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Sample records for gnl flottante shell

  1. Lésions concomitantes aux genoux flottants et gravite

    PubMed Central

    Eone, Daniel Handy; Lamah, Léopold; Bayiha, Jean Emile; Ondoa, Danielle Larissa Essomba; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Ibrahima, Farikou; Bahebeck, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Le genou flottant est issu d’un traumatisme de haute énergie, dont la genèse suggère de vaste dégâts aussi bien sur le plan locorégional que général. Faisant référence au polytaumatisme. Le but de notre étude était de recenser toutes les lésions concomitantes au genou flottant dans notre milieu de pratique et d’évaluer la sévérité. Nous avons mené une étude descriptive et rétrospective couvrant une période de 14 ans et 9 mois. Sur un échantillon de 75 genoux flottants, avec une moyenne d’âge de 35 ans. Soixante six patients avaient obtenu un score d’ISS supérieur ou égal à 16 donc qualifié de polytraumatisé. Les traumatismes crâniens, les lésions thoraciques et abdominales retrouvés en même temps que le genou flottant exigent une réanimation adéquate. PMID:28292046

  2. Solutions multiples thermocapillaires en zone flottante à gravité nulle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chénier, E.; Delcarte, C.; Labrosse, G.

    1998-04-01

    An original model is adopted to analyse the melted phase hydrodynamics, in the floating zone technique configuration for crystal growth. In particular, a small capillary scale located near the fusion fronts is taken into account. Its size turns out to influence significantly the flow structure. For the first time, multiple solutions are exhibited in zero gravity. Un modèle original a été adopté pour analyser l'hydrodynamique de la phase fondue pour la technique de la zone flottante, en croissance cristalline. En particulier, une petite échelle capillaire, située près des fronts de fusion, est prise en considération. Son extension se révèle influencer significativement la structure des écoulements. L'existence de solutions multiples est, pour la première fois, mise en évidence en gravité zéro.

  3. GNL3L Is a Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling Protein: Role in Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Thoompumkal, Indu Jose; Subba Rao, Malireddi Rama Krishna; Kumaraswamy, Anbarasu; Krishnan, Rehna; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy

    2015-01-01

    GNL3L is an evolutionarily conserved high molecular weight GTP binding nucleolar protein belonging to HSR1-MMR1 subfamily of GTPases. The present investigation reveals that GNL3L is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to Leptomycin B. Deletion mutagenesis reveals that the C-terminal domain (amino acids 501-582) is necessary and sufficient for the export of GNL3L from the nucleus and the exchange of hydrophobic residues (M567, L570 and 572) within the C-terminal domain impairs this process. Results from the protein-protein interaction analysis indicate that GNL3L interaction with CRM1 is critical for its export from the nucleus. Ectopic expression of GNL3L leads to lesser accumulation of cells in the 'G2/M' phase of cell cycle whereas depletion of endogenous GNL3L results in 'G2/M' arrest. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis followed by BrdU labeling assay indicates that significantly increased DNA synthesis occurs in cells expressing nuclear export defective mutant (GNL3L∆NES) compared to the wild type or nuclear import defective GNL3L. Furthermore, increased hyperphosphorylation of Rb at Serine 780 and the upregulation of E2F1, cyclins A2 and E1 upon ectopic expression of GNL3L∆NES results in faster 'S' phase progression. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that GNL3L is exported from the nucleus in CRM1 dependent manner and the nuclear localization of GNL3L is important to promote 'S' phase progression during cell proliferation.

  4. GNL3L Is a Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling Protein: Role in Cell Cycle Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Thoompumkal, Indu Jose; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy

    2015-01-01

    GNL3L is an evolutionarily conserved high molecular weight GTP binding nucleolar protein belonging to HSR1-MMR1 subfamily of GTPases. The present investigation reveals that GNL3L is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to Leptomycin B. Deletion mutagenesis reveals that the C-terminal domain (amino acids 501–582) is necessary and sufficient for the export of GNL3L from the nucleus and the exchange of hydrophobic residues (M567, L570 and 572) within the C-terminal domain impairs this process. Results from the protein-protein interaction analysis indicate that GNL3L interaction with CRM1 is critical for its export from the nucleus. Ectopic expression of GNL3L leads to lesser accumulation of cells in the ‘G2/M’ phase of cell cycle whereas depletion of endogenous GNL3L results in ‘G2/M’ arrest. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis followed by BrdU labeling assay indicates that significantly increased DNA synthesis occurs in cells expressing nuclear export defective mutant (GNL3L∆NES) compared to the wild type or nuclear import defective GNL3L. Furthermore, increased hyperphosphorylation of Rb at Serine 780 and the upregulation of E2F1, cyclins A2 and E1 upon ectopic expression of GNL3L∆NES results in faster ‘S’ phase progression. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that GNL3L is exported from the nucleus in CRM1 dependent manner and the nuclear localization of GNL3L is important to promote ‘S’ phase progression during cell proliferation. PMID:26274615

  5. Using large scale structure to measure fNL , gNL and τNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Simone; Smith, Kendrick M.

    2015-02-01

    Primordial non-Gaussianity of local type is known to produce a scale-dependent contribution to the galaxy bias. Several classes of multifield inflationary models predict non-Gaussian bias which is stochastic, in the sense that dark matter and halos do not trace each other perfectly on large scales. In this work, we forecast the ability of next-generation large-scale structure surveys to constrain common types of primordial non-Gaussianity like fNL, gNL and τNL using halo bias, including stochastic contributions. We provide fitting functions for statistical errors on these parameters which can be used for rapid forecasting or survey optimization. A next-generation survey with volume V =25 h-3 Gpc3 , median redshift z =0.7 and mean bias bg=2.5 can achieve σ (fNL)=6 , σ (gNL)=105 and σ (τNL)=103 if no mass information is available. If halo masses are available, we show that optimally weighting the halo field in order to reduce sample variance can achieve σ (fNL)=1.5 , σ (gNL)=104 and σ (τNL)=100 if halos with mass down to Mmin=1011h-1M⊙ are resolved, outperforming Planck by a factor of 4 on fNL and nearly an order of magnitude on gNL and τNL. Finally, we study the effect of photometric redshift errors and discuss degeneracies between different non-Gaussian parameters, as well as the impact of marginalizing Gaussian bias and shot noise.

  6. GNL3 and SKA3 are novel prostate cancer metastasis susceptibility genes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minnkyong; Williams, Kendra A; Hu, Ying; Andreas, Jonathan; Patel, Shashank J; Zhang, Suiyuan; Crawford, Nigel P S

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is very common in developed countries. However, the molecular determinants of PC metastasis are unclear. Previously, we reported that germline variation influences metastasis in the C57BL/6-Tg(TRAMP)8247Ng/J (TRAMP) mouse model of PC. These mice develop prostate tumors similar to a subset of poor outcome, treatment-associated human PC tumors. Here, we used TRAMP mice to nominate candidate genes and validate their role in aggressive human PC in PC datasets and cell lines. Candidate metastasis susceptibility genes were identified through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in 201 (TRAMP × PWK/PhJ) F2 males. Two metastasis-associated QTLs were identified; one on chromosome 12 (LOD = 5.86), and one on chromosome 14 (LOD = 4.41). Correlation analysis using microarray data from (TRAMP × PWK/PhJ) F2 prostate tumors identified 35 metastasis-associated transcripts within the two loci. The role of these genes in susceptibility to aggressive human PC was determined through in silico analysis using multiple datasets. First, analysis of candidate gene expression in two human PC datasets demonstrated that five candidate genes were associated with an increased risk of aggressive disease and lower disease-free survival. Second, four of these genes (GNL3, MAT1A, SKA3, and ZMYM5) harbored SNPs associated with aggressive tumorigenesis in the PLCO/CGEMS GWAS of 1172 PC patients. Finally, over-expression of GNL3 and SKA3 in the PC-3 human PC cell line decreased in vitro cell migration and invasion. This novel approach demonstrates how mouse models can be used to identify metastasis susceptibility genes, and gives new insight into the molecular mechanisms of fatal PC.

  7. Convergence of auxin and gibberellin signaling on the regulation of the GATA transcription factors GNC and GNL in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Richter, René; Behringer, Carina; Zourelidou, Melina; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2013-08-06

    Plant growth is regulated by a complex network of signaling events. Points of convergence for the signaling cross-talk between the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin (GA), which partly control overlapping processes during plant development, are largely unknown. At the cellular level, auxin responses are controlled by members of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) family of transcription factors as well as AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE (AUX/IAA) proteins that repress the activity of at least a subset of ARFs. Here, we show that the two paralogous GATA transcription factors GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON-METABOLISM INVOLVED (GNC) and GNC-LIKE (GNL)/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 (CGA1) are direct and critical transcription targets downstream from ARF2 in the control of greening, flowering time, and senescence. Mutants deficient in the synthesis or signaling of the phytohormone GA are also impaired in greening, flowering, and senescence, and interestingly, GNC and GNL were previously identified as important transcription targets of the GA signaling pathway. In line with a critical regulatory role for GNC and GNL downstream from both auxin and GA signaling, we show here that the constitutive activation of GA signaling is sufficient to suppress arf2 mutant phenotypes through repression of GNC and GNL. In addition, we show that GA promotes ARF2 protein abundance through a translation-dependent mechanism that could serve to override the autoinhibitory negative feedback regulation of ARF2 on its own transcription and thereby further promote GA signaling.

  8. Effect of ascorbic acid deficiency on catecholamine synthesis in adrenal glands of SMP30/GNL knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Amano, Akiko; Tsunoda, Makoto; Aigaki, Toshiro; Maruyama, Naoki; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-02-01

    The effect of an AA deficiency on catecholamine biosynthesis in adult mice in vivo is unknown. Therefore, we quantified catecholamine and the expression of catecholamine synthetic enzymes in the adrenal glands of senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) mice placed in an AA-deficient state. At 30 days of age, mice were divided into the following 4 groups: AA (-) SMP30/GNL KO, AA (+) SMP30/GNL KO, AA (-) wild type (WT), and AA (+) WT. The AA (+) groups were given water containing 1.5 g/L AA, whereas the AA (-) groups received water without AA until the experiment ended. In addition, all mice were fed an AA-depleted diet. Catecholamine levels were measured by a liquid chromatographic method. Tyrosine hydroxylase, dopa decarboxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA expression levels were measured with the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase protein levels were quantified by Western blot analysis. In the adrenals of AA (-) SMP30/GNL KO mice, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels decreased significantly compared to other three groups of mice, although there were no significant differences in dopamine β-hydroxylase or phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA content. Moreover, there was no significant difference in their dopamine β-hydroxylase protein levels. On the other hand, AA depletion did not affect dopamine levels in adrenal glands of mice. An AA deficiency decreases the noradrenaline and adrenaline levels in adrenal glands of mice in vivo.

  9. Leucine Zipper Down-regulated in Cancer-1 (LDOC1) interacts with Guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3-like (GNL3L) to modulate Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling during cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Thoompumkal, Indu Jose; Rehna, Krishnan; Anbarasu, Kumaraswamy; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy

    2016-12-01

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3-like (GNL3L) is an evolutionarily conserved putative nucleolar GTPase belonging to the HSR1-MMR1 family. In the present study, using protein-protein interaction assays, we show that Leucine Zipper Down-regulated in Cancer-1 (LDOC1) is a novel interacting partner of GNL3L. Furthermore, our results reveal that ectopic expression of LDOC1 destabilizes endogenous GNL3L levels and down modulates GNL3L-induced cell proliferation, in contrast, the knockdown of LDOC1 potentiates cell proliferation upon GNL3L expression. Interestingly, GNL3L upregulates NF-κB dependent transcriptional activity by modulating the expression of NF-κB subunit p65, which is reversed upon co-expression of LDOC1 with GNL3L. GNL3L also potentiates TNF-α mediated NF-κB activity. In addition, anti-apoptotic function of GNL3L is impaired upon p65 knockdown, suggesting its critical role in GNL3L mediated cell proliferation/survival. An inverse correlation of GNL3L and LDOC1 expression profiles in various tumor tissues from BioXpress database indicate their critical role in cancer. Collectively, our data provides evidence that GNL3L-LDOC1 interplay regulates cell proliferation through the modulation of NF-κB pathway during tumorigenesis.

  10. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Juice Intake Suppresses UVB-Induced Skin Pigmentation in SMP30/GNL Knockout Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yasunori; Uchida, Eriko; Aoki, Hitoshi; Hanamura, Takayuki; Nagamine, Kenichi; Kato, Hisanori; Koizumi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a fruit that is known to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (AA) and various phytochemicals. We have previously reported that AA deficiency leads to ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin pigmentation in senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) hairless mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of acerola juice (AJ) intake on the skin of UVB-irradiated SMP30/GNL KO mice. Research design/Principal findings Five-week old hairless mice were given drinking water containing physiologically sufficient AA (1.5 g/L) [AA (+)], no AA [AA (-)] or 1.67% acerola juice [AJ]. All mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 6 weeks. UVB irradiation was performed three times per week. The dorsal skin color and stratum corneum water content were measured every weekly, and finally, the AA contents of the skin was determined. The skin AA and stratum corneum water content was similar between the AA (+) and AJ groups. The L* value of the AA (+) group was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation, whereas AJ intake suppressed the decrease in the L* value throughout the experiment. Moreover, in the AJ group, there was a significant decrease in the expression level of dopachrome tautomerase, an enzyme that is involved in melanin biosynthesis. Conclusion These results indicate that AJ intake is effective in suppressing UVB-induced skin pigmentation by inhibiting melanogenesis-related genes. PMID:28114343

  11. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Juice Intake Suppresses UVB-Induced Skin Pigmentation in SMP30/GNL Knockout Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasunori; Uchida, Eriko; Aoki, Hitoshi; Hanamura, Takayuki; Nagamine, Kenichi; Kato, Hisanori; Koizumi, Takeshi; Ishigami, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a fruit that is known to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (AA) and various phytochemicals. We have previously reported that AA deficiency leads to ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin pigmentation in senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) hairless mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of acerola juice (AJ) intake on the skin of UVB-irradiated SMP30/GNL KO mice. Five-week old hairless mice were given drinking water containing physiologically sufficient AA (1.5 g/L) [AA (+)], no AA [AA (-)] or 1.67% acerola juice [AJ]. All mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 6 weeks. UVB irradiation was performed three times per week. The dorsal skin color and stratum corneum water content were measured every weekly, and finally, the AA contents of the skin was determined. The skin AA and stratum corneum water content was similar between the AA (+) and AJ groups. The L* value of the AA (+) group was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation, whereas AJ intake suppressed the decrease in the L* value throughout the experiment. Moreover, in the AJ group, there was a significant decrease in the expression level of dopachrome tautomerase, an enzyme that is involved in melanin biosynthesis. These results indicate that AJ intake is effective in suppressing UVB-induced skin pigmentation by inhibiting melanogenesis-related genes.

  12. The GATA-type transcription factors GNC and GNL/CGA1 repress gibberellin signaling downstream from DELLA proteins and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS.

    PubMed

    Richter, René; Behringer, Carina; Müller, Isabel Karin; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2010-09-15

    The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates various developmental processes in plants such as germination, greening, elongation growth, and flowering time. DELLA proteins, which are degraded in response to GA, repress GA signaling by inhibitory interactions with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family transcription factors. How GA signaling is controlled downstream from the DELLA and PIF regulators is, at present, unclear. Here, we characterize GNC (GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON-METABOLISM INVOLVED) and GNL/CGA1 (GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1), two homologous GATA-type transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana that we initially identified as GA-regulated genes. Our genetic analyses of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines establish that GNC and GNL are functionally redundant regulators of germination, greening, elongation growth and flowering time. We further show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that both genes are potentially direct transcription targets of PIF transcription factors, and that their expression is up-regulated in pif mutant backgrounds. In line with a key role of GNC or GNL downstream from DELLA and PIF signaling, we find that their overexpression leads to gene expression changes that largely resemble those observed in a ga1 biosynthesis mutant or a pif quadruple mutant. These findings, together with the fact that gnc and gnl loss-of-function mutations suppress ga1 phenotypes, support the hypothesis that GNC and GNL are important repressors of GA signaling downstream from the DELLA and PIF regulators.

  13. Cross-repressive interactions between SOC1 and the GATAs GNC and GNL/CGA1 in the control of greening, cold tolerance, and flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Richter, René; Bastakis, Emmanouil; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2013-08-01

    The paralogous and functionally redundant GATA transcription factors GNC (for GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON-METABOLISM INVOLVED) and GNL/CGA1 (for GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) promote greening and repress flowering downstream from the phytohormone gibberellin. The target genes of GNC and GNL with regard to flowering time control have not been identified as yet. Here, we show by genetic and molecular analysis that the two GATA factors act upstream from the flowering time regulator SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) to directly repress SOC1 expression and thereby repress flowering. Interestingly, this analysis inversely also reveals that the MADS box transcription factor SOC1 directly represses GNC and GNL expression to control cold tolerance and greening, two further physiological processes that are under the control of SOC1. In summary, these findings support the case of a cross-repressive interaction between the GATA factors GNC and GNL and the MADS box transcription factor SOC1 in flowering time control on the one side and greening and cold tolerance on the other that may be governed by the various signaling inputs that are integrated at the level of SOC1 expression.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Skin from SMP30/GNL Knockout Mice Reveals the Effect of Ascorbic Acid Deficiency on Skin and Hair.

    PubMed

    Wakame, Koji; Komatsu, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Akifumi; Sato, Keisuke; Takaguri, Akira; Masutomi, Hirofumi; Nagashima, Takayuki; Uchiyama, Hironobu

    2017-01-01

    Senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase knockout mice (SMP-30/GNL-KO) are a very useful model for clarifying the involvement of vitamin C (VC) in aging-related diseases. In this study, the effects of VC deficiency on skin and hair growth were investigated using SMP-30/GNL-KO mice by RNA sequencing. SMP-30/GNL-KO mice were given water containing 1.5 g/l VC until up to 8 weeks after birth to maintain a VC concentration in their organs and plasma equivalent to that in wild-type mice. The mice were then divided into two groups: a VC(+) group, where VC was administered, and a VC(-) group, where VC was not administered. Skin samples were collected at 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment. RNA was extracted from each skin sample, followed by cDNA synthesis and RNA-seq. In addition, hair growth was compared between the VC(-) and VC(+) groups after shaving. Skin samples were collected from the shaved area for histological examination by hematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining. RNA-seq revealed that there were 1,736 (FDR<0.001) differentially expressed genes in the VC(-) and VC(+) groups. From the functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes in the VC(-) and VC(+) groups, predicted functionalities including cell death and cytotoxicity increased in the VC(+) group. Furthermore, it was predicted that the difference in hair growth between the VC(-) and VC(+) groups was caused by the expression of genes including keratin-related genes and the Sonic hedgehog gene. It was confirmed that hair growth was significantly promoted; hair growth from hair papilla cells was also confirmed by HE staining of the shaved backs of SMP-30/GNL-KO mice in the VC(+) group. RNA-seq of the skin from VC-deficient mice showed the effects of VC deficiency on the expression of genes involved in cell growth and the hair cycle. Visual inspection suggested that changes in the expression of the genes are involved in delaying hair growth in the VC(-) group. Further research on the relationship among

  15. The homologous putative GTPases Grn1p from fission yeast and the human GNL3L are required for growth and play a role in processing of nucleolar pre-rRNA.

    PubMed

    Du, Xianming; Rao, Malireddi R K Subba; Chen, Xue Qin; Wu, Wei; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy; Balasundaram, David

    2006-01-01

    Grn1p from fission yeast and GNL3L from human cells, two putative GTPases from the novel HSR1_MMR1 GTP-binding protein subfamily with circularly permuted G-motifs play a critical role in maintaining normal cell growth. Deletion of Grn1 resulted in a severe growth defect, a marked reduction in mature rRNA species with a concomitant accumulation of the 35S pre-rRNA transcript, and failure to export the ribosomal protein Rpl25a from the nucleolus. Deleting any of the Grn1p G-domain motifs resulted in a null phenotype and nuclear/nucleolar localization consistent with the lack of nucleolar export of preribosomes accompanied by a distortion of nucleolar structure. Heterologous expression of GNL3L in a Deltagrn1 mutant restored processing of 35S pre-rRNA, nuclear export of Rpl25a and cell growth to wild-type levels. Genetic complementation in yeast and siRNA knockdown in HeLa cells confirmed the homologous proteins Grn1p and GNL3L are required for growth. Failure of two similar HSR1_MMR1 putative nucleolar GTPases, Nucleostemin (NS), or the dose-dependent response of breast tumor autoantigen NGP-1, to rescue deltagrn1 implied the highly specific roles of Grn1p or GNL3L in nucleolar events. Our analysis uncovers an important role for Grn1p/GNL3L within this unique group of nucleolar GTPases.

  16. Shelled opisthobranchs.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Paula M

    2002-01-01

    In his contributions to the monographic series "Manual of Conchology", Henry Pilsbry reviewed the subgroup Tectibranchiata, comprising those opisthobranch snails that (at least primitively) still possess a shell (Pilsbry, 1894-1896). Exemplified by the Cephalaspidea (bubble shells), others included in this group at Pilsbry's time and since were Anaspidea (sea hares) and the shelled members of Notaspidea (side-gilled slugs) and Sacoglossa (leaf slugs). Pilsbry (and others since his time) considered tectibranchs to be the "root stock" from which more advanced gastropods such as Nudibranchia and Pulmonata were derived. Tectibranch systematics is firmly based on conchology and most species were originally described from empty shells. However, soft-anatomical characters were acknowledged quite early on as equally important in tectibranchs, due to the reduction of their shells and their evolutionary proximity to unshelled gastropods. Today, Tectibranchiata is not recognized as a natural taxon although the word "tectibranch" (like "prosobranch" and "mesogastropod") continues in vernacular use. Shelled opisthobranchs have been redistributed among various taxa, including several new ones--the unresolved basal opisthobranchs (Architectibranchia) and the "lower Heterobranchia", an enigmatic and currently much-studied group of families considered basal to all of Euthyneura (Opisthobranchia and landsnails (Pulmonata)). Despite their polyphyletic status, shelled opisthobranchs remain important subjects in evolutionary studies of gastropods--as the most basal members of nearly every opisthobranch clade and as organisms with mosaic combinations of primitive and derived features within evolutionary "trends" (e.g., loss of the shell, detorsion, concentration of the nervous system, ecological specialization, etc.). Although they play a pivotal role, the shelled opisthobranchs have received minimal attention in more comprehensive gastropod studies, often relegated to token

  17. Shell Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

  18. Shell Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

  19. Vibration of Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissa, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.

  20. Building Atoms Shell by Shell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…

  1. Building Atoms Shell by Shell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…

  2. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  3. NIF Double Shell outer-shell experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Daughton, W. S.; Wilson, D. C.; Dodd, E. S.; Renner, D. B.; Cardenas, T.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    At the core of the Double Shell concept is the kinetic energy transfer from the outer shell to the inner shell via collision. This collision sets both the implosion shape of the inner shell, from imprinting of the shape of the outer shell, as well as the maximum energy available to compress the DT fuel. Therefore, it is crucial to be able to control the time-dependent shape of the outer shell, such that the outer shell is nominally round at the collision time. We present the experiment results from our sub-scale ( 1 MJ) NIF outer-shell only shape tuning campaign, where we vary shape by changing a turn-on time delay between the same pulse shape on the inner and outer cone beams. This type of shape tuning is unique to this platform and only possible since the Double Shell design uses a single-shock drive (4.5 ns reverse ramp pulse). The outer-shell only targets used a 5.75 mm diameter standard near-vacuum NIF hohlraum with 0.032 mg/cc He gas fill, and a Be capsule with 0.4% uniform Cu dopant, with 242 um thick ablator. We also present results from a third outer-shell only shot used to measure shell trajectory, which is critical in determining the shell impact time. This work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  4. Multiple shells in IRC+10216: shell properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauron, N.; Huggins, P. J.

    2000-07-01

    We report on the properties of the multiple shells in the circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216, using deep optical imaging, including data from the Hubble Space Telescope. The intensity profiles confirm the presence of thin ( ~ 0farcs5 -3'' ec), limb-brightened shells in the envelope, seen in stellar and ambient Galactic light scattered by dust. The shells are spaced at irregular intervals of ~ 5'' ec-20'' ec, corresponding to time scales of 200-800 yr, although intervals as short as ~ 1'' ec (40 yr) are seen close to the star. The location of the main shells shows a good correlation with high-resolution, molecular line maps of the inner envelope, indicating that the dust and gas are well coupled. The shell/intershell density contrast is typically ~ 3, and we find that the shells form the dominant mass component of the circumstellar envelope. The shells exhibit important evolutionary effects: the thickness increases with increasing radius, with an effective dispersion velocity of 0.7 km s-1 and there is evidence for shell interactions. Despite the presence of bipolar structure close to the star, the global shell pattern favors a roughly isotropic, episodic mass loss mechanism, with a range of time scales. Based on observations made with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, operated by CNRS, NRCC and UH, and on dearchived observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555

  5. Classification Shell Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzold, Carol

    1983-01-01

    Discusses shell classification exercises. Through keying students advanced from the "I know what a shell looks like" stage to become involved in the classification process: observing, labeling, making decisions about categories, and identifying marine animals. (Author/JN)

  6. Shell Worlds: The Question of Shell Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, K. L.; Kennedy, R. G., III; Fields, D. E.

    The initial idea of shell worlds was first proposed in the January 2009 edition of JBIS. In that paper the stability of the shell around a central world was not discussed at any length except to say that it was stable due to forces induced by gravity. This paper demonstrates in a qualitative and quantitative manner that a material shell supported by atmospheric pressure around a moon or small planet is indeed stable and does not require active measures to remain centered, provided that the central body is large enough. The minimal size of the central body to provide this stability is discussed.

  7. Fluctuating shells under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

  8. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  9. Imperfection Insensitive Thin Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xin

    The buckling of axially compressed cylindrical shells and externally pressurized spherical shells is extremely sensitive to even very small geometric imperfections. In practice this issue is addressed by either using overly conservative knockdown factors, while keeping perfect axial or spherical symmetry, or adding closely and equally spaced stiffeners on shell surface. The influence of imperfection-sensitivity is mitigated, but the shells designed from these approaches are either too heavy or very expensive and are still sensitive to imperfections. Despite their drawbacks, these approaches have been used for more than half a century. This thesis proposes a novel method to design imperfection-insensitive cylindrical shells subject to axial compression. Instead of following the classical paths, focused on axially symmetric or high-order rotationally symmetric cross-sections, the method in this thesis adopts optimal symmetry-breaking wavy cross-sections (wavy shells). The avoidance of imperfection sensitivity is achieved by searching with an evolutionary algorithm for smooth cross-sectional shapes that maximize the minimum among the buckling loads of geometrically perfect and imperfect wavy shells. It is found that the shells designed through this approach can achieve higher critical stresses and knockdown factors than any previously known monocoque cylindrical shells. It is also found that these shells have superior mass efficiency to almost all previously reported stiffened shells. Experimental studies on a design of composite wavy shell obtained through the proposed method are presented in this thesis. A method of making composite wavy shells and a photogrametry technique of measuring full-field geometric imperfections have been developed. Numerical predictions based on the measured geometric imperfections match remarkably well with the experiments. Experimental results confirm that the wavy shells are not sensitive to imperfections and can carry axial compression

  10. Static cylindrical matter shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arık, Metin; Delice, Özgür

    2005-08-01

    Static cylindrical shells composed of massive particles arising from matching of two different Levi-Civita space-times are studied for the shell satisfying either an isotropic or an anisotropic equation of state. We find that these solutions satisfy the energy conditions for certain ranges of the parameters.

  11. Iridescence color of shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2002-06-01

    Some shells from both salt water and fresh water show the phenomenon of iridescence color. Pearls and mother-of-pearls also display this phenomenon. In the past, the cause of the iridescence color was attributed to interference. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the surface structure of the shell of the mollusk Pinctada Margaritifera. There is a groove structure of reflection grating on the surface area in where the iridescence color appears. An optic experiment with a laser obtained a diffraction pattern produced by the reflection grating structure of the shell. The study led to a conclusion that the iridescence color of the shell is caused by diffraction. A SEM image of the shells of an abalone Haliotis Rufescens (red abalone) showed a statistically regularly arranged tile structure that serves as a two-dimensional grating. This grating structure causes the iridescence color of the shell of red abalone. The dominant color of the iridescence of shells is caused by the uneven grating efficiency in the visible wavelength range when a shell functions as a reflection grating. The wavelength of the dominant color should be at or near the wavelength of the maximum efficiency of the grating.

  12. Cohesive Elements for Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

    2007-01-01

    A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

  13. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  14. Fragmentation of Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittel, F.; Kun, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Kröplin, B. H.

    2004-07-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the fragmentation of closed thin shells made of a disordered brittle material. Experiments were performed on brown and white hen egg shells under two different loading conditions: impact with a hard wall and explosion by a combustible mixture. Both give rise to power law fragment size distributions. A three-dimensional discrete element model of shells is worked out. Based on simulations of the model, we give evidence that power law fragment mass distributions arise due to an underlying phase transition which proved to be abrupt for explosion and continuous for impact. We demonstrate that the fragmentation of closed shells defines a new universality class of fragmentation phenomena.

  15. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  16. Shells and Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  17. Shell forming system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Hollow shells of high uniformity are formed by emitting liquid through an outer nozzle and gas through an inner nozzle, to form a hollow extrusion, by flowing the gas at a velocity between about 1.3 and 10 times the liquid velocity. The natural breakup rate of the extrusion can be increased to decrease shell size by applying periodic perturbations to one of the materials prior to exiting the nozzles, to a nozzle, or to the extrusion.

  18. Shells and Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  19. Double shell liner implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.

    1997-05-05

    Experiments on the double shell liner (DSL) implosions with and without an initial axial magnetic were performed on the SNOP-3 pulse generator (1.1 MA, 100 ns). In implosions of a DSL without an initial axial magnetic field, high radial compressions of the inner shell were observed, as in previous experiments with an initial axial magnetic field. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the initial azimuthal magnetic field are discussed.

  20. Multi-Shell Hollow Nanogels with Responsive Shell Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas J.; Dubbert, Janine; Rudov, Andrey A.; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Lindner, Peter; Karg, Matthias; Potemkin, Igor I.; Richtering, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C < T < 42 °C, the hollow nanocontainers provide a significant void, which is even larger than the initial core size of the template, and they possess a high colloidal stability due to the steric stabilization of the swollen outer shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity. PMID:26984478

  1. Sensational spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.

  2. Sensational spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Bahrami, P. A.; Wang, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.

  3. Fabrication of diamond shells

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen; Wild, Christoph; Woerner, Eckhard

    2016-11-01

    A novel method for fabricating diamond shells is introduced. The fabrication of such shells is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on predetermined mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removal of the mandrel by an etch process. The resultant shells of the present invention can be configured with a surface roughness at the nanometer level (e.g., on the order of down to about 10 nm RMS) on a mm length scale, and exhibit excellent hardness/strength, and good transparency in the both the infra-red and visible. Specifically, a novel process is disclosed herein, which allows coating of spherical substrates with optical-quality diamond films or nanocrystalline diamond films.

  4. Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock into the receiving room housed in the 1965 concrete block addition. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  5. Peanut shell colitis.

    PubMed

    Keeffe, E B; Girard, D E

    1985-07-01

    A 40-year-old physician experienced abdominal pain, loose stools, hematochezia, and anal discomfort with defecation associated with the daily consumption of 15 to 30 whole peanuts, including the shells. Thorough evaluation revealed only nonspecific colitis of the distal portion of the sigmoid colon and inflamed hemorrhoids. Discontinuation of whole peanut ingestion was associated with symptomatic, endoscopic, and histological resolution. In this patient, undigested peanut shells seem to have caused a nonspecific colitis, perhaps as the result of mechanical abrasion of the colonic mucosa.

  6. Snail Shell Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Presents three inquiry-based lessons to develop the science process skills of observation, identification, and classification. Activities use whelk eggs and snail shells as the focus of the students' inquiries. Provides a list of 19 facts about whelks and snails. (MDH)

  7. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  8. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  9. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  10. Snail Shell Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Presents three inquiry-based lessons to develop the science process skills of observation, identification, and classification. Activities use whelk eggs and snail shells as the focus of the students' inquiries. Provides a list of 19 facts about whelks and snails. (MDH)

  11. Interventions for shell eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eggs are the second riskiest foods regulated by the U.S. FDA. Less than 3% of shell eggs are pasteurized using a hot water process that unfortunately damages the appearance and functionality of the eggs. In addition, the current process adds more than $1.50 to the cost of a dozen eggs. Therefore, al...

  12. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  13. Stability of thick spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, I.-Shih

    1995-06-01

    The pressure-radius relation of spherical rubber balloons has been derived and its stability behavior investigated before. In this work, we show that similar results remain valid for thick spherical shells of Mooney-Rivlin materials. In addition, we show that eversion of a spherical shell is possible for any incompressible isotropic materials if the shell is not too thick.

  14. Multi-shell effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Naofumi; Takayanagi, Kazuo; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2014-02-01

    Background: Effective interactions, either derived from microscopic theories or based on fitting selected properties of nuclei in specific mass regions, are widely used inputs to shell-model studies of nuclei. The commonly used unperturbed basis functions are given by the harmonic oscillator. Until recently, most shell-model calculations have been confined to a single oscillator shell like the sd shell or the pf shell. Recent interest in nuclei away from the stability line requires, however, larger shell-model spaces. Because the derivation of microscopic effective interactions has been limited to degenerate models spaces, there are both conceptual and practical limits to present shell-model calculations that utilize such interactions. Purpose: The aim of this work is to present a novel microscopic method to calculate effective nucleon-nucleon interactions for the nuclear shell model. Its main difference from existing theories is that it can be applied not only to degenerate model spaces but also to nondegenerate model spaces. This has important consequences, in particular for intershell matrix elements of effective interactions. Methods: The formalism is presented in the form of a many-body perturbation theory based on the recently developed extended Kuo-Krenciglowa method. Our method enables us to microscopically construct effective interactions not only in one oscillator shell but also for several oscillator shells. Results: We present numerical results using effective interactions within (i) a single oscillator shell (a so-called degenerate model space) like the sd shell or the pf shell and (ii) two major shells (nondegenerate model space) like the sdf7p3 shell or the pfg9 shell. We also present energy levels of several nuclei that have two valence nucleons on top of a given closed-shell core. Conclusions: Our results show that the present method works excellently in shell-model spaces that comprise several oscillator shells, as well as in a single oscillator

  15. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack. ...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack. ...

  17. Biomechanics of turtle shells: how whole shells fail in compression.

    PubMed

    Magwene, Paul M; Socha, John J

    2013-02-01

    Turtle shells are a form of armor that provides varying degrees of protection against predation. Although this function of the shell as armor is widely appreciated, the mechanical limits of protection and the modes of failure when subjected to breaking stresses have not been well explored. We studied the mechanical properties of whole shells and of isolated bony tissues and sutures in four species of turtles (Trachemys scripta, Malaclemys terrapin, Chrysemys picta, and Terrapene carolina) using a combination of structural and mechanical tests. Structural properties were evaluated by subjecting whole shells to compressive and point loads in order to quantify maximum load, work to failure, and relative shell deformations. The mechanical properties of bone and sutures from the plastral region of the shell were evaluated using three-point bending experiments. Analysis of whole shell structural properties suggests that small shells undergo relatively greater deformations before failure than do large shells and similar amounts of energy are required to induce failure under both point and compressive loads. Location of failures occurred far more often at sulci than at sutures (representing the margins of the epidermal scutes and the underlying bones, respectively), suggesting that the small grooves in the bone created by the sulci introduce zones of weakness in the shell. Values for bending strength, ultimate bending strain, Young's modulus, and energy absorption, calculated from the three-point bending data, indicate that sutures are relatively weaker than the surrounding bone, but are able to absorb similar amounts of energy due to higher ultimate strain values.

  18. Shell funds chair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Shell Companies Foundation, Inc., of Houston, Tex., has given $750,000 to the University of Texas at Austin to establish the Shell Distinguished Chair in Geophysics. The 5-year, $150,000-per-year grant will support the studies of John G. Sclater. Sclater, currently a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has accepted a joint position that begins July 1 in the geological sciences department and in the Institute for Geophysics at UT Austin.Sclater's research into the formation of ocean basins has applications for understanding the way petroleum deposits mature. He has studied the reconstruction of movements of the continents and the subsidence of ocean basins. He is considered an expert in the interpretation of geothermal and seismic data.

  19. HST/ACS observations of shell galaxies: inner shells, shell colours and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikkema, G.; Carter, D.; Peletier, R. F.; Balcells, M.; Del Burgo, C.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2007-06-01

    Context: Shells in Elliptical Galaxies are faint, sharp-edged features, believed to provide evidence for a merger event. Accurate photometry at high spatial resolution is needed to learn on presence of inner shells, population properties of shells, and dust in shell galaxies. Aims: Learn more about the origin of shells and dust in early type galaxies. Methods: V-I colours of shells and underlying galaxies are derived, using HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. A galaxy model is made locally in wedges and subtracted to determine shell profiles and colours. We applied Voronoi binning to our data to get smoothed colour maps of the galaxies. Comparison with N-body simulations from the literature gives more insight to the origin of the shell features. Shell positions and dust characteristics are inferred from model galaxy subtracted images. Results: The ACS images reveal shells well within the effective radius in some galaxies (at 0.24 re = 1.7 kpc in the case of NGC 5982). In some cases, strong nuclear dust patches prevent detection of inner shells. Most shells have colours which are similar to the underlying galaxy. Some inner shells are redder than the galaxy. All six shell galaxies show out of dynamical equilibrium dust features, like lanes or patches, in their central regions. Our detection rate for dust in the shell ellipticals is greater than that found from HST archive data for a sample of normal early-type galaxies, at the 95% confidence level. Conclusions: The merger model describes better the shell distributions and morphologies than the interaction model. Red shell colours are most likely due to the presence of dust and/or older stellar populations. The high prevalence and out of dynamical equilibrium morphologies of the central dust features point towards external influences being responsible for visible dust features in early type shell galaxies. Inner shells are able to manifest themselves in relatively old shell systems. Based on observations made

  20. A Technique for Calculation of Shell Thicknesses for Core-Shell-Shell Nanoparticles from XPS Data

    PubMed Central

    Cant, David J. H.; Wang, Yung-Chen; Castner, David G.; Shard, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper extends a straightforward technique for the calculation of shell thicknesses in core-shell nanoparticles to the case of core-shell-shell nanoparticles using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) data. This method can be applied by XPS analysts and does not require any numerical simulation or advanced knowledge, although iteration is required in the case where both shell thicknesses are unknown. The standard deviation in the calculated thicknesses vs simulated values is typically less than 10%, which is the uncertainty of the electron attenuation lengths used in XPS analysis. PMID:27087712

  1. Blended Isogeometric Shells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    possibilities that heretofore have not been investigated, namely, “rigid bodies” [7]. Another need for the use of these techniques is in multi-patch NURBS meshes... techniques is completely satisfactory in all cases. Even if they can be used successfully in certain situations they can give rise to reduced critical...condition which is violated at the patch boundaries. The C0 boundaries between patches behave like piano hinges for thin shell formulations, and

  2. Thermomechanical Postbuckling of Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Librescu, Liviu

    1998-01-01

    A number of issues involving the postbuckling of doubly-curved panels exposed to a non-uniform temperature field and subjected to a system of mechanical loads are considered in this paper. Effects played by transverse shear, initial geometric imperfections, membrane and thickness-wise temperature gradient, tangential edge constraints, linear/non-linear elastic foundation are incorporated and their implications on the non-linear response behavior of shells are discussed. Issues related with the delay of the occurrence of the snap-through buckling, alleviation of its intensity and even with its removal are addressed and remarks on conditions rendering a curved panel insensitive to initial geometric imperfections are included. Results on small vibration of shells about sub- and post-critical ranges are provided and structural modeling issues playing a non-negligible role towards a reliable prediction of the postbuckling behavior of shells under complex loading conditions are discussed. Results on non-linear response of flat reinforced panels subjected to thermomechanical loads are also presented. Finally, problems not covered by this article are briefly indicated.

