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Sample records for gnl flottante shell

  1. GNL3L Is a Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling Protein: Role in Cell Cycle Regulation.

    PubMed

    Thoompumkal, Indu Jose; Subba Rao, Malireddi Rama Krishna; Kumaraswamy, Anbarasu; Krishnan, Rehna; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy

    2015-01-01

    GNL3L is an evolutionarily conserved high molecular weight GTP binding nucleolar protein belonging to HSR1-MMR1 subfamily of GTPases. The present investigation reveals that GNL3L is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to Leptomycin B. Deletion mutagenesis reveals that the C-terminal domain (amino acids 501-582) is necessary and sufficient for the export of GNL3L from the nucleus and the exchange of hydrophobic residues (M567, L570 and 572) within the C-terminal domain impairs this process. Results from the protein-protein interaction analysis indicate that GNL3L interaction with CRM1 is critical for its export from the nucleus. Ectopic expression of GNL3L leads to lesser accumulation of cells in the 'G2/M' phase of cell cycle whereas depletion of endogenous GNL3L results in 'G2/M' arrest. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis followed by BrdU labeling assay indicates that significantly increased DNA synthesis occurs in cells expressing nuclear export defective mutant (GNL3L∆NES) compared to the wild type or nuclear import defective GNL3L. Furthermore, increased hyperphosphorylation of Rb at Serine 780 and the upregulation of E2F1, cyclins A2 and E1 upon ectopic expression of GNL3L∆NES results in faster 'S' phase progression. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that GNL3L is exported from the nucleus in CRM1 dependent manner and the nuclear localization of GNL3L is important to promote 'S' phase progression during cell proliferation.

  2. Convergence of auxin and gibberellin signaling on the regulation of the GATA transcription factors GNC and GNL in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Richter, René; Behringer, Carina; Zourelidou, Melina; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2013-08-01

    Plant growth is regulated by a complex network of signaling events. Points of convergence for the signaling cross-talk between the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin (GA), which partly control overlapping processes during plant development, are largely unknown. At the cellular level, auxin responses are controlled by members of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) family of transcription factors as well as AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE (AUX/IAA) proteins that repress the activity of at least a subset of ARFs. Here, we show that the two paralogous GATA transcription factors GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON-METABOLISM INVOLVED (GNC) and GNC-LIKE (GNL)/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 (CGA1) are direct and critical transcription targets downstream from ARF2 in the control of greening, flowering time, and senescence. Mutants deficient in the synthesis or signaling of the phytohormone GA are also impaired in greening, flowering, and senescence, and interestingly, GNC and GNL were previously identified as important transcription targets of the GA signaling pathway. In line with a critical regulatory role for GNC and GNL downstream from both auxin and GA signaling, we show here that the constitutive activation of GA signaling is sufficient to suppress arf2 mutant phenotypes through repression of GNC and GNL. In addition, we show that GA promotes ARF2 protein abundance through a translation-dependent mechanism that could serve to override the autoinhibitory negative feedback regulation of ARF2 on its own transcription and thereby further promote GA signaling. PMID:23878229

  3. Potato chip intake increases ascorbic acid levels and decreases reactive oxygen species in SMP30/GNL knockout mouse tissues.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Rui; Ichisawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Katsuyuki; Kubo, Misako; Handa, Setsuko; Mugita, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Naoki; Koga, Hidenori; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-09-24

    Potato chips (PC) contain abundant amounts of the free radical scavenger ascorbic acid (AA) due to the rapid dehydration of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) that occurs during frying. To evaluate the antioxidant activity of PC, this study examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissues from SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice that cannot synthesize AA and determined AA and ROS levels after the animals were fed 20 and 10% PC diets for 7 weeks. Compared with AA-sufficient mice, AA-depleted SMP30/GNL KO mice showed high ROS levels in tissues. SMP30/GNL KO mice fed a PC diet showed high AA and low ROS levels in the brain, heart, lung, testis, soleus muscle, plantaris muscle, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, eyeball, and epididymal fat compared with AA-depleted mice. The data suggest that PC intake increases AA levels and enhances ROS scavenging activity in tissues of SMP30/GNL KO mice, which are a promising model for evaluating the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25180784

  4. Automatic classification and robust identification of vestibulo-ocular reflex responses: from theory to practice: introducing GNL-HybELS.

    PubMed

    Ghoreyshi, Atiyeh; Galiana, Henrietta

    2011-10-01

    The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) stabilizes images of the world on our retinae when our head moves. Basic daily activities are thus impaired if this reflex malfunctions. During the past few decades, scientists have modeled and identified this system mathematically to diagnose and treat VOR deficits. However, traditional methods do not analyze VOR data comprehensively because they disregard the switching nature of nystagmus; this can bias estimates of VOR dynamics. Here we propose, for the first time, an automated tool to analyze entire VOR responses (slow and fast phases), without a priori classification of nystagmus segments. We have developed GNL-HybELS (Generalized NonLinear Hybrid Extended Least Squares), an algorithmic tool to simultaneously classify and identify the responses of a multi-mode nonlinear system with delay, such as the horizontal VOR and its alternating slow and fast phases. This algorithm combines the procedures of Generalized Principle Component Analysis (GPCA) for classification, and Hybrid Extended Least Squares (HybELS) for identification, by minimizing a cost function in an optimization framework. It is validated here on clean and noisy VOR simulations and then applied to clinical VOR tests on controls and patients. Prediction errors were less than 1 deg for simulations and ranged from .69 deg to 2.1 deg for the clinical data. Nonlinearities, asymmetries, and dynamic parameters were detected in normal and patient data, in both fast and slow phases of the response. This objective approach to VOR analysis now allows the design of more complex protocols for the testing of oculomotor and other hybrid systems.

  5. MVC Shell

    2008-06-03

    Provides the shell of a plugin based application environment that builds on MVC Framework to allow one to rapidly construct an application by using a collection of plugins. The MVC Shell is implemented in C# as a .NET 2.0 application that can then be used as a shell for building a plugin based application. The infrastructure allows for dynamically processing a specified collection of plugins in order to determine the functionality of the application, wheremore » all plugins operate within the context of the underlying MVC Framework environment.« less

  6. Vibration of Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissa, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.

  7. Building Atoms Shell by Shell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…

  8. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  9. Classification Shell Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etzold, Carol

    1983-01-01

    Discusses shell classification exercises. Through keying students advanced from the "I know what a shell looks like" stage to become involved in the classification process: observing, labeling, making decisions about categories, and identifying marine animals. (Author/JN)

  10. Fluctuating shells under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

  11. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  12. Imperfection Insensitive Thin Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Xin

    The buckling of axially compressed cylindrical shells and externally pressurized spherical shells is extremely sensitive to even very small geometric imperfections. In practice this issue is addressed by either using overly conservative knockdown factors, while keeping perfect axial or spherical symmetry, or adding closely and equally spaced stiffeners on shell surface. The influence of imperfection-sensitivity is mitigated, but the shells designed from these approaches are either too heavy or very expensive and are still sensitive to imperfections. Despite their drawbacks, these approaches have been used for more than half a century. This thesis proposes a novel method to design imperfection-insensitive cylindrical shells subject to axial compression. Instead of following the classical paths, focused on axially symmetric or high-order rotationally symmetric cross-sections, the method in this thesis adopts optimal symmetry-breaking wavy cross-sections (wavy shells). The avoidance of imperfection sensitivity is achieved by searching with an evolutionary algorithm for smooth cross-sectional shapes that maximize the minimum among the buckling loads of geometrically perfect and imperfect wavy shells. It is found that the shells designed through this approach can achieve higher critical stresses and knockdown factors than any previously known monocoque cylindrical shells. It is also found that these shells have superior mass efficiency to almost all previously reported stiffened shells. Experimental studies on a design of composite wavy shell obtained through the proposed method are presented in this thesis. A method of making composite wavy shells and a photogrametry technique of measuring full-field geometric imperfections have been developed. Numerical predictions based on the measured geometric imperfections match remarkably well with the experiments. Experimental results confirm that the wavy shells are not sensitive to imperfections and can carry axial compression

  13. Iridescence color of shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2002-06-01

    Some shells from both salt water and fresh water show the phenomenon of iridescence color. Pearls and mother-of-pearls also display this phenomenon. In the past, the cause of the iridescence color was attributed to interference. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the surface structure of the shell of the mollusk Pinctada Margaritifera. There is a groove structure of reflection grating on the surface area in where the iridescence color appears. An optic experiment with a laser obtained a diffraction pattern produced by the reflection grating structure of the shell. The study led to a conclusion that the iridescence color of the shell is caused by diffraction. A SEM image of the shells of an abalone Haliotis Rufescens (red abalone) showed a statistically regularly arranged tile structure that serves as a two-dimensional grating. This grating structure causes the iridescence color of the shell of red abalone. The dominant color of the iridescence of shells is caused by the uneven grating efficiency in the visible wavelength range when a shell functions as a reflection grating. The wavelength of the dominant color should be at or near the wavelength of the maximum efficiency of the grating.

  14. Static cylindrical matter shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arık, Metin; Delice, Özgür

    2005-08-01

    Static cylindrical shells composed of massive particles arising from matching of two different Levi-Civita space-times are studied for the shell satisfying either an isotropic or an anisotropic equation of state. We find that these solutions satisfy the energy conditions for certain ranges of the parameters.

  15. Nuclear shell evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Ian

    2016-03-01

    The appearance and disappearance of nuclear shells and sub-shells has been at the forefront of recent nuclear theory and experimental efforts. This work extends a previously introduced method of structural analysis and applies it to protons in an attempt to provide a more complete understanding of shell structure in nuclei. Experimental observables including the mean square charge radius, as well as other spectroscopic and mass related quantities have been analyzed for shell structure features. A preliminary analysis using Nilsson coefficient fits of experimental quantities, such as odd mass spectra and B(E2) values, along isotopic chains will be discussed. The goal of this work is to provide a means of predicting shell structure far from stability. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants PHY1419765 and PHY0822648.

  16. Cohesive Elements for Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

    2007-01-01

    A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

  17. Failure of Viral Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, William S.; Bruinsma, Robijn F.; Michel, Jean-Philippe; Knobler, Charles M.; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the structural failure of viral shells under mechanical stress. We find that discontinuities in the force-indentation curve associated with failure should appear when the so-called Föppl von Kármán (FvK) number exceeds a critical value. A nanoindentation study of a viral shell subject to a soft-mode instability, where the stiffness of the shell decreases with increasing pH, confirms the predicted onset of failure as a function of the FvK number.

  18. Elastic platonic shells.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ee Hou; Nelson, David R; Mahadevan, L

    2013-10-25

    On microscopic scales, the crystallinity of flexible tethered or cross-linked membranes determines their mechanical response. We show that by controlling the type, number, and distribution of defects on a spherical elastic shell, it is possible to direct the morphology of these structures. Our numerical simulations show that by deflating a crystalline shell with defects, we can create elastic shell analogs of the classical platonic solids. These morphologies arise via a sharp buckling transition from the sphere which is strongly hysteretic in loading or unloading. We construct a minimal Landau theory for the transition using quadratic and cubic invariants of the spherical harmonic modes. Our approach suggests methods to engineer shape into soft spherical shells using a frozen defect topology.

  19. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  20. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  1. C-Shell Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.

    This cookbook describes the fundamentals of writing scripts using the UNIX C shell. It shows how to combine Starlink and private applications with shell commands and constructs to create powerful and time-saving tools for performing repetitive jobs, creating data-processing pipelines, and encapsulating useful recipes. The cookbook aims to give practical and reassuring examples to at least get you started without having to consult a UNIX manual. However, it does not offer a comprehensive description of C-shell syntax to prevent you from being overwhelmed or intimidated. The topics covered are: how to run a script, defining shell variables, prompting, arithmetic and string processing, passing information between Starlink applications, obtaining dataset attributes and FITS header information, processing multiple files and filename modification, command-line arguments and options, and loops. There is also a glossary.

  2. Shells and Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  3. Double shell liner implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.

    1997-05-05

    Experiments on the double shell liner (DSL) implosions with and without an initial axial magnetic were performed on the SNOP-3 pulse generator (1.1 MA, 100 ns). In implosions of a DSL without an initial axial magnetic field, high radial compressions of the inner shell were observed, as in previous experiments with an initial axial magnetic field. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the initial azimuthal magnetic field are discussed.

  4. Multi-Shell Hollow Nanogels with Responsive Shell Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Andreas J.; Dubbert, Janine; Rudov, Andrey A.; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Lindner, Peter; Karg, Matthias; Potemkin, Igor I.; Richtering, Walter

    2016-03-01

    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C < T < 42 °C, the hollow nanocontainers provide a significant void, which is even larger than the initial core size of the template, and they possess a high colloidal stability due to the steric stabilization of the swollen outer shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity.

  5. Multi-Shell Hollow Nanogels with Responsive Shell Permeability.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Andreas J; Dubbert, Janine; Rudov, Andrey A; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Lindner, Peter; Karg, Matthias; Potemkin, Igor I; Richtering, Walter

    2016-03-17

    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C < T < 42 °C, the hollow nanocontainers provide a significant void, which is even larger than the initial core size of the template, and they possess a high colloidal stability due to the steric stabilization of the swollen outer shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity.

  6. Multi-Shell Hollow Nanogels with Responsive Shell Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas J.; Dubbert, Janine; Rudov, Andrey A.; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Lindner, Peter; Karg, Matthias; Potemkin, Igor I.; Richtering, Walter

    2016-01-01

    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C < T < 42 °C, the hollow nanocontainers provide a significant void, which is even larger than the initial core size of the template, and they possess a high colloidal stability due to the steric stabilization of the swollen outer shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity. PMID:26984478

  7. Sensational spherical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.C.; Kendall, J.M.,JR.; Bahrami, P.A.; Wang, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid-dynamic and capillary forces can be used to form nearly perfect, very small spherical shells when a liquid that can solidify is passed through an annular die to form an annular jet. Gravity and certain properties of even the most ideal materials, however, can cause slight asymmetries. The primary objective of the present work is the control of this shell formation process in earth laboratories rather than space microgravity, through the development of facilities and methods that minimize the deleterious effects of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and uncontrolled cooling. The spherical shells thus produced can be used in insulation, recyclable filter materials, fire retardants, explosives, heat transport slurries, shock-absorbing armor, and solid rocket motors.

  8. Fabrication of diamond shells

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen; Wild, Christoph; Woerner, Eckhard

    2016-11-01

    A novel method for fabricating diamond shells is introduced. The fabrication of such shells is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on predetermined mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removal of the mandrel by an etch process. The resultant shells of the present invention can be configured with a surface roughness at the nanometer level (e.g., on the order of down to about 10 nm RMS) on a mm length scale, and exhibit excellent hardness/strength, and good transparency in the both the infra-red and visible. Specifically, a novel process is disclosed herein, which allows coating of spherical substrates with optical-quality diamond films or nanocrystalline diamond films.

  9. Shell Biorefinery: Dream or Reality?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Huiying; Yan, Ning

    2016-09-12

    Shell biorefinery, referring to the fractionation of crustacean shells into their major components and the transformation of each component into value-added chemicals and materials, has attracted growing attention in recent years. Since the large quantities of waste shells remain underexploited, their valorization can potentially bring both ecological and economic benefits. This Review provides an overview of the current status of shell biorefinery. It first describes the structural features of crustacean shells, including their composition and their interactions. Then, various fractionation methods for the shells are introduced. The last section is dedicated to the valorization of chitin and its derivatives for chemicals, porous carbon materials and functional polymers.

  10. Shell Biorefinery: Dream or Reality?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Huiying; Yan, Ning

    2016-09-12

    Shell biorefinery, referring to the fractionation of crustacean shells into their major components and the transformation of each component into value-added chemicals and materials, has attracted growing attention in recent years. Since the large quantities of waste shells remain underexploited, their valorization can potentially bring both ecological and economic benefits. This Review provides an overview of the current status of shell biorefinery. It first describes the structural features of crustacean shells, including their composition and their interactions. Then, various fractionation methods for the shells are introduced. The last section is dedicated to the valorization of chitin and its derivatives for chemicals, porous carbon materials and functional polymers. PMID:27484462

  11. Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock into the receiving room housed in the 1965 concrete block addition. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  12. Agreement, Shells, and Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Andrew; Wu, Zoe

    2002-01-01

    Reconsiders development and licensing of agreement as a syntactic projection and argues for a productive developmental relation between agreement and the category of focus. Suggests that focus projections are initially selected by a variety of functional heads with real semantic content, then, over time decays into a simple concord shell. Upon…

  13. Snail Shell Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Presents three inquiry-based lessons to develop the science process skills of observation, identification, and classification. Activities use whelk eggs and snail shells as the focus of the students' inquiries. Provides a list of 19 facts about whelks and snails. (MDH)

  14. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  15. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  16. Stability of charged thin shells

    SciTech Connect

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-05-15

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  17. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack....

  18. Engineering bacterial microcompartment shells: chimeric shell proteins and chimeric carboxysome shells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Fei; Sutter, Markus; Bernstein, Susan L; Kinney, James N; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-04-17

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are self-assembling organelles composed entirely of protein. Depending on the enzymes they encapsulate, BMCs function in either inorganic carbon fixation (carboxysomes) or organic carbon utilization (metabolosomes). The hallmark feature of all BMCs is a selectively permeable shell formed by multiple paralogous proteins, each proposed to confer specific flux characteristics. Gene clusters encoding diverse BMCs are distributed broadly across bacterial phyla, providing a rich variety of building blocks with a predicted range of permeability properties. In theory, shell permeability can be engineered by modifying residues flanking the pores (symmetry axes) of hexameric shell proteins or by combining shell proteins from different types of BMCs into chimeric shells. We undertook both approaches to altering shell properties using the carboxysome as a model system. There are two types of carboxysomes, α and β. In both, the predominant shell protein(s) contain a single copy of the BMC domain (pfam00936), but they are significantly different in primary structure. Indeed, phylogenetic analysis shows that the two types of carboxysome shell proteins are more similar to their counterparts in metabolosomes than to each other. We solved high resolution crystal structures of the major shell proteins, CsoS1 and CcmK2, and the presumed minor shell protein CcmK4, representing both types of cyanobacterial carboxysomes and then tested the interchangeability. The in vivo study presented here confirms that both engineering pores to mimic those of other shell proteins and the construction of chimeric shells is feasible.

  19. Relativistic shell model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnstahl, R. J.

    1986-06-01

    Shell model calculations are discussed in the context of a relativistic model of nuclear structure based on renormalizable quantum field theories of mesons and baryons (quantum hadrodynamics). The relativistic Hartree approximation to the full field theory, with parameters determined from bulk properties of nuclear matter, predicts a shell structure in finite nuclei. Particle-hole excitations in finite nuclei are described in an RPA calculation based on this QHD ground state. The particle-hole interaction is prescribed by the Hartree ground state, with no additional parameters. Meson retardation is neglected in deriving the RPA equations, but it is found to have negligible effects on low-lying states. The full Dirac matrix structure is maintained throughout the calculation; no nonrelativistic reductions are made. Despite sensitive cancellations in the ground state calculation, reasonable excitation spectra are obtained for light nuclei. The effects of including charged mesons, problems with heavy nuclei, and prospects for improved and extended calculations are discussed.

  20. The structure of circumstellar shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This document provides a report on research activities carried out with the support of NASA grant NAG 5-1174, the Structure of Circumstellar Shells, funded under the Astrophysics Data Program. The research carried out with the support of this grant is a study of the properties of circumstellar dust shells for which spectra are available through IRAS low resolution spectrometry (LRS). This research consisted of the development and application of models of axisymmetric circumstellar shells and a preliminary survey of the applicability of neural nets for analysis of the IRAS LRS spectra of circumstellar dust shells.

  1. Automated shell theory for rotating structures (ASTROS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. J.; Thomas, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    A computer program for analyzing axisymmetric shells with inertial forces caused by rotation about the shell axis is developed by revising the STARS II shell program. The basic capabilities of the STARS II shell program, such as the treatment of the branched shells, stiffened wall construction, and thermal gradients, are retained.

  2. 7 CFR 51.2289 - Shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell. 51.2289 Section 51.2289 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2289 Shell. Shell means the outer shell and/or the woody partition from between the halves of the kernel, and any fragments of either....

  3. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    SciTech Connect

    Heiles, C.

    1984-08-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10/sup 0/. We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo.

