suggest a molecular basis for ant protection of plants in this mutualism. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Structural Basis of Cyclic Nucleotide Selectivity in cGMP-dependent Protein Kinase II*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, James C.; Kim, Jeong Joo; Li, Kevin Y.; Huang, Gilbert Y.; Reger, Albert S.; Matsuda, Shinya; Sankaran, Banumathi; Link, Todd M.; Yuasa, Keizo; Ladbury, John E.; Casteel, Darren E.; Kim, Choel

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-bound cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) II is a key regulator of bone growth, renin secretion, and memory formation. Despite its crucial physiological roles, little is known about its cyclic nucleotide selectivity mechanism due to a lack of structural information. Here, we find that the C-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB-B) domain of PKG II binds cGMP with higher affinity and selectivity when compared with its N-terminal CNB (CNB-A) domain. To understand the structural basis of cGMP selectivity, we solved co-crystal structures of the CNB domains with cyclic nucleotides. Our structures combined with mutagenesis demonstrate that the guanine-specific contacts at Asp-412 and Arg-415 of the αC-helix of CNB-B are crucial for cGMP selectivity and activation of PKG II. Structural comparison with the cGMP selective CNB domains of human PKG I and Plasmodium falciparum PKG (PfPKG) shows different contacts with the guanine moiety, revealing a unique cGMP selectivity mechanism for PKG II. PMID:26769964

  1. Redox regulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Eaton, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of oxidants in biological systems have been historically referred to as "oxidative stress," a choice of words that perhaps conveys an imbalanced view of reactive oxygen species in cells and tissues. The term stress suggests a harmful role, whereas a contemporary view is that oxidants are also crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis or adaptive signaling that can actually limit injury. This regulatory role for oxidants is achieved in part by them inducing oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins which may alter their function or interactions. Such mechanisms allow changes in cell oxidant levels to be coupled to regulated alterations in enzymatic function (i.e., signal transduction), which enables "redox signaling." In this review we focus on the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) Ia disulfide dimerisation, an oxidative modification that is induced by oxidants that directly activates the enzyme, discussing how this impacts on the cardiovascular system. Additionally, how this oxidative activation of PKG may coordinate with or differ from classical activation of this kinase by cGMP is also considered.

  2. Spatiotemporal and Functional Characterisation of the Plasmodium falciparum cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Christine S.; Flueck, Christian; Solyakov, Lev; Tobin, Andrew; Baker, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Signalling by 3′–5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) exists in virtually all eukaryotes. In the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has previously been reported to play a critical role in four key stages of the life cycle. The Plasmodium falciparum isoform (PfPKG) is essential for the initiation of gametogenesis and for blood stage schizont rupture and work on the orthologue from the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei (PbPKG) has shown additional roles in ookinete differentiation and motility as well as liver stage schizont development. In the present study, PfPKG expression and subcellular location in asexual blood stages was investigated using transgenic epitope-tagged PfPKG-expressing P. falciparum parasites. In Western blotting experiments and immunofluorescence analysis (IFA), maximal PfPKG expression was detected at the late schizont stage. While IFA suggested a cytosolic location, a degree of overlap with markers of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was found and subcellular fractionation showed some association with the peripheral membrane fraction. This broad localisation is consistent with the notion that PfPKG, as with the mammalian orthologue, has numerous cellular substrates. This idea is further supported by the global protein phosphorylation pattern of schizonts which was substantially changed following PfPKG inhibition, suggesting a complex role for PfPKG during schizogony. PMID:23139764

  3. Activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase by protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yali; Lascola, Judith; Dulin, Nickolai O; Ye, Richard D; Browning, Darren D

    2003-05-09

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG) are emerging as important components of mainstream signal transduction pathways. Nitric oxide-induced cGMP formation by stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase is generally accepted as being the most widespread mechanism underlying PKG activation. In the present study, PKG was found to be a target for phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-responsive protein kinase C (PKC). PKG1alpha became phosphorylated in HEK-293 cells stimulated with PMA and also in vitro using purified components. PKC-dependent phosphorylation was found to activate PKG as measured by phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, and by in vitro kinase assays. Although there are 11 potential PKC substrate recognition sites in PKG1alpha, threonine 58 was examined due to its proximity to the pseudosubstrate domain. Antibodies generated against the phosphorylated form of this region were used to demonstrate phosphorylation in response to PMA treatment of the cells with kinetics similar to vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation. A phospho-mimetic mutation at this site (T58E) generated a partially activated PKG that was more sensitive to cGMP levels. A phospho-null mutation (T58A) revealed that this residue is important but not sufficient for PKG activation by PKC. Taken together, these findings outline a novel signal transduction pathway that links PKC stimulation with cyclic nucleotide-independent activation of PKG.

  4. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I, the circadian clock, sleep and learning

    PubMed Central

    Feil, Robert; Hölter, Sabine M; Weindl, Karin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Langmesser, Sonja; Gerling, Andrea; Feil, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The second messenger cGMP controls cardiovascular and gastrointestinal homeostasis in mammals. However, its physiological relevance in the nervous system is poorly understood.1 Now, we have reported that the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1) is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness.2 Prkg1 mutant mice showed altered distribution of sleep and wakefulness as well as reduction in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) duration and in non-REMS consolidation. Furthermore, the ability to sustain waking episodes was compromised. These observations were also reflected in wheel-running and drinking activity. A decrease in electroencephalogram power in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz) under baseline conditions was observed, which was normalized after sleep deprivation. Together with the finding that circadian clock amplitude is reduced in Prkg1 mutants these results indicate a decrease of the wake-promoting output of the circadian system affecting sleep. Because quality of sleep might affect learning we tested Prkg1 mutants in several learning tasks and find normal spatial learning but impaired object recognition memory in these animals. Our findings indicate that Prkg1 impinges on circadian rhythms, sleep and distinct aspects of learning. PMID:19721870

  5. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase and soluble guanylyl cyclase disappear in elicited rat neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ciuman, Małgorzata; Siednienko, Jakub; Czyzyk, Rafał; Witwicka, Hanna; Kołosionek, Ewa; Kobiałka, Marcin; Gorczyca, Wojciech A

    2006-11-01

    The nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (NO/sGC/PKG) cascade has been shown to affect important functions of circulating neutrophils. We demonstrate that neutrophils isolated from rats treated intraperitoneally with peptone protease cannot use this signaling pathway. Although PKG was detected at both the mRNA and protein levels in peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) of control rats, it was expressed neither in PBNs nor in peritoneal exudate neutrophils (PENs) of provoked rats. Also, mRNA of the alpha and beta chains of heterodimeric sGC was present in PBNs, but absent in PENs. Consistently, PBNs responded to activators of sGC with cGMP synthesis, while PENs did not. These results showed that neutrophils recruited by a provoking agent lost PKG and, in the case of PENs, also sGC and thus the capacity to respond to NO with cGMP signaling. We speculate that such downregulation of the sGC/PKG pathway is likely a result of the high activity of inducible NO synthase observed in inflammatory neutrophils.

  6. The Golgi apparatus regulates cGMP-dependent protein kinase I compartmentation and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin; Chen, Jingsi; Cornog, Katherine H; Zhang, Huili; Roberts, Jesse D

    2015-06-01

    cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI) is an important effector of cGMP signaling that regulates vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype and proliferation. PKGI has been detected in the perinuclear region of cells, and recent data indicate that proprotein convertases (PCs) typically resident in the Golgi apparatus (GA) can stimulate PKGI proteolysis and generate a kinase fragment that localizes to the nucleus and regulates gene expression. However, the role of the endomembrane system in PKGI compartmentation and processing is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PKGI colocalizes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER), ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, GA cisterna, and trans-Golgi network proteins in pulmonary artery SMC and cell lines. Moreover, PKGI localizes with furin, a trans-Golgi network-resident PC known to cleave PKGI. ER protein transport influences PKGI localization because overexpression of a constitutively inactive Sar1 transgene caused PKGI retention in the ER. Additionally, PKGI appears to reside within the GA because PKGI immunoreactivity was determined to be resistant to cytosolic proteinase K treatment in live cells. The GA appears to play a role in PKGI proteolysis because overexpression of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-associated cGMP kinase substrate, not only tethered heterologous PKGI-β to the ER and decreased its localization to the GA, but also diminished PKGI proteolysis and nuclear translocation. Also, inhibiting intra-GA protein transport with monensin was observed to decrease PKGI cleavage. These studies detail a role for the endomembrane system in regulating PKGI compartmentation and proteolysis. Moreover, they support the investigation of mechanisms regulating PKGI-dependent nuclear cGMP signaling in the pulmonary vasculature with Golgi dysfunction.

  7. Function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II in volume load-induced diuresis.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Andrea; Schinner, Elisabeth; Huettner, Johannes P; Kees, Frieder; Tauber, Philipp; Hofmann, Franz; Schlossmann, Jens

    2014-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)/cGMPs cause diuresis and natriuresis. Their downstream effectors beyond cGMP remain unclear. To elucidate a probable function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII), we investigated renal parameters in different conditions (basal, salt diets, starving, water load) using a genetically modified mouse model (cGKII-KO), but did not detect any striking differences between WT and cGKII-KO. Thus, cGKII is proposed to play only a marginal role in the adjustment of renal concentration ability to varying salt loads without water restriction or starving conditions. When WT mice were subjected to a volume load (performed by application of a 10-mM glucose solution (3% of BW) via feeding needle), they exhibited a potent diuresis. In contrast, urine volume was decreased significantly in cGKII-KO. We showed that AQP2 plasma membrane (PM) abundance was reduced for about 50% in WT upon volume load, therefore, this might be a main cause for the enhanced diuresis. In contrast, cGKII-KO mice almost completely failed to decrease AQP2-PM distribution. This significant difference between both genotypes is not induced by an altered p-Ser256-AQP2 phosphorylation, as phosphorylation at this site decreases similarly in WT and KO. Furthermore, sodium excretion was lowered in cGKII-KO mice during volume load. In summary, cGKII is only involved to a minor extent in the regulation of basal renal concentration ability. By contrast, cGKII-KO mice are not able to handle an acute volume load. Our results suggest that membrane insertion of AQP2 is inhibited by cGMP/cGKII.

  8. Cyclic di-GMP-dependent Signaling Pathways in the Pathogenic Firmicute Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Hong; Köseoğlu, Volkan K.; Güvener, Zehra T.; Myers-Morales, Tanya; Reed, Joseph M.; D'Orazio, Sarah E. F.; Miller, Kurt W.; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We characterized key components and major targets of the c-di-GMP signaling pathways in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, identified a new c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide responsible for motility inhibition, cell aggregation, and enhanced tolerance to disinfectants and desiccation, and provided first insights into the role of c-di-GMP signaling in listerial virulence. Genome-wide genetic and biochemical analyses of c-di-GMP signaling pathways revealed that L. monocytogenes has three GGDEF domain proteins, DgcA (Lmo1911), DgcB (Lmo1912) and DgcC (Lmo2174), that possess diguanylate cyclase activity, and three EAL domain proteins, PdeB (Lmo0131), PdeC (Lmo1914) and PdeD (Lmo0111), that possess c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. Deletion of all phosphodiesterase genes (ΔpdeB/C/D) or expression of a heterologous diguanylate cyclase stimulated production of a previously unknown exopolysaccharide. The synthesis of this exopolysaccharide was attributed to the pssA-E (lmo0527-0531) gene cluster. The last gene of the cluster encodes the fourth listerial GGDEF domain protein, PssE, that functions as an I-site c-di-GMP receptor essential for exopolysaccharide synthesis. The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar, however, it does not promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. The exopolysaccharide and another, as yet unknown c-di-GMP-dependent target, drastically decrease listerial invasiveness in enterocytes in vitro, and lower pathogen load in the liver and gallbladder of mice infected via an oral route, which suggests that elevated c-di-GMP levels play an overall negative role in listerial virulence. PMID:25101646

  9. A post-translational, c-di-GMP-dependent mechanism regulating flagellar motility.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Gomelsky, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Elevated levels of the second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP, c-di-GMP, promote transition of bacteria from single motile cells to surface-attached multicellular communities. Here we describe a post-translational mechanism by which c-di-GMP initiates this transition in enteric bacteria. High levels of c-di-GMP induce the counterclockwise bias in Escherichia coli flagellar rotation, which results in smooth swimming. Based on co-immunoprecipitation, two-hybrid and mutational analyses, the E. coli c-di-GMP receptor YcgR binds to the FliG subunit of the flagellum switch complex, and the YcgR-FliG interaction is strengthened by c-di-GMP. The central fragment of FliG binds to YcgR as well as to FliM, suggesting that YcgR-c-di-GMP biases flagellum rotation by altering FliG-FliM interactions. The c-di-GMP-induced smooth swimming promotes trapping of motile bacteria in semi-solid media and attachment of liquid-grown bacteria to solid surfaces, whereas c-di-GMP-dependent mechanisms not involving YcgR further facilitate surface attachment. The YcgR-FliG interaction is conserved in the enteric bacteria, and the N-terminal YcgR/PilZN domain of YcgR is required for this interaction. YcgR joins a growing list of proteins that regulate motility via the FliG subunit of the flagellum switch complex, which suggests that FliG is a common regulatory entryway that operates in parallel with the chemotaxis that utilizes the FliM-entryway.

  10. The plant natriuretic peptide receptor is a guanylyl cyclase and enables cGMP-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Turek, Ilona; Gehring, Chris

    2016-06-01

    The functional homologues of vertebrate natriuretic peptides (NPs), the plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs), are a novel class of peptidic hormones that signal via guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and systemically affect plant salt and water balance and responses to biotrophic plant pathogens. Although there is increasing understanding of the complex roles of PNPs in plant responses at the systems level, little is known about the underlying signaling mechanisms. Here we report isolation and identification of a novel Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein that directly interacts with A. thaliana PNP, AtPNP-A. In vitro binding studies revealed that the Arabidopsis AtPNP-A binds specifically to the LRR protein, termed AtPNP-R1, and the active region of AtPNP-A is sufficient for the interaction to occur. Importantly, the cytosolic part of the AtPNP-R1, much like in some vertebrate NP receptors, harbors a catalytic center diagnostic for guanylyl cyclases and the recombinant AtPNP-R1 is capable of catalyzing the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to cGMP. In addition, we show that AtPNP-A causes rapid increases of cGMP levels in wild type (WT) leaf tissue while this response is significantly reduced in the atpnp-r1 mutants. AtPNP-A also causes cGMP-dependent net water uptake into WT protoplasts, and hence volume increases, whereas responses of the protoplasts from the receptor mutant are impaired. Taken together, our results suggest that the identified LRR protein is an AtPNP-A receptor essential for the PNP-dependent regulation of ion and water homeostasis in plants and that PNP- and vertebrate NP-receptors and their signaling mechanisms share surprising similarities.

  11. Cyclic di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways in the pathogenic Firmicute Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hong; Köseoğlu, Volkan K; Güvener, Zehra T; Myers-Morales, Tanya; Reed, Joseph M; D'Orazio, Sarah E F; Miller, Kurt W; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-08-01

    We characterized key components and major targets of the c-di-GMP signaling pathways in the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, identified a new c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide responsible for motility inhibition, cell aggregation, and enhanced tolerance to disinfectants and desiccation, and provided first insights into the role of c-di-GMP signaling in listerial virulence. Genome-wide genetic and biochemical analyses of c-di-GMP signaling pathways revealed that L. monocytogenes has three GGDEF domain proteins, DgcA (Lmo1911), DgcB (Lmo1912) and DgcC (Lmo2174), that possess diguanylate cyclase activity, and three EAL domain proteins, PdeB (Lmo0131), PdeC (Lmo1914) and PdeD (Lmo0111), that possess c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. Deletion of all phosphodiesterase genes (ΔpdeB/C/D) or expression of a heterologous diguanylate cyclase stimulated production of a previously unknown exopolysaccharide. The synthesis of this exopolysaccharide was attributed to the pssA-E (lmo0527-0531) gene cluster. The last gene of the cluster encodes the fourth listerial GGDEF domain protein, PssE, that functions as an I-site c-di-GMP receptor essential for exopolysaccharide synthesis. The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar, however, it does not promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. The exopolysaccharide and another, as yet unknown c-di-GMP-dependent target, drastically decrease listerial invasiveness in enterocytes in vitro, and lower pathogen load in the liver and gallbladder of mice infected via an oral route, which suggests that elevated c-di-GMP levels play an overall negative role in listerial virulence.

  12. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  13. Impairment of LTD and cerebellar learning by Purkinje cell–specific ablation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I

    PubMed Central

    Feil, Robert; Hartmann, Jana; Luo, Chongde; Wolfsgruber, Wiebke; Schilling, Karl; Feil, Susanne; Barski, Jaroslaw J.; Meyer, Michael; Konnerth, Arthur; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Hofmann, Franz

    2003-01-01

    The molecular basis for cerebellar plasticity and motor learning remains controversial. Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) contain a high concentration of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI). To investigate the function of cGKI in long-term depression (LTD) and cerebellar learning, we have generated conditional knockout mice lacking cGKI selectively in PCs. These cGKI mutants had a normal cerebellar morphology and intact synaptic calcium signaling, but strongly reduced LTD. Interestingly, no defects in general behavior and motor performance could be detected in the LTD-deficient mice, but the mutants exhibited an impaired adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). These results indicate that cGKI in PCs is dispensable for general motor coordination, but that it is required for cerebellar LTD and specific forms of motor learning, namely the adaptation of the VOR. PMID:14568994

  14. Direct Activation of cGMP-Dependent Channels of Retinal Rods by the cGMP Phosphodiesterase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Nelly; Ildefonse, Michele; Crouzy, Serge; Chapron, Yves; Clerc, Armel

    1989-05-01

    The cationic conductances of purified bovine retinal rod membranes were studied by incorporation of vesicles into planar lipid bilayers. When the membranes were stripped of all peripheral proteins [guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) and cGMP phosphodiesterase (3',5'-cyclic-GMP 5'-nucleotidohydrolase), EC 3.1.4.35], sodium and calcium fluxes were almost only observed in the presence of cGMP. Reconstitution experiments in which purified cGMP phosphodiesterase alone or with G protein were reassociated to the vesicles in proportions similar to those found in the native rod provide evidence for a direct interaction between the cGMP-dependent channel protein and the phosphodiesterase. (i) In its inhibited state, phosphodiesterase markedly stimulates the activity of the channels in the presence of cGMP (situation in the dark-adapted rod) but is not capable of activating the channels in the absence of cGMP. (ii) In the absence of cGMP, activation of the phosphodiesterase by G protein with GTP bound (equivalent to photoexcitation) induces the opening of cation channels that have the same conductance for sodium ions as cGMP-activated channels (20-22 pS, with two sublevels of about 7 pS and 13 pS).

  15. Mechanisms of cGMP-dependent mesangial-cell relaxation: a role for myosin light-chain phosphatase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, G; Díez-Marqués, M L; García-Escribano, C; Bosch, R J; Rodríguez-Puyol, D; Rodríguez-Puyol, M

    2000-01-01

    Although the cGMP-dependent relaxation of contractile cells seems to depend on the ability of the cyclic nucleotide to interfere with intracellular calcium, this does not appear to be the only mechanism involved. The present experiments were designed to analyse alternative mechanisms, trying to test the hypothesis that cGMP could relax rat mesangial cells by activating myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLC-PP), with the subsequent dephosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC). The effect of a cGMP analogue, dibutyryl cGMP (dbcGMP), on angiotensin II-(AII) and PMA-induced MLC phosphorylation (MLCP) was tested, in the presence of calyculin A (CA), an inhibitor of MLC-PP. MLCP was measured, after cell labelling with (32)P, by immunoprecipitation. dbcGMP prevented the increased MLCP induced by AII or PMA, and this inhibition was blocked by CA. dbcGMP also increased the MLC dephosphorylation observed in cells incubated with AII and in which MLC kinase and protein kinase C activities were blocked. The AII-elicited increased intracellular calcium concentration was only partially inhibited by dbcGMP. These results suggest that the cGMP-induced mesangial-cell relaxation could be due, at least partially, to the stimulation of MLC-PP. PMID:10657260

  16. Expression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, PKGIα, PKGIβ, and PKGII in malignant and benign breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Karami-Tehrani, Fatemeh; Fallahian, Faranak; Atri, Morteza

    2012-12-01

    Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG) constitute a small family of enzymes that are encoded by two genes. Two major forms of PKG have been identified in mammalian cells, PKG I and PKG II. In addition, there are two splice variants of PKG I, which are designated as Iα and Iβ. There are increasing evidences that PKG can play an important role in the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. In our previous studies, the inhibitory effects of cGMP/PKG on the cell growth were indicated using breast cancer cell lines. Accordingly, the present study was designed to compare the expression levels of three PKG isoforms in normal, benign, and malignant breast tissues. The expression level of PKG isoforms was assayed using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The correlation between relative expression of PKG isoforms and clinicopathological characteristics were also analyzed. Downregulation of PKG isoforms was observed in the malignant and benign tumors when compared to those of respective normal tissues. No significant correlation was found between PKGIα, PKGIβ, and PKGII expression and clinicopathological features. The present study is the first to evaluate the expression level of PKG isoforms PKGIα, PKGIβ, and PKGII in the malignant and benign breast tumors. Reduction in the PKG expression is an important evidence to support the antitumor activity of this enzyme in vivo.

  17. The switch helix: a putative combinatorial relay for interprotomer communication in cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Moon, Thomas M; Osborne, Brent W; Dostmann, Wolfgang R

    2013-07-01

    For over three decades the isozymes of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) have been studied using an array of biochemical and biophysical techniques. When compared to its closest cousin, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), these studies revealed a set of identical domain types, yet containing distinct, sequence-specific features. The recently solved structure of the PKG regulatory domain showed the presence of the switch helix (SW), a novel motif that promotes the formation of a domain-swapped dimer in the asymmetric unit. This dimer is mediated by the interaction of a knob motif on the C-terminal locus of the SW, with a hydrophobic nest on the opposing protomer. This nest sits adjacent to the cGMP binding pocket of the B-site. Priming of this site by cGMP may influence the geometry of the hydrophobic nest. Moreover, this unique interaction may have wide implications for the architecture of the inactive and active forms of PKG. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases (2012).

  18. Ca sup 2+ current is regulated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in mammalian cardiac myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mery, P-F.; Fischmeister, R. ); Lohmann, S.M.; Walter, U. )

    1991-02-15

    Regulation of cardiac contraction by neurotransmitters and hormones is often correlated with regulation of the L-type Ca{sup 2+}-channel current (I{sub Ca}) through the opposite actions for two second messengers, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. While cyclic AMP stimulation of I{sub Ca} is mediated by the activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, inhibition of I{sub Ca} by cyclic GMP in frog heart is largely mediated by activation of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase. The present patch-clamp study reveals that, in rat ventricular cells, cyclic GMP can also regulate I{sub Ca} via activation of endogenous cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP-PK). Indeed, the effect of cyclic GMP on I{sub Ca} was mimicked by intracellular perfusion with the proteolytic active fragment of purified cGMP-PK. Moreover, cGMP-PK immunoreactivity was detected in pure rat ventricular myocytes by using a specific polyclonal antibody. These results demonstrate a dual mechanism for the inhibitory action of cyclic GMP in heart, as well as a physiological role for cGMP-PK in the control of mammalian heart function.

  19. cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases and cGMP Phosphodiesterases in Nitric Oxide and cGMP Action

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Jennifer L.; Corbin, Jackie D.

    2010-01-01

    To date, studies suggest that biological signaling by nitric oxide (NO) is primarily mediated by cGMP, which is synthesized by NO-activated guanylyl cyclases and broken down by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Effects of cGMP occur through three main groups of cellular targets: cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), cGMP-gated cation channels, and PDEs. cGMP binding activates PKG, which phosphorylates serines and threonines on many cellular proteins, frequently resulting in changes in activity or function, subcellular localization, or regulatory features. The proteins that are so modified by PKG commonly regulate calcium homeostasis, calcium sensitivity of cellular proteins, platelet activation and adhesion, smooth muscle contraction, cardiac function, gene expression, feedback of the NO-signaling pathway, and other processes. Current therapies that have successfully targeted the NO-signaling pathway include nitrovasodilators (nitroglycerin), PDE5 inhibitors [sildenafil (Viagra and Revatio), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis and Adcirca)] for treatment of a number of vascular diseases including angina pectoris, erectile dysfunction, and pulmonary hypertension; the PDE3 inhibitors [cilostazol (Pletal) and milrinone (Primacor)] are used for treatment of intermittent claudication and acute heart failure, respectively. Potential for use of these medications in the treatment of other maladies continues to emerge. PMID:20716671

  20. Development of a transgenic Plasmodium berghei line (Pb pfpkg) expressing the P. falciparum cGMP-dependent protein kinase, a novel antimalarial drug target.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rita; Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Poulin, Benoit; Stewart, Lindsay; Baker, David A

    2014-01-01

    With the inevitable selection of resistance to antimalarial drugs in treated populations, there is a need for new medicines to enter the clinic and new targets to progress through the drug discovery pipeline. In this study we set out to develop a transgenic rodent model for testing inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum cyclic GMP-dependent kinase in vivo. A model was needed that would allow us to investigate whether differences in amino acid sequence of this enzyme between species influences in vivo efficacy. Here we report the successful development of a transgenic P. berghei line in which the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) was replaced by the P. falciparum orthologue. We demonstrate that the P. falciparum orthologue was able to functionally complement the endogenous P. berghei pkg gene throughout blood stage development and early sexual development. However, subsequent development in the mosquito was severely compromised. We show that this is due to a defect in the female lineage of the transgenic by using genetic crosses with both male and female deficient P. berghei lines. This defect could be due to expression of a female-specific target in the mosquito stages of P. berghei that cannot be phosphorylated by the P. falciparum kinase. Using a previously reported anti-coccidial inhibitor of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase, we show no difference in in vivo efficacy between the transgenic and control P. berghei lines. This in vivo model will be useful for screening future generations of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors and allowing us to overcome any species-specific differences in the enzyme primary sequence that would influence in vivo efficacy in the rodent model. The approach will also be applicable to in vivo testing of other antimalarial compounds where the target is known.

  1. Stress-dependent dilated cardiomyopathy in mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted inactivation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, Stefan; Klaiber, Michael; Baba, Hideo A.; Oberwinkler, Heike; Völker, Katharina; Gaβner, Birgit; Bayer, Barbara; Abeβer, Marco; Schuh, Kai; Feil, Robert; Hofmann, Franz; Kuhn, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Aims Cardiac hypertrophy is a common and often lethal complication of arterial hypertension. Elevation of myocyte cyclic GMP levels by local actions of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) or by pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 was shown to counter-regulate pathological hypertrophy. It was suggested that cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) mediates this protective effect, although the role in vivo is under debate. Here, we investigated whether cGKI modulates myocyte growth and/or function in the intact organism. Methods and results To circumvent the systemic phenotype associated with germline ablation of cGKI, we inactivated the murine cGKI gene selectively in cardiomyocytes by Cre/loxP-mediated recombination. Mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted cGKI deletion exhibited unaltered cardiac morphology and function under resting conditions. Also, cardiac hypertrophic and contractile responses to β-adrenoreceptor stimulation by isoprenaline (at 40 mg/kg/day during 1 week) were unaltered. However, angiotensin II (Ang II, at 1000 ng/kg/min for 2 weeks) or transverse aortic constriction (for 3 weeks) provoked dilated cardiomyopathy with marked deterioration of cardiac function. This was accompanied by diminished expression of the [Ca2+]i-regulating proteins SERCA2a and phospholamban (PLB) and a reduction in PLB phosphorylation at Ser16, the specific target site for cGKI, resulting in altered myocyte Ca2+i homeostasis. In isolated adult myocytes, CNP, but not ANP, stimulated PLB phosphorylation, Ca2+i-handling, and contractility via cGKI. Conclusion These results indicate that the loss of cGKI in cardiac myocytes compromises the hypertrophic program to pathological stimulation, rendering the heart more susceptible to dysfunction. In particular, cGKI mediates stimulatory effects of CNP on myocyte Ca2+i handling and contractility. PMID:22199120

  2. A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Koltes, James E; Mishra, Bishnu P; Kumar, Dinesh; Kataria, Ranjit S; Totir, Liviu R; Fernando, Rohan L; Cobbold, Rowland; Steffen, David; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Reecy, James M

    2009-11-17

    Historically, dwarfism was the major genetic defect in U.S. beef cattle. Aggressive culling and sire testing were used to minimize its prevalence; however, neither of these practices can eliminate a recessive genetic defect. We assembled a 4-generation pedigree to identify the mutation underlying dwarfism in American Angus cattle. An adaptation of the Elston-Steward algorithm was used to overcome small pedigree size and missing genotypes. The dwarfism locus was fine-mapped to BTA6 between markers AFR227 and BM4311. Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2). This C/T transition introduced a stop codon (R678X) that truncated 85 C-terminal amino acids, including a large portion of the kinase domain. Of the 75 mutations discovered in this region, only this mutation was 100% concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier individuals (log of odds score = 6.63). Previous research has shown that PRKG2 regulates SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9)-mediated transcription of collagen 2 (COL2). We evaluated the ability of wild-type (WT) or R678X PRKG2 to regulate COL2 expression in cell culture. Real-time PCR results confirmed that COL2 is overexpressed in cells that overexpressed R678X PRKG2 as compared with WT PRKG2. Furthermore, COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression was increased in dwarf cattle compared with unaffected cattle. These experiments indicate that the R678X mutation is functional, resulting in a loss of PRKG2 regulation of COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression. Therefore, we present PRKG2 R678X as a causative mutation for dwarfism cattle.

  3. Multigene Family Encoding 3′,5′-Cyclic-GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases in Paramecium tetraurelia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kissmehl, Roland; Krüger, Tim P.; Treptau, Tilman; Froissard, Marine; Plattner, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, 3′,5′-cyclic GMP (cGMP) is one of the second messengers involved in several signal transduction pathways. The enzymes for its production and degradation are well established for these cells, whereas less is known about the potential effector proteins. On the basis of a current Paramecium genome project, we have identified a multigene family with at least 35 members, all of which encode cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). They can be classified into 16 subfamilies with several members each. Two of the genes, PKG1-1 and PKG2-1, were analyzed in more detail after molecular cloning. They encode monomeric enzymes of 770 and 819 amino acids, respectively, whose overall domain organization resembles that in higher eukaryotes. The enzymes contain a regulatory domain of two tandem cyclic nucleotide-binding sites flanked by an amino-terminal region for intracellular localization and a catalytic domain with highly conserved regions for ATP binding and catalysis. However, some Paramecium PKGs show a different structure. In Western blots, PKGs are detected both as cytosolic and as structure-bound forms. Immunofluorescence labeling shows enrichment in the cell cortex, notably around the dense-core secretory vesicles (trichocysts), as well as in cilia. Immunogold electron microscopy analysis reveals consistent labeling of ciliary membranes, of the membrane complex composed of cell membrane and cortical Ca2+ stores, and of regions adjacent to ciliary basal bodies, trichocysts, and trafficking vesicles. Since PKGs (re)phosphorylate the exocytosis-sensitive phosphoprotein pp63/pf upon stimulation, the role of PKGs during stimulated exocytosis is discussed, in addition to a role in ciliary beat regulation. PMID:16400170

  4. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-I localized in nociceptors modulates nociceptive cortical neuronal activity and pain hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Vijayan; Wang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a frequent and poorly understood public health issue. Numerous studies have documented the key significance of plastic changes along the somatosensory pain pathways in chronic pain states. Our recent study demonstrated that the cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKG-I) specifically localized in nociceptors constitutes a key mediator of hyperexcitability of primary sensory neurons and spinal synaptic plasticity after inflammation. However, whether PKG-I in nociceptors further affects the cortical plasticity in the ascending pain pathways under pathological states has remained elusive. The immediate-early gene c-fos and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) are considered reliable indicators for the neuronal activation status and it permits a comprehensive and large-scale observation of nociceptive neuronal activity along the ascending pain pathways subjected to tissue injury. In the present study, we systemically demonstrated that peripheral injury in PKG-Ifl/fl mice produced a significant upregulation of c-Fos or pERK1/2 over from the periphery to the cortex along the pain pathways, including dorsal root ganglion, spinal dorsal horn, ventral posterolateral thalamus, primary somatosensory hindlimb cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, basolateral amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and parabrachial nucleus. In contrast, very few cells in the above regions showed c-Fos or pERK1/2 induction in nociceptor-specific knockout mice lacking PKG-I (SNS-PKG-I−/− mice). Our results indicate that PKG-I expressed in nociceptors is not only a key determinant of dorsal root ganglion hyperexcitability and spinal synaptic plasticity but also an important modulator of cortical neuronal activity in pathological pain states and represent what we believe to be novel targets in the periphery for pain therapeutics. PMID:28326941

  5. A nonsense mutation in cGMP-dependent type II protein kinase (PRKG2) causes dwarfism in American Angus cattle

    PubMed Central

    Koltes, James E.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Kumar, Dinesh; Kataria, Ranjit S.; Totir, Liviu R.; Fernando, Rohan L.; Cobbold, Rowland; Steffen, David; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Reecy, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, dwarfism was the major genetic defect in U.S. beef cattle. Aggressive culling and sire testing were used to minimize its prevalence; however, neither of these practices can eliminate a recessive genetic defect. We assembled a 4-generation pedigree to identify the mutation underlying dwarfism in American Angus cattle. An adaptation of the Elston-Steward algorithm was used to overcome small pedigree size and missing genotypes. The dwarfism locus was fine-mapped to BTA6 between markers AFR227 and BM4311. Four candidate genes were sequenced, revealing a nonsense mutation in exon 15 of cGMP-dependant type II protein kinase (PRKG2). This C/T transition introduced a stop codon (R678X) that truncated 85 C-terminal amino acids, including a large portion of the kinase domain. Of the 75 mutations discovered in this region, only this mutation was 100% concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier individuals (log of odds score = 6.63). Previous research has shown that PRKG2 regulates SRY (sex-determining region Y) box 9 (SOX9)-mediated transcription of collagen 2 (COL2). We evaluated the ability of wild-type (WT) or R678X PRKG2 to regulate COL2 expression in cell culture. Real-time PCR results confirmed that COL2 is overexpressed in cells that overexpressed R678X PRKG2 as compared with WT PRKG2. Furthermore, COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression was increased in dwarf cattle compared with unaffected cattle. These experiments indicate that the R678X mutation is functional, resulting in a loss of PRKG2 regulation of COL2 and COL10 mRNA expression. Therefore, we present PRKG2 R678X as a causative mutation for dwarfism cattle. PMID:19887637

  6. Cardioprotection by H2S engages a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G/phospholamban pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bibli, Sofia-Iris; Andreadou, Ioanna; Chatzianastasiou, Athanasia; Tzimas, Christos; Sanoudou, Despina; Kranias, Evangelia; Brouckaert, Peter; Coletta, Ciro; Szabo, Csaba; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th.; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K.; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Aims H2S is known to confer cardioprotection; however, the pathways mediating its effects in vivo remain incompletely understood. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the contribution of cGMP-regulated pathways in the infarct-limiting effect of H2S in vivo. Methods and results Anaesthetized rabbits were subjected to myocardial ischaemia (I)/reperfusion (R), and infarct size was determined in control or H2S-exposed groups. The H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an agent that generates H2S) increased cardiac cGMP and reduced the infarct size. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)-I inhibitor DT2 abrogated the protective effect of NaHS, whereas the control peptide TAT or l-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME) did not alter the effect of NaHS. Moreover, the KATP channel inhibitor, glibenclamide, partially reversed the effects of NaHS, whereas inhibition of mitochondrial KATP did not modify the NaHS response. NaHS enhanced phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN), in a PKG-dependent manner. To further investigate the role of PLN in H2S-mediated cardioprotection, wild-type and PLN KO mice underwent I/R. NaHS did not exert cardioprotection in PLN KO mice. Unlike what was observed in rabbits, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of eNOS abolished the infarct-limiting effect of NaHS in mice. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate (i) that administration of NaHS induces cardioprotection via a cGMP/PKG/PLN pathway and (ii) contribution of nitric oxide to the H2S response is species-specific. PMID:25870184

  7. Cardioprotection by H2S engages a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G/phospholamban pathway.

    PubMed

    Bibli, Sofia-Iris; Andreadou, Ioanna; Chatzianastasiou, Athanasia; Tzimas, Christos; Sanoudou, Despina; Kranias, Evangelia; Brouckaert, Peter; Coletta, Ciro; Szabo, Csaba; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    H2S is known to confer cardioprotection; however, the pathways mediating its effects in vivo remain incompletely understood. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the contribution of cGMP-regulated pathways in the infarct-limiting effect of H2S in vivo. Anaesthetized rabbits were subjected to myocardial ischaemia (I)/reperfusion (R), and infarct size was determined in control or H2S-exposed groups. The H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an agent that generates H2S) increased cardiac cGMP and reduced the infarct size. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)-I inhibitor DT2 abrogated the protective effect of NaHS, whereas the control peptide TAT or l-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME) did not alter the effect of NaHS. Moreover, the KATP channel inhibitor, glibenclamide, partially reversed the effects of NaHS, whereas inhibition of mitochondrial KATP did not modify the NaHS response. NaHS enhanced phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN), in a PKG-dependent manner. To further investigate the role of PLN in H2S-mediated cardioprotection, wild-type and PLN KO mice underwent I/R. NaHS did not exert cardioprotection in PLN KO mice. Unlike what was observed in rabbits, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of eNOS abolished the infarct-limiting effect of NaHS in mice. Our findings demonstrate (i) that administration of NaHS induces cardioprotection via a cGMP/PKG/PLN pathway and (ii) contribution of nitric oxide to the H2S response is species-specific. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Fibronectin upregulates cGMP-dependent protein kinase type Iβ through C/EBP transcription factor activation in contractile cells.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Jorganes, Aranzazu; Calleros, Laura; Griera, Mercedes; Saura, Marta; Luengo, Alicia; Rodriguez-Puyol, D; Rodriguez-Puyol, M

    2011-03-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) pathway exerts most of its cellular actions through the activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Accumulation of extracellular matrix is one of the main structural changes in pathological conditions characterized by a decreased activity of this pathway, such as hypertension, diabetes, or aging, and it is a well-known fact that extracellular matrix proteins modulate cell phenotype through the interaction with membrane receptors such as integrins. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate whether extracellular matrix proteins, particularly fibronectin (FN), modulate PKG expression in contractile cells, 2) to analyze the mechanisms involved, and 3) to evaluate the functional consequences. FN increased type I PKG (PKG-I) protein content in human mesangial cells, an effect dependent on the interaction with β(1)-integrin. The FN upregulation of PKG-I protein content was due to increased mRNA expression, determined by augmented transcriptional activity of the PKG-I promoter region. Akt and the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) mediated the genesis of these changes. FN also increased PKG-I in another type of contractile cell, rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMC). Tirofiban, a pharmacological analog of FN, increased PKG-I protein content in RVSMC and rat aortic walls and magnified the hypotensive effect of dibutyryl cGMP in conscious Wistar rats. The present results provide evidence of a mechanism able to increase PKG-I protein content in contractile cells. Elucidation of this novel mechanism provides a rationale for future pharmacotherapy in certain vascular diseases.