  3. Shell model calculations of 109Sb in the sdgh shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, E.; Novoselsky, A.; Vallieres, M.

    2001-12-01

    The energy spectra of the antimony isotope 109Sb in the sdgh shell are calculated in the nuclear shell model approach by using the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon interaction. The modified Drexel University parallel shell model code (DUPSM) was used for the calculations with maximum Hamiltonian dimension of 762 253 of 5.14% sparsity. The energy levels are compared to the recent experimental results. The calculations were done on the Cyborg Parallel Cluster System at Drexel University.

  4. Synthesis of stiffened conical shells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a method to effect the automated minimum weight design of ring and stringer stiffened shells is presented. Membrane theory is used for the shell prebuckling analysis. The buckling analysis is based upon an arbitrary shell of revolution computer program. The structural analysis includes both buckling and yielding modes of failure. The synthesis involves the coupling of an exterior penalty function with a method for the unconstrained minimization of a function comprised of a sum of squares. Results of the application of the method to the design of the Viking Aeroshell cone are presented. The least weight Viking Aeroshell appears to be an all magnesium shell with ring stiffeners of hollow circular cross section. Because the method incorporates a general shell of revolution buckling analysis, it can be readily modified and applied to the design of any axisymmetrically loaded uniformly stiffened shell of revolution for which a membrane prebuckling solution exists.

  5. Shell Biorefinery: Dream or Reality?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Huiying; Yan, Ning

    2016-09-12

    Shell biorefinery, referring to the fractionation of crustacean shells into their major components and the transformation of each component into value-added chemicals and materials, has attracted growing attention in recent years. Since the large quantities of waste shells remain underexploited, their valorization can potentially bring both ecological and economic benefits. This Review provides an overview of the current status of shell biorefinery. It first describes the structural features of crustacean shells, including their composition and their interactions. Then, various fractionation methods for the shells are introduced. The last section is dedicated to the valorization of chitin and its derivatives for chemicals, porous carbon materials and functional polymers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ultrasonic scattering from anisotropic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittleman, John; Thompson, R. B.; Roberts, R.

    The exact differential equations for elastic wave scattering from spherical shells with spherically orthotropic properties are presently shown to be separable; the angular equations are satisfied by Legendre polynomials that are independent of material properties. The results thus obtained have been validated by exact solutions for the case with vanishing shell thickness, and that of isotropic elastic constants. Excellent agreement is thus obtained over a wide range of shell thicknesses and wave numbers.

  7. The structure of circumstellar shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This document provides a report on research activities carried out with the support of NASA grant NAG 5-1174, the Structure of Circumstellar Shells, funded under the Astrophysics Data Program. The research carried out with the support of this grant is a study of the properties of circumstellar dust shells for which spectra are available through IRAS low resolution spectrometry (LRS). This research consisted of the development and application of models of axisymmetric circumstellar shells and a preliminary survey of the applicability of neural nets for analysis of the IRAS LRS spectra of circumstellar dust shells.

  8. Shell Analysis Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-01

    plane strains o 0 0 el, e 2 , el2 Components of nonlinear in-plane middle surface strains; also, strains corresponding to equilibrium configuration el...plates) in the treatment of shell problems. This theory, often referred to as Love’s first approximation, has since occupied a position of prominence...Materials such as wood and synthetic fiberboard possess this property. For this case, the generalized Hooke’s Law reduces to oII = El Fl + E 2 p 2 1

  9. Automated shell theory for rotating structures (ASTROS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. J.; Thomas, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    A computer program for analyzing axisymmetric shells with inertial forces caused by rotation about the shell axis is developed by revising the STARS II shell program. The basic capabilities of the STARS II shell program, such as the treatment of the branched shells, stiffened wall construction, and thermal gradients, are retained.

  10. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition from between the halves of the kernel, and any fragments of either. ...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition from between the halves of the kernel, and any fragments of either. ...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell having any crack which is open and conspicuous for a...

  14. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    SciTech Connect

    Heiles, C.

    1984-08-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10/sup 0/. We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo.

  15. Microscopic Shell Model Calculations for sd-Shell Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Bruce R.; Dikmen, Erdal; Maris, Pieter; Shirokov, Andrey M.; Smirnova, Nadya A.; Vary, James P.

    Several techniques now exist for performing detailed and accurate calculations of the structure of light nuclei, i.e., A ≤ 16. Going to heavier nuclei requires new techniques or extensions of old ones. One of these is the so-called No Core Shell Model (NCSM) with a Core approach, which involves an Okubo-Lee-Suzuki (OLS) transformation of a converged NCSM result into a single major shell, such as the sd-shell. The obtained effective two-body matrix elements can be separated into core and single-particle (s.p.) energies plus residual two-body interactions, which can be used for performing standard shell-model (SSM) calculations. As an example, an application of this procedure will be given for nuclei at the beginning ofthe sd-shell.

  16. Foam shell cryogenic ICF target

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Dale H.

    1987-01-01

    A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

  17. Biomineralisation in Mollusc shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Salomé, M.; Williams, C. T.

    2009-04-01

    The main components of Mollusc shells are carbonate minerals: calcite and aragonite. ACC is present in larval stages. Calcite and aragonite can be secreted simultaneously by the mantle. Despite the small number of varieties, the arrangement of the mineral components is diverse, and dependant upon the taxonomy. They are also associated with organic components much more diverse, the diversity of which reflects the large taxonomic diversity. From TGA analyses, the organic content (water included) is high (>5% in some layers). The biomineralisation process is not a passive precipitation process, but is strongly controlled by the organism. The biological-genetic control is shown by the constancy of the arrangement of the layers, the mineralogy and the microstructure in a given species. Microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.) have shapes that do not occur in non-biogenic counterparts. Nacreous tablets, for example, are flattened on their crystallographic c axis, which is normally the axis of maximum growth rate for non-biogenic aragonite. Morever, their inner structure is species-specific: the arrangements of nacreous tablets in Gastropoda - Cephalopoda, and in Bivalvia differ, and the inner arrangement of the nacreous tablets is different in ectocochlear and endocochlear Cephalopoda. The organic-mineral ratios also differ in the various layers of a shell. Differences in chemical composition also demonstrates the biological-genetic control: for example, aragonite has a low Sr content unknown in non-biogenic samples; two aragonitic layers in a shell have different Sr and Mg contents, S is higher in calcitic layers. Decalcification releases soluble (SOM) and insoluble (IOM) organic components. Insoluble components form the main part of the intercrystalline membranes, and contain proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Soluble phases are present within the crystals and the intercrystalline membranes. These phases are composed of more or less glycosylated proteins

  18. Shell forming apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Granett, Dan (Inventor); Akutagawa, Wesley M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A nozzle assembly is described for use in a system that forms small gas-filled shells, which avoids the need for holding a miniature inner nozzle precisely concentric with a miniature outer nozzle. The outer nozzle has a diameter which is less than about 0.7 millimeter, which results in fluid passing through the nozzle having a progressively greater velocity at locations progressively further from the walls of the outer nozzle across most of the nozzle. This highly variable velocity profile automatically forces gas to the center of the outer nozzle. The end of the inner nozzle, which emits gas, is spaced upstream from the tip of the outer nozzle, to provide a distance along which to center the gas. This self-centering characteristic permits the inner nozzle to be positioned so its axis is not concentric with the axis of the outer nozzle.

  19. Composite shell spacecraft seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barackman, Victor J. (Inventor); Pulley, John K. (Inventor); Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); McKee, Sandra D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A two-part seat (10) providing full body support that is specific for each crew member (30) on an individual basis. The two-part construction for the seat (10) can accommodate many sizes and shapes for crewmembers (30) because it is reconfigurable and therefore reusable for subsequent flights. The first component of the two-part seat construction is a composite shell (12) that surrounds the crewmember's entire body and is generically fitted to their general size in height and weight. The second component of the two-part seat (10) is a cushion (20) that conforms exactly to the specific crewmember's entire body and gives total body support in more complex environment.

  20. Crack problems in cylindrical and spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Standard plate or shell theories were used as a starting point to study the fracture problems in thin-walled cylindrical and spherical shells, assuming that the plane of the crack is perpendicular to the surface of the sheet. Since recent studies have shown that local shell curvatures may have a rather considerable effect on the stress intensity factor, the crack problem was considered in conjunction with a shell rather than a plate theory. The material was assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, so that approximate solutions may be obtained by approximating the local shell crack geometry with an ideal shell which has a solution, namely a spherical shell with a meridional crack, a cylindrical shell with a circumferential crack, or a cylindrical shell with an axial crack. A method of solution for the specially orthotropic shells containing a crack was described; symmetric and skew-symmetric problems are considered in cylindrical shells with an axial crack.

  1. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.; Nolen, R. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres (shells), which are used for inertial confinement fusion targets, were formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a vertical furnace. As a result of the rapid pyrolysis caused by the furnace, the gel is transformed to a shell in five distinct stages: (a) surface closure of the porous gel; (b) generation of a closed-cell foam structure in the gel; (c) spheridization of the gel and further expansion of the foam; (d) coalescence of the closed-cell foam to a single-void shell; and (e) fining of the glass shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the falling gel particle was modeled to determine the effective heating rate of the gel. The model predicts the temperature history for a particle as a function of mass, dimensions, specific heat, and absorptance as well as furnace temperature profile and thermal conductivity of the furnace gas. A model was developed that predicts the gravity-induced degradation of shell concentricity in falling molten shells as a function of shell characteristics and time.

  2. Core/Shell semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Peter; Protière, Myriam; Li, Liang

    2009-02-01

    Colloidal core/shell nanocrystals contain at least two semiconductor materials in an onionlike structure. The possibility to tune the basic optical properties of the core nanocrystals, for example, their fluorescence wavelength, quantum yield, and lifetime, by growing an epitaxial-type shell of another semiconductor has fueled significant progress on the chemical synthesis of these systems. In such core/shell nanocrystals, the shell provides a physical barrier between the optically active core and the surrounding medium, thus making the nanocrystals less sensitive to environmental changes, surface chemistry, and photo-oxidation. The shell further provides an efficient passivation of the surface trap states, giving rise to a strongly enhanced fluorescence quantum yield. This effect is a fundamental prerequisite for the use of nanocrystals in applications such as biological labeling and light-emitting devices, which rely on their emission properties. Focusing on recent advances, this Review discusses the fundamental properties and synthesis methods of core/shell and core/multiple shell structures of II-VI, IV-VI, and III-V semiconductors.

  3. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  4. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, H.W.

    2000-04-04

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  5. Comparative study of shell swab and shell crush methods for the recovery of Salmonella from shell eggs.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swabbing (SW) is the standard methodology for the recovery of resident microorganisms from shell eggs in Japan. A comparative study of shell swab (SW) and a shell crush (CR) technique was performed to recover the laboratory-inoculated Salmonella from shell eggs. It was found that the recovery of ...

  6. Metric theory of nematoelastic shells.

    PubMed

    Pismen, L M

    2014-12-01

    We consider three-dimensional reshaping of a thin nematoelastic film upon nematic-isotropic transition in the field of a charge one topological defect, leading to either cone or anticone (d-cone) shells. The analysis is based on the relation between the shell metric and the tensor order parameter under the assumption of no elastic deformation and volume change. The shape of the shell can be modified by doping, creating cones with curved generatrices. Anticones necessarily have an even number of radial creases. The curvature singularity at the apex is resolved due to decay of the nematic order parameter at the defect core.

  7. The entropy of Black Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas C., W. A.; Arenas S., R.

    2017-07-01

    The formalism of Darmois-Israel is used to calculate the entropy of a thin spherical shell that contracts from infinity down to near its gravitational radius. It was found that the entropy contained in the thin shell is proportional to the horizon area depending on the number of species N, the distance own above the horizon α and two constants C1 and C2 which can be measured observationally. Certain thermodynamic parameters were calculated, when thin shell it is near the horizon of events for a static space-time, this parameters are agree with reported.

  8. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  9. Recovery of Salmonella from commercial shell eggs by shell rinse and shell crush methodologies.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Harrison, M A; Cox, N A; Ingram, K D; Hinton, A J

    2005-12-01

    Salmonella is the most important human pathogen associated with shell eggs. Salmonella Enteritidis is the serotype most often implicated in outbreaks, although other serotypes have been recovered from eggs and from the commercial shell egg washing environment. Many sample methods are used to recover microorganisms from eggshells and membranes. A shell rinse and modified shell-and-membrane crush method for recovery of Salmonella were compared. Eggs were collected from 3 commercial shell-washing facilities (X, Y, and Z) during 3 visits. Twelve eggs were collected from each of 10 to 12 locations along the egg processing chain. After being transported back to the laboratory, each egg was sampled first by a shell rinse method and then by a shell crush method. For each technique (rinse or crush), 2 pools of 5 eggs per location sampled were selectively enriched for the recovery of Salmonella. Presumptive samples positive for Salmonella were confirmed serologically. Overall, there were 10.1% (40/396) Salmonella-positive pooled samples. Salmonella were recovered by the shell rinse and shell crush techniques (4.8 vs. 5.3%, respectively). Plant X yielded 21.5% Salmonella positives, whereas less than 5% of samples from plants Y and Z were found to be contaminated with the organism (4.2 and 4.5%, respectively). Salmonella was recovered more often from unwashed eggs (15.8%) than from washed eggs (8.3%). For some eggs, Salmonella was only recovered by one of the methods. Use of both approaches in the same experiment increased sampling sensitivity, although in most cases, crushing provided more sensitive Salmonella recovery.

  10. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...

  11. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...

  12. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...

  13. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...

  14. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed. ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition from between the halves of the...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition from between the halves of the...

  17. Shell Scores with Interactive Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemke, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Documents Shell Oil's success with interactive video training (IVT) and identifies the costs involved in this long-term investment. Provides guidelines for judging the effectiveness of IVT programs. (SK)

  18. Core–Shell Plasmonic Nanohelices

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We introduce core–shell plasmonic nanohelices, highly tunable structures that have a different response in the visible for circularly polarized light of opposite handedness. The glass core of the helices is fabricated using electron beam induced deposition and the pure gold shell is subsequently sputter coated. Optical measurements allow us to explore the chiral nature of the nanohelices, where differences in the response to circularly polarized light of opposite handedness result in a dissymmetry factor of 0.86, more than twice of what has been previously reported. Both experiments and subsequent numerical simulations demonstrate the extreme tunability of the core–shell structures, where nanometer changes to the geometry can lead to drastic changes of the optical responses. This tunability, combined with the large differential transmission, make core–shell plasmonic nanohelices a powerful nanophotonic tool for, for example, (bio)sensing applications. PMID:28824931

  19. Shell proteome of rhynchonelliform brachiopods.

    PubMed

    Immel, Françoise; Gaspard, Danièle; Marie, Arul; Guichard, Nathalie; Cusack, Maggie; Marin, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    Brachiopods are a phylum of marine invertebrates that have an external bivalved shell to protect their living tissues. With few exceptions, this biomineralized structure is composed of calcite, mixed together with a minor organic fraction, comprising secreted proteins that become occluded in the shell structure, once formed. This organic matrix is thought to display several functions, in particular, to control mineral deposition and to regulate crystallite shapes. Thus, identifying the primary structure of matrix proteins is a prerequisite for generating bioinspired materials with tailored properties. In this study, we employed a proteomic approach to identify numerous peptides that constitute the shell proteins, in three rhynchonellid brachiopods from different localities. Our results suggest that the shell protein repertoires identified thus far, differ from that of better known calcifying metazoans, such as molluscs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterning of the turtle shell.

    PubMed

    Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-08-01

    Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits. The similarity and diversity of turtles allows research into how changes in development create evolutionary novelty, interacting modules, and adaptive physiology and anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Phillip A.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dialectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections.

  2. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, P.A.; Anderson, A.T.; Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-20

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dielectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections is disclosed. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections. 4 figs.

  3. Nematic textures in spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, V.; Nelson, D. R.

    2006-08-01

    The equilibrium texture of nematic shells is studied as a function of their thickness. For ultrathin shells the ground state has four short (1)/(2) disclination lines but, as the thickness of the film increases, a three-dimensional escaped configuration composed of two pairs of half-hedgehogs becomes energetically favorable. We derive an exact solution for the nematic ground state in the one Frank constant approximation and study the stability of the corresponding texture against thermal fluctuations.

  4. Rotating thin-shell wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovgun, A.

    2016-11-01

    We construct a rotating thin-shell wormhole using a Myers-Perry black hole in five dimensions, using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions. The stability of the wormhole is analyzed under perturbations. We find that exotic matter is required at the throat of the wormhole to keep it stable. Our analysis shows that stability of the rotating thin-shell wormhole is possible if suitable parameter values are chosen.

  5. Triton shells of intact erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sheetz, M P; Sawyer, D

    1978-01-01

    About 40% of human erythrocyte membrane protein is resistant to solubilization in 0.5% Triton X-114. These components comprise a structure called a Triton shell roughly similar in size and shape to the original erythrocyte and thus constitute a cytoskeleton. With increasing concentrations of Triton the lipid content of the Triton shell decreases dramatically, whereas the majority of the protein components remain constant. Exceptions to this rule include proteins contained in band 3, the presumed anion channel, and in band 4 which decrease with increasing Triton concentration. The Triton-insoluble complex includes spectrin (bands 1 and 2), actin (band 5), and bands 3' and 7. Component 3' has an apparent molecular weight of 88,000 daltons as does 3; but unlike 3, it is insensitive to protease treatment of the intact cell, has a low extinction coefficient at 280 nm, and is solubilized from the shells in alkaline water solutions. Component 7 also has a low extinction coefficient at 280 nm. Spectrin alone is solubilized from the Triton shells in isotonic media. The solubilized spectrin contains no bound Triton and coelectrophoreses with spectrin eluted in hypotonic solutions from ghosts. Electron micrographs of fixed Triton shells stained with uranyl acetate show the presence of numerous filaments which appear beaded and are 80--120 A in diameter. The filaments cannot be composed mainly af actin, but enough spectrin is present to form the filaments. Triton shells may provide an excellent source of material useful in the investigation of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton.

  6. Foam shell project: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-03-25

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 {mu}m thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D{sub 2} or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE.

  7. Shell models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunian, Franck; Stepanov, Rodion; Frick, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Shell models of hydrodynamic turbulence originated in the seventies. Their main aim was to describe the statistics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in spectral space, using a simple set of ordinary differential equations. In the eighties, shell models of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence emerged based on the same principles as their hydrodynamic counter-part but also incorporating interactions between magnetic and velocity fields. In recent years, significant improvements have been made such as the inclusion of non-local interactions and appropriate definitions for helicities. Though shell models cannot account for the spatial complexity of MHD turbulence, their dynamics are not over simplified and do reflect those of real MHD turbulence including intermittency or chaotic reversals of large-scale modes. Furthermore, these models use realistic values for dimensionless parameters (high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers, low or high magnetic Prandtl number) allowing extended inertial range and accurate dissipation rate. Using modern computers it is difficult to attain an inertial range of three decades with direct numerical simulations, whereas eight are possible using shell models. In this review we set up a general mathematical framework allowing the description of any MHD shell model. The variety of the latter, with their advantages and weaknesses, is introduced. Finally we consider a number of applications, dealing with free-decaying MHD turbulence, dynamo action, Alfvén waves and the Hall effect.

  8. Semiclassical environment of collapsing shells

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Kinjal; Paranjape, Aseem

    2009-12-15

    We explore in detail the semiclassical environment of collapsing shells of matter, and determine the semiclassical flux measured by a variety of observers. This study is a preliminary step in a broader investigation of thermodynamic properties of the geometry of collapsing objects. Specifically, in this paper we consider spherically symmetric null and timelike collapsing shells which form an event horizon, and calculate the flux measured by observers both inside and outside the shell, and both inside and outside the event horizon, and find nontrivial results in most of the cases. Additionally, we also investigate the environment of a shell which collapses but does not form a horizon, halting at some radius larger than the Schwarzschild radius, and find that such an object generically gives rise to a pulse of radiation which is sharply peaked as it travels inwards and is reflected at the origin, and eventually emerges from the shell in a thermalized form. Our results have potential consequences in addressing questions pertaining, e.g. to black hole entropy and backreaction.

  9. Closed-shell and open-shell 2D nanographenes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhe; Wu, Jishan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a series of two-dimensional (2D) expanded arene networks, also known as nanographenes, with either closed-shell or open-shell electronic structure in the ground state. These systems are further categorized into three classes on a basis of different edge structures: those with zigzag edges only, those with armchair edges only, and those possessing both. Distinctive physical properties of these 2D aromatic systems are closely related to their structural characteristics and provide great potential for them as materials for different applications.

  10. Chemical Analysis Of Beryllium Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, J; Cook, R

    2005-11-17

    There is a need to understand the level of high-Z impurities in Beryllium shells prepared by sputter coating. The Ignition Point Design Requirements state the following: ''Except for allowed ingredients, as listed in the ablator composition entries, the ablator material in all layers shall contain sufficiently low impurity levels that the sum over all impurities of atom fraction*Z{sup 2} shall be less than or equal to 0.2''. This is a tight specification that requires careful materials analysis. Early in the first quarter of FY06, we undertook a study of Be shell impurities via ICP-MS{sup 2} and determined that the impurity levels in the sputtered shells are very close to the specification.

  11. Asymptotic safety goes on shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Dario

    2012-01-01

    It is well known in quantum field theory that the off-shell effective action depends on the gauge choice and field parametrization used in calculating it. Nevertheless, the typical scheme in which the scenario of asymptotically safe gravity is investigated is an off-shell version of the functional renormalization group equation. Working with the Einstein-Hilbert truncation as a test bed, we develop a new scheme for the analysis of asymptotically safe gravity in which the on-shell part of the effective action is singled out and we show that the beta function for the essential coupling has no explicit gauge dependence. In order to reach our goal, we introduce several technical novelties, including a different decomposition of the metric fluctuations, a new implementation of the ghost sector and a new cut-off scheme. We find a nontrivial fixed point, with a value of the cosmological constant that is independent of the gauge-fixing parameters.

  12. Plastic buckling of cylindrical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Xu, J.; Shteyngart, S.; Eckert, H.

    1994-05-01

    Cylindrical shells exhibit buckling under axial loads at stresses much less than the respective theoretical critical stresses. This is due primarily to the presence of geometrical imperfections even through such imperfections could be very small (e.g., comparable to thickness). Under internal pressure, the shell regains some of its buckling strength. For a relatively large radius-to-tickness ratio and low internal pressure, the effect can be reasonably estimated by an elastic analysis. However, for low radius-to-thickness ratios and greater pressures, the elastic-plastic collapse controls the failure load. In order to quantify the elastic-plastic buckling capacity of cylindrical shells, an analysis program was carried out by use of the computer code BOSOR5 developed by Bushnell of Lockheed Missiles and Space company. The analysis was performed for various radius-to- thickness ratios and imperfection amplitudes. The analysis results are presented in this paper.

  13. Prevalence of anisotropic shell growth in rare earth core-shell upconversion nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Lee, Jim Yang

    2013-05-28

    Through a series of carefully executed experiments, we discovered the prevalence of anisotropic shell growth in many upconversion NaREF4 systems caused by a combination of factors: selective adsorption of ligands on the core surface due to the core crystal structure, ligand etching, and the lattice mismatch between core and shell components. This could lead to incomplete shell formation in core-shell nanocrystals under certain conditions. Shell growth is always faster in the a and b crystallographic directions than in the c direction. In the case of a larger lattice mismatch between the core and shell, shell growth only occurs in the a and b directions resulting in an oblong core-shell structure. These findings are useful for rationalizing shell-dependent emission properties, understanding the emission mechanisms in complex core-shell nanostructures, and for creating accurate models of core-shell designs for multifunctionality and optimal performance in applications.

  14. Shell may expand detergent alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-23

    Shell Chemical is studying plans to expand detergent alcohols capacity in the US, CW has learned. The company is considering adding capacity for about 80 million lbs/year. If the project is approved, it would be implemented at the company`s Geismar, LA site. Shell will make a final decision on whether to proceed with the project within six months. It has been rumored to be considering a capacity addition as a result of tightening supply of natural and synthetic detergent alcohols.

  15. On Closed Shells in Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M. G.

    1948-02-01

    It has been suggested in the past that special numbers of neutrons or protons in the nucleus form a particularly stable configuration.{sup1} The complete evidence for this has never been summarized, nor is it generally recognized how convincing this evidence is. That 20 neutrons or protons (Ca{sup40}) form a closed shell is predicted by the Hartree model. A number of calculations support this fact.{sup2} These considerations will not be repeated here. In this paper, the experimental facts indicating a particular stability of shells of 50 and 82 protons and of 50, 82, and 126 neutrons will be listed.

  16. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolen, R. L., Jr.; Ebner, M. A.; Downs, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A heat transfer model was developed that mathematically describes the heating and calculates the thermal history of a gel particle in free-fall through the furnace. The model parameters that greatly affect the calculations were found to be gel particle mass, geometry, specific heat, and furnace gas. Empirical testing of the model has commenced. The code calculations and the initial empirical testing results both indicate that the gel-to-shell transformation occurs early and rapidly in the thermal history of the gel particle, and that for current work the heat transfer rate is not a limitation in shell production.

  17. Method and apparatus for an inflatable shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of assembling an inflatable shell of a structure comprises folding a plurality of shell sections about a set of fold lines and integrating the plurality of shell sections together with one another to form the shell. In another embodiment, an inflatable shell comprises a plurality of shell sections, each shell section having two pairs of fold lines for folding into stowage comprising a first gore section having a plurality of first gore panels layered and collectively folded about at a first set of fold lines. Each layer of the first gore panels and second gore panels are configured such that, once the first gore panel and second gore panel are attached to one another at the respective side edges of each panel, the lines of attachment forming a second set of fold lines for the shell section. A system and method for fabricating gore panels is also disclosed.

  18. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  19. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  20. Finite element shell instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Formulation procedures and the associated computer program for finite element thin shell instability analysis are discussed. Data cover: (1) formulation of basic element relationships, (2) construction of solution algorithms on both the conceptual and algorithmic levels, and (3) conduction of numerical analyses to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the theory and related programs therein are described.

  1. Recent advances in shell theory. [application of asymptotic approach to thin walled shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmonds, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    The results reviewed are divided into two categories: those that relate two-dimensional shell theory to three-dimensional elasticity theory and those concerned with shell theory per se. In the second category results for general elastic systems that carry over, by specialization or analogy, to shells and results that are unique to shell theory itself are considered.

  2. Structure of Enceladus' Ice Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, D.

    2016-12-01

    Constraining the internal structure of Enceladus is essential for understanding its evolution, its highly active south polar region, and its prospects for habitability. Of particular interest is the thickness of the icy shell, which has implications for the thermal structure, the effects of tidal stresses, and the conduits feeding the jets and plume. Since Enceladus' low order gravity field was first measured [1], several studies of shape and gravity have suggested the presence of an internal ocean beneath the icy shell [1-3]. These analyses, however, involve several assumptions and approximations and yield distinct shell thickness estimates (ranging from 18-60 km), only some of which are compatible with estimates from the measured physical librations (15-25 km [4,5]). Part of the challenge is that standard approaches to interior modeling (e.g., Radau-Darwin) are not well suited to Enceladus due to its fast rotation and relatively large non-hydrostatic topography [2,6]. Because of Enceladus' small radius, results are also sensitive to the details of the compensation model [7,8]. Here we apply an analytical compensation model that accommodates the spherical geometry in a manner that is distinct from previous studies, and employ a high fidelity numerical approach to modeling the hydrostatic equilibrium figure [6]. We show that the resulting shell thickness estimates are smaller than in previous models—in agreement with the libration observations—suggesting the possibility of an extremely thin ice crust at the south pole. While a range of mean shell thicknesses are permitted within the observational constraints, the amplitude of lateral shell thickness variations is well constrained. In particular, the shell is 10 km thicker at the north pole than at the south pole, potentially helping to explain the nature of the north-south polar asymmetry in endogenic activity. 1. Iess et al., Science. 344, 78-80 (2014). 2. McKinnon, Geophys. Res. Lett.42 (2015). 3. Cadek et al

  3. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  4. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  5. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  6. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  7. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  8. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means...

  9. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means...

  10. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means...

  11. Thin-shell wormholes in dilaton gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2005-06-15

    In this work we construct charged thin-shell Lorentzian wormholes in dilaton gravity. The exotic matter required for the construction is localized in the shell and the energy conditions are satisfied outside the shell. The total amount of exotic matter is calculated and its dependence with the parameters of the model is analyzed.

  12. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  13. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds after...

  14. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds after...

  15. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds after...

  16. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds after...

  17. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds after...

  18. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is a device made of glass or plastic that is...

  19. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is a...

  20. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is a...

  1. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is a...

  2. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is a...

  3. Cacao bean shell poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Drolet, R; Arendt, T D; Stowe, C M

    1984-10-15

    Cacao bean shells contain potentially toxic quantities of theobromine, a xanthine compound similar in effects to caffeine and theophylline. A dog, which ingested a lethal quantity of garden mulch made from cacao bean shells, developed severe convulsions and died 17 hours later. Analysis of the stomach contents and the ingested cacao bean shells revealed the presence of lethal amounts of theobromine.

  4. Developments in Cylindrical Shell Stability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Today high-performance computing systems and new analytical and numerical techniques enable engineers to explore the use of advanced materials for shell design. This paper reviews some of the historical developments of shell buckling analysis and design. The paper concludes by identifying key research directions for reliable and robust methods development in shell stability analysis and design.

  5. Vibrations of cantilevered circular cylindrical shells Shallow versus deep shell theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. K.; Leissa, A. W.; Wang, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Free vibrations of cantilevered circular cylindrical shells having rectangular planforms are studied in this paper by means of the Ritz method. The deep shell theory of Novozhilov and Goldenveizer is used and compared with the usual shallow shell theory for a wide range of shell parameters. A thorough convergence study is presented along with comparisons to previously published finite element solutions and experimental results. Accurately computed frequency parameters and mode shapes for various shell configurations are presented. The present paper appears to be the first comprehensive study presenting rigorous comparisons between the two shell theories in dealing with free vibrations of cantilevered cylindrical shells.

  6. On chaotic behavior of gravitating stellar shells.

    PubMed

    Barkov, M V; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G S; Neishtadt, A I; Belinski, V A

    2005-03-01

    Motion of two gravitating spherical stellar shells around a massive central body is considered. Each shell consists of point particles with the same specific angular momenta and energies. In the case when one can neglect the influence of gravitation of one ("light") shell onto another ("heavy") shell ("restricted problem") the structure of the phase space is described. The scaling laws for the measure of the domain of chaotic motion and for the minimal energy of the light shell sufficient for its escape to infinity are obtained.

  7. Shell stars in the Geneva photometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, B.

    1987-05-01

    The behavior of Be/Ae stars and shell stars in a d vs Delta diagram clearly shows that the majority of shell stars have a greater Balmer jump than normal stars. This result is in agreement with that of Divan (1979) for 48 Lib, a B2IV e-shell star. However, out of the 45 shell stars measured in the Geneva system, 26 are A or F stars, of which 16 have a Balmer jump that is greater than normal. This result suggests that A-F type shell stars represent the cool end of the Be-star sequence.

  8. Shell Model Depiction of Isospin Mixing in sd Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Yi Hua; Smirnova, Nadya A.; Caurier, Etienne

    2011-11-30

    We constructed a new empirical isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) Hamiltonian in the sd(1s{sub 1/2}, 0d{sub 5/2} and 0d{sub 3/2}) shell-model space. In this contribution, we present its application to two important case studies: (i){beta}-delayed proton emission from {sup 22}Al and (ii) isospin-mixing correction to superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-decay ft-values.

  9. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  10. Shell Model Approach to Nuclear Level Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoi, Mihai

    2000-04-01

    Nuclear level densities (NLD) are traditionally estimated using variations of Fermi Gas Formula (FGF) or combinatoric techniques. Recent investigations using Monte Carlo Shell Model (MCSM) techniques indicate that a shell model description of NLD may be an accurate and stable approach. Full shell model calculations of NLD are very difficult. We calculated the NLD for all nuclei in the sd shell and show that the results can be described by a single particle combinatoric model, which depends on two parameters similar to FGF. We further investigated other models and find that a sum of gaussians with means and variances given by French and Ratcliff averages (Phys. Rev. C 3, 94(1971)) is able to accurately describe shell model NLD, even when shell effects are present. The contribution of the spurious center-of-mass motion to the shell model NLD is also discussed.

  11. Turbine blade with spar and shell

    DOEpatents

    Davies, Daniel O [Palm City, FL; Peterson, Ross H [Loxahatchee, FL

    2012-04-24

    A turbine blade with a spar and shell construction in which the spar and the shell are both secured within two platform halves. The spar and the shell each include outward extending ledges on the bottom ends that fit within grooves formed on the inner sides of the platform halves to secure the spar and the shell against radial movement when the two platform halves are joined. The shell is also secured to the spar by hooks extending from the shell that slide into grooves formed on the outer surface of the spar. The hooks form a serpentine flow cooling passage between the shell and the spar. The spar includes cooling holes on the lower end in the leading edge region to discharge cooling air supplied through the platform root and into the leading edge cooling channel.

  12. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolen, R. L.; Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres, which are used for inertial-confinement fusion targets, are formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a drop-tower furnace. The modelling of this gel-to-sphere transformation has consisted of three phases: gel thermochemistry, furnance-to-gel heat transfer, and gravity-driven degradation of the concentricity of the molten shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the free-falling gel particle was modelled with forced convection. The gel mass, dimensions, and specific heat as well as furnace temperature profile and furnace gas conductivity, were controlled variables. This model has been experimentally verified. In the third phase, a mathematical model was developed to describe the gravity-driven degradation of concentricity in molten glass shells.

  13. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  14. Buckling of spherical shells revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-11-01

    A study is presented of the post-buckling behaviour and imperfection sensitivity of complete spherical shells subject to uniform external pressure. The study builds on and extends the major contribution to spherical shell buckling by Koiter in the 1960s. Numerical results are presented for the axisymmetric large deflection behaviour of perfect spheres followed by an extensive analysis of the role axisymmetric imperfections play in reducing the buckling pressure. Several types of middle surface imperfections are considered including dimple-shaped undulations and sinusoidal-shaped equatorial undulations. Buckling occurs either as the attainment of a maximum pressure in the axisymmetric state or as a non-axisymmetric bifurcation from the axisymmetric state. Several new findings emerge: the abrupt mode localization that occurs immediately after the onset of buckling, the existence of an apparent lower limit to the buckling pressure for realistically large imperfections, and comparable reductions of the buckling pressure for dimple and sinusoidal equatorial imperfections.

  15. Density Measurements of Be Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C

    2005-02-15

    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the uncertainties associated with the measurement of density of Be ablators by the weigh and volume method. I am counting on the readers to point out any faulty assumptions about the techniques or uncertainties associated with them. Based on the analysis presented below we should expect that 30 {micro}m thick shells will have an uncertainty in the measured density of about 2% of the value, coming more or less equally from the mass and volume measurement. The uncertainty is roughly inversely proportional to the coating thickness, thus a 60 {micro}m walled shell would result in a 1% uncertainty in the density.

  16. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolen, R. L.; Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres, which are used for inertial-confinement fusion targets, are formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a drop-tower furnace. The modelling of this gel-to-sphere transformation has consisted of three phases: gel thermochemistry, furnance-to-gel heat transfer, and gravity-driven degradation of the concentricity of the molten shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the free-falling gel particle was modelled with forced convection. The gel mass, dimensions, and specific heat as well as furnace temperature profile and furnace gas conductivity, were controlled variables. This model has been experimentally verified. In the third phase, a mathematical model was developed to describe the gravity-driven degradation of concentricity in molten glass shells.

  17. Shell Evolutions and Nuclear Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorlin, O.

    2014-03-01

    During the last 30 years, and more specifically during the last 10 years, many experiments have been carried out worldwide using different techniques to study the shell evolution of nuclei far from stability. What seemed not conceivable some decades ago became rather common: all known magic numbers that are present in the valley of stability disappear far from stability and are replaced by new ones at the drip line. By gathering selected experimental results, beautifully consistent pictures emerge, that very likely take root in the properties of the nuclear forces.The present manuscript describes some of these discoveries and proposes an intuitive understanding of these shell evolutions derived from observations. Extrapolations to yet unstudied regions, as where the explosive r-process nucleosynthesis occurs, are proposed. Some remaining challenges and puzzling questions are also addressed.

  18. Vibration Control of Shallow Shell Structures Using a Shell-Type Dynamic Vibration Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aida, T.; Aso, T.; Nakamoto, K.; Kawazoe, K.

    1998-11-01

    In this study, a new shell-type dynamic vibration absorber is presented for suppressing several modes of vibration of the shallow shell (main shell) under harmonic load. It consists of a shallow shell (the dynamic absorbing shell), under the same boundary condition and with the same shape as those of the main shell, with connecting springs and dampers in the vertical direction between the main and dynamic absorbing shells. Formulae for an approximate tuning method for the shell-type dynamic absorber are also presented using the optimum tuning method for a dynamic absorber in the two-degree-of-freedom system, obtained by the Den Hartog method. Subsequently, numerical calculations are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of the shell-type dynamic vibration absorbers.

  19. L -shell ionization by antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkadi, L. , H-4001 Debrecen, Pf. 51, Hungary ); Mukoyama, T. )

    1990-10-01

    Semiclassical coupled-state model calculations have been performed for {ital L}-shell ionization of gold induced by protons and antiprotons in the energy range 0.15--3 MeV. The results of the calculations have been compared with the predictions of a simple approach suggested by Brandt and Basbas for description of antiparticle excitation of atomic inner shells. Apart from the range of very low collision velocities, a reasonable agreement has been found between the two models. In addition to the binding and Coulomb-distortion effects discussed by Brandt and Basbas (Phys. Rev. A 27, 578 (1983); 28, 3142(E) (1983)), for the {ital L} shell a further effect due to dynamical couplings between the {ital L}-substate ionization amplitudes also contributes to the particle-antiparticle differences. While the latter processes have only a negligible effect on the energy dependence of the cross sections, their inclusion has been shown to be unavoidable when ratios of the subshell ionization cross sections are analyzed for the two kinds of excitation.

  20. Atomic inner-shell transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crasemann, B.; Chen, M. H.; Mark, H.

    1984-01-01

    Atomic inner-shell processes have quite different characteristics, in several important aspects, from processes in the optical regime. Energies are large, e.g., the 1s binding energy reaches 100 keV at Z = 87; relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects therefore are strong. Radiationless transitions vastly dominate over photon emission in most cases. Isolated inner-shell vacancies have pronounced single-particle character, with correlations generally contributing only approximately 1 eV to the 1s and 2p binding energies; the structure of such systems is thus well tractable by independent-particle self-consistent-field atomic models. For systems containing multiple deep inner-shell vacancies, or for highly stripped ions, the importance of relativistic intermediate coupling and configuration interaction becomes pronounced. Cancellation of the Coulomb interaction can lead to strong manifestations of the Breit interaction in such phenomena as multiplet splitting and hypersatellite X-ray shifts. Unique opportunities arise for the test of theory.