  4. Biomineralisation in Mollusc shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Salomé, M.; Williams, C. T.

    2009-04-01

    The main components of Mollusc shells are carbonate minerals: calcite and aragonite. ACC is present in larval stages. Calcite and aragonite can be secreted simultaneously by the mantle. Despite the small number of varieties, the arrangement of the mineral components is diverse, and dependant upon the taxonomy. They are also associated with organic components much more diverse, the diversity of which reflects the large taxonomic diversity. From TGA analyses, the organic content (water included) is high (>5% in some layers). The biomineralisation process is not a passive precipitation process, but is strongly controlled by the organism. The biological-genetic control is shown by the constancy of the arrangement of the layers, the mineralogy and the microstructure in a given species. Microstructural units (i.e. tablets, prisms etc.) have shapes that do not occur in non-biogenic counterparts. Nacreous tablets, for example, are flattened on their crystallographic c axis, which is normally the axis of maximum growth rate for non-biogenic aragonite. Morever, their inner structure is species-specific: the arrangements of nacreous tablets in Gastropoda - Cephalopoda, and in Bivalvia differ, and the inner arrangement of the nacreous tablets is different in ectocochlear and endocochlear Cephalopoda. The organic-mineral ratios also differ in the various layers of a shell. Differences in chemical composition also demonstrates the biological-genetic control: for example, aragonite has a low Sr content unknown in non-biogenic samples; two aragonitic layers in a shell have different Sr and Mg contents, S is higher in calcitic layers. Decalcification releases soluble (SOM) and insoluble (IOM) organic components. Insoluble components form the main part of the intercrystalline membranes, and contain proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Soluble phases are present within the crystals and the intercrystalline membranes. These phases are composed of more or less glycosylated proteins

  5. Foam shell cryogenic ICF target

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Dale H.

    1987-01-01

    A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

  6. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.; Nolen, R. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres (shells), which are used for inertial confinement fusion targets, were formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a vertical furnace. As a result of the rapid pyrolysis caused by the furnace, the gel is transformed to a shell in five distinct stages: (a) surface closure of the porous gel; (b) generation of a closed-cell foam structure in the gel; (c) spheridization of the gel and further expansion of the foam; (d) coalescence of the closed-cell foam to a single-void shell; and (e) fining of the glass shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the falling gel particle was modeled to determine the effective heating rate of the gel. The model predicts the temperature history for a particle as a function of mass, dimensions, specific heat, and absorptance as well as furnace temperature profile and thermal conductivity of the furnace gas. A model was developed that predicts the gravity-induced degradation of shell concentricity in falling molten shells as a function of shell characteristics and time.

  7. Crack problems in cylindrical and spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Standard plate or shell theories were used as a starting point to study the fracture problems in thin-walled cylindrical and spherical shells, assuming that the plane of the crack is perpendicular to the surface of the sheet. Since recent studies have shown that local shell curvatures may have a rather considerable effect on the stress intensity factor, the crack problem was considered in conjunction with a shell rather than a plate theory. The material was assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, so that approximate solutions may be obtained by approximating the local shell crack geometry with an ideal shell which has a solution, namely a spherical shell with a meridional crack, a cylindrical shell with a circumferential crack, or a cylindrical shell with an axial crack. A method of solution for the specially orthotropic shells containing a crack was described; symmetric and skew-symmetric problems are considered in cylindrical shells with an axial crack.

  8. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  9. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  10. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Phillip A.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dialectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections.

  11. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, P.A.; Anderson, A.T.; Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-20

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dielectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections is disclosed. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections. 4 figs.

  12. Stellar Populations of Shell Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsten, Scott; Zenteno, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the inner (out to ˜1 effective radius) stellar populations in a sample of 9 shell galaxies. We derive stellar population parameters from long slit spectra by both analyzing the Lick indices of the galaxies and by fitting high resolution SSP model spectra to the full galaxy spectra. The results from the two methods agree reasonably well. We find the presence of young stellar populations in several of the galaxies, implying recent star formation and allowing us to speculate on the age of the shells. Analyzing the metallicity gradients in our sample, we find an average metallicity gradient of -0.16±0.10 dex/decade in radius. Finally, we compare this with galaxy evolution models to try to constrain the merging history of shell galaxies. We argue that our galaxies likely have undergone major mergers in their past but it is unclear whether the shells formed from these events or from separate minor mergers.

  13. Collapsing thin shells with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsate, Térence; Rocha, Jorge V.; Santarelli, Raphael

    2014-06-01

    We construct exact solutions describing the motion of rotating thin shells in a fully backreacted five-dimensional rotating black hole spacetime. The radial equation of motion follows from the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, where both interior and exterior geometries are taken to be equal angular momenta Myers-Perry solutions. We show that rotation generates anisotropic pressures and momentum along the shell. Gravitational collapse scenarios including rotation are analyzed and a new class of stationary solutions is introduced. Energy conditions for the anisotropic matter shell are briefly discussed. We find that the weak energy condition is not violated for the collapse scenario where the shell starts at rest from infinity, nor for the new class of stationary solutions in anti-de Sitter. We further prove that the cosmic censorship conjecture is always satisfied in our setup.

  14. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  15. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  16. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19 Shelled peanuts. Shelled peanuts means the kernels or portions of kernels of peanuts after the shells are removed....

  17. Slowly rotating thin shell gravastars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikata, Nami; Yoshida, Shijun

    2016-01-01

    We construct the solutions of slowly rotating gravastars with a thin shell. In the zero-rotation limit, we consider the gravastar composed of a de Sitter core, a thin shell, and Schwarzschild exterior spacetime. The rotational effects are treated as small axisymmetric and stationary perturbations. The perturbed internal and external spacetimes are matched with a uniformly rotating thin shell. We assume that the angular velocity of the thin shell, Ω, is much smaller than the Keplerian frequency of the nonrotating gravastar, {{{Ω }}}{{k}}. The solutions within an accuracy up to the second order of {{Ω }}/{{{Ω }}}{{k}} are obtained. The thin shell matter is assumed to be described by a perfect fluid and to satisfy the dominant energy condition in the zero-rotation limit. In this study, we assume that the equation of state for perturbations is the same as that of the unperturbed solution. The spherically symmetric component of the energy density perturbations, δ {σ }0, is assumed to vanish independently of the rotation rate. Based on these assumptions, we obtain many numerical solutions and investigate properties of the rotational corrections to the structure of the thin shell gravastar.

  18. Comparison of aragonitic molluscan shell proteins.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Takeshi; Miksik, Ivan; Smrz, Miloslav; Germann, Bettina; Nebija, Dashnor; Lachmann, Bodo; Noe, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Acidic macromolecules, as a nucleation factor for mollusc shell formation, are a major focus of research. It remains unclear, however, whether acidic macromolecules are present only in calcified shell organic matrices, and which acidic macromolecules are crucial for the nucleation process by binding to chitin as structural components. To clarify these questions, we applied 2D gel electrophoresis and amino acid analysis to soluble shell organic matrices from nacre shell, non-nacre aragonitic shell and non-calcified squid shells. The 2D gel electrophoresis results showed that the acidity of soluble proteins differs even between nacre shells, and some nacre (Haliotis gigantea) showed a basic protein migration pattern. Non-calcified shells also contained some moderately acidic proteins. The results did not support the correlation between the acidity of soluble shell proteins and shell structure.

  19. Mass of Perfect Fluid Black Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G.

    The spherically symmetric singular perfect fluid shells are considered when their radii are equal to the event horizon (the black shells). We study their observable masses, depending at least on the three parameters, viz. the square speed of sound in the shell, instantaneous radial velocity of the shell at a moment when it reaches the horizon, and integration constant related to surface mass density. We discuss the features of black shells depending on the equation of state.

  20. Foam shell project: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-03-25

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 {mu}m thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D{sub 2} or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE.

  1. Dominant thermogravimetric signatures of lignin in cashew shell as compared to cashew shell cake.

    PubMed

    Gangil, Sandip

    2014-03-01

    Dominant thermogravimetric signatures related to lignin were observed in cashew shell as compared to these signatures in cashew shell cake. The phenomenon of weakening of lignin from cashew shell to cashew shell cake was explained on the basis of changes in the activation energies. The pertinent temperature regimes responsible for the release of different constituents of both the bio-materials were identified and compared. The activation energies of cashew shell and cashew shell cake were compared using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. Thermogravimetric profiling of cashew shell and cashew shell cake indicated that these were different kinds of bio-materials.

  2. Chemical Analysis Of Beryllium Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, J; Cook, R

    2005-11-17

    There is a need to understand the level of high-Z impurities in Beryllium shells prepared by sputter coating. The Ignition Point Design Requirements state the following: ''Except for allowed ingredients, as listed in the ablator composition entries, the ablator material in all layers shall contain sufficiently low impurity levels that the sum over all impurities of atom fraction*Z{sup 2} shall be less than or equal to 0.2''. This is a tight specification that requires careful materials analysis. Early in the first quarter of FY06, we undertook a study of Be shell impurities via ICP-MS{sup 2} and determined that the impurity levels in the sputtered shells are very close to the specification.

  3. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Koonin, S.E.; Dean, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of {gamma}-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs.

  4. Shell may expand detergent alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-23

    Shell Chemical is studying plans to expand detergent alcohols capacity in the US, CW has learned. The company is considering adding capacity for about 80 million lbs/year. If the project is approved, it would be implemented at the company`s Geismar, LA site. Shell will make a final decision on whether to proceed with the project within six months. It has been rumored to be considering a capacity addition as a result of tightening supply of natural and synthetic detergent alcohols.

  5. On Closed Shells in Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M. G.

    1948-02-01

    It has been suggested in the past that special numbers of neutrons or protons in the nucleus form a particularly stable configuration.{sup1} The complete evidence for this has never been summarized, nor is it generally recognized how convincing this evidence is. That 20 neutrons or protons (Ca{sup40}) form a closed shell is predicted by the Hartree model. A number of calculations support this fact.{sup2} These considerations will not be repeated here. In this paper, the experimental facts indicating a particular stability of shells of 50 and 82 protons and of 50, 82, and 126 neutrons will be listed.

  6. Method and apparatus for an inflatable shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of assembling an inflatable shell of a structure comprises folding a plurality of shell sections about a set of fold lines and integrating the plurality of shell sections together with one another to form the shell. In another embodiment, an inflatable shell comprises a plurality of shell sections, each shell section having two pairs of fold lines for folding into stowage comprising a first gore section having a plurality of first gore panels layered and collectively folded about at a first set of fold lines. Each layer of the first gore panels and second gore panels are configured such that, once the first gore panel and second gore panel are attached to one another at the respective side edges of each panel, the lines of attachment forming a second set of fold lines for the shell section. A system and method for fabricating gore panels is also disclosed.

  7. Shell structures for biogas plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sasse, L.

    1982-01-01

    The shell structures designed for biogas plants of the fixed-dome type by the Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association are described. Biogas digesters of the design described have been successfully tested in Rwanda and India without structural or contractural problems.

  8. Finite element shell instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Formulation procedures and the associated computer program for finite element thin shell instability analysis are discussed. Data cover: (1) formulation of basic element relationships, (2) construction of solution algorithms on both the conceptual and algorithmic levels, and (3) conduction of numerical analyses to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the theory and related programs therein are described.

  9. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  10. Notes on static cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicák, J.; Zofka, M.

    2002-07-01

    Static cylindrical shells made of various types of matter are studied as sources of the vacuum Levi-Civita metrics. Their internal physical properties are related to the two essential parameters of the metrics outside. The total mass per unit length of the cylinders is always less than ¼. The results are illustrated by a number of figures.

  11. Recent advances in shell theory. [application of asymptotic approach to thin walled shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmonds, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    The results reviewed are divided into two categories: those that relate two-dimensional shell theory to three-dimensional elasticity theory and those concerned with shell theory per se. In the second category results for general elastic systems that carry over, by specialization or analogy, to shells and results that are unique to shell theory itself are considered.

  12. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means...

  13. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  14. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  15. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  16. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  17. 7 CFR 984.10 - Shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled walnuts. 984.10 Section 984.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.10 Shelled walnuts. Shelled walnuts means walnut kernels after...

  18. 21 CFR 886.3800 - Scleral shell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scleral shell. 886.3800 Section 886.3800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3800 Scleral shell. (a) Identification. A scleral shell is...

  19. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds...

  20. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds...

  1. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds...

  2. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds...

  3. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds...

  4. Developments in Cylindrical Shell Stability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Today high-performance computing systems and new analytical and numerical techniques enable engineers to explore the use of advanced materials for shell design. This paper reviews some of the historical developments of shell buckling analysis and design. The paper concludes by identifying key research directions for reliable and robust methods development in shell stability analysis and design.

  5. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means...

  6. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means...

  7. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means...

  8. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means...

  9. Shell Model Depiction of Isospin Mixing in sd Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Yi Hua; Smirnova, Nadya A.; Caurier, Etienne

    2011-11-30

    We constructed a new empirical isospin-symmetry breaking (ISB) Hamiltonian in the sd(1s{sub 1/2}, 0d{sub 5/2} and 0d{sub 3/2}) shell-model space. In this contribution, we present its application to two important case studies: (i){beta}-delayed proton emission from {sup 22}Al and (ii) isospin-mixing correction to superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-decay ft-values.

  10. On chaotic behavior of gravitating stellar shells.

    PubMed

    Barkov, M V; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G S; Neishtadt, A I; Belinski, V A

    2005-03-01

    Motion of two gravitating spherical stellar shells around a massive central body is considered. Each shell consists of point particles with the same specific angular momenta and energies. In the case when one can neglect the influence of gravitation of one ("light") shell onto another ("heavy") shell ("restricted problem") the structure of the phase space is described. The scaling laws for the measure of the domain of chaotic motion and for the minimal energy of the light shell sufficient for its escape to infinity are obtained. PMID:15836258

  11. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  12. Turbine blade with spar and shell

    DOEpatents

    Davies, Daniel O.; Peterson, Ross H.

    2012-04-24

    A turbine blade with a spar and shell construction in which the spar and the shell are both secured within two platform halves. The spar and the shell each include outward extending ledges on the bottom ends that fit within grooves formed on the inner sides of the platform halves to secure the spar and the shell against radial movement when the two platform halves are joined. The shell is also secured to the spar by hooks extending from the shell that slide into grooves formed on the outer surface of the spar. The hooks form a serpentine flow cooling passage between the shell and the spar. The spar includes cooling holes on the lower end in the leading edge region to discharge cooling air supplied through the platform root and into the leading edge cooling channel.

  13. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens’ eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus et al. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells.

  14. Shell Evolutions and Nuclear Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorlin, O.

    2014-03-01

    During the last 30 years, and more specifically during the last 10 years, many experiments have been carried out worldwide using different techniques to study the shell evolution of nuclei far from stability. What seemed not conceivable some decades ago became rather common: all known magic numbers that are present in the valley of stability disappear far from stability and are replaced by new ones at the drip line. By gathering selected experimental results, beautifully consistent pictures emerge, that very likely take root in the properties of the nuclear forces.The present manuscript describes some of these discoveries and proposes an intuitive understanding of these shell evolutions derived from observations. Extrapolations to yet unstudied regions, as where the explosive r-process nucleosynthesis occurs, are proposed. Some remaining challenges and puzzling questions are also addressed.

  15. Glass shell manufacturing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolen, R. L.; Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres, which are used for inertial-confinement fusion targets, are formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a drop-tower furnace. The modelling of this gel-to-sphere transformation has consisted of three phases: gel thermochemistry, furnance-to-gel heat transfer, and gravity-driven degradation of the concentricity of the molten shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the free-falling gel particle was modelled with forced convection. The gel mass, dimensions, and specific heat as well as furnace temperature profile and furnace gas conductivity, were controlled variables. This model has been experimentally verified. In the third phase, a mathematical model was developed to describe the gravity-driven degradation of concentricity in molten glass shells.

  16. Density Measurements of Be Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C

    2005-02-15

    The purpose of this memo is to lay out the uncertainties associated with the measurement of density of Be ablators by the weigh and volume method. I am counting on the readers to point out any faulty assumptions about the techniques or uncertainties associated with them. Based on the analysis presented below we should expect that 30 {micro}m thick shells will have an uncertainty in the measured density of about 2% of the value, coming more or less equally from the mass and volume measurement. The uncertainty is roughly inversely proportional to the coating thickness, thus a 60 {micro}m walled shell would result in a 1% uncertainty in the density.

  17. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  18. Premature detonation problem. [Artillery shells

    SciTech Connect

    Pimbley, G.H.; Marshall, E.F.

    1980-05-01

    Determining how cavities or voids in the explosive loads of artillery shells cause in-bore premature detonations is important to military authorities. Though answers continue to be elusive, in detailing recent studies of the problem at LASL, some traditional approaches were examined and a new direction of investigation is suggested. The aquarium experiment and the pipe test were devised at LASL to model the events taking place in a base gap, or in an internal cavity, in the load of an accelerating artillery shell. Numerical simulation was used to assess the data from these experiments. Both the experimental and the numerical simulation phases of the project are described. The commonly accepted gas compression, thermal ignition mechanism is not consistent with the results of this study. The dominant mechanism or mechanisms have not been identified.

  19. Shell Models of Superfluid Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacks, Daniel H.; Barenghi, Carlo F.

    2011-12-01

    Superfluid helium consists of two inter-penetrating fluids, a viscous normal fluid and an inviscid superfluid, coupled by a mutual friction. We develop a two-fluid shell model to study superfluid turbulence and investigate the energy spectra and the balance of fluxes between the two fluids in a steady state. At sufficiently low temperatures a 'bottle-neck' develops at high wavenumbers suggesting the need for a further dissipative effect, such as the Kelvin wave cascade.

  20. Atomic inner-shell transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crasemann, B.; Chen, M. H.; Mark, H.

    1984-01-01

    Atomic inner-shell processes have quite different characteristics, in several important aspects, from processes in the optical regime. Energies are large, e.g., the 1s binding energy reaches 100 keV at Z = 87; relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic effects therefore are strong. Radiationless transitions vastly dominate over photon emission in most cases. Isolated inner-shell vacancies have pronounced single-particle character, with correlations generally contributing only approximately 1 eV to the 1s and 2p binding energies; the structure of such systems is thus well tractable by independent-particle self-consistent-field atomic models. For systems containing multiple deep inner-shell vacancies, or for highly stripped ions, the importance of relativistic intermediate coupling and configuration interaction becomes pronounced. Cancellation of the Coulomb interaction can lead to strong manifestations of the Breit interaction in such phenomena as multiplet splitting and hypersatellite X-ray shifts. Unique opportunities arise for the test of theory.

  1. Rigid shells enhance survival of gekkotan eggs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2015-11-01

    The majority of lizards and snakes produce permeable parchment-shelled eggs that require high moisture conditions for successful embryonic development. One clade of gekkotan lizards is an exception; females produce relatively impermeable rigid-shelled eggs that normally incubate successfully under low moisture conditions. I tested the hypothesis that the rigid-shell increases egg survival during incubation, but only under low moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, I incubated rigid-shelled eggs of Chondrodactylus turneri under low and under high moisture conditions. Eggs were incubated with parchment-shelled eggs of Eublepharis macularius to insure that incubation conditions were suitable for parchment-shelled eggs. Chondrodactylus turneri eggs had very high survival (>90%) when they were incubated under low moisture conditions. In contrast, eggs incubated under high moisture conditions had low survival overall, and lower survival than those of the parchment-shelled eggs of E. macularius. Mortality of C. turneri and E. macularius eggs incubated under high moisture conditions was the result of fungal infection, a common source of egg mortality for squamates under laboratory and field conditions. These observations document high survival of rigid-shelled eggs under low moisture conditions because eggs escape from fungal infection. Highly mineralized rigid shells also make egg survival independent of moisture availability and may also provide protection from small invertebrates in nature. Enhanced egg survival could thus compensate for the low reproductive output of gekkotans that produce rigid-shelled eggs.