  9. Nitric oxide regulation of gene transcription via soluble guanylate cyclase and type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Idriss, S D; Gudi, T; Casteel, D E; Kharitonov, V G; Pilz, R B; Boss, G R

    1999-04-02

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates the expression of multiple genes but in most cases its precise mechanism of action is unclear. We used baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which have very low soluble guanylate cyclase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase) activity, and CS-54 arterial smooth muscle cells, which express these two enzymes, to study NO regulation of the human fos promoter. The NO-releasing agent Deta-NONOate (ethanamine-2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazone)bis-) had no effect on a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene under control of the fos promoter in BHK cells transfected with an empty vector or in cells transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector. In BHK cells transfected with expression vectors for guanylate cyclase, Deta-NONOate markedly increased the intracellular cGMP concentration and caused a small (2-fold) increase in CAT activity; the increased CAT activity appeared to be from cGMP activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In BHK cells co-transfected with guanylate cyclase and G-kinase expression vectors, CAT activity was increased 5-fold in the absence of Deta-NONOate and 7-fold in the presence of Deta-NONOate. Stimulation of CAT activity in the absence of Deta-NONOate appeared to be largely from endogenous NO since we found that: (i) BHK cells produced high amounts of NO; (ii) CAT activity was partially inhibited by a NO synthase inhibitor; and (iii) the inhibition by the NO synthase inhibitor was reversed by exogenous NO. In CS-54 cells, we found that NO increased fos promoter activity and that the increase was prevented by a guanylate cyclase inhibitor. In summary, we found that NO activates the fos promoter by a guanylate cyclase- and G-kinase-dependent mechanism.

  10. PilZ Domain Protein FlgZ Mediates Cyclic Di-GMP-Dependent Swarming Motility Control in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Amy E.; Diepold, Andreas; Kuchma, Sherry L.; Scott, Jessie E.; Ha, Dae Gon; Orazi, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is an important regulator of motility in many bacterial species. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elevated levels of c-di-GMP promote biofilm formation and repress flagellum-driven swarming motility. The rotation of P. aeruginosa's polar flagellum is controlled by two distinct stator complexes, MotAB, which cannot support swarming motility, and MotCD, which promotes swarming motility. Here we show that when c-di-GMP levels are elevated, swarming motility is repressed by the PilZ domain-containing protein FlgZ and by Pel polysaccharide production. We demonstrate that FlgZ interacts specifically with the motility-promoting stator protein MotC in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner and that a functional green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FlgZ fusion protein shows significantly reduced polar localization in a strain lacking the MotCD stator. Our results establish FlgZ as a c-di-GMP receptor affecting swarming motility by P. aeruginosa and support a model wherein c-di-GMP-bound FlgZ impedes motility via its interaction with the MotCD stator. IMPORTANCE The regulation of surface-associated motility plays an important role in bacterial surface colonization and biofilm formation. c-di-GMP signaling is a widespread means of controlling bacterial motility, and yet the mechanism whereby this signal controls surface-associated motility in P. aeruginosa remains poorly understood. Here we identify a PilZ domain-containing c-di-GMP effector protein that contributes to c-di-GMP-mediated repression of swarming motility by P. aeruginosa. We provide evidence that this effector, FlgZ, impacts swarming motility via its interactions with flagellar stator protein MotC. Thus, we propose a new mechanism for c-di-GMP-mediated regulation of motility for a bacterium with two flagellar stator sets, increasing our understanding of surface-associated behaviors, a key prerequisite to identifying ways to control the formation of biofilm communities. PMID

  11. cGMP-dependent changes in phototaxis: a possible role for the foraging gene in honey bee division of labor.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shahar, Y; Leung, H-T; Pak, W L; Sokolowski, M B; Robinson, G E

    2003-07-01

    Division of labor in honey bee colonies is influenced by the foraging gene (Amfor), which encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Amfor upregulation in the bee brain is associated with the age-related transition from working in the hive to foraging for food outside, and cGMP treatment (which increases PKG activity) causes precocious foraging. We present two lines of evidence in support of the hypothesis that Amfor affects division of labor by modulating phototaxis. We first show that a subset of worker bees involved in the removal of corpses from the hive had forager-like brain levels of Amfor brain expression despite being middle aged; age-matched food-handlers, who do not leave the hive to perform their job, had low levels of Amfor expression. This finding suggests that occupations that involve working outside the hive are associated with high levels of Amfor in brain. Secondly, foragers were much more positively phototactic than hive bees in a laboratory assay, and cGMP treatment caused a precocious onset of positive phototaxis. The cGMP effect was not due to a general increase in behavioral activity; cGMP treatment had no effect on locomotor activity under either constant darkness or a light:dark regime. The cGMP effect also was not due to changes in circadian rhythmicity; cGMP treatment had no effect on age at onset of locomotor circadian rhythmicity or the period of rhythmicity. The effects of Amfor on phototaxis are not related to peripheral processing; electroretinogram analysis revealed no effect of cGMP treatment on photoreceptor activity and no differences between untreated hive bees and foragers. The cAMP/PKA pathway does not appear to be playing a similar role to cGMP/PKG in the honey bee; cAMP treatment did not affect phototaxis and gene expression analysis revealed task-related differences only for the gene encoding the regulatory subunit, but not the catalytic subunit, of PKA. Our findings implicate one neural process associated with honey

  12. Role of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in the contractile response to exogenous nitric oxide in rat cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Layland, Joanne; Li, Jian-Mei; Shah, Ajay M

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can directly modulate cardiac contractility by accelerating relaxation and reducing diastolic tone. The intracellular mechanisms underlying these contractile effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in the contractile response to exogenous NO in rat ventricular myocytes. Isolated ventricular myocytes were stimulated electrically and contractility was assessed by measuring cell shortening. Some cells were loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ probe indo-1 AM for simultaneous assessment of the intracellular Ca2+ transient. The NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO, 10 μm) significantly increased resting cell length, reduced twitch amplitude and accelerated time to 50 % relaxation (to 100.8 ± 0.2, 83.7 ± 3.0 and 88.9 ± 3.7 % of control values, respectively). The contractile effects of DEA/NO occurred without significant changes in the amplitude or kinetics of the intracellular Ca2+ transient, suggesting that the myofilament response to Ca2+ was reduced. These effects were abolished by inhibition of either guanylyl cyclase (with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one; ODQ, 10 μm) or PKG (with Rp-8-Br-cGMPs, 10 μm) suggesting that, at the concentration investigated, the effects of DEA/NO were mediated exclusively by PKG, following activation of guanylyl cyclase and elevation of cGMP. Direct activation of PKG with 8-pCPT-cGMP (10 μm) mimicked the effects of DEA/NO (resting cell length and time to 50 % relaxation were 100.6 ± 0.1 and 90.5 ± 1.5 % of control values, respectively).The reduced myofilament Ca2+ responsiveness was not attributable to an intracellular acidosis since the small reduction in pHi induced by DEA/NO was found to be uncoupled from its contractile effects. However, hearts treated with DEA/NO (10 μm) showed a significant increase (1.4-fold; P < 0.01) in troponin I phosphorylation compared to control, untreated hearts. These results suggest that the reduction in

  13. Calcium Activation of Mougeotia Potassium Channels 1

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Roger R.; Serlin, Bruce S.; Schauf, Charles L.; Stockton, Marsha E.

    1990-01-01

    Phytochrome mediates chloroplast movement in the alga Mougeotia, possibly via changes in cytosolic calcium. It is known to regulate a calcium-activated potassium channel in the algal plasma membrane. As part of a characterization of the potassium channel, we examined the properties of calcium activation. The calcium ionophore A23187 activates the channel at external [Ca2+] as low as 20 micromolar. However, external [Ca2+] is not required for activation of the channel by photoactivated phytochrome. Furthermore, when an inhibitor of calcium release from internal stores, 8-(diethylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, hydrochloride (TMB-8), is present, red light no longer stimulates channel activity. We conclude that phytochrome activates the plasma membrane potassium channel by releasing calcium from intracellular calcium vesicles; the elevated cytosolic calcium then stimulates channel activity by an unknown mechanism. In the presence of TMB-8, red light does induce chloroplast rotation; thus, potassium channel activation may not be coupled to chloroplast rotation. PMID:16667356

  14. cGMP-dependent protein kinase enhances Ca2+ current and potentiates the serotonin-induced Ca2+ current increase in snail neurones.

    PubMed

    Paupardin-Tritsch, D; Hammond, C; Gerschenfeld, H M; Nairn, A C; Greengard, P

    Protein phosphorylation catalysed by cyclic AMP-dependent, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and Ca2+/diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinases is important both in the modulation of synaptic transmission and in the regulation of neuronal membrane permeability (for reviews see refs 5-7). However, there has previously been no evidence for the involvement of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP-PK) in the regulation of neuronal function. Serotonin induces an increase of Ca2+ current in a group of identified ventral neurones of the snail Helix aspersa. This effect is probably mediated by cGMP because it is mimicked by the intracellular injection of cGMP or the application of zaprinast, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase. We have now found that the effect of either serotonin or zaprinast on the Ca2+ current is potentiated by the intracellular injection of cGMP-PK. Moreover, the intracellular injection of activated cGMP-PK (cGMP-PK + 1 microM cGMP) greatly enhances the Ca2+ current of the identified ventral neurones seen in the absence of serotonin. These results indicate that cGMP-PK has a physiological role in the control of the membrane permeability of these neurones.

  15. Erectile dysfunction in mice lacking the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Matthias E; Zvara, Peter; Meredith, Andrea L; Aldrich, Richard W; Nelson, Mark T

    2005-01-01

    Penile erection is dependent on the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI) pathway. One important target of PKGI in smooth muscle is the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel, which upon activation hyperpolarizes the smooth muscle cell membrane, causing relaxation. Relaxation of arterial and corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) is necessary to increase blood flow into the corpora cavernosa that leads to penile tumescence. We investigated the functional role of BK channels in the corpus cavernosum utilizing a knock-out mouse lacking the Slo gene (Slo−/−) responsible for the pore-forming subunit of the BK channel. Whole-cell currents were recorded from isolated CCSM cells of Slo+/+ and Slo−/− mice. Iberiotoxin-sensitive voltage- and [Ca2+]-activated K+ currents, the latter activated by local transient calcium releases (calcium sparks), were present in Slo+/+ CCSM cells, but absent in Slo−/− cells. CCSM strips from Slo−/− mice demonstrated a four-fold increase in phasic contractions, in the presence of phenylephrine. Nerve-evoked relaxations of precontracted strips were reduced by 50%, both in strips from Slo−/− mice and by blocking BK channels with iberiotoxin in the Slo+/+ strips. Consistent with the in vitro results, in vivo intracavernous pressure exhibited pronounced oscillations in Slo−/− mice, but not in Slo+/+ mice. Furthermore, intracavernous pressure increases to nerve stimulation, in vivo, were reduced by 22% in Slo−/−mice. These results indicate that the BK channel has an important role in erectile function, and loss of the BK channel leads to erectile dysfunction. PMID:16020453

  16. Structures of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) Iα Leucine Zippers Reveal an Interchain Disulfide Bond Important for Dimer Stability.

    PubMed

    Qin, Liying; Reger, Albert S; Guo, Elaine; Yang, Matthew P; Zwart, Peter; Casteel, Darren E; Kim, Choel

    2015-07-28

    cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) Iα is a central regulator of smooth muscle tone and vasorelaxation. The N-terminal leucine zipper (LZ) domain dimerizes and targets PKG Iα by interacting with G-kinase-anchoring proteins. The PKG Iα LZ contains C42 that is known to form a disulfide bond upon oxidation and to activate PKG Iα. To understand the molecular details of the PKG Iα LZ and C42-C42' disulfide bond, we determined crystal structures of the PKG Iα wild-type (WT) LZ and C42L LZ. Our data demonstrate that the C42-C42' disulfide bond dramatically stabilizes PKG Iα and that the C42L mutant mimics the oxidized WT LZ structurally.

  17. Positive autoregulation of mrkHI by the cyclic di-GMP-dependent MrkH protein in the biofilm regulatory circuit of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jason W H; Wilksch, Jonathan J; Hocking, Dianna M; Wang, Nancy; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Tauschek, Marija; Lithgow, Trevor; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Yang, Ji; Strugnell, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of nosocomial infections, primarily through the formation of surface-associated biofilms to promote microbial colonization on host tissues. Expression of type 3 fimbriae by K. pneumoniae facilitates surface adherence, a process strongly activated by the cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-dependent transcriptional activator MrkH. In this study, we demonstrated the critical importance of MrkH in facilitating K. pneumoniae attachment on a variety of medically relevant materials and demonstrated the mechanism by which bacteria activate expression of type 3 fimbriae to colonize these materials. Sequence analysis revealed a putative MrkH recognition DNA sequence ("MrkH box"; TATCAA) located in the regulatory region of the mrkHI operon. Mutational analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and quantitative PCR experiments demonstrated that MrkH binds to the cognate DNA sequence to autoregulate mrkHI expression in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. A half-turn deletion, but not a full-turn deletion, between the MrkH box and the -35 promoter element rendered MrkH ineffective in activating mrkHI expression, implying that a direct interaction between MrkH and RNA polymerase exists. In vivo analyses showed that residues L260, R265, N268, C269, E273, and I275 in the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase α subunit are involved in the positive control of mrkHI expression by MrkH and revealed the regions of MrkH required for DNA binding and transcriptional activation. Taken together, the data suggest a model whereby c-di-GMP-dependent MrkH recruits RNA polymerase to the mrkHI promoter to autoactivate mrkH expression. Increased MrkH production subsequently drives mrkABCDF expression when activated by c-di-GMP, leading to biosynthesis of type 3 fimbriae and biofilm formation. Bacterial biofilms can cause persistent infections that are refractory to antimicrobial treatments. This study investigated how a commonly encountered hospital

  18. Positive Autoregulation of mrkHI by the Cyclic Di-GMP-Dependent MrkH Protein in the Biofilm Regulatory Circuit of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jason W. H.; Hocking, Dianna M.; Wang, Nancy; Srikhanta, Yogitha N.; Tauschek, Marija; Lithgow, Trevor; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Yang, Ji; Strugnell, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of nosocomial infections, primarily through the formation of surface-associated biofilms to promote microbial colonization on host tissues. Expression of type 3 fimbriae by K. pneumoniae facilitates surface adherence, a process strongly activated by the cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-dependent transcriptional activator MrkH. In this study, we demonstrated the critical importance of MrkH in facilitating K. pneumoniae attachment on a variety of medically relevant materials and demonstrated the mechanism by which bacteria activate expression of type 3 fimbriae to colonize these materials. Sequence analysis revealed a putative MrkH recognition DNA sequence (“MrkH box”; TATCAA) located in the regulatory region of the mrkHI operon. Mutational analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and quantitative PCR experiments demonstrated that MrkH binds to the cognate DNA sequence to autoregulate mrkHI expression in a c-di-GMP-dependent manner. A half-turn deletion, but not a full-turn deletion, between the MrkH box and the −35 promoter element rendered MrkH ineffective in activating mrkHI expression, implying that a direct interaction between MrkH and RNA polymerase exists. In vivo analyses showed that residues L260, R265, N268, C269, E273, and I275 in the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase α subunit are involved in the positive control of mrkHI expression by MrkH and revealed the regions of MrkH required for DNA binding and transcriptional activation. Taken together, the data suggest a model whereby c-di-GMP-dependent MrkH recruits RNA polymerase to the mrkHI promoter to autoactivate mrkH expression. Increased MrkH production subsequently drives mrkABCDF expression when activated by c-di-GMP, leading to biosynthesis of type 3 fimbriae and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Bacterial biofilms can cause persistent infections that are refractory to antimicrobial treatments. This study investigated how a commonly

  19. Neutron Diffraction Reveals Hydrogen Bonds Critical for cGMP-Selective Activation: Insights for cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Agonist Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High selectivity of cyclic-nucleotide binding (CNB) domains for cAMP and cGMP are required for segregating signaling pathways; however, the mechanism of selectivity remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism of high selectivity in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), we determined a room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structure of PKG Iβ CNB-B, a domain 200-fold selective for cGMP over cAMP, bound to cGMP (2.2 Å), and a low-temperature X-ray structure of CNB-B with cAMP (1.3 Å). The XN structure directly describes the hydrogen bonding interactions that modulate high selectivity for cGMP, while the structure with cAMP reveals that all these contacts are disrupted, explaining its low affinity for cAMP. PMID:25271401

  20. Neutron diffraction reveals hydrogen bonds critical for cGMP-selective activation: Insights for cGMP-dependent protein kinase agonist design

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Gilbert Y.; Gerlits, Oksana O.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; ...

    2014-10-01

    High selectivity of cyclic-nucleotide binding (CNB) domains for cAMP and cGMP are required for segregating signaling pathways; however, the mechanism of selectivity remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism of high selectivity in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), we determined a room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structure of PKG Iβ CNB-B, a domain 200-fold selective for cGMP over cAMP, bound to cGMP (2.2 Å), and a low-temperature X-ray structure of CNB-B with cAMP (1.3 Å). Finally, the XN structure directly describes the hydrogen bonding interactions that modulate high selectivity for cGMP, while the structure with cAMP reveals that all these contacts are disrupted,more » explaining its low affinity for cAMP.« less

  1. Dimerization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1alpha and the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase: role of leucine zipper domains.

    PubMed

    Surks, Howard K; Mendelsohn, Michael E

    2003-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrovasodilators induce vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation in part by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK)-mediated activation of myosin phosphatase, which dephosphorylates myosin light chains. We recently found that cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1alpha binds directly to the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase via the leucine/isoleucine zipper of cGK. We have now studied the role of the leucine zipper domain of MBS in dimerization with cGK and the leucine/isoleucine zipper and leucine zipper domains of both proteins in homodimerization. Mutagenesis of the MBS leucine zipper domain disrupts cGKIalpha-MBS dimerization. Mutagenesis of the MBS leucine zipper eliminates MBS homodimerization, while similar disruption of the cGKIalpha leucine/isoleucine zipper does not prevent formation of cGK dimers. The MBS leucine zipper domain is phosphorylated by cGK, but this does not have any apparent effect on heterodimer formation between the two proteins. MBS LZ mutants that are unable to bind cGK were poor substrates for cGK. These data support the theory that the MBS leucine zipper domain is necessary and sufficient to mediate both MBS homodimerization and binding of the protein to cGK. In contrast, the leucine/isoleucine zipper of cGK is required for binding to MBS, but not for cGK homodimerization. These data support that the MBS and cGK leucine zipper domains mediate the interaction between these two proteins. The contribution of these domains to both homodimerization and their specific interaction with each other suggest that additional regulatory mechanisms involving these domains may exist.

  2. Increased expression of a cGMP-dependent protein kinase in rotation-adapted western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera L.).

    PubMed

    Garabagi, Freydoun; Wade French, B; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Peter Pauls, K

    2008-07-01

    A new 'variant' behavior in western corn rootworm (WCR) has resulted in egg-laying into non-cornfields, compared to 'normal' deposition of eggs in cornfields, allowing these insects to circumvent crop rotation. No morphological or genetic characteristics have been defined to differentiate between the normal and variant biotypes. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG) have been implicated in the regulation of behaviors in vertebrates, insects, and nematodes, including foraging behavior in Drosophila. A cDNA with homology to the Drosophila melanogaster foraging gene (called Dvfor1) was cloned from WCR. The deduced DvFOR1 protein is approximately 70% similar to FOR proteins in Drosophila, silkworm (Bombyx mori) and honeybee (Apis mellifera). It contains a coiled-coil region, two tandem cyclic nucleotide-binding domains, a serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain, and a serine/threonine kinase catalytic domain extension, which are all characteristically found in PKG proteins. Real-time PCR assays of foraging transcript levels in heads of normal and rotation adapted females of WCR obtained from lab-reared insect colonies indicated that the variants had higher levels (25%) of PKG expression than normals. The magnitude of this increase is similar to that observed in Drosophila rover phenotypes compared to sitter phenotypes. However, Diabrotica contains at least two different foraging gene transcripts, which complicates establishing a direct link between the level of gene expression and insect behavior.

  3. Phosphoinositide Metabolism Links cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase G to Essential Ca2+ Signals at Key Decision Points in the Life Cycle of Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Brochet, Mathieu; Collins, Mark O.; Smith, Terry K.; Thompson, Eloise; Sebastian, Sarah; Volkmann, Katrin; Schwach, Frank; Chappell, Lia; Gomes, Ana Rita; Berriman, Matthew; Rayner, Julian C.; Baker, David A.; Choudhary, Jyoti; Billker, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Many critical events in the Plasmodium life cycle rely on the controlled release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores to activate stage-specific Ca2+-dependent protein kinases. Using the motility of Plasmodium berghei ookinetes as a signalling paradigm, we show that the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase, PKG, maintains the elevated level of cytosolic Ca2+ required for gliding motility. We find that the same PKG-dependent pathway operates upstream of the Ca2+ signals that mediate activation of P. berghei gametocytes in the mosquito and egress of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites from infected human erythrocytes. Perturbations of PKG signalling in gliding ookinetes have a marked impact on the phosphoproteome, with a significant enrichment of in vivo regulated sites in multiple pathways including vesicular trafficking and phosphoinositide metabolism. A global analysis of cellular phospholipids demonstrates that in gliding ookinetes PKG controls phosphoinositide biosynthesis, possibly through the subcellular localisation or activity of lipid kinases. Similarly, phosphoinositide metabolism links PKG to egress of P. falciparum merozoites, where inhibition of PKG blocks hydrolysis of phosphatidylinostitol (4,5)-bisphosphate. In the face of an increasing complexity of signalling through multiple Ca2+ effectors, PKG emerges as a unifying factor to control multiple cellular Ca2+ signals essential for malaria parasite development and transmission. PMID:24594931

  4. Catalytic Activity of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I in Intact Cells Is Independent of N-Terminal Autophosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Vallur, Raghavan; Kalbacher, Hubert; Feil, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Although cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) is an important mediator of cGMP signaling and upcoming drug target, its in vivo-biochemistry is not well understood. Many studies showed that purified cGKI autophosphorylates multiple sites at its N-terminus. Autophosphorylation might be involved in kinase activation, but it is unclear whether this happens also in intact cells. To study cGKI autophosphorylation in vitro and in vivo, we have generated phospho-specific antisera against major in vitro-autophosphorylation sites of the cGKI isoforms, cGKIα and cGKIβ. These antisera detected specifically and with high sensitivity phospho-cGKIα (Thr58), phospho-cGKIα (Thr84), or phospho-cGKIβ (Thr56/Ser63/Ser79). Using these antisera, we show that ATP-induced autophosphorylation of cGKI in purified preparations and cell extracts did neither require nor induce an enzyme conformation capable of substrate heterophosphorylation; it was even inhibited by pre-incubation with cGMP. Interestingly, phospho-cGKI species were not detectable in intact murine cells and tissues, both under basal conditions and after induction of cGKI catalytic activity. We conclude that N-terminal phosphorylation, although readily induced in vitro, is not required for the catalytic activity of cGKIα and cGKIβ in vivo. These results will also inform screening strategies to identify novel cGKI modulators. PMID:24897423

  5. cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibition Extends the Upper Temperature Limit of Stimulus-Evoked Calcium Responses in Motoneuronal Boutons of Drosophila melanogaster Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Scully, Ken

    2016-01-01

    While the mammalian brain functions within a very narrow range of oxygen concentrations and temperatures, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has employed strategies to deal with a much wider range of acute environmental stressors. The foraging (for) gene encodes the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), has been shown to regulate thermotolerance in many stress-adapted species, including Drosophila, and could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of hyperthermia in mammals. Whereas previous thermotolerance studies have looked at the effects of PKG variation on Drosophila behavior or excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), little is known about PKG effects on presynaptic mechanisms. In this study, we characterize presynaptic calcium ([Ca2+]i) dynamics at the Drosophila larval NMJ to determine the effects of high temperature stress on synaptic transmission. We investigated the neuroprotective role of PKG modulation both genetically using RNA interference (RNAi), and pharmacologically, to determine if and how PKG affects presynaptic [Ca2+]i dynamics during hyperthermia. We found that PKG activity modulates presynaptic neuronal Ca2+ responses during acute hyperthermia, where PKG activation makes neurons more sensitive to temperature-induced failure of Ca2+ flux and PKG inhibition confers thermotolerance and maintains normal Ca2+ dynamics under the same conditions. Targeted motoneuronal knockdown of PKG using RNAi demonstrated that decreased PKG expression was sufficient to confer thermoprotection. These results demonstrate that the PKG pathway regulates presynaptic motoneuronal Ca2+ signaling to influence thermotolerance of presynaptic function during acute hyperthermia. PMID:27711243

  6. Nitrosyl-cobinamide (NO-Cbi), a new nitric oxide donor, improves wound healing through cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Spitler, Ryan; Schwappacher, Raphaela; Wu, Tao; Kong, Xiangduo; Yokomori, Kyoko; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R; Berns, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors have been shown to improve wound healing, but the mechanism is not well defined. Here we show that the novel NO donor nitrosyl-cobinamide (NO-Cbi) improved in vitro wound healing in several cell types, including an established line of lung epithelial cells and primary human lung fibroblasts. On a molar basis, NO-Cbi was more effective than two other NO donors, with the effective NO-Cbi concentration ranging from 3 to 10μM, depending on the cell type. Improved wound healing was secondary to increased cell migration and not cell proliferation. The wound healing effect of NO-Cbi was mediated by cGMP, mainly through cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKGI), as determined using pharmacological inhibitors and activators, and siRNAs targeting PKG type I and II. Moreover, we found that Src and ERK were two downstream mediators of NO-Cbi's effect. We conclude that NO-Cbi is a potent inducer of cell migration and wound closure, acting via cGMP, PKG, Src, and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). © 2013.

  7. cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Inhibition Extends the Upper Temperature Limit of Stimulus-Evoked Calcium Responses in Motoneuronal Boutons of Drosophila melanogaster Larvae.

    PubMed

    Krill, Jennifer L; Dawson-Scully, Ken

    2016-01-01

    While the mammalian brain functions within a very narrow range of oxygen concentrations and temperatures, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has employed strategies to deal with a much wider range of acute environmental stressors. The foraging (for) gene encodes the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), has been shown to regulate thermotolerance in many stress-adapted species, including Drosophila, and could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of hyperthermia in mammals. Whereas previous thermotolerance studies have looked at the effects of PKG variation on Drosophila behavior or excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), little is known about PKG effects on presynaptic mechanisms. In this study, we characterize presynaptic calcium ([Ca2+]i) dynamics at the Drosophila larval NMJ to determine the effects of high temperature stress on synaptic transmission. We investigated the neuroprotective role of PKG modulation both genetically using RNA interference (RNAi), and pharmacologically, to determine if and how PKG affects presynaptic [Ca2+]i dynamics during hyperthermia. We found that PKG activity modulates presynaptic neuronal Ca2+ responses during acute hyperthermia, where PKG activation makes neurons more sensitive to temperature-induced failure of Ca2+ flux and PKG inhibition confers thermotolerance and maintains normal Ca2+ dynamics under the same conditions. Targeted motoneuronal knockdown of PKG using RNAi demonstrated that decreased PKG expression was sufficient to confer thermoprotection. These results demonstrate that the PKG pathway regulates presynaptic motoneuronal Ca2+ signaling to influence thermotolerance of presynaptic function during acute hyperthermia.

  8. The type II cGMP dependent protein kinase regulates GluA1 levels at the plasma membrane of developing cerebellar granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Incontro, Salvatore; Ciruela, Francisco; Ziff, Edward; Hofmann, Franz; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Torres, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) is regulated by specific interactions with other proteins and by post-translational mechanisms, such as phosphorylation. We have found that the type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKII) phosphorylates GluA1 (formerly GluR1) at S845, augmenting the surface expression of AMPARs at both synaptic and extrasynaptic sites. Activation of cGKII by 8-Br-cGMP enhances the surface expression of GluA1, whereas its inhibition or suppression effectively diminished the expression of this protein at the cell surface. In granule cells, NMDA receptor activation (NMDAR) stimulates nitric oxide and cGMP production, which in turn activates cGKII and induces the phosphorylation of GluA1, promoting its accumulation in the plasma membrane. GluA1 is mainly incorporated into calcium permeable AMPARs as exposure to 8-Br-cGMP or NMDA activation enhanced AMPA-elicited calcium responses that are sensitive to NASPM inhibition. We summarize evidence for an increase of calcium permeable AMPA receptors downstream of NMDA receptor activation that might be relevant for granule cell development and plasticity. PMID:23545413

  9. Crystal structure of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iβ cyclic nucleotide-binding-B domain : Rp-cGMPS complex reveals an apo-like, inactive conformation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James C; VanSchouwen, Bryan; Lorenz, Robin; Sankaran, Banumathi; Herberg, Friedrich W; Melacini, Giuseppe; Kim, Choel

    2017-01-01

    The R-diastereomer of phosphorothioate analogs of cGMP, Rp-cGMPS, is one of few known inhibitors of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKG I); however, its mechanism of inhibition is currently not fully understood. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the PKG Iβ cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (PKG Iβ CNB-B), considered a 'gatekeeper' for cGMP activation, bound to Rp-cGMPS at 1.3 Å. Our structural and NMR data show that PKG Iβ CNB-B bound to Rp-cGMPS displays an apo-like structure with its helical domain in an open conformation. Comparison with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit (PKA RIα) showed that this conformation resembles the catalytic subunit-bound inhibited state of PKA RIα more closely than the apo or Rp-cAMPS-bound conformations. These results suggest that Rp-cGMPS inhibits PKG I by stabilizing the inactive conformation of CNB-B. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; Casteel, Darren E; Prakash, Priyanka; Tan, Lingxiao; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Salim, Angela A; Kim, Choel; Capon, Robert J; Lacey, Ernest; Cunha, Shane R; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Hancock, John F

    2016-12-15

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane and be arrayed in nanoclusters for biological activity. We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). In intact cells, activated PKG2 selectively colocalizes with K-Ras on the plasma membrane and phosphorylates K-Ras at Ser181 in the C-terminal polybasic domain. K-Ras phosphorylation by PKG2 is triggered by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and requires endothelial nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase. Phosphorylated K-Ras reorganizes into distinct nanoclusters that retune the signal output. Phosphorylation acutely enhances K-Ras plasma membrane affinity, but phosphorylated K-Ras is progressively lost from the plasma membrane via endocytic recycling. Concordantly, chronic pharmacological activation of AMPK → PKG2 signaling with mitochondrial inhibitors, nitric oxide, or sildenafil inhibits proliferation of K-Ras-positive non-small cell lung cancer cells. The study shows that K-Ras is a target of a metabolic stress-signaling pathway that can be leveraged to inhibit oncogenic K-Ras function.

  11. The type II cGMP dependent protein kinase regulates GluA1 levels at the plasma membrane of developing cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Incontro, Salvatore; Ciruela, Francisco; Ziff, Edward; Hofmann, Franz; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Torres, Magdalena

    2013-08-01

    Trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) is regulated by specific interactions with other proteins and by post-translational mechanisms, such as phosphorylation. We have found that the type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKII) phosphorylates GluA1 (formerly GluR1) at S845, augmenting the surface expression of AMPARs at both synaptic and extrasynaptic sites. Activation of cGKII by 8-Br-cGMP enhances the surface expression of GluA1, whereas its inhibition or suppression effectively diminished the expression of this protein at the cell surface. In granule cells, NMDA receptor activation (NMDAR) stimulates nitric oxide and cGMP production, which in turn activates cGKII and induces the phosphorylation of GluA1, promoting its accumulation in the plasma membrane. GluA1 is mainly incorporated into calcium permeable AMPARs as exposure to 8-Br-cGMP or NMDA activation enhanced AMPA-elicited calcium responses that are sensitive to NASPM inhibition. We summarize evidence for an increase of calcium permeable AMPA receptors downstream of NMDA receptor activation that might be relevant for granule cell development and plasticity.

  12. (D)-Amino acid analogues of DT-2 as highly selective and superior inhibitors of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha.

    PubMed

    Nickl, Christian K; Raidas, Shiv Kumar; Zhao, Hong; Sausbier, Matthias; Ruth, Peter; Tegge, Werner; Brayden, Joseph E; Dostmann, Wolfgang R

    2010-03-01

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PKG I) is an essential regulator of cellular function in blood vessels throughout the body. DT-2, a peptidic inhibitor of PKG, has played a central role in determining the molecular mechanisms of vascular control involving PKG and its signaling partners. Here, we report the development of (d)-amino acid DT-2 derivatives, namely the retro-inverso ri-(d)-DT-2 and the all (d)-amino acid analog, (d)-DT-2. Both peptide analogs were potent PKG Ialpha inhibitors with K(i) values of 5.5 nM (ri-(d)-DT-2) and 0.8 nM ((d)-DT-2) as determined using a hyperbolic mixed-type inhibition model. Also, both analogs were proteolytically stable in vivo, showed elevated selectivity, and displayed enhanced membrane translocation properties. Studies on isolated arteries from the resistance vasculature demonstrated that intraluminally perfused (d)-DT-2 significantly inhibited vasodilation induced by 8-Br-cGMP. Furthermore, in vivo application of (d)-DT-2 established a uniform translocation pattern in the resistance vasculature, with exception of the brain. Thus, (d)-DT-2 caused significant increases in mean arterial blood pressure in unrestrained, awake mice. Further, mesenteric arteries isolated from (d)-DT-2 treated animals showed a markedly reduced dilator response to 8-Br-cGMP in vitro. Our results clearly demonstrate that (d)-DT-2 is a superior inhibitor of PKG Ialpha and its application in vivo leads to sustained inhibition of PKG in vascular smooth muscle cells. The discovery of (d)-DT-2 may help our understanding of how blood vessels constrict and dilate and may also aid the development of new strategies and therapeutic agents targeted to the prevention and treatment of vascular disorders such as hypertension, stroke and coronary artery disease. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell gene expression: possible involvement of Elk-1 sumoylation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, ChungSik; Sellak, Hassan; Brown, Felricia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) gene expression by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is now recognized, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. In this study, we report that PKG-I stimulates myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)-dependent gene expression in vascular SMCs. The expression of PKG in PKG-deficient cells enhanced myocardin-induced SM22 promoter activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, neither SRF nor myocardin expression was affected. To investigate alternative mechanisms, we examined whether PKG affects the phosphorylation of E26-like protein-1 (Elk-1), a SRF/myocardin transcription antagonist. The activation of PKG caused an increase in a higher molecular mass form of phospho-Elk-1 that was determined to be small ubiquitin-related modifier (sumo)ylated Elk-1. PKG increased Elk-1 sumoylation twofold compared with the PKG-deficient cells, and Elk-1 sumoylation was reduced using dominant-negative sumo-conjugating enzyme, DN-Ubc9, confirming PKG-dependent sumoylation of phospho-Elk-1 in vascular SMCs. In addition, PKG stimulated Elk-1 sumoylation in COS-7 cells overexpressing Elk-1, sumo-1, and PKG-I. The increased expression of PKG in vascular SMCs inhibited Elk-1 binding to SMC-specific promoters, SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, as measured by EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and PKG suppressed the Elk-1 inhibition of SM22 reporter gene expression. Taken together, these data suggest that PKG-I decreases Elk-1 activity by sumo modification of Elk-1, thereby increasing myocardin-SRF activity on SMC-specific gene expression. PMID:20802137

  14. cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell gene expression: possible involvement of Elk-1 sumoylation.

    PubMed

    Choi, ChungSik; Sellak, Hassan; Brown, Felricia M; Lincoln, Thomas M

    2010-11-01

    Although the regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) gene expression by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is now recognized, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. In this study, we report that PKG-I stimulates myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)-dependent gene expression in vascular SMCs. The expression of PKG in PKG-deficient cells enhanced myocardin-induced SM22 promoter activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. However, neither SRF nor myocardin expression was affected. To investigate alternative mechanisms, we examined whether PKG affects the phosphorylation of E26-like protein-1 (Elk-1), a SRF/myocardin transcription antagonist. The activation of PKG caused an increase in a higher molecular mass form of phospho-Elk-1 that was determined to be small ubiquitin-related modifier (sumo)ylated Elk-1. PKG increased Elk-1 sumoylation twofold compared with the PKG-deficient cells, and Elk-1 sumoylation was reduced using dominant-negative sumo-conjugating enzyme, DN-Ubc9, confirming PKG-dependent sumoylation of phospho-Elk-1 in vascular SMCs. In addition, PKG stimulated Elk-1 sumoylation in COS-7 cells overexpressing Elk-1, sumo-1, and PKG-I. The increased expression of PKG in vascular SMCs inhibited Elk-1 binding to SMC-specific promoters, SM22 and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, as measured by EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and PKG suppressed the Elk-1 inhibition of SM22 reporter gene expression. Taken together, these data suggest that PKG-I decreases Elk-1 activity by sumo modification of Elk-1, thereby increasing myocardin-SRF activity on SMC-specific gene expression.