  1. Atomic inner-shell transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crasemann, B.; Chen, M. H.; Mark, H.

    1984-01-01

    Atomic inner-shell processes have quite different characteristics, in several important aspects, from processes in the optical regime. Energies are large, e.g., the 1s binding energy reaches 100 keV at Z = 87; relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects therefore are strong. Radiationless transitions vastly dominate over photon emission in most cases. Isolated inner-shell vacancies have pronounced single-particle character, with correlations generally contributing only approximately 1 eV to the 1s and 2p binding energies; the structure of such systems is thus well tractable by independent-particle self-consistent-field atomic models. For systems containing multiple deep inner-shell vacancies, or for highly stripped ions, the importance of relativistic intermediate coupling and configuration interaction becomes pronounced. Cancellation of the Coulomb interaction can lead to strong manifestations of the Breit interaction in such phenomena as multiplet splitting and hypersatellite X-ray shifts. Unique opportunities arise for the test of theory.

  2. Rigid shells enhance survival of gekkotan eggs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2015-11-01

    The majority of lizards and snakes produce permeable parchment-shelled eggs that require high moisture conditions for successful embryonic development. One clade of gekkotan lizards is an exception; females produce relatively impermeable rigid-shelled eggs that normally incubate successfully under low moisture conditions. I tested the hypothesis that the rigid-shell increases egg survival during incubation, but only under low moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, I incubated rigid-shelled eggs of Chondrodactylus turneri under low and under high moisture conditions. Eggs were incubated with parchment-shelled eggs of Eublepharis macularius to insure that incubation conditions were suitable for parchment-shelled eggs. Chondrodactylus turneri eggs had very high survival (>90%) when they were incubated under low moisture conditions. In contrast, eggs incubated under high moisture conditions had low survival overall, and lower survival than those of the parchment-shelled eggs of E. macularius. Mortality of C. turneri and E. macularius eggs incubated under high moisture conditions was the result of fungal infection, a common source of egg mortality for squamates under laboratory and field conditions. These observations document high survival of rigid-shelled eggs under low moisture conditions because eggs escape from fungal infection. Highly mineralized rigid shells also make egg survival independent of moisture availability and may also provide protection from small invertebrates in nature. Enhanced egg survival could thus compensate for the low reproductive output of gekkotans that produce rigid-shelled eggs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Thermal stresses in thick laminated composite shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides an analytical formulation to investigate the thermomechanical behavior of thick composite shells subjected to a temperature distribution which varies arbitrarily in the radial direction. For illustrative purposes, shells under uniform temperature change are presented. It is found that thermal twist would occur even for symmetric laminated shells. Under uniform temperature rise, results for off-axis graphite/epoxy shells show that extensional-shear coupling can cause tensile radial stress throughout the shell and tensile hoop stress in the inner region. Laminated graphite/epoxy shells can exhibit negative effective thermal expansion coefficients in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Finally, the stacking sequence has a strong influence on the thermal stress distributions.

  4. SPSM and its application in cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wu; Zhou, Su-Lian; Peng, Hui

    2008-03-01

    In naval architectures, the structure of prismatic shell is used widely. But there is no suitable method to analyze this kind of structure. Stiffened prismatic shell method (SPSM) presented in this paper, is one of the harmonic semi-analytic methods. Theoretically, strong stiffened structure can be analyzed economically and accurately. SPSM is based on the analytical solution of the governing differential equations for orthotropic cylindrical shells. In these differential equations, the torsional stiffness, bending stiffness and the exact position of each stiffener are taken into account with the Heaviside singular function. An algorithm is introduced, in which the actions of stiffeners on shells are replaced by external loads at each stiffener position. Stiffened shells can be computed as non-stiffened shells. Eventually, the displacement solution of the equations is acquired by the introduction of Green function. The stresses in a corrugated transverse bulkhead without pier base of an oil tanker are computed by using SPSM.

  5. Flow past a porous approximate spherical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasacharya, D.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the creeping flow of an incompressible viscous liquid past a porous approximate spherical shell is considered. The flow in the free fluid region outside the shell and in the cavity region of the shell is governed by the Navier Stokes equation. The flow within the porous annulus region of the shell is governed by Darcy’s Law. The boundary conditions used at the interface are continuity of the normal velocity, continuity of the pressure and Beavers and Joseph slip condition. An exact solution for the problem is obtained. An expression for the drag on the porous approximate spherical shell is obtained. The drag experienced by the shell is evaluated numerically for several values of the parameters governing the flow.

  6. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelale, F.

    1982-01-01

    A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  7. Core-shell-structured magnetic ternary nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Xin; Luo, Jin; Wanjala, Bridgid N; Wang, Chongmin; Chernova, Natasha A; Engelhard, Mark H; Liu, Yao; Bae, In-Tae; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2010-12-22

    We report a novel core-shell-structured ternary nanocube of MnZn ferrite synthesized by controlling the reaction temperature and composition in the absence of conventionally used reducing agents. The highly monodispersed core-shell structure consists of an Fe(3)O(4) core and an MnZn Ferrite shell. The observation of a Moiré pattern indicates that the core and the shell are two highly crystalline materials with slightly different lattice constants that are rotated relative to each other by a small angle. The ternary core-shell nanocubes display magnetic properties regulated by a combination of the core-shell composition and exhibit an increased coercivity and field-cooled/zero-field-cooled characteristics drastically different from those of regular MnZn ferrite nanoparticles. The ability to engineer the spatial nanostructures of ternary magnetic nanoparticles in terms of shape and composition offers atomic-level versatility in fine-tuning the nanoscale magnetic properties.

  8. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  9. Integrable structure in discrete shell membrane theory

    PubMed Central

    Schief, W. K.

    2014-01-01

    We present natural discrete analogues of two integrable classes of shell membranes. By construction, these discrete shell membranes are in equilibrium with respect to suitably chosen internal stresses and external forces. The integrability of the underlying equilibrium equations is proved by relating the geometry of the discrete shell membranes to discrete O surface theory. We establish connections with generalized barycentric coordinates and nine-point centres and identify a discrete version of the classical Gauss equation of surface theory. PMID:24808755

  10. Advances in shell side condensation for refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Ralph L.

    The design of shell and tube condensers used in air conditioning and refrigeration applications is discussed. The geometry of interest involves condensation on the shell side of a horizontal tube bundle. Enhanced heat transfer geometries are typically used for condensation on the shell side. The heat transfer is removed by water on the tube side, which typically have tube side enhancement. Single tube and row effect condensation data are presented. Thermal design methods for sizing of the condenser are outlined.

  11. Adaptive finite element strategies for shell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G.; Levit, I.; Stehlin, B.; Hurlbut, B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper extends existing finite element adaptive refinement (AR) techniques to shell structures, which have heretofore been neglected in the AR literature. Specific challenges in applying AR to shell structures include: (1) physical discontinuities (e.g., stiffener intersections); (2) boundary layers; (3) sensitivity to geometric imperfections; (4) the sensitivity of most shell elements to mesh distortion, constraint definition and/or thinness; and (5) intrinsic geometric nonlinearity. All of these challenges but (5) are addressed here.

  12. Theory of Viscoplastic Shells for Dynamic Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    experimental data representing various loading combinations ( biaxial bending and stretching) at various loading rates on plate and shell specimens. The shell...multiaxial tests on plate and shell specimens of a particular material. These experiments should consist of biaxial bending and stretching tests conducted...Jones, N., Uran, T.O. and Tekin, S.A., "The Dynamic Plastic Behavior of Fully Clamped Rectangular Plates ", Int. J. Solids and Structures, Vol. 6, pp

  13. Multiple-shell ZnSe core-shell spheres and their improved photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Sun, Chengcheng; Tian, Gang; Pang, Qi

    2017-09-15

    Multiple-shell ZnSe core-shell microspheres were synthesized on a large scale by a facile solvothermal method in ethylene glycol (EG) with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) assisted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) were used to characterize the structures and optical properties of these core-shell spheres with multiple shells. XRD and SEM analyses show that the as-grown ZnSe samples are zinc-blende core-shell structures with multiple shells. The possible growth mechanism is investigated. The results of photocatalysis of methyl red (MR) indicate that the multiple-shell ZnSe core-shell microspheres possess remarkable photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence & Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    HOHL, T.M.

    2001-09-20

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

  15. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence & Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    STRODE, J.N.

    2002-09-23

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

  16. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence and Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    KIRCH, N.W.

    2003-09-23

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

  17. Shell boosts recovery at Kernridge

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.

    1984-01-01

    Since acquiring the Kernridge property in December 1979, Shell Oil Co. has drilled more than 1,800 wells and steadily increased production from 42,000 to 89,000 b/d of oil. Currently, the Kernridge Production Division of Shell California Production Inc. (SCPI), a newly formed subsidiary of Shell Oil Co., is operator for the property. The property covers approximately 35,000 mostly contiguous net acres, with production concentrated mainly on about 5,500 net acres. SCPI's four major fields in the area are the North and South Belridge, Lost Hills, and Antelope Hills. Most of the production comes from the North and South Belridge fields, which were previously held by the Belridge Oil Co. Productive horizons in the fields are the Tulare, Diatomite, Brown Shale, Antelope Shale, 64 Zone, and Agua sand. The Tulare and Diatomite are the two major reservoirs SCPI is developing. The Tulare, encountered between 400 and 1,300 ft, is made up of fine- to coarse-grained, unconsolidated sands with interbedded shales and silt stones and contains 13 /sup 0/ API oil. Using steam drive as the main recovery method, SCPI estimates an ultimate recovery from the Tulare formation of about 60% of the original 1 billion barrels in place. The Diatomite horizon, found between 800 and 3,500 ft and containing light, 28 /sup 0/ API oil, has high porosity (more than 60%), low permeability (less than 1 md), and natural fractures. Because of the Diatomite's low permeability, fracture stimulation is being used to increase well productivity. SCPI anticipates that approximately 5% of the almost 2 billion barrels of oil originally in place will be recovered by primary production.

  18. Shell appraising deepwater discovery off Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, M. ); Lambers, E.J.T.; Steffens, G.S. )

    1993-05-10

    Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd. negotiated a farmout in 1990 from Occidental International Exploration and Production Co. for Block SC-38 in the South China Sea off Palawan, Philippines, following Oxy's discovery of gas in 1989 in a Miocene Nido limestone buildup. Under the terms of the farmout agreement, Shell became operator with a 50% share. Following the disappointing well North Iloc 1, Shell was successful in finding oil and gas in Malampaya 1. Water 700-1,000 m deep, remoteness, and adverse weather conditions have imposed major challenges for offshore operations. The paper describes the tectonic setting; the Nido limestone play; the Malampaya discovery; and Shell's appraisal studies.

  19. Core/shell colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Benoit; Nadal, Brice; Bouet, Cecile; Patriarche, Gilles; Dubertret, Benoit

    2012-11-14

    We have recently synthesized atomically flat semiconductor colloidal nanoplatelets with quasi 2D geometry. Here, we show that core/shell nanoplatelets can be obtained with a 2D geometry that is conserved. The epitaxial growth of the shell semiconductor is performed at room temperature. We report the detailed synthesis of CdSe/CdS and CdSe/CdZnS structures with different shell thicknesses. The shell growth is characterized both spectroscopically and structurally. In particular, the core/shell structure appears very clearly on high-resolution, high-angle annular dark-field transmission electron microscope images, thanks to the difference of atomic density between the core and the shell. When the nanoplatelets stand on their edge, we can precisely count the number of atomic planes forming the core and the shell. This provides a direct measurement, with atomic precision, of the core nanoplatelets thickness. The constraints exerted by the shell growth on the core is analyzed using global phase analysis. The core/shell nanoplatelets we obtained have narrow emission spectra with full-width at half-maximum close to 20 nm, and quantum yield that can reach 60%.

  20. Thermal buckling of laminated composite shells

    SciTech Connect

    Thangaratnam, R.K.; Palaninathan, R.; Ramachandran, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The linear buckling analysis of laminated composite cylindrical and conical shells under thermal load using the finite element method is reported here. Critical temperatures are presented for various cases of cross-ply and angly-ply laminated shells. The effects of radius/thickness ratio, number of layers, ratio of coefficients of thermal expansion, and the angle of fiber orientation have been studied. The results indicate that the buckling behavior of laminated shell under thermal load is different from that of mechanically loaded shell with respect to the angle of fiber orientation. 6 refs.

  1. Fracture Mitigation Strategies in Gastropod Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Christopher; Kisailus, David

    2013-04-01

    For hundreds of millions of years, gastropods have been evolving, modifying their external calcified shells for defense against shell-breaking and drilling predators. They have evolved primarily to use two different aragonitic microstructures: the evolutionary older Nacre (mother of pearl) structure and the more recently developed crossed-lamellar structure. By using both of these structures, gastropods are able to produce shells that are significantly tougher then geologic aragonite. However, the crossed-lamellar structure allows for a wider variety of shell morphologies, ensuring its increasing presence since the Mesozoic Marine Revolution more than 200 million years ago.

  2. Material with core-shell structure

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Claudia [Rio Rancho, NM; Richard, Monique N [Ann Arbor, MI; Dehne, Aaron [Maumee, OH; Phillips, Jonathan [Rio Rancho, NM; Stamm, Kimber L [Ann Arbor, MI; Fanson, Paul T [Brighton, MI

    2011-11-15

    Disclosed is a material having a composite particle, the composite particle including an outer shell and a core. The core is made from a lithium alloying material and the outer shell has an inner volume that is greater in size than the core of the lithium alloying material. In some instances, the outer mean diameter of the outer shell is less than 500 nanometers and the core occupies between 5 and 99% of the inner volume. In addition, the outer shell can have an average wall thickness of less than 100 nanometers.

  3. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  4. Hydrate Shell Growth Measured Using NMR.

    PubMed

    Haber, Agnes; Akhfash, Masoumeh; Loh, Charles K; Aman, Zachary M; Fridjonsson, Einar O; May, Eric F; Johns, Michael L

    2015-08-18

    Benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulsed field gradient (PFG) and relaxation measurements were used to monitor the clathrate hydrate shell growth occurring in water droplets dispersed in a continuous cyclopentane phase. These techniques allowed the growth of hydrate inside the opaque exterior shell to be monitored and, hence, information about the evolution of the shell's morphology to be deduced. NMR relaxation measurements were primarily used to monitor the hydrate shell growth kinetics, while PFG NMR diffusion experiments were used to determine the nominal droplet size distribution (DSD) of the unconverted water inside the shell core. A comparison of mean droplet sizes obtained directly via PFG NMR and independently deduced from relaxation measurements showed that the assumption of the shell model-a perfect spherical core of unconverted water-for these hydrate droplet systems is correct, but only after approximately 24 h of shell growth. Initially, hydrate growth is faster and heat-transfer-limited, leading to porous shells with surface areas larger than that of spheres with equivalent volumes. Subsequently, the hydrate growth rate becomes mass-transfer-limited, and the shells become thicker, spherical, and less porous.

  5. Electron Shell as a Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2002-11-01

    Main principles of the resonance effect arising in the electron shells in interaction of the nuclei with electromagnetic radiation are analyzed and presented in the historical aspect. Principles of NEET are considered from a more general position, as compared to how this is usually presented. Characteristic features of NEET and its reverse, TEEN, as internal conversion processes are analyzed, and ways are offered of inducing them by laser radiation. The ambivalent role of the Pauli exclusion principles in NEET and TEEN processes is investigated.

  6. Generic thin-shell gravastars

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt; Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Lobo, Francisco S.N. E-mail: nmontelongo@fis.cinvestav.mx E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz

    2012-03-01

    We construct generic spherically symmetric thin-shell gravastars by using the cut-and-paste procedure. We take considerable effort to make the analysis as general and unified as practicable; investigating both the internal physics of the transition layer and its interaction with 'external forces' arising due to interactions between the transition layer and the bulk spacetime. Furthermore, we discuss both the dynamic and static situations. In particular, we consider 'bounded excursion' dynamical configurations, and probe the stability of static configurations. For gravastars there is always a particularly compelling configuration in which the surface energy density is zero, while surface tension is nonzero.

  7. Composted oyster shell as lime fertilizer is more effective than fresh oyster shell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Han; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Hong, Sun Joo; Cho, Kye Man; Math, Renukaradhya K; Heo, Jae Young; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

    2010-01-01

    Physio-chemical changes in oyster shell were examined, and fresh and composted oyster shell meals were compared as lime fertilizers in soybean cultivation. Structural changes in oyster shell were observed by AFM and FE-SEM. We found that grains of the oyster shell surface became smoother and smaller over time. FT-IR analysis indicated the degradation of a chitin-like compound of oyster shell. In chemical analysis, pH (12.3+/-0.24), electrical conductivity (4.1+/-0.24 dS m(-1)), and alkaline powder (53.3+/-1.12%) were highest in commercial lime. Besides, pH was higher in composted oyster shell meal (9.9+/-0.53) than in fresh oyster shell meal (8.4+/-0.32). The highest organic matter (1.1+/-0.08%), NaCl (0.54+/-0.03%), and moisture (15.1+/-1.95%) contents were found in fresh oyster shell meal. A significant higher yield of soybean (1.33 t ha(-1)) was obtained by applying composted oyster shell meal (a 21% higher yield than with fresh oyster shell meal). Thus composting of oyster shell increases the utility of oyster shell as a liming material for crop cultivation.

  8. Apparatus and methods for installing, removing and adjusting an inner turbine shell section relative to an outer turbine shell section

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen; Waldo, Stuart Forrest; Smith, Robert Leroy; Phelps, Robert Kim

    2001-01-01

    A turbine includes upper and lower inner shell sections mounting the nozzles and shrouds and which inner shell is supported by pins secured to a surrounding outer shell. To disassemble the turbine for access to the inner shell sections and rotor, an alignment fixture is secured to the lower outer shell section and has pins engaging the inner shell section. To disassemble the turbine, the inner shell weight is transferred to the lower outer shell section via the alignment fixture and cradle pins. Roller assemblies are inserted through access openings vacated by support pins to permit rotation of the lower inner shell section out of and into the lower outer shell section during disassembly and assembly. The alignment fixture includes adjusting rods for adjusting the inner shell axially, vertically, laterally and about a lateral axis. A roller over-cage is provided to rotate the inner shell and a dummy shell to facilitate assembly and disassembly in the field.

  9. Atomic inner-shell ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, J. N.; Chakraborty, S.

    1985-07-01

    Cross sections for the K-shell ionization of medium-heavy atoms by relativistic electrons have been calculated in a relativistic framework in the Coulomb gauge to order α0 (=e2/ħc) in the interaction Hamiltonian. Here exchange is neglected. The incident- and scattered-electron wave functions are described by Dirac plane waves. Only the bound- and ejected-electron wave functions are described nonrelativistically for a screened Coulomb potential, used earlier by the present authors. Thus the screening effect is taken into account in this calculation in a satisfactory manner. The calculation is a repetition of what has been published recently by the present authors with one important exception: Here, the ejected-electron continuum state wave function that is used is determined variationally for the above screened Coulomb potential. Thereby some perturbation approximation of ad hoc nature could be avoided. As a consequence, considerable improvement is noticed in the total cross-section results. Comparison with experimental results for 29Cu, 47Ag, and 79Au shows a good agreement. The calculation may easily be extended to ionization from other shells.

  10. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G.

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  11. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  12. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    SciTech Connect

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Kimura, Kan ); Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru )

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone (Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  13. The ultimate step towards a tailored engineering of core@shell and core@shell@shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Llamosa, D; Ruano, M; Martínez, L; Mayoral, A; Roman, E; García-Hernández, M; Huttel, Y

    2014-11-21

    Complex core@shell and core@shell@shell nanoparticles are systems that combine the functionalities of the inner core and outer shell materials together with new physico-chemical properties originated by their low (nano) dimensionality. Such nanoparticles are of prime importance in the fast growing field of nanotechnology as building blocks for more sophisticated systems and a plethora of applications. Here, it is shown that although conceptually simple a modified gas aggregation approach allows the one-step generation of well-controlled complex nanoparticles. In particular, it is demonstrated that the atoms of the core and the shell of the nanoparticles can be easily inverted, avoiding intrinsic constraints of chemical methods.

  14. The ultimate step towards a tailored engineering of core@shell and core@shell@shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llamosa, D.; Ruano, M.; Martínez, L.; Mayoral, A.; Roman, E.; García-Hernández, M.; Huttel, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Complex core@shell and core@shell@shell nanoparticles are systems that combine the functionalities of the inner core and outer shell materials together with new physico-chemical properties originated by their low (nano) dimensionality. Such nanoparticles are of prime importance in the fast growing field of nanotechnology as building blocks for more sophisticated systems and a plethora of applications. Here, it is shown that although conceptually simple a modified gas aggregation approach allows the one-step generation of well-controlled complex nanoparticles. In particular, it is demonstrated that the atoms of the core and the shell of the nanoparticles can be easily inverted, avoiding intrinsic constraints of chemical methods.Complex core@shell and core@shell@shell nanoparticles are systems that combine the functionalities of the inner core and outer shell materials together with new physico-chemical properties originated by their low (nano) dimensionality. Such nanoparticles are of prime importance in the fast growing field of nanotechnology as building blocks for more sophisticated systems and a plethora of applications. Here, it is shown that although conceptually simple a modified gas aggregation approach allows the one-step generation of well-controlled complex nanoparticles. In particular, it is demonstrated that the atoms of the core and the shell of the nanoparticles can be easily inverted, avoiding intrinsic constraints of chemical methods. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: 1: Scheme illustrating the different strategies to grow nanoparticles with controlled chemical composition and structure. 2: Examples of TEM results on Ag@Au nanoparticles. 3: Magnetic measurements results on Co@Au and Au@Co nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02913e

  15. Isothermal Circumstellar Dust Shell Model for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, G.; Towers, I. N.; Jovanoski, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of radiative transfer in circumstellar dust shells. By assuming that the shell is both isothermal and its thickness is small compared to its radius, the model is simple enough for students to grasp and yet still provides a quantitative description of the relevant physical features. The isothermal model can be used in a…

  16. A Geometric Theory of Nonlinear Morphoelastic Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadik, Souhayl; Angoshtari, Arzhang; Goriely, Alain; Yavari, Arash

    2016-08-01

    Many thin three-dimensional elastic bodies can be reduced to elastic shells: two-dimensional elastic bodies whose reference shape is not necessarily flat. More generally, morphoelastic shells are elastic shells that can remodel and grow in time. These idealized objects are suitable models for many physical, engineering, and biological systems. Here, we formulate a general geometric theory of nonlinear morphoelastic shells that describes both the evolution of the body shape, viewed as an orientable surface, as well as its intrinsic material properties such as its reference curvatures. In this geometric theory, bulk growth is modeled using an evolving referential configuration for the shell, the so-called material manifold. Geometric quantities attached to the surface, such as the first and second fundamental forms, are obtained from the metric of the three-dimensional body and its evolution. The governing dynamical equations for the body are obtained from variational consideration by assuming that both fundamental forms on the material manifold are dynamical variables in a Lagrangian field theory. In the case where growth can be modeled by a Rayleigh potential, we also obtain the governing equations for growth in the form of kinetic equations coupling the evolution of the first and the second fundamental forms with the state of stress of the shell. We apply these ideas to obtain stress-free growth fields of a planar sheet, the time evolution of a morphoelastic circular cylindrical shell subject to time-dependent internal pressure, and the residual stress of a morphoelastic planar circular shell.

  17. Alternative Storage Environments for Shelled Peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted in small chambers and commercial storage facilities to evaluate the effect of storing shelled peanuts at 3, 13, and 21 C (38, 55, 70 F) for one year. Shelled medium runner peanuts from the 2014 crop were placed in the three different environments in Feb 2015, sampled at 60-d ...

  18. A Well-Defined Bipolar Outflow Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Patel, Nimesh

    1992-12-01

    A well-defined "eggplant-shaped" thin shell is revealed in the Mon R2 central core region by CO and (13) CO J=1-0 maps obtained with QUARRY. This thin shell outlines the extended blue lobe of the massive bipolar outflow. The projected length and width of the shell are about 5.7 pc and 2.5 pc respectively, and the averaged projected thickness of the shell is ~ 0.3 pc. The shape of this shell can be satisfactorily accounted for quantitatively in terms of limb-brightening within the framework of the Shu et al shell model with radially directed wind, although the model seems to be oversimplified with respect to the complexity that our data reveal. The outflow shell's symmetry axis is estimated to be inclined by ~ 70(deg) with respect to the line of sight. We suggest that the coincident blue- and red-shifted emission and the bending of the red-shifted lobe are the result of the red-shifted shell being compressed, rather than having a second bipolar outflow aligned roughly perpendicular to the axis of the first bipolar outflow.

  19. Isotopic equilibrium between shells and their environement.

    PubMed

    Mook, W G; Vogel, J C

    1968-02-23

    The carbon-isotopic composition of shell carbonate is shown to be in isotopic equilibrium with bicarbonate dissolved in the water. By measurement of both 13C and 18O in a series of brackish-water shells a mean growth temperature can be deduced.

  20. Isothermal Circumstellar Dust Shell Model for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, G.; Towers, I. N.; Jovanoski, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of radiative transfer in circumstellar dust shells. By assuming that the shell is both isothermal and its thickness is small compared to its radius, the model is simple enough for students to grasp and yet still provides a quantitative description of the relevant physical features. The isothermal model can be used in a…

  1. Layzer type models for pressure driven shells

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O A

    2004-09-16

    Models for the nonlinear instability of finite thickness shells driven by pressure are constructed in the style of Layzer. Equations for both Cartesian and cylindrically convergent/divergent geometries are derived. The resulting equations are appropriate for incompressible shells with unity Atwood number. Predictions from the equations compare well with two-dimensional simulations.

  2. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  3. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Statistical Mechanics of Thin Spherical Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Košmrlj, Andrej; Nelson, David R.

    2017-01-01

    We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes, and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells, thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated "pressure." Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows nonlinearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power-law exponent that characterizes the response of fluctuating flat membranes to a uniform tension.

  5. Layzer type models for pressure driven shells

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O.A.

    2005-05-01

    Models for the nonlinear instability of finite thickness shells driven by pressure are constructed in the style of Layzer. Equations for both Cartesian and cylindrically convergent/divergent geometries are derived. The resulting equations are appropriate for incompressible shells with unity Atwood number. Predictions from the equations compare well with two-dimensional simulations.

  6. Faraday Wave Turbulence on a Spherical Liquid Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, R. Glynn; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1996-01-01

    Millimeter-radius liquid shells are acoustically levitated in an ultrasonic field. Capillary waves are observed on the shells. At low energies (minimal acoustic amplitude, thick shell) a resonance is observed between the symmetric and antisymmetric thin film oscillation modes. At high energies (high acoustic pressure, thin shell) the shell becomes fully covered with high-amplitude waves. Temporal spectra of scattered light from the shell in this regime exhibit a power-law decay indicative of turbulence.

  7. Variability in shell models of GRBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, M. C.; Fenimore, E. E.

    1997-01-01

    Many cosmological models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) assume that a single relativistic shell carries kinetic energy away from the source and later converts it into gamma rays, perhaps by interactions with the interstellar medium or by internal shocks within the shell. Although such models are able to reproduce general trends in GRB time histories, it is difficult to reproduce the high degree of variability often seen in GRBs. The authors investigate methods of achieving this variability using a simplified external shock model. Since the model emphasizes geometric and statistical considerations, rather than the detailed physics of the shell, it is applicable to any theory that relies on relativistic shells. They find that the variability in GRBs gives strong clues to the efficiency with which the shell converts its kinetic energy into gamma rays.

  8. Shell explores a cheaper route to MMA

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1993-02-17

    A novel methyl methacrylate (MMA) technology developed by Shell Research (Amsterdam) could be simpler and far cheaper than existing MMA manufacturing processes, according to a recent analysis by SRI International (Menlo Park, CA). The Shell palladium-catalyzed process makes MMA from methyl acetylene, avoiding the classic acetone cyanohydrin route. And, says Robert Schwaar, a senior SRI consultant, while availability of methyl acetylene feedstock may limit plant sizes, the Shell technology could make MMA for 44 cts/lb in a 100-million lbs/yr unit. Other commercial and developmental processes, he says, produce MMA at roughly 47 cts-58cts/lb in a 250-million lbs/yr plant. Shell-which is not an MMA producer-has not yet decided the technology's fate. The key question about Shell's process is whether producers can get enough cheap methyl acetylene. The technology calls for separating the methyl acetylene from the mixed C[sub 3] by-product stream.

  9. Engineered Magnetic Core-Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Alavi Nikje, Mir Mohammad; Vakili, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, engineered magnetic core-shell structures are playing an important role in the wide range of various applications. These magnetic core-shell structures have attracted considerable attention because of their unique properties and various applications. Also, the synthesis of engineered magnetic core-shell structures has attracted practical interest because of potential applications in areas such as ferrofluids, medical imaging, drug targeting and delivery, cancer therapy, separations, and catalysis. So far a large number of engineered magnetic core-shell structures have been successfully synthesized. This review article focuses on the recent progress in synthesis and characterization of engineered magnetic core-shell structures. Also, this review gives a brief description of the various application of these structures. It is hoped that this review will play some small part in helping future developments in important field.

  10. Buckling of axially compressed conical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.-H.; Katz, L.

    1980-01-01

    The buckling of a truncated elastic conical shell subjected to an axial compression is a classical problem in shell structures. The paper reinvestigates the buckling of an axially compressed truncated conical shell with rigid bulkheads. Two improvements are achieved. First, the condition that the total horizontal displacement must vanish due to rigid bulkhead and axisymmetry is treated as a constraint. This constraint is incorporated into the system through the use of the Lagrange multiplier; then the variational method is used to derive a complete set of boundary conditions for conical shells. Second, the stability is evaluated in the deformed state using the asymptotic solutions of the pair of Donnell-type equations for axisymmetric configuration. The results indicate that the buckling strength of conical shells depends mainly on the condition of the smaller end. In addition to the vertex angle, the distance ratio plays, at least, an equally important role.

  11. Semiclassical shell structure in rotating Fermi systems

    SciTech Connect

    Magner, A. G.; Sitdikov, A. S.; Khamzin, A. A.; Bartel, J.

    2010-06-15

    The collective moment of inertia is derived analytically within the cranking model for any rotational frequency of the harmonic-oscillator potential well and at a finite temperature. Semiclassical shell-structure components of the collective moment of inertia are obtained for any potential by using the periodic-orbit theory. We found semiclassically their relation to the free-energy shell corrections through the shell-structure components of the rigid-body moment of inertia of the statistically equilibrium rotation in terms of short periodic orbits. The shell effects in the moment of inertia exponentially disappear with increasing temperature. For the case of the harmonic-oscillator potential, one observes a perfect agreement of the semiclassical and quantum shell-structure components of the free energy and the moment of inertia for several critical bifurcation deformations and several temperatures.

  12. Ecology and shell chemistry of Loxoconcha matagordensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Kamiya, T.; Dwyer, G.S.; Belkin, H.; Vann, C.D.; Schwede, S.; Wagner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of the seasonal ecology and shell chemistry of the ostracode Loxoconcha matagordensis and related species of Loxoconcha from regions off eastern North America reveal that shell size and trace elemental (Mg/Ca ratio) composition are useful in paleothermometry using fossil populations. Seasonal sampling of populations from Chesapeake Bay, augmented by samples from Florida Bay, indicate that shell size is inversely proportional to water temperature and that Mg/Ca ratios are positively correlated with the water temperature in which the adult carapace was secreted. Microprobe analyses of sectioned valves reveal intra-shell variability in Mg/Ca ratios but this does not strongly influence the utility of whole shell Mg/Ca analyses for paleoclimate application.

  13. Variability in shell models of GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, M.C.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1997-09-01

    Many cosmological models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) assume that a single relativistic shell carries kinetic energy away from the source and later converts it into gamma rays, perhaps by interactions with the interstellar medium or by internal shocks within the shell. Although such models are able to reproduce general trends in GRB time histories, it is difficult to reproduce the high degree of variability often seen in GRBs. The authors investigate methods of achieving this variability using a simplified external shock model. Since the model emphasizes geometric and statistical considerations, rather than the detailed physics of the shell, it is applicable to any theory that relies on relativistic shells. They find that the variability in GRBs gives strong clues to the efficiency with which the shell converts its kinetic energy into gamma rays.

  14. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    DOE PAGES

    Herrmann, Enrico; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-11-22

    Here, we study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of super-symmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only d log-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N = 8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinitymore » are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in.« less

  15. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Enrico; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-11-22

    Here, we study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of super-symmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only d log-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N = 8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in.

  16. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-11-01

    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of super-symmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only d log-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for {N}=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in [1].

  17. The EOS TPC analysis shell

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.L.

    1991-03-01

    Key features of the general purpose event-based-data analysis shell (TAS) for the EOS TPC at LBL are described including the code development/code management procedures used. The architecture is designed with a view towards a distributed and multi-processing environment. TAS is interfaced seamlessly with the CERN PAW program and provides a consistent environment for both on-line and off-line analysis. The data model used is relational tables and the data structure definitions are maintained in a commercial database (INFORMIX). The interface for analysis modules is specified and enhances group participation in the development process. The use of commercial database as a data dictionary for both the table definitions and parameters used in the TAS kernel is extremely useful and productive. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  18. The structure of circumstellar shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.; Cobb, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Speckle-interferometric measurements are reported for the brightness distributions of the OH/IR stars OH 26.5 + 0.6 and IRC + 10420 at wavelengths which are near the center of and just outside the 10-micron absorption/emission feature produced by circumstellar dust. For OH 26.5 + 0.6, the angular size within the absorption feature is 0.50 + or - 0.02 arcsec, while the angular size outside the feature is less than 0.2 arcsec. For IRC + 10420, the angular sizes inside and outside the emission feature are both 0.42 + or - 0.02 arcsec. Simple models of the circumstellar shells are calculated which can account for the measured angular sizes and flux distributions of the objects. The models give the wavelength dependence of the opacity of the circumstellar material, which is quite different for the two objects.

  19. Electroformation of uranium hemispherical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S.L.; Redey, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Vissers, D.R.

    1989-11-01

    This effort was directed at developing an electrochemical process for forming uniform and dendrite-free deposits of uranium from molten salts. This process is to be used for the electroformation of free-standing hemispherical shells of uranium for nuclear applications. Electrodeposition of uranium onto a substrate was accomplished with a fused chloride mixture containing 42 wt% UCl{sub 3} and a fused chloride-fluoride mixture containing 4 wt % UF{sub 4}. Under pulsed potential control at 504{degree}C, the chloride-fluoride mixture yielded the widest range of plating conditions for which dendrites could be avoided. Bipolar current pulse plating with both electrolytes gave good results, and successful application of this technique to a large tubular cathode has been demonstrated. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Large ultrathin shelled drops produced via non-confined microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Ankur S; Josephides, Dimitris N; Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2015-02-02

    We present a facile approach for producing large and monodisperse core-shell drops with ultrathin shells using a single-step process. A biphasic compound jet is introduced into a quiescent third (outer) phase that ruptures to form core-shell drops. Ultrathin shelled drops could only be produced within a certain range of surfactant concentrations and flow rates, highlighting the effect of interfacial tension in engulfing the core in a thin shell. An increase in surfactant concentrations initially resulted in drops with thinner shells. However, the drops with thinnest shells were obtained at an optimum surfactant concentration, and a further increase in the surfactant concentrations increased the shell thickness. Highly monodisperse (coefficient of variation smaller than 3 %) core-shell drops with diameter of ∼200 μm-2 mm with shell thickness as small as ∼2 μm were produced. The resulting drops were stable enough to undergo polymerisation and produce ultrathin shelled capsules.

  1. Double Shell Plans and First Results from Outer Shell Keyhole Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. S.; Merritt, E. C.; Daughton, W. S.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Dodd, E. S.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H.; Robey, H. F.

    2016-10-01

    Double-shells are an alternative approach to achieving indirect drive ignition on NIF. These targets consist of a low-Z ablatively-driven outer shell that impacts a high-Z inner shell filled with DT fuel. In contrast to single-shell designs, double-shell targets burn the fuel via volume ignition, albeit with a lower gain. While double-shell capsules are complicated to fabricate, their design includes several beneficial metrics such as a low convergence pusher (C.R. < 10), low implosion speed (250 km/s), a simple few-ns laser drive in a vacuum hohlraum, less sensitivity to hohlraum asymmetries, and low expected laser-plasma instabilities. We describe plans for developing double shell capsule implosions on NIF, and discuss challenges as well as uncertainties and trade-offs in the physics issues compared to single-shells, such as sensitivity to hard x-ray preheat of the inner shell. First experimental results measuring hard x-ray preheat, shock breakout and shock symmetry from outer-shell experiments using the NIF Keyhole platform will be presented. Work performed under the auspices of DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. A comparison of shell theories for large-amplitude vibrations of circular cylindrical shells: Lagrangian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabili, M.

    2003-07-01

    Large-amplitude (geometrically non-linear) vibrations of circular cylindrical shells subjected to radial harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of the lowest resonances are investigated. The Lagrange equations of motion are obtained by an energy approach, retaining damping through Rayleigh's dissipation function. Four different non-linear thin shell theories, namely Donnell's, Sanders-Koiter, Flügge-Lur'e-Byrne and Novozhilov's theories, which neglect rotary inertia and shear deformation, are used to calculate the elastic strain energy. The formulation is also valid for orthotropic and symmetric cross-ply laminated composite shells. The large-amplitude response of perfect and imperfect, simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of the lowest natural frequency is computed for all these shell theories. Numerical responses obtained by using these four non-linear shell theories are also compared to results obtained by using the Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell equation of motion. A validation of calculations by comparison with experimental results is also performed. Both empty and fluid-filled shells are investigated by using a potential fluid model. The effects of radial pressure and axial load are also studied. Boundary conditions for simply supported shells are exactly satisfied. Different expansions involving from 14 to 48 generalized co-ordinates, associated with natural modes of simply supported shells, are used. The non-linear equations of motion are studied by using a code based on an arclength continuation method allowing bifurcation analysis.

  3. Heat conduction in plates and shells with emphasis on a conical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, M. B.

    This paper is concerned with analyzing heat conduction in rigid shell-like bodies. The thermal equations of the theory of a Cosserat surface are used to calculate the average (through-the-thickness) temperature and temperature gradient directly, without resorting to integration of three-dimensional results. Specific attention is focused on a conical shell. The conical shell is particularly interesting because it has a converging geometry, so that the shell near its tip is 'thick' even though the shell near its base may be 'thin'. Generalized constitutive equations are developed here in a consistent manner which include certain geometrical features of shells. These equations are tested by considering a number of problems of plates, circular cylindrical shells and spherical shells, and comparing the results with exact solutions. In all cases, satisfactory results are predicted even in the thick-shell limit. Finally, a problem of transient heat conduction in a conical shell is solved. It is shown that the thermal bending moment produced by the average temperature gradient is quite severe near the tip, and it attains its maximum value in a relatively short time.

  4. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10 percent at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  5. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of intraply hybrid composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right next to the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  6. Vacuum energy of a spherical plasma shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordag, M.; Khusnutdinov, N.