  2. Shape-tunable core-shell microparticles.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias K; Saenger, Nicolai R; Schuetter, Stefan; Pfleiderer, Patrick; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2014-10-28

    Colloidal polymer particles are an important class of materials finding use in both everyday and basic research applications. Tailoring their composition, shape, and functionality is of key importance. In this article, we describe a new class of shape-tunable core-shell microparticles. They are composed of a cross-linked polystyrene (PS) core and a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell of varying thickness. In the first step, we prepared highly cross-linked PS cores, which are subsequently transferred into a nonpolar dispersant. They serve as the seed dispersion for a nonaqueous dispersion polymerization to generate the PMMA shell. The shape of the particles can subsequently be manipulated. After the shell growth stage, the spherical PS/PMMA core-shell colloids exhibit an uneven and wrinkled surface. An additional tempering procedure allows for smoothing the surface of the core-shell colloids. This results in polymer core-shell particles with a perfectly spherical shape. In addition to this thermal smoothing of the PMMA shell, we generated a selection of shape-anisotropic core-shell particles using a thermomechanical stretching procedure. Because of the unique constitution, we can selectively interrogate molecular vibrations in the PS core or the PMMA shell of the colloids using nonlinear optical microscopy techniques. This is of great interest because no photobleaching occurs, such that the particles can be tracked in real space over long times.

  3. Fabrication de memoire monoelectronique non volatile par une approche de nanogrille flottante

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmain, Marc

    Les transistors monoelectroniques (SET) sont des dispositifs de tailles nanometriques qui permettent la commande d'un electron a la fois et donc, qui consomment peu d'energie. Une des applications complementaires des SET qui attire l'attention est son utilisation dans des circuits de memoire. Une memoire monoelectronique (SEM) non volatile a le potentiel d'operer a des frequences de l'ordre des gigahertz ce qui lui permettrait de remplacer en meme temps les memoires mortes de type FLASH et les memoires vives de type DRAM. Une puce SEM permettrait donc ultimement la reunification des deux grands types de memoire au sein des ordinateurs. Cette these porte sur la fabrication de memoires monoelectroniques non volatiles. Le procede de fabrication propose repose sur le procede nanodamascene developpe par C. Dubuc et al. a 1'Universite de Sherbrooke. L'un des avantages de ce procede est sa compatibilite avec le back-end-of-line (BEOL) des circuits CMOS. Ce procede a le potentiel de fabriquer plusieurs couches de circuits memoirestres denses au-dessus de tranches CMOS. Ce document presente, entre autres, la realisation d'un simulateur de memoires monoelectroniques ainsi que les resultats de simulations de differentes structures. L'optimisation du procede de fabrication de dispositifs monoelectroniques et la realisation de differentes architectures de SEM simples sont traitees. Les optimisations ont ete faites a plusieurs niveaux : l'electrolithographie, la gravure de l'oxyde, le soulevement du titane, la metallisation et la planarisation CMP. La caracterisation electrique a permis d'etudier en profondeur les dispositifs formes de jonction de Ti/TiO2 et elle a demontre que ces materiaux ne sont pas appropries. Par contre, un SET forme de jonction de TiN/Al2O3 a ete fabrique et caracterise avec succes a basse temperature. Cette demonstration demontre le potentiel du procede de fabrication et de la deposition de couche atomique (ALD) pour la fabrication de memoires monoelectroniques. Mots-cles: Transistor monoelectronique (SET), memoire monoelectronique (SEM), jonction tunnel, temps de retention, nanofabrication, electrolithographie, planarisation chimicomecanique.

  4. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelale, F.

    1982-01-01

    A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  5. Thermal stresses in thick laminated composite shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides an analytical formulation to investigate the thermomechanical behavior of thick composite shells subjected to a temperature distribution which varies arbitrarily in the radial direction. For illustrative purposes, shells under uniform temperature change are presented. It is found that thermal twist would occur even for symmetric laminated shells. Under uniform temperature rise, results for off-axis graphite/epoxy shells show that extensional-shear coupling can cause tensile radial stress throughout the shell and tensile hoop stress in the inner region. Laminated graphite/epoxy shells can exhibit negative effective thermal expansion coefficients in the longitudinal and transverse directions. Finally, the stacking sequence has a strong influence on the thermal stress distributions.

  6. Mussel Shell Impaction in the Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunmin; Kim, Hyung Hun; Jang, Gook Hwan; Song, Jun Young

    2013-01-01

    Mussels are commonly used in cooking around the world. The mussel shell breaks more easily than other shells, and the edge of the broken mussel shell is sharp. Impaction can ultimately cause erosion, perforation and fistula. Aside from these complications, the pain can be very intense. Therefore, it is essential to verify and remove the shell as soon as possible. In this report we describe the process of diagnosing and treating mussel shell impaction in the esophagus. Physicians can overlook this unusual foreign body impaction due to lack of experience. When physicians encounter a patient with severe chest pain after a meal with mussels, mussel shell impaction should be considered when diagnosing and treating the patient. PMID:23569440

  7. Flow past a porous approximate spherical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasacharya, D.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the creeping flow of an incompressible viscous liquid past a porous approximate spherical shell is considered. The flow in the free fluid region outside the shell and in the cavity region of the shell is governed by the Navier Stokes equation. The flow within the porous annulus region of the shell is governed by Darcy’s Law. The boundary conditions used at the interface are continuity of the normal velocity, continuity of the pressure and Beavers and Joseph slip condition. An exact solution for the problem is obtained. An expression for the drag on the porous approximate spherical shell is obtained. The drag experienced by the shell is evaluated numerically for several values of the parameters governing the flow.

  8. Shell boosts recovery at Kernridge

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.

    1984-01-01

    Since acquiring the Kernridge property in December 1979, Shell Oil Co. has drilled more than 1,800 wells and steadily increased production from 42,000 to 89,000 b/d of oil. Currently, the Kernridge Production Division of Shell California Production Inc. (SCPI), a newly formed subsidiary of Shell Oil Co., is operator for the property. The property covers approximately 35,000 mostly contiguous net acres, with production concentrated mainly on about 5,500 net acres. SCPI's four major fields in the area are the North and South Belridge, Lost Hills, and Antelope Hills. Most of the production comes from the North and South Belridge fields, which were previously held by the Belridge Oil Co. Productive horizons in the fields are the Tulare, Diatomite, Brown Shale, Antelope Shale, 64 Zone, and Agua sand. The Tulare and Diatomite are the two major reservoirs SCPI is developing. The Tulare, encountered between 400 and 1,300 ft, is made up of fine- to coarse-grained, unconsolidated sands with interbedded shales and silt stones and contains 13 /sup 0/ API oil. Using steam drive as the main recovery method, SCPI estimates an ultimate recovery from the Tulare formation of about 60% of the original 1 billion barrels in place. The Diatomite horizon, found between 800 and 3,500 ft and containing light, 28 /sup 0/ API oil, has high porosity (more than 60%), low permeability (less than 1 md), and natural fractures. Because of the Diatomite's low permeability, fracture stimulation is being used to increase well productivity. SCPI anticipates that approximately 5% of the almost 2 billion barrels of oil originally in place will be recovered by primary production.

  9. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  10. Adaptive finite element strategies for shell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G.; Levit, I.; Stehlin, B.; Hurlbut, B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper extends existing finite element adaptive refinement (AR) techniques to shell structures, which have heretofore been neglected in the AR literature. Specific challenges in applying AR to shell structures include: (1) physical discontinuities (e.g., stiffener intersections); (2) boundary layers; (3) sensitivity to geometric imperfections; (4) the sensitivity of most shell elements to mesh distortion, constraint definition and/or thinness; and (5) intrinsic geometric nonlinearity. All of these challenges but (5) are addressed here.

  11. Characterization of Russian ballistic furnace shells

    SciTech Connect

    Fearon, E

    1999-02-18

    The authors received another batch of polystyrene ballistic furnace shells on December 4, 1998. Assigned the batch number of LSC012, it consisted of three cassettes containing 36 shells in each cassette. A group of 27 of the shells were selected for characterization that ranged in diameter from 1880 to 1780 {micro}m. There were two shells with a diameter above 1900 {micro}m, but they were too fragile and did not survive initial handling. For characterization, they examined the shells through a stereo microscope, measured diameter and sphericity on RACI, and weighed a subset of the 27 shells that did not have large particles or polymer shards adhered to the outside in order to calculate wall thickness. They then selected the cleanest and most spherical shells for Sphere Mapping. This batch of shells has about the same physical appearance as the one they documented August 26, 1998. There were some shells with polymer shards adhered to the outside, a few large vacuoles or large particle embedded in the polymer wall, and some with a scattering of small black particles on the outside. There were no swirls in the shell walls. As mentioned in the previous report, each shell is measured with the RACI system in three orthogonal views. They now have new analysis software on RACI that returns the mode two amplitude of the sphere radius vs. angle of rotation around the edge of the shadowgram of the shell. From this they report the maximum radius out-of-round, the largest of the three different orientations.

  12. Electron Shell as a Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2002-11-01

    Main principles of the resonance effect arising in the electron shells in interaction of the nuclei with electromagnetic radiation are analyzed and presented in the historical aspect. Principles of NEET are considered from a more general position, as compared to how this is usually presented. Characteristic features of NEET and its reverse, TEEN, as internal conversion processes are analyzed, and ways are offered of inducing them by laser radiation. The ambivalent role of the Pauli exclusion principles in NEET and TEEN processes is investigated.

  13. Generic thin-shell gravastars

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt; Garcia, Nadiezhda Montelongo; Lobo, Francisco S.N. E-mail: nmontelongo@fis.cinvestav.mx E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz

    2012-03-01

    We construct generic spherically symmetric thin-shell gravastars by using the cut-and-paste procedure. We take considerable effort to make the analysis as general and unified as practicable; investigating both the internal physics of the transition layer and its interaction with 'external forces' arising due to interactions between the transition layer and the bulk spacetime. Furthermore, we discuss both the dynamic and static situations. In particular, we consider 'bounded excursion' dynamical configurations, and probe the stability of static configurations. For gravastars there is always a particularly compelling configuration in which the surface energy density is zero, while surface tension is nonzero.

  14. Celestial mechanics of planet shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu V.; Vilke, V. G.

    2004-06-01

    The motion of a planet consisting of an external shell (mantle) and a core (rigid body), which are connected by a visco-elastic layer and mutually gravitationally interact with each other and with an external celestial body (considered as a material point), is studied (Barkin, 1999, 2002a,b; Vilke, 2004). Relative motions of the core and mantle are studied on the assumption that the centres of mass of the planet and external body move on unperturbed Keplerian orbits around the general centre of mass of the system. The core and mantle of the planet have axial symmetry and have different principal moments of inertia. The differential action of the external body on the core and mantle cause the periodic relative displacements of their centres of mass and their relative turns. An approximate solution of the problem was obtained on the basis of the linearization, averaging and small-parameter methods. The obtained analytical results are applied to the study of the possible relative displacements of the core and mantle of the Earth under the gravitational action of the Moon. For the suggested two-body Earth model and in the simple case of a circular (model) lunar orbit the new phenomenon of periodic translatory-rotary oscillations of the core with a fortnightly period the mantle was observed. The more remarkable phenomenon is the cyclic rotation with the same period (13.7 days) of the core relative to the mantle with a ‘large’ amplitude of 152 m (at the core surface).The results obtained confirm the general concept described by Barkin (1999, 2002a,b) that induced relative shell oscillations can control and dictate the cyclic and secular processes of energization of the planets and satellites in definite rhythms and on different time scales.The results obtained mean that giant moments and forces produce energy which causes in particular deformations of the viscoelastic layer between planet shells. This process is realized with different intensities on different time

  15. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence & Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    HOHL, T.M.

    2001-09-20

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

  16. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence and Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    KIRCH, N.W.

    2003-09-23

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

  17. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Sequence & Double Shell Tank (DST) Space Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    STRODE, J.N.

    2002-09-23

    This document describes the baseline single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval sequence for the River Protection Project updated for Fiscal Year 2002. The double-shell tank (DST) space evaluation presents projected DST needs for Hanford for additional DSTs.

  18. Radiocarbon Dating: Fictitious Results with Mollusk Shells.

    PubMed

    Keith, M L; Anderson, G M

    1963-08-16

    Evidence is presented to show that modern mollusk shells from rivers can have anomalous radiocarbon ages, owing mainly to incorporation of inactive (carbon-14-deficient) carbon from humus, probably through the food web, as well as by the pathway of carbon dioxide from humus decay. The resultant effect, in addition to the variable contributions of atmospheric carbon dioxide, fermentative carbon dioxide from bottom muds, and, locally, of carbonate carbon from dissolving limestones, makes the initial carbon-14-activity of ancient fresh-water shell indeterminate, but within limits. Consequent errors of shell radiocarbon dates may be as large as several thousand years for river shells.

  19. Shell appraising deepwater discovery off Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, M. ); Lambers, E.J.T.; Steffens, G.S. )

    1993-05-10

    Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd. negotiated a farmout in 1990 from Occidental International Exploration and Production Co. for Block SC-38 in the South China Sea off Palawan, Philippines, following Oxy's discovery of gas in 1989 in a Miocene Nido limestone buildup. Under the terms of the farmout agreement, Shell became operator with a 50% share. Following the disappointing well North Iloc 1, Shell was successful in finding oil and gas in Malampaya 1. Water 700-1,000 m deep, remoteness, and adverse weather conditions have imposed major challenges for offshore operations. The paper describes the tectonic setting; the Nido limestone play; the Malampaya discovery; and Shell's appraisal studies.

  20. Thin-shell instability in collisionless plasma.

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, M E; Ahmed, H; Doria, D; Sarri, G; Walder, R; Folini, D; Bret, A; Ynnerman, A; Borghesi, M

    2015-09-01

    Thin-shell instability is one process which can generate entangled structures in astrophysical plasma on collisional (fluid) scales. It is driven by a spatially varying imbalance between the ram pressure of the inflowing upstream plasma and the downstream's thermal pressure at a nonplanar shock. Here we show by means of a particle-in-cell simulation that an analog process can destabilize a thin shell formed by two interpenetrating, unmagnetized, and collisionless plasma clouds. The amplitude of the shell's spatial modulation grows and saturates after about ten inverse proton plasma frequencies, when the shell consists of connected piecewise linear patches.

  1. Design optimization of a torpedo shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, De-Hai; Song, Bao-Wei; Li, Jia-Wang; Yang, Shi-Xing

    2008-03-01

    An optimized methodology to design a more robust torpedo shell is proposed. The method has taken into account reliability requirements and controllable and uncontrollable factors such as geometry, load, material properties, manufacturing processes, installation, etc. as well as human and environmental factors. The result is a more realistic shell design. Our reliability optimization design model was developed based on sensitivity analysis. Details of the design model are given in this paper. An example of a torpedo shell design based on this model is given and demonstrates that the method produces designs that are more effective and reliable than traditional torpedo shell designs. This method can be used for other torpedo system designs.

  2. Material with core-shell structure

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Claudia; Richard, Monique N.; Dehne, Aaron; Phillips, Jonathan; Stamm, Kimber L.; Fanson, Paul T.

    2011-11-15

    Disclosed is a material having a composite particle, the composite particle including an outer shell and a core. The core is made from a lithium alloying material and the outer shell has an inner volume that is greater in size than the core of the lithium alloying material. In some instances, the outer mean diameter of the outer shell is less than 500 nanometers and the core occupies between 5 and 99% of the inner volume. In addition, the outer shell can have an average wall thickness of less than 100 nanometers.

  3. Fracture Mitigation Strategies in Gastropod Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Christopher; Kisailus, David

    2013-04-01

    For hundreds of millions of years, gastropods have been evolving, modifying their external calcified shells for defense against shell-breaking and drilling predators. They have evolved primarily to use two different aragonitic microstructures: the evolutionary older Nacre (mother of pearl) structure and the more recently developed crossed-lamellar structure. By using both of these structures, gastropods are able to produce shells that are significantly tougher then geologic aragonite. However, the crossed-lamellar structure allows for a wider variety of shell morphologies, ensuring its increasing presence since the Mesozoic Marine Revolution more than 200 million years ago.

  4. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru; Kimura, Kan

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone ( Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone of approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  5. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G.

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  6. Lead behavior in abalone shell

    SciTech Connect

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu; Matsumoto, Akikazu; Kimura, Kan ); Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Maeda, Masaru )

    1994-08-01

    In order to gain information about the behavior of heavy metals in biological assimilation processes in a marine food chain and to investigate the possibility that lead pollution in a marine environment can be estimated by measurement of a small number of key materials from such a food chain, muscle and shell were analyzed from abalone (Haliotis) from a shallow water locality in a Japanese coastal region. Lead concentrations in muscle were about 26 ppb for abalone approximately 3 years old and decreased systematically with increasing age of animals sampled, to about 3.3 ppb for a specimen approximately 8 years old. Lead concentrations in shell material gradually decreased also, from 150 ppb to 82 ppb in the oldest specimen. The decrease of concentration in tissues with increasing age indicates that a mechanism for exclusion of lead during tissue growth becomes more efficient with age. Along the food chain in which abalone is the final stage, lead was enriched at the first stage, from seawater to algae, by a factor of 100. Lead was diminished at all subsequent stages of the chain. Tissue of artificially cultured abalone had four times higher lead values compared to abalone grown in natural conditions, and this appears to reflect the fact that lead concentration was three times higher in seawater in the cultured environment.

  7. Apparatus and methods for installing, removing and adjusting an inner turbine shell section relative to an outer turbine shell section

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen; Waldo, Stuart Forrest; Smith, Robert Leroy; Phelps, Robert Kim

    2001-01-01

    A turbine includes upper and lower inner shell sections mounting the nozzles and shrouds and which inner shell is supported by pins secured to a surrounding outer shell. To disassemble the turbine for access to the inner shell sections and rotor, an alignment fixture is secured to the lower outer shell section and has pins engaging the inner shell section. To disassemble the turbine, the inner shell weight is transferred to the lower outer shell section via the alignment fixture and cradle pins. Roller assemblies are inserted through access openings vacated by support pins to permit rotation of the lower inner shell section out of and into the lower outer shell section during disassembly and assembly. The alignment fixture includes adjusting rods for adjusting the inner shell axially, vertically, laterally and about a lateral axis. A roller over-cage is provided to rotate the inner shell and a dummy shell to facilitate assembly and disassembly in the field.

  8. BV photometry of five shell galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Rampazzo, R.

    2004-06-01

    Current views consider shell structures as bona fide signatures of a recent minor/major merging event though also weak interaction models (WIM) could produce long lasting shells on host galaxies possessing a stellar thick disc. We present a B V band photometric study of a sample of 5 shell galaxies belonging to the Malin & Carter (1983) compilation. The structural properties and colors of the galaxies, as well as the colors of their shells are examined in detail. We did not find signatures of the presence of double nuclei. NGC 7585 is the only E galaxy in the sample and has a moderately boxy structure. The other galaxies have either a discy structure or are mixed E/S0 type galaxies. NGC 474 is a true lenticular. NGC 6776 shows a diffuse asymmetric outer structure and a system of tails of the the same color of the galaxy body; but not clear shells. In general, the color of the shells in our sample is similar or slightly redder than that of the host galaxy, whose color, in turn, is typical of the early-type morphological class. One of the outer shells of NGC 474 is significantly bluer than the body of the galaxy. Since NGC 474 appears to be interacting with NGC 470, the color of this one shell could be explained as result of a recent acquisition of material through tidal interaction. The WIM hypothesis could explain both the red and the blue shells of NGC 474, this latter acquired from the fly-by of the nearby companion NGC 470, but the lack of the constancy of shell surface brightness as a ratio of the underlying galaxy brightness argues against WIM. We speculate about evidence, which also comes from different observations, that suggests a merging/accretion origin of the shells. Based on observations obtained at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, CNRS, Saint Michel l'Observatoire, France and ESO, La Silla, Chile

  9. The ultimate step towards a tailored engineering of core@shell and core@shell@shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Llamosa, D; Ruano, M; Martínez, L; Mayoral, A; Roman, E; García-Hernández, M; Huttel, Y

    2014-11-21

    Complex core@shell and core@shell@shell nanoparticles are systems that combine the functionalities of the inner core and outer shell materials together with new physico-chemical properties originated by their low (nano) dimensionality. Such nanoparticles are of prime importance in the fast growing field of nanotechnology as building blocks for more sophisticated systems and a plethora of applications. Here, it is shown that although conceptually simple a modified gas aggregation approach allows the one-step generation of well-controlled complex nanoparticles. In particular, it is demonstrated that the atoms of the core and the shell of the nanoparticles can be easily inverted, avoiding intrinsic constraints of chemical methods.