  15. LPS stimulates platelet secretion and potentiates platelet aggregation via TLR4/MyD88 and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoying; Han, Jingyan; Welch, Emily J.; Ye, Richard D.; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A.; Malik, Asrar B.; Du, Xiaoping; Li, Zhenyu

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces rapid thrombocytopenia, hypotension and sepsis. Although growing evidence suggests that platelet activation plays a critical role in LPS-induced thrombocytopenia and tissue damage, the mechanism of LPS-mediated platelet activation is unclear. Here we show that LPS stimulates platelet secretion of dense and α granules as indicated by ATP release and P-selectin expression, and thus enhances platelet activation induced by low concentrations of platelet agonists. Platelets express components of the LPS receptor-signaling complex, including Toll-like receptor (TLR4), CD14, MD2, and MyD88, and the effect of LPS on platelet activation was abolished by an anti-TLR4 blocking antibody or TLR4 knockout, suggesting that the effect of LPS on platelet aggregation requires the TLR4 pathway. Furthermore, LPS- potentiated thrombin- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and FeCl3-induced thrombus formation were abolished in MyD88 knockout mice. LPS also induced cGMP elevation, and the stimulatory effect of LPS on platelet aggregation was abolished by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). LPS-induced cGMP elevation was inhibited by an anti-TLR4 antibody or by TLR4 deficiency, suggesting that activation of the cGMP/PKG pathway by LPS involves the TLR4 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that LPS stimulates platelet secretion and potentiates platelet aggregation through a TLR4/MyD88 and cGMP/PKG-dependent pathway. PMID:19494325

  16. Nitric oxide activates hypoglossal motoneurons by cGMP-dependent inhibition of TASK channels and cGMP-independent activation of HCN channels

    PubMed Central

    Wenker, Ian C.; Benoit, Justin P.; Chen, Xinnian; Liu, Hattie; Horner, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule that regulates numerous physiological processes, including activity of respiratory motoneurons. However, molecular mechanism(s) underlying NO modulation of motoneurons remain obscure. Here, we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro recording techniques to examine NO modulation of motoneurons in the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN). Microperfusion of diethylamine (DEA; an NO donor) into the HMN of anesthetized adult rats increased genioglossus muscle activity. In the brain slice, whole cell current-clamp recordings from hypoglossal motoneurons showed that exposure to DEA depolarized membrane potential and increased responsiveness to depolarizing current injections. Under voltage-clamp conditions, we found that NO inhibited a Ba2+-sensitive background K+ conductance and activated a Cs+-sensitive hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih). When Ih was blocked with Cs+ or ZD-7288, the NO-sensitive K+ conductance exhibited properties similar to TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels, i.e., voltage independent, resistant to tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine but inhibited by methanandamide. The soluble guanylyl cyclase blocker 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) and the PKG blocker KT-5823 both decreased NO modulation of this TASK-like conductance. To characterize modulation of Ih in relative isolation, we tested effects of NO in the presence of Ba2+ to block TASK channels. Under these conditions, NO activated both the instantaneous (Iinst) and time-dependent (Iss) components of Ih. Interestingly, at more hyperpolarized potentials NO preferentially increased Iinst. The effects of NO on Ih were retained in the presence of ODQ and blocked by the cysteine-specific oxidant N-ethylmaleimide. These results suggest that NO activates hypoglossal motoneurons by cGMP-dependent inhibition of a TASK-like current and S-nitrosylation-dependent activation of Ih. PMID:22131386

  17. A cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Gene, foraging, Modifies Habituation-Like Response Decrement of the Giant Fiber Escape Circuit in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Jeff E.; Xie, Xian-Jin; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila giant fiber jump-and-flight escape response is a model for genetic analysis of both the physiology and the plasticity of a sensorimotor behavioral pathway. We previously established the electrically induced giant fiber response in intact tethered flies as a model for habituation, a form of nonassociative learning. Here, we show that the rate of stimulus-dependent response decrement of this neural pathway in a habituation protocol is correlated with PKG (cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase) activity and foraging behavior. We assayed response decrement for natural and mutant rover and sitter alleles of the foraging (for) gene that encodes a Drosophila PKG. Rover larvae and adults, which have higher PKG activities, travel significantly farther while foraging than sitters with lower PKG activities. Response decrement was most rapid in genotypes previously shown to have low PKG activities and sitter-like foraging behavior. We also found differences in spontaneous recovery (the reversal of response decrement during a rest from stimulation) and a dishabituation-like phenomenon (the reversal of response decrement evoked by a novel stimulus). This electrophysiological study in an intact animal preparation provides one of the first direct demonstrations that PKG can affect plasticity in a simple learning paradigm. It increases our understanding of the complex interplay of factors that can modulate the sensitivity of the giant fiber escape response, and it defines a new adult-stage phenotype of the foraging locus. Finally, these results show that behaviorally relevant neural plasticity in an identified circuit can be influenced by a single-locus genetic polymorphism existing in a natural population of Drosophila. PMID:11040266

  18. Stimulation of neuronal KATP channels by cGMP-dependent protein kinase: involvement of ROS and 5-hydroxydecanoate-sensitive factors in signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yongping

    2010-01-01

    The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel couples intracellular metabolic state to membrane excitability. Recently, we demonstrated that neuronal KATP channels are functionally enhanced by activation of a nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling cascade. In this study, we further investigated the intracellular mechanism underlying PKG stimulation of neuronal KATP channels. By performing single-channel recordings in transfected HEK293 and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, we found that the increase of Kir6.2/SUR1 (i.e., the neuronal-type KATP) channel currents by PKG activation in cell-attached patches was diminished by 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), an inhibitor of the putative mitochondrial KATP channel; N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and catalase, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-decomposing enzyme. These reagents also ablated NO-induced KATP channel stimulation and prevented the shifts in the single-channel open- and closed-time distributions resulting from PKG activation and NO induction. Bath application of H2O2 reproduced PKG stimulation of Kir6.2/SUR1 but did not activate tetrameric Kir6.2LRKR368/369/370/371AAAA channels. Moreover, neither the PKG activator nor exogenous H2O2 was able to enhance the function of KATP channels in the presence of Ca2+ chelators and calmodulin antagonists, whereas the stimulatory effect of H2O2 was unaffected by 5-HD. Altogether, in this report we provide novel evidence that activation of PKG stimulates neuronal KATP channels by modulating intrinsic channel gating via a 5-HD-sensitive factor(s)/ROS/Ca2+/calmodulin signaling pathway that requires the presence of the SUR1 subunit. This signaling pathway may contribute to neuroprotection against ischemic injury and regulation of neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release by modulating the function of neuronal KATP channels. PMID:20053925

  19. Rats with minimal hepatic encephalopathy show reduced cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity in hypothalamus correlating with circadian rhythms alterations.

    PubMed

    Felipo, Vicente; Piedrafita, Blanca; Barios, Juan A; Agustí, Ana; Ahabrach, Hanan; Romero-Vives, María; Barrio, Luis C; Rey, Beatriz; Gaztelu, Jose M; Llansola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis show disturbances in sleep and in its circadian rhythms which are an early sign of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The mechanisms of these disturbances are poorly understood. Rats with porta-caval shunt (PCS), a model of MHE, show sleep disturbances reproducing those of cirrhotic patients. The aims of this work were to characterize the alterations in circadian rhythms in PCS rats and analyze the underlying mechanisms. To reach these aims, we analyzed in control and PCS rats: (a) daily rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activity and of temperature, (b) timing of the onset of activity following turning-off the light, (c) synchronization to light after a phase advance and (d) the molecular mechanisms contributing to these alterations in circadian rhythms. PCS rats show altered circadian rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activities (wheel running). PCS rats show more rest bouts during the active phase, more errors in the onset of motor activity and need less time to re-synchronize after a phase advance than control rats. Circadian rhythm of body temperature is also slightly altered in PCS rats. The internal period length (tau) of circadian rhythm of motor activity is longer in PCS rats. We analyzed some mechanisms by which hypothalamus modulate circadian rhythms. PCS rats show increased content of cGMP in hypothalamus while the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase was reduced by 41% compared to control rats. Altered cGMP-PKG pathway in hypothalamus would contribute to altered circadian rhythms and synchronization to light.

  20. cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iβ regulates breast cancer cell migration and invasion via interaction with the actin/myosin-associated protein caldesmon.

    PubMed

    Schwappacher, Raphaela; Rangaswami, Hema; Su-Yuo, Jacqueline; Hassad, Aaron; Spitler, Ryan; Casteel, Darren E

    2013-04-01

    The two isoforms of type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKGIα and PKGIβ) differ in their first ∼100 amino acids, giving each isoform unique dimerization and autoinhibitory domains. The dimerization domains form coiled-coil structures and serve as platforms for isoform-specific protein-protein interactions. Using the PKGIβ dimerization domain as an affinity probe in a proteomic screen, we identified the actin/myosin-associated protein caldesmon (CaD) as a PKGIβ-specific binding protein. PKGIβ phosphorylated human CaD on serine 12 in vitro and in intact cells. Phosphorylation on serine 12 or mutation of serine 12 to glutamic acid (S12E) reduced the interaction between CaD and myosin IIA. Because CaD inhibits myosin ATPase activity and regulates cell motility, we examined the effects of PKGIβ and CaD on cell migration and invasion. Inhibition of the NO/cGMP/PKG pathway reduced migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells, whereas PKG activation enhanced their motility and invasion. siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous CaD had pro-migratory and pro-invasive effects in human breast cancer cells. Reconstituting cells with wild-type CaD slowed migration and invasion; however, CaD containing a phospho-mimetic S12E mutation failed to reverse the pro-migratory and pro-invasive activity of CaD depletion. Our data suggest that PKGIβ enhances breast cancer cell motility and invasive capacity, at least in part, by phosphorylating CaD. These findings identify a pro-migratory and pro-invasive function for PKGIβ in human breast cancer cells, suggesting that PKGIβ is a potential target for breast cancer treatment.

  1. The role of a parasite-specific allosteric site in the distinctive activation behavior of Eimeria tenella cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Salowe, Scott P; Wiltsie, Judyann; Liberator, Paul A; Donald, Robert G K

    2002-04-02

    A cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) was recently identified as an anticoccidial target for the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria tenella [Gurnett, A., Liberator, P. A., Dulski, P., Salowe, S., Donald, R. G. K., Anderson, J., Wiltsie, J., Diaz, C., Harris, G., Chang, B., Darkin-Rattray, S. J., Nare, B., Crumley, T., Blum, P., Misura, A., Tamas, T., Sardana, M., Yuan, J., Biftu, T., and Schmatz, D. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. (in press)]. Unlike the PKGs of higher organisms that have two cGMP binding sites in their regulatory domain, the PKG from Eimeria tenella (Et-PKG) contains three putative cGMP binding sites and has distinctive activation properties, including a very large stimulation by cGMP ( approximately 1000-fold) with significant cooperativity (Hill coefficient of 1.7). During our investigation of Et-PKG activation, we found that 8-substituted cGMP analogues are weak partial activators. For example, 8-NBD-cGMP provides a maximal stimulation of activity of only 20-fold with little evident cooperativity, although cGMP can synergize with the analogue to provide full activation. The results suggest that partial activation is a consequence of restricted binding of 8-NBD-cGMP to a subset of cGMP sites in the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved arginine and glutamate residues in the parasite-specific third cGMP site confirms that this site is an important functional participant in the allosteric regulation of the kinase and that it exhibits very high selectivity against 8-NBD-cGMP. Since the results are consistent with full activation of Et-PKG requiring cyclic nucleotide binding in all three allosteric sites, one role for the additional cGMP site may be to establish a stricter regulatory mechanism for the kinase activity than is present in the PKGs of higher organisms containing only two allosteric sites.

  2. The regulation of synaptic vesicle recycling by cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II in cerebellar granule cells under strong and sustained stimulation.

    PubMed

    Collado-Alsina, Andrea; Ramírez-Franco, Jorge; Sánchez-Prieto, José; Torres, Magdalena

    2014-06-25

    From the early periods of neurogenesis and migration, up until synaptogenesis, both nitric oxide (NO) and its downstream messenger, cGMP, are thought to influence the development of neurons. The NO/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) pathway regulates the clustering and recruitment of synaptic proteins and vesicles to the synapse, adjusting the exoendocytic cycle to the intensity of activity and accelerating endocytosis following large-scale exocytosis. Here, we show that blockage of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor impairs the cycling of synaptic vesicles in a subset of boutons on cerebellar granule cells, an effect that was reversed by increasing cGMP. Furthermore, we demonstrate that presynaptic cGK type II (cGKII) plays a major role in this process. Using the FM1-43 dye to track vesicle recycling, we found that knockdown of cGKII and/or the application of a cGK inhibitor reduced the efficiency of synaptic vesicle recycling to a similar extent. Likewise, in cerebellar granule cells transfected with vGlut1-pHluorin to follow the exoendocytotic cycle, application of a cGK inhibitor slowed vesicle endocytosis when exocytosis was accelerated through strong and sustained stimulation. Additionally, ultrastructural analysis showed that cGKII knockdown or inhibition favored the formation of endosomal-like structures after strong and sustained stimulation. We conclude that cGKII controls the homeostatic balance of vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in synaptic boutons of rat cerebellar granule cells.

  3. Endogenous expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA and protein in rat intestine. Implications for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    PubMed Central

    Markert, T; Vaandrager, A B; Gambaryan, S; Pöhler, D; Häusler, C; Walter, U; De Jonge, H R; Jarchau, T; Lohmann, S M

    1995-01-01

    Certain pathogenic bacteria produce a family of heat stable enterotoxins (STa) which activate intestinal guanylyl cyclases, increase cGMP, and elicit life-threatening secretory diarrhea. The intracellular effector of cGMP actions has not been clarified. Recently we cloned the cDNA for a rat intestinal type II cGMP dependent protein kinase (cGK II) which is highly enriched in intestinal mucosa. Here we show that cGK II mRNA and protein are restricted to the intestinal segments from the duodenum to the proximal colon, with the highest amounts of cGK II protein in duodenum and jejunum. cGK II mRNA and protein decreased along the villus to crypt axis in the small intestine, whereas substantial amounts of both were found in the crypts of cecum. In intestinal epithelia, cGK II was specifically localized in the apical membrane, a major site of ion transport regulation. In contrast to cGK II, cGK I was localized in smooth muscle cells of the villus lamina propria. Short circuit current (ISC), a measure of Cl- secretion, was increased to a similar extent by STa and by 8-Br-cGMP, a selective activator of cGK, except in distal colon and in monolayers of T84 human colon carcinoma cells in which cGK II was not detected. In human and mouse intestine, the cyclic nucleotide-regulated Cl- conductance can be exclusively accounted for by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. Viewed collectively, the data suggest that cGK II is the mediator of STa and cGMP effects on Cl- transport in intestinal-epithelia. Images PMID:7543493

  4. Novel insights into the mechanisms mediating the local antihypertrophic effects of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide: role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and RGS2

    PubMed Central

    Klaiber, Michael; Kruse, Martin; Völker, Katharina; Schröter, Juliane; Feil, Robert; Freichel, Marc; Gerling, Andrea; Feil, Susanne; Dietrich, Alexander; Londoño, Juan Eduardo Camacho; Baba, Hideo A.; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Penninger, Josef M.; Pongs, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) locally counteracts cardiac hypertrophy via the guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor and cGMP production, but the downstream signalling pathways are unknown. Here, we examined the influence of ANP on β-adrenergic versus Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent (Gs vs. Gαq mediated) modulation of Ca2+i-handling in cardiomyocytes and of hypertrophy in intact hearts. L-type Ca2+ currents and Ca2+i transients in adult isolated murine ventricular myocytes were studied by voltage-clamp recordings and fluorescence microscopy. ANP suppressed Ang II-stimulated Ca2+ currents and transients, but had no effect on isoproterenol stimulation. Ang II suppression by ANP was abolished in cardiomyocytes of mice deficient in GC-A, in cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKG I) or in the regulator of G protein signalling (RGS) 2, a target of PKG I. Cardiac hypertrophy in response to exogenous Ang II was significantly exacerbated in mice with conditional, cardiomyocyte-restricted GC-A deletion (CM GC-A KO). This was concomitant to increased activation of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent prohypertrophic signal transducer CaMKII. In contrast, β-adrenoreceptor-induced hypertrophy was not enhanced in CM GC-A KO mice. Lastly, while the stimulatory effects of Ang II on Ca2+-handling were absent in myocytes of mice deficient in TRPC3/TRPC6, the effects of isoproterenol were unchanged. Our data demonstrate a direct myocardial role for ANP/GC-A/cGMP to antagonize the Ca2+i-dependent hypertrophic growth response to Ang II, but not to β-adrenergic stimulation. The selectivity of this interaction is determined by PKG I and RGS2-dependent modulation of Ang II/AT1 signalling. Furthermore, they strengthen published observations in neonatal cardiomyocytes showing that TRPC3/TRPC6 channels are essential for Ang II, but not for β-adrenergic Ca2+i-stimulation in adult myocytes. PMID:20352235

  5. Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signal transduction in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Chen, Yongchang; Jiang, Lu; Li, Yueying; Lan, Ting; Wang, Ying; Qian, Hai

    2013-12-01

    Our previous study revealed that Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG II) inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced MAPK/ERK and MAPK/JNK-mediated signal transduction through the inhibition of the phosphorylation/activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR). As EGFR also mediates several other signal transduction pathways besides MAPK-mediated pathways, the present study was designed to investigate whether PKG II was able to inhibit EGF/EGFR-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-mediated signal transduction. The AGS human gastric cancer cell line was infected with adenoviral constructs encoding a cDNA of PKG II (Ad-PKG II) to increase the expression of PKG II, and treated with 8-pCPT-cGMP to activate the enzyme. Western blotting was used to detect the phosphorylation/activation of the key components of the signal transduction pathway, including EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and NF-κB. The levels of apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9 and DNA fragment factor (DFF), were also determined by western blotting. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining was used to detect the apoptosis of the AGS cells. The results revealed that EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation (activation) of EGFR, PI3K, Akt and mTOR, and increased the nuclear localization (activation) of NF-κB. EGF treatment also reduced the apoptosis of the AGS cells and increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but had no effect on the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and did not alter the levels of caspase 9 and DFF. Increasing the PKG II activity of AGS cells by infecting them with Ad-PKG II and stimulating them with 8-pCPT-cGMP inhibited the EGF-induced activation of EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and NF-κB; caused an increase in caspase 9 breakdown (activation) and DFF levels; and reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of EGF. The results suggest that PKG II may also inhibit EGF-induced signal transduction of PI3

  6. Activation of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Stimulates Cardiac ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels via a ROS/Calmodulin/CaMKII Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yongping; Zhang, Dai-Min; Lin, Yu-Fung

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is recognized as an important signaling component in diverse cell types. PKG may influence the function of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, an ion channel critical for stress adaptation in the heart; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to address this issue. Methods and Findings Single-channel recordings of cardiac KATP channels were performed in both cell-attached and inside-out patch configurations using transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells and rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes. We found that Kir6.2/SUR2A (the cardiac-type KATP) channels were activated by cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast in a concentration-dependent manner in cell-attached patches obtained from HEK293 cells, an effect mimicked by the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP whereas abolished by selective PKG inhibitors. Intriguingly, direct application of PKG moderately reduced rather than augmented Kir6.2/SUR2A single-channel currents in excised, inside-out patches. Moreover, PKG stimulation of Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells was abrogated by ROS/H2O2 scavenging, antagonism of calmodulin, and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. Exogenous H2O2 also concentration-dependently stimulated Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells, and its effect was prevented by inhibition of calmodulin or CaMKII. PKG stimulation of KATP channels was confirmed in intact ventricular cardiomyocytes, which was ROS- and CaMKII-dependent. Kinetically, PKG appeared to stimulate these channels by destabilizing the longest closed state while stabilizing the long open state and facilitating opening transitions. Conclusion The present study provides novel evidence that PKG exerts dual regulation of cardiac KATP channels, including marked stimulation resulting from intracellular signaling mediated by ROS (H2O2 in

  7. Soluble guanylyl cyclase-activated cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits arterial smooth muscle cell migration independent of VASP-serine 239 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Andrew W; Martin, Danielle N; Shaver, Patti R; Adderley, Shaquria P; Stone, Joshua D; Joshi, Chintamani N; Francisco, Jake T; Lust, Robert M; Weidner, Douglas A; Shewchuk, Brian M; Tulis, David A

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for over half of all cardiovascular disease-related deaths. Uncontrolled arterial smooth muscle (ASM) cell migration is a major component of CAD pathogenesis and efforts aimed at attenuating its progression are clinically essential. Cyclic nucleotide signaling has long been studied for its growth-mitigating properties in the setting of CAD and other vascular disorders. Heme-containing soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and maintains vascular homeostasis predominantly through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling. Considering that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can interfere with appropriate sGC signaling by oxidizing the cyclase heme moiety and so are associated with several CVD pathologies, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that heme-independent sGC activation by BAY 60-2770 (BAY60) maintains cGMP levels despite heme oxidation and inhibits ASM cell migration through phosphorylation of the PKG target and actin-binding vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). First, using the heme oxidant ODQ, cGMP content was potentiated in the presence of BAY60. Using a rat model of arterial growth, BAY60 significantly reduced neointima formation and luminal narrowing compared to vehicle (VEH)-treated controls. In rat ASM cells BAY60 significantly attenuated cell migration, reduced G:F actin, and increased PKG activity and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation (pVASP·S239) compared to VEH controls. Site-directed mutagenesis was then used to generate overexpressing full-length wild type VASP (FL-VASP/WT), VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-mimetic (FL-VASP/239D) and VASP Ser239 phosphorylation-resistant (FL-VASP/239A) ASM cell mutants. Surprisingly, FL-VASP/239D negated the inhibitory effects of FL-VASP/WT and FL-VASP/239A cells on migration. Furthermore, when FL-VASP mutants were treated with BAY60, only the FL-VASP/239D group showed reduced migration compared to its VEH controls

  8. Emodin augments calcium activated chloride channel in colonic smooth muscle cells by Gi/Go protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Ting-Lou; Lv, Nonghua; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Youxiang; Yang, Jing

    2009-08-01

    Emodin is a natural anthraquinone in rhubarb. It has been identified as a prokinetic drug for gastrointestinal motility in Chinese traditional medicine. Emodin contracts smooth muscle by increasing the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+). In many smooth muscles, increasing intracellular Ca(2+) activates Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (ClCA). The study was aimed to investigate the effects of emodin on ClCA channels in colonic smooth muscle. 4 channel physiology signal acquire system was used to measure isometric contraction of smooth muscle strips. ClCA currents were recorded by EPC10 with perforated whole cell model. Emodin contracted strips and cells in colonic smooth muscle and augmented ClCA currents. Niflumic acid (NFA) and 4', 4'-diisothiostilbene-2, 2-disulfonic acid (DIDS) blocked the effects. Gi/Go protein inhibits protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), and PKA and PKC reduced ClCA currents. Pertussis toxin (PTX, a special inhibitor of Gi/Go protein), 8-bromoadenosine 38, 58-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcAMP, a membrane-permeant protein kinase A activator) and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA, a membrane-permeant protein kinase C activator) inhibited the effects on ClCA currents significantly. Our findings suggest that emodin augments ClCA channels to contract smooth muscle in colon, and the effect is induced mostly by enhancement of membrane Gi/Go protein signal transducer pathway.

  9. Permeation Mechanisms in the TMEM16B Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels.

    PubMed

    Pifferi, Simone

    2017-01-01

    TMEM16A and TMEM16B encode for Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCC) and are expressed in many cell types and play a relevant role in many physiological processes. Here, I performed a site-directed mutagenesis study to understand the molecular mechanisms of ion permeation of TMEM16B. I mutated two positive charged residues R573 and K540, respectively located at the entrance and inside the putative channel pore and I measured the properties of wild-type and mutant TMEM16B channels expressed in HEK-293 cells using whole-cell and excised inside-out patch clamp experiments. I found evidence that R573 and K540 control the ion permeability of TMEM16B depending both on which side of the membrane the ion substitution occurs and on the level of channel activation. Moreover, these residues contribute to control blockage or activation by permeant anions. Finally, R573 mutation abolishes the anomalous mole fraction effect observed in the presence of a permeable anion and it alters the apparent Ca2+-sensitivity of the channel. These findings indicate that residues facing the putative channel pore are responsible both for controlling the ion selectivity and the gating of the channel, providing an initial understanding of molecular mechanism of ion permeation in TMEM16B.

  10. Effects of alternative splicing on function of Bestrophin-1 calcium-activated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yu-Hung; Abdullaev, Iskandar F.; Hyzinski-García, María C.; Mongin, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The proposed Ca2+-activated Cl− channel protein Bestrophin 1 (Best1) is expressed and functionally important in the retina and in the brain. Human BEST1 has two known splice variants, Best1V1 and Best1V2, which arise from alternative splicing of two exons: exon 2 splicing results in a unique N-terminal domain, whereas alternative splicing of exon 11 produces two mutually exclusive C-termini. Prior studies were limited to Best1V1 and its clinically relevant mutations. In the present work, we cloned a novel splice variant of Best1V1 missing exon 2 (Best1V1Δex2) and differing from each of the two previously identified isoforms by one alternatively spliced domain. This finding allowed us to determine the role for alternative splicing of the Best1 N- and C-termini. We heteroexpressed Best1V1Δex2 in HEK293 cells, and compared its properties to Best1V1 and Best1V2. Western blot analysis confirmed protein expression from all three splice variants. Both Best1V1 and Best1V1Δex2 successfully formed Ca2+-activated Cl− channels, demonstrating that the N-terminus encoded by exon 2 is not essential for channel function. In contrast, Best1V2 expressing cells had no detectable Ca2+-activated Cl− currents, pointing to a critical role for splicing of the C-terminus. Surface protein biotinylation demonstrated that Best1V1 and Best1V1Δex2 are trafficked to the plasma membrane, whereas Best1V2 is not. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Best1 function, and should be taken into consideration in future modeling of the Best1 protein structure. PMID:24341532

  11. The secret life of CFTR as a calcium-activated chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Billet, Arnaud; Hanrahan, John W

    2013-01-01

    cAMP-stimulated anion conductance is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF). The regulatory domain of CFTR, the anion channel protein encoded by the CF gene, possesses an unusually high density of consensus sequences for phosphorylation by protein kinase A (14 in a stretch of <200 amino acids). Thus it is not surprising that CFTR is viewed primarily as a cAMP-stimulated anion channel, and most studies have focused on this mode of activation. However, there is growing evidence that CFTR also responds to Ca2+-mobilizing secretagogues and contributes substantially to cholinergic and purinergic responses in native tissues. G protein-coupled receptors that signal through Gαq can stimulate CFTR channels by activating Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclase and tyrosine kinases, and also by inhibiting protein phosphatase type 2A. Here we review evidence for these novel mechanisms of CFTR activation and discuss how they may help explain previous observations. PMID:23959675

  12. Calcium-activated chloride channels as a new target to control the spiking pattern of neurons.

    PubMed

    Ha, Go Eun; Cheong, Eunji

    2017-03-03

    Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information in the neural circuits. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS). Spike-frequency adaptation in thalamocortical (TC) and CA1 hippocampal neurons is mediated by the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (CACC) anoctamin-2 (ANO2). Knockdown of ANO2 in these neurons results in significantly reduced spike-frequency adaptation along with increased number of spikes. No previous study has described the finding that CACCs mediate afterhyperpolarization currents, which result in the modulation of neuronal spike patterns in the central nervous system. Therefore, our study proposes a novel role for ANO2 in spike-frequency adaptation and transmission of information in the brain.

  13. Channel properties of the splicing isoforms of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 2

    PubMed Central

    Ponissery Saidu, Samsudeen; Stephan, Aaron B.; Talaga, Anna K.

    2013-01-01

    Anoctamin (ANO)2 (or TMEM16B) forms a cell membrane Ca2+-activated Cl− channel that is present in cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, vomeronasal microvilli, and photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Alternative splicing of Ano2 transcripts generates multiple variants with the olfactory variants skipping exon 14 and having alternative splicing of exon 4. In the present study, 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis was conducted to characterize the 5′ end of olfactory Ano2 transcripts, which showed that the most abundant Ano2 transcripts in the olfactory epithelium contain a novel starting exon that encodes a translation initiation site, whereas transcripts of the publically available sequence variant, which has an alternative and longer 5′ end, were present in lower abundance. With two alternative starting exons and alternative splicing of exon 4, four olfactory ANO2 isoforms are thus possible. Patch-clamp experiments in transfected HEK293T cells expressing these isoforms showed that N-terminal sequences affect Ca2+ sensitivity and that the exon 4–encoded sequence is required to form functional channels. Coexpression of the two predominant isoforms, one with and one without the exon 4 sequence, as well as coexpression of the two rarer isoforms showed alterations in channel properties, indicating that different isoforms interact with each other. Furthermore, channel properties observed from the coexpression of the predominant isoforms better recapitulated the native channel properties, suggesting that the native channel may be composed of two or more splicing isoforms acting as subunits that together shape the channel properties. PMID:23669718

  14. Permeation Mechanisms in the TMEM16B Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    TMEM16A and TMEM16B encode for Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCC) and are expressed in many cell types and play a relevant role in many physiological processes. Here, I performed a site-directed mutagenesis study to understand the molecular mechanisms of ion permeation of TMEM16B. I mutated two positive charged residues R573 and K540, respectively located at the entrance and inside the putative channel pore and I measured the properties of wild-type and mutant TMEM16B channels expressed in HEK-293 cells using whole-cell and excised inside-out patch clamp experiments. I found evidence that R573 and K540 control the ion permeability of TMEM16B depending both on which side of the membrane the ion substitution occurs and on the level of channel activation. Moreover, these residues contribute to control blockage or activation by permeant anions. Finally, R573 mutation abolishes the anomalous mole fraction effect observed in the presence of a permeable anion and it alters the apparent Ca2+-sensitivity of the channel. These findings indicate that residues facing the putative channel pore are responsible both for controlling the ion selectivity and the gating of the channel, providing an initial understanding of molecular mechanism of ion permeation in TMEM16B. PMID:28046119

  15. Calcium-activated chloride current determines action potential morphology during calcium alternans in atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Blatter, Lothar A

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac alternans--periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic calcium transient (CaT) amplitude--is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, it remains an unresolved issue whether beat-to-beat alternations in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i ) or AP morphology are the primary cause of pro-arrhythmic alternans. Here we show that in atria AP alternans occurs secondary to CaT alternans. CaT alternans leads to complex beat-to-beat changes in Ca(2+)-regulated ion currents that determine alternans of AP morphology. We report the novel finding that alternans of AP morphology is largely sustained by the activity of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs). Suppression of the CaCCs significantly reduces AP alternans, while CaT alternans remains unaffected. The demonstration of a major role of CaCCs in the development of AP alternans opens new possibilities for atrial alternans and arrhythmia prevention. Cardiac alternans, described as periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit atrial myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. Beat-to-beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT amplitude revealed a strong quantitative correlation. Application of voltage clamp protocols in the form of pre-recorded APs (AP-clamp) during pacing-induced CaT alternans revealed a Ca(2+)-dependent current consisting of a large outward component (4.78 ± 0.58 pA pF(-1) in amplitude) coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2 that was followed by an inward current (-0.42 ± 0.03 pA pF(-1); n = 21) during AP repolarization. Approximately 90% of the initial outward current was blocked by substitution of Cl(-) ions or application of the Cl(-) channel blocker DIDS identifying it as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current (ICaCC). The prominent AP prolongation at action potential duration at 30% repolarization level during the small alternans CaT was due to reduced ICaCC. Inhibition of Cl(-) currents abolished AP alternans, but failed to affect CaT alternans, indicating that disturbances in Ca(2+) signalling were the primary event leading to alternans, and ICaCC played a decisive role in shaping the beat-to-beat alternations in AP morphology observed during alternans. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  16. Expression of calcium-activated chloride channels Ano1 and Ano2 in mouse taste cells.

    PubMed

    Cherkashin, Alexander P; Kolesnikova, Alisa S; Tarasov, Michail V; Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Bystrova, Marina F; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2016-02-01

    Specialized Ca(2+)-dependent ion channels ubiquitously couple intracellular Ca(2+) signals to a change in cell polarization. The existing physiological evidence suggests that Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are functional in taste cells. Because Ano1 and Ano2 encode channel proteins that form CaCCs in a variety of cells, we analyzed their expression in mouse taste cells. Transcripts for Ano1 and Ano2 were detected in circumvallate (CV) papillae, and their expression in taste cells was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. When dialyzed with CsCl, taste cells of the type III exhibited no ion currents dependent on cytosolic Ca(2+). Large Ca(2+)-gated currents mediated by TRPM5 were elicited in type II cells by Ca(2+) uncaging. When TRPM5 was inhibited by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), ionomycin stimulated a small but resolvable inward current that was eliminated by anion channel blockers, including T16Ainh-A01 (T16), a specific Ano1 antagonist. This suggests that CaCCs, including Ano1-like channels, are functional in type II cells. In type I cells, CaCCs were prominently active, blockable with the CaCC antagonist CaCCinh-A01 but insensitive to T16. By profiling Ano1 and Ano2 expressions in individual taste cells, we revealed Ano1 transcripts in type II cells only, while Ano2 transcripts were detected in both type I and type II cells. P2Y agonists stimulated Ca(2+)-gated Cl(-) currents in type I cells. Thus, CaCCs, possibly formed by Ano2, serve as effectors downstream of P2Y receptors in type I cells. While the role for TRPM5 in taste transduction is well established, the physiological significance of expression of CaCCs in type II cells remains to be elucidated.

  17. Calcium dependence and distribution of calcium-activated chloride channels in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Hernandez, J M; Stühmer, W; Parekh, A B

    1997-01-01

    1. The Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- current (ICl,Ca), expressed in the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes, was examined in excised inside-out macropatches using a rapid perfusion system. 2. Application of Ca(2+)-containing Ringer solution resulted in the activation of a current whose reversal potential shifted to the right by 51 +/- 5.2 mV when Cl- in the pipette solution was lowered from 119.3 to 10 mM. No currents were generated when Ca2+ was omitted from the solution. The current is therefore a Ca(2+)-activated Cl- one. 3. Following exposure to Ca2+, the half-time for activation of ICl,Ca was not voltage dependent, whereas deactivation was strongly so. 4. ICl,Ca was stable in the continuous presence of Ca2+ and showed no sign of inactivation or adaptation. 5. Comparison of the size of the currents (normalized to pipette resistance) from the animal and vegetal poles revealed that ICl,Ca had a highly polarized distribution. The current density was almost 10 times higher in the animal pole. 6. The results suggest that Cl- channels provide a continuous and reliable indication of submembranous Ca2+, at least in an excised patch, and the clustering of the Cl- channels renders it necessary to exert caution in interpreting results involving the kinetics of Ca2+ signalling, when ICl,Ca is used as the sole monitor of calcium. PMID:9279809

  18. The secret life of CFTR as a calcium-activated chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Billet, Arnaud; Hanrahan, John W

    2013-11-01

    cAMP-stimulated anion conductance is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF). The regulatory domain of CFTR, the anion channel protein encoded by the CF gene, possesses an unusually high density of consensus sequences for phosphorylation by protein kinase A (14 in a stretch of <200 amino acids). Thus it is not surprising that CFTR is viewed primarily as a cAMP-stimulated anion channel, and most studies have focused on this mode of activation. However, there is growing evidence that CFTR also responds to Ca(2+)-mobilizing secretagogues and contributes substantially to cholinergic and purinergic responses in native tissues. G protein-coupled receptors that signal through Gαq can stimulate CFTR channels by activating Ca(2+)-dependent adenylyl cyclase and tyrosine kinases, and also by inhibiting protein phosphatase type 2A. Here we review evidence for these novel mechanisms of CFTR activation and discuss how they may help explain previous observations.

  19. Channel properties of the splicing isoforms of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 2.

    PubMed

    Ponissery Saidu, Samsudeen; Stephan, Aaron B; Talaga, Anna K; Zhao, Haiqing; Reisert, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    Anoctamin (ANO)2 (or TMEM16B) forms a cell membrane Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel that is present in cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, vomeronasal microvilli, and photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Alternative splicing of Ano2 transcripts generates multiple variants with the olfactory variants skipping exon 14 and having alternative splicing of exon 4. In the present study, 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis was conducted to characterize the 5' end of olfactory Ano2 transcripts, which showed that the most abundant Ano2 transcripts in the olfactory epithelium contain a novel starting exon that encodes a translation initiation site, whereas transcripts of the publically available sequence variant, which has an alternative and longer 5' end, were present in lower abundance. With two alternative starting exons and alternative splicing of exon 4, four olfactory ANO2 isoforms are thus possible. Patch-clamp experiments in transfected HEK293T cells expressing these isoforms showed that N-terminal sequences affect Ca(2+) sensitivity and that the exon 4-encoded sequence is required to form functional channels. Coexpression of the two predominant isoforms, one with and one without the exon 4 sequence, as well as coexpression of the two rarer isoforms showed alterations in channel properties, indicating that different isoforms interact with each other. Furthermore, channel properties observed from the coexpression of the predominant isoforms better recapitulated the native channel properties, suggesting that the native channel may be composed of two or more splicing isoforms acting as subunits that together shape the channel properties.

  20. Oxidative Stress and Maxi Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK) Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F.; Weiger, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    All cells contain ion channels in their outer (plasma) and inner (organelle) membranes. Ion channels, similar to other proteins, are targets of oxidative impact, which modulates ion fluxes across membranes. Subsequently, these ion currents affect electrical excitability, such as action potential discharge (in neurons, muscle, and receptor cells), alteration of the membrane resting potential, synaptic transmission, hormone secretion, muscle contraction or coordination of the cell cycle. In this chapter we summarize effects of oxidative stress and redox mechanisms on some ion channels, in particular on maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels which play an outstanding role in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions in almost all cells and tissues. We first elaborate on some general features of ion channel structure and function and then summarize effects of oxidative alterations of ion channels and their functional consequences. PMID:26287261

  1. Calcium-Activated Phosphate Uptake in Contracting Corn Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Truelove, B.; Hanson, J. B.