    2008-04-01

    We consider the vacuum energy of the electromagnetic field interacting with a spherical plasma shell together with a model for the classical motion of the shell. We calculate the heat kernel coefficients, especially that for the TM mode, and carry out the renormalization by redefining the parameters of the classical model. It turns out that this is possible and results in a model which, in the limit of the plasma shell becoming an ideal conductor, reproduces the vacuum energy found by Boyer in 1968.

  7. THE PYTHON SHELL FOR THE ORBIT CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Gorlov, Timofey V; Holmes, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    A development of a Python driver shell for the ORBIT simulation code is presented. The original ORBIT code uses the SuperCode shell to organize accelerator-related simulations. It is outdated, unsupported, and it is an obstacle to future code development. The necessity and consequences of replacing the old shell language are discussed. A set of core modules and extensions that are currently in PyORBIT are presented. They include particle containers, parsers for MAD and SAD lattice files, a Python wrapper for MPI libraries, space charge calculators, TEAPOT trackers, and a laser stripping extension module.

  8. Effective Interactions from No Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dikmen, E.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Barrett, B. R.; Navratil, P.; Vary, J. P.

    2008-11-11

    We construct the many-body effective Hamiltonian for pf-shell by carrying out 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}. NCSM calculations at the 2-body cluster level. We demonstrate how the effective Hamiltonian derived from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials for the 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} NCSM space should be modified to properly account for the many-body correlations produced by truncating to the major pf-shell. We obtain two-body effective interactions for the pf-shell by using direct projection and use them to reproduce the results of large scale NCSM for other light Ca isotopes.

  9. Vibration of fluid loaded conical shells.

    PubMed

    Caresta, Mauro; Kessissoglou, Nicole J

    2008-10-01

    An analytical model is presented to describe the vibration of a truncated conical shell with fluid loading in the low frequency range. The solution for the dynamic response of the shell is presented in the form of a power series. Fluid loading is taken into account by dividing the shell into narrow strips which are considered to be locally cylindrical. Analytical results are presented for different boundary conditions and have been compared with the computational results from a boundary element model. Limitations of the model to the low frequency range are discussed.

  10. Advances in shell side boiling of refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Ralph L.

    The design of shell and tube evaporators used in air conditioning and refrigeration applications is discussed. The heat exchanger geometry of interest involves evaporation or condensation on the shell side of a horizontal tube bundle. Enhanced heat transfer geometries are typically used for shell side evaporation and for forced convection to water on the tube side. Refrigerant boiling data and forced convection refrigerant boiling correlations are described. The refrigerants of interest include R-11, 12, 22, 123, and 134a. Thermal design methods for sizing of the evaporator and condenser are outlined. A computer model for prediction of the evaporator performance is described.

  11. Synthesis of stiffened shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Computer programs for the synthesis of shells of various configurations were developed. The conditions considered are: (1) uniform shells (mainly cones) using a membrane buckling analysis, (2) completely uniform shells (cones, spheres, toroidal segments) using linear bending prebuckling analysis, and (3) revision of second design process to reduce the number of design variables to about 30 by considering piecewise uniform designs. A perturbation formula was derived and this allows exact derivatives of the general buckling load to be computed with little additional computer time.

  12. Photon propagator in light-shell gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgi, Howard; Kestin, Greg; Sajjad, Aqil

    2016-05-01

    We derive the photon propagator in light-shell gauge (LSG) vμAμ=0 , where vμ=(1,r ^ ) μ . This gauge is an important ingredient of the light-shell effective theory—an effective theory for describing high energy jet processes on a 2-dimensional spherical shell expanding at the speed of light around the point of the initial collision producing the jets. Since LSG is a noncovariant gauge, we cannot calculate the LSG propagator by using the standard procedure for covariant gauges. We therefore employ a new technique for computing the propagator, which we hope may be of relevance in other gauges as well.

  13. Thermoelastic bending of locally heated orthotropic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Gol'tsev, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    The thermoelastic bending of locally heated orthotropic shells is studied using the classical theory of thermoelasticity of thin shallow orthotropic shells and the method of fundamental solutions. Linear distribution of temperature over thickness and the Newton's law of cooling are assumed. Numerical analysis is carried out for orthotropic shells of arbitrary Gaussian curvature made of a strongly anisotropic material. The behavior of thermal forces and moments near the zone of local heating is studied for two areas of thermal effect: along a coordinate axis and along a circle of unit radius. Generalized conclusions are drawn

  14. On the vibration of axisymmetric shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppler, G. R.; Wahl, L.

    1989-05-01

    The application of nonconventional basis functions to the linear vibration problem is explored. By employing shell coordinates the elements allow the exact geometrical modelling of shells of revolution with arbitrary meridians and the elements are able to reproduce strain free states under an arbitrary rigid body motion due to the use of these special basis functions. A generalization of the Reissner Mindlin plate theories is used because they have a broader range of applicability than the usual thin/shallow shell theories and also the trial functions need only be of class C(sup 0). The geometry treated is a hyperbola of revolution, in two configurations.

  15. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Rubín de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters.

  16. Laminated anisotropic reinforced plastic plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korolev, V. I.

    1981-01-01

    Basic technical theories and engineering calculation equations for anisotropic plates and shells made of rigid reinforced plastics, mainly laminated fiberglass, are presented and discussed. Solutions are given for many problems of design of structural plates and shells, including curved sections and tanks, as well as two chapters on selection of the optimum materials, are given. Accounting for interlayer shearing and transverse separation, which are new engineering properties, are discussed. Application of the results obtained to thin three ply plates and shells wth a light elastic filler is presented and discussed.

  17. Core/shell nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Sarkar, Sreerupa; Jagajjanani Rao, K; Paria, Santanu

    2014-07-01

    Nanoparticles have several exciting applications in different areas and biomedial field is not an exception of that because of their exciting performance in bioimaging, targeted drug and gene delivery, sensors, and so on. It has been found that among several classes of nanoparticles core/shell is most promising for different biomedical applications because of several advantages over simple nanoparticles. This review highlights the development of core/shell nanoparticles-based biomedical research during approximately past two decades. Applications of different types of core/shell nanoparticles are classified in terms of five major aspects such as bioimaging, biosensor, targeted drug delivery, DNA/RNA interaction, and targeted gene delivery.

  18. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-07-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits.

  19. Oyster Shell Proteins Originate from Multiple Organs and Their Probable Transport Pathway to the Shell Formation Front

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yabing; Du, Yishuai; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Yuanxin; Huang, Ronglian; Que, Huayong; Fang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Guofan

    2013-01-01

    Mollusk shell is one kind of potential biomaterial, but its vague mineralization mechanism hinders its further application. Mollusk shell matrix proteins are important functional components that are embedded in the shell, which play important roles in shell formation. The proteome of the oyster shell had been determined based on the oyster genome sequence by our group and gives the chance for further deep study in this area. The classical model of shell formation posits that the shell proteins are mantle-secreted. But, in this study, we further analyzed the shell proteome data in combination with organ transcriptome data and we found that the shell proteins may be produced by multiple organs though the mantle is still the most important organ for shell formation. To identify the transport pathways of these shell proteins not in classical model of shell formation, we conducted a shell damage experiment and we determined the shell-related gene set to identify the possible transport pathways from multiple organs to the shell formation front. We also found that there may exist a remodeling mechanism in the process of shell formation. Based on these results along with some published results, we proposed a new immature model, which will help us think about the mechanism of shell formation in a different way. PMID:23840499

  20. Synthesis of core-shell structured magnetic nanoparticles with a carbide shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shushan; Chi, Yue; Zhao, Zhankui

    2017-03-01

    Core-shell structured materials combining the functionalities of the core and shell have great application potential in many fields. In this work, by combining solvothermal, polymerization and the high temperature carbonization, we have successfully developed a facile method to generate core-shell structured nanoparticles which possess an internal magnetic nanoparticle with a carbide shell. The thickness of resorcinol formaldehyde resin as intermediate transition shell could be easily adjusted by changing the concentration of the RF precursor. The resulting nanoparticles possess well-defined structure, uniform size and high magnetization. The unique nanostructure of the magnetic core-shell structured nanoparticles could lead to many promising applications in areas ranging from drug delivery to the purifyication of sewage.

  1. Comparison on pore development of activated carbon produced from palm shell and coconut shell.

    PubMed

    Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan; Ali, Wan Shabuddin Wan

    2004-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to compare the pore development in palm-shell and coconut-shell-based activated carbons produced under identical experimental conditions. Carbonization and activation processes were carried out at 850 degrees C using a fluidized bed reactor. Within the range of burn-off studied, at any burn-off, the micropore and mesopore volumes created in palm-shell-based activated carbon were always higher than those of coconut-shell-based activated carbon. On macropore volume, for palm-shell-based activated carbon, the volume increased with increase in burn-off up to 30% and then decreased. However, for coconut-shell-based activated carbon, the change in macropore volume with burn-off was almost negligible but the absolute macropore volume decreased with burn-off.

  2. Acetabular shell deformation as a function of shell stiffness and bone strength.

    PubMed

    Dold, Philipp; Pandorf, Thomas; Flohr, Markus; Preuss, Roman; Bone, Martin C; Joyce, Tom J; Holland, James; Deehan, David

    2016-04-01

    Press-fit acetabular shells used for hip replacement rely upon an interference fit with the bone to provide initial stability. This process may result in deformation of the shell. This study aimed to model shell deformation as a process of shell stiffness and bone strength. A cohort of 32 shells with two different wall thicknesses (3 and 4 mm) and 10 different shell sizes (44- to 62-mm outer diameter) were implanted into eight cadavers. Shell deformation was then measured in the cadavers using a previously validated ATOS Triple Scan III optical system. The shell-bone interface was then considered as a spring system according to Hooke's law and from this the force exerted on the shell by the bone was calculated using a combined stiffness consisting of the measured shell stiffness and a calculated bone stiffness. The median radial stiffness for the 3-mm wall thickness was 4192 N/mm (range, 2920-6257 N/mm), while for the 4-mm wall thickness the median was 9633 N/mm (range, 6875-14,341 N/mm). The median deformation was 48 µm (range, 3-187 µm), while the median force was 256 N (range, 26-916 N). No statistically significant correlation was found between shell stiffness and deformation. Deformation was also found to be not fully symmetric (centres 180° apart), with a median angle discrepancy of 11.5° between the two maximum positive points of deformation. Further work is still required to understand how the bone influences acetabular shell deformation. © IMechE 2016.

  3. A circumferential crack in a cylindrical shell under tension.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan-Fama, M. E.; Sanders, J. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A closed cylindrical shell under uniform internal pressure has a slit around a portion of its circumference. Linear shallow shell theory predicts inverse square-root-type singularities in certain of the stresses at the crack tips. This paper reports the computed strength of these singularities for different values of a dimensionless parameter based on crack length, shell radius and shell thickness.

  4. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is shell Rent? 102... GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.120 What is shell Rent? Shell Rent is that portion of GSA Rent charged for the building envelope and land. (See § 102-85.35 for the definition of building shell.) ...

  5. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is shell Rent? 102... GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.120 What is shell Rent? Shell Rent is that portion of GSA Rent charged for the building envelope and land. (See § 102-85.35 for the definition of building shell.) ...

  6. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is shell Rent? 102... GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.120 What is shell Rent? Shell Rent is that portion of GSA Rent charged for the building envelope and land. (See § 102-85.35 for the definition of building shell.) ...

  7. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is shell Rent? 102... GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.120 What is shell Rent? Shell Rent is that portion of GSA Rent charged for the building envelope and land. (See § 102-85.35 for the definition of building shell.) ...

  8. Single Shell Tank (SST) Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    HAASS, C.C.

    2000-03-21

    This document provides an initial program plan for retrieval of the single-shell tank waste. Requirements, technical approach, schedule, organization, management, and cost and funding are discussed. The program plan will be refined and updated in fiscal year 2000.

  9. Magnetotelluric Sounding of Europa's Ice Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, R. E.; Delory, G. T.; Espley, J. R.; Stillman, D. E.

    2016-10-01

    A magnetometer alone in insufficient to determine thicknesses of water layers in the ice shell because electromagnetic souce geometry is indeterminate at the "high" frequencies ( 1 Hz) needed for adequate resolution.

  10. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  11. On the Calculation of Shallow Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambartsumyan, S. A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper considers a sufficiently thin shallow shell of nonzero Gaussian curvature. It also presents a system of symmetrically constructed differential equations, constructed by the mixed method through the stress function and the displpacement function.

  12. The stability of a collisionless cosmological shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Simon D. M.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The P3 M technique is used here to simulate the evolution of collisionless shells in an Omega = 1 universe. Starting from the spherical similarity solution, a bootstrap technique is used to follow the evolution over very large expansion factors. It is found that the overall structure follows the similarity solution for a long period during which bound clumps grow within the shell. At late times the growth of structure depends on induced velocity perturbations in material outside the shell. If such perturbations are suppressed, structure on the shell becomes self-similar. When induced motions in the background medium are included, the evolution at late times is dominated by large-scale modes as predicted by linear stability analysis. The stable final state appears to consist of one or two massive clumps on the edge of a spherical void. The possible application of these results to the origin of galaxies and large-scale structure is discussed.

  13. Hawking radiation from a collapsing quantum shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullin, Jorge; Eyheralde, Rodrigo; Gambini, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    We study Hawking radiation from a collapsing shell with uncertainty in its position and momentum. We see there are deviations from the usual spectrum early on in the evolution, tending asymptotically to the usual spectrum plus small corrections.

  14. Indentation of pressurized viscoplastic polymer spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, V.; Needleman, A.

    2016-08-01

    The indentation response of polymer spherical shells is investigated. Finite deformation analyses are carried out with the polymer characterized as a viscoelastic/viscoplastic solid. Both pressurized and unpressurized shells are considered. Attention is restricted to axisymmetric deformations with a conical indenter. The response is analyzed for various values of the shell thickness to radius ratio and various values of the internal pressure. Two sets of material parameters are considered: one set having network stiffening at a moderate strain and the other having no network stiffening until very large strains are attained. The transition from an indentation type mode of deformation to a structural mode of deformation involving bending that occurs as the indentation depth increases is studied. The results show the effects of shell thickness, internal pressure and polymer constitutive characterization on this transition and on the deformation modes in each of these regimes.

  15. Expanding and collapsing scalar field thin shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Abbas, G.

    2012-09-01

    This paper deals with the dynamics of scalar field thin shell in the Reissner-Nordstr öm geometry. The Israel junction conditions between Reissner-Nordstr öm spacetimes are derived, which lead to the equation of motion of scalar field shell and Klien-Gordon equation. These equations are solved numerically by taking scalar field model with the quadratic scalar potential. It is found that solution represents the expanding and collapsing scalar field shell. For the better understanding of this problem, we investigate the case of massless scalar field (by taking the scalar field potential zero). Also, we evaluate the scalar field potential when p is an explicit function of R. We conclude that both massless as well as massive scalar field shell can expand to infinity at constant rate or collapse to zero size forming a curvature singularity or bounce under suitable conditions.

  16. The photoproduction of circumstellar OH maser shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, P. J.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of OH shells formed from the photodestruction of H2O by ambient UV photons in the thick, expanding envelopes around cool evolved stars is investigated. The properties of the shells are governed mainly by the envelope shielding which in turn is primarily controlled by the mass-loss rate M. The peak OH densities and column densities through the shells are, respectively, slowly decreasing and increasing functions of M. The characteristic radii of the shells also depend on M, increasing from about 4(15) cm for M = 1(-6) solar mass/yr to about 1(17) cm for M = 1(-4) solar mass/yr; this dependence is well matched by recent observational data, and lends support to the OH photoproduction mechanism.

  17. Theory of conformational transitions of viral shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, Thomas; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2007-12-01

    We propose a continuum theory for the conformational transitions of viral shells. Conformational transitions of viral shells, as encountered during viral maturation, are associated with a soft mode instability of the capsid proteins [F. Tama and C. L. Brooks, J. Mol. Biol. 345(2), 299 (2005)]. The continuum theory presented here is an adaptation of the Ginzburg-Landau theory of soft-mode structural phase transitions of solids to viral shells. The theory predicts that the conformational transitions are characterized by a pronounced softening of the shell elasticity in the critical region. We demonstrate that the thermodynamics of the conformational transition can be probed quantitatively by a micromechanical atomic force microscope study. The external force can drive a capsid into a state of phase coexistence characterized by a highly nonlinear force deformation curve.

  18. Shell deformation studies using holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmerter, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The buckling of shallow spherical shells under pressure has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental papers. Experimental data above the theoretical buckling load of Huang have given rise to speculation that shallow shell theory may not adequately predict the stability of nonsymmetric modes in higher-rise shells which are normally classified as shallow by the Reissner criterion. This article considers holographic interferometry as a noncontact, high-resolution method of measuring prebuckling deformations. Prebuckling deformations of a lambda = 9, h/b = 0.038 shell are Fourier-analyzed. Buckling is found to occur in an N = 5 mode as predicted by Huang's theory. The N = 4 mode was unusually stable, suggesting that even at this low value of h/b, stabilizing effects may be at work.

  19. Design of efficient stiffened shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumder, D. K.; Thornton, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method to produce efficient piecewise uniform stiffened shells of revolution is presented. The approach uses a first order differential equation formulation for the shell prebuckling and buckling analyses and the necessary conditions for an optimum design are derived by a variational approach. A variety of local yielding and buckling constraints and the general buckling constraint are included in the design process. The local constraints are treated by means of an interior penalty function and the general buckling load is treated by means of an exterior penalty function. This allows the general buckling constraint to be included in the design process only when it is violated. The self-adjoint nature of the prebuckling and buckling formulations is used to reduce the computational effort. Results for four conical shells and one spherical shell are given.

  20. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  1. Rotating Curiosity Back Shell Powered Descent Vehicle

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-05

    At the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the back shell powered descent vehicle configuration of NASA Mars Science Laboratory is being rotated for final closeout actions.

  2. Connecting Curiosity Heat Shield and Back Shell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-05

    At the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the back shell powered descent vehicle configuration, containing NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is being placed on the spacecraft heat shield.

  3. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Valving Specification

    SciTech Connect

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2001-01-17

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Valving Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  4. Environmental history told by mussel shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindh, Ulf; Mutvei, Harry; Sunde, Torbjörn; Westermark, Torbjörn

    1988-03-01

    Each year a mussel produces an incremental layer of its shell composed mainly of calcium carbonate and a small fraction of organic substance. Many other elements are simultaneously deposited in these annual layers and are assumed to be essentially immobile. Although use of shells of bivalves has been suggested for monitoring metals in natural waters, little is known of the relationship of environmental conditions and age of molluscs with the concentration and distribution of elements in the shell. The nuclear microprobe was used to determine the temporal history of concentrations of elements in a shell of the freshwater mussel Anodonta. The high spatial (3 μm) resolution allowed analyses within parts of single years.

  5. Membrane Shell Reflector Segment Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    The mesh reflector is the only type of large, in-space deployable antenna that has successfully flown in space. However, state-of-the-art large deployable mesh antenna systems are RF-frequency-limited by both global shape accuracy and local surface quality. The limitations of mesh reflectors stem from two factors. First, at higher frequencies, the porosity and surface roughness of the mesh results in loss and scattering of the signal. Second, the mesh material does not have any bending stiffness and thus cannot be formed into true parabolic (or other desired) shapes. To advance the deployable reflector technology at high RF frequencies from the current state-of-the-art, significant improvements need to be made in three major aspects: a high-stability and highprecision deployable truss; a continuously curved RF reflecting surface (the function of the surface as well as its first derivative are both continuous); and the RF reflecting surface should be made of a continuous material. To meet these three requirements, the Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) antenna was developed.

  6. Shape Transformations of Epithelial Shells

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Mahim; Audoly, Basile; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2016-01-01

    Regulated deformations of epithelial sheets are frequently foreshadowed by patterning of their mechanical properties. The connection between patterns of cell properties and the emerging tissue deformations is studied in multiple experimental systems, but the general principles remain poorly understood. For instance, it is in general unclear what determines the direction in which the patterned sheet is going to bend and whether the resulting shape transformation will be discontinuous or smooth. Here these questions are explored computationally, using vertex models of epithelial shells assembled from prismlike cells. In response to rings and patches of apical cell contractility, model epithelia smoothly deform into invaginated or evaginated shapes similar to those observed in embryos and tissue organoids. Most of the observed effects can be captured by a simpler model with polygonal cells, modified to include the effects of the apicobasal polarity and natural curvature of epithelia. Our models can be readily extended to include the effects of multiple constraints and used to describe a wide range of morphogenetic processes. PMID:27074691

  7. Silica shell/gold core nanoparticles: correlating shell thickness with the plasmonic red shift upon aggregation.

    PubMed

    Vanderkooy, Alan; Chen, Yang; Gonzaga, Ferdinand; Brook, Michael A

    2011-10-01

    Differences in the wavelengths of the surface plasmon band of gold nanoparticles (AuNP)--before and after particle aggregation--are widely used in bioanalytical assays. However, the gold surfaces in such bioassays can suffer from exchange and desorption of noncovalently bound ligands and from nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. Silica shells on the surfaces of the gold can extend the available surface chemistries for bioconjugation and potentially avoid these issues. Therefore, silica was grown on gold surfaces using either hydrolysis/condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate 1 under basic conditions or diglyceroxysilane 2 at neutral pH. The former precursor permitted slow, controlled growth of shells from about 1.7 to 4.3 nm thickness. By contrast, 3-4 nm thick silica shells formed within an hour using diglyceroxysilane; thinner or thicker shells were not readily available. Within the range of shell thicknesses synthesized, the presence of a silica shell on the gold nanoparticle did not significantly affect the absorbance maximum (~5 nm) of unaggregated particles. However, the change in absorbance wavelength upon aggregation of the particles was highly dependent on the thickness of the shell. With silica shells coating the AuNP, there was a significant decrease in the absorbance maximum of the aggregated particles, from ~578 to ~536 nm, as the shell thicknesses increased from ~1.7 to ~4.3 nm, because of increased distance between adjacent gold cores. These studies provide guidance for the development of colorimetric assays using silica-coated AuNP.

  8. Experimental study of upper sd shell nuclei and evolution of sd-fp shell gap

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, M. Saha

    2012-06-27

    The intruder orbitals from the fp shell play important role in the structure of nuclei around the line of stability in the upper sd shell. Experimentally we have studied {sup 35}Cl, {sup 30}P, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 37}Ar and {sup 34}Cl in this mass region using the INGA setup. Large basis cross-shell shell model calculations have indicated the need for change of the sd-fp energy gap for reliable reproduction of negative parity and high spin positive parity states. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. Theoretical interpretation of these states has been discussed.

  9. Limpets counteract ocean acidification induced shell corrosion by thickening of aragonitic shell layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, G.; Nehrke, G.; Baggini, C.; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.; Bijma, J.

    2014-12-01

    Specimens of the patellogastropod limpet Patella caerulea were collected within (pHlow-shells) and outside (pHn-shells) a CO2 vent site at Ischia, Italy. Four pHlow-shells and four pHn-shells were sectioned transversally and scanned for polymorph distribution by means of confocal Raman microscopy. The pHlow-shells displayed a twofold increase in aragonite area fraction and size-normalised aragonite area. Size-normalised calcite area was halved in pHlow-shells. Taken together with the increased apical and the decreased flank size-normalised thickness of the pHlow-shells, these data led us to conclude that low-pH-exposed P. caerulea specimens counteract shell dissolution by enhanced shell production. This is different from normal elongation growth and proceeds through addition of aragonitic parts only, while the production of calcitic parts is confined to elongation growth. Therefore, aragonite cannot be regarded as a disadvantageous polymorph per se under ocean acidification conditions.

  10. Limpets counteract ocean acidification induced shell corrosion by thickening of aragonitic shell layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, G.; Nehrke, G.; Baggini, C.; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Hall-Spencer, J.; Bijma, J.

    2014-08-01

    Specimens of the patellogastropod limpet Patella caerulea were collected within (pHlow-shells) and outside (pHn-shells) a CO2 vent site at Ischia, Italy. Four pHlow-shells and four pHn-shells were sectioned transversally and scanned for polymorph distribution by means of confocal Raman microscopy. The pHlow-shells displayed a twofold increase in aragonite area fraction and size normalised aragonite area. Size normalised calcite area was halved in pHlow-shells. Taken together with the increased apical and the decreased flank size normalised thickness of the pHlow-shells, these data led us to conclude that low pH exposed P. caerulea specimens counteract shell dissolution by enhanced shell production. The latter is different from normal elongation growth and proceeds through addition of aragonitic layers only, while the production of calcitic layers is confined to elongation growth. Therefore aragonite cannot be regarded as a per se disadvantageous polymorph under ocean acidification conditions.

  11. Au/SiO2/QD core/shell/shell nanostructures with plasmonic-enhanced photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Ando, Masanori; Murase, Norio

    2012-09-01

    A sol-gel method has been developed to fabricate Au/SiO2/quantum dot (QD) core-shell-shell nanostructures with plasmonic-enhanced photoluminescence (PL). Au nanoparticle (NP) was homogeneously coated with a SiO2 shell with adjusted thickness through a Stöber synthesis. When the toluene solution of hydrophobic CdSe/ZnS QDs was mixed with partially hydrolyzed 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) sol, the ligands on the QDs were replaced by a thin functional SiO2 layer because the amino group in partially hydrolyzed APS has strong binding interaction with the QDs. Partially hydrolyzed APS plays an important role as a thin functional layer for the transfers of QDs to water phase and the subsequent connection to aqueous SiO2-coated Au NPs. Although Au NPs were demonstrated as efficient PL quenchers when the SiO2 shell on the Au NPs is thin (less than 5 nm), we found that precise control of the spacing between the Au NP core and the QD shell resulted in QDs with an enhancement of 30 % of PL efficiency. The Au/SiO2/QD core/shell/shell nanostructures also reveal strong surface plasmon scattering, which makes the Au/SiO/QD core-shell-shell nanostructures an excellent dual-modality imaging probe. This technology can serve as a general route for encapsulating a variety of discrete nanomaterials because monodispersed nanostructures often have a similar surface chemistry.

  12. Understanding the Mechanisms of Gold Shell Growth onto Polymer Microcapsules to Control Shell Thickness.

    PubMed

    Tasker, Alison L; Hitchcock, James; Baxter, Elaine A; Cayre, Dr Olivier J; Biggs, Simon

    2017-07-04

    Polymer microcapsules have been used commercially for decades, however they have an inherent flaw which renders them impractical as a carrier of small, volatile molecules. The porous nature of the polymer shell allows for diffusion of the encapsulated molecules into the bulk. The use of metal shells is an innovative way to prevent undesired loss of small molecules from the core of microcapsules, however it is important, particularly when using expensive metals to ensure that the resulting shell is as thin as possible. Here we investigate the fundamental mechanisms controlling the gold shell thickness when a fragrance oil is encapsulated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) shell. We consider the distribution of the nanoparticles on the capsule surface, and from quantification of the adsorbed nanoparticle (NP) density and resulting shell thickness, we propose mechanisms to describe the gold shell growth for systems with high and low NP surface coverage. We suggest from our observations that the gold grows to fill in the gaps between NPs. At low NP concentrations, thicker metal shells form. We postulate that this is due to the low NP density on the surface, forcing the gold clusters to grow larger before they meet the adjacent ones. Thus, to grow the thinnest possible shells a densely packed monolayer of platinum nanoparticles is required on the capsule surface. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailaku, SI; Syakir, M.; Mulyawanti, I.; Syah, ANA

    2017-06-01

    Coconut shell liquid smoke is produced from the pyrolysis and condensation of smoke from the burning process of coconut shell. It is known to have considerably high content of polyphenol. Beside acting as antioxidant, polyphenol is also a good antimicrobial. This research was conducted in order to study the antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke. Coconut shell liquid smoke used in this study was produced from three different processing stages, which obtained three different grades of liquid smoke (grade 1, 2 and 3). Each sample of coconut shell liquid smoke was extracted using ethyl alcohol and petroleum ether. The extract was then analyzed for its antimicrobial activity against S. aereus, E. coli and C. albicans using well diffusion method. Total phenol and microbial microscopic structure of the liquid smoke were also examined. The results showed that there was influence of coconut shell liquid smoke on the inhibition of S. aureus, E. coli and C. albican growth. This fact was marked by the forming of clear area surrounding the well on the dish agar media. The highest percentage of inhibition showed by the extract of grade 3 coconut shell liquid smoke. This may be explained by the highest total phenol content in grade 3 liquid smoke. Microscopic examination showed that there was a breakage of microbial cell walls caused by the antimicrobial property of the liquid smoke. It was concluded that coconut shell liquid smoke was beneficial as antimicrobial agent, and while all grades of liquid smoke contains polyphenol, the content was influenced by the processing stage and thus influenced its level of microbial growth inhibition.

  14. Kramers' Restricted Closed Shell CCSD Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, Lucas; Dyall, Kenneth G.; Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A Kramers' restricted version of the closed shell coupled cluster singles doubles theory is presented. The theory may be used in conjunction with 2 or 4-component relativistic reference wavefunctions. The intrinsic treatment of the spin-orbit coupling doubles the number of independent quantities (amplitudes and integrals) relative to a spin-independent formalism. The number of operations required to evaluate the equations is four times larger than in the optimal spin-independent closed shell formalism.

  15. Double shell tank waste analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mulkey, C.H.; Jones, J.M.

    1994-12-15

    Waste analysis plan for the double shell tanks. SD-WM-EV-053 is Superseding SD-WM-EV-057.This document provides the plan for obtaining information needed for the safe waste handling and storage of waste in the Double Shell Tank Systems. In Particular it addresses analysis necessary to manage waste according to Washington Administrative Code 173-303 and Title 40, parts 264 and 265 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

  16. Trapping of intense light in hollow shell

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Shixia; Yu, Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Weng, Suming; Wang, Jingwei; Xu, Han; Zhuo, Hongbin; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-09-15

    A small hollow shell for trapping laser light is proposed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation shows that under appropriate laser and plasma conditions a part of the radiation fields of an intense short laser pulse can enter the cavity of a small shell through an over-critical density plasma in an adjacent guide channel and become trapped. The trapped light evolves into a circulating radial wave pattern until its energy is dissipated.

  17. Shell model for buoyancy-driven turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra K

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present a unified shell model for stably stratified and convective turbulence. Numerical simulation of this model for stably stratified flow shows Bolgiano-Obukhbov scaling in which the kinetic energy spectrum varies as k(-11/5). The shell model of convective turbulence yields Kolmogorov's spectrum. These results are consistent with the energy flux and energy feed due to buoyancy, and are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations of Kumar et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 023016 (2014)].

  18. New developments of the nuclear shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, Alfredo

    2002-04-01

    More than fifty years ago, the independent particle model of the nucleus was proposed by M. Goeppert-Mayer and H. Jensen. The label "shell model" has since changed meaning and nowadays it applies mainly to the description of the nucleus that results of the mixing of many Slater determinants by an effective "in medium" interaction, usually limited to one and two-body terms. The advent of efficient new algorithms to solve the secular problem, together with the increase in speed and storage capacity of modern computers, has brought into the reach of large scale shell model calculations entire regions of nuclei and of nuclear phenomena traditionally considered to be out of the shell model realm. This enormous extension of its field of practical applications has occurred simultaneously with a regain of experimental interest in the nuclear spectroscopy, in particular in very neutron rich and N=Z nuclei. The shell model work in large model spaces demands a very complete understanding of the effective nuclear interaction, a basic goal of the nuclear theory. Besides, the huge increase of dimensionality that occurs when many valence orbits and valence particles are involved, is a formidable challenge for both the direct diagonalization shell model codes and for the many different approximations, based most often in physically guided truncations of the full shell model basis. In this talk I aim to transmit the effervescence of the field by highlighting the most important recent advances and applications.

  19. Distributed neural signals on parabolic cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. D.; Li, H.; Tzou, H. S.

    2013-06-01

    Parabolic cylindrical shells are commonly used as key components in communication antennas, space telescopes, solar collectors, etc. This study focuses on distributed modal neural sensing signals on a flexible simply-supported parabolic cylindrical shell panel. The parabolic cylindrical shell is fully laminated with a piezoelectric layer on its outer surface and the piezoelectric layer is segmented into infinitesimal elements (neurons) to investigate the microscopic distributed neural sensing signals. Since the dominant vibration component of the shell is usually the transverse oscillation, a new transverse mode shape function is defined. Two shell cases, i.e., the ratio of the meridian height to the half span distance of a parabola at 1:4 (shallow) and 1:1 (deep), are studied to reveal the curvature effect to the neural sensing signals. Studies suggest that the membrane signal component dominates for lower natural modes and the bending signal component dominates for higher natural modes. The meridional membrane and bending signal components are mostly concentrated on the high-curvature areas, while the longitudinal bending component is mostly concentrated on the relatively flat areas. The concentration behavior becomes more prominent as the parabolic cylindrical shell deepens, primarily resulting from the enhanced membrane effect due to the increased curvature.

  20. Buckling of conical shell with local imperfections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Dexter, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    Small geometric imperfections in thin-walled shell structures can cause large reductions in buckling strength. Most imperfections found in structures are neither axisymmetric nor have the shape of buckling modes but rather occur locally. This report presents the results of a study of the effect of local imperfections on the critical buckling load of a specific axially compressed thin-walled conical shell. The buckling calculations were performed by using a two-dimensional shell analysis program referred to as the STAGS (Structural Analysis of General Shells) computer code, which has no axisymmetry restrictions. Results show that the buckling load found from a bifurcation buckling analysis is highly dependent on the circumferential arc length of the imperfection type studied. As the circumferential arc length of the imperfection is increased, a reduction of up to 50 percent of the critical load of the perfect shell can occur. The buckling load of the cone with an axisymmetric imperfections is nearly equal to the buckling load of imperfections which extended 60 deg or more around the circumference, but would give a highly conservative estimate of the buckling load of a shell with an imperfection of a more local nature.

  1. Physics Considerations for Double-Shell Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughton, W.; Montgomery, D. S.; Wilson, D.; Simakov, A.; Dodd, E.; Merritt, L.; Cardenas, T.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S.

    2016-10-01

    Double-shell capsules offer an alternative approach for achieving burn on the National Ignition Facility. These capsules consist of a low-Z ablatively driven outer shell that converges a factor of 3 before colliding with a high-Z inner shell filled with liquid DT. Such targets permit short simple laser pulses using near vacuum hohlraum conditions, which have been shown to eliminate laser plasma instabilities, resulting in good coupling efficiency. The adiabat of the fuel is set predominantly by a single strong shock, followed by the nearly adiabatic compression of the fuel volume by a convergence ratio of 9 . In this talk, we present some key physics consideration for double-shell targets, including design constraints for optimizing the kinetic energy transfer to the inner shell. These basics considerations are confirmed by a series of 1D simulations, resulting in several optimized point designs. Two-dimensional simulations are employed to evaluate the influence of low-mode asymmetries, as well as the stability of both the outer and inner shells as the implosion proceeds.

  2. Core-Shell Structured Magnetic Ternary Nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Xin; Luo, Jin; Wanjala, Bridgid N.; Wang, Chong M.; Chernova, Natalya; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Yao; Bae, In-Tae; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2010-12-01

    While transition metal-doped ferrite nanoparticles constitute an important class of soft magnetic nanomaterials with spinel structures, the ability to control the shape and composition would enable a wide range of applications in homogeneous or heterogeneous reactions such as catalysis and magnetic separation of biomolecules. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of core-shell structured MnZn ferrite nanocubes synthesized in organic solvents by manipulating the reaction temperature and capping agent composition in the absence of the conventionally-used reducing agents. The core-shell structure of the highly-monodispersed nanocubes (~20 nm) are shown to consist of an Fe3O4 core and an (Mn0.5Zn0.5)(Fe0.9, Mn1.1)O4 shell. In comparison with Fe3O4 and other binary ferrite nanoparticles, the core-shell structured nanocubes were shown to display magnetic properties regulated by a combination of the core-shell composition, leading to a higher coercivity (~350 Oe) and field-cool/zero-field-cool characteristics drastically different from many regular MnZn ferrite nanoparticles. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique core-shell composition, the understanding of which has important implication to the exploration of this class of soft magnetic nanomaterials in many potential applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fuel cells, and batteries.

  3. Experiments on shells under base excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicano, Francesco; Barbieri, Marco; Zippo, Antonio; Strozzi, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present paper is a deep experimental investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of circular cylindrical shells. The specific problem regards the response of circular cylindrical shells subjected to base excitation. The shells are mounted on a shaking table that furnishes a vertical vibration parallel to the cylinder axis; a heavy rigid disk is mounted on the top of the shells. The base vibration induces a rigid body motion, which mainly causes huge inertia forces exerted by the top disk to the shell. In-plane stresses due to the aforementioned inertias give rise to impressively large vibration on the shell. An extremely violent dynamic phenomenon suddenly appears as the excitation frequency varies up and down close to the linear resonant frequency of the first axisymmetric mode. The dynamics are deeply investigated by varying excitation level and frequency. Moreover, in order to generalise the investigation, two different geometries are analysed. The paper furnishes a complete dynamic scenario by means of: (i) amplitude frequency diagrams, (ii) bifurcation diagrams, (iii) time histories and spectra, (iv) phase portraits and Poincaré maps. It is to be stressed that all the results presented here are experimental.

  4. Controllable self-assembly of amphiphilic macrocycles into closed-shell and open-shell vesicles, nanotubes, and fibers.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Atanu; Panda, Dillip K; Corson, Lucas J; Saha, Sourav

    2013-05-21

    Depending on functional groups, amphiphilic hexaamide macrocycles self-assemble into closed-shell and open-shell vesicles in polar solvents. In the presence of water, open-shell vesicles morph into closed-shell vesicles, whereas acidification of the medium transforms vesicles into nanotubes and fibers.

  5. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9 cm...

  6. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9 cm...

  7. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9 cm...

  8. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9 cm...

  9. Adsorption of volatile organic compounds by pecan shell- and almond shell-based granular activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Bansode, R R; Losso, J N; Marshall, W E; Rao, R M; Portier, R J

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of using pecan and almond shell-based granular activated carbons (GACs) in the adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of health concern and known toxic compounds (such as bromo-dichloromethane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloromethane, chloroform, and 1,1-dichloromethane) compared to the adsorption efficiency of commercially used carbons (such as Filtrasorb 200, Calgon GRC-20, and Waterlinks 206C AW) in simulated test medium. The pecan shell-based GACs were activated using steam, carbon dioxide or phosphoric acid. An almond shell-based GAC was activated with phosphoric acid. Our results indicated that steam- or carbon dioxide-activated pecan shell carbons were superior in total VOC adsorption to phosphoric acid-activated pecan shell or almond shell carbons, inferring that the method of activation selected for the preparation of activated carbons affected the adsorption of VOCs and hence are factors to be considered in any adsorption process. The steam-activated, pecan shell carbon adsorbed more total VOCs than the other experimental carbons and had an adsorption profile similar to the two coconut shell-based commercial carbons, but had greater adsorption than the coal-based commercial carbon. All the carbons studied adsorbed benzene more effectively than the other organics. Pecan shell, steam-activated and acid-activated GACs showed higher adsorption of 1,1,1-trichloroethane than the other carbons studied. Multivariate analysis was conducted to group experimental carbons and commercial carbons based on their physical, chemical, and adsorptive properties. The results of the analysis conclude that steam-activated and acid-activated pecan shell carbons clustered together with coal-based and coconut shell-based commercial carbons, thus inferring that these experimental carbons could potentially be used as alternative sources for VOC adsorption in an aqueous environment.