  10. Isothermal Circumstellar Dust Shell Model for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, G.; Towers, I. N.; Jovanoski, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a model of radiative transfer in circumstellar dust shells. By assuming that the shell is both isothermal and its thickness is small compared to its radius, the model is simple enough for students to grasp and yet still provides a quantitative description of the relevant physical features. The isothermal model can be used in a…

  11. A Geometric Theory of Nonlinear Morphoelastic Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadik, Souhayl; Angoshtari, Arzhang; Goriely, Alain; Yavari, Arash

    2016-08-01

    Many thin three-dimensional elastic bodies can be reduced to elastic shells: two-dimensional elastic bodies whose reference shape is not necessarily flat. More generally, morphoelastic shells are elastic shells that can remodel and grow in time. These idealized objects are suitable models for many physical, engineering, and biological systems. Here, we formulate a general geometric theory of nonlinear morphoelastic shells that describes both the evolution of the body shape, viewed as an orientable surface, as well as its intrinsic material properties such as its reference curvatures. In this geometric theory, bulk growth is modeled using an evolving referential configuration for the shell, the so-called material manifold. Geometric quantities attached to the surface, such as the first and second fundamental forms, are obtained from the metric of the three-dimensional body and its evolution. The governing dynamical equations for the body are obtained from variational consideration by assuming that both fundamental forms on the material manifold are dynamical variables in a Lagrangian field theory. In the case where growth can be modeled by a Rayleigh potential, we also obtain the governing equations for growth in the form of kinetic equations coupling the evolution of the first and the second fundamental forms with the state of stress of the shell. We apply these ideas to obtain stress-free growth fields of a planar sheet, the time evolution of a morphoelastic circular cylindrical shell subject to time-dependent internal pressure, and the residual stress of a morphoelastic planar circular shell.

  12. An egg shell-like retroperitoneal pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Lun; Li, Hong-Liang; Chen, Hai-Weng; Gan, Wei-Ming

    2011-09-01

    Retroperitoneal pseudocysts are rare entities. Egg shell-like calcified retroperitoneal pseudocyst is rarer. We report a 75-year-old woman with an egg shell-like calcified retroperitoneal pseudocyst. Subsequently, the calcified pseudocyst was dissected and excised completely through laparoscopy via a retroperitoneal approach.

  13. A Well-Defined Bipolar Outflow Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Patel, Nimesh

    1992-12-01

    A well-defined "eggplant-shaped" thin shell is revealed in the Mon R2 central core region by CO and (13) CO J=1-0 maps obtained with QUARRY. This thin shell outlines the extended blue lobe of the massive bipolar outflow. The projected length and width of the shell are about 5.7 pc and 2.5 pc respectively, and the averaged projected thickness of the shell is ~ 0.3 pc. The shape of this shell can be satisfactorily accounted for quantitatively in terms of limb-brightening within the framework of the Shu et al shell model with radially directed wind, although the model seems to be oversimplified with respect to the complexity that our data reveal. The outflow shell's symmetry axis is estimated to be inclined by ~ 70(deg) with respect to the line of sight. We suggest that the coincident blue- and red-shifted emission and the bending of the red-shifted lobe are the result of the red-shifted shell being compressed, rather than having a second bipolar outflow aligned roughly perpendicular to the axis of the first bipolar outflow.

  14. The wavefunction of a gravitating shell

    SciTech Connect

    Dokuchaev, V. I. Chernov, S. V.

    2010-10-15

    We have calculated a discrete spectrum and found an exact analytical solution in the form of Meixner polynomials for the wavefunction of a thin gravitating shell in the Reissner-Nordstroem geometry. We show that there is no extreme state in the quantum spectrum of the gravitating shell, as in the case of an extreme black hole.

  15. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  16. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair.

  17. Ecology and shell chemistry of Loxoconcha matagordensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Kamiya, T.; Dwyer, G.S.; Belkin, H.; Vann, C.D.; Schwede, S.; Wagner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of the seasonal ecology and shell chemistry of the ostracode Loxoconcha matagordensis and related species of Loxoconcha from regions off eastern North America reveal that shell size and trace elemental (Mg/Ca ratio) composition are useful in paleothermometry using fossil populations. Seasonal sampling of populations from Chesapeake Bay, augmented by samples from Florida Bay, indicate that shell size is inversely proportional to water temperature and that Mg/Ca ratios are positively correlated with the water temperature in which the adult carapace was secreted. Microprobe analyses of sectioned valves reveal intra-shell variability in Mg/Ca ratios but this does not strongly influence the utility of whole shell Mg/Ca analyses for paleoclimate application.

  18. The Vega particulate shell - Comets or asteroids?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) science team has discovered a shell of particulate material around the star Vega. At the mean distance and temperature of the shell, the expected condensation products from a protostellar nebula would be dominated by frozen volatiles, in particular water ice. It is not possible to discriminate between dirty ice and silicate materials in the Vega shell on the basis of the IRAS data. The Vega shell is probably a ring of cometary bodies with an estimated minimum mass of 15 earth masses, analogous to one that has been hypothesized for the solar system. A possible hot inner shell around Vega may be an asteroid-like belt of material a few astronomical units from the star.

  19. Variability in shell models of GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, M.C.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1997-09-01

    Many cosmological models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) assume that a single relativistic shell carries kinetic energy away from the source and later converts it into gamma rays, perhaps by interactions with the interstellar medium or by internal shocks within the shell. Although such models are able to reproduce general trends in GRB time histories, it is difficult to reproduce the high degree of variability often seen in GRBs. The authors investigate methods of achieving this variability using a simplified external shock model. Since the model emphasizes geometric and statistical considerations, rather than the detailed physics of the shell, it is applicable to any theory that relies on relativistic shells. They find that the variability in GRBs gives strong clues to the efficiency with which the shell converts its kinetic energy into gamma rays.

  20. Semiclassical shell structure in rotating Fermi systems

    SciTech Connect

    Magner, A. G.; Sitdikov, A. S.; Khamzin, A. A.; Bartel, J.

    2010-06-15

    The collective moment of inertia is derived analytically within the cranking model for any rotational frequency of the harmonic-oscillator potential well and at a finite temperature. Semiclassical shell-structure components of the collective moment of inertia are obtained for any potential by using the periodic-orbit theory. We found semiclassically their relation to the free-energy shell corrections through the shell-structure components of the rigid-body moment of inertia of the statistically equilibrium rotation in terms of short periodic orbits. The shell effects in the moment of inertia exponentially disappear with increasing temperature. For the case of the harmonic-oscillator potential, one observes a perfect agreement of the semiclassical and quantum shell-structure components of the free energy and the moment of inertia for several critical bifurcation deformations and several temperatures.

  1. Engineered Magnetic Core-Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Alavi Nikje, Mir Mohammad; Vakili, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, engineered magnetic core-shell structures are playing an important role in the wide range of various applications. These magnetic core-shell structures have attracted considerable attention because of their unique properties and various applications. Also, the synthesis of engineered magnetic core-shell structures has attracted practical interest because of potential applications in areas such as ferrofluids, medical imaging, drug targeting and delivery, cancer therapy, separations, and catalysis. So far a large number of engineered magnetic core-shell structures have been successfully synthesized. This review article focuses on the recent progress in synthesis and characterization of engineered magnetic core-shell structures. Also, this review gives a brief description of the various application of these structures. It is hoped that this review will play some small part in helping future developments in important field. PMID:26377655

  2. The protein shells of bacterial microcompartment organelles

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Todd O.; Thompson, Michael C.; Bobik, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Details are emerging on the structure and function of a remarkable class of capsid-like protein assemblies that serve as simple metabolic organelles in many bacteria. These bacterial microcompartments consist of a few thousand shell proteins, which encapsulate two or more sequentially acting enzymes in order to enhance or sequester certain metabolic pathways, particularly those involving toxic or volatile intermediates. Genomic data indicate that bacterial microcompartment shell proteins are present in a wide range of bacterial species, where they encapsulate varied reactions. Crystal structures of numerous shell proteins from distinct types of microcompartments have provided keys for understanding how the shells are assembled and how they conduct molecular transport into and out of microcompartments. The structural data emphasize a high level of mechanistic sophistication in the protein shell, and point the way for further studies on this fascinating but poorly appreciated class of subcellular structures. PMID:21315581

  3. Thermal equilibrium in Europa's ice shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Models of tidal-convective equilibrium for Europa's ice shell are computed using a laboratory-derived composite flow law for ice. Volume diffusion creep is found to dominate the flow law at equilibrium, and thus the thickness of the shell is strongly dependent on the poorly known grain size of the ice. This grain size is, however, constrained to be less than a few millimeters if equilibrium is achieved at the current eccentricity. Europa's ice shell cannot be thinner than about 16 km in equilibrium at present, since tidal dissipation cannot generate enough heat in such a thin shell to balance the heat transport. No conductive equilibria are found; this is likely due to the fact that most of a conductive shell must be cold if temperature gradients are to be large enough to carry the heat. A minimum eccentricity of about 0.0025 (about 1/4 the present value) below which there are no equilibria is also found.

  4. The vega particulate shell: comets or asteroids?

    PubMed

    Weissman, P R

    1984-06-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) science team has discovered a shell of particulate material around the star Vega. At the mean distance and temperature of the shell, the expected condensation products from a protostellar nebula would be dominated by frozen volatiles, in particular water ice. It is not possible to discriminate between dirty ice and silicate materials in the Vega shell on the basis of the IRAS data. The Vega shell is probably a ring of cometary bodies with an estimated minimum mass of 15 earth masses, analogous to one that has been hypothesized for the solar system. A possible hot inner shell around Vega may be an asteroid-like belt of material a few astronomical units from the star. PMID:17731997

  5. Electroformation of uranium hemispherical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, S.L.; Redey, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Vissers, D.R.

    1989-11-01

    This effort was directed at developing an electrochemical process for forming uniform and dendrite-free deposits of uranium from molten salts. This process is to be used for the electroformation of free-standing hemispherical shells of uranium for nuclear applications. Electrodeposition of uranium onto a substrate was accomplished with a fused chloride mixture containing 42 wt% UCl{sub 3} and a fused chloride-fluoride mixture containing 4 wt % UF{sub 4}. Under pulsed potential control at 504{degree}C, the chloride-fluoride mixture yielded the widest range of plating conditions for which dendrites could be avoided. Bipolar current pulse plating with both electrolytes gave good results, and successful application of this technique to a large tubular cathode has been demonstrated. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Shell middle distillate hydrogenation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lucien, J.P.; Berg, J.P. van den; Hooijdonk, H.M.J.H. van; Thielemans, G.L.B.; Germaine, G.; Gjers, M.

    1994-12-31

    The strive towards cleaner environment has lead to low sulfur specifications for middle distillate fuels. In addition compositional specifications are presently debated. Thus, to meet future emissions standards regarding, specifically, particulates emissions, the motor industry calls for improved automotive gasoil quality. Although automotive gasoil quality affects emissions from diesel engines it is considered less influential than engine design and maintenance. Sulfur, density and cetane number are the fuel properties having the greatest influence on diesel engine emissions although also aromatics and endpoint specifications have been defined in environmentally adopted government initiatives. This paper reviews the options which are available to tackle these new requirements. The high severity single stage concept (using conventional mixed sulfides catalysts) will be discussed in its potential to meet more severe product requirements as well as in terms of its limitations, especially at the point of aromatics saturation and cetaine upgrading. Furthermore, it is shown that the option of severe hydrotreating followed by hydrogenation with conventional noble metal catalysts is preferred if deep aromatics saturation is aimed at. However, this conventional two stage concept has limitations with respect to heaviness and sulfur and nitrogen content of feedstocks. The new Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation (SMDH) technology, applying a (semi) two stage approach based on the Shell developed hydrogenation catalyst is presented. The SMDH process will be discussed in its potential to break the limitations of the conventional options. The new catalyst is crucial in this process and allows a highly integrated mode of operation. A number of applications of this novel process will be discussed.

  7. Multi-element spherical shell generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A nozzle assembly in a multi-element spherical shell generation system includes first and second side-by-side spaced apart nozzles and a web portion extending between and connecting the nozzles. The first nozzle has an inner orifice adapted to discharge a first filler material and an outer annular orifice separated from and defined in concentric relation about the inner orifice and adapted to discharge a first shell material. The second nozzle has an inner orifice adapted to discharge a second filler material and an outer annular orifice separated from and defined in concentric relation about the inner orifice and adapted to discharge a second shell material. A multi-element spherical shell can be formed through employment of the nozzle assembly by merger with one another after discharge from the outer orifices of the nozzles of a pair of adjacent annular streams of liquid or molten shell wall material of different compositions and encapsulation by the mixed shell wall materials of a common encapsulated core fluids also simultaneously discharged by the inner orifices nozzles. On the other hand, the pair of encapsulating streams of shell wall material can be of the same materials which merge together and encapsulate core fluids of different compositions which will merge together after discharge from the nozzles.

  8. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10 percent at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  9. Photon upconversion in core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xian; Peng, Denfeng; Ju, Qiang; Wang, Feng

    2015-03-21

    Photon upconversion generally results from a series of successive electronic transitions within complex energy levels of lanthanide ions that are embedded in the lattice of a crystalline solid. In conventional lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles, the dopant ions homogeneously distributed in the host lattice are readily accessible to surface quenchers and lose their excitation energy, giving rise to weak and susceptible emissions. Therefore, present studies on upconversion are mainly focused on core-shell nanoparticles comprising spatially confined dopant ions. By doping upconverting lanthanide ions in the interior of a core-shell nanoparticle, the upconversion emission can be substantially enhanced, and the optical integrity of the nanoparticles can be largely preserved. Optically active shells are also frequently employed to impart multiple functionalities to upconversion nanoparticles. Intriguingly, the core-shell design introduces the possibility of constructing novel upconversion nanoparticles by exploiting the energy exchange interactions across the core-shell interface. In this tutorial review, we highlight recent advances in the development of upconversion core-shell nanoparticles, with particular emphasis on the emerging strategies for regulating the interplay of dopant interactions through core-shell nanostructural engineering that leads to unprecedented upconversion properties. The improved control over photon energy conversion will open up new opportunities for biological and energy applications. PMID:25058157

  10. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of intraply hybrid composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right next to the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  11. Large ultrathin shelled drops produced via non-confined microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Ankur S; Josephides, Dimitris N; Sajjadi, Shahriar

    2015-02-01

    We present a facile approach for producing large and monodisperse core-shell drops with ultrathin shells using a single-step process. A biphasic compound jet is introduced into a quiescent third (outer) phase that ruptures to form core-shell drops. Ultrathin shelled drops could only be produced within a certain range of surfactant concentrations and flow rates, highlighting the effect of interfacial tension in engulfing the core in a thin shell. An increase in surfactant concentrations initially resulted in drops with thinner shells. However, the drops with thinnest shells were obtained at an optimum surfactant concentration, and a further increase in the surfactant concentrations increased the shell thickness. Highly monodisperse (coefficient of variation smaller than 3 %) core-shell drops with diameter of ∼200 μm-2 mm with shell thickness as small as ∼2 μm were produced. The resulting drops were stable enough to undergo polymerisation and produce ultrathin shelled capsules.

  12. Synthesis of stiffened shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Computer programs for the synthesis of shells of various configurations were developed. The conditions considered are: (1) uniform shells (mainly cones) using a membrane buckling analysis, (2) completely uniform shells (cones, spheres, toroidal segments) using linear bending prebuckling analysis, and (3) revision of second design process to reduce the number of design variables to about 30 by considering piecewise uniform designs. A perturbation formula was derived and this allows exact derivatives of the general buckling load to be computed with little additional computer time.

  13. Laminated anisotropic reinforced plastic plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korolev, V. I.

    1981-01-01

    Basic technical theories and engineering calculation equations for anisotropic plates and shells made of rigid reinforced plastics, mainly laminated fiberglass, are presented and discussed. Solutions are given for many problems of design of structural plates and shells, including curved sections and tanks, as well as two chapters on selection of the optimum materials, are given. Accounting for interlayer shearing and transverse separation, which are new engineering properties, are discussed. Application of the results obtained to thin three ply plates and shells wth a light elastic filler is presented and discussed.

  14. Magnetic-Plasmonic Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Carly S.; Hofmann, Cristina; Ali, Tamer A.; Kelly, Anna T.; Morosan, Emilia; Nordlander, Peter; Whitmire, Kenton H.; Halas, Naomi J.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles composed of magnetic cores with continuous Au shell layers simultaneously possess both magnetic and plasmonic properties. Faceted and tetracubic nanocrystals consisting of wüstite with magnetite-rich corners and edges retain magnetic properties when coated with an Au shell layer, with the composite nanostructures showing ferrimagnetic behavior. The plasmonic properties are profoundly influenced by the high dielectric constant of the mixed-iron-oxide nanocrystalline core. A comprehensive theoretical analysis that examines the geometric plasmon tunability over a range of core permittivities enables us to identify the dielectric properties of the mixed-oxide magnetic core directly from the plasmonic behavior of the core-shell nanoparticle. PMID:19441794

  15. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Rubín de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters.

  16. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-07-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits.

  17. Shell states of neutron-rich matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Shen, G.

    2008-07-01

    The equation of state (EOS) for nuclear and neutron rich matter is investigated in a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. New shell states are found that minimize the free energy per baryon, calculated in a spherical Wigner-Seitz (WS) approximation, over a significant range of baryon densities. These shell states, that have both inside and outside surfaces, minimize the Coulomb energy of large proton number configurations at the expense of a larger surface energy. This is related to a possible depression in the central density of super heavy nuclei. As the baryon density increases, we find the system changes from normal nuclei, to shell states, and then to uniform matter.

  18. Shell states of neutron-rich matter

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C. J.; Shen, G.

    2008-07-15

    The equation of state (EOS) for nuclear and neutron rich matter is investigated in a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. New shell states are found that minimize the free energy per baryon, calculated in a spherical Wigner-Seitz (WS) approximation, over a significant range of baryon densities. These shell states, that have both inside and outside surfaces, minimize the Coulomb energy of large proton number configurations at the expense of a larger surface energy. This is related to a possible depression in the central density of super heavy nuclei. As the baryon density increases, we find the system changes from normal nuclei, to shell states, and then to uniform matter.

  19. Effective Interactions from No Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dikmen, E.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Barrett, B. R.; Navratil, P.; Vary, J. P.

    2008-11-11

    We construct the many-body effective Hamiltonian for pf-shell by carrying out 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}. NCSM calculations at the 2-body cluster level. We demonstrate how the effective Hamiltonian derived from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials for the 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} NCSM space should be modified to properly account for the many-body correlations produced by truncating to the major pf-shell. We obtain two-body effective interactions for the pf-shell by using direct projection and use them to reproduce the results of large scale NCSM for other light Ca isotopes.

  20. THE PYTHON SHELL FOR THE ORBIT CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Gorlov, Timofey V; Holmes, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    A development of a Python driver shell for the ORBIT simulation code is presented. The original ORBIT code uses the SuperCode shell to organize accelerator-related simulations. It is outdated, unsupported, and it is an obstacle to future code development. The necessity and consequences of replacing the old shell language are discussed. A set of core modules and extensions that are currently in PyORBIT are presented. They include particle containers, parsers for MAD and SAD lattice files, a Python wrapper for MPI libraries, space charge calculators, TEAPOT trackers, and a laser stripping extension module.

  1. Thermoluminescence analysis of irradiated oyster shells.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E; Marcazzó, J; Della Monaca, S; Boniglia, C; Gargiulo, R; Bortolin, E

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis performed on the oyster shells powder. TL response of (60)Co gamma-rays irradiated samples were studied in the range from 80 Gy to 8 kGy doses. TL signal of irradiated shell powder was higher as compared to the unirradiated control samples, which allowed to identify the irradiated oysters. Results show that the oyster shells have good TL properties and can be useful for the identification of irradiated seafood as well as for the evaluation of the treatment dose.

  2. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Shell

    1999-04-20

    SUNS (Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Shell) is a 32-bit application that runs under Windows 95/98 and Windows NT. It is designed to aid in statistical analyses for a broad range of applications. The class of problems for which SUNS is suitable is generally defined by two requirements: 1. A computer code is developed or acquired that models some processes for which input is uncertain and the user is interested in statistical analysis of the outputmore » of that code. 2. The statistical analysis of interest can be accomplished using the Monte Carlo analysis. The implementation then requires that the user identify which input to the process model is to be manipulated for statistical analysis. With this information, the changes required to loosely couple SUNS with the process model can be completed. SUNS is then used to generate the required statistical sample and the user-supplied process model analyses the sample. The SUNS post processor displays statistical results from any existing file that contains sampled input and output values.« less

  3. Membrane Shell Reflector Segment Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    The mesh reflector is the only type of large, in-space deployable antenna that has successfully flown in space. However, state-of-the-art large deployable mesh antenna systems are RF-frequency-limited by both global shape accuracy and local surface quality. The limitations of mesh reflectors stem from two factors. First, at higher frequencies, the porosity and surface roughness of the mesh results in loss and scattering of the signal. Second, the mesh material does not have any bending stiffness and thus cannot be formed into true parabolic (or other desired) shapes. To advance the deployable reflector technology at high RF frequencies from the current state-of-the-art, significant improvements need to be made in three major aspects: a high-stability and highprecision deployable truss; a continuously curved RF reflecting surface (the function of the surface as well as its first derivative are both continuous); and the RF reflecting surface should be made of a continuous material. To meet these three requirements, the Membrane Shell Reflector Segment (MSRS) antenna was developed.