    1966-01-01

    The phosphate inhibition of succinate-powered contraction in corn mitochondria can be reversed with calcium. Associated with this reversal is an accumulation of phosphate and calcium. Both ions are essential for accumulation, although strontium will partially substitute for calcium. Arsenate does not substitute for phosphate except in producing the inhibition of contraction. The antibiotics oligomycin and aurovertin do not block the phosphate inhibition of contraction or the calcium-activated phosphate uptake associated with the release of the inhibition. Dinitrophenol uncouples the phosphate uptake but permits full contraction. Calcium promotes inorganic phosphate accumulation in root tissue as well as in mitochondria. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of theories of calcium reaction with high energy intermediates of oxidative phosphorylation. It is concluded that calcium probably reacts with X∼P in corn mitochondria, rather than with X∼I as with animal mitochondria. PMID:16656343

  2. The Gyc76C Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase and the Foraging cGMP-Dependent Kinase Regulate Extracellular Matrix Organization and BMP Signaling in the Developing Wing of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Schleede, Justin; Blair, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    The developing crossveins of the wing of Drosophila melanogaster are specified by long-range BMP signaling and are especially sensitive to loss of extracellular modulators of BMP signaling such as the Chordin homolog Short gastrulation (Sog). However, the role of the extracellular matrix in BMP signaling and Sog activity in the crossveins has been poorly explored. Using a genetic mosaic screen for mutations that disrupt BMP signaling and posterior crossvein development, we identify Gyc76C, a member of the receptor guanylyl cyclase family that includes mammalian natriuretic peptide receptors. We show that Gyc76C and the soluble cGMP-dependent kinase Foraging, likely linked by cGMP, are necessary for normal refinement and maintenance of long-range BMP signaling in the posterior crossvein. This does not occur through cell-autonomous crosstalk between cGMP and BMP signal transduction, but likely through altered extracellular activity of Sog. We identify a novel pathway leading from Gyc76C to the organization of the wing extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases, and show that both the extracellular matrix and BMP signaling effects are largely mediated by changes in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. We discuss parallels and differences between this pathway and other examples of cGMP activity in both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian cells and tissues. PMID:26440503

  3. The Gyc76C Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase and the Foraging cGMP-Dependent Kinase Regulate Extracellular Matrix Organization and BMP Signaling in the Developing Wing of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Schleede, Justin; Blair, Seth S

    2015-10-01

    The developing crossveins of the wing of Drosophila melanogaster are specified by long-range BMP signaling and are especially sensitive to loss of extracellular modulators of BMP signaling such as the Chordin homolog Short gastrulation (Sog). However, the role of the extracellular matrix in BMP signaling and Sog activity in the crossveins has been poorly explored. Using a genetic mosaic screen for mutations that disrupt BMP signaling and posterior crossvein development, we identify Gyc76C, a member of the receptor guanylyl cyclase family that includes mammalian natriuretic peptide receptors. We show that Gyc76C and the soluble cGMP-dependent kinase Foraging, likely linked by cGMP, are necessary for normal refinement and maintenance of long-range BMP signaling in the posterior crossvein. This does not occur through cell-autonomous crosstalk between cGMP and BMP signal transduction, but likely through altered extracellular activity of Sog. We identify a novel pathway leading from Gyc76C to the organization of the wing extracellular matrix by matrix metalloproteinases, and show that both the extracellular matrix and BMP signaling effects are largely mediated by changes in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. We discuss parallels and differences between this pathway and other examples of cGMP activity in both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian cells and tissues.

  4. Calcium-activated potassium channels and endothelial dysfunction: therapeutic options?

    PubMed Central

    Félétou, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The three subtypes of calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa) of large, intermediate and small conductance (BKCa, IKCa and SKCa) are present in the vascular wall. In healthy arteries, BKCa channels are preferentially expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, while IKCa and SKCa are preferentially located in endothelial cells. The activation of endothelial IKCa and SKCa contributes to nitric oxide (NO) generation and is required to elicit endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations. In the latter responses, the hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle cells is evoked either via electrical coupling through myo-endothelial gap junctions or by potassium ions, which by accumulating in the intercellular space activate the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir2.1 and/or the Na+/K+-ATPase. Additionally, endothelium-derived factors such as cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and under some circumstances NO, prostacyclin, lipoxygenase products and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) hyperpolarize and relax the underlying smooth muscle cells by activating BKCa. In contrast, cytochrome P450-derived 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and various endothelium-derived contracting factors inhibit BKCa. Aging and cardiovascular diseases are associated with endothelial dysfunctions that can involve a decrease in NO bioavailability, alterations of EDHF-mediated responses and/or enhanced production of endothelium-derived contracting factors. Because potassium channels are involved in these endothelium-dependent responses, activation of endothelial and/or smooth muscle KCa could prevent the occurrence of endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, direct activators of these potassium channels or compounds that regulate their activity or their expression may be of some therapeutic interest. Conversely, blockers of IKCa may prevent restenosis and that of BKCa channels sepsis-dependent hypotension. PMID:19187341

  5. Calcium Activities During Different Ion Exchange Separation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhu, H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Sun, W.

    2014-12-01

    Calcium is a major element and participates in many geological processes. Investigations on stable calcium isotopic compositions of natural geological samples provide a great powerful tool to understand all kinds of those geological processes from a view of the field of isotope geochemistry. With the development of modern instruments and chemical separation techniques, calcium isotopic compositions could be determined even more precisely if the column chemistry brings no deviation. Usually, Calcium is separated from matrix elements using cation resin columns and the related chemical separation techniques seem to be robust. However, more detailed work still need to be done on matrix effects and calcium isotopic fractionations on column chemistry or during elution processes. If calcium is run on TIMS instruments, the interference effect could be lower and easier controlled, thus, the requirement to the chemistry is relatively not critic, but calcium fractionation on filaments could be much difficult to monitor. If calcium is run on MC-ICP-MS instruments, the interference effect could be huge and is really difficult to be recognized and subtracted, the requirement to the chemistry is much more critical in order to get a real result of the sample, but the instrument fractionation could be easier to monitor. Here we investigate calcium activities on several kinds of cation resins under different column/acid conditions. We seek to find a good balance between recovery and interference effect on column chemistry and are intend to set up a better chemical separation procedure to satisfy the instrument requirements for calcium. In addition, Calcium isotopic fractionation on column will also be discussed further here based on our previous and ongoing results.

  6. Isolated regulatory domains of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha and Ibeta retain dimerization and native cGMP-binding properties and undergo isoform-specific conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Richie-Jannetta, Robyn; Busch, Jennifer L; Higgins, Kristin A; Corbin, Jackie D; Francis, Sharron H

    2006-03-17

    Molecular mechanisms that provide for cGMP activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) are unknown. PKGs are dimeric; each monomer contains a regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) domain. In this study, isolated recombinant R domains of PKGIalpha-(Delta349-670) and PKGIbeta-(Delta364-685) containing the dimerization and autoinhibitory subdomains and two allosteric cGMP-binding sites were expressed in Sf9 cells. Both R domains were dimers with elongated conformations (Stokes radii of 44 and 51 A, respectively, and frictional coefficients of 1.6 and 1.8, respectively). Exchange dissociation kinetics and K(D) values for cGMP were similar for each holoenzyme and its isolated R domain, indicating that under these conditions the C domain does not appreciably alter cGMP-binding functions of the R domain. As determined by gel filtration chromatography, cGMP binding caused elongation of the PKGIalpha-isolated R domain and contraction of the PKGIbeta-isolated R domain. Cyclic GMP-bound forms of the isoforms have similar physical dimensions that may reflect a common conformation of active isoforms. Elongation of the PKGIbeta holoenzyme associated with cGMP binding and PKG activation cannot be explained solely by conformational change in its R domain, but elongation of the PKGIalpha R domain may partially account for the elongation of wild type PKGIalpha associated with cGMP binding. The cGMP-induced conformational changes in the respective R domains are likely to be critical for kinase activation.

  7. Imidazopyridazine Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 Also Target Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase and Heat Shock Protein 90 To Kill the Parasite at Different Stages of Intracellular Development

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Robert W.; Whalley, David; Bowyer, Paul W.; Wallace, Claire; Rochani, Ankit; Nageshan, Rishi K.; Howell, Steven A.; Grainger, Munira; Jones, Hayley M.; Ansell, Keith H.; Chapman, Timothy M.; Taylor, Debra L.; Osborne, Simon A.; Baker, David A.; Tatu, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Imidazopyridazine compounds are potent, ATP-competitive inhibitors of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) and of Plasmodium falciparum parasite growth in vitro. Here, we show that these compounds can be divided into two classes depending on the nature of the aromatic linker between the core and the R2 substituent group. Class 1 compounds have a pyrimidine linker and inhibit parasite growth at late schizogony, whereas class 2 compounds have a nonpyrimidine linker and inhibit growth in the trophozoite stage, indicating different modes of action for the two classes. The compounds also inhibited cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), and their potency against this enzyme was greatly reduced by substitution of the enzyme's gatekeeper residue at the ATP binding site. The effectiveness of the class 1 compounds against a parasite line expressing the modified PKG was also substantially reduced, suggesting that these compounds kill the parasite primarily through inhibition of PKG rather than CDPK1. HSP90 was identified as a binding partner of class 2 compounds, and a representative compound bound to the ATP binding site in the N-terminal domain of HSP90. Reducing the size of the gatekeeper residue of CDPK1 enabled inhibition of the enzyme by bumped kinase inhibitors; however, a parasite line expressing the modified enzyme showed no change in sensitivity to these compounds. Taken together, these findings suggest that CDPK1 may not be a suitable target for further inhibitor development and that the primary mechanism through which the imidazopyridazines kill parasites is by inhibition of PKG or HSP90. PMID:26711771

  8. Magnolol and honokiol regulate the calcium-activated potassium channels signaling pathway in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanli; Han, Xuefeng; Tang, Shaoxun; Xiao, Wenjun; Tan, Zhiliang; Zhou, Chuanshe; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinghe

    2015-05-15

    To explore the regulatory mechanisms of magnolol and honokiol on calcium-activated potassium channels signaling pathway in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced diarrhea mice, the concentrations of serum chloride ion (Cl(-)), sodium ion (Na(+)), potassium ion (K(+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) were measured. Additionally, the mRNA expressions of calmodulin 1 (CaM), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKIIα) and beta subunit (CaMKIIβ), ryanodine receptor 1, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 receptors), protein kinases C (PKC), potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channels (SK) and potassium large conductance calcium-activated channels(BK)were determined. A diarrhea mouse model was established using ETEC suspensions (3.29×10(9)CFU/ml) at a dosage of 0.02ml/g live body weight (BW). Magnolol or honokiol was intragastrically administered at dosages of 100 (M100 or H100), 300 (M300 or H300) and 500 (M500 or H500) mg/kg BW according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement. Magnolol and honokiol increased the Cl(-) and K(+) concentrations, further, upregulated the CaM, BKα1 and BKβ3 mRNA levels but downregulated the IP3 receptors 1, PKC, SK1, SK2, SK3, SK4 and BKβ4 mRNA expressions. Magnolol and honokiol did not alter the CaMKIIα, CaMKIIβ, ryanodine receptor 1, IP3 receptor 2, IP3 receptor 3, BKβ1 and BKβ2 mRNA expressions. These results clarify that magnolol and honokiol, acting through Ca(2+) channel blockade, inhibit the activation of IP3 receptor 1 to regulate the IP3-Ca(2+) store release, activate CaM to inhibit SK channels, and effectively suppress PKC kinases to promote BKα1 and BKβ3 channels opening and BKβ4 channel closing, which modulates the intestinal ion secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The commonly used cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS can activate cGKI in vitro and in intact cells.

    PubMed

    Valtcheva, Nadejda; Nestorov, Peter; Beck, Alexander; Russwurm, Michael; Hillenbrand, Matthias; Weinmeister, Pascal; Feil, Robert

    2009-01-02

    Small-molecule modulators of cGMP signaling are of interest to basic and clinical research. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) is presumably a major mediator of cGMP effects, and the cGMP analogue Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (Rp-PET) (chemical name: beta-phenyl-1,N2-etheno-8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer) is currently considered one of the most permeable, selective, and potent cGKI inhibitors available for intact cell studies. Here, we have evaluated the properties of Rp-PET using cGKI-expressing and cGKI-deficient primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), purified cGKI isozymes, and an engineered cGMP sensor protein. cGKI activity in intact VSMCs was monitored by cGMP/cGKI-stimulated cell growth and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. Unexpectedly, Rp-PET (100 microm) did not efficiently antagonize activation of cGKI by the agonist 8-Br-cGMP (100 microm) in intact VSMCs. Moreover, in the absence of 8-Br-cGMP, Rp-PET (100 microm) stimulated cell growth in a cGKIalpha-dependent manner. Kinase assays with purified cGKI isozymes confirmed the previously reported inhibition of the cGMP-stimulated enzyme by Rp-PET in vitro. However, in the absence of the agonist cGMP, Rp-PET partially activated the cGKIalpha isoform. Experiments with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based construct harboring the cGMP binding sites of cGKI suggested that binding of Rp-PET induces a conformational change similar to the agonist cGMP. Together, these findings indicate that Rp-PET is a partial cGKIalpha agonist that under certain conditions stimulates rather than inhibits cGKI activity in vitro and in intact cells. Data obtained with Rp-PET as cGKI inhibitor should be interpreted with caution and not be used as sole evidence to dissect the role of cGKI in signaling processes.

  10. Hypotonicity activates a native chloride current in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes are frequently utilized for in vivo expression of cellular proteins, especially ion channel proteins. A thorough understanding of the endogenous conductances and their regulation is paramount for proper characterization of expressed channel proteins. Here we detail a novel chloride current (ICl.swell) responsive to hypotonicity in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Reducing the extracellular osmolarity by 50% elicited a calcium-independent chloride current having an anion conductivity sequence identical with swelling-induced chloride currents observed in epithelial cells. The hypotonicity-activated current was blocked by chloride channel blockers, trivalent lanthanides, and nucleotides. G- protein, cAMP-PKA, and arachidonic acid signaling cascades were not involved in ICl.swell activation. ICl.swell is distinct from both stretch-activated nonselective cation channels and the calcium- activated chloride current in oocytes and may play a critical role in volume regulation in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:8189203

  11. A Markovian Entropy Measure for the Analysis of Calcium Activity Time Series.

    PubMed

    Marken, John P; Halleran, Andrew D; Rahman, Atiqur; Odorizzi, Laura; LeFew, Michael C; Golino, Caroline A; Kemper, Peter; Saha, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    Methods to analyze the dynamics of calcium activity often rely on visually distinguishable features in time series data such as spikes, waves, or oscillations. However, systems such as the developing nervous system display a complex, irregular type of calcium activity which makes the use of such methods less appropriate. Instead, for such systems there exists a class of methods (including information theoretic, power spectral, and fractal analysis approaches) which use more fundamental properties of the time series to analyze the observed calcium dynamics. We present a new analysis method in this class, the Markovian Entropy measure, which is an easily implementable calcium time series analysis method which represents the observed calcium activity as a realization of a Markov Process and describes its dynamics in terms of the level of predictability underlying the transitions between the states of the process. We applied our and other commonly used calcium analysis methods on a dataset from Xenopus laevis neural progenitors which displays irregular calcium activity and a dataset from murine synaptic neurons which displays activity time series that are well-described by visually-distinguishable features. We find that the Markovian Entropy measure is able to distinguish between biologically distinct populations in both datasets, and that it can separate biologically distinct populations to a greater extent than other methods in the dataset exhibiting irregular calcium activity. These results support the benefit of using the Markovian Entropy measure to analyze calcium dynamics, particularly for studies using time series data which do not exhibit easily distinguishable features.

  12. A Markovian Entropy Measure for the Analysis of Calcium Activity Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Odorizzi, Laura; LeFew, Michael C.; Golino, Caroline A.; Kemper, Peter; Saha, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    Methods to analyze the dynamics of calcium activity often rely on visually distinguishable features in time series data such as spikes, waves, or oscillations. However, systems such as the developing nervous system display a complex, irregular type of calcium activity which makes the use of such methods less appropriate. Instead, for such systems there exists a class of methods (including information theoretic, power spectral, and fractal analysis approaches) which use more fundamental properties of the time series to analyze the observed calcium dynamics. We present a new analysis method in this class, the Markovian Entropy measure, which is an easily implementable calcium time series analysis method which represents the observed calcium activity as a realization of a Markov Process and describes its dynamics in terms of the level of predictability underlying the transitions between the states of the process. We applied our and other commonly used calcium analysis methods on a dataset from Xenopus laevis neural progenitors which displays irregular calcium activity and a dataset from murine synaptic neurons which displays activity time series that are well-described by visually-distinguishable features. We find that the Markovian Entropy measure is able to distinguish between biologically distinct populations in both datasets, and that it can separate biologically distinct populations to a greater extent than other methods in the dataset exhibiting irregular calcium activity. These results support the benefit of using the Markovian Entropy measure to analyze calcium dynamics, particularly for studies using time series data which do not exhibit easily distinguishable features. PMID:27977764

  13. The Anti-fibrotic Actions of Relaxin Are Mediated Through a NO-sGC-cGMP-Dependent Pathway in Renal Myofibroblasts In Vitro and Enhanced by the NO Donor, Diethylamine NONOate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Kemp-Harper, Barbara K.; Kocan, Martina; Ang, Sheng Yu; Hewitson, Tim D.; Samuel, Chrishan S.

    2016-01-01

    GMP-promoting effects of RLX, DEA/NO and RLX+DEA/NO (which all increased cGMP levels by 12-16-fold over basal levels; all p < 0.01 vs. vehicle-treated cells) were significantly inhibited by pre-treatment of ODQ (all p < 0.05 vs. the respective treatments alone). Conclusion: These findings confirmed that RLX mediates its TGF-β1-inhibitory and gelatinase-promoting effects via a NO-sGC-cGMP-dependent pathway, which was additively augmented by co-administration of DEA/NO. PMID:27065874

  14. Control of spontaneous firing patterns by the selective coupling of calcium currents to calcium-activated potassium currents in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Joshua A; Wilson, Charles J

    2005-11-02

    The spontaneous firing patterns of striatal cholinergic interneurons are sculpted by potassium currents that give rise to prominent afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs). Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel currents contribute to action potential (AP) repolarization; small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel currents generate an apamin-sensitive medium AHP (mAHP) after each AP; and bursts of APs generate long-lasting slow AHPs (sAHPs) attributable to apamin-insensitive currents. Because all these currents are calcium dependent, we conducted voltage- and current-clamp whole-cell recordings while pharmacologically manipulating calcium channels of the plasma membrane and intracellular stores to determine what sources of calcium activate the currents underlying AP repolarization and the AHPs. The Cav2.2 (N-type) blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) was the only blocker that significantly reduced the mAHP, and it induced a transition to rhythmic bursting in one-third of the cells tested. Cav1 (L-type) blockers (10 microM dihydropyridines) were the only ones that significantly reduced the sAHP. When applied to cells induced to burst with apamin, dihydropyridines reduced the sAHPs and abolished bursting. Depletion of intracellular stores with 10 mM caffeine also significantly reduced the sAHP current and reversibly regularized firing. Application of 1 microM omega-conotoxin MVIIC (a Cav2.1/2.2 blocker) broadened APs but had a negligible effect on APs in cells in which BK channels were already blocked by submillimolar tetraethylammonium chloride, indicating that Cav2.1 (Q-type) channels provide the calcium to activate BK channels that repolarize the AP. Thus, calcium currents are selectively coupled to the calcium-dependent potassium currents underlying the AHPs, thereby creating mechanisms for control of the spontaneous firing patterns of these neurons.

  15. Role of volume-regulated and calcium-activated anion channels in cell volume homeostasis, cancer and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Else K; Sørensen, Belinda H; Sauter, Daniel P R; Lambert, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Volume-regulated channels for anions (VRAC) / organic osmolytes (VSOAC) play essential roles in cell volume regulation and other cellular functions, e.g. proliferation, cell migration and apoptosis. LRRC8A, which belongs to the leucine rich-repeat containing protein family, was recently shown to be an essential component of both VRAC and VSOAC. Reduced VRAC and VSOAC activities are seen in drug resistant cancer cells. ANO1 is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed on the plasma membrane of e.g., secretory epithelia. ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in a large number of carcinomas. The gene, encoding for ANO1, maps to a region on chromosome 11 (11q13) that is frequently amplified in cancer cells. Knockdown of ANO1 impairs cell proliferation and cell migration in several cancer cells. Below we summarize the basic biophysical properties of VRAC, VSOAC and ANO1 and their most important cellular functions as well as their role in cancer and drug resistance. PMID:26569161

  16. Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on chloride in HT29 cells studied by X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Roomans, G M

    1999-01-01

    The colon cancer cell line HT29 is a useful model to study intestinal chloride secretion. These cells have both cAMP-activated and calcium-activated chloride channels. Changes in elemental content of the cells after stimulation with agonists were determined by X-ray microanalysis in the scanning or scanning transmission electron microscope. Exposure of HT29 cells to pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP) caused a transient decrease in the cellular Cl and K concentrations, indicating (net) efflux of chloride. The effect of PACAP is inhibited by somatostatin, which is known to inhibit cAMP-activated as well as calcium-activated chloride secretion and by U-73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C. Alloxan, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, did not significantly affect the PACAP-induced loss of chloride. The calcium-chelating agent EGTA inhibited the PACAP-induced loss of chloride, indicating the need for extracellular calcium ions. Also vasointestinal polypeptide (VIP) caused a decrease of the cellular chloride concentration in HT29 cells. VIP-induced loss of chloride could be inhibited by pre-treating the cells with somatostatin or UK14,304, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has been shown previously to inhibit purinergically activated chloride efflux. Our results indicate that there is cross-talk between the cAMP- and the calcium-activated pathways for chloride secretion in HT29 cells.

  17. Chloride channels in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Dayue Darrel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles, including proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain, ie, stroke. Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Cl−) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke. At least three Cl− channel genes are expressed in VSMCs: 1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1), which may encode the calcium-activated Cl− channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Cl− channel and Cl−/H+ antiporter, which is closely related to the volume-regulated Cl− channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which encodes the PKA- and PKC-activated Cl− channels. Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization, vasoconstriction, and inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs. Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension. In addition, Cl− current mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death. This review focuses on the functional roles of Cl− channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Cl− channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23103617

  18. Pharmacological analysis of epithelial chloride secretion mechanisms in adult murine airways.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Ambra; Ferrera, Loretta; Philp, Amber R; Caci, Emanuela; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Galietta, Luis J V; Flores, Carlos A

    2016-06-15

    Defective epithelial chloride secretion occurs in humans with cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic defect due to loss of function of CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel. In the airways, absence of an active CFTR causes a severe lung disease. In mice, genetic ablation of CFTR function does not result in similar lung pathology. This may be due to the expression of an alternative chloride channel which is activated by calcium. The most probable protein performing this function is TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC). Our aim was to assess the relative contribution of CFTR and TMEM16A to chloride secretion in adult mouse trachea. For this purpose we tested pharmacological inhibitors of chloride channels in normal and CF mice. The amplitude of the cAMP-activated current was similar in both types of animals and was not affected by a selective CFTR inhibitor. In contrast, a CaCC inhibitor (CaCCinh-A01) strongly blocked the cAMP-activated current as well as the calcium-activated chloride secretion triggered by apical UTP. Although control experiments revealed that CaCCinh-A01 also shows inhibitory activity on CFTR, our results indicate that transepithelial chloride secretion in adult mouse trachea is independent of CFTR and that another channel, possibly TMEM16A, performs both cAMP- and calcium-activated chloride transport. The prevalent function of a non-CFTR channel may explain the absence of a defect in chloride transport in CF mice.

  19. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  3. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S

  4. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R01 / 003 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 74 - 87 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2001 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.

  5. Benzyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzyl chloride ; CASRN 100 - 44 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  6. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  7. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... practitioner determine if there is also an acid-base imbalance and helps to guide treatment. ^ Back to top What does the test result mean? An increased level of blood chloride (called hyperchloremia) usually indicates ... too much base is lost from the body (producing metabolic acidosis ) ...

  8. Impact of calcium-activated potassium channels on NMDA spikes in cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bock, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Active electrical events play an important role in shaping signal processing in dendrites. As these events are usually associated with an increase in intracellular calcium, they are likely to be under the control of calcium-activated potassium channels. Here, we investigate the impact of calcium-activated potassium channels on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent spikes, or NMDA spikes, evoked by glutamate iontophoresis onto basal dendrites of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons. We found that small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) act to reduce NMDA spike amplitude but at the same time, also decrease the iontophoretic current required for their generation. This SK-mediated decrease in NMDA spike threshold was dependent on R-type voltage-gated calcium channels and indicates a counterintuitive, excitatory effect of SK channels on NMDA spike generation, whereas the capacity of SK channels to suppress NMDA spike amplitude is in line with the expected inhibitory action of potassium channels on dendritic excitability. Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels had no significant impact on NMDA spikes, indicating that these channels are either absent from basal dendrites or not activated by NMDA spikes. These experiments reveal complex and opposing interactions among NMDA receptors, SK channels, and voltage-gated calcium channels in basal dendrites of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons during NMDA spike generation, which are likely to play an important role in regulating the way these neurons integrate the thousands of synaptic inputs they receive. PMID:26936985

  9. Interactions between permeation and gating in the TMEM16B/anoctamin2 calcium-activated chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Betto, Giulia; Cherian, O. Lijo; Pifferi, Simone; Cenedese, Valentina; Menini, Anna

    2014-01-01

    At least two members of the TMEM16/anoctamin family, TMEM16A (also known as anoctamin1) and TMEM16B (also known as anoctamin2), encode Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs), which are found in various cell types and mediate numerous physiological functions. Here, we used whole-cell and excised inside-out patch-clamp to investigate the relationship between anion permeation and gating, two processes typically viewed as independent, in TMEM16B expressed in HEK 293T cells. The permeability ratio sequence determined by substituting Cl− with other anions (PX/PCl) was SCN− > I− > NO3− > Br− > Cl− > F− > gluconate. When external Cl− was substituted with other anions, TMEM16B activation and deactivation kinetics at 0.5 µM Ca2+ were modified according to the sequence of permeability ratios, with anions more permeant than Cl− slowing both activation and deactivation and anions less permeant than Cl− accelerating them. Moreover, replacement of external Cl− with gluconate, or sucrose, shifted the voltage dependence of steady-state activation (G-V relation) to more positive potentials, whereas substitution of extracellular or intracellular Cl− with SCN− shifted G-V to more negative potentials. Dose–response relationships for Ca2+ in the presence of different extracellular anions indicated that the apparent affinity for Ca2+ at +100 mV increased with increasing permeability ratio. The apparent affinity for Ca2+ in the presence of intracellular SCN− also increased compared with that in Cl−. Our results provide the first evidence that TMEM16B gating is modulated by permeant anions and provide the basis for future studies aimed at identifying the molecular determinants of TMEM16B ion selectivity and gating. PMID:24863931

  10. Increased TMEM16A-encoded calcium-activated chloride channel activity is associated with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Abigail S.; Joyce, Talia C.; Huebner, Marissa L.; Ayon, Ramon J.; Wiwchar, Michael; Joyce, John; Freitas, Natalie; Davis, Alison J.; Ye, Linda; Duan, Dayue D.; Singer, Cherie A.; Valencik, Maria L.; Greenwood, Iain A.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are more depolarized and display higher Ca2+ levels in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether the functional properties and expression of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (ClCa), an important excitatory mechanism in PASMCs, are altered in PH is unknown. The potential role of ClCa channels in PH was investigated using the monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH model in the rat. Three weeks postinjection with a single dose of MCT (50 mg/kg ip), the animals developed right ventricular hypertrophy (heart weight measurements) and changes in pulmonary arterial flow (pulse-waved Doppler imaging) that were consistent with increased pulmonary arterial pressure and PH. Whole cell patch experiments revealed an increase in niflumic acid (NFA)-sensitive Ca2+-activated Cl− current [ICl(Ca)] density in PASMCs from large conduit and small intralobar pulmonary arteries of MCT-treated rats vs. aged-matched saline-injected controls. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the alterations in ICl(Ca) were accompanied by parallel changes in the expression of TMEM16A, a gene recently shown to encode for ClCa channels. The contraction to serotonin of conduit and intralobar pulmonary arteries from MCT-treated rats exhibited greater sensitivity to nifedipine (1 μM), an l-type Ca2+ channel blocker, and NFA (30 or 100 μM, with or without 10 μM indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenases) or T16AInh-A01 (10 μM), TMEM16A/ClCa channel inhibitors, than that of control animals. In conclusion, augmented ClCa/TMEM16A channel activity is a major contributor to the changes in electromechanical coupling of PA in this model of PH. TMEM16A-encoded channels may therefore represent a novel therapeutic target in this disease. PMID:23034390

  11. Calcium-calmodulin does not alter the anion permeability of the mouse TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yawei; Kuan, Ai-Seon

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane protein TMEM16A forms a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel that is permeable to many anions, including SCN−, I−, Br−, Cl−, and HCO3−, and has been implicated in various physiological functions. Indeed, controlling anion permeation through the TMEM16A channel pore may be critical in regulating the pH of exocrine fluids such as the pancreatic juice. The anion permeability of the TMEM16A channel pore has recently been reported to be modulated by Ca2+-calmodulin (CaCaM), such that the pore of the CaCaM-bound channel shows a reduced ability to discriminate between anions as measured by a shift of the reversal potential under bi-ionic conditions. Here, using a mouse TMEM16A clone that contains the two previously identified putative CaM-binding motifs, we were unable to demonstrate such CaCaM-dependent changes in the bi-ionic potential. We confirmed the activity of CaCaM used in our study by showing CaCaM modulation of the olfactory cyclic nucleotide–gated channel. We suspect that the different bi-ionic potentials that were obtained previously from whole-cell recordings in low and high intracellular [Ca2+] may result from different degrees of bi-ionic potential shift secondary to a series resistance problem, an ion accumulation effect, or both. PMID:24981232

  12. Multiple effects of anthracene-9-carboxylic acid on the TMEM16B/anoctamin2 calcium-activated chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Cherian, O Lijo; Menini, Anna; Boccaccio, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (CaCCs) play important roles in many physiological processes. Recent studies have shown that TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 constitute CaCCs in several cell types. Here we have investigated for the first time the extracellular effects of the Cl(-) channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A9C) and of its non-charged analogue anthracene-9-methanol (A9M) on TMEM16B expressed in HEK 293T cells, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. A9C caused a voltage-dependent block of outward currents and inhibited a larger fraction of the current as depolarization increased, whereas the non-charged A9M produced a small, not voltage dependent block of outward currents. A similar voltage-dependent block by A9C was measured both when TMEM16B was activated by 1.5 and 13μM Ca(2+). However, in the presence of 1.5μM Ca(2+) (but not in 13μM Ca(2+)), A9C also induced a strong potentiation of tail currents measured at -100mV after depolarizing voltages, as well as a prolongation of the deactivation kinetics. On the contrary, A9M did not produce potentiation of tail currents, showing that the negative charge is required for potentiation. Our results provide the first evidence that A9C has multiple effects on TMEM16B and that the negative charge of A9C is necessary both for voltage-dependent block and for potentiation. Future studies are required to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these complex effects of A9C on TMEM16B. Understanding these mechanisms will contribute to the elucidation of the structure and functional properties of TMEM16B channels.

  13. Independent activation of ion conduction pores in the double-barreled calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A.

    PubMed

    Lim, Novandy K; Lam, Andy K M; Dutzler, Raimund

    2016-11-01

    The TMEM16 proteins constitute a family of membrane proteins with unusual functional breadth, including lipid scramblases and Cl(-) channels. Members of both these branches are activated by Ca(2+), acting from the intracellular side, and probably share a common architecture, which was defined in the recent structure of the lipid scramblase nhTMEM16. The structural features of subunits and the arrangement of Ca(2+)-binding sites in nhTMEM16 suggest that the dimeric protein harbors two locations for catalysis that are independent with respect to both activation and lipid conduction. Here, we ask whether a similar independence is observed in the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A. For this purpose, we generated concatenated constructs containing subunits with distinct activation and permeation properties. Our biochemical investigations demonstrate the integrity of concatemers after solubilization and purification. During investigation by patch-clamp electrophysiology, the functional behavior of constructs containing either two wild-type (WT) subunits or one WT subunit paired with a second subunit with compromised activation closely resembles TMEM16A. This resemblance extends to ion selectivity, conductance, and the concentration and voltage dependence of channel activation by Ca(2+) Constructs combining subunits with different potencies for Ca(2+) show a biphasic activation curve that can be described as a linear combination of the properties of its constituents. The functional independence is further supported by mutation of a putative pore-lining residue that changes the conduction properties of the mutated subunit. Our results strongly suggest that TMEM16A contains two ion conduction pores that are independently activated by Ca(2+) binding to sites that are embedded within the transmembrane part of each subunit.

  14. Calcium-calmodulin does not alter the anion permeability of the mouse TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yawei; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-07-01

    The transmembrane protein TMEM16A forms a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel that is permeable to many anions, including SCN(-), I(-), Br(-), Cl(-), and HCO3 (-), and has been implicated in various physiological functions. Indeed, controlling anion permeation through the TMEM16A channel pore may be critical in regulating the pH of exocrine fluids such as the pancreatic juice. The anion permeability of the TMEM16A channel pore has recently been reported to be modulated by Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaCaM), such that the pore of the CaCaM-bound channel shows a reduced ability to discriminate between anions as measured by a shift of the reversal potential under bi-ionic conditions. Here, using a mouse TMEM16A clone that contains the two previously identified putative CaM-binding motifs, we were unable to demonstrate such CaCaM-dependent changes in the bi-ionic potential. We confirmed the activity of CaCaM used in our study by showing CaCaM modulation of the olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel. We suspect that the different bi-ionic potentials that were obtained previously from whole-cell recordings in low and high intracellular [Ca(2+)] may result from different degrees of bi-ionic potential shift secondary to a series resistance problem, an ion accumulation effect, or both.

  15. Electrical slow waves in the mouse oviduct are dependent upon a calcium activated chloride conductance encoded by Tmem16a.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Rose Ellen; Hennig, Grant W; Baker, Salah A; Britton, Fiona C; Harfe, Brian D; Rock, Jason R; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2012-01-01

    Myosalpinx contractions are critical for oocyte transport along the oviduct. A specialized population of pacemaker cells-oviduct interstitial cells of Cajal-generate slow waves, the electrical events underlying myosalpinx contractions. The ionic basis of oviduct pacemaker activity is unknown. We examined the role of a new class of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs)-anoctamin 1, encoded by Tmem16a-in oviduct slow wave generation. RT-PCR revealed the transcriptional expression of Tmem16a-encoded CaCCs in the myosalpinx. Intracellular microelectrode recordings were performed in the presence of two pharmacologically distinct Cl(-) channel antagonists, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid and niflumic acid. Both of these inhibitors caused membrane hyperpolarization, reduced the duration of slow waves, and ultimately inhibited pacemaker activity. Niflumic acid also inhibited propagating calcium waves within the myosalpinx. Slow waves were present at birth in wild-type and heterozygous oviducts but failed to develop by birth in mice homozygous for a null allele of Tmem16a (Tmem16a(tm1Bdh/tm1Bdh)). These data suggest that Tmem16a-encoded CaCCs contribute to membrane potential and are responsible for the upstroke and plateau phases of oviduct slow waves.

  16. Computational modeling of anoctamin 1 calcium-activated chloride channels as pacemaker channels in interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Simon J.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Sneyd, James; Cheng, Leo K.

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) act as pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract by generating electrical slow waves to regulate rhythmic smooth muscle contractions. Intrinsic Ca2+ oscillations in ICC appear to produce the slow waves by activating pacemaker currents, currently thought to be carried by the Ca2+-activated Cl− channel anoctamin 1 (Ano1). In this article we present a novel model of small intestinal ICC pacemaker activity that incorporates store-operated Ca2+ entry and a new model of Ano1 current. A series of simulations were carried out with the ICC model to investigate current controversies about the reversal potential of the Ano1 Cl− current in ICC and to predict the characteristics of the other ion channels that are necessary to generate slow waves. The model results show that Ano1 is a plausible pacemaker channel when coupled to a store-operated Ca2+ channel but suggest that small cyclical depolarizations may still occur in ICC in Ano1 knockout mice. The results predict that voltage-dependent Ca2+ current is likely to be negligible during the slow wave plateau phase. The model shows that the Cl− equilibrium potential is an important modulator of slow wave morphology, highlighting the need for a better understanding of Cl− dynamics in ICC. PMID:24481603

  17. Calcium activates a chloride conductance likely involved in olfactory receptor neuron repolarization in the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Pézier, Adeline; Grauso, Marta; Acquistapace, Adrien; Monsempes, Christelle; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lucas, Philippe

    2010-05-05

    The response of insect olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to odorants involves the opening of Ca(2+)-permeable channels, generating an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Here, we studied the downstream effect of this Ca(2+) rise in cultured ORNs of the moth Spodoptera littoralis. Intracellular dialysis of Ca(2+) from the patch pipette in whole-cell patch-clamp configuration activated a conductance with a K(1/2) of 2.8 microm. Intracellular and extracellular anionic and cationic substitutions demonstrated that Cl(-) carries this current. The anion permeability sequence I(-) > NO(3)(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-) > CH(3)SO(3)(-) > gluconate(-) of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel suggests a weak electrical field pore of the channel. The Ca(2+)-activated current partly inactivated over time and did not depend on protein kinase C (PKC) and CaMKII activity or on calmodulin. Application of Cl(-) channel blockers, flufenamic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid, or niflumic acid reversibly blocked the Ca(2+)-activated current. In addition, lowering Cl(-) concentration in the sensillar lymph bathing the ORN outer dendrites caused a significant delay in pheromone response termination in vivo. The present work identifies a new Cl(-) conductance activated by Ca(2+) in insect ORNs presumably required for ORN repolarization.