  10. Nanorod and Nanoparticle Shells in Concentration Gradient Core–Shell Lithium Oxides for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sung-June; Myung, Seung-Taek; Noh, Hyung-Joo; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2014-12-01

    The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core–shell (CGCS) particles with different shell morphologies were evaluated and compared. We modified the shell morphology from nanoparticles to nanorods, because nanorods can result in a reduced surface area of the shell such that the outer shell would have less contact with the corrosive electrolyte, resulting in improved electrochemical properties. Electron microscopy studies coupled with electron probe X-ray micro-analysis revealed the presence of a concentration gradient shell consisting of nanoparticles and nanorods before and after thermal lithiation at high temperature. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data and the chemical analysis results showed no variations of the lattice parameters and chemical compositions of both produced CGCS particles except for the degree of cation mixing (or exchange) in Li and transition metal layers. As anticipated, the dense nanorods present in the shell gave rise to a high tap density (2.5 g cm3 ) with a reduced pore volume and surface area. Intimate contact among the nanorods is likely to improve the resulting electric conductivity. As a result, the CGCS Li[Ni0.60Co0.15Mn0.25]O2 with the nanorod shell retained approximately 85.5% of its initial capacity over 150 cycles in the range of 2.7–4.5 V at 608C. The charged electrode consisting of Li0.16[Ni0.60Co0.15Mn0.25]O2 CGCS particles with the nanorod shell also displayed a main exothermic reaction at 279.48C releasing 751.7 J g1 of heat. Due to the presence of the nanorod shell in the CGCS particles, the electrochemical and thermal properties are substantially superior to those of the CGCS particles with the nanoparticle shell.

  11. Adaptation from restricted geometries: the shell inclination of terrestrial gastropods.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Ryoko; Chiba, Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    The adaptations that occur for support and protection can be studied with regard to the optimal structure that balances these objectives with any imposed constraints. The shell inclination of terrestrial gastropods is an appropriate model to address this problem. In this study, we examined how gastropods improve shell angles to well-balanced ones from geometrically constrained shapes. Our geometric analysis and physical analysis showed that constantly coiled shells are constrained from adopting a well-balanced angle; the shell angle of such basic shells tends to increase as the spire index (shell height/width) increases, although the optimum angle for stability is 90° for flat shells and 0° for tall shells. Furthermore, we estimated the influences of the geometric rule and the functional demands on actual shells by measuring the shell angles of both resting and active snails. We found that terrestrial gastropods have shell angles that are suited for balance. The growth lines of the shells indicated that this adaptation depends on the deflection of the last whorl: the apertures of flat shells are deflected downward, whereas those of tall shells are deflected upward. Our observations of active snails demonstrated that the animals hold their shells at better balanced angles than inactive snails.

  12. Sound Transmission through Two Concentric Cylindrical Sandwich Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Silcox, Richard J.; Robinson, Jay H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of sound transmission through a system of two infinite concentric cylindrical sandwich shells. The shells are surrounded by external and internal fluid media and there is fluid (air) in the annular space between them. An oblique plane sound wave is incident upon the surface of the outer shell. A uniform flow is moving with a constant velocity in the external fluid medium. Classical thin shell theory is applied to the inner shell and first-order shear deformation theory is applied to the outer shell. A closed form for transmission loss is derived based on modal analysis. Investigations have been made for the impedance of both shells and the transmission loss through the shells from the exterior into the interior. Results are compared for double sandwich shells and single sandwich shells. This study shows that: (1) the impedance of the inner shell is much smaller than that of the outer shell so that the transmission loss is almost the same in both the annular space and the interior cavity of the shells; (2) the two concentric sandwich shells can produce an appreciable increase of transmission loss over single sandwich shells especially in the high frequency range; and (3) design guidelines may be derived with respect to the noise reduction requirement and the pressure in the annular space at a mid-frequency range.

  13. Nanostructure and composition of bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Soldati, A. L.; Wirth, R.; Huth, J.; Wehrmeister, U.; Hofmeister, W.

    2009-04-01

    Shells and pearls of unionid mussels (Hyriopsis cumingii, Margaritifera margaritifera, Diplodon chilensis patagonicus) were studied by high resolution microbeam methods and -computer tomography to gather insight into the nanostructure and chemical composition of nacre and prism layers. Natural and cultured pearls are formed by many mollusc species and their generation is very similar to that of shells resulting in identical prismatic and nacreous structures of shells and pearls. Basic difference is, however that pearl culturing methods induce biomineralisation of CaCO3 around a crystalline bead which results in a reverse structural organisation compared to bivalve shells. Bivalve shell growth starts from a thick organic matrix (the periostracum; Eyster and Morse, 1984) which is followed towards the inside by two variously thick layers consisting of prismatic CaCO3 aggregations and layers of CaCO3 platelets, respectively. Platelets and prisms are individually covered by a chitinous organic matrix which lends structural support and is thought to exert control over the mineralization process. The minerals within the organic sheaths are highly-aligned poly-twinned crystals with a slightly distorted lattice due to inclusions of organic molecules (Pokroy et al., 2006). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman Microscopy analyses of the shells and pearls show that both structures, prisms and platelets, consist of nanometre-sized organic membrane-coated granules of CaCO3 (Jacob et al., 2008). In the vicinity of the periostracum, the granules consist of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), but the crystallinity increases with increasing distance from the periostracum. The transition from disordered (amorphous) to crystalline CaCO3 is gradual within a few micrometers and coincides with a decrease in porosity. Concentrations of sulphur and phosphorus are higher in ACC than in aragonite indicating a

  14. Supercooling Self-Assembly of Magnetic Shelled Core/Shell Supraparticles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaotong; Yan, Bingyun; Wu, Fengluan; Zhang, Jinlong; Qu, Shuxin; Zhou, Shaobing; Weng, Jie

    2016-09-14

    Molecular self-assembly has emerged as a powerful technique for controlling the structure and properties of core/shell structured supraparticles. However, drug-loading capacities and therapeutic effects of self-assembled magnetic core/shell nanocarriers with magnetic nanoparticles in the core are limited by the intervention of the outer organic or inorganic shell, the aggregation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, the narrowed inner cavity, etc. Here, we present a self-assembly approach based on rebalancing hydrogen bonds between components under a supercooling process to form a new core/shell nanoscale supraparticle with magnetic nanoparticles as the shell and a polysaccharide as a core. Compared with conventional iron oxide nanoparticles, this magnetic shelled core/shell nanoparticle possesses an optimized inner cavity and a loss-free outer magnetic property. Furthermore, we find that the drug-loaded magnetic shelled nanocarriers showed interesting in vitro release behaviors at different pH conditions, including "swelling-broken", "dissociating-broken", and "bursting-broken" modes. Our experiments demonstrate the novel design of the multifunctional hybrid nanostructure and provide a considerable potential for the biomedical applications.

  15. Revisiting chameleon gravity: Thin-shell and no-shell fields with appropriate boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2008-10-15

    We derive analytic solutions of a chameleon scalar field {phi} that couples to a nonrelativistic matter in the weak gravitational background of a spherically symmetric body, paying particular attention to a field mass m{sub A} inside of the body. The standard thin-shell field profile is recovered by taking the limit m{sub A}r{sub c}{yields}{infinity}, where r{sub c} is a radius of the body. We show the existence of 'no-shell' solutions where the field is nearly frozen in the whole interior of the body, which does not necessarily correspond to the 'zero-shell' limit of thin-shell solutions. In the no-shell case, under the condition m{sub A}r{sub c}>>1, the effective coupling of {phi} with matter takes the same asymptotic form as that in the thin-shell case. We study experimental bounds coming from the violation of equivalence principle as well as solar-system tests for a number of models including f(R) gravity and find that the field is in either the thin-shell or the no-shell regime under such constraints, depending on the shape of scalar-field potentials. We also show that, for the consistency with local gravity constraints, the field at the center of the body needs to be extremely close to the value {phi}{sub A} at the extremum of an effective potential induced by the matter coupling.

  16. Cluster aspects of p-shell and sd-shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kanada-En'yo, Y.; Kobayashi, F.; Suhara, T.; Kimura, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2011-05-06

    We report some topics on cluster structures studied by using a theoretical method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics(AMD). Cluster features of p-shell and sd-shell nuclei are discussed. In particular, three alpha cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 12}C and {sup 14}C are focused. Dineutron correlations in neutron-rich nuclei are also discussed.

  17. Comparative study of the shell development of hard- and soft-shelled turtles.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Mari; Ueno, Shintaro; Kamezaki, Naoki; Sato, Noboru

    2014-07-01

    The turtle shell provides a fascinating model for the investigation of the evolutionary modifications of developmental mechanisms. Different conclusions have been put forth for its development, and it is suggested that one of the causes of the disagreement could be the differences in the species of the turtles used - the differences between hard-shelled turtles and soft-shelled turtles. To elucidate the cause of the difference, we compared the turtle shell development in the two groups of turtle. In the dorsal shell development, these two turtle groups shared the gene expression profile that is required for formation, and shared similar spatial organization of the anatomical elements during development. Thus, both turtles formed the dorsal shell through a folding of the lateral body wall, and the Wnt signaling pathway appears to have been involved in the development. The ventral portion of the shell, on the other hand, contains massive dermal bones. Although expression of HNK-1 epitope has suggested that the trunk neural crest contributed to the dermal bones in the hard-shelled turtles, it was not expressed in the initial anlage of the skeletons in either of the types of turtle. Hence, no evidence was found that would support a neural crest origin.

  18. Comparisons of Backscattering from Cylindrical Shells Described by Thin Shell and Elasticity Theories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-04

    term that describes inextensional motion. The first equation represents the normal stress at the midsurface of the shell, which is equal to the...that the normal velocity at the midsurface of the shell is proportional to the normal derivative of the total pressw e. The scattered pressure ps can

  19. Simplified dispersion curves for circular cylindrical shells using shallow shell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Sonti, Venkata R.

    2009-04-01

    An alternative derivation of the dispersion relation for the transverse vibration of a circular cylindrical shell is presented. The use of the shallow shell theory model leads to a simpler derivation of the same result. Further, the applicability of the dispersion relation is extended to the axisymmetric mode and the high frequency beam mode.

  20. Comparative study of the shell development of hard- and soft-shelled turtles

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Mari; Ueno, Shintaro; Kamezaki, Naoki; Sato, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    The turtle shell provides a fascinating model for the investigation of the evolutionary modifications of developmental mechanisms. Different conclusions have been put forth for its development, and it is suggested that one of the causes of the disagreement could be the differences in the species of the turtles used – the differences between hard-shelled turtles and soft-shelled turtles. To elucidate the cause of the difference, we compared the turtle shell development in the two groups of turtle. In the dorsal shell development, these two turtle groups shared the gene expression profile that is required for formation, and shared similar spatial organization of the anatomical elements during development. Thus, both turtles formed the dorsal shell through a folding of the lateral body wall, and the Wnt signaling pathway appears to have been involved in the development. The ventral portion of the shell, on the other hand, contains massive dermal bones. Although expression of HNK-1 epitope has suggested that the trunk neural crest contributed to the dermal bones in the hard-shelled turtles, it was not expressed in the initial anlage of the skeletons in either of the types of turtle. Hence, no evidence was found that would support a neural crest origin. PMID:24754673

  1. Core-shell microspheres with porous nanostructured shells for liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Adham; Skinley, Kevin; Herodotou, Stephanie; Zhang, Haifei

    2017-10-10

    The development of new stationary phase has been the key aspect for fast and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography separation with relatively low backpressure. Core-shell particles, with a solid core and porous shell, have been extensively investigated and commercially manufactured in the last decade. The excellent performance of core-shell particles columns has been recorded for a wide range of analytes, covering small and large molecules, neutral and ionic (acidic and basic), biomolecules, and metabolites. In this review, we firstly introduce the advance and advantages of core-shell particles (or more widely known as superficially porous particles) against non-porous particles and fully porous particles. This is followed by the detailed description of various methods used to fabricate core-shell particles. We then discuss the applications of common silica core-shell particles (mostly commercially manufactured), spheres-on-sphere particles, and core-shell particles with a non-silica shell. This review concludes with a summary and perspective on the development of stationary phase materials for high-performance liquid chromatography applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. SHELLS: A thin-shell program for modeling neotectonics of regional or global lithosphere with faults

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, X.; Bird, P.

    1995-11-10

    This report discusses a geophysical computer program called SHELLS, which model neotectonics of regional or global lithosphere with faults. This model is based on spherical shell elements which uses isostacy and vertical integration of lithospheric strength to reduce this to a two-dimensional problem.

  3. Shell thickness determination of polymer-shelled microbubbles using transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Härmark, Johan; Hebert, Hans; Koeck, Philip J B

    2016-06-01

    Intravenously injected microbubbles (MBs) can be utilized as ultrasound contrast agent (CA) resulting in enhanced image quality. A novel CA, consisting of air filled MBs stabilized with a shell of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been developed. These spherical MBs have been decorated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in order to serve as both ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) CA. In this study, a mathematical model was introduced that determined the shell thickness of two types of SPIONs decorated MBs (Type A and Type B). The shell thickness of MBs is important to determine, as it affects the acoustical properties. In order to investigate the shell thickness, thin sections of plastic embedded MBs were prepared and imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, the sections were cut at random distances from the MB center, which affected the observed shell thickness. Hence, the model determined the average shell thickness of the MBs from corrected mean values of the outer and inner radii observed in the TEM sections. The model was validated using simulated slices of MBs with known shell thickness and radius. The average shell thickness of Type A and Type B MBs were 651nm and 637nm, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Thin Shell Manufacturing for large Wavefront correctors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruch, Eric; Poutriquet, Florence

    2011-09-01

    One of the major key elements in large adaptive optical systems is the thin shell, used as a deformable mirror. Although the optical prescriptions are relaxed with respect to a passive mirror, especially in the low spatial frequency domain, other requirements, such as the cosmetic defects (scratch & dig), the tight control of the thickness uniformity and of course the fragility of the piece having an aspect ratio up to 1000:1, generate new problems during the manufacturing, testing and handling of such optics. Moreover, the optical surface has to be tested in two different ways: a classical optical test bench allows us to create a surface map of the mirror. This map is then computed to determine the force required by the actuators to flatten the mirror and this becomes also a specification for polishing and implies a good interaction with the voice coil manufacturer. More than twenty years ago Sagem - Reosc developed the first meter class thin shell for early adaptive optics experiments. Since then, large thin shell have been used as the optical part in composite mirrors and more recently the aspheric shell for the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror has been polished and prototypes, up to scale 1, of the E-ELT M4 Adaptive Mirror have been delivered to ESO in 2010. This paper will present some recent results in the manufacturing and testing technologies of large this shell, especially focusing on the development of the 1,1 meter convex aspherical shell for the VLT M2 mirror and on the results obtained on the largest thin shell produced so far (2,5 meter in diameter) developed as a demonstrator for the future E-ELT M4.

  5. Fluorescent spherical monodisperse silica core-shell nanoparticles with a protein-binding biofunctional shell.

    PubMed

    Weber, Achim; Herz, Marion; Tovar, Günter E M

    2013-01-01

    The production of uniform protein-binding biofunctional fluorescent spherical silica core-shell nanoparticles by a modified Stöber method is described. Fluorescent particle cores with diameters of 100 nm are synthesized in a two-step reaction. Functional shells for subsequent coupling reactions are provided by generating organic shells providing amine and carboxyl groups at the nanoparticles' shell surface. Conjugation of proteins to the nanoparticles is achieved using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as coupling agent. The characterization of the nanoparticle systems and their surface functionalization is done by microelectrophoresis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and a colorimetric detection of the amount of nanoparticle-attached protein via a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. Fluorescently spiked nanoparticle cores with biofunctional shells for molecular recognition reactions may be used as imaging tools or reporter systems.

  6. Removable inner turbine shell with bucket tip clearance control

    DOEpatents

    Sexton, Brendan F.; Knuijt, Hans M.; Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Myers, Albert; Coneybeer, Kyle E.; Johnson, David Martin; Kellock, Iain R.

    2000-01-01

    A turbine includes a plurality of inner shell sections mounting first and second stage nozzle and shroud portions. The inner shell sections are pinned to an outer containment shell formed of sections to preclude circumferential movement of the inner shell relative to the outer shell and enable thermal expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. Positive bucket tip clearance control is afforded by passing a thermal medium about the inner shell in heat transfer relation with the shrouds about the first and second stage bucket tips, the thermal medium being provided from a source of heating/cooling fluid independent of the turbine. Access is provided to the rotor and turbine buckets by removing the outer and inner shell sections.

  7. Structural Assessment of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stanford, Bret K.; Hrinda, Glenn A.; Wang, Zhuosong; Martin, Robert a.; Kim, H. Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The structural performance of two advanced composite tow-steered shells, manufactured using a fiber placement system, is assessed using both experimental and analytical methods. The fiber orientation angles vary continuously around the shell circumference from 10 degrees on the shell crown and keel, to 45 degrees on the shell sides. The two shells differ in that one shell has the full 24-tow course applied during each pass of the fiber placement system, while the second shell uses the fiber placement system s tow drop/add capability to achieve a more uniform shell wall thickness. The shells are tested in axial compression, and estimates of their prebuckling axial stiffnesses and bifurcation buckling loads are predicted using linear finite element analyses. These preliminary predictions compare well with the test results, with an average agreement of approximately 10 percent.

  8. Versatile strategy for precisely tailored core@shell nanostructures with single shell layer accuracy: the case of metallic shell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiatao; Tang, Yun; Weng, Lin; Ouyang, Min

    2009-12-01

    We report a general well-controlled synthetic strategy to achieve meticulous control of metallic shell growth at the single monolayer level with versatile core nanoparticles, thus facilitating investigation of their scope for numerous applications. The central component of this strategy is to introduce an intermediate phase in a phase transfer reaction to finely tune shell growth process. Two different typed core nanoparticles with distinct functionality and surface chemistry, including metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles, are chosen to demonstrate versatility of our approach. Enabled by such, we further highlight importance and tunability of plasmonic and optical couplings with layer-by-layer shell control. Thus, our strategy should be important for understanding and manipulating fundamental nanoscale chemical and physical property as well as assembling nanostructures with desirable structure and functionality.

  9. Lithography-free shell-substrate isolation for core-shell GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Tuomas; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Dhaka, Veer; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri

    2016-07-01

    A facile and scalable lithography-free technique5 for the rapid construction of GaAs core-shell nanowires incorporating shell isolation from the substrate is reported. The process is based on interrupting NW growth and applying a thin spin-on-glass (SOG) layer to the base of the NWs and resuming core-shell NW growth. NW growth occurred in an atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with gold nanoparticles used as catalysts for the vapour-liquid-solid growth. It is shown that NW axial core growth and radial shell growth can be resumed after interruption and even exposure to air. The SOG residues and native oxide layer that forms on the NW surface are shown to prevent or perturb resumption of epitaxial NW growth if not removed. Both HF etching and in situ annealing of the air-exposed NWs in the MOVPE were shown to remove the SOG residues and native oxide layer. While both procedures are shown capable of removing the native oxide and enabling resumption of epitaxial NW growth, in situ annealing produced the best results and allowed construction of pristine core-shell NWs. No growth occurred on SOG and it was observed that axial NW growth was more rapid when a SOG layer covered the substrate. The fabricated p-core/n-shell NWs exhibited diode behaviour upon electrical testing. The isolation of the NW shells from the substrate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The crystal quality of the regrown core-shell NWs was verified with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The reported technique potentially provides a pathway using MOVPE for scalable and high-throughput production of shell-substrate isolated core-shell NWs on an industrial scale.

  10. Lithography-free shell-substrate isolation for core-shell GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Haggren, Tuomas; Perros, Alexander Pyymaki; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Dhaka, Veer; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri

    2016-07-08

    A facile and scalable lithography-free technique(5) for the rapid construction of GaAs core-shell nanowires incorporating shell isolation from the substrate is reported. The process is based on interrupting NW growth and applying a thin spin-on-glass (SOG) layer to the base of the NWs and resuming core-shell NW growth. NW growth occurred in an atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with gold nanoparticles used as catalysts for the vapour-liquid-solid growth. It is shown that NW axial core growth and radial shell growth can be resumed after interruption and even exposure to air. The SOG residues and native oxide layer that forms on the NW surface are shown to prevent or perturb resumption of epitaxial NW growth if not removed. Both HF etching and in situ annealing of the air-exposed NWs in the MOVPE were shown to remove the SOG residues and native oxide layer. While both procedures are shown capable of removing the native oxide and enabling resumption of epitaxial NW growth, in situ annealing produced the best results and allowed construction of pristine core-shell NWs. No growth occurred on SOG and it was observed that axial NW growth was more rapid when a SOG layer covered the substrate. The fabricated p-core/n-shell NWs exhibited diode behaviour upon electrical testing. The isolation of the NW shells from the substrate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The crystal quality of the regrown core-shell NWs was verified with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The reported technique potentially provides a pathway using MOVPE for scalable and high-throughput production of shell-substrate isolated core-shell NWs on an industrial scale.

  11. Do freshwater mussel shells record road-salt pollution?

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Dane D; Gillikin, David P

    2014-11-24

    Road-salt pollution in streams in the Northeastern United States has become a major concern, but historical data are scarce. Freshwater bivalve shells have the ability to record past environmental information, and may act as archives of road-salt pollution. We sampled Elliptio complanata shells from four streams, as well as specimens collected in 1877. Average [Na/Ca]shell was highest in modern shells from the stream with the highest sodium concentrations, and low in shells collected from this same stream in 1877 as well as in the shells from other streams, suggesting that [Na/Ca]shell serves as a proxy for road-salt pollution. We expected higher [Na/Ca]shell in winter and spring. However, high-resolution [Na/Ca]shell analyses along the growth axis of one shell did not reveal any clear subannual patterns, which could be the result of shell growth cessation in winter and/or during periods of high stream sodium concentrations. Therefore, bulk [Na/Ca]shell analysis from multiple shells can be used as a proxy of large changes in stream sodium concentrations, but high-resolution variations in stream sodium concentrations do not seem to be recorded in the shells.

  12. Do freshwater mussel shells record road-salt pollution?

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Dane D.; Gillikin, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Road-salt pollution in streams in the Northeastern United States has become a major concern, but historical data are scarce. Freshwater bivalve shells have the ability to record past environmental information, and may act as archives of road-salt pollution. We sampled Elliptio complanata shells from four streams, as well as specimens collected in 1877. Average [Na/Ca]shell was highest in modern shells from the stream with the highest sodium concentrations, and low in shells collected from this same stream in 1877 as well as in the shells from other streams, suggesting that [Na/Ca]shell serves as a proxy for road-salt pollution. We expected higher [Na/Ca]shell in winter and spring. However, high-resolution [Na/Ca]shell analyses along the growth axis of one shell did not reveal any clear subannual patterns, which could be the result of shell growth cessation in winter and/or during periods of high stream sodium concentrations. Therefore, bulk [Na/Ca]shell analysis from multiple shells can be used as a proxy of large changes in stream sodium concentrations, but high-resolution variations in stream sodium concentrations do not seem to be recorded in the shells. PMID:25418687

  13. Novel highly ordered core–shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Sonal; Hossain, Mohammad D.; Mayanovic, Robert A.; Wirth, Richard; Gordon, Robert A.

    2016-10-26

    Core–shell nanoparticles have potential for a wide range of applications due to the tunability of their magnetic, catalytic, electronic, optical, and other physicochemical properties. A frequent drawback in the design of core–shell nanoparticles and nanocrystals is the lack of control over an extensive, disordered, and compositionally distinct interface that occurs due to the dissimilarity of structural and compositional phases of the core and shell. In this work, we demonstrate a new hydrothermal nanophase epitaxy (HNE) technique to synthesize highly structurally ordered α-Cr2O3@α-Co0.38Cr1.62O2.92 inverted core–shell nanoparticles (CSNs) with evidence for the nanoscale growth of corundum structure beginning from the core and extending completely into the shell of the CSNs with minimal defects at the interface. The high-resolution TEM results show a sharp interface exhibiting epitaxial atomic registry of shell atoms over highly ordered core atoms. The XPS and Co K-edge XANES analyses indicate the +2 oxidation state of cobalt is incorporated in the shell of the CSNs. Our XPS and EXAFS results are consistent with oxygen vacancy formation in order to maintain charge neutrality upon substitution of the Co2+ ion for the Cr3+ ion in the α-Co0.38Cr1.62O2.92 shell. Furthermore, the CSNs exhibit the magnetic exchange bias effect, which is attributed to the exchange anisotropy at the interface made possible by the nanophase epitaxial growth of the α-Co0.38Cr1.62O2.92 shell on the α-Cr2O3 core of the nanoparticles. The combination of a well-structured, sharp interface and novel nanophase characteristics is highly desirable for nanostructures having enhanced magnetic properties.

  14. Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, M. M.; Anantram, M. P.; Karim, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowires can enhance broadband optical absorption and reduce radial carrier collection distances in solar cell devices. Arrays of disordered nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid method are attractive because they can be grown on low-cost substrates such as glass, and are large area compatible. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that an array of disordered silicon nanowires surrounded by a thin transparent conductive oxide has both low diffuse and specular reflection with total values as low as < 4% over a broad wavelength range of 400 nm < λ < 650 nm. These anti-reflective properties together with enhanced infrared absorption in the core-shell nanowire facilitates enhancement in external quantum efficiency using two different active shell materials: amorphous silicon and nanocrystalline silicon. As a result, the core-shell nanowire device exhibits a short-circuit current enhancement of 15% with an amorphous Si shell and 26% with a nanocrystalline Si shell compared to their corresponding planar devices. PMID:23529071

  15. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  16. An opaque shell around Hercules X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Lamb, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    It is suggested that the observed soft X-rays from Her X-1 are the result of an opaque gas shell which surrounds the neutron star at a radius where centrifugal force and the magnetic field impede the gravitational infall of the gas and which absorbs a substantial fraction of the hard X-ray flux, reradiating it as soft X-rays. Two highly idealized models for the shell are constructed in which the radius and temperature are 7000 km and 550,000 K or 1300 km and 1.5 million K, respectively. These models are intended to show that a gas shell with interesting spectral characteristics is likely to occur at a radius of 2000 to 7000 km from the neutron star if the magnetic field impedes the gas infall at this radius and that such a shell is indicated by the soft X-ray observations. A possible geometry is considered wherein the shell is a wide opaque ring at the magnetic equator, becomes transparent at high latitudes, and becomes opaque again at the magnetic poles.

  17. Elastoplastic shell analysis in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulation of the elastoplastic behavior of thin shell structures under transient dynamic loads play an important role in many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, Calif. Often the loads are severe and the structure undergoes plastic (or permanent) deformation. These simulations are effectively performed using DYNA3D, an explicit nonlinear finite element code developed at LLNL for simulating and analyzing the large-deformation dynamic response of solids and structures. It is generally applicable to problems where the loading and response are of short duration and contain significant high-frequency components. Typical problems of this type include the contact of two impacting bodies and the resulting elastoplastic structural behavior. The objective of this investigation was to examine and improve upon the elastoplastic shell modeling capability in DYNA3D. This article summarizes the development of a new four-node quadrilateral finite element shell formulation, the YASE shell, and compares two basic methods (the stress-resultant and the thickness-resultant methods) employed in elastoplastic constitutive algorithms for shell structure modeling.

  18. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  19. Core-shell silicon nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Adachi, M M; Anantram, M P; Karim, K S

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowires can enhance broadband optical absorption and reduce radial carrier collection distances in solar cell devices. Arrays of disordered nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid method are attractive because they can be grown on low-cost substrates such as glass, and are large area compatible. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that an array of disordered silicon nanowires surrounded by a thin transparent conductive oxide has both low diffuse and specular reflection with total values as low as < 4% over a broad wavelength range of 400 nm < λ < 650 nm. These anti-reflective properties together with enhanced infrared absorption in the core-shell nanowire facilitates enhancement in external quantum efficiency using two different active shell materials: amorphous silicon and nanocrystalline silicon. As a result, the core-shell nanowire device exhibits a short-circuit current enhancement of 15% with an amorphous Si shell and 26% with a nanocrystalline Si shell compared to their corresponding planar devices.

  20. Cross-shell excitations in 31Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, P.-L.; Tabor, S. L.; Lubna, R. S.; Kravvaris, K.; Bender, P. C.; Tripathi, Vandana; Volya, A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Paschalis, S.; Petri, M.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.

    2017-07-01

    The 31Si nucleus was produced through the 18O(18O , α n ) fusion-evaporation reaction at Elab=24 MeV . Evaporated α particles from the reaction were detected and identified in the Microball detector array for channel selection. Multiple γ -ray coincidence events were detected in Gammasphere. The energy and angle information for the α particles was used to determine the 31Si recoil kinematics on an event-by-event basis for a more accurate Doppler correction. A total of 22 new states and 52 new γ transitions were observed, including 14 from states above the neutron separation energy. The positive-parity states predicted by the shell-model calculations in the s d model space agree well with experiment. The negative-parity states were compared with shell-model calculations in the p s d p f model space with some variations in the N =20 shell gap. The best agreement was found with a shell gap intermediate between that originally used for A ≈20 nuclei and that previously adapted for P,3432. This variation suggests the need for a more universal cross-shell interaction.

  1. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via http://oss.deltares.nl.

  2. Folding of non-Euclidean curved shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, Nakul; Evans, Arthur; Innes-Gold, Sarah; Marin, Luis; Cohen, Itai; Santangelo, Christian; Hayward, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Origami-based folding of 2D sheets has been of recent interest for a variety of applications ranging from deployable structures to self-folding robots. Though folding of planar sheets follows well-established principles, folding of curved shells involves an added level of complexity due to the inherent influence of curvature on mechanics. In this study, we use principles from differential geometry and thin shell mechanics to establish fundamental rules that govern folding of prototypical creased shells. In particular, we show how the normal curvature of a crease line controls whether the deformation is smooth or discontinuous, and investigate the influence of shell thickness and boundary conditions. We show that snap-folding of shells provides a route to rapid actuation on time-scales dictated by the speed of sound. The simple geometric design principles developed can be applied at any length-scale, offering potential for bio-inspired soft actuators for tunable optics, microfluidics, and robotics. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation through EFRI ODISSEI-1240441 with additional support to S.I.-G. through the UMass MRSEC DMR-0820506 REU program.

  3. Hollow Pollen Shells to Enhance Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Diego-Taboada, Alberto; Beckett, Stephen T.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Mackenzie, Grahame

    2014-01-01

    Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell. PMID:24638098

  4. Cross-shell excitations in Si31

    DOE PAGES

    Tai, P. -L.; Tabor, S. L.; Lubna, R. S.; ...

    2017-07-28

    The Si-31 nucleus was produced through the O-18(18O, an) fusion-evaporation reaction at E-lab = 24 MeV. Evaporated a particles from the reaction were detected and identified in the Microball detector array for channel selection. Multiple gamma-ray coincidence events were detected in Gammasphere. The energy and angle information for the alpha particles was used to determine the Si-31 recoil kinematics on an event-by-event basis for a more accurate Doppler correction. A total of 22 new states and 52 new gamma transitions were observed, including 14 from states above the neutron separation energy. The positive-parity states predicted by the shell-model calculations inmore » the sd model space agree well with experiment. The negative-parity states were compared with shell-model calculations in the psdpf model space with some variations in the N = 20 shell gap. The best agreement was found with a shell gap intermediate between that originally used for A approximate to 20 nuclei and that previously adapted for P-32,P-34. This variation suggests the need for a more universal cross-shell interaction.« less

  5. Fabrication de memoire monoelectronique non volatile par une approche de nanogrille flottante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmain, Marc

    Les transistors monoelectroniques (SET) sont des dispositifs de tailles nanometriques qui permettent la commande d'un electron a la fois et donc, qui consomment peu d'energie. Une des applications complementaires des SET qui attire l'attention est son utilisation dans des circuits de memoire. Une memoire monoelectronique (SEM) non volatile a le potentiel d'operer a des frequences de l'ordre des gigahertz ce qui lui permettrait de remplacer en meme temps les memoires mortes de type FLASH et les memoires vives de type DRAM. Une puce SEM permettrait donc ultimement la reunification des deux grands types de memoire au sein des ordinateurs. Cette these porte sur la fabrication de memoires monoelectroniques non volatiles. Le procede de fabrication propose repose sur le procede nanodamascene developpe par C. Dubuc et al. a 1'Universite de Sherbrooke. L'un des avantages de ce procede est sa compatibilite avec le back-end-of-line (BEOL) des circuits CMOS. Ce procede a le potentiel de fabriquer plusieurs couches de circuits memoirestres denses au-dessus de tranches CMOS. Ce document presente, entre autres, la realisation d'un simulateur de memoires monoelectroniques ainsi que les resultats de simulations de differentes structures. L'optimisation du procede de fabrication de dispositifs monoelectroniques et la realisation de differentes architectures de SEM simples sont traitees. Les optimisations ont ete faites a plusieurs niveaux : l'electrolithographie, la gravure de l'oxyde, le soulevement du titane, la metallisation et la planarisation CMP. La caracterisation electrique a permis d'etudier en profondeur les dispositifs formes de jonction de Ti/TiO2 et elle a demontre que ces materiaux ne sont pas appropries. Par contre, un SET forme de jonction de TiN/Al2O3 a ete fabrique et caracterise avec succes a basse temperature. Cette demonstration demontre le potentiel du procede de fabrication et de la deposition de couche atomique (ALD) pour la fabrication de memoires monoelectroniques. Mots-cles: Transistor monoelectronique (SET), memoire monoelectronique (SEM), jonction tunnel, temps de retention, nanofabrication, electrolithographie, planarisation chimicomecanique.

  6. DECam Observations of the Tidal Shells Around NGC 3923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bryan; Grooms, Connor; Puzia, Thomas H.; Matthew, Taylor; Graeme, Candlish; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Mihos, Chris; Smith, Rory; Schirmer, Mischa

    2016-01-01

    Stellar shells around elliptical galaxies are thought to be the results of near-radial mergers with low mass companions. Thus, the shell systems contain information about the merger history and gravitational potential of the elliptical galaxy. We present a preliminary census of the shell system of NGC 3923 from extremely deep g and i-band DECam imaging. NGC 3923 has the largest know shell system, with different studies finding between 27 and 42 shells. We present an overview of the DECam data reduction and an initial analysis of the shell system.

  7. Sound insulation characteristics of finite length orthotropic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonan, S.; Koriyama, H.

    1988-11-01

    An analysis is presented of the acoustic characteristics of orthotropic cylindrical shells excited by axisymmetric plane sound waves traveling within the shells. The shell is exposed in a free field in the range of length, and is otherwise covered with an infinite rigid baffle. The problem is studied on the basis of a thick shell theory in which account is taken of the effects of shear deformation and rotatory inertia. The air outside the shell is described by the Helmholtz linear acoustic equation. The sound transmission loss through the shell wall is obtained and calculated for various values of the physical parameters involved.

  8. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  9. Surface free energies for nematic shells.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Gaetano; Vergori, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a continuum model to describe the molecular alignment in thin nematic shells. By contrast with previous accounts, the two-dimensional free energy, aimed at describing the physics of thin films of nematics deposited on curved substrates, is not postulated, but it is deduced from the conventional three-dimensional theories of nematic liquid crystals. Both the director and the order-tensor theories are taken into account. The so-obtained surface energies exhibit extra terms compared to earlier models. These terms reflect the coupling of the shell extrinsic curvature with the nematic order parameters. As expected, the shape of the shell plays a key role in the equilibrium configurations of nematics coating it.

  10. Regularity of inviscid shell models of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Peter; Levant, Boris; Titi, Edriss S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we continue the analytical study of the sabra shell model of energy turbulent cascade. We prove the global existence of weak solutions of the inviscid sabra shell model, and show that these solutions are unique for some short interval of time. In addition, we prove that the solutions conserve energy, provided that the components of the solution satisfy ∣un∣≤Ckn-1/3[nlog(n+1)]-1 for some positive absolute constant C , which is the analog of the Onsager’s conjecture for the Euler’s equations. Moreover, we give a Beal-Kato-Majda type criterion for the blow-up of solutions of the inviscid sabra shell model and show the global regularity of the solutions in the “two-dimensional” parameters regime.

  11. Breakup of shells under explosion and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittel, F. K.; Kun, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Kröplin, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the fragmentation of closed thin shells made of a disordered brittle material is presented. Experiments were performed on eggshells under two different loading conditions: fragmentation due to an impact with a hard wall and explosion by a combustion mixture giving rise to power law fragment size distributions. For the theoretical investigations a three-dimensional discrete element model of shells is constructed. Molecular dynamics simulations of the two loading cases resulted in power law fragment mass distributions in satisfactory agreement with experiments. Based on large scale simulations we give evidence that power law distributions arise due to an underlying phase transition which proved to be abrupt and continuous for explosion and impact, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the fragmentation of closed shells defines a universality class, different from that of two- and three-dimensional bulk systems.

  12. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  13. Spectrophotometry of the shell around AG Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, P. Mila; Dufour, Reginald J.

    1990-01-01

    Spatially-resolved long-slit spectrophotometry are presented for two regions of the shell nebula around the P-Cygni variable star AG Carinae. The spectra cover the 3700-6800 A wavelength range. Emission-line diagnostics are used to derive extinction, electron temperatures, and densities for various positions in the nebula. The chemical abundances and ionization structure are calculated and compared with other types of planetary nebulae and shells around other luminous stars. It is found that the N/O and N/S ratios of Ag Car are high compared to solar neighborhood ISM values. The O/H depletion found for the AG Car shell approaches that found in the condensations of the Eta Car system.

  14. Damage Tolerance of Large Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, L.; Chamis, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    Progressive damage and fracture of large shell structures is investigated. A computer model is used for the assessment of structural response, progressive fracture resistance, and defect/damage tolerance characteristics. Critical locations of a stiffened conical shell segment are identified. Defective and defect-free computer models are simulated to evaluate structural damage/defect tolerance. Safe pressurization levels are assessed for the retention of structural integrity at the presence of damage/ defects. Damage initiation, growth, accumulation, and propagation to fracture are included in the simulations. Damage propagation and burst pressures for defective and defect-free shells are compared to evaluate damage tolerance. Design implications with regard to defect and damage tolerance of a large steel pressure vessel are examined.

  15. SHELL SHOCK structural code (fourth edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, J.E.; Gabrielson, V.K.

    1984-03-01

    SHELL SHOCK is a computer code that performs a frequency analysis and determines the static and dynamic response of a structure represented by mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. SHELL SHOCK is primarily intended for analyzing three-dimensional axisymmetric structures modeled using structural elements generated by the code in which the spatial coordinates are uncoupled by Fourier harmonics. A three-dimensional axisymmetric structure is then reduced to a series of two-dimensional problems, which significantly reduce the computations required. Three types of structural elements (that are uncoupled by a Fourier series) are generated internally by the code: linear beams, shells, and solids of revolution. Nonlinear beam elements are also uncoupled and included in the dynamic response computations. 6 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  16. FInal Report - Investment Casting Shell Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Von Richards

    2003-12-01

    This project made a significant contribution to the understanding of the investment casting shell cracking problem. The effects of wax properties on the occurrence of shell cracking were demonstrated and can be measured. The properties measured include coefficient of thermal expansion, heating rate and crystallinity of the structure. The important features of production molds and materials properties have been indicated by case study analysis and fractography of low strength test bars. It was found that stress risers in shell cavity design were important and that typical critical flaws were either oversize particles or large pores just behind the prime coat. It was also found that the true effect of fugitive polymer fibers was not permeability increase, but rather a toughening mechanism due to crack deflection.