  4. Acetabular shell deformation as a function of shell stiffness and bone strength.

    PubMed

    Dold, Philipp; Pandorf, Thomas; Flohr, Markus; Preuss, Roman; Bone, Martin C; Joyce, Tom J; Holland, James; Deehan, David

    2016-04-01

    Press-fit acetabular shells used for hip replacement rely upon an interference fit with the bone to provide initial stability. This process may result in deformation of the shell. This study aimed to model shell deformation as a process of shell stiffness and bone strength. A cohort of 32 shells with two different wall thicknesses (3 and 4 mm) and 10 different shell sizes (44- to 62-mm outer diameter) were implanted into eight cadavers. Shell deformation was then measured in the cadavers using a previously validated ATOS Triple Scan III optical system. The shell-bone interface was then considered as a spring system according to Hooke's law and from this the force exerted on the shell by the bone was calculated using a combined stiffness consisting of the measured shell stiffness and a calculated bone stiffness. The median radial stiffness for the 3-mm wall thickness was 4192 N/mm (range, 2920-6257 N/mm), while for the 4-mm wall thickness the median was 9633 N/mm (range, 6875-14,341 N/mm). The median deformation was 48 µm (range, 3-187 µm), while the median force was 256 N (range, 26-916 N). No statistically significant correlation was found between shell stiffness and deformation. Deformation was also found to be not fully symmetric (centres 180° apart), with a median angle discrepancy of 11.5° between the two maximum positive points of deformation. Further work is still required to understand how the bone influences acetabular shell deformation.

  5. Shell-Model Calculations of f p-shell Nuclei with Realistic NN Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, C.; Xu, F. R.

    2010-05-12

    Shell model calculations have been carried out to study the structure and decay properties of nuclei in the f p shell. The shell-model effective Hamiltonian is constructed from the high-precision CD-Bonn NN potential using the folded-diagram renormalization method without any empirical modification. The Hamiltonian gives a reasonable description of spectroscopic properties in nuclei around the N = Z line.

  6. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  7. On the Calculation of Shallow Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambartsumyan, S. A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper considers a sufficiently thin shallow shell of nonzero Gaussian curvature. It also presents a system of symmetrically constructed differential equations, constructed by the mixed method through the stress function and the displpacement function.

  8. A new view of nuclear shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, Rituparna

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear shell structure that has served as a fundamental framework for understanding the arrangement of nucleons exhibits dramatic changes as the neutron to proton ratio in nuclei increases. This paper describes how reaction spectroscopy of the neutron- and proton-rich nuclei has brought about a new revolution towards a more global view of nuclear shells. The relationship between changes in shell structure and the discovery of exotic forms of nuclei such as nuclear halo and skin is discussed. It is shown that the well-known shell gaps (magic numbers) N = 8 and 20 disappear. The discovery of a new magic number at N = 16 at the limit of nuclear binding is discussed.

  9. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  10. Shell nuclear explosions in degenerate dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, O. A.; Tutukov, A. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    1989-08-01

    Numerical gas dynamics simulations are used to study shell nuclear explosions of degenerate carbon-oxygen dwarfs with masses of 1.17, 1.36, and 1.42 solar masses. It is assumed that the calorific capacity of the burning shell matter is between 5 X 10 to the 17th and 5 X 10 to the 18th erg/g. It is shown that, at a low calorific capacity, a remnant may form if the mass of the shell is less than 90 percent of the mass of the degenerate dwarf. In the case of high calorific capacity, a remnant may form only if the mass of the shell is less than half of the dwarf's mass.

  11. Design of efficient stiffened shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumder, D. K.; Thornton, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    A method to produce efficient piecewise uniform stiffened shells of revolution is presented. The approach uses a first order differential equation formulation for the shell prebuckling and buckling analyses and the necessary conditions for an optimum design are derived by a variational approach. A variety of local yielding and buckling constraints and the general buckling constraint are included in the design process. The local constraints are treated by means of an interior penalty function and the general buckling load is treated by means of an exterior penalty function. This allows the general buckling constraint to be included in the design process only when it is violated. The self-adjoint nature of the prebuckling and buckling formulations is used to reduce the computational effort. Results for four conical shells and one spherical shell are given.

  12. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... and stored and transported under refrigeration and ambient temperature of no greater than 45 °F. USDA also ... transported under refrigeration at an ambient (surrounding) air temperature not to exceed 45 °F; All packed shell ...

  13. Theory of conformational transitions of viral shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, Thomas; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2007-12-01

    We propose a continuum theory for the conformational transitions of viral shells. Conformational transitions of viral shells, as encountered during viral maturation, are associated with a soft mode instability of the capsid proteins [F. Tama and C. L. Brooks, J. Mol. Biol. 345(2), 299 (2005)]. The continuum theory presented here is an adaptation of the Ginzburg-Landau theory of soft-mode structural phase transitions of solids to viral shells. The theory predicts that the conformational transitions are characterized by a pronounced softening of the shell elasticity in the critical region. We demonstrate that the thermodynamics of the conformational transition can be probed quantitatively by a micromechanical atomic force microscope study. The external force can drive a capsid into a state of phase coexistence characterized by a highly nonlinear force deformation curve.

  14. Damping control of 'smart' piezoelectric shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, H. S.

    Advanced 'smart' structures with self-sensation and control capabilities have attracted much attention in recent years. 'Smart' piezoelectric structures (conventional structures integrated with piezoelectric sensor and actuator elements) possessing self-monitoring and adaptive static and/or dynamic characteristics are very promising in many applications. This paper presents a study on 'smart' piezoelectric shell structures. A generic piezoelastic vibration theory for a thin piezoelectric shell continuum made of a hexagonal piezoelectric material is first derived. Piezoelastic system equation and electrostatic charge equation are formulated using Hamilton's principle and Kirchhoff-Love thin shell assumptions. Dynamic adaptivity, damping control, of a simply supported cylindrical shell structure is demonstrated in a case study. It shows that the system damping increases with the increase of feedback voltage for odd modes. The control scheme is ineffective for all even modes because of the symmetrical boundary conditions.

  15. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is shell Rent? 102... GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.120 What is shell Rent? Shell Rent is that portion of GSA Rent charged for the building envelope and land. (See § 102-85.35 for the definition of building shell.)...

  16. Silica shell/gold core nanoparticles: correlating shell thickness with the plasmonic red shift upon aggregation.

    PubMed

    Vanderkooy, Alan; Chen, Yang; Gonzaga, Ferdinand; Brook, Michael A

    2011-10-01

    Differences in the wavelengths of the surface plasmon band of gold nanoparticles (AuNP)--before and after particle aggregation--are widely used in bioanalytical assays. However, the gold surfaces in such bioassays can suffer from exchange and desorption of noncovalently bound ligands and from nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. Silica shells on the surfaces of the gold can extend the available surface chemistries for bioconjugation and potentially avoid these issues. Therefore, silica was grown on gold surfaces using either hydrolysis/condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate 1 under basic conditions or diglyceroxysilane 2 at neutral pH. The former precursor permitted slow, controlled growth of shells from about 1.7 to 4.3 nm thickness. By contrast, 3-4 nm thick silica shells formed within an hour using diglyceroxysilane; thinner or thicker shells were not readily available. Within the range of shell thicknesses synthesized, the presence of a silica shell on the gold nanoparticle did not significantly affect the absorbance maximum (~5 nm) of unaggregated particles. However, the change in absorbance wavelength upon aggregation of the particles was highly dependent on the thickness of the shell. With silica shells coating the AuNP, there was a significant decrease in the absorbance maximum of the aggregated particles, from ~578 to ~536 nm, as the shell thicknesses increased from ~1.7 to ~4.3 nm, because of increased distance between adjacent gold cores. These studies provide guidance for the development of colorimetric assays using silica-coated AuNP.

  17. Experimental study of upper sd shell nuclei and evolution of sd-fp shell gap

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, M. Saha

    2012-06-27

    The intruder orbitals from the fp shell play important role in the structure of nuclei around the line of stability in the upper sd shell. Experimentally we have studied {sup 35}Cl, {sup 30}P, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 37}Ar and {sup 34}Cl in this mass region using the INGA setup. Large basis cross-shell shell model calculations have indicated the need for change of the sd-fp energy gap for reliable reproduction of negative parity and high spin positive parity states. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. Theoretical interpretation of these states has been discussed.

  18. Shell-model study for neutron-rich sd-shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Kazunari; Sun Yang; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Munetake

    2011-01-15

    The microscopic structure of neutron-rich sd-shell nuclei is investigated by using the spherical-shell model in the sd-pf valence space with the extended pairing plus quadrupole-quadrupole forces accompanied by the monopole interaction (EPQQM). The calculation reproduces systematically the known energy levels for even-even and odd-mass nuclei including the recent data for {sup 43}S, {sup 46}S, and {sup 47}Ar. In particular, the erosion of the N=28 shell closure in {sup 42}Si can be explained. Our EPQQM results are compared with other shell-model calculations with the SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions.

  19. Structural durability of stiffened composite shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Rivers, James M.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    The durability of a stiffened composite cylindrical shell panel is investigated under several loading conditions. An integrated computer code is utilized for the simulation of load induced structural degradation. Damage initiation, growth, and accumulation up to the stage of propagation to fracture are included in the computational simulation. Results indicate significant differences in the degradation paths for different loading cases. The effects of combined loading on structural durability and ultimate structural strength of a stiffened shell are assessed.

  20. Double shell tank waste analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mulkey, C.H.; Jones, J.M.

    1994-12-15

    Waste analysis plan for the double shell tanks. SD-WM-EV-053 is Superseding SD-WM-EV-057.This document provides the plan for obtaining information needed for the safe waste handling and storage of waste in the Double Shell Tank Systems. In Particular it addresses analysis necessary to manage waste according to Washington Administrative Code 173-303 and Title 40, parts 264 and 265 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

  1. Kramers' Restricted Closed Shell CCSD Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, Lucas; Dyall, Kenneth G.; Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A Kramers' restricted version of the closed shell coupled cluster singles doubles theory is presented. The theory may be used in conjunction with 2 or 4-component relativistic reference wavefunctions. The intrinsic treatment of the spin-orbit coupling doubles the number of independent quantities (amplitudes and integrals) relative to a spin-independent formalism. The number of operations required to evaluate the equations is four times larger than in the optimal spin-independent closed shell formalism.

  2. Trapping of intense light in hollow shell

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Shixia; Yu, Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Weng, Suming; Wang, Jingwei; Xu, Han; Zhuo, Hongbin; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-09-15

    A small hollow shell for trapping laser light is proposed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation shows that under appropriate laser and plasma conditions a part of the radiation fields of an intense short laser pulse can enter the cavity of a small shell through an over-critical density plasma in an adjacent guide channel and become trapped. The trapped light evolves into a circulating radial wave pattern until its energy is dissipated.

  3. The Strength of Shell and Tubular Spar Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, H

    1940-01-01

    The report is a survey of the strength problems arising on shell and tubular spar wings. The treatment of the shell wing strength is primarily confined to those questions which concern the shell wing only; those pertaining to both shell wing and shell body together have already been treated in TM 838. The discussion of stress condition and compressive strength of shell wings and tubular spar wings is prefaced by several considerations concerning the spar and shell design of metal wings from the point of view of strength.

  4. New developments of the nuclear shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, Alfredo

    2002-04-01

    More than fifty years ago, the independent particle model of the nucleus was proposed by M. Goeppert-Mayer and H. Jensen. The label "shell model" has since changed meaning and nowadays it applies mainly to the description of the nucleus that results of the mixing of many Slater determinants by an effective "in medium" interaction, usually limited to one and two-body terms. The advent of efficient new algorithms to solve the secular problem, together with the increase in speed and storage capacity of modern computers, has brought into the reach of large scale shell model calculations entire regions of nuclei and of nuclear phenomena traditionally considered to be out of the shell model realm. This enormous extension of its field of practical applications has occurred simultaneously with a regain of experimental interest in the nuclear spectroscopy, in particular in very neutron rich and N=Z nuclei. The shell model work in large model spaces demands a very complete understanding of the effective nuclear interaction, a basic goal of the nuclear theory. Besides, the huge increase of dimensionality that occurs when many valence orbits and valence particles are involved, is a formidable challenge for both the direct diagonalization shell model codes and for the many different approximations, based most often in physically guided truncations of the full shell model basis. In this talk I aim to transmit the effervescence of the field by highlighting the most important recent advances and applications.

  5. Experiments on shells under base excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicano, Francesco; Barbieri, Marco; Zippo, Antonio; Strozzi, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present paper is a deep experimental investigation of the nonlinear dynamics of circular cylindrical shells. The specific problem regards the response of circular cylindrical shells subjected to base excitation. The shells are mounted on a shaking table that furnishes a vertical vibration parallel to the cylinder axis; a heavy rigid disk is mounted on the top of the shells. The base vibration induces a rigid body motion, which mainly causes huge inertia forces exerted by the top disk to the shell. In-plane stresses due to the aforementioned inertias give rise to impressively large vibration on the shell. An extremely violent dynamic phenomenon suddenly appears as the excitation frequency varies up and down close to the linear resonant frequency of the first axisymmetric mode. The dynamics are deeply investigated by varying excitation level and frequency. Moreover, in order to generalise the investigation, two different geometries are analysed. The paper furnishes a complete dynamic scenario by means of: (i) amplitude frequency diagrams, (ii) bifurcation diagrams, (iii) time histories and spectra, (iv) phase portraits and Poincaré maps. It is to be stressed that all the results presented here are experimental.

  6. Batdorf parameter for the spherical shells tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kazuhei; Nagahama, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    The buckling phenomena of the subducting lithosphere due to the sphericity of the earth has been studied as spherical shell tectonics which happen the megaquake along the boundary of subducting lithosphere. The earthquake scale is decided by slab length or arc length. However, a relationship between slab length and the normalized hydrostatic pressure along the bottom circumferential edge of a hemispherical shell has not been clear yet. So, by using the data set of the geometrical parameters for subducting lithosphere andBuckingham's Pi-theorem, we found out a new linear relationship between Batdorf parameter Z = L2(l - v2)0.5/(Rh) for the measurement of the slab length L and the normalized hydrostatic pressure along the bottom circumferential edge of a hemispherical shell Q = qRL2/(π2D), where D = Eh3/[12(1 - v2)] with E = modulus of elasticity of lithosphere, R is Earth radius, q is the hydrostatic pressure along the bottom circumferential edge of a hemispherical shell, and h is the thickness of subducting lithosphere. In the engineering sciences, a similar relationship between Batdorf parameter for the panel length and normalized hydrostatic pressure was proposed for the buckling of partially liquid-filled circular cylindrical shells under hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, by previous researches, the slab length is approximately proportional to the arc length or the lithosphere thickness related to lithosphere age. Therefore, the Batdorf parameter for subducting lithosphere is an important parameter for the spherical shells tectonics.

  7. Distributed neural signals on parabolic cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. D.; Li, H.; Tzou, H. S.

    2013-06-01

    Parabolic cylindrical shells are commonly used as key components in communication antennas, space telescopes, solar collectors, etc. This study focuses on distributed modal neural sensing signals on a flexible simply-supported parabolic cylindrical shell panel. The parabolic cylindrical shell is fully laminated with a piezoelectric layer on its outer surface and the piezoelectric layer is segmented into infinitesimal elements (neurons) to investigate the microscopic distributed neural sensing signals. Since the dominant vibration component of the shell is usually the transverse oscillation, a new transverse mode shape function is defined. Two shell cases, i.e., the ratio of the meridian height to the half span distance of a parabola at 1:4 (shallow) and 1:1 (deep), are studied to reveal the curvature effect to the neural sensing signals. Studies suggest that the membrane signal component dominates for lower natural modes and the bending signal component dominates for higher natural modes. The meridional membrane and bending signal components are mostly concentrated on the high-curvature areas, while the longitudinal bending component is mostly concentrated on the relatively flat areas. The concentration behavior becomes more prominent as the parabolic cylindrical shell deepens, primarily resulting from the enhanced membrane effect due to the increased curvature.

  8. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shell-height standard. 648.50 Section 648... Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.50 Shell-height standard. (a) Minimum shell height. The minimum shell height for in-shell scallops that may be landed, or possessed at or after landing, is 3.5 inches (8.9...

  9. Nanorod and nanoparticle shells in concentration gradient core-shell lithium oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-June; Myung, Seung-Taek; Noh, Hyung-Joo; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2014-12-01

    The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core-shell (CGCS) particles with different shell morphologies were evaluated and compared. We modified the shell morphology from nanoparticles to nanorods, because nanorods can result in a reduced surface area of the shell such that the outer shell would have less contact with the corrosive electrolyte, resulting in improved electrochemical properties. Electron microscopy studies coupled with electron probe X-ray micro-analysis revealed the presence of a concentration gradient shell consisting of nanoparticles and nanorods before and after thermal lithiation at high temperature. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data and the chemical analysis results showed no variations of the lattice parameters and chemical compositions of both produced CGCS particles except for the degree of cation mixing (or exchange) in Li and transition metal layers. As anticipated, the dense nanorods present in the shell gave rise to a high tap density (2.5 g cm(-3) ) with a reduced pore volume and surface area. Intimate contact among the nanorods is likely to improve the resulting electric conductivity. As a result, the CGCS Li[Ni0.60 Co0.15 Mn0.25 ]O2 with the nanorod shell retained approximately 85.5% of its initial capacity over 150 cycles in the range of 2.7-4.5 V at 60 °C. The charged electrode consisting of Li0.16 [Ni0.60 Co0.15 Mn0.25 ]O2 CGCS particles with the nanorod shell also displayed a main exothermic reaction at 279.4 °C releasing 751.7 J g(-1) of heat. Due to the presence of the nanorod shell in the CGCS particles, the electrochemical and thermal properties are substantially superior to those of the CGCS particles with the nanoparticle shell.

  10. Nanorod and nanoparticle shells in concentration gradient core-shell lithium oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-June; Myung, Seung-Taek; Noh, Hyung-Joo; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2014-12-01

    The structure, electrochemistry, and thermal stability of concentration gradient core-shell (CGCS) particles with different shell morphologies were evaluated and compared. We modified the shell morphology from nanoparticles to nanorods, because nanorods can result in a reduced surface area of the shell such that the outer shell would have less contact with the corrosive electrolyte, resulting in improved electrochemical properties. Electron microscopy studies coupled with electron probe X-ray micro-analysis revealed the presence of a concentration gradient shell consisting of nanoparticles and nanorods before and after thermal lithiation at high temperature. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data and the chemical analysis results showed no variations of the lattice parameters and chemical compositions of both produced CGCS particles except for the degree of cation mixing (or exchange) in Li and transition metal layers. As anticipated, the dense nanorods present in the shell gave rise to a high tap density (2.5 g cm(-3) ) with a reduced pore volume and surface area. Intimate contact among the nanorods is likely to improve the resulting electric conductivity. As a result, the CGCS Li[Ni0.60 Co0.15 Mn0.25 ]O2 with the nanorod shell retained approximately 85.5% of its initial capacity over 150 cycles in the range of 2.7-4.5 V at 60 °C. The charged electrode consisting of Li0.16 [Ni0.60 Co0.15 Mn0.25 ]O2 CGCS particles with the nanorod shell also displayed a main exothermic reaction at 279.4 °C releasing 751.7 J g(-1) of heat. Due to the presence of the nanorod shell in the CGCS particles, the electrochemical and thermal properties are substantially superior to those of the CGCS particles with the nanoparticle shell. PMID:25044175

  11. Sound Transmission through Two Concentric Cylindrical Sandwich Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Silcox, Richard J.; Robinson, Jay H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of sound transmission through a system of two infinite concentric cylindrical sandwich shells. The shells are surrounded by external and internal fluid media and there is fluid (air) in the annular space between them. An oblique plane sound wave is incident upon the surface of the outer shell. A uniform flow is moving with a constant velocity in the external fluid medium. Classical thin shell theory is applied to the inner shell and first-order shear deformation theory is applied to the outer shell. A closed form for transmission loss is derived based on modal analysis. Investigations have been made for the impedance of both shells and the transmission loss through the shells from the exterior into the interior. Results are compared for double sandwich shells and single sandwich shells. This study shows that: (1) the impedance of the inner shell is much smaller than that of the outer shell so that the transmission loss is almost the same in both the annular space and the interior cavity of the shells; (2) the two concentric sandwich shells can produce an appreciable increase of transmission loss over single sandwich shells especially in the high frequency range; and (3) design guidelines may be derived with respect to the noise reduction requirement and the pressure in the annular space at a mid-frequency range.