  18. Interactions between permeation and gating in the TMEM16B/anoctamin2 calcium-activated chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Betto, Giulia; Cherian, O Lijo; Pifferi, Simone; Cenedese, Valentina; Boccaccio, Anna; Menini, Anna

    2014-06-01

    At least two members of the TMEM16/anoctamin family, TMEM16A (also known as anoctamin1) and TMEM16B (also known as anoctamin2), encode Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs), which are found in various cell types and mediate numerous physiological functions. Here, we used whole-cell and excised inside-out patch-clamp to investigate the relationship between anion permeation and gating, two processes typically viewed as independent, in TMEM16B expressed in HEK 293T cells. The permeability ratio sequence determined by substituting Cl(-) with other anions (PX/PCl) was SCN(-) > I(-) > NO3 (-) > Br(-) > Cl(-) > F(-) > gluconate. When external Cl(-) was substituted with other anions, TMEM16B activation and deactivation kinetics at 0.5 µM Ca(2+) were modified according to the sequence of permeability ratios, with anions more permeant than Cl(-) slowing both activation and deactivation and anions less permeant than Cl(-) accelerating them. Moreover, replacement of external Cl(-) with gluconate, or sucrose, shifted the voltage dependence of steady-state activation (G-V relation) to more positive potentials, whereas substitution of extracellular or intracellular Cl(-) with SCN(-) shifted G-V to more negative potentials. Dose-response relationships for Ca(2+) in the presence of different extracellular anions indicated that the apparent affinity for Ca(2+) at +100 mV increased with increasing permeability ratio. The apparent affinity for Ca(2+) in the presence of intracellular SCN(-) also increased compared with that in Cl(-). Our results provide the first evidence that TMEM16B gating is modulated by permeant anions and provide the basis for future studies aimed at identifying the molecular determinants of TMEM16B ion selectivity and gating.

  19. Role of Quercetin in Modulating Chloride Transport in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Jin, Lingling; Ma, Tonghui; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial chloride channels provide the pathways for fluid secretion in the intestine. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are the main chloride channels in the luminal membrane of enterocytes. These transmembrane proteins play important roles in many physiological processes. In this study, we have identified a flavonoid quercetin as a modulator of CaCC chloride channel activity. Fluorescence quenching assay showed that quercetin activated Cl− transport in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 ~37 μM. Short-circuit current analysis confirmed that quercetin activated CaCC-mediated Cl− currents in HT-29 cells that can be abolished by CaCCinh-A01. Ex vivo studies indicated that application of quercetin to mouse ileum and colon on serosal side resulted in activation of CFTR and CaCC-mediated Cl− currents. Notably, we found that quercetin exhibited inhibitory effect against ANO1 chloride channel activity in ANO1-expressing FRT cells and decreased mouse intestinal motility. Quercetin-stimulated short-circuit currents in mouse ileum was multi-component, which included elevation of Ca2+ concentration through L-type calcium channel and activation of basolateral NKCC, Na+/K+-ATPase, and K+ channels. In vivo studies further revealed that quercetin promoted fluid secretion in mouse ileum. The modulatory effect of quercetin on CaCC chloirde channels may therefore represent a potential therapeutic strategy for treating CaCC-related diseases like constipation, secretory diarrhea and hypertension. The inverse effects of quercetin on CaCCs provided evidence that ANO1 and intestinal epithelial CaCCs are different calcium-activated chloride channels. PMID:27932986

  20. Calcium-activated butyrylcholinesterase in human skin protects acetylcholinesterase against suicide inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schallreuter, Karin U.; University of Bradford ). E-mail: K.Schallreuter@bradford.ac.uk; Gibbons, Nicholas C.J.; Elwary, Souna M.; Parkin, Susan M.; Wood, John M.

    2007-04-20

    The human epidermis holds an autocrine acetylcholine production and degradation including functioning membrane integrated and cytosolic butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE). Here we show that BuchE activities increase 9-fold in the presence of calcium (0.5 x 10{sup -3}M) via a specific EF-hand calcium binding site, whereas acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is not affected. {sup 45}Calcium labelling and computer simulation confirmed the presence of one EF-hand binding site per subunit which is disrupted by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation. Moreover, we confirmed the faster hydrolysis by calcium-activated BuchE using the neurotoxic organophosphate O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)-phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). Considering the large size of the human skin with 1.8 m{sup 2} surface area with its calcium gradient in the 10{sup -3}M range, our results implicate calcium-activated BuchE as a major protective mechanism against suicide inhibition of AchE by organophosphates in this non-neuronal tissue.

  1. A large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koszela-Piotrowska, Izabela; Matkovic, Karolina; Szewczyk, Adam; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2009-11-11

    In the present study, we describe the existence of a novel potassium channel in the plant [potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber] mitochondrial inner membrane. We found that substances known to modulate large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity influenced the bioenergetics of potato tuber mitochondria. In isolated mitochondria, Ca2+ and NS1619 {1,3-dihydro-1-[2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-ben-zimidazole-2-one; a potassium channel opener} were found to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane potential and to stimulate resting respiration. These effects were blocked by iberiotoxin (a potassium channel inhibitor) in a potassium-dependent manner. Additionally, the electrophysiological properties of the large-conductance potassium channel present in the potato tuber inner mitochondrial membrane are described in a reconstituted system, using planar lipid bilayers. After incorporation in 50/450 mM KCl gradient solutions, we recorded large-conductance potassium channel activity with conductance from 502+/-15 to 615+/-12 pS. The probability of channel opening was increased by Ca2+ and reduced by iberiotoxin. Immunological analysis with antibodies raised against the mammalian plasma-membrane large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channel identified a pore-forming alpha subunit and an auxiliary beta2 subunit of the channel in potato tuber mitochondrial inner membrane. These results suggest that a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel similar to that of mammalian mitochondria is present in potato tuber mitochondria.

  2. Control of anterior pituitary cell excitability by calcium-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Shipston, Michael J

    2017-06-05

    In anterior pituitary endocrine cells, large (BK), small (SK) and intermediate (IK) conductance calcium activated potassium channels are key determinants in shaping cellular excitability in a cell type- and context-specific manner. Indeed, these channels are targeted by multiple signaling pathways that stimulate or inhibit cellular excitability. BK channels can, paradoxically, both promote electrical bursting as well as terminate bursting and spiking dependent upon intrinsic BK channel properties and proximity to voltage gated calcium channels in somatotrophs, lactotrophs and corticotrophs. In contrast, SK channels are predominantly activated by calcium released from intracellular IP3-sensitive calcium stores and mediate membrane hyperpolarization in cells including gonadotrophs and corticotrophs. IK channels are predominantly expressed in corticotrophs where they limit membrane excitability. A major challenge for the future is to determine the cell-type specific molecular composition of calcium-activated potassium channels and how they control anterior pituitary hormone secretion as well as other calcium-dependent processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. No independent, but an interactive, role of calcium-activated potassium channels in human cutaneous active vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Vienna E; Fujii, Naoto; Minson, Christopher T

    2013-11-01

    In human cutaneous microvasculature, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) account for a large portion of vasodilation associated with local stimuli. Thus we sought to determine the role of EDHFs in active vasodilation (AVD) to passive heating in two protocols. Whole body heating was achieved using water-perfused suits (core temperature increase of 0.8-1.0°C), and skin blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. In the first protocol, four sites were perfused continuously via microdialysis with: 1) control; 2) tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels, and thus the actions of EDHFs; 3) N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase (NOS); and 4) TEA + l-NAME (n = 8). Data are presented as percent maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). TEA had no effect on AVD (CVC during heated plateau: control 57.4 ± 4.9% vs. TEA 63.2 ± 5.2%, P = 0.27), indicating EDHFs are not obligatory. l-NAME attenuated plateau CVC to 33.7 ± 5.4% (P < 0.01 vs. control); while TEA + l-NAME augmented plateau CVC compared with l-NAME alone (49.7 ± 5.3%, P = 0.02). From these data, it appears combined blockade of EDHFs and NOS necessitates dilation through other means, possibly through inward rectifier (KIR) and/or ATP-sensitive (KATP) potassium channels. To test this second hypothesis, we measured AVD at the following sites (n = 8): 1) control, 2) l-NAME, 3) l-NAME + TEA, and 4) l-NAME + TEA + barium chloride (BaCl2; KIR and KATP blocker). The addition of BaCl2 to l-NAME + TEA reduced plateau CVC to 32.7 ± 6.6% (P = 0.02 vs. l-NAME + TEA), which did not differ from the l-NAME site. These data combined demonstrate a complex interplay between vasodilatory pathways, with cross-talk between NO, KCa channels, and KIR and/or KATP channels.

  4. No independent, but an interactive, role of calcium-activated potassium channels in human cutaneous active vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Vienna E.; Fujii, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    In human cutaneous microvasculature, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) account for a large portion of vasodilation associated with local stimuli. Thus we sought to determine the role of EDHFs in active vasodilation (AVD) to passive heating in two protocols. Whole body heating was achieved using water-perfused suits (core temperature increase of 0.8–1.0°C), and skin blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. In the first protocol, four sites were perfused continuously via microdialysis with: 1) control; 2) tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels, and thus the actions of EDHFs; 3) N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase (NOS); and 4) TEA + l-NAME (n = 8). Data are presented as percent maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). TEA had no effect on AVD (CVC during heated plateau: control 57.4 ± 4.9% vs. TEA 63.2 ± 5.2%, P = 0.27), indicating EDHFs are not obligatory. l-NAME attenuated plateau CVC to 33.7 ± 5.4% (P < 0.01 vs. control); while TEA + l-NAME augmented plateau CVC compared with l-NAME alone (49.7 ± 5.3%, P = 0.02). From these data, it appears combined blockade of EDHFs and NOS necessitates dilation through other means, possibly through inward rectifier (KIR) and/or ATP-sensitive (KATP) potassium channels. To test this second hypothesis, we measured AVD at the following sites (n = 8): 1) control, 2) l-NAME, 3) l-NAME + TEA, and 4) l-NAME + TEA + barium chloride (BaCl2; KIR and KATP blocker). The addition of BaCl2 to l-NAME + TEA reduced plateau CVC to 32.7 ± 6.6% (P = 0.02 vs. l-NAME + TEA), which did not differ from the l-NAME site. These data combined demonstrate a complex interplay between vasodilatory pathways, with cross-talk between NO, KCa channels, and KIR and/or KATP channels. PMID:23970531

  5. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels at Nodes of Ranvier Secure Axonal Spike Propagation.

    PubMed

    Gründemann, Jan; Clark, Beverley A

    2015-09-22

    Functional connectivity between brain regions relies on long-range signaling by myelinated axons. This is secured by saltatory action potential propagation that depends fundamentally on sodium channel availability at nodes of Ranvier. Although various potassium channel types have been anatomically localized to myelinated axons in the brain, direct evidence for their functional recruitment in maintaining node excitability is scarce. Cerebellar Purkinje cells provide continuous input to their targets in the cerebellar nuclei, reliably transmitting axonal spikes over a wide range of rates, requiring a constantly available pool of nodal sodium channels. We show that the recruitment of calcium-activated potassium channels (IK, K(Ca)3.1) by local, activity-dependent calcium (Ca(2+)) influx at nodes of Ranvier via a T-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) current provides a powerful mechanism that likely opposes depolarizing block at the nodes and is thus pivotal to securing continuous axonal spike propagation in spontaneously firing Purkinje cells.

  6. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels at Nodes of Ranvier Secure Axonal Spike Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gründemann, Jan; Clark, Beverley A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Functional connectivity between brain regions relies on long-range signaling by myelinated axons. This is secured by saltatory action potential propagation that depends fundamentally on sodium channel availability at nodes of Ranvier. Although various potassium channel types have been anatomically localized to myelinated axons in the brain, direct evidence for their functional recruitment in maintaining node excitability is scarce. Cerebellar Purkinje cells provide continuous input to their targets in the cerebellar nuclei, reliably transmitting axonal spikes over a wide range of rates, requiring a constantly available pool of nodal sodium channels. We show that the recruitment of calcium-activated potassium channels (IK, KCa3.1) by local, activity-dependent calcium (Ca2+) influx at nodes of Ranvier via a T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ current provides a powerful mechanism that likely opposes depolarizing block at the nodes and is thus pivotal to securing continuous axonal spike propagation in spontaneously firing Purkinje cells. PMID:26344775

  7. Molecular heterogeneity of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in canine intracardiac ganglia.

    PubMed

    Selga, Elisabet; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Moreno-Asso, Alba; Anderson, Seth; Thomas, Kristen; Desai, Mayurika; Brugada, Ramon; Pérez, Guillermo J; Scornik, Fabiana S

    2013-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are widely expressed in the nervous system. We have recently shown that principal neurons from canine intracardiac ganglia (ICG) express a paxilline- and TEA-sensitive BK current, which increases neuronal excitability. In the present work, we further explore the molecular constituents of the BK current in canine ICG. We found that the β1 and β4 regulatory subunits are expressed in ICG. Single channel voltage-dependence at different calcium concentrations suggested that association of the BKα with a particular β subunit was not enough to explain the channel activity in this tissue. Indeed, we detected the presence of several splice variants of the BKα subunit. In conclusion, BK channels in canine ICG may result from the arrangement of different BKα splice variants, plus accessory β subunits. The particular combinations expressed in canine IC neurons likely rule the excitatory role of BK current in this tissue.

  8. Correction of Chloride Transport and Mislocalization of CFTR Protein by Vardenafil in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhooghe, Barbara; Noël, Sabrina; Bouzin, Caroline; Behets-Wydemans, Gaëtane; Leal, Teresinha

    2013-01-01

    Although lung disease is the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF), gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are the first hallmarks in 15–20% of affected newborns presenting with meconium ileus, and remain major causes of morbidity throughout life. We have previously shown that cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors rescue defective CF Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR)-dependent chloride transport across the mouse CF nasal mucosa. Using F508del-CF mice, we examined the transrectal potential difference 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection of the PDE5 inhibitor vardenafil or saline to assess the amiloride-sensitive sodium transport and the chloride gradient and forskolin-dependent chloride transport across the GI tract. In the same conditions, we performed immunohistostaining studies in distal colon to investigate CFTR expression and localization. F508del-CF mice displayed increased sodium transport and reduced chloride transport compared to their wild-type littermates. Vardenafil, applied at a human therapeutic dose (0.14 mg/kg) used to treat erectile dysfunction, increased chloride transport in F508del-CF mice. No effect on sodium transport was detected. In crypt colonocytes of wild-type mice, the immunofluorescence CFTR signal was mostly detected in the apical cell compartment. In F508del-CF mice, a 25% reduced signal was observed, located mostly in the subapical region. Vardenafil increased the peak of intensity of the fluorescence CFTR signal in F508del-CF mice and displaced it towards the apical cell compartment. Our findings point out the intestinal mucosa as a valuable tissue to study CFTR transport function and localization and to evaluate efficacy of therapeutic strategies in CF. From our data we conclude that vardenafil mediates potentiation of the CFTR chloride channel and corrects mislocalization of the mutant protein. The study provides compelling support for targeting the cGMP signaling pathway in CF

  9. Correction of chloride transport and mislocalization of CFTR protein by vardenafil in the gastrointestinal tract of cystic fibrosis mice.

    PubMed

    Dhooghe, Barbara; Noël, Sabrina; Bouzin, Caroline; Behets-Wydemans, Gaëtane; Leal, Teresinha

    2013-01-01

    Although lung disease is the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF), gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are the first hallmarks in 15-20% of affected newborns presenting with meconium ileus, and remain major causes of morbidity throughout life. We have previously shown that cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors rescue defective CF Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR)-dependent chloride transport across the mouse CF nasal mucosa. Using F508del-CF mice, we examined the transrectal potential difference 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection of the PDE5 inhibitor vardenafil or saline to assess the amiloride-sensitive sodium transport and the chloride gradient and forskolin-dependent chloride transport across the GI tract. In the same conditions, we performed immunohistostaining studies in distal colon to investigate CFTR expression and localization. F508del-CF mice displayed increased sodium transport and reduced chloride transport compared to their wild-type littermates. Vardenafil, applied at a human therapeutic dose (0.14 mg/kg) used to treat erectile dysfunction, increased chloride transport in F508del-CF mice. No effect on sodium transport was detected. In crypt colonocytes of wild-type mice, the immunofluorescence CFTR signal was mostly detected in the apical cell compartment. In F508del-CF mice, a 25% reduced signal was observed, located mostly in the subapical region. Vardenafil increased the peak of intensity of the fluorescence CFTR signal in F508del-CF mice and displaced it towards the apical cell compartment. Our findings point out the intestinal mucosa as a valuable tissue to study CFTR transport function and localization and to evaluate efficacy of therapeutic strategies in CF. From our data we conclude that vardenafil mediates potentiation of the CFTR chloride channel and corrects mislocalization of the mutant protein. The study provides compelling support for targeting the cGMP signaling pathway in CF

  10. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neuronal Activity via Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lei Ray; Estes, Stephen; Artinian, Liana; Rehder, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an unconventional membrane-permeable messenger molecule that has been shown to play various roles in the nervous system. How NO modulates ion channels to affect neuronal functions is not well understood. In gastropods, NO has been implicated in regulating the feeding motor program. The buccal motoneuron, B19, of the freshwater pond snail Helisoma trivolvis is active during the hyper-retraction phase of the feeding motor program and is located in the vicinity of NO-producing neurons in the buccal ganglion. Here, we asked whether B19 neurons might serve as direct targets of NO signaling. Previous work established NO as a key regulator of growth cone motility and neuronal excitability in another buccal neuron involved in feeding, the B5 neuron. This raised the question whether NO might modulate the electrical activity and neuronal excitability of B19 neurons as well, and if so whether NO acted on the same or a different set of ion channels in both neurons. To study specific responses of NO on B19 neurons and to eliminate indirect effects contributed by other cells, the majority of experiments were performed on single cultured B19 neurons. Addition of NO donors caused a prolonged depolarization of the membrane potential and an increase in neuronal excitability. The effects of NO could mainly be attributed to the inhibition of two types of calcium-activated potassium channels, apamin-sensitive and iberiotoxin-sensitive potassium channels. NO was found to also cause a depolarization in B19 neurons in situ, but only after NO synthase activity in buccal ganglia had been blocked. The results suggest that NO acts as a critical modulator of neuronal excitability in B19 neurons, and that calcium-activated potassium channels may serve as a common target of NO in neurons. PMID:24236040

  11. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  12. Properties of a calcium-activated K(+) current on interneurons in the developing rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Baraban, S C

    2000-06-01

    Calcium-activated potassium currents have an essential role in regulating excitability in a variety of neurons. Although it is well established that mature CA1 pyramidal neurons possess a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) conductance (I(K(Ca))) with early and late components, modulation by various endogenous neurotransmitters, and sensitivity to K(+) channel toxins, the properties of I(K(Ca)) on hippocampal interneurons (or immature CA1 pyramidal neurons) are relatively unknown. To address this problem, whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from visually identified interneurons in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) and CA1 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices from immature rats (P3-P25). A biphasic calcium-activated K(+) tail current was elicited following a brief depolarization from the holding potential (-50 mV). Analysis of the kinetic properties of I(K(Ca)) suggests that an early current component differs between these two cell types. An early I(K(Ca)) with a large peak current amplitude (200.8 +/- 13.2 pA, mean +/- SE), slow time constant of decay (70.9 +/- 3.3 ms), and relatively rapid time to peak (within 15 ms) was observed on L-M interneurons (n = 88), whereas an early I(K(Ca)) with a small peak current amplitude (112.5 +/- 7.3 pA), a fast time constant of decay (39.4 +/- 1.6 ms), and a slower time-to-peak (within 26 ms) was observed on CA1 pyramidal neurons (n = 85). Removal of extracellular calcium or addition of inorganic Ca(2+) channel blockers (cadmium, nickel, or cobalt) was used to demonstrate the calcium dependence of these currents. Addition of norepinephrine, carbachol, and a variety of channel toxins (apamin, iberiotoxin, verruculogen, paxilline, penitrem A, and charybdotoxin) were used to further distinguish between I(K(Ca)) on these two hippocampal cell types. Verruculogen (100 nM), carbachol (100 microM), apamin (100 nM), TEA (1 mM), and iberiotoxin (50 nM) significantly reduced early I(K(Ca)) on CA1 pyramidal neurons; early I(K(Ca)) on L

  13. Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation is affected by metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Marin, Matthieu; Slaby, Sylvain; Marchand, Guillaume; Demuynck, Sylvain; Friscourt, Noémie; Gelaude, Armance; Lemière, Sébastien; Bodart, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have been conducted using Xenopus laevis germ cells as oocytes, though these cells offer many advantages allowing both electrophysiological studies and morphological examination. Our aim was to investigate the effects of metal (cadmium, lead, cobalt and zinc) exposures using cell biology approaches. First, cell survival was evaluated with both phenotypical and electrophysiological approaches. Secondly, the effect of metals on oocyte maturation was assessed with morphological observations and electrophysiological recordings. From survival experiments, our results showed that metal chlorides did not affect cell morphology but strongly depolarized X. laevis oocyte resting potential. In addition, cadmium chloride was able to inhibit progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. By contrast, zinc, but also to a lesser extent cadmium, cobalt and lead, were able to enhance spontaneous oocyte maturation in the absence of progesterone stimulation. Finally, electrophysiological recordings revealed that some metal chlorides (lead, cadmium) exposures could disturb calcium signaling in X. laevis oocyte by modifying calcium-activated chloride currents. Our results demonstrated the high sensitivity of X. laevis oocytes toward exogenous metals such as lead and cadmium. In addition, the cellular events recorded might have a predictive value of effects occurring later on the ability of oocytes to be fertilized. Together, these results suggest a potential use of this cellular lab model as a tool for ecotoxicological assessment of contaminated fresh waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The large conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel interacts with the small GTPase Rab11b.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Sophia; Harvey, Margaret; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Jordan, Amy; Sokolowski, Bernd

    2012-09-21

    The transduction of sound by the receptor or hair cells of the cochlea leads to the activation of ion channels found in the basal and lateral regions of these cells. Thus, the processing of these transduced signals to the central nervous system is tied to the regulation of baso-lateral ion channels. The large conductance calcium-activated potassium or BK channel was revealed to interact with the small GTPase, Rab11b, which is one of many Rabs found in various endosomal pathways. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the colocalization of these two proteins in receptor cells and auditory neurons. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells as a heterologous expression system, Rab11b increased or decreased BK expression, depending on the overexpression or RNAi knockdown of Rab, respectively. Additional mutation analyses, using a yeast two-hybrid assay, suggested that this GTPase moderately interacts within a region of BK exclusive of the N- or C-terminal tails. These data suggest that this small GTPase regulates BK in a slow recycling process through the endocytic compartment and to the plasmalemma.

  15. The large conductance calcium-activated K+ channel interacts with the small GTPase Rab11b

    PubMed Central

    Sokolowski, Sophia; Harvey, Margaret; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Jordan, Amy; Sokolowski, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The transduction of sound by the receptor or hair cells of the cochlea leads to the activation of ion channels found in the basal and lateral regions of these cells. Thus, the processing of these transduced signals to the central nervous system is tied to the regulation of baso-lateral ion channels. The large conductance calcium-activated potassium or BK channel was revealed to interact with the small GTPase, Rab11b, which is one of many Rabs found in various endosomal pathways. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the colocalization of these two proteins in receptor cells and auditory neurons. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells as a heterologous expression system, Rab11b increased or decreased BK expression, depending on the overexpression or RNAi knockdown of Rab, respectively. Additional mutation analyses, using a yeast two-hybrid assay, suggested that this GTPase moderately interacts within a region of BK exclusive of the N- or C-terminal tails. These data suggest that this small GTPase regulates BK in a slow recycling process through the endocytic compartment and to the plasmalemma. PMID:22935415

  16. A coarse-grained model to study calcium activation of the cardiac thin filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Schwartz, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is one of the most common heart disease caused by genetic mutations. Cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation involve regulation of crossbridge binding to the cardiac thin filament, which regulates actomyosin interactions through calcium-dependent alterations in the dynamics of cardiac troponin (cTn) and tropomyosin (Tm). An atomistic model of cTn complex interacting with Tm has been studied by our group. A more realistic model requires the inclusion of the dynamics of actin filament, which is almost 6 times larger than cTn and Tm in terms of atom numbers, and extensive sampling of the model becomes very resource-demanding. By using physics-based protein united-residue force field, we introduce a coarse-grained model to study the calcium activation of the thin filament resulting from cTn's allosteric regulation of Tm dynamics on actin. The time scale is much longer than that of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation because of the reduction of the degrees of freedom. The coarse-grained model is a good template for studying cardiac thin filament mutations that cause FHC, and reduces the cost of computational resources.

  17. Molecular mechanism underlying β1 regulation in voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Karen; Contreras, Gustavo F; Pupo, Amaury; Torres, Yolima P; Neely, Alan; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2015-04-14

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases, including hypertension, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and diabetes. Several gating processes, allosterically coupled to each other, control BK channel activity and are potential targets for regulation by auxiliary β-subunits that are expressed together with the α (BK)-subunit in almost every tissue type where they are found. By measuring gating currents in BK channels coexpressed with chimeras between β1 and β3 or β2 auxiliary subunits, we were able to identify that the cytoplasmic regions of β1 are responsible for the modulation of the voltage sensors. In addition, we narrowed down the structural determinants to the N terminus of β1, which contains two lysine residues (i.e., K3 and K4), which upon substitution virtually abolished the effects of β1 on charge movement. The mechanism by which K3 and K4 stabilize the voltage sensor is not electrostatic but specific, and the α (BK)-residues involved remain to be identified. This is the first report, to our knowledge, where the regulatory effects of the β1-subunit have been clearly assigned to a particular segment, with two pivotal amino acids being responsible for this modulation.

  18. Subcellular distribution of calcium-activated neutral proteinase (CANP) in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Singh, I.; Banik, N.; Hogan, E.

    1987-05-01

    In pursuing the association of calcium-activated neutral proteinase (CANP) with purified myelin, its subcellular distribution in myelin and other organelles of rat brain has been determined quantitatively. Subcellular fractions were prepared according to Eichberg et al. CANP was assayed using UC-azocasein as substrate in 50 mM Tris acetate buffer, pH 7.4, 0.1% Triton X-100 and 5 mM US -mercaptoethanol, with and without CaS . TCA-soluble radioactivity was that activity over an EGTA control. Triton X-100 increased CANP activitiy in homogenate and myelin by ten fold. CANP activity was present primarily in the particulate fractions P1 (nuclear), P2 (mitochondrial) and P3 (microsomal). On subfractionation of these fractions, over 50% of the activity was recovered in the myelin-rich fractions (P1A, P2A, P3A). The distribution of activity was P2A > P1 A > P3 A. The cytosolic fraction contained 30% of the homogenate activity. Further purification of myelin of P2A increased the specific activity by more than 2.5-fold over homogenate. The same myelin had the highest proportion and specific activity of CNPase. The purity of each subcellular fraction was tested by monitoring the activity of suitable marker enzymes. Their results indicate that in CNS CANP is present as membrane bound and soluble forms and the bulk of CANP is intimately associated with the myelin membrane.

  19. Fear conditioning suppresses large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in lateral amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Zhang, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, L; Yamamoto, R; Sugai, T; Kato, N

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that depression-like behavior is accompanied with suppression of the large-conductance calcium activated potassium (BK) channel in cingulate cortex pyramidal cells. To test whether BK channels are also involved in fear conditioning, we studied neuronal properties of amygdala principal cells in fear conditioned mice. After behavior, we made brain slices containing the amygdala, the structure critically relevant to fear memory. The resting membrane potential in lateral amygdala (LA) neurons obtained from fear conditioned mice (FC group) was more depolarized than in neurons from naïve controls. The frequencies of spikes evoked by current injections were higher in neurons from FC mice, demonstrating that excitability of LA neurons was elevated by fear conditioning. The depolarization in neurons from FC mice was shown to depend on BK channels by using the BK channel blocker charybdotoxin. Suppression of BK channels in LA neurons from the FC group was further confirmed on the basis of the spike width, since BK channels affect the descending phase of spikes. Spikes were broader in the FC group than those in the naïve control in a manner dependent on BK channels. Consistently, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decreased expression of BK channel mRNA. The present findings suggest that emotional disorder manifested in the forms of fear conditioning is accompanied with BK channel suppression in the amygdala, the brain structure critical to this emotional disorder.

  20. The Large Conductance, Calcium-activated K+ (BK) Channel is regulated by Cysteine String Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Barry D.; Ahrendt, Eva; Braun, Andrew P.; Braun, Janice E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Large-conductance, calcium-activated-K+ (BK) channels are widely distributed throughout the nervous system, where they regulate action potential duration and firing frequency, along with presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Our recent efforts to identify chaperones that target neuronal ion channels have revealed cysteine string protein (CSPα) as a key regulator of BK channel expression and current density. CSPα is a vesicle-associated protein and mutations in CSPα cause the hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, adult-onset autosomal dominant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL). CSPα null mice show 2.5 fold higher BK channel expression compared to wild type mice, which is not seen with other neuronal channels (i.e. Cav2.2, Kv1.1 and Kv1.2). Furthermore, mutations in either CSPα's J domain or cysteine string region markedly increase BK expression and current amplitude. We conclude that CSPα acts to regulate BK channel expression, and consequently CSPα-associated changes in BK activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as ANCL. PMID:23945775

  1. Amnesic effect of GMP depends on its conversion to guanosine.

    PubMed

    Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; da Silveira, Leonardo Evangelista; Soares, Félix Antunes; Martini, Lúcia Helena; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Ganzella, Marcelo

    2006-05-01

    Extracellular guanine-based purines, namely the nucleotides GTP, GDP, GMP and the nucleoside guanosine, exert important neuroprotective and neuromodulator roles in the central nervous system, which may be related to inhibition of the glutamatergic neurotransmission activity. In this study, we investigated GMP effects on mice inhibitory avoidance performance and the dependence on its conversion to guanosine for such effect, by using the ecto-5'-nucleotidase specific inhibitor AOPCP. We also investigated if this conversion occurs in the central nervous system or peripherally, and if guanosine and GMP affect nociception by the tail-flick test. I.p. GMP or guanosine (7.5 mg/kg) or i.c.v. GMP (480 nmol) pretraining administration was amnesic for the inhibitory avoidance task. I.c.v. AOPCP (1 nmol) administration completely reversed the amnesic effect of i.c.v. GMP, but not of i.p. GMP, indicating that peripheral conversion of GMP to guanosine is probably relevant to this effect. AOPCP alone did not interfere with the performance. Furthermore, tail-flick measurement was unaffected by i.p. GMP and guanosine, suggesting that the amnesic effect of both purines was not due to some antinociceptive effect against the footshock used in the task. All these data together, in accordance to those previously observed in studies involving glutamate uptake and seizures reinforce the idea that guanosine is the specific extracellular guanine-based purines effector and indicate that its conversion occurs not only in the central nervous system but also peripherally.

  2. Control of Spontaneous Firing Patterns by the Selective Coupling of Calcium Currents to Calcium Activated Potassium Currents in Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Joshua A.; Wilson, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous firing patterns of striatal cholinergic interneurons are sculpted by potassium currents that give rise to prominent afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs): BK currents contribute to action potential (AP) repolarization; SK currents generate an apamin-sensitive medium AHP (mAHP) following each AP; and bursts of APs generate long-lasting slow AHPs (sAHPs) due to apamin-insensitive currents. As all these currents are calcium-dependent, we conducted voltage- and current-clamp whole-cell recordings while pharmacologically manipulating calcium channels of the plasma membrane and intracellular stores to determine what sources of calcium activate the currents underlying AP repolarization and the AHPs. The Cav2.2 (N type) blocker, omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 μM), was the only blocker that significantly reduced the mAHP, and it induced a transition to rhythmic bursting in a third of the cells tested. Cav1 (L type) blockers (10 μM dihydropyridines) were the only ones that significantly reduced the sAHP. When applied to cells induced to burst with apamin, dihydropyridines reduced the sAHPs and abolished bursting. Depletion of intracellular stores with 10 mM caffeine also significantly reduced the sAHP current, and reversibly regularized firing. Application of 1 μM omega-conotoxin MVIIC (a Cav2.1/2.2 blocker) broadened APs, but had a negligible effect on APs in cells whose BK channels were already blocked by submillimolar tetraethylammonium chloride, indicating that Cav2.1 (Q type) channels provide the calcium to activate BK channels that repolarize the AP. Thus, calcium currents are selectively coupled to the calcium-dependent potassium currents underlying the AHPs thereby creating mechanisms for control of these neurons’ spontaneous firing patterns. PMID:16267230

  3. Differential regulation of voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channels in human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Partiseti, M; Choquet, D; Diu, A; Korn, H

    1992-06-01

    The expression and characteristics of K+ channels of human B lymphocytes were studied by using single and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. They were gated by depolarization (voltage-gated potassium current, IKv, 11-20 pS) and by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (calcium-activated potassium current, IKCa, 26 pS), respectively. The level of expression of these channels was correlated with the activational status of the cell. Both conductances are blocked by tetraethylammonium, verapamil, and charybdotoxin, and are insensitive to apamin; 4-aminopyridine blocks IK, preferentially. We used a protein kinase C activator (PMA) or antibodies to membrane Ig (anti-mu) to activate resting splenocytes in culture. Although IKv was recorded in the majority of the resting lymphocytic population, less than 20% of the activated cells expressed this conductance. However, in this subset the magnitude of IKv was 20-fold larger than in resting cells. On the other hand, IKCa was detected in nearly one half of the resting cells, whereas all activated cells expressed this current. The magnitude of IKCa was, on average, 30 times larger in activated than in nonactivated cells. These results probably reflect that during the course of activation 1) the number of voltage-dependent K+ channels per cell decreases and increases in a small subset and 2) the number of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels per cell increases in all cells. We suggest that the expression of functional Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K+ channels are under the control of different regulatory signals.

  4. The large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel affects extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yoshihisa; Sokolowski, Bernd

    2015-05-01

    The large-conductance calcium-activated K(+) or BK channel underlies electrical signals in a number of different cell types. Studies show that BK activity can also serve to regulate cellular homeostasis by protecting cells from apoptosis resulting from events such as ischemia. Recent coimmunoprecipitation studies, combined with mass spectrometry, suggest putative protein partners that interact with BK to regulate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. This study tests two of those partners to determine the effects on these two signaling pathways. Through reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation (coIP) experiments, we show that BK interacts with p53 and fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) in mouse brain and when overexpressed in a heterologous expression system, such as HEK293 cells. Moreover, coIP experiments with N- and C-terminal fragments reveal that FADD interacts with the C-terminus of BK, whereas p53 interacts with either the N- or the C-terminus. Immunolocalization studies show that BK colocalizes with p53 and FADD in the mitochondrion and plasmalemma, respectively. HEK cells that stably express BK are more resistant to apoptosis when p53 or FADD is overexpressed or when their intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are stimulated via mitomycin C or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), respectively. Moreover, when stimulating with TRAIL, caspase-8 activation decreases in BK-expressing cells. These data suggest that BK is part of a larger complex of proteins that protects against apoptosis by interacting with proapoptotic proteins, such as p53 and FADD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Molecular mechanism underlying β1 regulation in voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Karen; Contreras, Gustavo F.; Pupo, Amaury; Torres, Yolima P.; Neely, Alan; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases, including hypertension, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and diabetes. Several gating processes, allosterically coupled to each other, control BK channel activity and are potential targets for regulation by auxiliary β-subunits that are expressed together with the α (BK)-subunit in almost every tissue type where they are found. By measuring gating currents in BK channels coexpressed with chimeras between β1 and β3 or β2 auxiliary subunits, we were able to identify that the cytoplasmic regions of β1 are responsible for the modulation of the voltage sensors. In addition, we narrowed down the structural determinants to the N terminus of β1, which contains two lysine residues (i.e., K3 and K4), which upon substitution virtually abolished the effects of β1 on charge movement. The mechanism by which K3 and K4 stabilize the voltage sensor is not electrostatic but specific, and the α (BK)-residues involved remain to be identified. This is the first report, to our knowledge, where the regulatory effects of the β1-subunit have been clearly assigned to a particular segment, with two pivotal amino acids being responsible for this modulation. PMID:25825713

  6. Calcium activated potassium channel expression during human iPS cell-derived neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Linta, Leonhard; Boeckers, Tobias M; Kleger, Alexander; Liebau, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    The family of calcium activated potassium channels of low and intermediate conductance, known as SK channels, consists of four members (SK1-4). These channels are widely expressed throughout the organism and involved in various cellular processes, such as the afterhyperpolarization in excitable cells but also in differentiation processes of various tissues. To date, the role of SK channels in developmental processes has been merely a marginal focus of investigation, although it is well accepted that cell differentiation and maturation affect the expression patterns of certain ion channels. Recently, several studies from our laboratory delineated the influence of SK channel expression and their respective activity on cytoskeletal reorganization in neural and pluripotent stem cells and regulation of cell fate determination toward the cardiac lineage in human and mouse pluripotent stem cells. Herein, we have now analyzed SK channel expression patterns and distribution at various stages of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurogenesis particularly focusing on undifferentiated iPS cells, neural progenitors and mature neurons. All family members could be detected starting at the iPS cell level and were differentially expressed during the subsequent maturation process. Intriguingly, we found obvious discrepancies between mRNA and protein expression pointing toward a complex regulatory mechanism. Inhibition of SK channels with either apamin or clotrimazol did not have any significant effects on the speed or amount of neurogenesis in vitro. The abundance and specific regulation of SK channel expression during iPS cell differentiation indicates distinct roles of these ion channels not only for the cardiac but also for neuronal cell differentiation and in vitro neurogenesis.

  7. Calcium-dependent Dimerization of Human Soluble Calcium Activated Nucleotidase: Characterization of the Dimer Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,M.; Horii, K.; Herr, A.; Kirley, T.

    2006-01-01

    Mammals express a protein homologous to soluble nucleotidases used by blood-sucking insects to inhibit host blood clotting. These vertebrate nucleotidases may play a role in protein glycosylation. The activity of this enzyme family is strictly dependent on calcium, which induces a conformational change in the secreted, soluble human nucleotidase. The crystal structure of this human enzyme was recently solved; however, the mechanism of calcium activation and the basis for the calcium-induced changes remain unclear. In this study, using analytical ultracentrifugation and chemical cross-linking, we show that calcium or strontium induce noncovalent dimerization of the soluble human enzyme. The location and nature of the dimer interface was elucidated using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking, coupled with crystallographic analyses. Replacement of Ile{sup 170}, Ser{sup 172}, and Ser{sup 226} with cysteine residues resulted in calcium-dependent, sulfhydryl-specific intermolecular cross-linking, which was not observed after cysteine introduction at other surface locations. Analysis of a super-active mutant, E130Y, revealed that this mutant dimerized more readily than the wild-type enzyme. The crystal structure of the E130Y mutant revealed that the mutated residue is found in the dimer interface. In addition, expression of the full-length nucleotidase revealed that this membrane-bound form can also dimerize and that these dimers are stabilized by spontaneous oxidative cross-linking of Cys{sup 30}, located between the single transmembrane helix and the start of the soluble sequence. Thus, calcium-mediated dimerization may also represent a mechanism for regulation of the activity of this nucleotidase in the physiological setting of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi.