  17. Expulsion of ions from hydrophobic hydration shells.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Blake M; Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2013-06-19

    Raman spectroscopy is combined with multivariate curve resolution to quantify interactions between ions and molecular hydrophobic groups in water. The molecular solutes in this study all have similar structures, with a trimethyl hydrophobic domain and a polar or charged headgroup. Our results imply that aqueous sodium and fluoride ions are strongly expelled from the first hydration shells of the hydrophobic (methyl) groups, while iodide ions are found to enter the hydrophobic hydration shell, to an extent that depends on the methyl group partial charge. However, our quantitative estimates of the corresponding ion binding equilibrium constants indicate that the iodide concentration in the first hydrophobic hydration shell is generally lower than that in the surrounding bulk water, and so an iodide ion cannot be viewed as having a true affinity for the molecular hydrophobic interface, but rather is less strongly expelled from such an interface than fluoride.

  18. Shell model response analysis of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, Shiro; Katagiri, Shin; Shinmi, Tatsuhiko

    1995-12-31

    A shell model analysis can calculate the cross-sectional deformation and hoop stress of buried pipelines. This paper proposes an analytical method to calculate the response of buried straight and bent pipelines modeled as cylindrical shell structures. A modified transfer matrix method is employed instead of a stiffness matrix method to avoid the problem of computational memory caused by huge matrixes. Results calculated by the developed program are compared with experimental ones obtained by a pipe bending test of straight and bent pipe segments. In addition, several differences of the pipe response between the beam model and the shell model are examined through response simulations of straight and bent pipelines subjected to ground subsidence.

  19. Magnetic behavior of core shell particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Rong; Wang, Cheng-Chien; Chen, I.-Han

    2006-09-01

    We have prepared composite magnetic core-shell particles using the process of soap-free emulsion polymerization and the co-precipitation method. The shell of the synthesized composite sphere is cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2O 4) nanoparticles and the core consists of poly(styrene-co-methacrylic acid) polymer. The mean crystallite sizes of the coated CoFe 2O 4 nanoparticles were controlled in the range of 2.4-6.7 nm by the concentration of [NH 4+] and heated temperature. The magnetic properties of the core-shell spherical particles can go from superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic behavior depending on the crystalline sizes of CoFe 2O 4.

  20. Shape-changing shell-like structures.

    PubMed

    Pagitz, M; Bold, J

    2013-03-01

    Plants such as Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) can change the shape of their shell-like leaves by actively altering the cell pressures. These leaves are hydraulic actuators that do not require any complex controls and that possess an energy efficiency that is unmatched by natural or artificial muscles (Huber et al 1997 Proc. R. Soc. A 453 2185-205). We extend our previous work (Pagitz et al 2012 Bioinspir. Biomim. 7 016007) on pressure-actuated cellular structures by introducing a concept for shape-changing shell-like structures that can significantly alter their Gaussian curvature. The potential of this concept is demonstrated by a hemispherical shell that can reversibly change the sign of its Gaussian curvature. Furthermore, it is shown that a snap-through behaviour, similar to the one known from Dionaea muscipula, can be achieved by lowering the pressure in a single layer of cells.

  1. Shell nebulae around luminous evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1989-01-01

    Shell nebulae around luminous Population I Wolf-Rayet, Of, and P-Cygni stars are astrophysically interesting since they are indicators of pre-supernova mass loss and how such massive stars prepare their surrounding interstellar medium prior to explosion. Some twenty-odd such nebulae are known, for which detailed study of their morphological and spectroscopic characteristics have only begun in this decade. In this paper, some of these characteristics are reviewed in general, and new observations are reported. Emphasis has been placed on several 'prototype 'objects (NGC 7635, NGC 2359, NGC 6888, and the Eta Carinae condensations) to illustrate the varied massive-star mass-loss, the physics of their winds and shell ejecta, and related nucleosynthesis effects in the compositions of the winds and shells.

  2. Spherical shell model description of rotational motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuker, A. P.; Retamosa, J.; Poves, A.; Caurier, E.

    1995-10-01

    Exact diagonalizations with a realistic interaction show that configurations with four neutrons in a major shell and four protons in another-or the same-major shell, behave systematically as backbending rotors. The dominance of the q.q component of the interaction is related to an approximate ``quasi-SU3'' symmetry. It is suggested that the onset of rotational motion in the rare earth nuclei is due to the promotion of the eight particle blocks to the major shells above the ones currently filling. Assuming a ``pseudo-SU3'' coupling for the particles in the lower orbits, it is possible to account remarkably well for the observed B(E2) rates at the beginning of the region.

  3. Shell nebulae around luminous evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1989-01-01

    Shell nebulae around luminous Population I Wolf-Rayet, Of, and P-Cygni stars are astrophysically interesting since they are indicators of pre-supernova mass loss and how such massive stars prepare their surrounding interstellar medium prior to explosion. Some twenty-odd such nebulae are known, for which detailed study of their morphological and spectroscopic characteristics have only begun in this decade. In this paper, some of these characteristics are reviewed in general, and new observations are reported. Emphasis has been placed on several 'prototype 'objects (NGC 7635, NGC 2359, NGC 6888, and the Eta Carinae condensations) to illustrate the varied massive-star mass-loss, the physics of their winds and shell ejecta, and related nucleosynthesis effects in the compositions of the winds and shells.

  4. Spline Approximation of Thin Shell Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delRosario, R. C. H.; Smith, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A spline-based method for approximating thin shell dynamics is presented here. While the method is developed in the context of the Donnell-Mushtari thin shell equations, it can be easily extended to the Byrne-Flugge-Lur'ye equations or other models for shells of revolution as warranted by applications. The primary requirements for the method include accuracy, flexibility and efficiency in smart material applications. To accomplish this, the method was designed to be flexible with regard to boundary conditions, material nonhomogeneities due to sensors and actuators, and inputs from smart material actuators such as piezoceramic patches. The accuracy of the method was also of primary concern, both to guarantee full resolution of structural dynamics and to facilitate the development of PDE-based controllers which ultimately require real-time implementation. Several numerical examples provide initial evidence demonstrating the efficacy of the method.

  5. Stresses in rotating composite cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, James T.-S.; Lin, Chien-Chang

    Stresses in composite cylindrical shells rotating with a constant speed about their longitudinal axis are analyzed. Each ply or ply group is treated as a separate thin layer of homogeneous and orthotropic material under the interfacial stresses as surface loading. There is no limitation on the total thickness of the shell. The circumferential stress, motivated by the conventional thin shell theory, is assumed to vary linearly through the thickness of the layer. The radial stress is determined in terms of the circumferential stress through the equilibrium condition, and an average compatibility condition through the thickness of the thin layer is used. Numerical results using the present analysis show nearly perfect agreement with the exact solution for homogeneous and isotropic cylinders. Some results for cylinders having orthotropic layers are presented for illustrative purposes.

  6. Triggered Snap-Through of Bistable Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yijie; Huang, Shicheng; Trase, Ian; Hu, Nan; Chen, Zi

    Elastic bistable shells are common structures in nature and engineering, such as the lobes of the Venus flytrap or the surface of a toy jumping poppers. Despite their ubiquity, the parameters that control the bistability of such structures are not well understood. In this study, we explore how the geometrical features of radially symmetric elastic shells affect the shape and potential energy of a shell's stable states, and how to tune certain parameters in order to generate a snap-through transition from a convex semi-stable state to concave stable state. We fabricated a series of elastic shells with varying geometric parameters out of silicone rubber and measured the resulting potential energy in the semi-stable state. Finite element simulations were also conducted in order to determine the deformation and stress in the shells during snap-through. It was found that the energy of the semi-stable state is controlled by only two geometric parameters and a dimensionless ratio. We also noted two distinct transitions during snap-through, one between monostability and semi-bistability (the state a popper toy is in before it snaps-through and jumps), and a second transition between semi-bistability and true bistability. This work shows that it is possible to use a set of simple parameters to tailor the energy landscape of an elastic shell in order to generate complex trigger motions for their potential use in smart applications. Z.C. acknowledge support from Society in Science-Branco Weiss Fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich.

  7. Retention Models on Core-Shell Columns.

    PubMed

    Jandera, Pavel; Hájek, Tomáš; Růžičková, Marie

    2017-07-13

    A thin, active shell layer on core-shell columns provides high efficiency in HPLC at moderately high pressures. We revisited three models of mobile phase effects on retention for core-shell columns in mixed aqueous-organic mobile phases: linear solvent strength and Snyder-Soczewiński two-parameter models and a three-parameter model. For some compounds, two-parameter models show minor deviations from linearity due to neglect of possible minor retention in pure weak solvent, which is compensated for in the three-parameter model, which does not explicitly assume either the adsorption or the partition retention mechanism in normal- or reversed-phase systems. The model retention equation can be formulated as a function of solute retention factors of nonionic compounds in pure organic solvent and in pure water (or aqueous buffer) and of the volume fraction of an either aqueous or organic solvent component in a two-component mobile phase. With core-shell columns, the impervious solid core does not participate in the retention process. Hence, the thermodynamic retention factors, defined as the ratio of the mass of the analyte mass contained in the stationary phase to its mass in the mobile phase in the column, should not include the particle core volume. The values of the thermodynamic factors are lower than the retention factors determined using a convention including the inert core in the stationary phase. However, both conventions produce correct results if consistently used to predict the effects of changing mobile phase composition on retention. We compared three types of core-shell columns with C18-, phenyl-hexyl-, and biphenyl-bonded phases. The core-shell columns with phenyl-hexyl- and biphenyl-bonded ligands provided lower errors in two-parameter model predictions for alkylbenzenes, phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds in comparison with C18-bonded ligands.

  8. What's in a Shell? - Interactions of Chemistry and Structure at Submicron Levels in Bivalve Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Piazolo, S.; Trimby, P.

    2014-12-01

    The wide geographical distribution of bivalve shells makes them much favoured paleoclimate proxy archives. However, they are amongst the materials most affected by physiological effects, making the correct deciphering of these archives a challenging task. Shell building plans are usually hierarchic, thus optimizing mechanical properties. However, different structures common to certain bivalve families, such as the prism-nacre or the crossed-lamellar structures, are assembled from very different building blocks. These structural differences coincide with chemical and crystallographic differences suggesting critically different formation mechanisms within the bivalve class. Most importantly some bivalves form their shells from amorphous calcium carbonate that crystallizes in situ once assembled into the shell. We present new correlated multi-scale structural and compositional data for different shell bivalve shell structures such as nacre-prism, cross-lamellar intermediate structures. Data are obtained using EBSD, FIB-assisted TEM and Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction combined with Nano-SIMS and Raman Microspectrometry and suggest that formation from amorphous phases is widespread and results in different calcium carbonate polymorphs to be present in the shell with distinct chemical compositions. The results highlight the complex nature of the biomaterials, which has consequences for the precision and accuracy of paleotemperature calculations.

  9. Quasiclassical model of ion shell structure

    SciTech Connect

    Dyachkov, K.G.; Pankratov, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    An effective potential of the nl-electrons in atoms or ions obtained from the well-known screened hydrogenlike potential model is used to calculate ionization energies in the quasiclassical approximation. The method is suitable for the inner and outer shells of the ground and excited states. We consider here the outer shells of the lighter element ions. The approach yields good results for multicharged ions as well as for the weakly ionized s subshells and for less-than-half-filled p subshells. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Computation of Thin-Walled Prismatic Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasov, V. Z.

    1949-01-01

    We consider a prismatic shell consisting of a finite number of narrow rectangular plates and having in the cross-section a finite number of closed contours (fig. 1(a)). We shall assume that the rectangular plates composing the shell are rigidly joined so that there is no motion of any kind of one plate relative to the others meeting at a given connecting line. The position of a point on the middle prismatic surface is considered to be defined by the coordinate z, the distance to a certain initial cross-section z = O, end the coordinate s determining its position on the contour of the cross-section.

  11. Transient analysis using conical shell elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. C. S.; Goeller, J. E.; Messick, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the NASTRAN conical shell element in static, eigenvalue, and direct transient analyses is demonstrated. The results of a NASTRAN static solution of an externally pressurized ring-stiffened cylinder agree well with a theoretical discontinuity analysis. Good agreement is also obtained between the NASTRAN direct transient response of a uniform cylinder to a dynamic end load and one-dimensional solutions obtained using a method of characteristics stress wave code and a standing wave solution. Finally, a NASTRAN eigenvalue analysis is performed on a hydroballistic model idealized with conical shell elements.

  12. Shell hoop prestress generated by welding

    SciTech Connect

    Meuser, R.B.

    1991-03-01

    For some magnet designs it is desirable to generate a prestress, approaching the yield strength, in the shell surrounding the yoke. If that prestress can be generated by weld shrinkage, then more expensive methods of prestressing can be avoided. Shell-to-yoke friction can reduce the prestress, so it is desirable to minimize it. A quick-and-dirty test was performed to address these matters. While the scatter of the data was large, it appears that weld shrinkage can indeed generate the required prestress. The scatter was too large to give any information about the friction, however. The experiment raised more questions than it answered. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Single Bump on a Shell Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C

    2004-02-17

    At this morning's fill-tube surrogate working group meeting we tentatively decided on a single bump on a shell for the single March shot. This memo shows the calculations needed as background to fabricate such a bump by depositing an appropriate sized drop of polystyrene solution (i.e. the glue) to a shell as discussed in this mornings meeting. While writing this I had another idea for fabricating a bump, which I quickly outlined at the end of this memo. I am distributing this calculation primarily so that group members can quickly check the calculations and ideas and if without error to provide a framework for initial fabrication efforts.

  14. Shell model for buoyancy-driven turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present a unified shell model for stably stratified and convective turbulence. Numerical simulation of this model for stably stratified flow shows Bolgiano-Obukhbov scaling in which the kinetic energy spectrum varies as k-11 /5. The shell model of convective turbulence yields Kolmogorov's spectrum. These results are consistent with the energy flux and energy feed due to buoyancy, and are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations of Kumar et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 023016 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.023016].

  15. Half-spherical shell deep drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepershin, Rostislav I.; Prusakov, Maksim A.

    2017-07-01

    Computer numerical simulation of non-steady thin-walled half-spherical shell deep drawing is presented. Initial elastic stage of clamped thin workpiece bending followed by the elastic-plastic and rigid-plastic Mises membrane stages with work hardening and wall thickness variation are considered. Tresca yield criterion is used in the region of material biaxial tension. Plastic unload effect induced by non-homogeneous work hardening along the shell generator is included in simulation procedure with the result of good correlation of predicted and experimental drawing force versus punch displacement relation for commercial stainless sheet steel.

  16. Theoretical spectroscopy and the fp shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, A.; Zuker, A.

    1981-04-01

    The recently developed quasiconfiguration method is applied to fp shell nuclei. Second order degenerate perturbation theory is shown to be sufficient to produce, for low lying states, the same results as large diagonalizations in the full ( f{7}/{2}p{3}/{2}p{1}/{2}f{5}/{2}) n space, due to the operation of linked cluster mechanisms. Realistic interactions with minimal monopole changes are shown to be successful in reproducing spectra, binding energies, quadrupole moments and transition rates. Large shell model spaces are seen to exhibit typical many body behaviour. Quasiconfigurations allow insight into the underlying coupling schemes.

  17. On the elastic stability of shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    A synopsis of a series of investigations into the instability of axially compressed cylindrical shells is given. The objective of the research, which was made with models, was to devise a technique of nondestructive evaluation. The results show that, with models at any rate, success was achieved. Probing methods which can be used to determine the locations of weakness and the pertinent instability load levels were devised. The research on large scale shells was undertaken to determine the critical loads under as uniform a circumferential distribution of axial compressive force as possible. It is clear from the results presented that this objective was met.

  18. Simulation of the stress computation in shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, M.; Utku, S.

    1978-01-01

    A self-teaching computer program is described, whereby the stresses in thin shells can be computed with good accuracy using the best fit approach. The program is designed for use in interactive game mode to allow the structural engineer to learn about (1) the major sources of difficulties and associated errors in the computation of stresses in thin shells, (2) possible ways to reduce the errors, and (3) trade-off between computational cost and accuracy. Included are derivation of the computational approach, program description, and several examples illustrating the program usage.

  19. Galaxies with Shells in the Illustris Simulation: Metallicity Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Ana-Roxana; Pillepich, Annalisa; Amorisco, Nicola; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Stellar shells are low surface brightness arcs of overdense stellar regions, extending to large galactocentric distances. In a companion study, we identified 39 shell galaxies in a sample of 220 massive ellipticals ($\\mathrm{M}_{\\mathrm{200crit}}>6\\times10^{12}\\,\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$) from the Illustris cosmological simulation. We used stellar history catalogs to trace the history of each individual star particle inside the shell substructures, and we found that shells in high-mass galaxies form through mergers with massive satellites (stellar mass ratios $\\mu_{\\mathrm{stars}}\\gtrsim1:10$). Using the same sample of shell galaxies, the current study extends the stellar history catalogs in order to investigate the metallicity of stellar shells around massive galaxies. Our results indicate that outer shells are often times more metal-rich than the surrounding stellar material in a galaxy's halo. For a galaxy with two different satellites forming $z=0$ shells, we find a significa! nt difference in the metallicity of the shells produced by each progenitor. We also find that shell galaxies have higher mass-weighted logarithmic metallicities ([Z/H]) at $2$-$4\\,\\mathrm{R}_{\\mathrm{eff}}$ compared to galaxies without shells. Our results indicate that observations comparing the metallicities of stars in tidal features, such as shells, to the average metallicities in the stellar halo can provide information about the assembly histories of galaxies. %K galaxies: evolution, galaxies: interactions, galaxies: kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: structure, methods: numerical, stellar shells, stellar metallicities

  20. Comparative study of shell swab and shell crush methods for the recovery of Salmonella from shell eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Egg associated Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks have been a major cause of foodborne illness in Japan as well as in the United States and several European countries. Researchers have been attempting to develop a rapid and highly sensitive method for the recovery of microorganisms from shell eggs. ...

  1. Cosmic Shell-Seekers Find a Beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Two scientists have discovered a distinctive shell of hot gas around the site of a distant supernova explosion by combining 150 hours of archived data collected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This discovery is a significant step forward in solving a decades-old puzzle as to why some stellar explosions display shells and others do not. "The likely answer is that the explosion of every massive star sends a sonic boom rumbling through interstellar space," said Samar Safi-Harb of the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, who is a coauthor with Heather Matheson on a paper describing the research that appears in the journal Advances in Space Research. "It's just that, some of the shells are harder to find than others because of the environment where the explosion occurs." The shell marks a sonic boom, or shock wave, generated by the supernova. Gas is heated to millions of degrees by the shock wave and produces X-rays, but little visible light. By examining the properties of the shell with an X-ray telescope, astronomers can work back to deduce the age (a few thousand years), and energy of the explosion, as well as information about the state of the star a million years before it exploded. Animation of a Supernova Explosion Animation of a Supernova Explosion It is likely that the star that produced the supernova remnant and shell was about 10 times as massive as the Sun. The absence of a detectable shell around this and similar supernova remnants had led astronomers to speculate that another, weaker type of explosion had occurred there. Now this hypothesis seems unlikely. Although many supernovas leave behind bright shells, others do not. This supernova remnant, identified as G21.5-0.9 by radio astronomers 30 years ago, was considered to be one that had no shell. A diffuse cloud of X-rays around the source was detected about 5 years ago by another group of astronomers and independently by Safi-Harb and colleagues using Chandra, but it took the careful

  2. Vibrations of moderately thick shallow spherical shells at large amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyamoorthy, M.

    1994-04-01

    A shallow shell theory is presented for the geometrically nonlinear analysis of moderately thick isotropic spherical shells. Effects of transverse shear deformation and rotatory inertia are included in the governing equations of motion by means of tracing constants. When these effects are ignored, the governing equations readily reduce to those applicable for thin shallow spherical shells. Solutions to the system of thick shell equations are obtained by means of Galerkin's method and the numerical Runge-Kutta procedure. Numerical results are presented for certain cases of shallow spherical shells considering different geometric shell parameters. Transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects are found to be important in linear as well as nonlinear responses of shallow spherical shells. The nonlinear frequency-amplitude behavior is of the softening type for shallow spherical shells and of the hardening type for circular plates. Frequency ratios are lower at any given amplitude when the effects of transverse shear and rotatory inertia are included in the analysis.

  3. Core-shell nanowire serves as heat cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yue-Yang; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Tang, Li-Ming; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the thermal transport properties in core-shell nanowires, we calculate systematically the distributions of heat flux in InAs/GaAs and GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that for InAs/GaAs core-shell nanowires, the heat current tends to transport in the shell, while for GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires the heat current tends to transport through the core. Moreover, a simple equation is presented to describe the relationship of the thermal conductance among the core, the tubular shell, and core-shell nanowire. It is suggested that the core-shell nanowires can be served as heat cable.

  4. 3. General view showing north elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing north elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower and electric relay station. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  5. MOND implications for spectral line profiles of shell galaxies: shell formation history and mass-velocity scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, M.; Jungwiert, B.; Ebrová, I.; Bartošková, K.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Many ellipticals are surrounded by round stellar shells probably stemming from minor mergers. A new method for constraining gravitational potential in elliptical galaxies has recently been suggested. It uses the spectral line profiles of these shells to measure the circular velocity at the edge of the shell and the expansion velocity of the shell itself. MOND is an alternative to the dark matter framework aiming to solve the missing mass problem. Aims: We study how the circular and expansion velocities behave in MOND for large shells. Methods: The asymptotic behavior for infinitely large shells is derived analytically. The applicability of the asymptotic results for finitely sized shells is studied numerically on a grid of galaxies modeled with Sérsic spheres. Results: Circular velocity settles asymptotically at a value determined by the baryonic mass of the galaxy forming the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation known for disk galaxies. Shell expansion velocity also becomes asymptotically constant. The expansion velocities of large shells form a multibranched analogy to the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, together with the galactic baryonic masses. For many - but not all - shell galaxies, the asymptotic values of these two types of velocities are reached under the effective radius. If MOND is assumed to work in ellipticals, then the shell spectra allow many details of the history to be revealed about the formation of the shell system, including its age. The results pertaining to circular velocities apply to all elliptical galaxies, not only those with shells.

  6. Analysis of flexible layered shallow shells on elastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupishin, L.; Kolesnikov, A.; Tolmacheva, T.

    2017-05-01

    This paper contains numerical analysis of a layered geometric nonlinear flexible shallow shell based on an elastic foundation. Rise of arch in the center of the shell, width, length and type of support are given. The design variable is taken to be the thickness of the shallow shell, the form of the middle surface forming and the characteristic of elastic foundations. Critical force coefficient and stress of shells are calculated by Bubnov-Galerkin. Stress, characteristic of elastic foundations - thickness dependence are presented.

  7. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1985-01-01

    Large, uniform hollow spherical shells are produced by forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, evaporating the drops to form dried particles, coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material, and heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble which expands the outer layer. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the hollow shells, spherical shells with uniform walls are produced.

  8. Monte Carlo Methods and Applications for the Nuclear Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, D.J.; White, J.A.

    1998-08-10

    The shell-model Monte Carlo (SMMC) technique transforms the traditional nuclear shell-model problem into a path-integral over auxiliary fields. We describe below the method and its applications to four physics issues: calculations of sd-pf-shell nuclei, a discussion of electron-capture rates in pf-shell nuclei, exploration of pairing correlations in unstable nuclei, and level densities in rare earth systems.

  9. Spherical shell model description of deformation and superdeformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, A.; Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.; Zuker, A.

    2003-04-01

    Large-scale shell model calculations give at present a very accurate and comprehensive description of light and medium-light nuclei, specially when 0hbar ω spaces are adequate. The full pf-shell calculations have made it possible to describe many collective features in an spherical shell model context. Calculations including two major oscillator shells have proven able to describe also superdeformed bands.

  10. Quality and Composition of Retail Shell Eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumers are becoming more aware of their food choices. As part of this movement, sourcing and production information is often desired for agricultural products. Furthermore, products associated with added health benefits are also becoming more common in the marketplace. The US shell egg industr...

  11. Localization in thin shells under indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasto, Alice; Adjari, Amin; Lazarus, Arnaud; Vaziri, Ashkan; Reis, Pedro

    2013-03-01

    We perform a hybrid experimental and numerical investigation of deformation in thin spherical elastic shells under indentation. Past the initial linear response, an inverted cap develops as a Pegorelov circular ridge. For further indentation, this ridge loses axis-symmetry and sharp points of localized curvature form, which we refer to as 's-cones' (for shell-cones), in contrast with their developable cousins in plates, 'd-cones'. We quantify how the formation and evolution of s-cones is affected by systematically varying the indenter's curvature. In our precision model experiments, rapid prototyping is used to fabricate elastomeric shells and rigid indenters of various shapes. The mechanical response is quantified through load-displacement comparison tests and the deformation process is further characterized through digital imaging. In parallel, the experimental results are contrasted against nonlinear Finite Element simulations, which enable us to explore the role of friction at the shell-indenter contacts and characterize the relative strain energy focusing properties at different loci of localization. Our combined experimental and computational approach allows us to gain invaluable physical insight towards rationalizing this geometrically nonlinear process.

  12. Off-shell amplitudes and Grassmannians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, L. V.; Onishchenko, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    The Grassmannian representation for gauge-invariant amplitudes for arbitrary number of legs with one of them being off-shell is derived for the case of N = 4 SYM. The obtained formula are successfully checked against known BCFW results for MHV n , NMHV4 and NMHV5 amplitudes.

  13. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  15. On-Shell Methods in Perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.

    2007-04-25

    We review on-shell methods for computing multi-parton scattering amplitudes in perturbative QCD, utilizing their unitarity and factorization properties. We focus on aspects which are useful for the construction of one-loop amplitudes needed for phenomenological studies at the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Torrefaction of pomaces and nut shells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical: Apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells were torrefied at different temperatures and times in a muffle furnace. The fiber content and thermal stability of the raw byproducts were examined using fiber analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respec...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER...

  19. MPISH : a parallel shell for MPI programs.

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, M.; Lusk, A.; Bradshaw, R.; Lusk, E.

    2006-01-01

    While previous work has shown MPI to provide capabilities for system software, actual adoption has not widely occurred. We discuss process management shortcomings in MPI implementations and their impact on MPI usability for system software and management tasks. We introduce MPISH, a parallel shell designed to address these issues.

  20. Alternative Storage Environments for Shelled Peanuts.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative Storage Environments for Shelled Peanuts. C. L. BUTTS1, K. HORM2, S. POWELL3, B. ANTHONY2, J. BENNETT2, D. COWART3, and M.C. LAMB1. 1USDA, ARS, National Peanut Research Laboratory, Dawson, GA, 2Mars Chocolate NA, Elizabethtown, PA,3 Birdsong Peanuts, Blakely, GA Small chamber studies w...

  1. Cherry Scallop Shell Moth Pest Alert

    Treesearch

    John Omer; Debra Allen-Reid

    1996-01-01

    The cherry scallop shell moth, Hydria prunivorata (Ferguson) is a defoliator of black cherry, and occasional other native cherries throughout its range in eastern North America. The moth?s name is derived from the pattern of alternating dark and light scalloped lines on the wings. The adults which emerge from late May to early August, have a wingspread of about 37mm....

  2. The 'shell effect': music from environmental noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diodati, Paolo

    2005-02-01

    The 'shell effect' can be used to play music with a pleasant and characteristic timbre. If you place a sensitive microphone at the rim of pipes of suitable length and diameter to obtain resonance frequencies, ambient noise will produce musical notes. The corresponding optical effect, i.e. extracting visible light from ambient radiation considered dark by the human eye, is also discussed.

  3. Diagonal piezoelectric sensors on cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Zhang, Xufang; Tzou, Hornsen

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric sensors are effective for distributed health monitoring and sensing of structures. The signals of piezoelectric sensors are related to the orientation of the sensors. In this study, a diagonal piezoelectric sensor is proposed for cylindrical shells. The sensor is made of a rectangular piezoelectric patch and diagonally attached on the shell surface; and piezoelectric actuators are used for excitation. An analytical model of the sensor is derived based on thin shell assumption with simply-supported boundary conditions. The orientation angle of the piezoelectric sensor is introduced as an independent variable. The proposed model consists of an integral term over the electrode area, which is divided into three regions for calculation. The sensing signal is decomposed into six components to evaluate the contributions of the strain components. Case studies on signals with respect to the orientation and aspect ratios are accomplished. The cylindrical shell with piezoelectric actuators and diagonal sensors is fabricated and tested under laboratory condition. Comparison of theoretical results with experimental data is conducted, and the model of the diagonal sensors is validated. The errors between the predictions and experimental results are less than 10% for all evaluated modes.

  4. Rapid pasteurization of shell eggs using RF

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel method for rapidly pasteurizing eggs in the shell could enhance the safety of the United States’ food supply. Current federal regulations do not require eggs sold in stores to be pasteurized, yet these eggs are often consumed raw or undercooked and cause untold cases of salmonella illness ea...

  5. Polarimetry of nacre in iridescent shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R. A.; Burgess, C.; Regan, B.; Spano, S.; Galvez, E. J.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the light transmitted or reflected from nacre (mother of pearl) taken from the iridescent shell of the bivalve Pinctad a fucata. These nacre surfaces have a rich structure, composed of aragonite crystals arranged as tablets or bricks, 5 μm wide and 400-500 nm thick, surrounded by 30nm thick organic mortar. The light reflected from these shell surfaces, or transmitted through thin polished layers, is rich in its polarization content, exhibiting a space dependent variation in the state of polarization with a high density of polarization singularities. Our goal is to use the polarization information to infer the structure of the biominerals and the role of the organic layer in determining the orientation of the crystals. In the experiments we send the light from a laser with a uniform state of polarization onto the shell, and analyze the light that is either transmitted or reflected, depending on the type of experiment, imaging it after its passage through polarization filters. We use the images from distinct filters to obtain the Stokes parameters, and hence the state of polarization, of each image point. We also construct the Mueller matrix for each imaged point, via 36 measurements. We do this for distinct physical and chemical treatments of the shell sample. Preliminary data shows that the organic layer may be responsible for organizing a multi-crystalline arrangement of aragonite tablets.

  6. Palaeontology: pterosaur egg with a leathery shell.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiang; Ji, Shu-An; Cheng, Yen-Nien; You, Hai-Lu; Lü, Jun-Chang; Liu, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Chong-Xi

    2004-12-02

    The recent discovery of a pterosaur egg with embryonic skeleton and soft tissues from the Yixian Formation confirmed that the flying pterosaurs were oviparous. Here we describe another pterosaur egg whose exquisite preservation indicates that the shell structure was soft and leathery.

  7. Porphyrins in egg shells (Short Communication)

    PubMed Central

    With, Torben K.

    1974-01-01

    T.l.c. of esterified egg-shell porphyrin shows a mixture containing protoporphyrin with admixture of significant amounts of coproporphyrin, pentacarboxylic porphyrin and uroporphyrin and other, unidentified, porphyrins. This points to porphyrin biosynthesis taking place in the oviduct epithelium. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4420928

  8. Double Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification

    SciTech Connect

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2001-01-18

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities (electrical, raw water, potable water, service air and instrument air), which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  9. New method for calculating shell correction

    SciTech Connect

    Salamon, P.; Kruppa, A. T.; Vertse, T.

    2010-06-15

    A new method is presented for the calculation of the shell correction with the inclusion of the continuum part of the spectrum. The smoothing function used has a finite energy range in contrast to the Gaussian shape of the Strutinski method. The new method is especially useful for light nuclei where the generalized Strutinski procedure cannot be applied.

  10. BOWOOSS: bionic optimized wood shells with sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Göran

    2011-04-01

    In architecture, shell construction is used for the most efficient, large spatial structures. Until now the use of wood rather played a marginal role, implementing those examples of architecture, although this material offers manifold advantages, especially against the background of accelerating shortage of resources and increasing requirements concerning the energy balance. Regarding the implementation of shells, nature offers a wide range of suggestions. The focus of the examinations is on the shells of marine plankton, especially of diatoms, whose richness in species promises the discovery of entirely new construction principles. The project is targeting at transferring advantageous features of these organisms on industrial produced, modular wood shell structures. Currently a transfer of these structures in CAD - models is taking place, helping to perform stress analysis by computational methods. Micro as well as macro structures are the subject of diverse consideration, allowing to draw the necessary conclusions for an architectural design. The insights of these tests are the basis for the development of physical models on different scales, which are used to verify the different approaches. Another important aim which is promoted in the project is to enhance the competitiveness of timber construction. Downsizing of the prefabricated structural elements leads to considerable lower transportation costs as abnormal loads can be avoided as far as possible and means of transportation can be loaded with higher efficiency so that an important contribution to the sustainability in the field of architecture can also be made.

  11. On the Theory of Thin Shallow Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarov, A. A.

    1956-01-01

    This report is concerned with the theory of thin shallow shells. It does not employ the lines of curvature as the coordinate system, but employs "almost cartesian coordinates" or the coordinates obtained by cutting the surface into two mutually orthogonal systems of parallel planes.

  12. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-02-24

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTS. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified.

  13. Cracking the Si Shell Growth in Hexagonal GaP-Si Core-Shell Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Conesa-Boj, S; Hauge, H I T; Verheijen, M A; Assali, S; Li, A; Bakkers, E P A M; Fontcuberta i Morral, A

    2015-05-13

    Semiconductor nanowires have increased the palette of possible heterostructures thanks to their more effective strain relaxation. Among these, core-shell heterostructures are much more sensitive to strain than axial ones. It is now accepted that the formation of misfit dislocations depends both on the lattice mismatch and relative dimensions of the core and the shell. Here, we show for the first time the existence of a new kind of defect in core-shell nanowires: cracks. These defects do not originate from a lattice mismatch (we demonstrate their appearance in an essentially zero-mismatch system) but from the thermal history during the growth of the nanowires. Crack defects lead to the development of secondary defects, such as type-I1 stacking faults and Frank-type dislocations. These results provide crucial information with important implications for the optimized synthesis of nanowire-based core-shell heterostructures.

  14. Lightweight Grid Shell Pavilion - Design, Manufacture and Erection of Full Scale Grid Shell Prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaněk, Aleš

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of author's research is to design and construct grid shell structures, which are subsequently realized as experimental structures in full scale. These structures should make the place suitable for various events and also a friendly, pleasant, relaxing and free time space. By thinking about how such structure should look like and what materials and structure types are suitable, there were many kinds of lightweight structures considered. The most logical solution is to create a grid shell structure combining with a single layer membrane that would fulfill all aspects of elegant remarkable lightweight structure using some original details and workflow advancements. These grid shell projects should demonstrate another possibility to build and think about unconventional structures and provoke a deeper interest in these unique structures. The goal of this project was to create a feasible design of a grid shell structure and to build up the structures while being capable to understand the core of such an interesting phenomenon.

  15. Breakup of finite thickness viscous shell microbubbles by ultrasound: A simplified zero-thickness shell model

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges L.

    2013-01-01

    A simplified three-dimensional (3-D) zero-thickness shell model was developed to recover the non-spherical response of thick-shelled encapsulated microbubbles subjected to ultrasound excitation. The model was validated by comparison with previously developed models and was then used to study the mechanism of bubble break-up during non-spherical deformations resulting from the presence of a nearby rigid boundary. The effects of the shell thickness and the bubble standoff distance from the solid wall on the bubble break-up were studied parametrically for a fixed insonification frequency and amplitude. A diagram of bubble shapes versus the normalized shell thickness and wall standoff was derived, and the potential bubble shapes at break-up from reentrant jets were categorized resulting in four distinct zones. PMID:23556560

  16. An effective theory on the light shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajjad, Aqil

    We describe work on the construction of an effective field theory on a spherical light shell. The motivation arises from classical electromagnetism: If a collision produces charged particles with zero net charge emerging simultaneously from a point and instantaneously accelerating to the speed of light, then the electromagnetic fields due to these charges lie entirely on a spherical shell expanding at the speed of light. We show that this also applies to classical color radiation from high-energy collisions that produce colored particles. Specifically, the color fields produced in such a process are associated with a non-linear sigma-model on the 2D light shell with specific symmetry-breaking terms. The quantum version of such a picture exhibits asymptotic freedom and should therefore be a useful starting point for a light-shell effective theory for QCD. We start in the simplified context of zero-flavor scalar quantum electrodynamics. Our effective theory has 3 major ingredients: breaking down the fields into soft and hard sectors with the large energy of the hard fields in the radial direction scaled out, a special gauge called light-shell gauge in which the picture simplifies, and a gauge-invariant source defined on a spherical light shell having infinitesimal radius. We match the fields between the effective theory and the full theory, meaning zero-flavor scalar QED. This allows us to compute the amplitude for the production of any number of scalars from the gauge-invariant source. We then find the tree-level amplitude for the emission of a photon using our effective theory and show that our result agrees with the full theory. To calculate loop effects in our effective theory, we need the photon propagator in light-shell gauge. We derive this propagator and use it to calculate the 1-loop correction to the amplitude for the production of a scalar and anti-scalar pair arising from virtual photon effects. This reduces to a pair of purely angular integrals in the

  17. Porous Core-Shell Nanostructures for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, Trevor David

    Porous core-shell nanostructures have recently received much attention for their enhanced thermal stability. They show great potential in the field of catalysis, as reactant gases can diffuse in and out of the porous shell while the core particle is protected from sintering, a process in which particles coalesce to form larger particles. Sintering is a large problem in industry and is the primary cause of irreversible deactivation. Despite the obvious advantages of high thermal stability, porous core-shell nanoparticles can be developed to have additional interactive properties from the combination of the core and shell together, rather than just the core particle alone. This dissertation focuses on developing new porous core-shell systems in which both the core and shell take part in catalysis. Two types of systems are explored; (1) yolk-shell nanostructures with reducible oxide shells formed using the Kirkendall effect and (2) ceramic-based porous oxide shells formed using sol-gel chemistry. Of the Kirkendall-based systems, Au FexOy and Cu CoO were synthesized and studied for catalytic applications. Additionally, ZnO was explored as a potential shelling material. Sol-gel work focused on optimizing synthetic methods to allow for coating of small gold particles, which remains a challenge today. Mixed metal oxides were explored as a shelling material to make dual catalysts in which the product of a reaction on the core particle becomes a reactant within the shell.

  18. Imperfection sensitivity of pressured buckling of biopolymer spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Ru, C. Q.

    2016-06-01

    Imperfection sensitivity is essential for mechanical behavior of biopolymer shells [such as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and spherical viruses] characterized by high geometric heterogeneity. In this work, an imperfection sensitivity analysis is conducted based on a refined shell model recently developed for spherical biopolymer shells of high structural heterogeneity and thickness nonuniformity. The influence of related parameters (including the ratio of radius to average shell thickness, the ratio of transverse shear modulus to in-plane shear modulus, and the ratio of effective bending thickness to average shell thickness) on imperfection sensitivity is examined for pressured buckling. Our results show that the ratio of effective bending thickness to average shell thickness has a major effect on the imperfection sensitivity, while the effect of the ratio of transverse shear modulus to in-plane shear modulus is usually negligible. For example, with physically realistic parameters for typical imperfect spherical biopolymer shells, the present model predicts that actual maximum external pressure could be reduced to as low as 60% of that of a perfect UCA spherical shell or 55%-65% of that of a perfect spherical virus shell, respectively. The moderate imperfection sensitivity of spherical biopolymer shells with physically realistic imperfection is largely attributed to the fact that biopolymer shells are relatively thicker (defined by smaller radius-to-thickness ratio) and therefore practically realistic imperfection amplitude normalized by thickness is very small as compared to that of classical elastic thin shells which have much larger radius-to-thickness ratio.