  12. Cluster aspects of p-shell and sd-shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kanada-En'yo, Y.; Kobayashi, F.; Suhara, T.; Kimura, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2011-05-06

    We report some topics on cluster structures studied by using a theoretical method of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics(AMD). Cluster features of p-shell and sd-shell nuclei are discussed. In particular, three alpha cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 12}C and {sup 14}C are focused. Dineutron correlations in neutron-rich nuclei are also discussed.

  13. Supercooling Self-Assembly of Magnetic Shelled Core/Shell Supraparticles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaotong; Yan, Bingyun; Wu, Fengluan; Zhang, Jinlong; Qu, Shuxin; Zhou, Shaobing; Weng, Jie

    2016-09-14

    Molecular self-assembly has emerged as a powerful technique for controlling the structure and properties of core/shell structured supraparticles. However, drug-loading capacities and therapeutic effects of self-assembled magnetic core/shell nanocarriers with magnetic nanoparticles in the core are limited by the intervention of the outer organic or inorganic shell, the aggregation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, the narrowed inner cavity, etc. Here, we present a self-assembly approach based on rebalancing hydrogen bonds between components under a supercooling process to form a new core/shell nanoscale supraparticle with magnetic nanoparticles as the shell and a polysaccharide as a core. Compared with conventional iron oxide nanoparticles, this magnetic shelled core/shell nanoparticle possesses an optimized inner cavity and a loss-free outer magnetic property. Furthermore, we find that the drug-loaded magnetic shelled nanocarriers showed interesting in vitro release behaviors at different pH conditions, including "swelling-broken", "dissociating-broken", and "bursting-broken" modes. Our experiments demonstrate the novel design of the multifunctional hybrid nanostructure and provide a considerable potential for the biomedical applications.

  14. Shell thickness determination of polymer-shelled microbubbles using transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Härmark, Johan; Hebert, Hans; Koeck, Philip J B

    2016-06-01

    Intravenously injected microbubbles (MBs) can be utilized as ultrasound contrast agent (CA) resulting in enhanced image quality. A novel CA, consisting of air filled MBs stabilized with a shell of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been developed. These spherical MBs have been decorated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in order to serve as both ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) CA. In this study, a mathematical model was introduced that determined the shell thickness of two types of SPIONs decorated MBs (Type A and Type B). The shell thickness of MBs is important to determine, as it affects the acoustical properties. In order to investigate the shell thickness, thin sections of plastic embedded MBs were prepared and imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, the sections were cut at random distances from the MB center, which affected the observed shell thickness. Hence, the model determined the average shell thickness of the MBs from corrected mean values of the outer and inner radii observed in the TEM sections. The model was validated using simulated slices of MBs with known shell thickness and radius. The average shell thickness of Type A and Type B MBs were 651nm and 637nm, respectively.

  15. Modeling shell formation in core-shell nanocrystals in reverse micelle systems.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Diwakar; Mehra, Anurag

    2006-11-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the formation of the shell in core-shell nanocrystals are ion-displacement and heterogeneous nucleation. In the ion-displacement mechanism, the shell is formed by the displacement reaction at the surface of the core nanoparticle whereas in heterogeneous nucleation the core particle induces the nucleation (or direct deposition) of shell material on its surface. The formation of core-shell nanocrystals via the post-core route has been examined in the current investigation. A purely probabilistic Monte Carlo scheme for the formation of the shell has been developed to predict the experimental results of Hota et al. (Hota, G.; Jain, S.; Khilar, K. C. Colloids Surf., A 2004, 232, 119) for the precipitation of Ag2S-coated CdS (Ag2S@CdS) nanoparticles. The simulation procedure involves two stages. In the first stage, shell formation takes place as a result of the consumption of supersaturation, ion displacement, and reaction between Ag+ and excess sulfide ions. The growth in the second stage is driven by the coagulation of nanoparticles. The results indicate that the fraction of shell deposited by the ion-displacement mechanism increases with increasing ion ratio and decreases with increasing water-to-surfactant molar ratio.

  16. Comparative study of the shell development of hard- and soft-shelled turtles

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Mari; Ueno, Shintaro; Kamezaki, Naoki; Sato, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    The turtle shell provides a fascinating model for the investigation of the evolutionary modifications of developmental mechanisms. Different conclusions have been put forth for its development, and it is suggested that one of the causes of the disagreement could be the differences in the species of the turtles used – the differences between hard-shelled turtles and soft-shelled turtles. To elucidate the cause of the difference, we compared the turtle shell development in the two groups of turtle. In the dorsal shell development, these two turtle groups shared the gene expression profile that is required for formation, and shared similar spatial organization of the anatomical elements during development. Thus, both turtles formed the dorsal shell through a folding of the lateral body wall, and the Wnt signaling pathway appears to have been involved in the development. The ventral portion of the shell, on the other hand, contains massive dermal bones. Although expression of HNK-1 epitope has suggested that the trunk neural crest contributed to the dermal bones in the hard-shelled turtles, it was not expressed in the initial anlage of the skeletons in either of the types of turtle. Hence, no evidence was found that would support a neural crest origin. PMID:24754673

  17. Comparative study of the shell development of hard- and soft-shelled turtles.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Mari; Ueno, Shintaro; Kamezaki, Naoki; Sato, Noboru

    2014-07-01

    The turtle shell provides a fascinating model for the investigation of the evolutionary modifications of developmental mechanisms. Different conclusions have been put forth for its development, and it is suggested that one of the causes of the disagreement could be the differences in the species of the turtles used - the differences between hard-shelled turtles and soft-shelled turtles. To elucidate the cause of the difference, we compared the turtle shell development in the two groups of turtle. In the dorsal shell development, these two turtle groups shared the gene expression profile that is required for formation, and shared similar spatial organization of the anatomical elements during development. Thus, both turtles formed the dorsal shell through a folding of the lateral body wall, and the Wnt signaling pathway appears to have been involved in the development. The ventral portion of the shell, on the other hand, contains massive dermal bones. Although expression of HNK-1 epitope has suggested that the trunk neural crest contributed to the dermal bones in the hard-shelled turtles, it was not expressed in the initial anlage of the skeletons in either of the types of turtle. Hence, no evidence was found that would support a neural crest origin.

  18. Simplified dispersion curves for circular cylindrical shells using shallow shell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Sonti, Venkata R.

    2009-04-01

    An alternative derivation of the dispersion relation for the transverse vibration of a circular cylindrical shell is presented. The use of the shallow shell theory model leads to a simpler derivation of the same result. Further, the applicability of the dispersion relation is extended to the axisymmetric mode and the high frequency beam mode.

  19. Shell-in-Shell TiO2 hollow microspheres and optimized application in light-trapping perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongxia; Ruan, Peng; Bao, Zhongqiu; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Xingfu

    2015-02-01

    The shell-in-shell structured TiO2 hollow microspheres with enhanced light scattering ability were synthesized via a facile one step hydrothermal process. The diameter of the microsphere is about 1.5 μm, the core of the unique shell-in-shell structure is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles with a diameter of about 15 nm, while the shell is constructed with ∼50 nm TiO2 nanocubes. The hollow space between the outer shell and the inner shell is about 230 nm. The formation mechanism of the unique shell-in-shell structure is interpreted. The design and the optimized application of shell-in-shell structured TiO2 hollow microspheres in the light-trapping perovskite solar cells are also investigated. Owing to the light scattering properties of the shell-in-shell structure of the hollow microsphere, the optimized photoelectrode exhibits an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.29% using perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 as the sensitizer. The shell-in-shell hollow TiO2 microsphere shows a 21.2% increase in conversion efficiency when compared with P25 nanoparticels photoanode. The conversion efficiency enhancement is mainly attributed to the increase of short-current density induced by the light scattering effect.

  20. Size-selective yolk-shell nanoreactors with nanometer-thin porous polymer shells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ying; Shmakov, Sergey N; Register, Paul; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2015-09-01

    Yolk-shell nanoreactors with metal nanoparticle core and ultrathin porous polymer shells are effective catalysts for heterogeneous reactions. Polymer shells provide size-selectivity and improved reusability of catalyst. Nanocapsules with single-nanometer porous shells are prepared by vesicle-templated directed assembly. Metal nanoparticles are formed either by selective initiation in pre-fabricated nanocapsules or simultaneously with the creation of a crosslinked polymer shell. In this study, we investigated the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde catalyzed by gold nanoparticles and hydrogenation of cyclohexene catalyzed by platinum nanoparticles. Comparison of newly created nanoreactors with commercially available nanoparticles revealed superior reusability and size selectivity in nanoreactors while showing no negative effect on reaction kinetics.

  1. Lithography-free shell-substrate isolation for core-shell GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Haggren, Tuomas; Perros, Alexander Pyymaki; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Dhaka, Veer; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri

    2016-07-01

    A facile and scalable lithography-free technique(5) for the rapid construction of GaAs core-shell nanowires incorporating shell isolation from the substrate is reported. The process is based on interrupting NW growth and applying a thin spin-on-glass (SOG) layer to the base of the NWs and resuming core-shell NW growth. NW growth occurred in an atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with gold nanoparticles used as catalysts for the vapour-liquid-solid growth. It is shown that NW axial core growth and radial shell growth can be resumed after interruption and even exposure to air. The SOG residues and native oxide layer that forms on the NW surface are shown to prevent or perturb resumption of epitaxial NW growth if not removed. Both HF etching and in situ annealing of the air-exposed NWs in the MOVPE were shown to remove the SOG residues and native oxide layer. While both procedures are shown capable of removing the native oxide and enabling resumption of epitaxial NW growth, in situ annealing produced the best results and allowed construction of pristine core-shell NWs. No growth occurred on SOG and it was observed that axial NW growth was more rapid when a SOG layer covered the substrate. The fabricated p-core/n-shell NWs exhibited diode behaviour upon electrical testing. The isolation of the NW shells from the substrate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The crystal quality of the regrown core-shell NWs was verified with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The reported technique potentially provides a pathway using MOVPE for scalable and high-throughput production of shell-substrate isolated core-shell NWs on an industrial scale.

  2. Lithography-free shell-substrate isolation for core-shell GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Tuomas; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Dhaka, Veer; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri

    2016-07-01

    A facile and scalable lithography-free technique5 for the rapid construction of GaAs core-shell nanowires incorporating shell isolation from the substrate is reported. The process is based on interrupting NW growth and applying a thin spin-on-glass (SOG) layer to the base of the NWs and resuming core-shell NW growth. NW growth occurred in an atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with gold nanoparticles used as catalysts for the vapour-liquid-solid growth. It is shown that NW axial core growth and radial shell growth can be resumed after interruption and even exposure to air. The SOG residues and native oxide layer that forms on the NW surface are shown to prevent or perturb resumption of epitaxial NW growth if not removed. Both HF etching and in situ annealing of the air-exposed NWs in the MOVPE were shown to remove the SOG residues and native oxide layer. While both procedures are shown capable of removing the native oxide and enabling resumption of epitaxial NW growth, in situ annealing produced the best results and allowed construction of pristine core-shell NWs. No growth occurred on SOG and it was observed that axial NW growth was more rapid when a SOG layer covered the substrate. The fabricated p-core/n-shell NWs exhibited diode behaviour upon electrical testing. The isolation of the NW shells from the substrate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The crystal quality of the regrown core-shell NWs was verified with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The reported technique potentially provides a pathway using MOVPE for scalable and high-throughput production of shell-substrate isolated core-shell NWs on an industrial scale.

  3. Lithography-free shell-substrate isolation for core-shell GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Haggren, Tuomas; Perros, Alexander Pyymaki; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Dhaka, Veer; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri

    2016-07-01

    A facile and scalable lithography-free technique(5) for the rapid construction of GaAs core-shell nanowires incorporating shell isolation from the substrate is reported. The process is based on interrupting NW growth and applying a thin spin-on-glass (SOG) layer to the base of the NWs and resuming core-shell NW growth. NW growth occurred in an atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with gold nanoparticles used as catalysts for the vapour-liquid-solid growth. It is shown that NW axial core growth and radial shell growth can be resumed after interruption and even exposure to air. The SOG residues and native oxide layer that forms on the NW surface are shown to prevent or perturb resumption of epitaxial NW growth if not removed. Both HF etching and in situ annealing of the air-exposed NWs in the MOVPE were shown to remove the SOG residues and native oxide layer. While both procedures are shown capable of removing the native oxide and enabling resumption of epitaxial NW growth, in situ annealing produced the best results and allowed construction of pristine core-shell NWs. No growth occurred on SOG and it was observed that axial NW growth was more rapid when a SOG layer covered the substrate. The fabricated p-core/n-shell NWs exhibited diode behaviour upon electrical testing. The isolation of the NW shells from the substrate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The crystal quality of the regrown core-shell NWs was verified with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The reported technique potentially provides a pathway using MOVPE for scalable and high-throughput production of shell-substrate isolated core-shell NWs on an industrial scale. PMID:27242347

  4. Lithography-free shell-substrate isolation for core–shell GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Tuomas; Pyymaki Perros, Alexander; Jiang, Hua; Huhtio, Teppo; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Dhaka, Veer; Kauppinen, Esko; Lipsanen, Harri

    2016-07-01

    A facile and scalable lithography-free technique5 for the rapid construction of GaAs core–shell nanowires incorporating shell isolation from the substrate is reported. The process is based on interrupting NW growth and applying a thin spin-on-glass (SOG) layer to the base of the NWs and resuming core–shell NW growth. NW growth occurred in an atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system with gold nanoparticles used as catalysts for the vapour‑liquid‑solid growth. It is shown that NW axial core growth and radial shell growth can be resumed after interruption and even exposure to air. The SOG residues and native oxide layer that forms on the NW surface are shown to prevent or perturb resumption of epitaxial NW growth if not removed. Both HF etching and in situ annealing of the air-exposed NWs in the MOVPE were shown to remove the SOG residues and native oxide layer. While both procedures are shown capable of removing the native oxide and enabling resumption of epitaxial NW growth, in situ annealing produced the best results and allowed construction of pristine core–shell NWs. No growth occurred on SOG and it was observed that axial NW growth was more rapid when a SOG layer covered the substrate. The fabricated p-core/n-shell NWs exhibited diode behaviour upon electrical testing. The isolation of the NW shells from the substrate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and electrical measurements. The crystal quality of the regrown core–shell NWs was verified with a high resolution transmission electron microscope. The reported technique potentially provides a pathway using MOVPE for scalable and high-throughput production of shell-substrate isolated core–shell NWs on an industrial scale.

  5. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  6. Hollow Pollen Shells to Enhance Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Diego-Taboada, Alberto; Beckett, Stephen T.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Mackenzie, Grahame

    2014-01-01

    Pollen grain and spore shells are natural microcapsules designed to protect the genetic material of the plant from external damage. The shell is made up of two layers, the inner layer (intine), made largely of cellulose, and the outer layer (exine), composed mainly of sporopollenin. The relative proportion of each varies according to the plant species. The structure of sporopollenin has not been fully characterised but different studies suggest the presence of conjugated phenols, which provide antioxidant properties to the microcapsule and UV (ultraviolet) protection to the material inside it. These microcapsule shells have many advantageous properties, such as homogeneity in size, resilience to both alkalis and acids, and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 250 °C. These hollow microcapsules have the ability to encapsulate and release actives in a controlled manner. Their mucoadhesion to intestinal tissues may contribute to the extended contact of the sporopollenin with the intestinal mucosa leading to an increased efficiency of delivery of nutraceuticals and drugs. The hollow microcapsules can be filled with a solution of the active or active in a liquid form by simply mixing both together, and in some cases operating a vacuum. The active payload can be released in the human body depending on pressure on the microcapsule, solubility and/or pH factors. Active release can be controlled by adding a coating on the shell, or co-encapsulation with the active inside the shell. PMID:24638098

  7. Folding of non-Euclidean curved shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, Nakul; Evans, Arthur; Innes-Gold, Sarah; Marin, Luis; Cohen, Itai; Santangelo, Christian; Hayward, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Origami-based folding of 2D sheets has been of recent interest for a variety of applications ranging from deployable structures to self-folding robots. Though folding of planar sheets follows well-established principles, folding of curved shells involves an added level of complexity due to the inherent influence of curvature on mechanics. In this study, we use principles from differential geometry and thin shell mechanics to establish fundamental rules that govern folding of prototypical creased shells. In particular, we show how the normal curvature of a crease line controls whether the deformation is smooth or discontinuous, and investigate the influence of shell thickness and boundary conditions. We show that snap-folding of shells provides a route to rapid actuation on time-scales dictated by the speed of sound. The simple geometric design principles developed can be applied at any length-scale, offering potential for bio-inspired soft actuators for tunable optics, microfluidics, and robotics. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation through EFRI ODISSEI-1240441 with additional support to S.I.-G. through the UMass MRSEC DMR-0820506 REU program.

  8. Removable inner turbine shell with bucket tip clearance control

    DOEpatents

    Sexton, Brendan F.; Knuijt, Hans M.; Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Myers, Albert; Coneybeer, Kyle E.; Johnson, David Martin; Kellock, Iain R.

    2000-01-01

    A turbine includes a plurality of inner shell sections mounting first and second stage nozzle and shroud portions. The inner shell sections are pinned to an outer containment shell formed of sections to preclude circumferential movement of the inner shell relative to the outer shell and enable thermal expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. Positive bucket tip clearance control is afforded by passing a thermal medium about the inner shell in heat transfer relation with the shrouds about the first and second stage bucket tips, the thermal medium being provided from a source of heating/cooling fluid independent of the turbine. Access is provided to the rotor and turbine buckets by removing the outer and inner shell sections.

  9. Structural Assessment of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stanford, Bret K.; Hrinda, Glenn A.; Wang, Zhuosong; Martin, Robert a.; Kim, H. Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The structural performance of two advanced composite tow-steered shells, manufactured using a fiber placement system, is assessed using both experimental and analytical methods. The fiber orientation angles vary continuously around the shell circumference from 10 degrees on the shell crown and keel, to 45 degrees on the shell sides. The two shells differ in that one shell has the full 24-tow course applied during each pass of the fiber placement system, while the second shell uses the fiber placement system s tow drop/add capability to achieve a more uniform shell wall thickness. The shells are tested in axial compression, and estimates of their prebuckling axial stiffnesses and bifurcation buckling loads are predicted using linear finite element analyses. These preliminary predictions compare well with the test results, with an average agreement of approximately 10 percent.

  10. Do freshwater mussel shells record road-salt pollution?

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Dane D.; Gillikin, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Road-salt pollution in streams in the Northeastern United States has become a major concern, but historical data are scarce. Freshwater bivalve shells have the ability to record past environmental information, and may act as archives of road-salt pollution. We sampled Elliptio complanata shells from four streams, as well as specimens collected in 1877. Average [Na/Ca]shell was highest in modern shells from the stream with the highest sodium concentrations, and low in shells collected from this same stream in 1877 as well as in the shells from other streams, suggesting that [Na/Ca]shell serves as a proxy for road-salt pollution. We expected higher [Na/Ca]shell in winter and spring. However, high-resolution [Na/Ca]shell analyses along the growth axis of one shell did not reveal any clear subannual patterns, which could be the result of shell growth cessation in winter and/or during periods of high stream sodium concentrations. Therefore, bulk [Na/Ca]shell analysis from multiple shells can be used as a proxy of large changes in stream sodium concentrations, but high-resolution variations in stream sodium concentrations do not seem to be recorded in the shells. PMID:25418687

  11. Nova shell observation of V2275 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esenoglu, Hasan H.; Balman, Solen; Saygac, A. Talat

    2016-07-01

    We present a recent search for nova shell of V2275 Cyg after its eruption of 9 years, using narrow bands of H-alpha, OIII and H-alpha-continuum images taken with RTT150 telescope at TUG. They were taken in November 2nd, 2010 with exposures of 600sec. There is uncertain in the literature whether the nova shell is visible in H-alpha. In this work the nova disappears on frame of OIII (wavelengt of 500.7nm with band width of 5nm) when it is faint apparent on the frames of both H-alpha and H-alpha continuum. We will calculate a new angular diameter of the nova shell by using the nebular expantion method if the data allow to measure seeing values of the nova and neighbor stars.