  8. Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium current modulates excitability in isolated canine intracardiac neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Guillermo J.; Desai, Mayurika; Anderson, Seth

    2013-01-01

    We studied principal neurons from canine intracardiac (IC) ganglia to determine whether large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels play a role in their excitability. We performed whole cell recordings in voltage- and current-clamp modes to measure ion currents and changes in membrane potential from isolated canine IC neurons. Whole cell currents from these neurons showed fast- and slow-activated outward components. Both current components decreased in the absence of calcium and following 1–2 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) or paxilline. These results suggest that BK channels underlie these current components. Single-channel analysis showed that BK channels from IC neurons do not inactivate in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that the dynamic of the decay of the fast current component is akin to that of intracellular calcium. Immunohistochemical studies showed that BK channels and type 2 ryanodine receptors are coexpressed in IC principal neurons. We tested whether BK current activation in these neurons occurred via a calcium-induced calcium release mechanism. We found that the outward currents of these neurons were not affected by the calcium depletion of intracellular stores with 10 mM caffeine and 10 μM cyclopiazonic acid. Thus, in canine intracardiac neurons, BK currents are directly activated by calcium influx. Membrane potential changes elicited by long (400 ms) current injections showed a tonic firing response that was decreased by TEA or paxilline. These data strongly suggest that the BK current present in canine intracardiac neurons regulates action potential activity and could increase these neurons excitability. PMID:23195072

  9. Distribution of High-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Rat Vestibular Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Felix E.; Savin, David; Luu, Cindy; Sultemeier, David R.; Hoffman, Larry F.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are important regulators of neuronal excitability. BK channels seem to be crucial for frequency tuning in nonmammalian vestibular and auditory hair cells. However, there are a paucity of data concerning BK expression in mammalian vestibular hair cells. We therefore investigated the localization of BK channels in mammalian vestibular hair cells, specifically in rat vestibular neuroepithelia. We find that only a subset of hair cells in the utricle and the crista ampullaris express BK channels. BK-positive hair cells are located mainly in the medial striolar region of the utricle, where they constitute at most 12% of hair cells, and in the central zone of the horizontal crista. A majority of BK-positive hair cells are encapsulated by a calretinin-positive calyx defining them as type I cells. The remainder are either type I cells encapsulated by a calretinin-negative calyx or type II hair cells. Surprisingly, the number of BK-positive hair cells in the utricle peaks in juvenile rats and declines in early adulthood. BK channels were not found in vestibular afferent dendrites or somata. Our data indicate that BK channel expression in the mammalian vestibular system differs from the expression pattern in the mammalian auditory and the nonmammalian vestibular system. The molecular diversity of vestibular hair cells indicates a functional diversity that has not yet been fully characterized. The predominance of BK-positive hair cells within the medial striola of juvenile animals suggests that they contribute to a scheme of highly lateralized coding of linear head movements during late development. PMID:19731297

  10. Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK) Channels Are Encoded by Duplicate slo1 Genes in Teleost Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Deitcher, David L.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium-activated, large conductance potassium (BK) channels in tetrapods are encoded by a single slo1 gene, which undergoes extensive alternative splicing. Alternative splicing generates a high level of functional diversity in BK channels that contributes to the wide range of frequencies electrically tuned by the inner ear hair cells of many tetrapods. To date, the role of BK channels in hearing among teleost fishes has not been investigated at the molecular level, although teleosts account for approximately half of all extant vertebrate species. We identified slo1 genes in teleost and nonteleost fishes using polymerase chain reaction and genetic sequence databases. In contrast to tetrapods, all teleosts examined were found to express duplicate slo1 genes in the central nervous system, whereas nonteleosts that diverged prior to the teleost whole-genome duplication event express a single slo1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses further revealed that whereas other slo1 duplicates were the result of a single duplication event, an independent duplication occurred in a basal teleost (Anguilla rostrata) following the slo1 duplication in teleosts. A third, independent slo1 duplication (autotetraploidization) occurred in salmonids. Comparison of teleost slo1 genomic sequences to their tetrapod orthologue revealed a reduced number of alternative splice sites in both slo1 co-orthologues. For the teleost Porichthys notatus, a focal study species that vocalizes with maximal spectral energy in the range electrically tuned by BK channels in the inner ear, peripheral tissues show the expression of either one (e.g., vocal muscle) or both (e.g., inner ear) slo1 paralogues with important implications for both auditory and vocal physiology. Additional loss of expression of one slo1 paralogue in nonneural tissues in P. notatus suggests that slo1 duplicates were retained via subfunctionalization. Together, the results predict that teleost fish achieve a diversity of BK channel subfunction via

  11. 17Beta-Estradiol Inhibits Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Expressions in Rat Whole Bladder

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of estrogen on the expression of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels in an overactive bladder rat model. To this end, mRNA and protein levels of KCa channel subtypes in the bladder of ovariectomized rats were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Methods: Ten-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: sham-operated control group (n=11), ovariectomy group (n=11), and the group treated with estrogen after ovariectomy (n=12). Rats in the last group were subcutaneously injected with 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg) every other day for 2 weeks, whereas rats in the other 2 groups received vehicle (soybean oil) alone. Two weeks after treatment, the whole bladder was excised for mRNA and protein measurements. Results: Protein levels of the large-conductance KCa (BK) channels in the ovariectomy group were 1.5 folds higher than those in the sham-operated control group. However, the protein levels of the other KCa channel subtypes did not change significantly upon bilateral ovariectomy. Treatment with 17β-estradiol after ovariectomy restored BK channel protein levels to the control value. In contrast, BK channel mRNA levels were not significantly affected by either ovariectomy alone or 17β-estradiol treatment. The small-conductance KCa type 3 channel (SK3) mRNA and protein levels decreased to 75% of control levels upon 17β-estradiol treatment. Conclusions: These results suggest that 17β-estradiol may influence urinary bladder function by modulating BK and SK3 channel expression. PMID:27032553

  12. Chloride channel blockade relaxes airway smooth muscle and potentiates relaxation by β-agonists

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Peter; Rinderspacher, Alison; Fu, Xiao Wen; Zhang, Yi; Landry, Donald W.; Emala, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Severe bronchospasm refractory to β-agonists continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in asthmatic patients. We questioned whether chloride channels/transporters are novel targets for the relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We have screened a library of compounds, derivatives of anthranilic and indanyloxyacetic acid, that were originally developed to antagonize chloride channels in the kidney. We hypothesized that members of this library would be novel calcium-activated chloride channel blockers for the airway. The initial screen of this compound library identified 4 of 20 compounds that relaxed a tetraethylammonium chloride-induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings. The two most effective compounds, compounds 1 and 13, were further studied for their potential to either prevent the initiation of or relax the maintenance phase of an acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction or to potentiate β-agonist-mediated relaxation. Both relaxed an established ACh-induced contraction in human and guinea pig ex vivo ASM. In contrast, the prevention of an ACh-induced contraction required copretreatment with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter blocker bumetanide. The combination of compound 13 and bumetanide also potentiated relaxation by the β-agonist isoproterenol in guinea pig tracheal rings. Compounds 1 and 13 hyperpolarized the plasma cell membrane of human ASM cells and blocked spontaneous transient inward currents, a measure of chloride currents in these cells. These functional and electrophysiological data suggest that modulating ASM chloride flux is a novel therapeutic target in asthma and other bronchoconstrictive diseases. PMID:24879056

  13. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  14. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes.

  15. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  17. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production ...

  18. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  19. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. PMID: 101209392 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101209392 Mason JB. Vitamins, trace ...

  20. [Congenital chloride diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Contreras, Mónica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death.

  1. Electrical Slow Waves in the Mouse Oviduct Are Dependent upon a Calcium Activated Chloride Conductance Encoded by Tmem16a1

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Rose Ellen; Hennig, Grant W.; Baker, Salah A.; Britton, Fiona C.; Harfe, Brian D.; Rock, Jason R.; Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Myosalpinx contractions are critical for oocyte transport along the oviduct. A specialized population of pacemaker cells—oviduct interstitial cells of Cajal—generate slow waves, the electrical events underlying myosalpinx contractions. The ionic basis of oviduct pacemaker activity is unknown. We examined the role of a new class of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs)—anoctamin 1, encoded by Tmem16a—in oviduct slow wave generation. RT-PCR revealed the transcriptional expression of Tmem16a-encoded CaCCs in the myosalpinx. Intracellular microelectrode recordings were performed in the presence of two pharmacologically distinct Cl− channel antagonists, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid and niflumic acid. Both of these inhibitors caused membrane hyperpolarization, reduced the duration of slow waves, and ultimately inhibited pacemaker activity. Niflumic acid also inhibited propagating calcium waves within the myosalpinx. Slow waves were present at birth in wild-type and heterozygous oviducts but failed to develop by birth in mice homozygous for a null allele of Tmem16a (Tmem16atm1Bdh/tm1Bdh). These data suggest that Tmem16a-encoded CaCCs contribute to membrane potential and are responsible for the upstroke and plateau phases of oviduct slow waves. PMID:21976594

  2. Conditional knockout of TMEM16A/anoctamin1 abolishes the calcium-activated chloride current in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Asma; Hernandez-Clavijo, Andres; Pifferi, Simone; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Boccaccio, Anna; Franzot, Jessica; Rock, Jason; Menini, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Pheromones are substances released from animals that, when detected by the vomeronasal organ of other individuals of the same species, affect their physiology and behavior. Pheromone binding to receptors on microvilli on the dendritic knobs of vomeronasal sensory neurons activates a second messenger cascade to produce an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Here, we used whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp analysis to provide a functional characterization of currents activated by Ca(2+) in isolated mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons in the absence of intracellular K(+). In whole-cell recordings, the average current in 1.5 µM Ca(2+) and symmetrical Cl(-) was -382 pA at -100 mV. Ion substitution experiments and partial blockade by commonly used Cl(-) channel blockers indicated that Ca(2+) activates mainly anionic currents in these neurons. Recordings from inside-out patches from dendritic knobs of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons confirmed the presence of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in the knobs and/or microvilli. We compared the electrophysiological properties of the native currents with those mediated by heterologously expressed TMEM16A/anoctamin1 or TMEM16B/anoctamin2 Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, which are coexpressed in microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons, and found a closer resemblance to those of TMEM16A. We used the Cre-loxP system to selectively knock out TMEM16A in cells expressing the olfactory marker protein, which is found in mature vomeronasal sensory neurons. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the specific ablation of TMEM16A in vomeronasal neurons. Ca(2+)-activated currents were abolished in vomeronasal sensory neurons of TMEM16A conditional knockout mice, demonstrating that TMEM16A is an essential component of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

  3. The voltage dependence of the TMEM16B/anoctamin2 calcium-activated chloride channel is modified by mutations in the first putative intracellular loop

    PubMed Central

    Cenedese, Valentina; Betto, Giulia; Celsi, Fulvio; Cherian, O. Lijo; Pifferi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) are involved in several physiological processes. Recently, TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 have been shown to function as CaCCs, but very little information is available on the structure–function relations of these channels. TMEM16B is expressed in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons, in microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, and in the synaptic terminals of retinal photoreceptors. Here, we have performed the first site-directed mutagenesis study on TMEM16B to understand the molecular mechanisms of voltage and Ca2+ dependence. We have mutated amino acids in the first putative intracellular loop and measured the properties of the wild-type and mutant TMEM16B channels expressed in HEK 293T cells using the whole cell voltage-clamp technique in the presence of various intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. We mutated E367 into glutamine or deleted the five consecutive glutamates 386EEEEE390 and 399EYE401. The EYE deletion did not significantly modify the apparent Ca2+ dependence nor the voltage dependence of channel activation. E367Q and deletion of the five glutamates did not greatly affect the apparent Ca2+ affinity but modified the voltage dependence, shifting the conductance–voltage relations toward more positive voltages. These findings indicate that glutamates E367 and 386EEEEE390 in the first intracellular putative loop play an important role in the voltage dependence of TMEM16B, thus providing an initial structure–function study for this channel. PMID:22412191

  4. Conditional knockout of TMEM16A/anoctamin1 abolishes the calcium-activated chloride current in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Amjad, Asma; Hernandez-Clavijo, Andres; Pifferi, Simone; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Boccaccio, Anna; Franzot, Jessica; Rock, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Pheromones are substances released from animals that, when detected by the vomeronasal organ of other individuals of the same species, affect their physiology and behavior. Pheromone binding to receptors on microvilli on the dendritic knobs of vomeronasal sensory neurons activates a second messenger cascade to produce an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Here, we used whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp analysis to provide a functional characterization of currents activated by Ca2+ in isolated mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons in the absence of intracellular K+. In whole-cell recordings, the average current in 1.5 µM Ca2+ and symmetrical Cl− was −382 pA at −100 mV. Ion substitution experiments and partial blockade by commonly used Cl− channel blockers indicated that Ca2+ activates mainly anionic currents in these neurons. Recordings from inside-out patches from dendritic knobs of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons confirmed the presence of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in the knobs and/or microvilli. We compared the electrophysiological properties of the native currents with those mediated by heterologously expressed TMEM16A/anoctamin1 or TMEM16B/anoctamin2 Ca2+-activated Cl− channels, which are coexpressed in microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons, and found a closer resemblance to those of TMEM16A. We used the Cre–loxP system to selectively knock out TMEM16A in cells expressing the olfactory marker protein, which is found in mature vomeronasal sensory neurons. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the specific ablation of TMEM16A in vomeronasal neurons. Ca2+-activated currents were abolished in vomeronasal sensory neurons of TMEM16A conditional knockout mice, demonstrating that TMEM16A is an essential component of Ca2+-activated Cl− currents in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. PMID:25779870

  5. Calcium concentration jumps reveal dynamic ion selectivity of calcium-activated chloride currents in mouse olfactory sensory neurons and TMEM16b-transfected HEK 293T cells

    PubMed Central

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Boccaccio, Anna; Dibattista, Michele; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels play relevant roles in several physiological processes, including olfactory transduction, but their molecular identity is still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that members of the transmembrane 16 (TMEM16, also named anoctamin) family form Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in several cell types. In vertebrate olfactory transduction, TMEM16b/anoctamin2 has been proposed as the major molecular component of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels. However, a comparison of the functional properties in the whole-cell configuration between the native and the candidate channel has not yet been performed. In this study, we have used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to measure functional properties of the native channel in mouse isolated olfactory sensory neurons and compare them with those of mouse TMEM16b/anoctamin2 expressed in HEK 293T cells. We directly activated channels by rapid and reproducible intracellular Ca2+ concentration jumps obtained from photorelease of caged Ca2+ and determined extracellular blocking properties and anion selectivity of the channels. We found that the Cl− channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and DIDS applied at the extracellular side of the membrane caused a similar inhibition of the two currents. Anion selectivity measured exchanging external ions and revealed that, in both types of currents, the reversal potential for some anions was time dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed by immunohistochemistry that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 largely co-localized with adenylyl cyclase III at the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Therefore, we conclude that the measured electrophysiological properties in the whole-cell configuration are largely similar, and further indicate that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 is likely to be a major subunit of the native olfactory Ca2+-activated Cl− current. PMID:20837642

  6. Calcium concentration jumps reveal dynamic ion selectivity of calcium-activated chloride currents in mouse olfactory sensory neurons and TMEM16b-transfected HEK 293T cells.

    PubMed

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Boccaccio, Anna; Dibattista, Michele; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels play relevant roles in several physiological processes, including olfactory transduction, but their molecular identity is still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that members of the transmembrane 16 (TMEM16, also named anoctamin) family form Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in several cell types. In vertebrate olfactory transduction, TMEM16b/anoctamin2 has been proposed as the major molecular component of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. However, a comparison of the functional properties in the whole-cell configuration between the native and the candidate channel has not yet been performed. In this study, we have used the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique to measure functional properties of the native channel in mouse isolated olfactory sensory neurons and compare them with those of mouse TMEM16b/anoctamin2 expressed in HEK 293T cells. We directly activated channels by rapid and reproducible intracellular Ca(2+) concentration jumps obtained from photorelease of caged Ca(2+) and determined extracellular blocking properties and anion selectivity of the channels. We found that the Cl(-) channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and DIDS applied at the extracellular side of the membrane caused a similar inhibition of the two currents. Anion selectivity measured exchanging external ions and revealed that, in both types of currents, the reversal potential for some anions was time dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed by immunohistochemistry that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 largely co-localized with adenylyl cyclase III at the surface of the olfactory epithelium. Therefore, we conclude that the measured electrophysiological properties in the whole-cell configuration are largely similar, and further indicate that TMEM16b/anoctamin2 is likely to be a major subunit of the native olfactory Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current.

  7. Calcium-Activated Tension of Skinned Muscle Fibers of the Frog

    PubMed Central

    Godt, Robert E.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of MgATP on the Ga++-activated isometric tension of skinned frog muscle fibers was examined in solutions containing: Mg++ = 5 mM, creatine phosphate (CP) = 14.5 mM, creatinephosphokinase (CPK) = 1 mg/ml, total EGTA = 7 mM, CaCl2, KCl, imidazole ≥ 20 mM so that ionic strength = 0.15, pH = 7.00, and MgATP = 2 mM, 0.1 mM, or 20 µM. CP and CPK were necessary for these experiments as determined experimentally by their effect on the tension-Ca++ relation, which was saturated for CP ≥ 14.5 mM. This was interpreted to mean that sufficient CP was present to effectively buffer MgATP intracellularly. Decreasing MgATP shifts the tension-pCa curve to higher pCa (-log Ca++) so that, for half-maximal tension: pCa1/2 = 4.5 for MgATP = 2 mM, pCa1/2 = 5.1 for MgATP = 0.1 mM, and pCa1/2 = 5.8 for MgATP = 20 µM; maximum isometric tension is the same in all cases, however. If MgATP was decreased to 1 µM, tension at Ga++ > 10–8 M was 84% of the maximum Ca-+-activated tension in 2 mM MgATP and increased only slightly to 90% for pCa = 4.5. Weber (1970, In The Physiology and Biochemistry of Muscle as Food, Volume 2, E. J. Briskey, R. G. Cassens, and B. B. Marsh, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wis.), using similar solutions, observed similar shifts in half-maximal calcium activation of rabbit myofibril ATPase rates. In explanation, Weber and Bremel (1971, In Contractility of Muscle Cells and Related Processes, R. J. Podolsky, editor, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.; Bremel and Weber, 1972, Nat. New Biol., 238:97) have described a mechanism whereby, at low ATP, "rigor complexes" are formed between myosin and thin filament actin and, in turn, alter the calcium affinity of one class of the two Ca++-binding sites on troponin, so that the thin filament is "turned on" for contraction at lower Ca++ levels. Tension data from skinned fibers substantially supports this hypothesis. A stability constant for CaEGTA of 2.62 x 1010 M–1 was determined, with the

  8. CHLORIDE RETENTION IN EXPERIMENTAL HYDRONEPHROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Norman M.; Pulford, D. Schuyler

    1923-01-01

    1. In acute experimental hydronephrosis chloride retention occurs as well as retention of water, urea, and phenolsulfonephthalein. 2. If both water and chlorides are retained there may be no appreciable rise in the plasma chloride content. 3. When chlorides are retained, but not water, the chloride content of the plasma rises strikingly. 4. After the removal of the ureteral obstruction in acute hydronephrosis all renal functions, water, urea, and chloride excretion, may be rapidly restored in equal degree, or the chlorides may be retained temporarily while there is free excretion of water and urea. 5. In chronic hydronephrosis adequate daily excretion of urea and chlorides may be maintained by a compensatory polyuria. 6. Chloride retention or an abnormal chloride excretion may occur in certain renal lesions when there is no change in the urea, phenolsulfonephthalein, or water excretion. PMID:19868720

  9. Role of chloride transport proteins in the vasorelaxant action of nitroprusside in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Valero, Marta; Pereboom, Désirée; Garay, Ricardo P; Alda, José Octavio

    2006-12-28

    Chloride ions play a key role in smooth muscle contraction, but little is known concerning their role in smooth muscle relaxation. Here we investigated the effect of chloride transport inhibitors on the vasorelaxant responses to nitroprusside in isolated and endothelium-denuded rat aorta, precontracted with phenylephrine 1 muM. Incubation of aortic rings in NO(3)(-) media strongly potentiated the vasorelaxant responses to nitroprusside. Bumetanide, DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid) and acetazolamide strongly potentiated the vasorelaxant responses to nitroprusside (by 70-100%). EC(50) were 2.3+/-0.5 microM for bumetanide, 26+/-15 microM for DIDS and 510+/-118 microM for acetazolamide (n=6 for condition). Niflumic acid, a selective inhibitor of ClCa (calcium-activated chloride channels), potentiated nitroprusside relaxation to a similar extent as chloride transport inhibitors, in a non-additive manner. Zinc and nickel ions, both modestly potentiated nitroprusside vasorelaxation (by 20-30%). Cobaltum had negligible effect on nitroprusside vasorelaxation. CPA (p-chlorophenoxy-acetic acid), an inhibitor of volume-sensitive chloride channels (ClC), slightly potentiated nitroprusside vasorelaxation (by 15%), and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel inhibitors CFTR(inh)172 (5-[(4-Carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone), DPC (diphenylamine-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid) and glibenclamide were without significant effect. In conclusion, inhibition of chloride transport proteins strongly potentiates the vasorelaxant responses to nitroprusside in isolated rat aorta. This effect seems mediated by chloride depletion and inhibition of a chloride channel activated by both, calcium and cyclic GMP (cGMP).

  10. Cyclic Voltammetry of Silver Chloride in Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Eutectic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRY), Fused salts, Silver, Reduction(Chemistry), Dissolving, ChloridesSilver chloride, Cyclic voltammetry , *VoltammetryThe technique of cyclic ... voltammetry was employed to study the deposition and dissolution of silver metal at platinum wire electrodes in molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride

  11. High calcium activates the EGF receptor potentially through the calcium-sensing receptor in Leydig cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Yano, Shozo; John Macleod, R; Smajilovic, Sanela; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Brown, Edward M

    2005-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the Leydig cell. In H-500 rat Leydig cancer cells, a model for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), we previously showed that the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) stimulates PTHrP release and proliferation, both involving multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases. An emerging concept of signaling by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) is that it occurs via transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Therefore, we investigated whether stimulation with calcium activates the EGFR in H-500 Leydig cancer cells. We show that treatment of H-500 cells with Ca(2+) results in EGFR phosphorylation. The CaR-induced activation of ERK1/2, induction of PTHrP release and stimulation of cellular proliferation in H-500 cells are likewise mediated, in large part, through the EGFR. In conclusion, the calcium activates the EGFR, possibly through the CaR, to regulate downstream signaling events and important biological functions in a model of HHM.

  12. Apamin-sensitive, small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels mediate cholinergic inhibition of chick auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Yuhas, W A; Fuchs, P A

    1999-11-01

    Acetylcholine released from efferent neurons in the cochlea causes inhibition of mechanosensory hair cells due to the activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels. Hair cells are known to have large-conductance, "BK"-type potassium channels associated with the afferent synapse, but these channels have different properties than those activated by acetylcholine. Whole-cell (tight-seal) and cell-attached patch-clamp recordings were made from short (outer) hair cells isolated from the chicken basilar papilla (cochlea equivalent). The peptides apamin and charybdotoxin were used to distinguish the calcium-activated potassium channels involved in the acetylcholine response from the BK-type channels associated with the afferent synapse. Differential toxin blockade of these potassium currents provides definitive evidence that ACh activates apamin-sensitive, "SK"-type potassium channels, but does not activate carybdotoxin-sensitive BK channels. This conclusion is supported by tentative identification of small-conductance, calcium-sensitive but voltage-insensitive potassium channels in cell-attached patches. The distinction between these channel types is important for understanding the segregation of opposing afferent and efferent synaptic activity in the hair cell, both of which depend on calcium influx. These different calcium-activated potassium channels serve as sensitive indicators for functionally significant calcium influx in the hair cell.

  13. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  14. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-Jing; Gu, Jian-Ming; Shen, Jin; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S)-8-aza-2-azonia­bicyclo­[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-8-meth­oxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro­quinoline-3-carb­oxy­lic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4 +·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxi­floxa­cinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water mol­ecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxi­floxa­cinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3) and 0.118 (3) Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water mol­ecule and chloride anions participate in O—H⋯O, O—H⋯Cl and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding; weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure. PMID:22058817

  15. Visinin-like neuronal calcium sensor proteins regulate the slow calcium-activated afterhyperpolarizing current in the rat cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos, Claudio; Andrade, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Many neurons in the nervous systems express afterhyperpolarizations that are mediated by a slow calcium-activated potassium current. This current shapes neuronal firing and is inhibited by neuromodulators, suggesting an important role in the regulation of neuronal function. Surprisingly, very little is currently known about the molecular basis for this current or how it is gated by calcium. Recently, the neuronal calcium sensor protein hippocalcin was identified as a calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current in the hippocampus. However, while hippocalcin is very strongly expressed in the hippocampus, this protein shows a relatively restricted distribution in the brain. Furthermore, the genetic deletion of this protein only partly reduces the slow hyperpolarizing current in hippocampus. These considerations question whether hippocalcin can be the sole calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current. Here we use loss of function and overexpression strategies to show that hippocalcin functions as a calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current in the cerebral cortex, an area where hippocalcin is expressed at much lower levels than in hippocampus. In addition we show that neurocalcin δ, but not VILIP-2, can also act as a calcium sensor for the slow afterhyperpolarizing current. Finally we show that hippocalcin and neurocalcin δ both increase the calcium sensitivity of the afterhyperpolarizing current but do not alter its sensitivity to inhibition by carbachol acting through the Gαq-11-PLCβ signaling cascade. These results point to a general role for a subgroup of visinin-like neuronal calcium sensor proteins in the activation of the slow calcium-activated afterhyperpolarizing current. PMID:20980592

  16. Nitric oxide modulation of calcium-activated potassium channels in postganglionic neurones of avian cultured ciliary ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Cetiner, M.; Bennett, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the modulation of calcium-activated potassium channels in cultured neurones of avian ciliary ganglia by sodium nitroprusside and L-arginine. 2. Sodium nitroprusside (100 microM) reduced the net outward current by 22 +/- 1% at 4.8 ms (mean +/- s.e. mean) and 25 +/- 1% at 350 ms during a test depolarization to +40 mV from a holding potential of -40 mV. The outward current remained reduced for the duration of the recording following a single application of sodium nitroprusside. These effects did not occur if the influx of calcium ions was first blocked with Cd2+ (500 microM). Application of ferrocyanide (100 microM) reduced the net outward current by only 6 +/- 3% at 350 ms during a test depolarization to +40 mV. 3. L-Arginine (270 microM) reduced the net outward current on average by 19 +/- 2% at 4.8 ms and 22 +/- 2% at 350 ms during a test depolarization to +40 mV. The current remained in this reduced state for the duration of the recording following a single application of L-arginine. These effects were reduced to 11 +/- 1% at 4.8 ms and 11 +/- 2% at 350 ms in the presence of N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM). 4. In order to alleviate the dependence of calcium-activated potassium channels (Ik(Ca)) on the inward flux of calcium ions, the patch-clamp pipettes were filled with a solution containing 100 microM CaCl2, and the Ca2+ in the bathing solution was replaced with EGTA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7905346

  17. Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in purkinje cell plasma membranes are clustered at sites of hypolemmal microdomains.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Walter A; Ferraguti, Francesco; Fukazawa, Yugo; Kasugai, Yu; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Laake, Petter; Sexton, Joseph A; Ruth, Peter; Wietzorrek, Georg; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Storm, Johan F; Ottersen, Ole Petter

    2009-07-10

    Calcium-activated potassium channels have been shown to be critically involved in neuronal function, but an elucidation of their detailed roles awaits identification of the microdomains where they are located. This study was undertaken to unravel the precise subcellular distribution of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (called BK, KCa1.1, or Slo1) in the somatodendritic compartment of cerebellar Purkinje cells by means of postembedding immunogold cytochemistry and SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling (SDS-FRL). We found BK channels to be unevenly distributed over the Purkinje cell plasma membrane. At distal dendritic compartments, BK channels were scattered over the plasma membrane of dendritic shafts and spines but absent from postsynaptic densities. At the soma and proximal dendrites, BK channels formed two distinct pools. One pool was scattered over the plasma membrane, whereas the other pool was clustered in plasma membrane domains overlying subsurface cisterns. The labeling density ratio of clustered to scattered channels was about 60:1, established in SDS-FRL. Subsurface cisterns, also called hypolemmal cisterns, are subcompartments of the endoplasmic reticulum likely representing calciosomes that unload and refill Ca2+ independently. Purkinje cell subsurface cisterns are enriched in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors that mediate the effects of several neurotransmitters, hormones, and growth factors by releasing Ca2+ into the cytosol, generating local Ca2+ sparks. Such increases in cytosolic [Ca2+] may be sufficient for BK channel activation. Clustered BK channels in the plasma membrane may thus participate in building a functional unit (plasmerosome) with the underlying calciosome that contributes significantly to local signaling in Purkinje cells.

  18. Calcium-activated potassium channels in isolated presynaptic nerve terminals from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Bartschat, D K; Blaustein, M P

    1985-01-01

    , reduced the Ca-stimulated 86Rb efflux with high affinity (apparent half-maximal inhibition, KI approximately equal to 1 microM). Tetraethylammonium chloride, another agent known to block Ca-activated K channels, was also a relatively potent inhibitor of Ca-stimulated 86Rb efflux (KI approximately equal to 0.2 mM). The K-channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine, partially inhibited Ca-stimulated 86Rb efflux at concentrations below 0.5 mM, but stimulated this efflux at concentrations greater than or equal to 1 mM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2580982

  19. A Quick Reference on Chloride.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andrea A; de Morais, Helio Autran

    2017-03-01

    Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride...

  1. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  2. Modulation of Chloride Channel Functions by the Plant Lignan Compounds Kobusin and Eudesmin

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Fang, Fang; Cao, Huanhuan; Ma, Tonghui; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Plant lignans are diphenolic compounds widely present in vegetables, fruits, and grains. These compounds have been demonstrated to have protective effect against cancer, hypertension and diabetes. In the present study, we showed that two lignan compounds, kobusin and eudesmin, isolated from Magnoliae Flos, could modulate intestinal chloride transport mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs). The compounds activated CFTR channel function in both FRT cells and in HT-29 cells. The modulating effects of kobusin and eudesmin on the activity of CaCCgie (CaCC expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells) were also investigated, and the result showed that both compounds could stimulate CaCCgie-mediated short-circuit currents and the stimulation was synergistic with ATP. In ex vivo studies, both compounds activated CFTR and CaCCgie chloride channel activities in mouse colonic epithelia. Remarkably, the compounds showed inhibitory effects toward ANO1/CaCC-mediated short-circuit currents in ANO1/CaCC-expressing FRT cells, with IC50 values of 100 μM for kobusin and 200 μM for eudesmin. In charcoal transit study, both compounds mildly reduced gastrointestinal motility in mice. Taken together, these results revealed a new kind of activity displayed by the lignan compounds, one that is concerned with the modulation of chloride channel function. PMID:26635857

  3. Cloning and expression of Ca2+-activated chloride channel from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sang Min; Park, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, In-Soo; Lee, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, C Justin; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2005-08-26

    To clone the gene product responsible for the calcium-activated chloride channel (CLCA) in rat brain cerebrum, we performed a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with gene-specific primers of a rat EST clone. We successfully cloned a rat brain CLCA (rbCLCA). The full-length cDNA is 2895 bp long and codes for a 902 amino acid protein. The clone consists of four transmembrane domains and shows a 79.1% of significant homology with previously reported mouse smooth muscle chloride channel sequence. We also performed RT-PCR using single neuron and glia, and various tissues to determine the tissue expression of rbCLCA. We found that rbCLCA was expressed in both neuron and glia. In peripheral organs, rbCLCA showed the predominant expressions in cerebrum, cerebellum, kidney, small intestine, and stomach but not in heart, large intestine, liver, lung, and spleen. Whole-cell patch clamp studies in HEK293 cells transfected with the clone identified a niflumic acid (a CLCA channel blocker)-sensitive and voltage-dependent chloride current but we could not observe this chloride current in mock-transfected cells. The identification of genes belonging to the CLCA family from rat brain and its functional expression will help to evaluate its physiological role in brain as anion channel.

  4. [Role of calcium activated-potassium channels in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Sun, Jingzhi; Yang, Li; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhenglun; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of calcium activated-potassium channels (KCa) in the injury to rat alveolar macrophages induced by quartz. The experiments were conducted on a rat alveolar macrophage cell line (NR8383) in vitro, where crystal silica (100 üg/ml) and amorphous silica (100 üg/ml) were used as the test substances and the cells without any treatment as negative controls. At first the effects of two kinds of quartz were compared. Then KCa special inhibitors (Paxilline for BK, Tram-34 for IK, Apamin for SK) were added in different doses to the in vitro test system with 100 üg/ml crystal quartz as matrix, to observe the function of such channels. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) were tested. Comparing to the negative control group, cell viability reduced, LDH leakage, IL-1β and TNF-α release increased significantly in the amorphous quartz group, furthermore, the effects by crystal quartz were much more serious than those by amorphous quartz, with a statistical significance (P < 0.01). Comparing to the crystal quartz group, IK blockers (Tram-34) led to increase in cell viability significantly, with a statistical significance (P < 0.01); all the KCa specific blockers (Paxilline, Tram-34, Apamin) could reduce LDH leakage and IL-1β release, with a statistical significance (P < 0.05); meanwhile, BK and IK blockers (Paxilline,Tram-34) were able to reduce TNF-α release,with a statistical significance (P < 0.05).Reduction of IL-1β and TNF-α by Tram-34 was dose-dependent, but not so in the other two blockers. Blocking calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa) could reduce cell membrane damage as well as IL-1β and TNF-α release induced by crystal quartz in the rat alveolar macrophages cell line in vitro, which might serve as a signal in the early regulation of inflammatory responses by quartz.

  5. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    PubMed

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  6. The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 is an important modulator of hepatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Sevelsted Møller, Linda; Fialla, Annette Dam; Schierwagen, Robert; Biagini, Matteo; Liedtke, Christian; Laleman, Wim; Klein, Sabine; Reul, Winfried; Koch Hansen, Lars; Rabjerg, Maj; Singh, Vikrant; Surra, Joaquin; Osada, Jesus; Reinehr, Roland; de Muckadell, Ove B. Schaffalitzky; Köhler, Ralf; Trebicka, Jonel

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 controls different cellular processes such as proliferation and volume homeostasis. We investigated the role of KCa3.1 in experimental and human liver fibrosis. KCa3.1 gene expression was investigated in healthy and injured human and rodent liver. Effect of genetic depletion and pharmacological inhibition of KCa3.1 was evaluated in mice during carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic fibrogenesis. Transcription, protein expression and localisation of KCa3.1 was analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Hemodynamic effects of KCa3.1 inhibition were investigated in bile duct-ligated and carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats. In vitro experiments were performed in rat hepatic stellate cells and hepatocytes. KCa3.1 expression was increased in rodent and human liver fibrosis and was predominantly observed in the hepatocytes. Inhibition of KCa3.1 aggravated liver fibrosis during carbon tetrachloride challenge but did not change hemodynamic parameters in portal hypertensive rats. In vitro, KCa3.1 inhibition leads to increased hepatocyte apoptosis and DNA damage, whereas proliferation of hepatic stellate cells was stimulated by KCa3.1 inhibition. Our data identifies KCa3.1 channels as important modulators in hepatocellular homeostasis. In contrast to previous studies in vitro and other tissues this channel appears to be anti-fibrotic and protective during liver injury. PMID:27354175

  7. Emerging roles of calcium-activated K channels and TRPV4 channels in lung oedema and pulmonary circulatory collapse.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, U; Wandall-Frostholm, C; Oliván-Viguera, A; Köhler, R

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that the transient receptor potential cation (TRP) channel subfamily V (vanilloid) type 4 (TRPV4) and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa3.1) channels contribute to endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Here, we summarize very recent evidence for a synergistic interplay of TRPV4 and KCa3.1 channels in lung disease. Among the endothelial Ca(2+) -permeable TRPs, TRPV4 is best characterized and produces arterial dilation by stimulating Ca(2+) -dependent nitric oxide synthesis and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. Besides these roles, some TRP channels control endothelial/epithelial barrier functions and vascular integrity, while KCa3.1 channels provide the driving force required for Cl(-) and water transport in some cells and most secretory epithelia. The three conditions, increased pulmonary venous pressure caused by left heart disease, high inflation pressure and chemically induced lung injury, may lead to activation of TRPV4 channels followed by Ca(2+) influx leading to activation of KCa3.1 channels in endothelial cells ultimately leading to acute lung injury. We find that a deficiency in KCa3.1 channels protects against TRPV4-induced pulmonary arterial relaxation, fluid extravasation, haemorrhage, pulmonary circulatory collapse and cardiac arrest in vivo. These data identify KCa3.1 channels as crucial molecular components in downstream TRPV4 signal transduction and as a potential target for the prevention of undesired fluid extravasation, vasodilatation and pulmonary circulatory collapse. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Steroid hormone regulation of the voltage-gated, calcium-activated potassium channel expression in developing muscular and neural systems.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Sheldon L; Witten, Jane L

    2010-11-01

    A precise organization of gene expression is required for developing neural and muscular systems. Steroid hormones can control the expression of genes that are critical for development. In this study we test the hypothesis that the steroid hormone ecdysone regulates gene expression of the voltage-gated calcium-activated potassium ion channel, Slowpoke or KCNMA1. Late in adult development of the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, slowpoke (msslo) levels increased contributing to the maturation of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs) and CNS. We show that critical components of ecdysteroid gene regulation were present during upreglation of msslo in late adult DLM and CNS development. Ecdysteroid receptor complex heterodimeric partner proteins, the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), and the ecdysone-induced early gene, msE75B, were expressed at key developmental time points, suggesting that ecdysteroids direct aspects of gene expression in the DLMs during these late developmental stages. We provide evidence that ecdysteroids suppress msslo transcription in the DLMs; when titers decline msslo transcript levels increase. These results are consistent with msslo being a downstream gene in an ecdysteroid-mediated gene cascade during DLM development. We also show that the ecdysteroids regulate msslo transcript levels in the developing CNS. These results will contribute to our understanding of how the spatiotemporal regulation of slowpoke transcription contributes to tailoring cell excitability to the differing physiological and behavioral demands during development.