  19. Imperfection sensitivity of pressured buckling of biopolymer spherical shells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Ru, C Q

    2016-06-01

    Imperfection sensitivity is essential for mechanical behavior of biopolymer shells [such as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and spherical viruses] characterized by high geometric heterogeneity. In this work, an imperfection sensitivity analysis is conducted based on a refined shell model recently developed for spherical biopolymer shells of high structural heterogeneity and thickness nonuniformity. The influence of related parameters (including the ratio of radius to average shell thickness, the ratio of transverse shear modulus to in-plane shear modulus, and the ratio of effective bending thickness to average shell thickness) on imperfection sensitivity is examined for pressured buckling. Our results show that the ratio of effective bending thickness to average shell thickness has a major effect on the imperfection sensitivity, while the effect of the ratio of transverse shear modulus to in-plane shear modulus is usually negligible. For example, with physically realistic parameters for typical imperfect spherical biopolymer shells, the present model predicts that actual maximum external pressure could be reduced to as low as 60% of that of a perfect UCA spherical shell or 55%-65% of that of a perfect spherical virus shell, respectively. The moderate imperfection sensitivity of spherical biopolymer shells with physically realistic imperfection is largely attributed to the fact that biopolymer shells are relatively thicker (defined by smaller radius-to-thickness ratio) and therefore practically realistic imperfection amplitude normalized by thickness is very small as compared to that of classical elastic thin shells which have much larger radius-to-thickness ratio.

  20. Pseudo-Symmetry and Majorana Operators in pf-Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, J. P.; Wu, H. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Majorana operator of the pseudo ds-shell preserves the SU-tilde(4) symmetry, and in a unified manner it reproduces reasonably well the ground state energies of the nine nuclei in this shell. The study of {beta} decay in the same shell provides further support for the SU-tilde(4) symmetry.

  1. Shells. Modified Primary. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defendorf, Jean, Ed.

    This publication provides information and activities for teaching about seashells and process skills including observing, classifying, collecting and interpreting data, inferring, measuring, and predicting. There are 10 lessons. Lessons 1 through 5 deal with an introduction to shells, why animals have shells, observing and classifying shells, the…

  2. Mollusc evolution: seven shells on the sea shore.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J

    2013-11-04

    Recent phylogenies unite two seemingly very different groups of mollusc: the Polyplacophora with multiple shells and the shell-less Aplacophora. The finding of seven muscle rows in larvae of both classes suggests that polyplacophoran-like shell rows have been lost in adult Aplacophora.

  3. Validating Finite Element Models of Assembled Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The validation of finite element models of assembled shell elements is presented. The topics include: 1) Problems with membrane rotations in assembled shell models; 2) Penalty stiffness for membrane rotations; 3) Physical stiffness for membrane rotations using shell elements with 6 dof per node; and 4) Connections avoiding rotations.

  4. Leathery Hull Peanuts – Effect on Shelling Performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When shelling peanuts from the 2012 peanut crop, various shellers experienced diminished shelling plant throughput when shelling peanuts harvested from isolated geographical regions. Shellers reported a reduction of 25-30% throughput of the first stage sheller bank with significant increases in spli...

  5. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  6. Expert Systems, Shells, and Schools: Present Practice, Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Tom; Bowman, Norman

    1995-01-01

    Examines present and future uses of expert system shells in schools, assesses three expert system shells, and proposes criteria for future learning by knowledge-based models. A discussion and tables present results of questionnaires sent to secondary schools teachers in Scotland to determine the use and impact of expert system shells in secondary…

  7. Wave propagation in laminated orthotropic circular cylindrical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.

    1976-01-01

    An exact three-dimensional analysis of wave propagation in laminated orthotropic circular cylindrical-shells is developed. Numerical results are presented for three-ply shells, and for various axial wave lengths, circumferential wave numbers, and thicknesses. Results from a thin shell theory and a refined approximate theory are compared with the exact results.

  8. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  9. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  10. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  11. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  12. Shells. Modified Primary. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defendorf, Jean, Ed.

    This publication provides information and activities for teaching about seashells and process skills including observing, classifying, collecting and interpreting data, inferring, measuring, and predicting. There are 10 lessons. Lessons 1 through 5 deal with an introduction to shells, why animals have shells, observing and classifying shells, the…

  13. 7 CFR 982.101 - Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. 982.101... HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Grade and Size Regulation § 982.101 Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. (a) Pursuant to § 982.45(a), no handler shall handle any shelled hazelnuts unless such...

  14. 7 CFR 982.101 - Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. 982.101... HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Grade and Size Regulation § 982.101 Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. (a) Pursuant to § 982.45(a), no handler shall handle any shelled hazelnuts unless such...

  15. 7 CFR 982.101 - Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. 982.101... HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Grade and Size Regulation § 982.101 Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. (a) Pursuant to § 982.45(a), no handler shall handle any shelled hazelnuts unless such...

  16. 7 CFR 982.101 - Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. 982.101... HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Grade and Size Regulation § 982.101 Grade requirements for shelled hazelnuts. (a) Pursuant to § 982.45(a), no handler shall handle any shelled hazelnuts unless such...

  17. Core-shell to yolk-shell nanostructure transformation by a novel sacrificial template-free strategy.

    PubMed

    Han, Jie; Chen, Rong; Wang, Minggui; Lu, Song; Guo, Rong

    2013-12-21

    Au-conducting polymer core-shell nanostructures have been transformed into yolk-shell nanostructures with enhanced catalytic activity through facile swelling-evaporation processes without any sacrificial template.

  18. Constraints for system specifications for the double-shell and single-shell tank systems

    SciTech Connect

    SHAW, C.P.

    1999-05-18

    This is a supporting document for the Level 1 Double-Shell and Single-Shell System Specifications. The rationale for selection of specific regulatory constraining documents cited in the two system specifications is provided. many of the regulations have been implemented by the Project Hanford Management Contract procedures (HNF-PROs) and as such noted and traced back to their origins in State and Federal regulations.

  19. s-Process in Shell Carbon Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, L.-S.; Meyer, B. S.; El Eid, M. F.

    2001-12-01

    We present a study of carbon-shell s-process nucleosynthesis in a 25 Msun model having solar-like initial composition as a follow-up of our previous s-process study of core helium burning. The source of free neutrons, as in the core helium burning, is the 22Ne(α ,n)25Mg reaction with the initial 22Ne is what left from the core helium burning. We show the temperature, density, neutron density, and 12C, 22Ne, 80Kr, 86Sr, 87Rb mass fractions evolution during the carbon-shell burning. The model produces a neutron exposure of ~1 mbarn-1 and a peak neutron density of ~1x1011 cm-3 at the inner edge of carbon shell (mass radius ~2 Msun) with the duration of s-process of ~1 year. We find all isotopes except 64Zn with proton number between 30 and 40 have an overproduction factor larger than unity in the carbon-shell s-process. These overlay the core helium overproduction factors. The isotopes that are strongly produced are 180Ta, 23Na, 70,72,73,74Ge, 80,82,83Kr, 69,71Ga, 76,77,78,80Se, 66,67,68Zn, 64Ni, 75,79Br, 87Rb, 79,81Br. The isotopes that are strongly destroyed during carbon-shell burning are 58Fe, 64Zn, 63,65Cu, 152Gd, 158Dy, 37Cl, 113In. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-9819877.

  20. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    PubMed

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  1. Defects in liquid crystal nematic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Nieves, A.; Utada, A. S.; Vitelli, V.; Link, D. R.; Nelson, D. R.; Weitz, D. A.

    2006-03-01

    We generate water/liquid crystal (LC)/water double emulsions via recent micro-capillary fluidic devices [A. S. Utada, et.al. Science 308, 537 (2005)]. The resultant objects are stabilized against coalescence by using surfactants or adequate polymers; these also fix the boundary conditions for the director field n. We use 4-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) and impose tangential boundary conditions at both water/LC interfaces by having polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) dispersed in the inner and outer water phases. We confirm recent predictions [D. R. Nelson, NanoLetters 2, 1125 (2002)] and find that four strength s=+1/2 defects are present; this is in contrast to the two s=+1 defect bipolar configuration observed for bulk spheres [A. Fernandez-Nieves, et.al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 105503 (2004)]. However, these defects do not lie in the vertices of a tetrahedron but are pushed towards each other until certain equilibration distance is reached. In addition to the four defect shells, we observe shells with two s=+1 defects and even with three defects, a s=+1 and two s=+1/2. We argue these configurations arise from nematic bulk distortions that become important as the shell thickness increases. Finally, by adding a different surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), to the outer phase, we can change the director boundary conditions at the outermost interface from parallel to homeotropic, to induce coalescing of the two pair of defects in the four defect shell configuration to yield two defect bipolar shells.

  2. Searching for nova shells around cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahman, D. I.; Dhillon, V. S.; Knigge, C.; Marsh, T. R.

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of a search for nova shells around 101 cataclysmic variables (CVs), using H α images taken with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS). Both telescopes are located on La Palma. We concentrated our WHT search on nova-like variables, whilst our IPHAS search covered all CVs in the IPHAS footprint. We found one shell out of the 24 nova-like variables we examined. The newly discovered shell is around V1315 Aql and has a radius of ˜2.5 arcmin, indicative of a nova eruption approximately 120 yr ago. This result is consistent with the idea that the high mass-transfer rate exhibited by nova-like variables is due to enhanced irradiation of the secondary by the hot white dwarf following a recent nova eruption. The implications of our observations for the lifetime of the nova-like variable phase are discussed. We also examined four asynchronous polars, but found no new shells around any of them, so we are unable to confirm that a recent nova eruption is the cause of the asynchronicity in the white dwarf spin. We find tentative evidence of a faint shell around the dwarf nova V1363 Cyg. In addition, we find evidence for a light echo around the nova V2275 Cyg, which erupted in 2001, indicative of an earlier nova eruption ˜300 yr ago, making V2275 Cyg a possible recurrent nova.

  3. CFD modelling of shell-side asphaltenes deposition in a shell and tube heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emani, Sampath; Ramasamy, M.; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku

    2017-07-01

    Asphaltenes are identified as the main cause of crude oil fouling in the shell and tube exchangers. There are occasions where the crude oil flows through the shell side of the heat exchangers and some fouling is reported in the shell side of those heat exchangers. Understanding the fouling phenomena in the shell sides requires the knowledge on the irregular fluid flow paths and most susceptible locations of particles deposition. In the present work, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of shear stress and surface roughness on shell-side asphaltenes deposition in a shell and tube heat exchanger through Computational Fluid Dynamics approach. The hydrodynamics of asphaltenes particles and the effect of various forces on the asphaltenes deposition on the heat transfer surfaces has been investigated through a Lagrangian based discrete-phase model. From the CFD analysis, the net mass deposition of the asphaltenes particles reduces with an increase in surface roughness from 0 to 0.04 mm and wall shear stress from 0 to 0.04 Pa for flow velocity 1 m/s, respectively. The asphaltenes mass deposition becomes constant with further increase in wall shear stress and surface roughness.

  4. Optimised photocatalytic hydrogen production using core-shell AuPd promoters with controlled shell thickness.

    PubMed

    Jones, Wilm; Su, Ren; Wells, Peter P; Shen, Yanbin; Dimitratos, Nikolaos; Bowker, Michael; Morgan, David; Iversen, Bo B; Chutia, Arunabhiram; Besenbacher, Flemming; Hutchings, Graham

    2014-12-28

    The development of efficient photocatalytic routines for producing hydrogen is of great importance as society moves away from energy sources derived from fossil fuels. Recent studies have identified that the addition of metal nanoparticles to TiO2 greatly enhances the photocatalytic performance of these materials towards the reforming of alcohols for hydrogen production. The core-shell structured Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle supported on TiO2 has being of interest as it exhibited extremely high quantum efficiencies for hydrogen production. However, the effect of shell composition and thickness on photocatalytic performance remains unclear. Here we report the synthesis of core-shell structured AuPd NPs with the controlled deposition of one and two monolayers (ML) equivalent of Pd onto Au NPs by colloidal and photodeposition methods. We have determined the shell composition and thickness of the nanoparticles by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photocatalytic ethanol reforming showed that the core-shell structured Au-Pd promoters supported on TiO2 exhibit enhanced activity compared to that of monometallic Au and Pd as promoters, whilst the core-shell Au-Pd promoters containing one ML equivalent Pd provide the optimum reactivity.

  5. Glass shell manufacturing in space. [residual gases in spherical shells made from metal-organic gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolen, R. J.; Ebner, M. A.; Downs, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Residual gases always found in glass shells are CO2, O2 and N2. In those cases where high water vapor pressure is maintained in the furnace, water is also found in the shells. Other evidence for the existence of water in shells is the presence of water-induced surface weathering of the interior shell surface. Water and CO2 are the predominant volatiles generated by the pyrolysis of both inorganic and hydrolyzed metal-organic gels. The pyrolysates of unhydrolyzed metal-organic gels also contain, in addition to water and CO2, significant levels of organic volatiles, such as ethanol and some hydrocarbons; on complete oxidation, these produce CO2 and water as well. Water is most likely the initial blowing agent, it is produced copiously during the initial stages of heating. In the later stages, CO2 becomes the dominant gas as H2O is lost at increasing rates. Water in the shell arises mainly from gel dehydration, CO2 by sodium bicarbonate/carbonate decomposition and carbon oxidation, and O2 and N2 by permeation of the ambient furnace air through the molten shell wall.

  6. 76 FR 36954 - Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Shell Lake Municipal Airport, Shell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Public Notice for Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance; Shell Lake Municipal Airport, Shell Lake, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT ACTION: Notice of intent of... to authorize the release of 0.101 acres of the airport property at the ] Shell Lake Municipal Airport...

  7. How long does oyster shell last on an oyster reef?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Eric N.; Kraeuter, John N.; Ashton-Alcox, Kathryn A.

    2006-09-01

    A reduction in population abundance, brought on by an unprecedented 6 years of low recruitment, has reduced shell input through natural mortality on Delaware Bay oyster beds. Quantitative stock surveys provide an estimate of surficial shell over the same time period, permitting the reconstruction of the time history of shell since 1998 and estimation of the rates of shell addition and loss. Shell loss rates were unexpectedly high. In most cases, half of the shell added to an oyster bed in Delaware Bay in a given year is lost over a subsequent period of 2-10 years. Unexpectedly, the shortest half-lives, typically two to three years, are at intermediate salinities. Half-lives increase upbay into lower salinity and downbay into higher salinity to about 10 years. Minimal shell doubling times were calculated under the assumption of no shell loss, a maximum accretion rate. Minimal doubling times vary from somewhat less than a decade to more than a score of years. Doubling times of decadal scale emphasize that shell has the potential to accumulate rapidly on human time scales. The rarity of definitive documentation of shell accumulation, in terms of reef vertical accretion or lateral expansion, can only be explained if most shell produced yearly does not long remain recognizably intact. Doubling times are not rapid on the scale of oyster generation time, however. Management of essential fish habitat in the estuarine realm must include management of the shell budget and management of commercial shell-producing species must include the provision of animals as carbonate producers for habitat maintenance. Shell, at least in estuarine habitats, may have low preservational potential, even in areas that, when preserved, will appear to be shellbeds. The biases in the fossil record may not be minimized in shell-rich environments of preservation because shelliness does not imply good preservability.

  8. Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells

    SciTech Connect

    Qatu, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.

  9. Voids and yolk-shells from crystals that coat particles.

    PubMed

    Sindoro, Melinda; Granick, Steve

    2014-10-01

    We investigate curvature-driven core-shell morphology that emerges when polycrystalline shells of ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate framework coordination polymer) grow on colloid-sized particles. In early growth stages, the shell is continuous, but it transforms to yolk-shell, with neither sacrificial template nor core etching, because of geometrical frustration. A design rule is developed regarding how local surface curvature matters. Comparing shells grown on cubic, rod-like, and peanut-shaped hematite core particles, we validate the argument.

  10. Shells on lattice-mismatched colloidal spheres, cubes, and peanuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindoro, Melinda; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Cavities form spontaneously due to geometrical frustration when crystalline shells is gradually grown on non-linear surfaces. This we conclude experimentally from growing lattice mismatched shells on colloidal spheres, cubes, and peanuts, all of them providing different local curvature. According to the core shape, the underlying interfacial curvature promotes different cavity formation which we can follow over time. The resulting spatio-temporal heterogeneity adds up to a propagation of an increasingly strong mechanical stress at the core-shell interface, inducing core-shells transformation to yolk-shells.

  11. Soundproof characteristics of finite length orthotropic honeycomb shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic radiation emanating from the walls of orthotropic honeycomb shells is studied analytically for the case of axisymmetric acoustic mode transmission within the shell. The shell has a finite vibrating length and is mounted on an infinite rigid baffle in a free field. The problem is studied on the basis of a shell theory in which it is assumed that the honeycomb core resists only transverse shear forces and that the facings resist only bending moments. The sound transmission loss through the shell wall, TL, is derived and calculated for various values of the physical parameters involved.

  12. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  13. Shell-resolved melting kinetics of icosahedral cluster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong H; Jiang, En Y; Bai, Hai L; Wu, Ping; Li, Zhiqing; Sun, Chang Q

    2009-03-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations of the fluctuation of bond vibration revealed the shell-resolved mode of surface melting of the a closed-shell cluster containing 147 atoms with Lennard-Jones type interaction. It is found that the surface melting is imitated by the migrating of the vertex atoms. Although the melting process of the LJ147 cluster could be divided into discrete stages of surface shell-by-shell melting in general, there is still a continuous process of melting from the surface shell to the core interior.

  14. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    PubMed

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-06

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

  15. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells

    PubMed Central

    Fitzer, Susan C.; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature. PMID:25540244

  16. A Method for Quantifying, Visualising, and Analysing Gastropod Shell Form

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of organismal form is an important component for almost every branch of biology. Although generally considered an easily-measurable structure, the quantification of gastropod shell form is still a challenge because many shells lack homologous structures and have a spiral form that is difficult to capture with linear measurements. In view of this, we adopt the idea of theoretical modelling of shell form, in which the shell form is the product of aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture growth trajectory that is quantified as curvature and torsion, and of aperture form that is represented by size and shape. We develop a workflow for the analysis of shell forms based on the aperture ontogeny profile, starting from the procedure of data preparation (retopologising the shell model), via data acquisition (calculation of aperture growth trajectory, aperture form and ontogeny axis), and data presentation (qualitative comparison between shell forms) and ending with data analysis (quantitative comparison between shell forms). We evaluate our methods on representative shells of the genera Opisthostoma and Plectostoma, which exhibit great variability in shell form. The outcome suggests that our method is a robust, reproducible, and versatile approach for the analysis of shell form. Finally, we propose several potential applications of our methods in functional morphology, theoretical modelling, taxonomy, and evolutionary biology. PMID:27280463

  17. Proteomic characterization of oyster shell organic matrix proteins (OMP).

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Abhishek; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Tong, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Oysters are economically and ecologically important bivalves, with its calcareous shell and delicious meat. The shell composition is a blend of inorganic crystals and shell proteins that form an organic matrix which protects the soft inner tissue of the oyster. The objective of the study was to compare the composition of organic matrix proteins (OMP) of two phylogenetically related species: the Hong Kong oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) and the Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea angulata) which differ in their shell hardness and mechanical properties. C. hongkongensis shells are comparatively stronger than C. angulata. Modern shotgun proteomics has been used to understand the nature of the OMP and the variations observed in the mechanical properties of these two species of oyster shells. After visualizing proteins on the one (1DE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) gels, the protein spots and their intensities were compared using PDQuest software and 14 proteins of C. hongkongensis were found to be significantly different (student׳s t-test; p<0.05) when compared to the C. angulata. Furthermore, shell OMP separated on 1DE gels were processed using Triple TOF5600 mass spectrometry and 42 proteins of C. hongkongensis and 37 of C. angulata identified. A Circos based comparative analysis of the shell proteins of both oyster species were prepared against the shell proteome of other shell forming gastropods and molluscs to study the evolutionary conservation of OMP and their function. This comparative proteomics expanded our understating of the molecular mechanism behind the shells having different hardness and mechanical properties.

  18. A predictive model of shell morphology in CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Ke; Kelley, David F.

    2014-11-21

    Lattice mismatch in core/shell nanoparticles occurs when the core and shell materials have different lattice parameters. When there is a significant lattice mismatch, a coherent core-shell interface results in substantial lattice strain energy, which can affect the shell morphology. The shell can be of uniform thickness or can be rough, having thin and thick regions. A smooth shell minimizes the surface energy at the expense of increased lattice strain energy and a rough shell does the opposite. A quantitative treatment of the lattice strain energy in determining the shell morphology of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles is presented here. We use the inhomogeneity in hole tunneling rates through the shell to adsorbed hole acceptors to quantify the extent of shell thickness inhomogeneity. The results can be understood in terms of a model based on elastic continuum calculations, which indicate that the lattice strain energy depends on both core size and shell thickness. The model assumes thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., that the shell morphology corresponds to a minimum total (lattice strain plus surface) energy. Comparison with the experimental results indicates that CdSe/CdS nanoparticles undergo an abrupt transition from smooth to rough shells when the total lattice strain energy exceeds about 27 eV or the strain energy density exceeds 0.59 eV/nm{sup 2}. We also find that the predictions of this model are not followed for CdSe/CdS nanoparticles when the shell is deposited at very low temperature and therefore equilibrium is not established.

  19. Geometrically nonlinear analysis of layered composite plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, W. C.; Reddy, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    A degenerated three dimensional finite element, based on the incremental total Lagrangian formulation of a three dimensional layered anisotropic medium was developed. Its use in the geometrically nonlinear, static and dynamic, analysis of layered composite plates and shells is demonstrated. A two dimenisonal finite element based on the Sanders shell theory with the von Karman (nonlinear) strains was developed. It is shown that the deflections obtained by the 2D shell element deviate from those obtained by the more accurate 3D element for deep shells. The 3D degenerated element can be used to model general shells that are not necessarily doubly curved. The 3D degenerated element is computationally more demanding than the 2D shell theory element for a given problem. It is found that the 3D element is an efficient element for the analysis of layered composite plates and shells undergoing large displacements and transient motion.

  20. Optimal designs of mollusk shells from bivalves to snails

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Takuya; Yoshimura, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Bivalve, ammonite and snail shells are described by a small number of geometrical parameters. Raup noted that the vast majority of theoretically possible shell forms do not occur in nature. The constraint factors that regulate the biased distribution of natural form have long since been an open problem in evolution. The problem of whether natural shell form is a result of optimization remains unsolved despite previous attempts. Here we solve this problem by considering the scaling exponent of shell thickness as a morphological parameter. The scaling exponent has a drastic effect on the optimal design of shell shapes. The observed characteristic shapes of natural shells are explained in a unified manner as a result of optimal utilization of shell material resources, while isometric growth in thickness leads to impossibly tight coiling. PMID:28186171

  1. Vibration of cylindrical shells of bimodulus composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bert, C. W.; Kumar, M.

    1982-03-01

    A theory is formulated for the small amplitude free vibration of thick, circular cylindrical shells laminated of bimodulus composite materials, which have different elastic properties depending upon whether the fiber-direction strain is tensile or compressive. The theory used is the dynamic, shear deformable (moderately thick shell) analog of the Sanders best first approximation thin shell theory. By means of tracers, the analysis can be reduced to that of various simpler shell theories, namely Love's first approximation, and Donnell's shallow shell theory. As an example of the application of the theory, a closed form solution is presented for a freely supported panel or complete shell. To validate the analysis, numerical results are compared with existing results for various special cases. Also, the effects of the various shell theories, thickness shear flexibility, and bimodulus action are investigated.

  2. Preheat of radiative shock in double-shell ignition targets

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. W.; He, X. T.; Pei, W. B.; Li, J. H.; Zheng, W. D.; Zhu, S. P.; Kang, W.

    2013-08-15

    For the double-shell ignition target, the nonuniform preheat of the inner shell by high-energy x rays, especially the M-band line radiation and L-shell radiation from the Au hohlraum, aggravates the hydrodynamic instability that causes shell disruption. In this paper, for the first time, we propose another preheating mechanism due to the radiative shock formed in the CH foam, and also confirm and validate such preheat of radiative shock by numerical results. We also give an estimate of the improved double-shell in which the CH foam is replaced by the metallic foam to mitigate the hydrodynamic instabilities, and find that the radiative shock formed in the metallic foam produces a much stronger radiation field to preheat the inner shell, which plays a role in better controlling the instabilities. In double-shells, the preheat of radiative shock, as a potential effect on the instabilities, should be seriously realized and underlined.

  3. SERS decoding of micro gold shells moving in microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saram; Joo, Segyeong; Park, Sejin; Kim, Soyoun; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Taek Dong

    2010-05-01

    In this study, in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) decoding was demonstrated in microfluidic chips using novel thin micro gold shells modified with Raman tags. The micro gold shells were fabricated using electroless gold plating on PMMA beads with diameter of 15 microm. These shells were sophisticatedly optimized to produce the maximum SERS intensity, which minimized the exposure time for quick and safe decoding. The shell surfaces produced well-defined SERS spectra even at an extremely short exposure time, 1 ms, for a single micro gold shell combined with Raman tags such as 2-naphthalenethiol and benzenethiol. The consecutive SERS spectra from a variety of combinations of Raman tags were successfully acquired from the micro gold shells moving in 25 microm deep and 75 microm wide channels on a glass microfluidic chip. The proposed functionalized micro gold shells exhibited the potential of an on-chip microfluidic SERS decoding strategy for micro suspension array.

  4. Symmetries and deformations in the spherical shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Isacker, P.; Pittel, S.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss symmetries of the spherical shell model that make contact with the geometric collective model of Bohr and Mottelson. The most celebrated symmetry of this kind is SU(3), which is the basis of Elliott’s model of rotation. It corresponds to a deformed mean field induced by a quadrupole interaction in a single major oscillator shell N and can be generalized to include several major shells. As such, Elliott’s SU(3) model establishes the link between the spherical shell model and the (quadrupole component of the) geometric collective model. We introduce the analogue symmetry induced by an octupole interaction in two major oscillator shells N-1 and N, leading to an octupole-deformed solution of the spherical shell model. We show that in the limit of large oscillator shells, N\\to ∞ , the algebraic octupole interaction tends to that of the geometric collective model.

  5. Robust, ultrasmall organosilica nanoparticles without silica shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Eoin; Born, Philip; Weber, Anika; Kraus, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, organosilica nanoparticles have been prepared inside micelles with an external silica shell for mechanical support. Here, we compare these hybrid core-shell particles with organosilica particles that are robust enough to be produced both inside micelles and alone in a sol-gel process. These particles form from octadecyltrimethoxy silane as silica source either in microemulsions, resulting in water-dispersible particles with a hydrophobic core, or precipitate from an aqueous mixture to form particles with both hydrophobic core and surface. We examine size and morphology of the particles by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy and show that the particles consist of Si-O-Si networks pervaded by alkyl chains using nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis.

  6. No-Core Shell Model and Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, Petr; Ormand, W. Erich; Caurier, Etienne; Bertulani, Carlos

    2005-10-14

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications as well as the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss cross section calculations of p+6Li and 6He+p scattering as well as a calculation of the astrophysically important 7Be(p,{gamma})8B S-factor.

  7. No-Core Shell Model and Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Caurier, E; Bertulani, C

    2005-04-29

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications as well as the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss cross section calculations of p+{sup 6}Li and {sup 6}He+p scattering as well as a calculation of the astrophysically important {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor.

  8. Dynamic Buckling of Composite Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sai-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Considering the effect of stress wave, the dynamic buckling governing equations and boundary conditions of composite cylindrical shells under axial step load are derived based on the Hamilton principle. The expression of radial displacement function along the circumferential direction is assumed since the cylindrical shell is closed. The solutions of the governing equations are obtained by the state-space technique. The determinant of the coefficient matrix must be equal to zero if the linear equations have a non-trivial solution. The relationship between the critical load and length and the influences of boundary conditions, modes, etc. on critical load are obtained by programming with MATLAB software before and after the reflection of stress wave.

  9. Shape coexistence: the shell model view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, A.

    2016-02-01

    We shall discuss the meaning of the ‘nuclear shape’ in the laboratory frame proper to the spherical shell model. A brief historical promenade will bring us from Elliott’s SU3 breakthrough to today’s large scale shell model calculations. A section is devoted to the algebraic model which extends drastically the field of applicability of Elliot’s SU3, providing a precious heuristic guidance for the exploration of collectivity in the nuclear chart. Shape coexistence and shape mixing will be shown to occur as the result of the competition between the main actors in the nuclear dynamics; the spherical mean field, and the pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. These ideas will be illustrated with examples in magic nuclei (40Ca and 68Ni); neutron rich semi-magic (32Mg, and 64Cr); and in proton rich N = Z (72Kr).

  10. Shell tension forces propel Dictyostelium slugs forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieu, Jean-Paul; Delanoë-Ayari, Hélène

    2012-12-01

    The Dictyostelium slug is an excellent model system for studying collective movements, as it is comprised of about 105 cells all moving together in the same direction. It still remains unclear how this movement occurs and what the physical mechanisms behind it are. By applying our recently developed 3D traction force microscopy, we propose a simple explanation for slug propulsion. Most of the forces are exerted by the sheath surrounding the slug. This secreted shell is under a rather uniform tension (around 50 mN m-1) and will give rise to a tissue under pressure. Finally, we propose that this pressure will naturally push the slug tip forwards if a gradient of shell mechanical properties takes place in the very anterior part of the raised tip.

  11. Disappearance of the N=14 shell

    SciTech Connect

    Strongman, M. J.; Spyrou, A.; Frank, N.; Mosby, S.; Peters, W. A.; Thoennessen, M.; Hoffman, C. R.; Tabor, S. L.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Schiller, A.; Brown, J.; DeYoung, P. A.; Peaslee, G. F.; Finck, J. E.; Rogers, W. F.

    2009-08-15

    An excited state of {sup 22}N unbound with respect to neutron emission was observed in a stripping reaction from a 85 MeV/nucleon {sup 26}F beam. The observed decay energy of 650(50) keV places the level, which is interpreted to be the first 3{sup -} state, at an excitation energy of 1.93(22) MeV. Together with the previously measured bound states of {sup 22}N, reduction of the N=14 shell gap compared to less neutron-rich nitrogen isotopes at the neutron dripline is observed. Based on the magnitude of the reduction of the shell gap for {sup 22}N, a disappearance of the gap and even a level inversion of the {nu}1s{sub 1/2} and the {nu}0d{sub 5/2} levels in the neutron-unbound nucleus {sup 21}C seems likely.

  12. Canonical acoustic thin-shell wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusufi, Kimet; Övgün, Ali

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we model a canonical acoustic thin-shell wormhole (CATSW) in the framework of analogue gravity systems. In this model, we apply cut and paste technique to join together two spherically symmetric, analogue canonical acoustic solutions, and compute the analogue surface density/surface pressure of the fluid using the Darmois-Israel formalism. We study the stability analyses by using a linear barotropic fluid (LBF), Chaplygin fluid (CF), logarithmic fluid (LogF), polytropic fluid (PF) and finally Van der Waals Quintessence (VDWQ). We show that a kind of analog acoustic fluid with negative energy is required at the throat to keep the wormhole stable. It is argued that CATSW can be a stabile thin-shell wormhole if we choose a suitable parameter values.

  13. Shell model for warm rotating nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, M.; Yoshida, K.; Dossing, T.

    1996-12-31

    Utilizing a shell model which combines the cranked Nilsson mean-field and the residual surface and volume delta two-body forces, the authors discuss the onset of rotational damping in normal- and super-deformed nuclei. Calculation for a typical normal deformed nucleus {sup 168}Yb indicates that the rotational damping sets in at around 0.8 MeV above the yrast line, and about 30 rotational bands of various length exists at a given rotational frequency, in overall agreement with experimental findings. It is predicted that the onset of rotational damping changes significantly in different superdeformed nuclei due to the variety of the shell gaps and single-particle orbits associated with the superdeformed mean-field.

  14. BLAZAR FLARES FROM COMPTON DRAGGED SHELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Omri; Levinson, Amir

    2015-08-10

    We compute the dynamics and emission of dissipative shells that are subject to a strong Compton drag, under simplifying assumptions about the dissipation mechanism. We show that under conditions prevailing in blazars, substantial deceleration is anticipated on sub-parsec and parsec scales in cases of rapid dissipation. Such episodes may be the origin of some of the flaring activity occasionally observed in gamma-ray blazars. The shape of the light curves thereby produced reflects the geometry of the emitting surface if the deceleration is very rapid, or the dynamics of the shell if the deceleration is delayed, or initially more gradual, owing, e.g., to continuous injection of energy and momentum.

  15. Photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles with shell thickness as controlling parameter under green environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Himanshu; Bhattacharjee, Suparna; Datta, Pranayee

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic Ag/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles have been synthesized via a simple two-step wet chemical method for application in Photocatalysis. The morphology, size, crystal structure, composition and optical properties of the nanoparticles are investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The shell thicknesses are varied by varying the concentration of zinc nitrate hexa-hydrate and triethanolamine. The ZnO shell coating over Ag core enhances the charge separation, whereas the larger shell thickness and increased refractive index of surrounding medium cause red shifts of surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of Ag core. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Ag/ZnO core–shell show that the larger shell thickness quenches the near band edge UV emission of ZnO. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) i.e. Nyquist plots also confirm the higher charge transfer efficiency of the Ag/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. The Photocatalytic activities of Ag/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles are investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under direct sunlight irradiation. Compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), Ag/ZnO core–shell NPs display efficient sunlight plasmonic photocatalytic activity because of the influence of SPR of Ag core and the electron sink effect. The photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO core–shell NPs is found to be enhanced with increase in shell thickness.

  16. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  17. Fossil dust shells around luminous supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.

    1975-01-01

    The observed frequency with which infrared excesses appear in F, G, and K supergiants of luminosity class Ia supports the idea that these excesses arise in a 'fossil' circumstellar dust shell that was formed during a prior M-super-giant phase of evolution. The required leftward evolution of the star on the H-R diagram would then imply that the Ledoux, rather than the Schwarzschild, criterion for convective mixing is the correct criterion to use in stellar evolution calculations.

  18. Nonlinear axisymmetric flexural vibration of spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunieda, H.

    1972-01-01

    Axisymmetric responses are presented of a nonshallow thin-walled spherical shell on the basis of nonlinear bending theory. An ordinary differential equation with nonlinearity of quadratic as well as cubic terms associated with variable time is derived. The derivation is based on the assumption that the deflection mode is the sum of four Legendre polynomials, and the Galerkin procedure is applied. The equation is solved by asymptotic expansion, and a first approximate solution is adopted. Unstable regions of this solution are discussed.

  19. AE and A type shell stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, C.; Andrillat, Y.

    1998-06-01

    We present and discuss the observations of 14 Ae and A type shell stars in the visual, the Hα region and the near infrared. At least 57% of these stars are spectrum variables. The Paschen lines are formed in a region which has the characterics of giant stars. We find that the systems lie one magnitude above the main sequence and that a large percentage belong to double and triple systems.

  20. On Closed Shells in Nuclei. II

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M. G.

    1949-04-01

    Discussion on the use of spins and magnetic moments of the even-odd nuclei by Feenberg and Nordheim to determine the angular momentum of the eigenfunction of the odd particle; discussion of prevalence of isomerism in certain regions of the isotope chart; tabulated data on levels of square well potential, spectroscopic levels, spin term, number of states, shells and known spins and orbital assignments.

  1. Thin-shell wormholes: Linearization stability

    SciTech Connect

    Poisson, E.; Visser, M.

    1995-12-15

    The class of spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes provides a particularly elegant collection of exemplars for the study of traversable Lorentzian wormholes. In the present paper we consider linearized (spherically symmetric) perturbations around some assumed static solution of the Einstein field equations. This permits us to relate stability issues to the (linearized) equation of state of the exotic matter which is located at the wormhole throat. {copyright} 1995 The American Physical Society.

  2. HOLE DRILLING BREAKTHROUGH IN BE SHELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C

    2004-09-21

    This is a brief memo look at the problem of determining whether one has broken through the inside plastic mandrel of a sputtered Be shell. This is important because the next step is the thermal removal of the mandrel, and failure to break through the plastic, even if through the Be, makes our process at best difficult. Described below are two possible approaches, the first somewhat high tech and maybe not possible, the second definitely low tech but certainly doable.

  3. Shell Measuring Machine. History and Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Birchler, Wilbur D.; Fresquez, Philip R.

    2000-06-01

    Commercialization of the Ring Rotacon Shell Measuring Machine project is a CRADA (NO. LA98C10358) between The University of California (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and Moore Tool Company, Bridgeport, CT. The actual work started on this CRADA in December of 1998. Several meetings were held with the interested parties (Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Moore Tool, and the University of North Carolina). The results of these meetings were that the original Ring Rotacon did not measure up to the requirements of the Department of Energy and private industry, and a new configuration was investigated. This new configuration (Shell Measuring Machine [SMM]) much better fits the needs of all parties. The work accomplished on the Shell Measuring Machine in FY 99 includes the following; Specifications for size and weight were developed; Performance error budgets were established; Designs were developed; Analyses were performed (stiffness and natural frequency); Existing part designs were compared to the working SMM volume; Peer reviews were conducted; Controller requirements were studied; Fixture requirements were evaluated; and Machine motions were analyzed. The consensus of the Peer Review Committee was that the new configuration has the potential to satisfy the shell inspection needs of Department of Energy as well as several commercial customers. They recommended that more analyses be performed on error budgets, structural stiffness, natural frequency, and thermal effects and that operational processes be developed. Several design issues need to be addressed. They are the type of bearings utilized to support the tables (air bearings or mechanical roller type bearings), the selection of the probes, the design of the probe sliding mechanisms, and the design of the upper table positioning mechanism. Each item has several possible solutions, and more work is required to obtain the best design. This report includes the background and technical objectives; minutes of the working

  4. Splashback Shells of Cold Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Philip; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Diemer, Benedikt

    2017-05-01

    The density field in the outskirts of dark matter halos is discontinuous as a result of a caustic formed by matter at its first apocenter after infall. In this paper, we present an algorithm to identify the “splashback shell” formed by these apocenters in individual simulated halos using only a single snapshot of the density field. We implement this algorithm in the code Shellfish (SHELL Finding In Spheroidal Halos) and demonstrate that the code identifies splashback shells correctly and measures their properties with an accuracy of < 5 % for halos with more than 50,000 particles and mass accretion rates of {{{Γ }}}{DK14}> 0.5. Using Shellfish, we present the first estimates for several basic properties of individual splashback shells, such as radius, {R}{sp}, mass, and overdensity, and provide fits to the distribution of these quantities as functions of {{{Γ }}}{DK14}, {ν }200{{m}}, and z. We confirm previous findings that {R}{sp} decreases with increasing {{{Γ }}}{DK14}, but we show that, independent of accretion rate, it also decreases with increasing {ν }200{{m}}. We also study the 3D structures of these shells and find that they generally have non-ellipsoidal oval shapes. We find that splashback radii estimated by Shellfish are 20%-30% larger than those estimated in previous studies from stacked density profiles at high accretion rates. We demonstrate that the latter are biased low owing to the contribution of high-mass subhalos to these profiles, and we show that using the median instead of mean density in each radial bin mitigates the effect of substructure on density profiles and removes the bias.