  12. Shell nebulae around luminous evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1989-01-01

    Shell nebulae around luminous Population I Wolf-Rayet, Of, and P-Cygni stars are astrophysically interesting since they are indicators of pre-supernova mass loss and how such massive stars prepare their surrounding interstellar medium prior to explosion. Some twenty-odd such nebulae are known, for which detailed study of their morphological and spectroscopic characteristics have only begun in this decade. In this paper, some of these characteristics are reviewed in general, and new observations are reported. Emphasis has been placed on several 'prototype 'objects (NGC 7635, NGC 2359, NGC 6888, and the Eta Carinae condensations) to illustrate the varied massive-star mass-loss, the physics of their winds and shell ejecta, and related nucleosynthesis effects in the compositions of the winds and shells.

  13. Shape-changing shell-like structures.

    PubMed

    Pagitz, M; Bold, J

    2013-03-01

    Plants such as Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) can change the shape of their shell-like leaves by actively altering the cell pressures. These leaves are hydraulic actuators that do not require any complex controls and that possess an energy efficiency that is unmatched by natural or artificial muscles (Huber et al 1997 Proc. R. Soc. A 453 2185-205). We extend our previous work (Pagitz et al 2012 Bioinspir. Biomim. 7 016007) on pressure-actuated cellular structures by introducing a concept for shape-changing shell-like structures that can significantly alter their Gaussian curvature. The potential of this concept is demonstrated by a hemispherical shell that can reversibly change the sign of its Gaussian curvature. Furthermore, it is shown that a snap-through behaviour, similar to the one known from Dionaea muscipula, can be achieved by lowering the pressure in a single layer of cells.

  14. Brachiopod punctae: a complexity in shell biomineralisation.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huerta, A; Cusack, M; McDonald, S; Marone, F; Stampanoni, M; MacKay, S

    2009-07-01

    Perforations ("punctae") are one of the most characteristic morphological shell features in calcite brachiopods. The significance of punctae is that they represent discontinuities in shell biomineralisation and thus add a level of complexity that must be accounted for in any model of brachiopod shell formation. A significant hindrance to understanding punctae growth and formation is the absence of sufficient information on volume, size and density. Here, we use synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) to obtain three-dimensional information about punctae of five species of calcite brachiopods. X-ray tomography shows that punctae morphology is species-specific and reveals previously unknown levels of complexity for each species. This information is combined with previous data on morphology to discuss the function and growth of punctae. Overall the present study demonstrates the need to increase our understanding of discontinuities and the role of cell biology in the context of biomineralisation.

  15. Locally adaptive method to define coordination shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higham, Jonathan; Henchman, Richard H.

    2016-08-01

    An algorithm is presented to define a particle's coordination shell for any collection of particles. It requires only the particles' positions and no pre-existing knowledge or parameters beyond those already in the force field. A particle's shell is taken to be all particles that are not blocked by any other particle and not further away than a blocked particle. Because blocking is based on two distances and an angle for triplets of particles, it is called the relative angular distance (RAD) algorithm. RAD is applied to Lennard-Jones particles in molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline, liquid, and gaseous phases at various temperatures and densities. RAD coordination shells agree well with those from a cut-off in the radial distribution function for the crystals and liquids and are slightly higher for the gas.

  16. Locally adaptive method to define coordination shell.

    PubMed

    Higham, Jonathan; Henchman, Richard H

    2016-08-28

    An algorithm is presented to define a particle's coordination shell for any collection of particles. It requires only the particles' positions and no pre-existing knowledge or parameters beyond those already in the force field. A particle's shell is taken to be all particles that are not blocked by any other particle and not further away than a blocked particle. Because blocking is based on two distances and an angle for triplets of particles, it is called the relative angular distance (RAD) algorithm. RAD is applied to Lennard-Jones particles in molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline, liquid, and gaseous phases at various temperatures and densities. RAD coordination shells agree well with those from a cut-off in the radial distribution function for the crystals and liquids and are slightly higher for the gas. PMID:27586905

  17. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  18. FInal Report - Investment Casting Shell Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Von Richards

    2003-12-01

    This project made a significant contribution to the understanding of the investment casting shell cracking problem. The effects of wax properties on the occurrence of shell cracking were demonstrated and can be measured. The properties measured include coefficient of thermal expansion, heating rate and crystallinity of the structure. The important features of production molds and materials properties have been indicated by case study analysis and fractography of low strength test bars. It was found that stress risers in shell cavity design were important and that typical critical flaws were either oversize particles or large pores just behind the prime coat. It was also found that the true effect of fugitive polymer fibers was not permeability increase, but rather a toughening mechanism due to crack deflection.

  19. Shells on nanowires detected by analytical TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jürgen; Gemming, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Nanostructures in the form of nanowires or filled nanotubes and nanoparticles covered by shells are of great interest in materials science. They allow the creation of new materials with tailored new properties. For the characterisation of these structures and their shells by means of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), especially by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), the accurate analysis of linescan intensity profiles is necessary. A mathematical model is described, which is suitable for this analysis. It considers the finite electron beam size, the beam convergence, and the beam broadening within the specimen. It is shown that the beam size influences the measured result of core radius and shell thickness. On the other hand, the influence of the beam broadening within the specimen is negligible. At EELS, the specimen thickness must be smaller than the mean free path for inelastic scattering. Otherwise, artifacts of the signal profile of a nanowire can pretend a nanotube.

  20. The microindentation behavior of several mollusk shells

    SciTech Connect

    Laraia, V.J.; Heuer, A.H. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship between structure and mechanical behavior is reported for mollusk shells employing foliated, nacreous, and crossed-lamellar structures by microindentation in the Knoop and Vickers geometries. Indentation damage zones develop crack systems that reflect the micro-architecture. For the crosed-lamellar structure, the system of cracks about the indentation normally developed in a brittle material is suppressed. Previous reports that shells are harder than the corresponding minerals, calcite and aragonite, are confirmed, but it is found that this effect can be strongly dependent on orientation. This anomalous hardness is not an artifact of the indentation test technique, since scratch tests confirm the relative hardness of shell over the mineral. It is suggested that microstructural organization is of central importance in producing this hardness, as opposed to intrinsic properties of the mineral or matrix phases. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Stresses in rotating composite cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, James T.-S.; Lin, Chien-Chang

    Stresses in composite cylindrical shells rotating with a constant speed about their longitudinal axis are analyzed. Each ply or ply group is treated as a separate thin layer of homogeneous and orthotropic material under the interfacial stresses as surface loading. There is no limitation on the total thickness of the shell. The circumferential stress, motivated by the conventional thin shell theory, is assumed to vary linearly through the thickness of the layer. The radial stress is determined in terms of the circumferential stress through the equilibrium condition, and an average compatibility condition through the thickness of the thin layer is used. Numerical results using the present analysis show nearly perfect agreement with the exact solution for homogeneous and isotropic cylinders. Some results for cylinders having orthotropic layers are presented for illustrative purposes.

  2. COMPLETE SURFACE MAPPING OF ICF SHELLS

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHENS,R.B; OLSON,D; HUANG,H; GIBSON,J.B

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 Inertial confinement fusion shells have previously been evaluated on the basis of microscopic examination for local defects and limited surface profiling to represent their average fluctuation power. Since defects are local, and don't always have visible edges, this approach both misses some important fluctuations and doesn't properly represent the spatially dependent surface fluctuation power. they have taken the first step toward correcting this problem by demonstrating the capability to completely map the surface of a NIF shell with the resolution to account for all modes. This allows complete accounting of all the surface fluctuations. In the future this capability could be used for valuable shells to generate a complete r({theta},{psi}) surface map for accurate 3-D modeling of a shot.

  3. Complete Surface Mapping of ICF Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.B.; Olson, D.; Huang, H.; Gibson, J.B.

    2004-03-15

    Inertial confinement fusion shells have previously been evaluated on the basis of microscopic examination for local defects and limited surface profiling to represent their average fluctuation power. Since defects are local, and don't always have visible edges, this approach both misses some important fluctuations and doesn't properly represent the spatially dependent surface fluctuation power. We have taken the first step toward correcting this problem by demonstrating the capability to completely map the surface of a NIF shell with the resolution to account for all modes. This allows complete accounting of all the surface fluctuations. In the future this capability could be used for valuable shells to generate a complete r({theta}, {phi}) surface map for accurate 3-D modeling of a shot.

  4. Spectrophotometry of the shell around AG Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, P. Mila; Dufour, Reginald J.

    1990-01-01

    Spatially-resolved long-slit spectrophotometry are presented for two regions of the shell nebula around the P-Cygni variable star AG Carinae. The spectra cover the 3700-6800 A wavelength range. Emission-line diagnostics are used to derive extinction, electron temperatures, and densities for various positions in the nebula. The chemical abundances and ionization structure are calculated and compared with other types of planetary nebulae and shells around other luminous stars. It is found that the N/O and N/S ratios of Ag Car are high compared to solar neighborhood ISM values. The O/H depletion found for the AG Car shell approaches that found in the condensations of the Eta Car system.

  5. Modeling of microencapsulated polymer shell solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, T.; Cheung, L.; Nelson, D.; Soane, D.; Wilemski, G.; Cook, R.

    1995-03-08

    A finite element transport model has been developed and implemented to complement experimental efforts to improve the quality of ICF target shells produced via controlled-mass microencapsulation. The model provides an efficient means to explore the effect of processing variables on the dynamics of shell dimensions, concentricity, and phase behavior. Comparisons with experiments showed that the model successfully predicts the evolution of wall thinning and core/wall density differences. The model was used to efficiently explore and identify initial wall compositions and processing temperatures which resulted in concentricity improvements from 65 to 99%. The evolution of trace amounts of water entering into the shell wall was also tracked in the simulations. Comparisons with phase envelope estimations from modified UNIFAP calculations suggest that the water content trajectory approaches the two-phase region where vacuole formation via microphase separation may occur.

  6. Spline Approximation of Thin Shell Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delRosario, R. C. H.; Smith, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A spline-based method for approximating thin shell dynamics is presented here. While the method is developed in the context of the Donnell-Mushtari thin shell equations, it can be easily extended to the Byrne-Flugge-Lur'ye equations or other models for shells of revolution as warranted by applications. The primary requirements for the method include accuracy, flexibility and efficiency in smart material applications. To accomplish this, the method was designed to be flexible with regard to boundary conditions, material nonhomogeneities due to sensors and actuators, and inputs from smart material actuators such as piezoceramic patches. The accuracy of the method was also of primary concern, both to guarantee full resolution of structural dynamics and to facilitate the development of PDE-based controllers which ultimately require real-time implementation. Several numerical examples provide initial evidence demonstrating the efficacy of the method.

  7. Adaptive piezoelectric shell structures: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, H. S.; Zhong, J. P.

    1993-07-01

    Active "smart" space and mechanical structures with adaptive dynamic characteristics have long been interested in a variety of high-performance systems, e.g. flexible space structures, flexible robots, "smart" machines etc. In this paper, an active adaptive structure made of piezoelectric materials is proposed and evaluated. Electromechanical equations of motion and generalised boundary conditions of a generic piezoelectric shell subjected to mechanical and electrical excitations are derived using Hamilton's principle and the linear piezoelectric theory. The structural adaptivity is achieved by a voltage feedback (open or closed loops) utilising the converse piezoelectric effect. Applications of the theory is demonstrated in a bimorph beam case and a cylindrical shell case. Frequency manipulation of the bimorph beam is studied theoretically and experimentally. Damping control of the cylindrical shell via in-plane membrane forces is also investigated.

  8. Material transport across Europa's ice shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allu Peddinti, Divya; McNamara, Allen K.

    2015-06-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa exhibits a deformed icy surface with salt deposits concentrated along the varied geological features. The topographic alignment of salt deposits has been speculated to indicate an endogenic sourcing of the material. Two-way transport of salts from a liquid-water ocean beneath the ice shell to the surface, and vice versa, has been speculated. We present dynamical models that demonstrate the incorporation of newly frozen ice into convective plumes within the ice shell, caused by convection within the ice shell that drives dynamic topography along the ice-ocean boundary. The new ice that forms at the freezing front can be transported by the rising ice plumes toward the surface until it is blocked by a high-viscosity lid at the surface. Weakening of the lid by tidal or tectonic forces could then lead to the surface detection of ocean trace chemistry captured in the newly formed ice.

  9. DECam Observations of the Tidal Shells Around NGC 3923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bryan; Grooms, Connor; Puzia, Thomas H.; Matthew, Taylor; Graeme, Candlish; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Mihos, Chris; Smith, Rory; Schirmer, Mischa

    2016-01-01

    Stellar shells around elliptical galaxies are thought to be the results of near-radial mergers with low mass companions. Thus, the shell systems contain information about the merger history and gravitational potential of the elliptical galaxy. We present a preliminary census of the shell system of NGC 3923 from extremely deep g and i-band DECam imaging. NGC 3923 has the largest know shell system, with different studies finding between 27 and 42 shells. We present an overview of the DECam data reduction and an initial analysis of the shell system.

  10. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  11. Exciton dynamics in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell nanowires with shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corfdir, Pierre; Küpers, Hanno; Lewis, Ryan B.; Flissikowski, Timur; Grahn, Holger T.; Geelhaar, Lutz; Brandt, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    We study the dynamics of excitons in GaAs/(Al,Ga)As core-shell nanowires by continuous-wave and time-resolved photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. Strong Al segregation in the shell of the nanowires leads to the formation of Ga-rich inclusions acting as quantum dots. At 10 K, intense light emission associated with these shell quantum dots is observed. The average radiative lifetime of excitons confined in the shell quantum dots is 1.7 ns. We show that excitons may tunnel toward adjacent shell quantum dots and nonradiative point defects. We investigate the changes in the dynamics of charge carriers in the shell with increasing temperature, with particular emphasis on the transfer of carriers from the shell to the core of the nanowires. We finally discuss the implications of carrier localization in the (Al,Ga)As shell for fundamental studies and optoelectronic applications based on core-shell III-As nanowires.

  12. Advances in Shell Buckling: Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. Michael T.

    In a recent feature article in this journal, coauthored by Gert van der Heijden, I described the static-dynamic analogy and its role in understanding the localized post-buckling of shell-like structures, looking exclusively at integrable systems. We showed the true significance of the Maxwell energy criterion load in predicting the sudden onset of "shock sensitivity" to lateral disturbances. The present paper extends the survey to cover nonintegrable systems, such as thin compressed shells. These exhibit spatial chaos, generating a multiplicity of localized paths (and escape routes) with complex snaking and laddering phenomena. The final theoretical contribution shows how these concepts relate to the response and energy barriers of an axially compressed cylindrical shell. After surveying NASA's current shell-testing programme, a new nondestructive technique is proposed to estimate the "shock sensitivity" of a laboratory specimen that is in a compressed metastable state before buckling. A probe is used to measure the nonlinear load-deflection characteristic under a rigidly applied lateral displacement. Sensing the passive resisting force, it can be plotted in real time against the displacement, displaying an equilibrium path along which the force rises to a maximum and then decreases to zero: having reached the free state of the shell that forms a mountain-pass in the potential energy. The area under this graph gives the energy barrier against lateral shocks. The test is repeated at different levels of the overall compression. If a symmetry-breaking bifurcation is encountered on the path, computer simulations show how this can be suppressed by a controlled secondary probe tuned to deliver zero force on the shell.

  13. Static spherically symmetric thin shell wormhole colliding with a spherical thin shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaobao; Gao, Sijie

    2016-03-01

    We consider a static spherically symmetric thin shell wormhole that collides with another thin shell consisting of ordinary matter. By employing the geometrical constraint, which leads to the conservation of energy and momentum, we show that the state after the collision can be solved from the initial data. In the low speed approximation, the solutions are rather simple. The shell may either bounce back or pass through the wormhole. In either case, the wormhole shrinks right after the collision. In the "bouncing" case, a surprising result is that the radial speeds before and after the collision satisfy an addition law, which is independent of other parameters of the wormhole and the shell. Once the shell passes through the wormhole, we find that the shell always expands. However, the expansion rate is the same as its collapsing rate right before the collision. Finally, we find the solution for the shell moving together with the wormhole. This work sheds light on the interaction between wormholes and matter.

  14. What's in a Shell? - Interactions of Chemistry and Structure at Submicron Levels in Bivalve Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Piazolo, S.; Trimby, P.

    2014-12-01

    The wide geographical distribution of bivalve shells makes them much favoured paleoclimate proxy archives. However, they are amongst the materials most affected by physiological effects, making the correct deciphering of these archives a challenging task. Shell building plans are usually hierarchic, thus optimizing mechanical properties. However, different structures common to certain bivalve families, such as the prism-nacre or the crossed-lamellar structures, are assembled from very different building blocks. These structural differences coincide with chemical and crystallographic differences suggesting critically different formation mechanisms within the bivalve class. Most importantly some bivalves form their shells from amorphous calcium carbonate that crystallizes in situ once assembled into the shell. We present new correlated multi-scale structural and compositional data for different shell bivalve shell structures such as nacre-prism, cross-lamellar intermediate structures. Data are obtained using EBSD, FIB-assisted TEM and Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction combined with Nano-SIMS and Raman Microspectrometry and suggest that formation from amorphous phases is widespread and results in different calcium carbonate polymorphs to be present in the shell with distinct chemical compositions. The results highlight the complex nature of the biomaterials, which has consequences for the precision and accuracy of paleotemperature calculations.

  15. Stability analysis of dynamic thin shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Crawford, Paulo

    2005-11-01

    We analyse the stability of generic spherically symmetric thin shells to linearized perturbations around static solutions. We include the momentum flux term in the conservation identity, deduced from the 'ADM' constraint and the Lanczos equations. Following the Ishak Lake analysis, we deduce a master equation which dictates the stable equilibrium configurations. Considering the transparency condition, we study the stability of thin shells around black holes, showing that our analysis is in agreement with previous results. Applying the analysis to traversable wormhole geometries, by considering specific choices for the form function, we deduce stability regions and find that the latter may be significantly increased by considering appropriate choices for the redshift function.

  16. On the elastic stability of shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    A synopsis of a series of investigations into the instability of axially compressed cylindrical shells is given. The objective of the research, which was made with models, was to devise a technique of nondestructive evaluation. The results show that, with models at any rate, success was achieved. Probing methods which can be used to determine the locations of weakness and the pertinent instability load levels were devised. The research on large scale shells was undertaken to determine the critical loads under as uniform a circumferential distribution of axial compressive force as possible. It is clear from the results presented that this objective was met.

  17. Off-shell kinematics in nuclear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Jagannath

    1983-11-01

    A semirelativistic model based on an approximate solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation used previously to construct a conserved electromagnetic current with arbitrary interaction is generalized to arbitrary processes and extended to many body targets. Although the technique appears valid and useful for introducing kinematic corrections in processes off few body targets, a paradoxical result emerges for large nuclei in that the relevant form factors, which must be evaluated far off-shell, can be dramatically different from that for free nucleons, contrary to the usual picture of the nucleus as composed of nearly free nucleons. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Bethe-Salpeter equation, off-shell kinematics, impulse approximation, paradox for large nuclei.