  9. Resveratrol attenuates cortical neuron activity: roles of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Jean; Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Linyi; Wu, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Hwei-Hisen

    2016-05-21

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in grapes and red wine, exhibits diverse pharmacological activities. However, relatively little is known about whether resveratrol modulates the ion channels in cortical neurons. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) and voltage-gated sodium channels were expressed in cortical neurons and play important roles in regulation of neuronal excitability. The present study aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on BKCa currents and voltage-gated sodium currents in cortical neurons. Resveratrol concentration-dependently increased the current amplitude and the opening activity of BKCa channels, but suppressed the amplitude of voltage-gated sodium currents. Similar to the BKCa channel opener NS1619, resveratrol decreased the firing rate of action potentials. In addition, the enhancing effects of BKCa channel blockers tetraethylammonium (TEA) and paxilline on action potential firing were sensitive to resveratrol. Our results indicated that the attenuation of action potential firing rate by resveratrol might be mediated through opening the BKCa channels and closing the voltage-gated sodium channels. As BKCa channels and sodium channels are critical molecular determinants for seizure generation, our findings suggest that regulation of these two channels in cortical neurons probably makes a considerable contribution to the antiseizure activity of resveratrol.

  10. Developmental mapping of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel expression in the rat nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gymnopoulos, Marco; Cingolani, Lorenzo A; Pedarzani, Paola; Stocker, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Early electrical activity and calcium influx regulate crucial aspects of neuronal development. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels regulate action potential firing and shape calcium influx through feedback regulation in mature neurons. These functions, observed in the adult nervous system, make them ideal candidates to regulate activity- and calcium-dependent processes in neurodevelopment. However, to date little is known about the onset of expression and regions expressing SK channel subunits in the embryonic and postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS). To allow studies on the contribution of SK channels to different phases of development of single neurons and networks, we have performed a detailed in situ hybridization mapping study, providing comprehensive distribution profiles of all three SK subunits (SK1, SK2, and SK3) in the rat CNS during embryonic and postnatal development. SK channel transcripts are expressed at early stages of prenatal CNS development. The three SK channel subunits display different developmental expression gradients in distinct CNS regions, with time points of expression and up- or downregulation that can be associated with a range of diverse developmental events. Their early expression in embryonic development suggests an involvement of SK channels in the regulation of developmental processes. Additionally, this study shows how the postnatal ontogenetic patterns lead to the adult expression map for each SK channel subunit and how their coexpression in the same regions or neurons varies throughout development.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride... hexahydrate (iron (III) chloride hexahydrate, FeC13. 6H20, CAS Reg. No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food...

  15. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology. PMID:24205938

  16. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  17. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  18. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Popescu, L; Constantinescu, S; Cernescu, S

    1988-01-01

    Studies in human embryo fibroblasts infected with measles or herpes simplex virus showed a reduction in virus yield when cultures were pretreated with 1-10 mM lithium chloride doses. Maximum effect was obtained by a 1 h treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride, preceding viral infection by 19-24 hours. A specific antiviral effect against measles virus was manifest immediately after culture pretreatment. Intermittent treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride of cultures persistently infected with measles or herpes virus obtained from human myeloid K-562 cell line shows a reduction in the extracellular virus yield. In the K-562/herpes virus system, the culture treatment with lithium chloride and acyclovir (10 microM) has an additive inhibitory effect on virus production. The paper is focused on the mechanism of lithium chloride antiviral action and the expediency of lithium therapy in SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis).

  19. Effects of chloride channel blockers on hypotonicity-induced contractions of the rat trachea

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Roberta R; Souza, Emmanuel P; Soares, Pedro M G; Meireles, Ana Vaneska P; Santos, Geam C M; Scarparo, Henrique C; Assreuy, Ana Maria S; Criddle, David N

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the inhibitory effects of blockers of volume-activated (Clvol) and calcium-activated (ClCa) chloride channels on hypotonic solution (HS)-induced contractions of rat trachea, comparing their effects with those of the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker nifedpine. HS elicited large, stable contractions that were partially dependent on the cellular chloride gradient; a reduction to 41.45±7.71% of the control response was obtained when extracellular chloride was removed. In addition, HS-induced responses were reduced to 26.8±5.6% of the control by 1 μM nifedipine, and abolished under calcium-free conditions, indicating a substantial requirement for extracellular calcium entry, principally via VDCCs. The established Clvol blockers tamoxifen (⩽10 μM) and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (1–100 μM), at concentrations previously reported to inhibit Clvol in smooth muscle, did not significantly inhibit HS-induced contractions. In contrast, the recognized ClCa blocker niflumic acid (NFA; 1–100 μM) produced a reversible, concentration-dependent inhibition of HS responses, with a reduction to 36.6±6.4% of control contractions at the highest concentration. The mixed Clvol and ClCa blocker, 5-nitro 2-(3-phenylpropylamine) benzoic acid (NPPB; 10–100 μM) also elicited concentration-related inhibition of HS-induced contractions, producing a decrease to 35.9±11.3% of the control at 100 μM. Our results show that HS induces reversible, chloride-dependent contractions of rat isolated trachea that were inhibited by NFA and NPPB, while exhibiting little sensitivity to recognized blockers of Clvol. The data support the possibility that opening of calcium-activated chloride channels under hypotonic conditions in respiratory smooth muscle may ultimately lead to VDCC-mediated calcium entry and contraction. PMID:14691057

  20. Chloride: the queen of electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O B

    2012-04-01

    Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general do not allocate chapters exclusively on hypochloremia or hyperchloremia and information on chloride other than channelopathies is scattered in the literature. To systematically review the function of chloride in man, data for this review include searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles including the search terms "chloride," "HCl," "chloride channel" "acid-base," "acidosis," "alkalosis," "anion gap" "strong anion gap" "Stewart," "base excess" and "lactate." In addition, internal medicine, critical care, nephrology and gastroenterology textbooks were evaluated on topics pertaining the assessment and management of acid-base disorders, including reference lists from journals or textbooks. Chloride is, after sodium, the most abundant electrolyte in serum, with a key role in the regulation of body fluids, electrolyte balance, the preservation of electrical neutrality, acid-base status and it is an essential component for the assessment of many pathological conditions. When assessing serum electrolytes, abnormal chloride levels alone usually signify a more serious underlying metabolic disorder, such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Chloride is an important component of diagnostic tests in a wide array of clinical situations. In these cases, chloride can be tested in sweat, serum, urine and feces. Abnormalities in chloride channel expression and function in many organs can cause a range of disorders. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of the calcium-activated potassium channel in upper and lower segment human myometrium during pregnancy and parturition

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lu; Cong, Binghai; Zhang, Lanmei; Ni, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Background Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) plays an important role in the control of uterine contractility during pregnancy. The change from uterine quiescence to enhanced contractile activity may be associated with the spatial and temporal expression of BKCa within myometrium. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit in upper segment (US) and lower segment (LS) regions of uterus, and to investigate for the possibly differential expression of these proteins in US and LS myometrium obtained from three functional states: (1) non-pregnant (NP); (2) term pregnant not in labour (TNL) and (3) term pregnant in labour (TL). Methods Myometrial biopsies were collected from non-pregnant women at hysterectomy and pregnant women at either elective caesarean section or emergency caesarean section. Protein expression level and cellular localization of BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit in US and LS myometrium were determined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit were predominantly localized to myometrial smooth muscle in both US and LS myometrium obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant patients. The level of BKCa alpha-subunit in US but not in LS was significantly higher in NP myometrium than those measured in myometrium obtained during pregnancy. Lower expression of BKCa alpha-subunit in both US and LS was found in TL than in TNL biopsies. Expression of beta-subunit in both US and LS myometrium was significantly reduced in TL group compared with those measured in TNL group. There was no significant difference in BKCa beta-subunit expression in either US or LS between NP and TNL group. Conclusion Our results suggest that expression of BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit in pregnant myometrium is reduced during labour, which is consistent with the myometrial activity at the onset of parturition. PMID:19344525

  2. Calcium activated K⁺ channels in the electroreceptor of the skate confirmed by cloning. Details of subunits and splicing.

    PubMed

    King, Benjamin L; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T

    2016-03-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K(+) channels, first described in 1974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intra-cellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitric oxide deficit in chronic intermittent hypoxia impairs large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Tjong, Yung-Wui; Li, Meifang; Hung, Ming-Wai; Wang, Kun; Fung, Man-Lung

    2008-02-15

    Sleep apnea associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) impairs hippocampal functions but the pathogenic mechanisms involving dysfunction of nitric oxide (NO) and ionic channels remain unclear. We examined the hypothesis that hippocampal NO deficit impairs the activity of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels in rats with chronic IH, mimicking conditions in patients with sleep apnea. A patch-clamp study was performed on hippocampal CA1 neurons acutely dissociated from IH and control rats. The levels of endogenous NO and intracellular calcium in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slices were measured respectively by electrochemical microsensors and spectrofluorometry. We found that the open probability of BK channels remarkably decreased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons in a time-dependent manner with the IH treatment, without changes in the unitary conductance and reversal potential. NO donors, SNP or DETA/NO, significantly restored the activity of BK channels in the IH neurons, which was prevented by blockade of S-nitrosylation with NEM or MTSES but not by inhibition of the cGMP pathway with ODQ or 8-bromo-cGMP. Endogenous NO levels were substantially lowered in the IH hippocampus during resting and hypoxia. Also, the level of protein expression of neuronal NO synthase was markedly lessened in the IH neurons with decreased intracellular calcium response to hypoxia. Collectively, the results suggest that the IH-induced NO deficit mediated by a down-regulation of the expression of neuronal NO synthase plays a causative role in the impaired activity of BK channels, which could account for the hippocampal injury in patients with sleep apnea.

  4. Inhibition of vascular calcification by block of intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels with TRAM-34.

    PubMed

    Freise, Christian; Querfeld, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Vascular calcifications are a hallmark of advanced cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. A key event is the transition of contractile vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) into an osteoblast-like phenotype, promoting a coordinated process of vascular remodeling resembling bone mineralization. Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa3.1) are expressed in various tissues including VSMC. Aiming for novel therapeutic targets in vascular calcification, we here studied effects of KCa3.1-inhibition on VSMC calcification by the specific KCa3.1 inhibitor TRAM-34. Calcification in the murine VSMC cell line MOVAS-1 and primary rat VSMC was induced by calcification medium (CM) containing elevated levels of PO4(3-) and Ca(2+). Cell signaling, calcification markers, and release of nitric oxide and alkaline phosphatase were assessed by luciferase reporter plasmids, RT-PCR and specific enzymatic assays, respectively. KCa3.1 gene silencing was achieved by siRNA experiments. TRAM-34 at 10nmol/l, decreased CM-induced calcification and induced NO release of VSMC accompanied by decreased TGF-β signaling. The CM-induced mRNA expressions of osterix, osteocalcin, matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2/-9 were reduced by TRAM-34 while osteopontin expression was increased. Further, TRAM-34 attenuated the CM- and TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and reduced the release of MMP-2/-9 by VSMC. Finally, TRAM-34 abrogated CM-induced apoptosis and KCa3.1 gene silencing protected VSMC from CM-induced onset of calcification. In summary, TRAM-34 interferes with calcification relevant signaling of NF-κB and TGF-β thereby blocking the phenotypic transition/calcification of VSMC. We conclude that the results provide a rationale for further studies regarding a possible therapeutic role of KCa3.1 inhibition by TRAM-34 or other inhibitors in vascular calcification.

  5. Contribution of presynaptic calcium-activated potassium currents to transmitter release regulation in cultured Xenopus nerve-muscle synapses.

    PubMed

    Pattillo, J M; Yazejian, B; DiGregorio, D A; Vergara, J L; Grinnell, A D; Meriney, S D

    2001-01-01

    Using Xenopus nerve-muscle co-cultures, we have examined the contribution of calcium-activated potassium (K(Ca)) channels to the regulation of transmitter release evoked by single action potentials. The presynaptic varicosities that form on muscle cells in these cultures were studied directly using patch-clamp recording techniques. In these developing synapses, blockade of K(Ca) channels with iberiotoxin or charybdotoxin decreased transmitter release by an average of 35%. This effect would be expected to be caused by changes in the late phases of action potential repolarization. We hypothesize that these changes are due to a reduction in the driving force for calcium that is normally enhanced by the local hyperpolarization at the active zone caused by potassium current through the K(Ca) channels that co-localize with calcium channels. In support of this hypothesis, we have shown that when action potential waveforms were used as voltage-clamp commands to elicit calcium current in varicosities, peak calcium current was reduced only when these waveforms were broadened beginning when action potential repolarization was 20% complete. In contrast to peak calcium current, total calcium influx was consistently increased following action potential broadening. A model, based on previously reported properties of ion channels, faithfully reproduced predicted effects on action potential repolarization and calcium currents. From these data, we suggest that the large-conductance K(Ca) channels expressed at presynaptic varicosities regulate transmitter release magnitude during single action potentials by altering the rate of action potential repolarization, and thus the magnitude of peak calcium current.

  6. Single-channel properties of BK-type calcium-activated potassium channels at a cholinergic presynaptic nerve terminal

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Ping; Schlichter, Lyanne C; Stanley, Elis F

    1999-01-01

    A high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK KCa) was characterized at a cholinergic presynaptic nerve terminal using the calyx synapse isolated from the chick ciliary ganglion.The channel had a conductance of 210 pS in a 150 mM:150 mM K+ gradient, was highly selective for K+ over Na+, and was sensitive to block by external charybdotoxin or tetraethylammonium (TEA) and by internal Ba2+. At +60 mV it was activated by cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]i with a Kd of ≈0.5 μM and a Hill coefficient of ≈2.0. At 10 μM [Ca2+]i the channel was 50 % activated (V½) at -8.0 mV with a voltage dependence (Boltzmann slope-factor) of 32.7 mV. The V½ values hyperpolarized with an increase in [Ca2+]i while the slope factors decreased. There were no overt differences in conductance or [Ca2+]i sensitivity between BK channels from the transmitter release face and the non-release face.Open and closed times were fitted by two and three exponentials, respectively. The slow time constants were strongly affected by both [Ca2+]i and membrane potential changes.In cell-attached patch recordings BK channel opening was enhanced by a prepulse permissive for calcium influx through the patch, suggesting that the channel can be activated by calcium ion influx through neighbouring calcium channels.The properties of the presynaptic BK channel are well suited for rapid activation during the presynaptic depolarization and Ca2+ influx that are associated with transmitter release. This channel may play an important role in terminating release by rapid repolarization of the action potential. PMID:10420003

  7. Calcium Activated K+ Channels in The Electroreceptor of the Skate Confirmed by Cloning. Details of Subunits and Splicing

    PubMed Central

    King, Benjamin L.; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K+ channels, first described in l974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intracellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted˜ in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. PMID:26687710

  8. Increased Expression of the Large Conductance, Calcium-Activated K+ (BK) Channel in Adult-Onset Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Donnelier, Julien; Braun, Samuel T.; Dolzhanskaya, Natalia; Ahrendt, Eva; Braun, Andrew P.; Velinov, Milen; Braun, Janice E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine string protein (CSPα) is a presynaptic J protein co-chaperone that opposes neurodegeneration. Mutations in CSPα (i.e., Leu115 to Arg substitution or deletion (Δ) of Leu116) cause adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL), a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease. We have previously demonstrated that CSPα limits the expression of large conductance, calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels in neurons, which may impact synaptic excitability and neurotransmission. Here we show by western blot analysis that expression of the pore-forming BKα subunit is elevated ~2.5 fold in the post-mortem cortex of a 36-year-old patient with the Leu116∆ CSPα mutation. Moreover, we find that the increase in BKα subunit level is selective for ANCL and not a general feature of neurodegenerative conditions. While reduced levels of CSPα are found in some postmortem cortex specimens from Alzheimer’s disease patients, we find no concomitant increase in BKα subunit expression in Alzheimer’s specimens. Both CSPα monomer and oligomer expression are reduced in synaptosomes prepared from ANCL cortex compared with control. In a cultured neuronal cell model, CSPα oligomers are short lived. The results of this study indicate that the Leu116∆ mutation leads to elevated BKα subunit levels in human cortex and extend our initial work in rodent models demonstrating the modulation of BKα subunit levels by the same CSPα mutation. While the precise sequence of pathogenic events still remains to be elucidated, our findings suggest that dysregulation of BK channels may contribute to neurodegeneration in ANCL. PMID:25905915

  9. CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-08-01

    Seizure activity is linked to astrocyte activation as well as dysfunctional cortical neuron excitability produced from changes in calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) can be used to investigate the peripheral effects of activated astrocytes upon cortical neurons. However, CNTF-ACM's effect upon KCa channel activity in cultured cortical neurons has not yet been investigated. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in rat cortical neurons to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon charybdotoxin-sensitive large-conductance KCa (BK) channel currents and apamin-sensitive small-conductance KCa (SK) channel current. Biotinylation and RT-PCR were applied to assess CNTF-ACM's effects upon the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of the SK channel subunits SK2 and SK3 and the BK channel subunits BKα1 and BKβ3. An anti-fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) monoclonal neutralizing antibody was used to assess the effects of the FGF-2 component of CNTF-ACM. CNTF-ACM significantly increased KCa channel current density, which was predominantly attributable to gains in BK channel activity (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM produced a significant increase in BKα1 and BKβ3 expression (p < 0.05) but had no significant effect upon SK2 or SK3 expression (p > 0.05). Blocking FGF-2 produced significant reductions in KCa channel current density (p > 0.05) as well as BKα1 and BKβ3 expression in CNTF-ACM-treated neurons (p > 0.05). CNTF-ACM significantly enhances BK channel activity in rat cortical neurons and that FGF-2 is partially responsible for these effects. CNTF-induced astrocyte activation results in secretion of neuroactive factors which may affect neuronal excitability and resultant seizure activity in mammalian cortical neurons.

  10. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    EEEElhIhEEEEEE 1111 1 - MI(CRO( fy Hl ff1Sf UIIIUN Ift I IA I~t Research and Development Technical Report DELET - TR - 78 - 0563 - F Cq LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE ...2b(1110) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery -10/1/78 - 11/30/80 6. PNING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Z %A a.~as B.,OWRACT OR...block number) Inorganic Electrolyte battery, Thionyl Chloride , lithium , high rate D cell, high rate flat cylindrical cell, laser designator battery. C//i

  11. Modulation of calcium-activated non-specific cation currents by cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation in neurones of Helix.

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, L D; Swandulla, D; Müller, T H

    1990-01-01

    1. Currents through calcium-activated non-specific cation (CAN) channels were studied in the fast burster neurone of Helix aspersa and Helix pomatia. CAN currents were activated by reproducible intracellular injections of small quantities of Ca2+ utilizing a fast, quantitative pressure injection technique. 2. External application of forskolin (10-25 microM), an activator of adenylate cyclase, caused the endogenous bursting activity of the cells to be replaced by beating activity. These same concentrations of forskolin reduced CAN currents reversibly to about 50%. 3. External application of IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 100 microM), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme which breaks down cyclic AMP, reduced CAN currents reversibly to about 40%. 4. External application of the membrane-permeable cyclic AMP analogues 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (100 microM) caused almost complete block of the CAN current. A marked reduction in the CAN current was also observed following quantitative injections of cyclic AMP (internal concentrations up to 50 microM) directly into the cells from a second pressure injection pipette. 5. Similar results were obtained with quantitative injections of the catalytic subunit (C-subunit) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (internal concentrations 10(-4) units of enzyme) directly into the cells from a second pressure injection pipette. 6. Injection of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, GTP-gamma-S (internal concentrations 100 microM), which stimulates G-proteins, produced a prolonged increase in CAN current amplitude by as much as 300%. 7. External application of serotonin (100-200 microM) caused a transition from bursting to beating activity of the neurones and mimicked cyclic AMP's effects on CAN currents. Two other neurotransmitters, dopamine and acetylcholine, were not significantly effective in reducing CAN currents. 8. Injection of a peptide inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase suppressed

  12. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  13. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  14. An XAFS study of nickel chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; G Cheek; K Pandya; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Nickel chloride was studied with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Acidic melts display metal stripping peaks which are not observed in the basic melt. EXAFS analysis shows that the nickel is tetrahedrally coordinated with chloride ions in the basic solution. In the acidic solution the nickel is coordinated by six chloride ions that are also associated with aluminum ions.

  15. Regeneration of zinc chloride hydrocracking catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.

    1979-01-01

    Improved rate of recovery of zinc values from the solids which are carried over by the effluent vapors from the oxidative vapor phase regeneration of spent zinc chloride catalyst is achieved by treatment of the solids with both hydrogen chloride and calcium chloride to selectively and rapidly recover the zinc values as zinc chloride.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g) of...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  1. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  4. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  5. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c)...

  6. Secreted CLCA1 modulates TMEM16A to activate Ca(2+)-dependent chloride currents in human cells.

    PubMed

    Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Yurtsever, Zeynep; Nichols, Colin G; Brett, Tom J

    2015-03-17

    Calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) activates calcium-dependent chloride currents; neither the target, nor mechanism, is known. We demonstrate that secreted CLCA1 activates calcium-dependent chloride currents in HEK293T cells in a paracrine fashion, and endogenous TMEM16A/Anoctamin1 conducts the currents. Exposure to exogenous CLCA1 increases cell surface levels of TMEM16A and cellular binding experiments indicate CLCA1 engages TMEM16A on the surface of these cells. Altogether, our data suggest that CLCA1 stabilizes TMEM16A on the cell surface, thus increasing surface expression, which results in increased calcium-dependent chloride currents. Our results identify the first Cl(-) channel target of the CLCA family of proteins and establish CLCA1 as the first secreted direct modifier of TMEM16A activity, delineating a unique mechanism to increase currents. These results suggest cooperative roles for CLCA and TMEM16 proteins in influencing the physiology of multiple tissues, and the pathology of multiple diseases, including asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, and certain cancers.

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  8. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  10. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  11. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries.

  12. Health advisory for zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, J.M.; Gordon, L.; Kirman, C.; Roberts, W.C.

    1992-09-01

    The Health Advisory (HA) provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with zinc chloride contamination of drinking water. Based on available toxicity data the HA values for zinc chloride are given. Zinc chloride is classified as Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. Health Advisories describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. The HAs, developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water (OW), are not legally enforceable Federal standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available. Health Advisories are developed for One-day, Ten-day, Longer-term and Lifetime exposures based on data describing noncarcinogenic end points of toxicity. For those substances that are known or probable human carcinogens, according to the EPA classification scheme, Lifetime HAs are not recommended.

  13. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  14. Calcium-activated potassium channel SK1 is widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and sensory organs of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cabo, R; Zichichi, R; Viña, E; Guerrera, M C; Vázquez, G; García-Suárez, O; Vega, J A; Germanà, A

    2013-10-25

    Sensory cells contain ion channels involved in the organ-specific transduction mechanisms that convert different types of stimuli into electric energy. Here we focus on small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 1 (SK1) which plays an important role in all excitable cells acting as feedback regulators in after-hyperpolarization. This study was undertaken to analyze the pattern of expression of SK1 in the zebrafish peripheral nervous system and sensory organs using RT-PRC, Westernblot and immunohistochemistry. Expression of SK1 mRNA was observed at all developmental stages analyzed (from 10 to 100 days post fertilization, dpf), and the antibody used identified a protein with a molecular weight of 70kDa, at 100dpf (regarded to be adult). Cell expressing SK1 in adult animals were neurons of dorsal root and cranial nerve sensory ganglia, sympathetic neurons, sensory cells in neuromasts of the lateral line system and taste buds, crypt olfactory neurons and photoreceptors. Present results report for the first time the expression and the distribution of SK1 in the peripheral nervous system and sensory organs of adult zebrafish, and may contribute to set zebrafish as an interesting experimental model for calcium-activated potassium channels research. Moreover these findings are of potential interest because the potential role of SK as targets for the treatment of neurological diseases and sensory disorders.

  15. Effects of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, A23187 and calmodulin, calcium activated neutral proteinase antagonists on melatonin secretion in perifused chick pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Agapito, M T; Pablos, M; Reiter, R J; Recio, J M; Gutierrez-Baraja, R

    1998-04-10

    We have recently described, using perifused pineal glands, that calcium influx participates in the activation of chick pineal gland. This study shows that the loss of perifused chick pineal gland activity is a complex process which seems to involve the release of calcium from intracellular stores, calmodulin and calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP). Pineal glands were perifused with Krebs medium (controls) or with Krebs medium plus the drugs ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA; calcium chelator), A23187 (calcium ionophore), EGTA plus A23187 (extra-intra cellular calcium chelation), trifluoperazine and CGS9343B (calmodulin inhibitors), and E-64 (CANP inhibitor) at the time of the natural peak of melatonin release. When EGTA or A23187 were added to the perifusion medium, no effects were observed. On the other hand, when the calcium chelator EGTA plus A23187 (free extra and intracellular calcium levels were dramatically decreased), trifluoperazine, CGS 9343B or E-64 were added to the perifusion medium melatonin synthesis increased significantly and was sustained for 8 h. We propose a prominent role for calcium output from intracellular stores in regulating melatonin production primarily by acting on Ca-calmodulin and calcium-activated neutral protease.

  16. Resveratrol protects against ultraviolet A-mediated inhibition of the phagocytic function of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan; Wu, Tsung-Tien

    2009-07-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the protective effect of resveratrol on human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell phagocytosis against ultraviolet irradiation damage. Cultured RPE cells were exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA, 20 minutes) irradiation, and treated with meclofenamic acid (30 microM, 20 minutes), paxilline (100 nM, 20 minutes) or resveratrol (10 microM, 20 minutes). Meclofenamic acid and resveratrol were given after exposure to UVA. Pretreatment with meclofenamic acid, resveratrol or paxilline before UVA irradiation was also performed. Fluorescent latex beads were then fed for 4 hours and the phagocytotic function was assessed by flow cytometry. UVA irradiation inhibited the phagocytic function of human RPE cells. The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activator meclofenamic acid ameliorated the damage caused by UVA irradiation. Pretreatment with resveratrol acid also provided protection against damage caused by UVA. Posttreatment with meclofenamic acid offered mild protection, whereas resveratrol did not. In conclusion, the red wine flavonoid resveratrol ameliorated UVA-mediated inhibition of human RPE phagocytosis. The underlying mechanism might involve the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.

  17. Mutagenicity studies of vinyl chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Fabricant, J D; Legator, M S

    1981-01-01

    Mutagenicity studies in both man and in test organisms clearly demonstrate positive mutagenic activity of vinyl chloride. In terms of the mutagenicity studies using a variety of in vitro procedures covering both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, positive effects were found. Cytogenetic in vivo studies in animals and in humans indicate not only somatic mutations, but also germinal effects with this chemical. PMID:7333237

  18. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice. ...

  19. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride...

  20. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acids to form amines that are subsequently reacted with methyl chloride to form the quaternary ammonium... then reacted with 2-ethylhexanal, reduced, methylated, and subsequently reacted with methyl chloride...

  1. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, S.J.; Thomas, T.R.

    1975-11-14

    A method is described for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel, and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  2. Method for the abatement of hydrogen chloride

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Steven J.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for reducing the amount of hydrogen chloride contained in a gas stream by reacting the hydrogen chloride with ammonia in the gas phase so as to produce ammonium chloride. The combined gas stream is passed into a condensation and collection vessel and a cyclonic flow is created in the combined gas stream as it passes through the vessel. The temperature of the gas stream is reduced in the vessel to below the condensation temperature of ammonium chloride in order to crystallize the ammonium chloride on the walls of the vessel. The cyclonic flow creates a turbulence which breaks off the larger particles of ammonium chloride which are, in turn, driven to the bottom of the vessel where the solid ammonium chloride can be removed from the vessel. The gas stream exiting from the condensation and collection vessel is further cleaned and additional ammonium chloride is removed by passing through additional filters.

  3. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  4. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    DOEpatents

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  5. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  1. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A What's in this ... en el sudor What It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited ...

  2. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese dichloride...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese dichloride...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products made of... product means a product made wholly or partly from polyvinyl chloride, and which does not require...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride....

  18. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test A A A What's in this ... cloruro en el sudor What It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an ...

  19. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  3. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  4. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color retention in asparagus packed...

  5. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  6. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  7. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  8. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  9. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  10. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  14. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  2. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. Worker exposure to vinyl chloride and poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J H

    1981-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in early 1974 began industrial hygiene studies of vinyl chloride exposed workers. Three VC monomer plants, three VC polymerization plants, and seven PVC fabrication plants were surveyed. V polymerization plant workers and workers in one job category in VC monomer plants were exposed to average levels above 1 ppm. The highest average exposure was 22 ppm. NIOSH health hazard evaluation studies since these initial surveys have primarily shown nondetectable levels of vinyl chloride. A NIOSH control technology study in 1977 showed that exposure levels in VC polymerization plants had been drastically reduced but exposure levels above 1 ppm were still found in several cases. PMID:7333231

  12. An XAFS Study of Tantalum Chloride in the Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl Imidazolium Chloride/ aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Tantalum chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs). Anhydrous Ta2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic solution than in the acidic solution and the X-ray absorption data shows that the coordination shell of chlorides around the tantalum is larger in the basic solution. In the acidic solution, tantalum has five chlorides in its coordination shell while in the basic solution; the tantalum is coordinated by seven chlorides. This indicates that the Lewis acidity of the tantalum chloride causes the Ta to coordinate differently in the acidic and the basic solutions.

  13. Calcium-activated tenderization of strip loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks in diverse genotypes of cattle.

    PubMed

    Pringle, T D; Harrelson, J M; West, R L; Williams, S E; Johnson, D D

    1999-12-01

    Steers of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding (100% A, n = 6; F1 B x A, n = 6; and 100% B, n = 6) were used to determine the effect of calcium chloride injection on the calpain proteinase system and meat tenderness. The steers were slaughtered in six replications (at either 9 or 14 mm of backfat, determined ultrasonically), with each breed type represented. Calpains and calpastatin activities were measured on fresh, prerigor longissimus muscle samples. Carcass data were collected after a 24-h chill, and the short loin (IMPS #180), top sirloin (IMPS #184), and top round (IMPS #168) were removed from both sides of each carcass. The cuts from the right side were then injected at 5% (wt/wt) with CaCl2 solution (2.2%). Longissimus muscle calpain and calpastatin activities were also measured at 48 h postmortem from the injected and control sides of each carcass. Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured on steaks from the three subprimals aged 1, 2, 5, 15, or 31 d. Marbling scores and USDA quality grades were higher (P<.05) in A than in F1 B x A and B carcasses. Calpastatin activity was higher (P<.05) in muscle from B than in muscle from A and F1 B x A steers, and postmortem storage (O vs 48 h) and CaCl2 injection reduced (P<.05) the activity of the calpains and calpastatin. Strip loin and top sirloin steaks from A and F1 B x A steers were more tender (P<.05) than steaks from B steers; however, top round steak tenderness did not differ (P>.05) across breed type. Calcium injection improved strip loin and top sirloin steak tenderness, but it did not affect top round steak tenderness. Collectively, these data show that CaC12 injection can be used to improve meat tenderness, with similar responses shown in cattle containing 0, 50, and 100% B inheritance. However, even with CaCl2 injection, B steaks are less tender than their A and F1 B x A counterparts.

  14. Integrative Approach for Computationally Inferring Interactions between the Alpha and Beta Subunits of the Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (BK): a Docking Study.

    PubMed

    González, Janneth; Gálvez, Angela; Morales, Ludis; Barreto, George E; Capani, Francisco; Sierra, Omar; Torres, Yolima

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of the alpha- and beta-1 subunits of the calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) were predicted by threading modeling. A recursive approach comprising of sequence alignment and model building based on three templates was used to build these models, with the refinement of non-conserved regions carried out using threading techniques. The complex formed by the subunits was studied by means of docking techniques, using 3D models of the two subunits, and an approach based on rigid-body structures. Structural effects of the complex were analyzed with respect to hydrogen-bond interactions and binding-energy calculations. Potential interaction sites of the complex were determined by referencing a study of the difference accessible surface area (DASA) of the protein subunits in the complex.

  15. Integrative Approach for Computationally Inferring Interactions between the Alpha and Beta Subunits of the Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (BK): a Docking Study

    PubMed Central

    González, Janneth; Gálvez, Angela; Morales, Ludis; Barreto, George E.; Capani, Francisco; Sierra, Omar; Torres, Yolima

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of the alpha- and beta-1 subunits of the calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) were predicted by threading modeling. A recursive approach comprising of sequence alignment and model building based on three templates was used to build these models, with the refinement of non-conserved regions carried out using threading techniques. The complex formed by the subunits was studied by means of docking techniques, using 3D models of the two subunits, and an approach based on rigid-body structures. Structural effects of the complex were analyzed with respect to hydrogen-bond interactions and binding-energy calculations. Potential interaction sites of the complex were determined by referencing a study of the difference accessible surface area (DASA) of the protein subunits in the complex. PMID:23492851

  16. Calcium-activated non-selective cation currents are involved in generation of tonic and bursting activity in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta

    PubMed Central

    Mrejeru, Ana; Wei, Aguan; Ramirez, Jan Marino

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nigral dopamine neurons are transiently activated by high frequency glutamatergic inputs relaying reward-predicting sensory information. The tonic firing pattern of dopamine cells responds to these inputs with a transient burst of spikes that requires NMDA receptors. Here, we show that NMDA receptor activation further excites the cell by recruiting a calcium-activated non-selective cation current (ICAN) capable of generating a plateau potential. Burst firing in vitro is eliminated after blockade of ICAN with flufenamic acid, 9-phenanthrol, or intracellular BAPTA. ICAN is likely to be mediated by a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel, and RT-PCR was used to confirm expression of TRPM2 and TRPM4 mRNA in substantia nigra pars compacta. We propose that ICAN is selectively activated during burst firing to boost NMDA currents and allow plateau potentials. This boost mechanism may render DA cells vulnerable to excitotoxicity. PMID:21486760

  17. Preparation of semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride.

    PubMed

    Naghaway, J; Soine, T O

    1979-05-01

    Semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride (II) was prepared by monoquaternization of (+)-tubocurine. The method involved treating (+)-tubocurine with a 0.5 M equivalent of hydrochloric acid prior to quaternization with methyl iodide, followed by neutralization and iodide-chloride ion-exchange. Column chromatography and crystallization procedures were utilized for pure semisynthetic II preparation. The neuromuscular junction blocking activities of the semisynthetic and commercial II were determined by the in vivo cat hypoglossal nerve-tongue muscle preparation. No delectable differences among physical constants, spectral data, and neuromuscular junction blocking activities were noted between the commercial product and the semisynthetic II. This result substantiates the chemical and biological data for the well-accepted new formula for II. The unexplained M + n14 mass spectral peaks shown by the curare-type bases are characteristic of the molecular species rather than a result of contaminants.

  18. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  19. Calcium-activated potassium channels in the luminal membrane of Amphiuma diluting segment: voltage-dependent block by intracellular Na+ upon depolarisation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, K; Hunter, M; Giebisch, G

    1990-06-01

    Calcium-activated potassium channels in the luminal membrane of Amphiuma diluting segment were studied using the patch-clamp technique in both the cell-attached and inside-out configurations. The open probability (Po) of the channel is sensitive to both membrane potential and cytoplasmic calcium activity; depolarizing potentials and high calcium concentrations leading to an increased Po. In the cell-attached condition, channel openings were observed between pipette potentials of -100 and -240 mV. As the driving force for potassium exit from the cell into the pipette is increased the single channel currents show a biphasic response. First, the currents increase as expected; however, the single channel currents diminish in magnitude at pipette potentials more negative than -120 mV. We propose that this reduction is due to rapid blockade of the potassium channel by intracellular sodium. This proposal is supported by two facts: (a) using inside-out patches it was possible to reduce the single channel currents in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner, similar to that observed in the cell-attached condition, by raising the sodium concentration of the fluid bathing the cytoplasmic face of the patch; (b) pretreatment of tubules with the loop-acting diuretic furosemide (10(-5) M), an agent known to decrease the intracellular sodium activity, caused an attenuation of the reduction in single channel current seen under control conditions. Given the very low Po of the channels at the resting membrane potential and the sensitivity of the channels to intracellular sodium, it is unlikely that blockade of these channels by intracellular sodium would lead to a physiological regulation of the apical K conductance.

  20. A Role for Calcium-Activated Adenylate Cyclase and Protein Kinase A in the Lens Src Family Kinase and Na,K-ATPase Response to Hyposmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2017-09-01

    Na,K-ATPase activity in lens epithelium is subject to control by Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs). Previously we showed hyposmotic solution causes an SFK-dependent increase in Na,K-ATPase activity in the epithelium. Here we explored the role of cAMP in the signaling mechanism responsible for the SFK and Na,K-ATPase response. Intact porcine lenses were exposed to hyposmotic Krebs solution (200 mOsm) then the epithelium was assayed for cAMP, SFK phosphorylation (activation) or Na,K-ATPase activity. An increase of cAMP was observed in the epithelium of lenses exposed to hyposmotic solution. In lenses exposed to hyposmotic solution SFK phosphorylation in the epithelium approximately doubled as did Na,K-ATPase activity and both responses were prevented by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. The magnitude of the SFK response to hyposmotic solution was reduced by a TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 added to prevent TRPV4-mediated calcium entry, and by a cytoplasmic Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM. The Na,K-ATPase activity response in the epithelium of lenses exposed to hyposmotic solution was abolished by BAPTA-AM. As a direct test of cAMP-dependent SFK activation, intact lenses were exposed to 8-pCPT-cAMP, a cell-permeable cAMP analog. 8-pCPT-cAMP caused robust SFK activation. Using Western blot, two calcium-activated adenylyl cyclases, ADCY3 and ADCY8, were detected in lens epithelium. Calcium-activated adenylyl cyclases are expressed in the lens epithelium and SFK activation is linked to a rise of cAMP that occurs upon hyposmotic challenge. The findings point to cAMP as a link between TRPV4 channel-mediated calcium entry, SFK activation, and a subsequent increase of Na,K-ATPase activity.