  5. Studies of Shell Fragment Mass Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-01-05

    kept clear by means of a hexagonal box, 1511 on edge, constructed of 1/4ŕ plywood or Celotex . The thickness of the sawdust in which the side-wall...containing the shell is closed on top by a plywood or Celotex panel set within the side panels 18ŕ below the top of the pit. The pit around the box and above

  6. Fossil dust shells around luminous supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.

    1975-01-01

    The observed frequency with which infrared excesses appear in F, G, and K supergiants of luminosity class Ia supports the idea that these excesses arise in a 'fossil' circumstellar dust shell that was formed during a prior M-super-giant phase of evolution. The required leftward evolution of the star on the H-R diagram would then imply that the Ledoux, rather than the Schwarzschild, criterion for convective mixing is the correct criterion to use in stellar evolution calculations.

  7. Shell effect on the electron and hole reorganization energy of core-shell II-VI nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xianhui; Wang, Xinqin; Yang, Fang; Cui, Yingqi; Yang, Mingli

    2017-09-01

    Density functional theory calculations were performed to study the effect of shell encapsulation on the geometrical and electronic properties of pure and hybrid core-shell CdSe nanoclusters. The CdSe cores are distorted by the shells, and the shells exhibit distinct surface activity from the cores, which leads to remarkable changes in their electron transition behaviors. Although the electron and hole reorganization energies, which are related to the formation and recombination of electron-hole pairs, vary in a complicated way, their itemized contributions, potentials of electron extraction, ionization and affinity, and hole extraction (HEP), are dependent on the cluster size, shell composition and/or solvent. Our calculations suggest that the behaviors of charge carriers, free electrons and holes, in the semiconductor core-shell nanoclusters can be modulated by selecting appropriate cluster size and controlling the chemical composition of the shells.

  8. Impact of high ytterbium(III) concentration in the shell on upconversion luminescence of core-shell nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Daqin; Zhu, Wenjuan; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2014-10-01

    After coating 20 Yb/2 Er:NaGdF4 core nanocrystals with a NaYbF4 shell, upconversion emission of the rare earth ions weakens. So far, the exact reason for this phenomenon is still unclear due to lack of the direct evidence. In this report, a core@shell@shell sandwich-like structure is designed and fabricated to investigate this phenomenon. We find that high Yb(3+) concentration in the shell has mainly two adverse impacts: it promotes not only the deleterious back energy transfer from Er(3+) in the core to Yb(3+) in the shell but also the energy transfer from Yb(3+) in the core to Yb(3+) in the shell. To obtain nanocrystals with high upconversion efficency, appropriate Yb(3+) concentration should be introduced into the shell or the transition layer.

  9. Radar attenuation in Europa's ice shell: obstacles and opportunities for constraining shell thickness and thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousova, Klara; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Soderlund, Krista M.; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    With its strikingly young surface and possibly recent endogenic activity, Europa is one of the most exciting bodies within our Solar System and a primary target for spacecraft exploration. Future missions to Europa are expected to carry ice penetrating radar instruments which are powerful tools to investigate the subsurface thermophysical structure of its ice shell.Several authors have addressed the 'penetration depth' of radar sounders at icy moons, however, the concept and calculation of a single value penetration depth is a potentially misleading simplification since it ignores the thermal and attenuation structure complexity of a realistic ice shell. Here we move beyond the concept of a single penetration depth by exploring the variation in two-way radar attenuation for a variety of potential thermal structures of Europa's ice shell as well as for a low loss and high loss temperature-dependent attenuation model. The possibility to detect brines is also investigated.Our results indicate that: (i) for all ice shell thicknesses investigated (5-30 km), a nominal satellite-borne radar sounder will penetrate between 15% and 100% of the total thickness, (ii) the maximum penetration depth strongly varies laterally with the deepest penetration possible through the cold downwellings, (iii) the direct detection of the ice/ocean interface might be possible for shells of up to 15 km if the radar signal travels through the cold downwelling, (iv) even if the ice/ocean interface is not detected, the penetration through most of the shell could constrain the deep shell structure through the loss of signal, and (v) for all plausible ice shells the two-way attenuation to the eutectic point is ≤30 dB which shows a robust potential for longitudinal investigation of the ice shell's shallow structure.Part of this work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. K.K. acknowledges support by the Grant Agency of the

  10. Atomic force microscopy of virus shells.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Madrid, Francisco; Martín-González, Natalia; Llauró, Aida; Ortega-Esteban, Alvaro; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Douglas, Trevor; Schaap, Iwan A T; de Pablo, Pedro J

    2017-04-15

    Microscopes are used to characterize small objects with the help of probes that interact with the specimen, such as photons and electrons in optical and electron microscopies, respectively. In atomic force microscopy (AFM), the probe is a nanometric tip located at the end of a microcantilever which palpates the specimen under study just as a blind person manages a walking stick. In this way, AFM allows obtaining nanometric resolution images of individual protein shells, such as viruses, in a liquid milieu. Beyond imaging, AFM also enables not only the manipulation of single protein cages, but also the characterization of every physicochemical property capable of inducing any measurable mechanical perturbation to the microcantilever that holds the tip. In the present revision, we start revising some recipes for adsorbing protein shells on surfaces. Then, we describe several AFM approaches to study individual protein cages, ranging from imaging to spectroscopic methodologies devoted to extracting physical information, such as mechanical and electrostatic properties. We also explain how a convenient combination of AFM and fluorescence methodologies entails monitoring genome release from individual viral shells during mechanical unpacking.

  11. Toroidal metrics: gravitational solenoids and static shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynden-Bell, Donald; Katz, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    In electromagnetism a current along a wire tightly wound on a torus makes a solenoid whose magnetic field is confined within the torus. In Einstein's gravity we give a corresponding solution in which a current of matter moves up on the inside of a toroidal shell and down on the outside, rolling around the torus by the short way. The metric is static outside the torus but stationary inside with the gravomagnetic field confined inside the torus, running around it by the long way. This exact solution of Einstein's equations is found by fitting Bonnor's solution for the metric of a light beam, which gives the required toroidal gravomagnetic field inside the torus, to the general Weyl static external metric in toroidal coordinates, which we develop. We deduce the matter tensor on the torus and find when it obeys the energy conditions. We also give the equipotential shells that generate the simple Bach-Weyl metric externally and find which shells obey the energy conditions.

  12. The creation of AGB fallback shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Nordhaus, Jason

    2016-04-01

    The possibility that mass ejected during Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stellar evolution phases falls back towards the star has been suggested in applications ranging from the formation of accretion discs to the powering of late-thermal pulses. In this paper, we seek to explicate the properties of fallback flow trajectories from mass-loss events. We focus on a transient phase of mass ejection with sub-escape speeds, followed by a phase of a typical AGB wind. We solve the problem using both hydrodynamic simulations and a simplified one-dimensional analytic model that matches the simulations. For a given set of initial wind characteristics, we find a critical shell velocity that distinguishes between `shell fallback' and `shell escape'. We discuss the relevance of our results for both single and binary AGB stars. In particular, we discuss how our results help to frame further studies of fallback as a mechanism for forming the substantial population of observed post-AGB stars with dusty discs.

  13. Fluorescent Nanodiamonds Embedded in Biocompatible Translucent Shells

    PubMed Central

    Rehor, Ivan; Slegerova, Jitka; Kucka, Jan; Proks, Vladimir; Petrakova, Vladimira; Adam, Marie-Pierre; Treussart, François; Turner, Stuart; Bals, Sara; Sacha, Pavel; Ledvina, Miroslav; Wen, Amy M.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Cigler, Petr

    2016-01-01

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) nanodiamonds (NDs) represent extremely promising materials for construction of fluorescent nanoprobes and nanosensors. However, some properties of bare NDs limit their direct use in these applications: they precipitate in biological solutions, only a limited set of bio-orthogonal conjugation techniques is available and the accessible material is greatly polydisperse in shape. In this work, we encapsulate bright 30-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) in 10–20-nm thick translucent (i.e., not altering FND fluorescence) silica shells, yielding monodisperse near-spherical particles of mean diameter 66 nm. High yield modification of the shells with PEG chains stabilizes the particles in ionic solutions, making them applicable in biological environments. We further modify the opposite ends of PEG chains with fluorescent dyes or vectoring peptide using click chemistry. High conversion of this bio-orthogonal coupling yielded circa 2000 dye or peptide molecules on a single FND. We demonstrate the superior properties of these particles by in vitro interaction with human prostate cancer cells: while bare nanodiamonds strongly aggregate in the buffer and adsorb onto the cell membrane, the shell encapsulated NDs do not adsorb nonspecifically and they penetrate inside the cells. PMID:24500945

  14. Cluster-shell competition in light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, N.; Aoyama, S.; Okabe, S.; Ikeda, K.

    2004-11-01

    We demonstrate whether the cluster structure dissolves or remains when the shell-model-like model space is introduced in addition to the cluster model space in light nuclei. Although the binding energies of {sup 8}Be, {sup 10}Be, and {sup 10}B become larger by about 1-2 MeV by adding shell-model-like basis states to the {alpha}+{alpha}+N+N+{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} basis states, the {alpha}-{alpha} structure is a dominant configuration of the ground states. However, {alpha}-breaking wave functions strongly mix in {sup 12}C, and the decrease of the energy from the 3{alpha} configuration by about 6 MeV is a clue to resolving a long-standing problem of the binding energies of {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. The improved version of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD), AMD superposition of selected snapshots (AMD triple-S), is used to show the cluster-shell competition of these nuclei.

  15. Improved Shell models for screened Coulomb balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, M.; Kaehlert, H.; Henning, C.; Baumgartner, H.; Filinov, A.

    2006-10-01

    Spherical Coulomb crystals in dusty plasmas [1] are well described by an isotropic Yukawa-type pair interaction and an external parabolic confinement as was shown by extensive molecular dynamics simulations [2]. A much simpler description is possible with analytical shell models which have been derived for Yukawas plasmas in [3,4]. Here we analyze improved Yukawa shell models which include correlations along the lines proposed for Coulomb crystals in [5]. The shell configurations are efficiently evaluated using a Monte Carlo procedure. [1] O. Arp, A. Piel and A. Melzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 165004 (2004). [2] M. Bonitz, D. Block, O. Arp, V. Golunychiy, H. Baumgartner, P. Ludwig, A. Piel and A. Filinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006). [3] H. Totsuji, C. Totsuji, T. Ogawa, and K. Tsuruta, Phys. Rev. E 71, 045401 (2005). [4] C. Henning, M. Bonitz, A. Piel, P. Ludwig, H. Baumgartner, V. Golubnichiy, and D. Block, submitted to Phys. Rev. E [5] W.D. Kraeft and M. Bonitz, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 35, 94 (2006).

  16. Fossorial Origin of the Turtle Shell.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Rubidge, Bruce S; Scheyer, Torsten M; de Queiroz, Kevin; Schachner, Emma R; Smith, Roger M H; Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Bever, G S

    2016-07-25

    The turtle shell is a complex structure that currently serves a largely protective function in this iconically slow-moving group [1]. Developmental [2, 3] and fossil [4-7] data indicate that one of the first steps toward the shelled body plan was broadening of the ribs (approximately 50 my before the completed shell [5]). Broadened ribs alone provide little protection [8] and confer significant locomotory [9, 10] and respiratory [9, 11] costs. They increase thoracic rigidity [8], which decreases speed of locomotion due to shortened stride length [10], and they inhibit effective costal ventilation [9, 11]. New fossil material of the oldest hypothesized stem turtle, Eunotosaurus africanus [12] (260 mya) [13, 14] from the Karoo Basin of South Africa, indicates the initiation of rib broadening was an adaptive response to fossoriality. Similar to extant fossorial taxa [8], the broad ribs of Eunotosaurus provide an intrinsically stable base on which to operate a powerful forelimb digging mechanism. Numerous fossorial correlates [15-17] are expressed throughout Eunotosaurus' skeleton. Most of these features are widely distributed along the turtle stem and into the crown clade, indicating the common ancestor of Eunotosaurus and modern turtles possessed a body plan significantly influenced by digging. The adaptations related to fossoriality likely facilitated movement of stem turtles into aquatic environments early in the groups' evolutionary history, and this ecology may have played an important role in stem turtles surviving the Permian/Triassic extinction event. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gas distribution and starbursts in shell galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, Melinda L.; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Detailed maps of most elliptical galaxies reveal that, whereas the greatest part of their luminous mass originates from a smooth distribution with a surface brightness approximated by a de Vaucouleurs law, a small percentage of their light is contributed by low surface brightness distortions termed 'fine structures'. The sharp-edged features called 'shells' are successfully reproduced by merger and infall models involving accretion from less massive companions. In this context, dwarf spheroidal and compact disk galaxies are likely progenitors of these stellar phenomena. However, it is probable that the sources of shell-forming material also contain significant amounts of gas. This component may play an important role in constraining the formation and evolution of shell galaxies. To investigate the effects of the gaseous component, numerical simulations were performed to study the tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies containing both gas and stars by more massive primaries, and the evolution of the ensuing debris. The calculations were performed with a hybrid N-body/hydrodynamics code. Collisionless matter is evolved using a conventional N-body technique and gas is treated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics in which self-gravitating fluid elements are represented as particles evolving according to Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations. An isothermal equation of state is employed so the gas remains at a temperature 104 K. Owing to the large mass ratio between the primary and companion, the primary is modeled as a rigid potential and the self-gravity of both galaxies is neglected.

  18. Fluorescent nanodiamonds embedded in biocompatible translucent shells.

    PubMed

    Rehor, Ivan; Slegerova, Jitka; Kucka, Jan; Proks, Vladimir; Petrakova, Vladimira; Adam, Marie-Pierre; Treussart, François; Turner, Stuart; Bals, Sara; Sacha, Pavel; Ledvina, Miroslav; Wen, Amy M; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Cigler, Petr

    2014-03-26

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) nanodiamonds (NDs) represent extremely promising materials for construction of fluorescent nanoprobes and nanosensors. However, some properties of bare NDs limit their direct use in these applications: they precipitate in biological solutions, only a limited set of bio-orthogonal conjugation techniques is available and the accessible material is greatly polydisperse in shape. In this work, we encapsulate bright 30-nm fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) in 10-20-nm thick translucent (i.e., not altering FND fluorescence) silica shells, yielding monodisperse near-spherical particles of mean diameter 66 nm. High yield modification of the shells with PEG chains stabilizes the particles in ionic solutions, making them applicable in biological environments. We further modify the opposite ends of PEG chains with fluorescent dyes or vectoring peptide using click chemistry. High conversion of this bio-orthogonal coupling yielded circa 2000 dye or peptide molecules on a single FND. We demonstrate the superior properties of these particles by in vitro interaction with human prostate cancer cells: while bare nanodiamonds strongly aggregate in the buffer and adsorb onto the cell membrane, the shell encapsulated NDs do not adsorb nonspecifically and they penetrate inside the cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Switching closed-shell to open-shell phenalenyl: toward designing electroactive materials.

    PubMed

    Pariyar, Anand; Vijaykumar, Gonela; Bhunia, Mrinal; Dey, Suman Kr; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Mandal, Swadhin K

    2015-05-13

    Open-shell phenalenyl chemistry started more than half a century back, and the first solid-state phenalenyl radical was realized only 15 years ago highlighting the synthetic challenges associated in stabilizing carbon-based radical chemistry, though it has great promise as building blocks for molecular electronics and multifunctional materials. Alternatively, stable closed-shell phenalenyl has tremendous potential as it can be utilized to create an in situ open-shell state by external spin injection. In the present study, we have designed a closed-shell phenalenyl-based iron(III) complex, Fe(III)(PLY)3 (PLY-H = 9-hydroxyphenalenone) displaying an excellent electrocatalytic property as cathode material for one compartment membraneless H2O2 fuel cell. The power density output of Fe(III)(PLY)3 is nearly 15-fold higher than the structurally related model compound Fe(III)(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) and nearly 140-fold higher than an earlier reported mononuclear Fe(III) complex, Fe(III)(Pc)Cl (Pc = pthalocyaninate), highlighting the role of switchable closed-shell phenalenyl moiety for electron-transfer process in designing electroactive materials.

  20. Shock-Sensitivity in Shell-Like Structures: With Simulations of Spherical Shell Buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. Michael T.; Sieber, Jan

    Under increasing compression, an unbuckled shell is in a metastable state which becomes increasingly precarious as the buckling load is approached. So to induce premature buckling, a lateral disturbance will have to overcome a decreasing energy barrier which reaches zero at buckling. Two archetypal problems that exhibit a severe form of this behavior are the axially-compressed cylindrical shell and the externally pressurized spherical shell. Focusing on the cylinder, a nondestructive technique was recently proposed to estimate the “shock-sensitivity” of a laboratory specimen using a lateral probe to measure the nonlinear load-deflection characteristic. If a symmetry-breaking bifurcation is encountered on the path, computer simulations showed how this can be suppressed by a controlled secondary probe. Here, we extend our understanding by assessing in general terms how a single control can capture remote saddle solutions: in particular, how a symmetric probe could locate an asymmetric solution. Then, more specifically, we analyze the spherical shell with point and ring probes, to test the procedure under challenging conditions to assess its range of applicability. Rather than a bifurcation, the spherical shell offers the challenge of a destabilizing fold (limit point) under the rigid control of the probe.

  1. Signatures of shell evolution in alpha decay across the N = 126 shell closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui-Wang; Wang, Rui-Yao; Qian, Yi-Bin; Ren, Zhong-Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Within the alpha-cluster model, we particularly investigate the alpha decay of exotic nuclei in the vicinity of the N = 126 neutron shell plus the Z = 82 proton shell. The systematics of alpha-preformation probability (P α ), as an indicator of the shell effect, is deduced from the ratio of the experimental decay width to the calculated one. Through the comparative analysis of the P α trend in the N = 124-130 isotonic chain, the N = 126 and Z = 82 shell closures are believed to strongly affect the formation of the alpha particle before its penetration. Additionally, the P α variety in Po and Rn isotopes is presented as another proof for such an influence. More importantly, it may be concluded that the expected neutron (or proton) shell effect gradually fades away along with the increasing valence proton (or neutron) number. The odd-even staggering presented in the P α value is also discussed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375086, 11535004, 11605089, 11120101005), Natural Science Youth Fund of Jiangsu Province (BK20150762), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (30916011339), 973 National Major State Basic Research and Development Program of China (2013CB834400), and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Programme Development of JiangSu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD)

  2. Sizing Up Excitons in Core-Shell Quantum Dots via Shell-Dependent Photoluminescence Blinking.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Aidan A E; Osborne, Mark A

    2017-08-22

    Semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are now widely used across solar cell, display, and bioimaging technologies. While advances in multishell, alloyed, and multinary core-shell QD structures have led to improved light-harvesting and photoluminescence (PL) properties of these nanomaterials, the effects that QD-capping have on the exciton dynamics that govern PL instabilities such as blinking in single-QDs is not well understood. We report experimental measurements of shell-size-dependent absorption and PL intermittency in CdSe-CdS QDs that are consistent with a modified charge-tunnelling, self-trapping (CTST) description of the exciton dynamics in these nanocrystals. By introducing an effective, core-exciton size, which accounts for delocalization of charge carriers across the QD core and shell, we show that the CTST models both the shell-depth-dependent red-shift of the QD band gap and changes in the on/off-state switching statistics that we observe in single-QD PL intensity trajectories. Further analysis of CdSe-ZnS QDs, shows how differences in shell structure and integrity affect the QD band gap and PL blinking within the CTST framework.

  3. Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric species of hermit crabs on a tropical mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Chong, Ving Ching

    2014-02-01

    Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric hermit crab species (Diogenes moosai and Diogenes lopochir), as determined by shell shape, size and availability, were examined from August 2009 to March 2011 in a tropical mudflat (Malaysia). Shells of 14 gastropod species were used but > 85% comprised shells of Cerithidea cingulata, Nassarius cf. olivaceus, Nassarius jacksonianus, and Thais malayensis. Shell partitioning between hermit crab species, sexes, and developmental stages was evident from occupied shells of different species, shapes, and sizes. Extreme bias in shell use pattern by male and female of both species of hermit crabs suggests that shell shape, which depends on shell species, is the major determinant of shell use. The hermit crab must however fit well into the shell so that compatibility between crab size and shell size becomes crucial. Although shell availability possibly influenced shell use and hermit crab distribution, this is not critical in a tropical setting of high gastropod diversity and abundance.

  4. The heterogeneous ice shell thickness of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Massironi, Matteo

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus is the smallest Solar System body that presents an intense geologic activity on its surface. Plumes erupting from Enceladus' South Polar terrain (SPT) provide direct evidence of a reservoir of liquid below the surface. Previous analysis of gravity data determined that the ice shell above the liquid ocean must be 30-40 km thick from the South Pole up to 50° S latitude (Iess et al., 2014), however, understand the global or regional nature of the ocean beneath the ice crust is still challenging. To infer the thickness of the outer ice shell and prove the global extent of the ocean, we used the self-similar clustering method (Bonnet et al., 2001; Bour et al., 2002) to analyze the widespread fractures of the Enceladus's surface. The spatial distribution of fractures has been analyzed in terms of their self-similar clustering and a two-point correlation method was used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractures population (Mazzarini, 2004, 2010). A self-similar clustering of fractures is characterized by a correlation coefficient with a size range defined by a lower and upper cut-off, that represent a mechanical discontinuity and the thickness of the fractured icy crust, thus connected to the liquid reservoir. Hence, this method allowed us to estimate the icy shell thickness values in different regions of Enceladus from SPT up to northern regions.We mapped fractures in ESRI ArcGis environment in different regions of the satellite improving the recently published geological map (Crow-Willard and Pappalardo, 2015). On these regions we have taken into account the fractures, such as wide troughs and narrow troughs, located in well-defined geological units. Firstly, we analyzed the distribution of South Polar Region fracture patterns finding an ice shell thickness of ~ 31 km, in agreement with gravity measurements (Iess et al., 2014). Then, we applied the same approach to other four regions of the satellite inferring an increasing of the ice

  5. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Liao, Zhi; Wang, Xin-Xing; Bao, Lin-Fei; Fan, Mei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Min; Wu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  6. Mercury removal using ground and calcined mussel shell.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-12-01

    We determined mercury retention on calcined and ground mussel shell, in presence and absence of phosphate, using batch and stirred flow chamber experiments. In batch experiments the calcined shell exhibited higher Hg adsorption, with good fitting to Freundlich equation (R2: 0.925-0.978); the presence of phosphate increased Hg adsorption; mercury desorption was 13% or lower, diminishing up to 2% under the presence of phosphates. In stirred flow chamber experiments calcined shell retained more Hg than ground shells (6300 vs. 4000-5200 micromol/kg); Hg retention increased an additional 40% on calcined shell and up to an additional 70% on ground shells when phosphates were present; mercury desorption was quite similar in all shell types (20%-34%), increasing up to 49%-60% in ground shells when phosphates were present. The higher Hg adsorption on calcined shell would be related to its calcite and dolomite concentrations; mercury-phosphate interactions would cause the increase in Hg retention when phosphates are present. Data on Hg desorption suggest that Hg retention was not easily reversible after batch experiments, increasing in the stirred flow chamber due to convective flow. Calcined and ground mussel shells could be recycled removing Hg from water, with the presence of phosphates in solution improving efficacy.

  7. Xcl---A family of programming lanquage-based shells

    SciTech Connect

    Roschke, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    As the three major UNIX shells have emerged, they have shown little inclination to include syntax and semantics from existing programming languages. The first of these shells, sh, contains only a small amount of C-like syntax. Csh provides some C language expression syntax, but includes very little other C syntax. The newest of these shells, ksh, also includes some C-like expression syntax, although they contain some significantly un-C-like syntax in such areas as relational and logical operators. Several much less widely used shells have been written that much more closely resemble particular programming languages. However, each of these shells have the disadvantage of not being based upon a widely used programming language. In addition, interactive commands tend to be difficult to enter because they must frequently be entered using normal programming language constructs such as function calls. Thus, the vast majority of programmers of today's UNIX shells must deal with a shell interface that is not based upon any familiar programming language. This paper describes some of the features of the xcl family of shells. Each of these shells is based closely upon an existing programming language and provides the user with a familiar and highly programmable shell interface. 7 refs.

  8. Waltzing route toward double-helix formation in cholesteric shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmon, Alexandre; Benzaquen, Michael; Seč, David; Čopar, Simon; Dauchot, Olivier; Lopez-Leon, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Liquid crystals, when confined to a spherical shell, offer fascinating possibilities for producing artificial mesoscopic atoms, which could then self-assemble into materials structured at a nanoscale, such as photonic crystals or metamaterials. The spherical curvature of the shell imposes topological constraints in the molecular ordering of the liquid crystal, resulting in the formation of defects. Controlling the number of defects, that is, the shell valency, and their positions, is a key success factor for the realization of those materials. Liquid crystals with helical cholesteric order offer a promising, yet unexplored way of controlling the shell defect configuration. In this paper, we study cholesteric shells with monovalent and bivalent defect configurations. By bringing together experiments and numerical simulations, we show that the defects appearing in these two configurations have a complex inner structure, as recently reported for simulated droplets. Bivalent shells possess two highly structured defects, which are composed of a number of smaller defect rings that pile up through the shell. Monovalent shells have a single radial defect, which is composed of two nonsingular defect lines that wind around each other in a double-helix structure. The stability of the bivalent configuration against the monovalent one is controlled by c = h/p, where h is the shell thickness and p the cholesteric helical pitch. By playing with the shell geometry, we can trigger the transition between the two configurations. This transition involves a fascinating waltz dynamics, where the two defects come closer while turning around each other.

  9. Acoustic radiation from single and double ribbed circular cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, C. B.; Hayek, S. I.; Hallander, J. E.; Bostian, D. A.

    1984-03-01

    Measurements of the acoustic radiation from single and double ribbed circular cylindrical shells were made on the NUSC Transducer Calibration Platform (TCP) in Lake Seneca, NY. Six different types of mechanical drives were used at each of three locations inside the inner shell. Measurements of the shell vibration and acoustic radiation were made with and without outer shells installed around the inner shell structure. For two types of drives, measurements were made with a pressure release layer installed between the inner and outer shell surfaces. Acoustic radiation measurements were made as a function of frequency from 20 to 5,000 Hz and as a function of observation direction at several frequencies for each shell and drive measurement configuration. Measured acoustic radiation data as a function of frequency have been processed. Analysis of the processed data is presented and discussed. It is shown that the location of the drive had a significant effect on the acoustic radiation. The outer shell reduced the acoustic radiation at shell resonant frequencies, but had little effect on other frequencies. The pressure release layer in the double shell had little effect on the acoustic radiation.

  10. Waltzing route toward double-helix formation in cholesteric shells.

    PubMed

    Darmon, Alexandre; Benzaquen, Michael; Seč, David; Čopar, Simon; Dauchot, Olivier; Lopez-Leon, Teresa

    2016-08-23

    Liquid crystals, when confined to a spherical shell, offer fascinating possibilities for producing artificial mesoscopic atoms, which could then self-assemble into materials structured at a nanoscale, such as photonic crystals or metamaterials. The spherical curvature of the shell imposes topological constraints in the molecular ordering of the liquid crystal, resulting in the formation of defects. Controlling the number of defects, that is, the shell valency, and their positions, is a key success factor for the realization of those materials. Liquid crystals with helical cholesteric order offer a promising, yet unexplored way of controlling the shell defect configuration. In this paper, we study cholesteric shells with monovalent and bivalent defect configurations. By bringing together experiments and numerical simulations, we show that the defects appearing in these two configurations have a complex inner structure, as recently reported for simulated droplets. Bivalent shells possess two highly structured defects, which are composed of a number of smaller defect rings that pile up through the shell. Monovalent shells have a single radial defect, which is composed of two nonsingular defect lines that wind around each other in a double-helix structure. The stability of the bivalent configuration against the monovalent one is controlled by c = h/p, where h is the shell thickness and p the cholesteric helical pitch. By playing with the shell geometry, we can trigger the transition between the two configurations. This transition involves a fascinating waltz dynamics, where the two defects come closer while turning around each other.

  11. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-xing; Bao, Lin-fei; Fan, Mei-hua; Li, Xiao-min; Wu, Chang-wen; Xia, Shu-wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment. PMID:26218932

  12. (Plasmonic Metal Core)/(Semiconductor Shell) Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Caihong

    Over the past several years, integration of metal nanocrystals that can support localized surface plasmon has been demonstrated as one of the most promising methods to the improvement of the light-harvesting efficiency of semiconductors. Ag and Au nanocrystals have been extensively hybridized with semiconductors by either deposition or anchoring. However, metal nanocrystals tend to aggregate, reshape, detach, or grow into large nanocrystals, leading to a loss of the unique properties seen in the original nanocrystals. Fortunately, core/shell nanostructures, circumventing the aforementioned problems, have been demonstrated to exhibit superior photoactivities. To further improve the light-harvesting applications of (plasmonic metal core)/(semiconductor shell) nanostructures, it is vital to understand the plasmonic and structural evolutions during the preparation processes, design novel hybrid nanostructures, and improve their light-harvesting performances. In this thesis, I therefore studied the plasmonic and structural evolutions during the formation of (Ag core)/(Ag2S shell) nanostructures. Moreover, I also prepared (noble metal core)/(TiO2 shell) nanostructures and investigated their plasmonic properties and photon-harvesting applications. Clear understanding of the sulfidation process can enable fine control of the plasmonic properties as well as the structural composition of Ag/Ag 2S nanomaterials. Therefore, I investigated the plasmonic and structural variations during the sulfidation process of Ag nanocubes both experimentally and numerically. The sulfidation reactions were carried out at both the ensemble and single-particle levels. Electrodynamic simulations were also employed to study the variations of the plasmonic properties and plasmon modes. Both experiment and simulation results revealed that sulfidation initiates at the vertices of Ag nanocubes. Ag nanocubes are then gradually truncated and each nanocube becomes a nanosphere eventually. The cubic

  13. Effects of Shell-Buckling Knockdown Factors in Large Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Shell-buckling knockdown factors (SBKF) have been used in large cylindrical shell structures to account for uncertainty in buckling loads. As the diameter of the cylinder increases, achieving the manufacturing tolerances becomes increasingly more difficult. Knockdown factors account for manufacturing imperfections in the shell geometry by decreasing the allowable buckling load of the cylinder. In this paper, large-diameter (33 ft) cylinders are investigated by using various SBKF's. An investigation that is based on finite-element analysis (FEA) is used to develop design sensitivity relationships. Different manufacturing imperfections are modeled into a perfect cylinder to investigate the effects of these imperfections on buckling. The analysis results may be applicable to large- diameter rockets, cylindrical tower structures, bulk storage tanks, and silos.

  14. Effects on Salmonella shell contamination and trans-shell penetration of coating hens' eggs with chitosan.

    PubMed

    Leleu, S; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Reu, K; Michiels, C W; De Baerdemaeker, J; Messens, W

    2011-01-31

    Chitosan is a biopolymer with antimicrobial activity and film-forming properties. In this study, the effects on Salmonella shell contamination and trans-shell penetration of coating hens' eggs with chitosan was evaluated. A chitosan was selected from eight types (four non-commercial and four commercial) based on its antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). For this purpose, a contact plate method was developed and chitosans were applied at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). A commercial type with a molecular weight of 310-375 kDa and a deacetylation degree of 75% that reduced S. Enteritidis by 0.71 log(10) colony forming units compared to the control (without chitosan) was selected for further studies. The chitosan was shown to have antimicrobial activity against other egg borne bacteria, i.e., Acinetobacter baumannii, Alcaligenes sp., Carnobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp., Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus warneri, and against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. The effects of various concentrations of the selected chitosan (0.25%, 1% and 2%) on Salmonella shell contamination and trans-shell penetration were assessed using the agar molding technique. Effective reduction of eggshell contamination could not be demonstrated, but trans-shell penetration was significantly reduced in the presence of a 2% chitosan eggshell coating, with only 6.1% of the eggs being penetrated compared to 24.5% of the uncoated eggs. It was concluded that the 2% chitosan coating has the potential to reduce contamination of egg contents resulting from trans-shell penetration by S. Enteritidis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The shell organic matrix of the crossed lamellar queen conch shell (Strombus gigas).

    PubMed

    Osuna-Mascaró, Antonio; Cruz-Bustos, Teresa; Benhamada, Sana; Guichard, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Checa, Antonio; Marin, Frédéric

    2014-02-01

    In molluscs, the shell organic matrix comprises a large set of biomineral-occluded proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides that are secreted by the calcifying mantle epithelium, and are supposed to display several functions related to the synthesis of the shell. In the present paper, we have characterized biochemically the shell matrix associated to the crossed-lamellar structure of the giant queen conch Strombus gigas. The acid-soluble (ASM) and acid-insoluble (AIM) matrices represent an extremely minor fraction of the shell. Both are constituted of polydisperse and of few discrete proteins among which three fractions, obtained by preparative SDS-PAGE and named 1P3, 2P3 and 3P3, are dominant and were further characterized. Compared to other matrices, the acid-soluble matrix is weakly glycosylated (3%) and among the discrete components, only 3P3 seems noticeably glycosylated. The monosaccharide composition of the ASM shows that mannose represents the main monosaccharide. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a high ratio of this sugar in a skeletal matrix. Furthermore, the ASM interacts with the in vitro crystallization of calcium carbonate, but this interaction is moderate. It differs from that of the isolated 1P3 fraction but is similar to that of the 2P3 and 3P3 fractions. At last, antibodies developed from the 3P3 fraction were used to localize this fraction within the shell by immunogold. This study is the first one aiming at characterizing the organic matrix associated to the crossed-lamellar structure of the queen conch shell.

  16. An investigation of ab initio shell-model interactions derived by no-core shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoBao; Dong, GuoXiang; Li, QingFeng; Shen, CaiWan; Yu, ShaoYing

    2016-09-01

    The microscopic shell-model effective interactions are mainly based on the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the first work of which can be traced to Brown and Kuo's first attempt in 1966, derived from the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential. However, the convergence of the MBPT is still unclear. On the other hand, ab initio theories, such as Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), no-core shell model (NCSM), and coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD), have made many progress in recent years. However, due to the increasing demanding of computing resources, these ab initio applications are usually limited to nuclei with mass up to A = 16. Recently, people have realized the ab initio construction of valence-space effective interactions, which is obtained through a second-time renormalization, or to be more exactly, projecting the full-manybody Hamiltonian into core, one-body, and two-body cluster parts. In this paper, we present the investigation of such ab initio shell-model interactions, by the recent derived sd-shell effective interactions based on effective J-matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP) and chiral effective-field theory (EFT) through NCSM. In this work, we have seen the similarity between the ab initio shellmodel interactions and the interactions obtained by MBPT or by empirical fitting. Without the inclusion of three-body (3-bd) force, the ab initio shell-model interactions still share similar defects with the microscopic interactions by MBPT, i.e., T = 1 channel is more attractive while T = 0 channel is more repulsive than empirical interactions. The progress to include more many-body correlations and 3-bd force is still badly needed, to see whether such efforts of ab initio shell-model interactions can reach similar precision as the interactions fitted to experimental data.

  17. The hydrogen shell game - Pulsational instabilities in hydrogen shell-burning planetary nebula nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1988-01-01

    Fully nonadiabatic g-mode pulsation calculations have been obtained for evolutionary models of planetary nebula nuclei (PNN) with active hydrogen-burning shells. Expressions have been developed for the phase delays which can develop between the temperature variations and the abundance variations of agents in the CN cycle. G-mode instabilities are noted that are driven by the epsilon mechanism at the position of the nuclear burning shells in standard PNN models. The results indicate that the central stars do not retain sufficient hydrogen to support nuclear burning following ejection of the planetary nebula.

  18. Distribution and shell selection by two hermit crabs in different habitats on Egyptian Red Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kareem Ismail, Tarek Gad

    2010-05-01

    The present work aims to assess the spatial distribution, analyze shell utilization, shell fitness and determine the effect of coexistence of two hermit crabs Calcinus latens and Clibanarius signatus on used shell resources in various habitats on the Red Sea Coast. Also, to determine the choice of shells and investigate the shell species preference of C. latens and C. signatus in the laboratory. The hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus were found to occupy shells of 39 gastropod species. The most commonly occupied gastropod shells are those belonging to genera Strombus, Nerita, Cerithium and Planaxis. The results showed that crab individuals utilized mainly the shell with elongate aperture. Laboratory experiments showed that two crab species preferred shells of Strombus followed by Cerithium and Nerita when offered shells of nearly similar size (optimal). Crab individuals showed a significant preference for optimal sized shells when given suboptimal shells as an alternative choice. Also, the hermit crabs avoid damaged shells when given a choice of optimal sized damaged shell and optimal sized intact one. In addition, two hermit crab species chose shells of smaller than optimal size when given a choice of damaged optimal sized shells and smaller intact ones. On the other hand, field observations showed that most crab individuals lived in adequate sized shells. The present data conclude that shell selection by hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus depends mostly on shell internal volume, shell quality and shell aperture size than other factors, because they provide a maximum protection for hermit crabs.

  19. Radar attenuation in Europa's ice shell: Obstacles and opportunities for constraining the shell thickness and its thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousová, Klára; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Soderlund, Krista M.

    2017-03-01

    Young surface and possible recent endogenic activity make Europa one of the most exciting solar system bodies and a primary target for spacecraft exploration. Future Europa missions are expected to carry ice-penetrating radar instruments designed to investigate its subsurface thermophysical structure. Several authors have addressed the radar sounders' performance at icy moons, often ignoring the complex structure of a realistic ice shell. Here we explore the variation in two-way radar attenuation for a variety of potential thermal structures of Europa's shell (determined by reference viscosity, activation energy, tidal heating, surface temperature, and shell thickness) as well as for low and high loss temperature-dependent attenuation model. We found that (i) for all investigated ice shell thicknesses (5-30 km), the radar sounder will penetrate between 15% and 100% of the total thickness, (ii) the maximum penetration depth varies laterally, with deepest penetration possible through cold downwellings, (iii) direct ocean detection might be possible for shells of up to 15 km thick if the signal travels through cold downwelling ice or the shell is conductive, (iv) even if the ice/ocean interface is not directly detected, penetration through most of the shell could constrain the deep shell structure through returns from deep non-ocean interfaces or the loss of signal itself, and (v) for all plausible ice shells, the two-way attenuation to the eutectic point is ≲30 dB which shows a robust potential for longitudinal investigation of the ice shell's shallow thermophysical structure.

  20. Dynamic and static shell properties of white and brown shell eggs exposed to modified pressure microcrack detection technology.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Broussard, V; Lawrence, K C; Yoon, S C; Heitschmidt, G W

    2012-10-01

    Dynamic and static shell properties of eggs provide important insight to egg quality. Understanding how processing and handling procedures affect both dynamic and static shell properties can enhance the safety and quality of eggs reaching the consumer. A study was conducted to determine if dynamic shell properties were altered due to modified pressure microcrack detection technology exposure in brown and white shell eggs. Three replicates of 100 eggs each of brown and white retail shell eggs were conducted. Dynamic stiffness (K(dyn)) and egg weight were monitored immediately before and after microcrack detection. No changes in K(dyn) or egg weight were detected for either shell color. Static compression shell strength and deformation were subsequently monitored and a correlation analysis conducted. A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.53; P < 0.0001) between K(dyn) and static compression shell strength was seen for extra large white shell eggs. A smaller (R(2) = 0.31; P < 0.0001) correlation was found for large brown eggs. The use of modified pressure microcrack detection technology did not affect shell dynamic properties.