  1. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  2. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  3. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  4. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Costa, P G; Branco, L G S; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  5. A Cyclic GMP-Dependent K+ Channel in the Blastocladiomycete Fungus Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Gabriela Mól; Glaser, Talita; Leonard, Guy; Richards, Thomas A; Ulrich, Henning; Gomes, Suely L

    2015-09-01

    Phototaxis in flagellated zoospores of the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii depends on a novel photosensor, Blastocladiella emersonii GC1 (BeGC1), comprising a type I (microbial) rhodopsin fused to a guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain, that produces the conserved second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP). The rapid and transient increase in cGMP levels during the exposure of zoospores to green light was shown to be necessary for phototaxis and dependent on both rhodopsin function and guanylyl cyclase activity. It is noteworthy that BeGC1 was localized to the zoospore eyespot apparatus, in agreement with its role in the phototactic response. A putative cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (BeCNG1) was also identified in the genome of the fungus and was implicated in flagellar beating via the action of a specific inhibitor (l-cis-diltiazem) that compromised zoospore motility. Here we show that B. emersonii expresses a K(+) channel that is activated by cGMP. The use of specific channel inhibitors confirmed the activation of the channel by cGMP and its K(+) selectivity. These characteristics are consistent with the function of an ion channel encoded by the BeCNG1 gene. Other blastocladiomycete fungi, such as Allomyces macrogynus and Catenaria anguillulae, possess genes encoding a similar K(+) channel and the rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclase fusion protein, while the genes encoding both these proteins are absent in nonflagellated fungi. The presence of these genes as a pair seems to be an exclusive feature of blastocladiomycete fungi. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the B. emersonii cGMP-activated K(+) channel is involved in the control of zoospore motility, most probably participating in the cGMP-signaling pathway for the phototactic response of the fungus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Synthetic peptides as cGMP-independent activators of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Iα

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Thomas M.; Tykocki, Nathan R.; Sheehe, Jessica L.; Osborne, Brent W.; Tegge, Werner; Brayden, Joseph E.; Dostmann, Wolfgang R.

    2015-01-01

    PKG is a multifaceted signaling molecule and potential pharmaceutical target due to its role in smooth muscle function. A helix identified in the structure of the regulatory domain of PKG Iα suggests a novel architecture of the holoenzyme. In this study, a set of synthetic peptides (S-tides), derived from this helix was found to bind to and activate PKG Iα in a cGMP-independent manner. The most potent S-tide derivative (S1.5) increased the open probability (NPo) of the potassium channel KCa1.1 to levels equivalent to saturating cGMP. Introduction of S1.5 to smooth muscle cells in isolated, endothelium-denuded cerebral arteries through a modified reversible permeabilization (RP) procedure inhibited myogenic constriction. In contrast, in endothelium-intact vessels, S1.5 had no effect on myogenic tone. This suggests that PKG Iα activation by S1.5 in vascular smooth muscle would be sufficient to inhibit augmented arterial contractility that frequently occurs following endothelial damage associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26687482

  7. cGMP-dependent cone photoreceptor degeneration in the cpfl1 mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Trifunović, Dragana; Dengler, Katja; Michalakis, Stylianos; Zrenner, Eberhart; Wissinger, Bernd; Paquet-Durand, François

    2010-09-01

    Inherited retinal degeneration affecting both rod and cone photoreceptors constitutes one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. Such degeneration is at present untreatable, and the underlying neurodegenerative mechanisms are unknown, even though certain genetic causes have been established. The rd1 mouse is one of the best characterized animal models for rod photoreceptor degeneration, whereas the cpfl1 mouse is a recently discovered model for cone cell death. Because both animal models are affected by functionally similar mutations in the rod and cone phosphodiesterase 6 genes, respectively, we asked whether the mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in these two mouse lines share common pathways. In the present study, we followed the temporal progression of photoreceptor degeneration in the cpfl1 retina, correlated it with specific metabolic markers, and compared it with the wild-type and the rd1 situation. Similar to corresponding rd1 observations, cpfl1 cone photoreceptor cell death was associated with an accumulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), activity of calpains, and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated protein (VASP). Cone degeneration progressed rapidly, with a peak in cell death around postnatal day 24. Furthermore, cpfl1 cone photoreceptor migration during early postnatal development was delayed significantly compared with the corresponding wild-type retina. The finding that rod and cone photoreceptor degeneration was associated with the same metabolic markers suggests that in both cell types similar degenerative mechanisms are active. This raises the possibility that equivalent neuroprotective strategies may be used to prevent both rod and cone photoreceptor degeneration.

  8. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G.; Branco, L.G.S.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress. PMID:25387672

  9. Cyclic GMP-dependent vasodilatory properties of LASSBio 294 in rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    Silva, C L M; Noël, F; Barreiro, E J

    2002-01-01

    The effects of LASSBio 294, a new 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone, on vascular tonus were investigated in isolated rat aortic rings.LASSBio 294 induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of intact rat aortic rings with an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 74 μM (95% confidence limits: 59 – 92). The mechanical removal of the endothelium abolished this effect.In aortic rings with intact endothelium the effect of 100 μM LASSBio 294 was not altered by the pharmacological inhibition of NOS and cyclo-oxygenase pathways with 500 μM L-NAME and 10 μM indomethacin, respectively.LASSBio 294 (100 μM) was able to relax aortic rings pre-contracted with high extracellular K+ (KCl 100 mM).The relaxant effect of LASSBio 294 was fully reversed (and prevented) by the addition of 1 μM ODQ (1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one), a selective inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase.LASSBio 294 (100 μM) had no direct effect on PDE3 and PDE4 activities, however, it increased by 150% cyclic GMP content in aortic rings pre-treated with 100 μM L-NAME and 10 μM indomethacin, as did 1 μM zaprinast, a selective PDE5 inhibitor.In conclusion, LASSBio 294 induced relaxation of isolated rat aorta probably by directly increasing cyclic GMP content, possibly as a consequence of PDE5 inhibition. PMID:11786506

  10. Cyclic GMP-dependent vasodilatory properties of LASSBio 294 in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Silva, C L M; Noël, F; Barreiro, E J

    2002-01-01

    . The effects of LASSBio 294, a new 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone, on vascular tonus were investigated in isolated rat aortic rings. 2. LASSBio 294 induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of intact rat aortic rings with an inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 74 microM (95% confidence limits: 59 - 92). The mechanical removal of the endothelium abolished this effect. 3. In aortic rings with intact endothelium the effect of 100 microM LASSBio 294 was not altered by the pharmacological inhibition of NOS and cyclo-oxygenase pathways with 500 microM L-NAME and 10 microM indomethacin, respectively. 4. LASSBio 294 (100 microM) was able to relax aortic rings pre-contracted with high extracellular K(+) (KCl 100 mM). 5. The relaxant effect of LASSBio 294 was fully reversed (and prevented) by the addition of 1 microM ODQ (1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one), a selective inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. 6. LASSBio 294 (100 microM) had no direct effect on PDE3 and PDE4 activities, however, it increased by 150% cyclic GMP content in aortic rings pre-treated with 100 microM L-NAME and 10 microM indomethacin, as did 1 microM zaprinast, a selective PDE5 inhibitor. 7. In conclusion, LASSBio 294 induced relaxation of isolated rat aorta probably by directly increasing cyclic GMP content, possibly as a consequence of PDE5 inhibition.

  11. An XAFS Study of Niobium chloride in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride/ aluminum chloride

    SciTech Connect

    D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek; W OGrady

    2011-12-31

    Niobium chloride was studied with extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) in acidic and basic aluminum chloride/1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquids. Although anhydrous Nb2Cl10 is more soluble in the basic melt than in the acidic melt, the EXAFS data shows that the coordination shell around the niobium does not change in the different ionic liquids. Both the acidic and basic melts show a coordination of five chlorides in the first shell. This indicates that in this series of ionic liquids, the Nb2Cl10 breaks up into two NbCl5 entities in both the acidic and the basic melts.

  12. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    PubMed Central

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  13. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOEpatents

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  14. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-03

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials.

  15. High Efficiency Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Cell.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    AD-Al14 672 HONEYWELL POWER SOURCES CENTER HORSHAM PA F/S 10/3 HIGH EFFICIENCY LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLo(U) APR 82 N DODDAPANEN! OAAK20-81-C...CHART NATIONAl BUREAU OF STANDARDS 1963 A Research and Development Technical Report DELET-TR-81-0381-3 HIGH EFFICIENCY LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELL...reverse aide it necessary and Identify by block number) Thionyl chloride , lithium , high discharge rates, low temperatures, catalysis, cyclic

  16. Metal chloride cathode for a battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Bankston, C. Perry (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of fabricating a rechargeable battery is disclosed which includes a positive electrode which contains a chloride of a selected metal when the electrode is in its active state. The improvement comprises fabricating the positive electrode by: providing a porous matrix composed of a metal; providing a solution of the chloride of the selected metal; and impregnating the matrix with the chloride from the solution.

  17. Determination of Chloride in Hydraulic Fluids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    chloride stock solution (1000 mg/L) was prepared by dissolv- ing sodium chloride in deionized distilled water. A 5M sodium nitrate solu- tion was used as...electrode as the reference electrode. Calibration curves were prepared by measuring the potentials (millivolts) of standard chloride solution (1, 10, 100...Therefore, it is recommended that only 10% (v/v) hydraulic fluid ( ehtylene glycol) solutions be used for analysis. The electrode must not stay in the

  18. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution and...

  19. Production of chlorine from chloride salts

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    A process for converting chloride salts and sulfuric acid to sulfate salts and elemental chlorine is disclosed. A chloride salt and sulfuric acid are combined in a furnace where they react to produce a sulfate salt and hydrogen chloride. Hydrogen chloride from the furnace contacts a molten salt mixture containing an oxygen compound of vanadium, an alkali metal sulfate and an alkali metal pyrosulfate to recover elemental chlorine. In the absence of an oxygen-bearing gas during the contacting, the vanadium is reduced, but is regenerated to its active higher valence state by separately contacting the molten salt mixture with an oxygen-bearing gas.

  20. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  1. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  2. Studies on Chloride Channels and their Modulators.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vaishali M; Gupta, Satya P

    2016-01-01

    The prime roles of mutations in the genes, encoding chloride ion channels, in various human diseases of muscle, kidney, bone and brain, such as congenital myotonia, myotonic dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, osteopetrosis, epilepsy, glioma, etc., have been well established. Chloride ion channels are also responsible for glioma progression in brain and malaria parasite in red blood cells. The present article thus emphasises on the various diseases associated with chloride channel regulation and their modulators. Studies on various chloride channels and their modulators have been discussed in detail.

  3. Enrofloxacin hydro-chloride dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Calderón, Jorge E; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; García-Gutiérrez, Ponciano; Sumano, Héctor

    2014-04-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H23FN3O3 (+)·Cl(-)·2H2O [systematic name: 4-(3-carb-oxy-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-di-hydro-quin-o-lin-7-yl)-1-ethyl-piperazin-1-ium chloride dihydrate], consists of two independent monocations of the protonated enrofloxacin, two chloride anions and four water mol-ecules. In the cations, the piperazinium rings adopt chair conformations and the dihedral angles between the cyclo-propyl ring and the 10-membered quinoline ring system are 56.55 (2) and 51.11 (2)°. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each cation. In the crystal, the components are connected via O-H⋯Cl, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and a π-π inter-action between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.6726 (13) Å], resulting in a three-dimensional array.

  4. Arsenic removal by ferric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M.; Liang, S.

    1996-04-01

    Bench-scale studies were conducted in model freshwater systems to investigate how various parameters affected arsenic removal during coagulation with ferric chloride and arsenic adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Parameters included arsenic oxidation state and initial concentration, coagulant dosage or adsorbent concentration, pH, and the presence of co-occurring inorganic solutes. Comparison of coagulation and adsorption experiments and of experimental results with predictions based on surface complexation modeling demonstrated that adsorption is an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Under comparable conditions, better removal was observed with arsenic(V) [As(V)] than with arsenic(III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption experiments. Below neutral pH values, As(III) removal-adsorption was significantly decreased in the presence of sulfate, whereas only a slight decrease in As(V) removal-adsorption was observed. At high pH, removal-adsorption of As(V) was increased in the presence of calcium. Removal of As(V) during coagulation with ferric chloride is both more efficient and less sensitive than that of As(III) to variations in source water composition.

  5. XAFS Studies of Ni Ta and Nb Chlorides in the Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride / Aluminum Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    W OGrady; D Roeper; K Pandya; G Cheek

    2011-12-31

    The structures of anhydrous nickel, niobium, and tantalum chlorides have been investigated in situ in acidic and basic ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)/AlCl{sub 3} with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The coordination of NiCl{sub 2} changes from tetrahedral in basic solution to octahedral in acidic solution. The NiCl{sub 2} is a strong Lewis acid in that it can induce the AlCl{sub 3} to share its chlorides in the highly acidic IL, forming a structure with six near Cl{sup -} ions and eight further distant Al ions which share the chloride ions surrounding the Ni{sup 2+}. When Nb{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}, a dimer, is added to the acidic or basic solution, the dimer breaks apart and forms two species. In the acid solution, two trigonal bipyramids are formed with five equal chloride distances, while in the basic solution, a square pyramid with four chlorides forming a square base and one shorter axial chloride bond. Ta{sub 2}Cl{sub 10} is also a dimer and divides into half in the acidic solution and forms two trigonal bipyramids. In the basic solution, the dimer breaks apart but the species formed is sufficiently acidic that it attracts two additional chloride ions and forms a seven coordinated tantalum species.

  6. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  7. Electrochemical Behavior of Copper in Thionyl Chloride Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Thionyl chloride is known *3 to react...electrolyte for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . 8R. K. McAlpine and B. A. Soule, Prescott and Johnson’s Qualitative Chemical Analysis, D. Van...black carbon electrodes, cupric chloride appears to be a useful cathode additive for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Preliminary results2l

  8. Chloride Analysis of RFSA Second Campaign Dissolver Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, H.P.

    2001-05-17

    The dissolver solution from the second RFSA campaign was analyzed for chloride using the recently-developed turbidimetric method. Prior to chloride removal in head end, the solution contained 1625 ppm chloride. After chloride removal with Hg(I) and prior to feeding to solvent extraction, the solution contained only 75 ppm chloride. This report discusses those analysis results.

  9. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  10. Overexpression of Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Human Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells and Their Role in Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Paolo; Sforna, Luigi; Carlomagno, Silvia; Mangino, Giorgio; Miscusi, Massimo; Pessia, Mauro; Franciolini, Fabio; Calogero, Antonella; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are brain tumors characterized by diffuse invasion of cancer cells into the healthy brain parenchyma, and establishment of secondary foci. GBM cells abundantly express large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels that are thought to promote cell invasion. Recent evidence suggests that the GBM high invasive potential mainly originates from a pool of stem-like cells, but the expression and function of BK channels in this cell subpopulation have not been studied. We investigated the expression of BK channels in GBM stem-like cells using electrophysiological and immunochemical techniques, and assessed their involvement in the migratory process of this important cell subpopulation. In U87-MG cells, BK channel expression and function were markedly upregulated by growth conditions that enriched the culture in GBM stem-like cells (U87-NS). Cytofluorimetric analysis further confirmed the appearance of a cell subpopulation that co-expressed high levels of BK channels and CD133, as well as other stem cell markers. A similar association was also found in cells derived from freshly resected GBM biopsies. Finally, transwell migration tests showed that U87-NS cells migration was much more sensitive to BK channel block than U87-MG cells. Our data show that BK channels are highly expressed in GBM stem-like cells, and participate to their high migratory activity. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2478-2488, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. N-bromoacetamide removes a calcium-dependent component of channel opening from calcium-activated potassium channels in rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were treated with the protein-modifying reagent N-bromoacetamide (NBA) (0.3-1 mM) and studied in excised patches using patch-clamp techniques. After NBA treatment, channels opened only occasionally, and, in contrast to untreated channels, the open probability was no longer sensitive to intracellular surface calcium ions (1 nM to 100 microM). Channel activity did, however, exhibit a voltage dependence similar in direction and magnitude to that shown before NBA treatment (increasing e-fold with 19 mV depolarization). Distributions of open channel lifetimes revealed that NBA treatment virtually abolished openings of long duration, which suggests that this class of openings requires calcium sensitivity. These effects were not reversed by subsequent washing. Quantitatively similar open probability, voltage dependence, and open-interval distributions were observed in untreated channels in calcium-free medium. These results suggest that NBA removed a calcium- dependent component of channel opening, and that normal channels are able to open in the absence of significant intracellular calcium concentrations. PMID:2415669

  12. Detection of calcium activity in human monocytes by the fura-2 fluorescence method: in vitro differentiation sensitizes cells to dihydropyridine calcium channel modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Cabello, Olga A.; Shan, Qin; Tittel, Frank K.; Henry, Philip D.

    1994-07-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers have been shown to suppress atherogenesis in various species and controlled angiographic trials suggest that these drugs may retard the progression of occlusive coronary disease in humans. Because mononuclear leukocytes play a key role in the formation of early and advanced atheromatous lesions, we determined effects of DHP calcium channel modulators on calcium uptake by cells of the monocytic lineage. Human peripheral blood monocytes were evaluated before and after undergoing in vitro differentiation induced by two days of culture with fetal calf serum and FMLP. Changes in intracellular calcium activity were estimated with fura-2, a fluorescent calcium indicator. Freshly isolated (unactivated) monocytes were insensitive to DHP drugs both in the presence and absence of high potassium membrane depolarization. In contrast, nisoldipine, a DHP calcium channel blocker, and BAY K 8644, a DHP calcium channel activator, decreased and increased calcium uptake by KC1-depolarized differentiated monocytes. Results suggest that differentiation of monocytes to macrophages may involve a change in the expression and/or regulation of DHP- sensitive calcium channels.

  13. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  14. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene Chloride. 1910.1052 Section 1910.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride. This occupational...

  18. Differences in antibacterial activity of benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Richards, R M; Mizrahi, L M

    1978-03-01

    Benzalkonium solutions obtained from different manufacturers were shown to have different activities. This difference in activity was related to the composition of the benzalkonium chloride. The potential seriousness of this situation is emphasized, and a recommendation is made that the official monographs on benzalkonium chloride be amended appropriately, noting the apparently superior antibacterial activity of the tetradecyl (C14) homolog.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS... dichloride. It is prepared by dissolving manganous oxide, pyrolusite ore (MnO2), or reduced manganese ore in...

  20. Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate

    DOEpatents

    Bergeron, Charles; Bullard, John E.; Morgan, Evan

    1991-01-01

    A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Cancer; central nervous system effects; liver effects; blood effects; and flammability. (iii) Employers... signs bearing the legend: DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY (ii) The.... The signs shall be legible and bear the legend: DANGER VINYL CHLORIDE MAY CAUSE CANCER WEAR...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  2. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  3. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Bagshaw, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  4. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, C.; Sa`id-Shawqi, Q.; Vassie, P.R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analyzing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater percentage of chloride was removed from prisms where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer of concrete was less than the depth of cover to the reinforcement. Where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer exceeded the cover to the reinforcement, the use of an external cathode significantly increased the total amount of chloride removed. Chloride removal from a face remote from the source of the chloride contamination (soffit desalination) was shown to be feasible.

  5. Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca(2+)/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca(2+)/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca(2+) concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca(2+) range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca(2+) signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca(2+) regulation in anoctamin Cl(-) channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types.

  6. Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca2+/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca2+/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca2+ range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca2+ signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca2+ regulation in anoctamin Cl− channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types. PMID:24081981

  7. Interaction of proton and chloride transfer pathways in recombinant bacteriorhodopsin with chloride transport activity: implications for the chloride translocation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Brown, L S; Needleman, R; Lanyi, J K

    1996-12-17

    When the protonated retinal Schiff base dissociates in the photocycle of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, asp-85 is the proton acceptor. Replacing this residue with threonine confers halorhodopsin-like properties on the protein, including chloride transport [Sasaki, J., Brown, L.S., Chon, Y.-S., Kandori, H., Maeda, A., Needleman, R., & Lanyi, J.K. (1995) Science 269, 73-75]. However, the electrostatic interaction between the vicinity of residue 85 and glu-204, a residue located about 10 A away near the extracellular surface, that is a part of the proton transport mechanism, should still exist. We find that in the D85T mutant glu-204 becomes protonated when chloride is added. This indicates that the binding of chloride at thr-85 must be equivalent to deprotonation of asp-85. The protonation state of glu-204 reports therefore on the presence or absence of chloride bound at thr-85. During the chloride-transport cycle of D85T, but not D85T/E204Q, fluorescein and pyranine detect the transient release of protons from the protein to the surface and the bulk. The release and the subsequent uptake of the protons occur during the rise and decay of a red-shifted photointermediate, respectively, and confirm the earlier suggestion that this state has the same role in the chloride transport as the M intermediate in the proton transport. Consistent with the red-shift of the absorption maximum, the chloride bound near the Schiff base had already moved away, presumably to be released at the cytoplasmic surface, but another chloride ion has not yet been taken up from the extracellular surface. The switch of the connectivity of the chloride binding site from the cytoplasmic to the extracellular membrane surface must occur therefore during the lifetime of this photointermediate.

  8. Small Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Current is Activated During Hypokalemia and Masks Short Term Cardiac Memory Induced by Ventricular Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Ko, Jum-Suk; Yin, Dechun; Chang, Po-Cheng; Rubart, Michael; Weiss, James N.; Everett, Thomas; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalemia increases the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation (VF). We hypothesize that the apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium-activated potassium current (IKAS) is activated during hypokalemia and that IKAS blockade is proarrhythmic. Methods and Results Optical mapping was performed in 23 Langendorff perfused rabbit ventricles with atrioventricular block and either right ventricular (RV) or left ventricular (LV) pacing during normokalemia or hypokalemia. Apamin prolonged the action potential duration (APD) measured to 80% repolarization (APD80) by 26 ms [95% confidence interval, CI, 14–37] during normokalemia and by 54 ms [CI, 40 to 68] during hypokalemia (P=0.01) at 1000 ms pacing cycle length (PCL). In hypokalemic ventricles, apamin increased the maximal slope of APD restitution, the PCL threshold of APD alternans, the PCL for wavebreak induction and the area of spatially discordant APD alternans. Apamin significantly facilitated the induction of sustained VF (from 3/9 hearts to 9/9 hearts, P=0.009). Short term cardiac memory was assessed by the slope of APD80 versus activation time. The slope increased from 0.01 [CI, −0.09 to 0.12] at baseline to 0.34 [CI, 0.23 to 0.44] after apamin (P<0.001) during RV pacing, and from 0.07 [CI, −0.05 to 0.20] to 0.54 [CI, 0.06 to 1.03] after apamin infusion (P=0.045) during LV pacing. Patch-clamp studies confirmed increased IKASin isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes during hypokalemia (P=0.038). Conclusions Hypokalemia activates IKAS to shorten APD and maintain repolarization reserve at late activation sites during ventricular pacing. IKAS blockade prominently lengthens the APD at late activation sites and facilitates VF induction. PMID:26362634

  9. Role of Apamin-Sensitive Calcium-Activated Small-Conductance Potassium Currents on the Mechanisms of Ventricular Fibrillation in Pacing-Induced Failing Rabbit Hearts.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dechun; Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Wu, Adonis Zhi-Yang; Jiang, Zhaolei; Chan, Yi-Hsin; Xu, Dongzhu; Yang, Na; Shen, Changyu; Chen, Zhenhui; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Everett, Thomas H

    2017-02-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) during heart failure is characterized by stable reentrant spiral waves (rotors). Apamin-sensitive small-conductance calcium-activated potassium currents (IKAS) are heterogeneously upregulated in failing hearts. We hypothesized that IKAS influences the location and stability of rotors during VF. Optical mapping was performed on 9 rabbit hearts with pacing-induced heart failure. The epicardial right ventricular and left ventricular surfaces were simultaneously mapped in a Langendorff preparation. At baseline and after apamin (100 nmol/L) infusion, the action potential duration (APD80) was determined, and VF was induced. Areas with a >50% increase in the maximum action potential duration (ΔAPD) after apamin infusion were considered to have a high IKAS distribution. At baseline, the distribution density of phase singularities during VF in high IKAS distribution areas was higher than in other areas (0.0035±0.0011 versus 0.0014±0.0010 phase singularities/pixel; P=0.004). In addition, high dominant frequencies also colocalized to high IKAS distribution areas (26.0 versus 17.9 Hz; P=0.003). These correlations were eliminated during VF after apamin infusion, as the number of phase singularities (17.2 versus 11.0; P=0.009) and dominant frequencies (22.1 versus 16.2 Hz; P=0.022) were all significantly decreased. In addition, reentrant spiral waves became unstable after apamin infusion, and the duration of VF decreased. The IKAS current influences the mechanism of VF in failing hearts as phase singularities, high dominant frequencies, and reentrant spiral waves all correlated to areas of high IKAS. Apamin eliminated this relationship and reduced VF vulnerability. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. [The characteristics and oxidative modulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in guinea-pig colon smooth muscle cells.].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Feng; Ouyang, Shou; Zhang, Hui

    2009-06-25

    To investigate the characteristics of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(Ca)) and the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on BK(Ca) in guinea-pig proximal colon smooth muscle cells, single smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig colon were enzymatically isolated in low calcium solution containing papain (3 mg/mL), DTT (2 mg/mL), and bovine serum albumin (BSA, 2 mg/mL). Tissues were incubated at 36 degrees C in enzyme solution for 15 min and were then suspended in enzyme-free low calcium solution. Inside-out single channel recording technique was used to record BK(Ca) current. The intracellular (bath) and microelectrode solution both contained symmetrical high potassium. The BK(Ca) in guinea-pig colon smooth muscle cell possesses: 1) voltage-dependence, 2) high selectivity for potassium ion, 3) large conductance (223.7 pS+/-9.2 pS), 4) dependence of [Ca(2+)](i). Intracellular application of H2O2 decreased the open probability (P(o)) of BK(Ca) at low concentration (

  11. Cholinergic modulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels regulates synaptic strength and spine calcium in cartwheel cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Wang, Ya-Xian; Petralia, Ronald S; Brenowitz, Stephan D

    2014-04-09

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulatory transmitter that controls synaptic plasticity and sensory processing in many brain regions. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is an auditory brainstem nucleus that integrates auditory signals from the cochlea with multisensory inputs from several brainstem nuclei and receives prominent cholinergic projections. In the auditory periphery, cholinergic modulation serves a neuroprotective function, reducing cochlear output under high sound levels. However, the role of cholinergic signaling in the DCN is less understood. Here we examine postsynaptic mechanisms of cholinergic modulation at glutamatergic synapses formed by parallel fiber axons onto cartwheel cells (CWCs) in the apical DCN circuit from mouse brainstem slice using calcium (Ca) imaging combined with two-photon laser glutamate uncaging onto CWC spines. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) significantly increased the amplitude of both uncaging-evoked EPSPs (uEPSPs) and spine Ca transients. Our results demonstrate that mAChRs in CWC spines act by suppressing large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels, and this effect is mediated through the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. Blocking BK channels relieves voltage-dependent magnesium block of NMDA receptors, thereby enhancing uEPSPs and spine Ca transients. Finally, we demonstrate that mAChR activation inhibits L-type Ca channels and thus may contribute to the suppression of BK channels by mAChRs. In summary, we demonstrate a novel role for BK channels in regulating glutamatergic transmission and show that this mechanism is under modulatory control of mAChRs.

  12. Calcium-Activated SK Channels Influence Voltage-Gated Ion Channels to Determine the Precision of Firing in Globus Pallidus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Deister, Christopher A.; Chan, C. Savio; Surmeier, D. James; Wilson, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Globus pallidus (GP) neurons fire rhythmically in the absence of synaptic input, suggesting that they may encode their inputs as changes in the phase of their rhythmic firing. Action potential afterhyperpolarization (AHP) enhances precision of firing by ensuring that the ion channels recover from inactivation by the same amount on each cycle. Voltage-clamp experiments in slices showed that the longest component of the GP neuron’s AHP is blocked by apamin, a selective antagonist of calcium-activated SK channels. Application of 100 nm apamin also disrupted the precision of firing in perforated-patch and cell-attached recordings. SK channel blockade caused a small depolarization in spike threshold and made it more variable, but there was no reduction in the maximal rate of rise during an action potential. Thus, the firing irregularity was not caused solely by a reduction in voltage-gated Na+ channel availability. Subthreshold voltage ramps triggered a large outward current that was sensitive to the initial holding potential and had properties similar to the A-type K+ current in GP neurons. In numerical simulations, the availability of both Na+ and A-type K+ channels during autonomous firing were reduced when SK channels were removed, and a nearly equal reduction in Na+ and K+ subthreshold-activated ion channel availability produced a large decrease in the neuron’s slope conductance near threshold. This change made the neuron more sensitive to intrinsically generated noise. In vivo, this change would also enhance the sensitivity of GP neurons to small synaptic inputs. PMID:19571136

  13. Intermediate-Conductance-Ca2-Activated K Channel Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (IKCa1) is Upregulated and Promotes Cell Proliferation in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Zhan, Ping; Nie, Dan; Fan, Lingye; Lin, Hairui; Gao, Lanyang; Mao, Xiguang

    2017-01-01

    Background Accumulating data point to intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (IKCa1) as a key player in controlling cell cycle progression and proliferation of human cancer cells. However, the role that IKCa1 plays in the growth of human cervical cancer cells is largely unexplored. Material/Methods In this study, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and RT-PCR were first used for IKCa1protein and gene expression assays in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. Then, IKCa1 channel blocker and siRNA were employed to inhibit the functionality of IKCa1 and downregulate gene expression in HeLa cells, respectively. After these treatments, we examined the level of cell proliferation by MTT method and measured IKCa1 currents by conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell apoptosis was assessed using the Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide (PI) double-staining apoptosis detection kit. Results We demonstrated that IKCa1 mRNA and protein are preferentially expressed in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. We also showed that the IKCa1 channel blocker, clotrimazole, and IKCa1 channel siRNA can be used to suppress cervical cancer cell proliferation and decrease IKCa1 channel current. IKCa1 downregulation by specific siRNAs induced a significant increase in the proportion of apoptotic cells in HeLa cells. Conclusions IKCa1 is overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues, and IKCa1 upregulation in cervical cancer cell linea enhances cell proliferation, partly by reducing the proportion of apoptotic cells. PMID:28280257

  14. Inactivation of Endothelial Small/Intermediate Conductance of Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels Contributes to Coronary Arteriolar Dysfunction in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhong; Xie, An; Singh, Arun K; Ehsan, Afshin; Choudhary, Gaurav; Dudley, Samuel; Sellke, Frank W; Feng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with coronary arteriolar endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the role of the small/intermediate (SKCa/IKCa) conductance of calcium-activated potassium channels in diabetes-related endothelial dysfunction. Methods and Results Coronary arterioles (80 to 150 μm in diameter) were dissected from discarded right atrial tissues of diabetic (glycosylated hemoglobin = 9.6±0.25) and nondiabetic patients (glycosylated hemoglobin 5.4±0.12) during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=8/group). In-vitro relaxation response of precontracted arterioles was examined in the presence of the selective SKCa/IKCa activator NS309 and other vasodilatory agents. The channel density and membrane potential of diabetic and nondiabetic endothelial cells was measured by using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The protein expression and distribution of the SKCa/IKCa in the human myocardium and coronary arterioles was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that diabetes significantly reduced the coronary arteriolar response to the SKCa/IKCa activator NS309 compared to the respective responses of nondiabetic vessels (P<0.05 versus nondiabetes). The relaxation response of diabetic arterioles to NS309 was prevented by denudation of endothelium (P=0.001 versus endothelium-intact). Diabetes significantly decreased endothelial SKCa/IKCa currents and hyperpolarization induced by the SKCa/IKCa activator NS309 as compared with that of nondiabetics. There were no significant differences in the expression and distribution of SKCa/IKCa proteins in the coronary microvessels. Conclusions Diabetes is associated with inactivation of endothelial SKCa/IKCa channels, which may contribute to endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients. PMID:26304940

  15. Selective cognitive deficits and reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, J P R; Redrobe, J P; Hansen, H H; Petersen, S; Bond, C T; Adelman, J P; Mikkelsen, J D; Mirza, N R

    2009-09-29

    Small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels 1-3 (SK1-3) are important for neuronal firing regulation and are considered putative CNS drug targets. For instance non-selective SK blockers improve performance in animal models of cognition. The SK subtype(s) involved herein awaits identification and the question is difficult to address pharmacologically due to the lack of subtype-selective SK-channel modulators. In this study, we used doxycycline-induced conditional SK3-deficient (T/T) mice to address the cognitive consequences of selective SK3 deficiency. In T/T mice SK3 protein is near-eliminated from the brain following doxycycline treatment. We tested T/T and wild type (WT) littermate mice in five distinct learning and memory paradigms. In Y-maze spontaneous alternations and five-trial inhibitory avoidance the performance of T/T mice was markedly inferior to WT mice. In contrast, T/T and WT mice performed equally well in passive avoidance, object recognition and the Morris water maze. Thus, some aspects of working/short-term memory are disrupted in T/T mice. Using in situ hybridization, we further found the cognitive deficits in T/T mice to be paralleled by reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus. BDNF mRNA levels in the frontal cortex were not affected. BDNF has been crucially implicated in many cognitive processes. Hence, the biological substrate for the cognitive impairments in T/T mice could conceivably entail reduced trophic support of the hippocampus.

  16. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the genesis of 3,4-diaminopyridine-induced periodic contractions in isolated canine coronary artery smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasumi; Maezawa, Yuko; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Uchida, Yasuto; Nakamura, Fumitaka

    2011-09-01

    We found that 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), a voltage-gated potassium channel (K(V)) inhibitor, elicits pH-sensitive periodic contractions (PCs) of coronary smooth muscles. Underlying mechanisms of PCs, however, remained to be elucidated. The present study was performed to examine the roles of ion channels in the genesis of PCs. To determine the electromechanical changes of smooth muscles, isolated coronary arterial rings from beagles were suspended in organ chambers filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution, and 10(-2) M 3,4-DAP was added to elicit PCs. 3,4-DAP caused periodic spike-and-plateau depolarization accompanied by contraction. PCs were not produced when the CaCl(2) concentration in the chamber was ≤ 0.3 × 10(-3) or ≥ 10(-2) M. PCs were eliminated by a CaCl(2) concentration ≥ 5 × 10(-3) M or by lowering pH below 7.20 with HCl and recovered by the addition of iberiotoxin or charybdotoxin, which inhibit large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca)), or by elevating pH above 7.35 with NaOH. PCs, as well as the spike-and-plateau depolarization, were eliminated by nifedipine, which inhibits L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Ca(V)). Influx of Ca(2+) through L-type Ca(V), which was opened because closing of K(Ca), secondary to 3,4-DAP-induced closing of K(V), resulted in contraction; the intracellular Ca(2+) increased by this influx opened K(Ca), leading to closure of Ca(V) and consequent cessation of Ca(2+) influx with resultant relaxation. These processes were repeated spontaneously to cause PCs. H(+) and OH(-) were considered to act as the opener and closer of K(Ca), respectively.

  17. Cholinergic Modulation of Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels Regulates Synaptic Strength and Spine Calcium in Cartwheel Cells of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    He, Shan; Wang, Ya-Xian; Petralia, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulatory transmitter that controls synaptic plasticity and sensory processing in many brain regions. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is an auditory brainstem nucleus that integrates auditory signals from the cochlea with multisensory inputs from several brainstem nuclei and receives prominent cholinergic projections. In the auditory periphery, cholinergic modulation serves a neuroprotective function, reducing cochlear output under high sound levels. However, the role of cholinergic signaling in the DCN is less understood. Here we examine postsynaptic mechanisms of cholinergic modulation at glutamatergic synapses formed by parallel fiber axons onto cartwheel cells (CWCs) in the apical DCN circuit from mouse brainstem slice using calcium (Ca) imaging combined with two-photon laser glutamate uncaging onto CWC spines. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) significantly increased the amplitude of both uncaging-evoked EPSPs (uEPSPs) and spine Ca transients. Our results demonstrate that mAChRs in CWC spines act by suppressing large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels, and this effect is mediated through the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. Blocking BK channels relieves voltage-dependent magnesium block of NMDA receptors, thereby enhancing uEPSPs and spine Ca transients. Finally, we demonstrate that mAChR activation inhibits L-type Ca channels and thus may contribute to the suppression of BK channels by mAChRs. In summary, we demonstrate a novel role for BK channels in regulating glutamatergic transmission and show that this mechanism is under modulatory control of mAChRs. PMID:24719104

  18. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, Thomas; Marsik, Frantisek; Palmer, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  19. L-tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride.

    PubMed

    Ghazaryan, V V; Fleck, M; Petrosyan, A M

    2015-02-05

    L-tryptophan L-tryptophanium chloride is a new salt with (A⋯A(+)) type dimeric cation. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group P2(1), Z=2). The asymmetric unit contains one zwitterionic L-tryptophan molecule, one L-tryptophanium cation and one chloride anion. The dimeric cation is formed by a O-H⋯O hydrogen bond with the O⋯O distance equal to 2.5556(18) Å. The infrared and Raman spectra of the crystal are studied and compared with the spectra of L-tryptophanium chloride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Cell Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    AD A09466 0 AFWAL-TR-80-2076 PRIMARY LITHIUM THIONYL - CHLORIDE CELL EVALUATION Dr. A.E. Zolla R.R. Waterhouse D.J. DeBiccari G.L. Griffin, Jr. Altus...dS.,_b,I ......... S TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Primary Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Final 9/79 - 4/80 Cell Evaluation, 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...the high performance characteristics of the Altus lithium - thionyl chloride cell. In particular features such as the inherent high energy density, the