  18. Fast optimization of static axisymmetric shell structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Jeffrey

    An axisymmetric shell optimization procedure is developed which is a fast, user-friendly and practical tool for design use in disciplines including aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering. The shape and thickness of a shell can be optimized to minimize shell mass, mass/volume ratio or stress with constraints imposed on von Mises stress and local buckling. The procedure was created with the aid of the GENOPT optimization development system (Dr. D. Bushnell, Lockheed Missiles and Space Co) and uses the FAST1 shell analysis program (Prof. C. R. Steele, Stanford University) to perform the constraint analysis. The optimization method used is the modified method of feasible directions. The procedure is fast because exact analysis methods allow complex shells to be modelled with only a few large shell elements and still retain a sufficiently accurate solution. This is of particular advantage near shell boundaries and intersections which can have small regions of very detailed variation in the solution. Finite element methods would require many small elements to capture accurately this detail with a resulting increase in computation time and model complexity. Reducing the complexity of the model also reduces the size of the required input and contributes to the simplicity of the procedure. Optimization design variables are the radial and axial coordinates of nodes and the shape parameters and thicknesses of the elements. Thickness distribution within an element can be optimized by specifying the thickness at evenly spaced control points. Spline interpolation is used to provide a smooth thickness variation between the control points. An effective method is developed for reducing the number of required stress constraint equations. Various shells have been optimized and include models for comparison with published results. Shape, thickness and shape/thickness optimization has been performed on examples including a simple aerobrake, sphere-nozzle intersections, ring

  19. Selective hypersensitivity to boiled razor shell.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, C; Carnés, J; Blanco, R; Martínez-Alonso, J C; Callejo-Melgosa, A; Frades, A; Colino, T

    2007-01-01

    Many types of seafood require cooking before ingestion and it has been demonstrated that this cooking process may affect the antigenicity and allergenicity of the food. We describe a case of anaphylaxis caused by selective sensitization to razor shell, a mollusc. In vivo and in vitro studies confirmed sensitization to boiled razor shell. Analysis of the nature of the allergen yielded results that were consistent with the findings of other authors and suggested that allergens involved in seafood allergy are commonly high molecular weight proteins that, in most cases, are heat stable.

  20. Cosmic Shell-Seekers Find a Beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Two scientists have discovered a distinctive shell of hot gas around the site of a distant supernova explosion by combining 150 hours of archived data collected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This discovery is a significant step forward in solving a decades-old puzzle as to why some stellar explosions display shells and others do not. "The likely answer is that the explosion of every massive star sends a sonic boom rumbling through interstellar space," said Samar Safi-Harb of the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, who is a coauthor with Heather Matheson on a paper describing the research that appears in the journal Advances in Space Research. "It's just that, some of the shells are harder to find than others because of the environment where the explosion occurs." The shell marks a sonic boom, or shock wave, generated by the supernova. Gas is heated to millions of degrees by the shock wave and produces X-rays, but little visible light. By examining the properties of the shell with an X-ray telescope, astronomers can work back to deduce the age (a few thousand years), and energy of the explosion, as well as information about the state of the star a million years before it exploded. Animation of a Supernova Explosion Animation of a Supernova Explosion It is likely that the star that produced the supernova remnant and shell was about 10 times as massive as the Sun. The absence of a detectable shell around this and similar supernova remnants had led astronomers to speculate that another, weaker type of explosion had occurred there. Now this hypothesis seems unlikely. Although many supernovas leave behind bright shells, others do not. This supernova remnant, identified as G21.5-0.9 by radio astronomers 30 years ago, was considered to be one that had no shell. A diffuse cloud of X-rays around the source was detected about 5 years ago by another group of astronomers and independently by Safi-Harb and colleagues using Chandra, but it took the careful

  1. 50 CFR 648.50 - Shell-height standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...). Shell height is a straight line measurement from the hinge to the part of the shell that is farthest away from the hinge. (b) Compliance and sampling. Any time at landing or after, including when...

  2. MOND implications for spectral line profiles of shell galaxies: shell formation history and mass-velocity scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, M.; Jungwiert, B.; Ebrová, I.; Bartošková, K.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Many ellipticals are surrounded by round stellar shells probably stemming from minor mergers. A new method for constraining gravitational potential in elliptical galaxies has recently been suggested. It uses the spectral line profiles of these shells to measure the circular velocity at the edge of the shell and the expansion velocity of the shell itself. MOND is an alternative to the dark matter framework aiming to solve the missing mass problem. Aims: We study how the circular and expansion velocities behave in MOND for large shells. Methods: The asymptotic behavior for infinitely large shells is derived analytically. The applicability of the asymptotic results for finitely sized shells is studied numerically on a grid of galaxies modeled with Sérsic spheres. Results: Circular velocity settles asymptotically at a value determined by the baryonic mass of the galaxy forming the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation known for disk galaxies. Shell expansion velocity also becomes asymptotically constant. The expansion velocities of large shells form a multibranched analogy to the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, together with the galactic baryonic masses. For many - but not all - shell galaxies, the asymptotic values of these two types of velocities are reached under the effective radius. If MOND is assumed to work in ellipticals, then the shell spectra allow many details of the history to be revealed about the formation of the shell system, including its age. The results pertaining to circular velocities apply to all elliptical galaxies, not only those with shells.

  3. DNA nanoparticles with core-shell morphology.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Preethi L; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Lisziewicz, Julianna; Speransky, Vlad; Horkay, Ferenc

    2014-10-14

    Mannobiose-modified polyethylenimines (PEI) are used in gene therapy to generate nanoparticles of DNA that can be targeted to the antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. We report that the sugar modification alters the DNA organization within the nanoparticles from homogenous to shell-like packing. The depth-dependent packing of DNA within the nanoparticles was probed using AFM nano-indentation. Unmodified PEI-DNA nanoparticles display linear elastic properties and depth-independent mechanics, characteristic of homogenous materials. Mannobiose-modified nanoparticles, however, showed distinct force regimes that were dependent on indentation depth, with 'buckling'-like response that is reproducible and not due to particle failure. By comparison with theoretical studies of spherical shell mechanics, the structure of mannobiosylated particles was deduced to be a thin shell with wall thickness in the order of few nanometers, and a fluid-filled core. The shell-core structure is also consistent with observations of nanoparticle denting in altered solution conditions, with measurements of nanoparticle water content from AFM images, and with images of DNA distribution in Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  4. Calculation of tubular joints as compound shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanov, A. I.

    A scheme for joining isoparametric finite shell elements with a bend in the middle surface is described. A solution is presented for the problem of the stress-strain state of a T-joint loaded by internal pressure. A refined scheme is proposed for calculating structures of this kind with allowance for the stiffness of the welded joint.

  5. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19...

  6. 7 CFR 996.19 - Shelled peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled peanuts. 996.19 Section 996.19 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.19...

  7. On Newton’s shell theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Riccardo

    2014-03-01

    In the present letter, Newton’s theorem for the gravitational field outside a uniform spherical shell is considered. In particular, a purely geometric proof of proposition LXXI/theorem XXXI of Newton’s Principia, which is suitable for undergraduates and even skilled high-school students, is proposed. Minimal knowledge of elementary calculus and three-dimensional Euclidean geometry are required.

  8. Palaeontology: pterosaur egg with a leathery shell.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiang; Ji, Shu-An; Cheng, Yen-Nien; You, Hai-Lu; Lü, Jun-Chang; Liu, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Chong-Xi

    2004-12-01

    The recent discovery of a pterosaur egg with embryonic skeleton and soft tissues from the Yixian Formation confirmed that the flying pterosaurs were oviparous. Here we describe another pterosaur egg whose exquisite preservation indicates that the shell structure was soft and leathery.

  9. On-Shell Methods in Perturbative QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.

    2007-04-25

    We review on-shell methods for computing multi-parton scattering amplitudes in perturbative QCD, utilizing their unitarity and factorization properties. We focus on aspects which are useful for the construction of one-loop amplitudes needed for phenomenological studies at the Large Hadron Collider.

  10. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-02-24

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanford's 28 DSTS. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified.

  11. Double-shell tank emergency pumping guide

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, M.H.

    1999-05-18

    This Double-Shell Tank Emergency Pumping Guide provides the preplanning necessary to expeditiously remove any waste that may leak from the primary tank to the secondary tank for Hanfords 28 DSTs. The strategy is described, applicable emergency procedures are referenced, and transfer routes and pumping equipment for each tank are identified.

  12. New method for calculating shell correction

    SciTech Connect

    Salamon, P.; Kruppa, A. T.; Vertse, T.

    2010-06-15

    A new method is presented for the calculation of the shell correction with the inclusion of the continuum part of the spectrum. The smoothing function used has a finite energy range in contrast to the Gaussian shape of the Strutinski method. The new method is especially useful for light nuclei where the generalized Strutinski procedure cannot be applied.

  13. BOWOOSS: bionic optimized wood shells with sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Göran

    2011-04-01

    In architecture, shell construction is used for the most efficient, large spatial structures. Until now the use of wood rather played a marginal role, implementing those examples of architecture, although this material offers manifold advantages, especially against the background of accelerating shortage of resources and increasing requirements concerning the energy balance. Regarding the implementation of shells, nature offers a wide range of suggestions. The focus of the examinations is on the shells of marine plankton, especially of diatoms, whose richness in species promises the discovery of entirely new construction principles. The project is targeting at transferring advantageous features of these organisms on industrial produced, modular wood shell structures. Currently a transfer of these structures in CAD - models is taking place, helping to perform stress analysis by computational methods. Micro as well as macro structures are the subject of diverse consideration, allowing to draw the necessary conclusions for an architectural design. The insights of these tests are the basis for the development of physical models on different scales, which are used to verify the different approaches. Another important aim which is promoted in the project is to enhance the competitiveness of timber construction. Downsizing of the prefabricated structural elements leads to considerable lower transportation costs as abnormal loads can be avoided as far as possible and means of transportation can be loaded with higher efficiency so that an important contribution to the sustainability in the field of architecture can also be made.

  14. Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. S.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; El Eid, M. F.

    2004-03-01

    We present details of explosive nucleosynthesis in the helium-burning shell of a 25 solar mass star. We describe the production of short-lived radioactivities in this environment. We finally describe how to access the details of our calculations over the world-wide web.

  15. On the Theory of Thin Shallow Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarov, A. A.

    1956-01-01

    This report is concerned with the theory of thin shallow shells. It does not employ the lines of curvature as the coordinate system, but employs "almost cartesian coordinates" or the coordinates obtained by cutting the surface into two mutually orthogonal systems of parallel planes.

  16. Polarimetry of nacre in iridescent shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, R. A.; Burgess, C.; Regan, B.; Spano, S.; Galvez, E. J.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the light transmitted or reflected from nacre (mother of pearl) taken from the iridescent shell of the bivalve Pinctad a fucata. These nacre surfaces have a rich structure, composed of aragonite crystals arranged as tablets or bricks, 5 μm wide and 400-500 nm thick, surrounded by 30nm thick organic mortar. The light reflected from these shell surfaces, or transmitted through thin polished layers, is rich in its polarization content, exhibiting a space dependent variation in the state of polarization with a high density of polarization singularities. Our goal is to use the polarization information to infer the structure of the biominerals and the role of the organic layer in determining the orientation of the crystals. In the experiments we send the light from a laser with a uniform state of polarization onto the shell, and analyze the light that is either transmitted or reflected, depending on the type of experiment, imaging it after its passage through polarization filters. We use the images from distinct filters to obtain the Stokes parameters, and hence the state of polarization, of each image point. We also construct the Mueller matrix for each imaged point, via 36 measurements. We do this for distinct physical and chemical treatments of the shell sample. Preliminary data shows that the organic layer may be responsible for organizing a multi-crystalline arrangement of aragonite tablets.

  17. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  18. Torrefaction of pomaces and nut shells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical: Apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells were torrefied at different temperatures and times in a muffle furnace. The fiber content and thermal stability of the raw byproducts were examined using fiber analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respec...

  19. Measuring Shell Resonances of Spherical Acoustic Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, D.; Sparasci, F.; Foltête, E.; Ouisse, M.; Pitre, L.

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between the gas and shell is a concern in the experiment used at LNE-CNAM to determine the Boltzmann constant k B by an acoustic method. As the walls of real resonators are not perfectly rigid, some perturbations occur in the frequency range of the acoustic resonances measured within helium gas contained in the cavity. As a contribution for a better understanding of this phenomenon, an experiment to measure the shell modes of the spherical resonators is in use in this laboratory. A work in progress to assess these modes using a hammer blow method together with modal analysis is reported here. The study is carried out with an air-filled, copper-walled, half-liter quasi-spherical resonator in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 20 kHz. Results show that the shell modes expand into multiple resonances of similar modal shape, including the "breathing" mode. The observations reported in other studies of shell perturbations at other frequencies than the breathing frequency are confirmed.

  20. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1985-01-01

    Large, uniform hollow spherical shells are produced by forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, evaporating the drops to form dried particles, coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material, and heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble which expands the outer layer. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the hollow shells, spherical shells with uniform walls are produced.

  1. Interior remodeling of the shell by a gastropod mollusc

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Alan J.; Myers, Elizabeth R.; Meenakshi, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    As the Conus shell grows by spiraling of the outer lip around the axis, profound internal shell dissolution thins the walls of the protected penultimate whorl from several millimeters to <50μm. Shell material is added to the inside of the spire and the anterior part of the columella. The resulting shell has a uniformly thick last whorl and thickened spire that enhance defense against crushing predators and a greatly expanded interior living space for the animal. Images PMID:16592680

  2. Characterization of Russian ballistic furnace shells, February, 1999, batch

    SciTech Connect

    Fearon, E

    1999-04-02

    This report documents the characterization of the latest batch of shells produced in the Ballistic Furnace System at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia, that we received in mid-February, 1999. The batch consisted of three cassettes containing 36 shells in each cassette. An initial sphericity measurement was done, each shell was weighed, and shells were selected that were spherical enough to run on the Sphere Mapper AFM.

  3. Breakup of finite thickness viscous shell microbubbles by ultrasound: A simplified zero-thickness shell model

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges L.

    2013-01-01

    A simplified three-dimensional (3-D) zero-thickness shell model was developed to recover the non-spherical response of thick-shelled encapsulated microbubbles subjected to ultrasound excitation. The model was validated by comparison with previously developed models and was then used to study the mechanism of bubble break-up during non-spherical deformations resulting from the presence of a nearby rigid boundary. The effects of the shell thickness and the bubble standoff distance from the solid wall on the bubble break-up were studied parametrically for a fixed insonification frequency and amplitude. A diagram of bubble shapes versus the normalized shell thickness and wall standoff was derived, and the potential bubble shapes at break-up from reentrant jets were categorized resulting in four distinct zones. PMID:23556560

  4. Measurement and calculation of L-shell transitions in M-shell iron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Lepson, J. K.; Díaz, F.; Ishikawa, Y.; Träbert, E.

    2013-09-01

    We have made high-resolution measurements of the iron L-shell emission near 15 Å using the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap at Livermore that exhibit L-shell transitions from autoionizing levels in Fe13+, Fe14+ and Fe15+ ions. The observed L-shell iron spectra were modeled using the flexible atomic code augmented with transition energies produced by calculations based on the relativistic multi-reference Møller-Plesset (MRMP) perturbation theory, allowing us to identify multiple M-shell iron lines. Our measured values for the Fe XV emission lines are in excellent agreement with a recent measurement using the BESSY-II synchrotron but the present measurements have somewhat higher accuracy. Our MRMP calculations are compared to earlier calculations using the many-body perturbation theory approach, and we find good agreement for some but not all transitions.

  5. Defects in liquid crystal nematic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Nieves, A.; Utada, A. S.; Vitelli, V.; Link, D. R.; Nelson, D. R.; Weitz, D. A.

    2006-03-01

    We generate water/liquid crystal (LC)/water double emulsions via recent micro-capillary fluidic devices [A. S. Utada, et.al. Science 308, 537 (2005)]. The resultant objects are stabilized against coalescence by using surfactants or adequate polymers; these also fix the boundary conditions for the director field n. We use 4-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) and impose tangential boundary conditions at both water/LC interfaces by having polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) dispersed in the inner and outer water phases. We confirm recent predictions [D. R. Nelson, NanoLetters 2, 1125 (2002)] and find that four strength s=+1/2 defects are present; this is in contrast to the two s=+1 defect bipolar configuration observed for bulk spheres [A. Fernandez-Nieves, et.al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 105503 (2004)]. However, these defects do not lie in the vertices of a tetrahedron but are pushed towards each other until certain equilibration distance is reached. In addition to the four defect shells, we observe shells with two s=+1 defects and even with three defects, a s=+1 and two s=+1/2. We argue these configurations arise from nematic bulk distortions that become important as the shell thickness increases. Finally, by adding a different surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), to the outer phase, we can change the director boundary conditions at the outermost interface from parallel to homeotropic, to induce coalescing of the two pair of defects in the four defect shell configuration to yield two defect bipolar shells.

  6. Searching for nova shells around cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahman, D. I.; Dhillon, V. S.; Knigge, C.; Marsh, T. R.

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of a search for nova shells around 101 cataclysmic variables (CVs), using H α images taken with the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS). Both telescopes are located on La Palma. We concentrated our WHT search on nova-like variables, whilst our IPHAS search covered all CVs in the IPHAS footprint. We found one shell out of the 24 nova-like variables we examined. The newly discovered shell is around V1315 Aql and has a radius of ˜2.5 arcmin, indicative of a nova eruption approximately 120 yr ago. This result is consistent with the idea that the high mass-transfer rate exhibited by nova-like variables is due to enhanced irradiation of the secondary by the hot white dwarf following a recent nova eruption. The implications of our observations for the lifetime of the nova-like variable phase are discussed. We also examined four asynchronous polars, but found no new shells around any of them, so we are unable to confirm that a recent nova eruption is the cause of the asynchronicity in the white dwarf spin. We find tentative evidence of a faint shell around the dwarf nova V1363 Cyg. In addition, we find evidence for a light echo around the nova V2275 Cyg, which erupted in 2001, indicative of an earlier nova eruption ˜300 yr ago, making V2275 Cyg a possible recurrent nova.

  7. SHELL - PRESSURE VOLUME PROPERTIES OF METALLIC BELLOWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefling, L.

    1994-01-01

    A majority of the liquid-fueled rocket vehicles developed in the past have been plagued by an instability known as POGO. The POGO phenomenon involves dynamics of the vehicle structure, dynamics of the propellant in the feedline, and the engine dynamic transfer function. Each of these three items must be accurately known in order to determine stability. Metallic bellows are commonly used as segments of propellant feedlines for rocket-propelled vehicles to accommodate temperature-induced length variations, manufacturing tolerances, and gimbaling of the engines. These bellows sections deform radially and change volume when internal pressure varies, and the magnitude of such deformation is much higher than that for the straight, cylindrical segments of the line. The greater flexibility of the bellows decreases the frequency of acoustic oscillations in the line. Calculating elastic stiffness is difficult due to the radial deformation of a bellows section. SHELL was developed specifically to calculate changes in volume of a bellows due to changes in internal pressure. Input to the program consists of tables describing the material, the geometry of the convolutions and loading. The output gives displacements and volume change that can be used for POGO or waterhammer analysis. SHELL is written in standard FORTRAN 77. This program was originally developed on a Univac 1100 series computer and has been successfully implemented on IBM 370 series computers running MVS and DEC VAX series computers running VMS. The main memory requirement for running SHELL under VMS is 116K. The program source code, IBM JCL for compiling and running SHELL, and sample input are provided with the program. SHELL is available on a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII CARD IMAGE magnetic tape. This program was developed in 1989. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. DEC, VAX and VMS are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Univac 1100 is a trademark of Unisys

  8. Simulating the co-encapsulation of drugs in a "smart" core-shell-shell polymer nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Gavin A

    2014-03-01

    A coarse-grained lattice Monte Carlo method is used to simulate co-encapsulation and delivery of both a hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug from polymer nanoparticles. In particular, core-shell-shell polymer nanoparticles with acid-labile bonds are simulated, and the preferential release of the encapsulated drugs near more acidic tumors is captured. While these simple models lack the molecular details of a real system, they can reveal interesting insights concerning the effects of entropy and enthalpy in these systems.

  9. Imperfection sensitivity of pressured buckling of biopolymer spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Ru, C. Q.

    2016-06-01

    Imperfection sensitivity is essential for mechanical behavior of biopolymer shells [such as ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) and spherical viruses] characterized by high geometric heterogeneity. In this work, an imperfection sensitivity analysis is conducted based on a refined shell model recently developed for spherical biopolymer shells of high structural heterogeneity and thickness nonuniformity. The influence of related parameters (including the ratio of radius to average shell thickness, the ratio of transverse shear modulus to in-plane shear modulus, and the ratio of effective bending thickness to average shell thickness) on imperfection sensitivity is examined for pressured buckling. Our results show that the ratio of effective bending thickness to average shell thickness has a major effect on the imperfection sensitivity, while the effect of the ratio of transverse shear modulus to in-plane shear modulus is usually negligible. For example, with physically realistic parameters for typical imperfect spherical biopolymer shells, the present model predicts that actual maximum external pressure could be reduced to as low as 60% of that of a perfect UCA spherical shell or 55%-65% of that of a perfect spherical virus shell, respectively. The moderate imperfection sensitivity of spherical biopolymer shells with physically realistic imperfection is largely attributed to the fact that biopolymer shells are relatively thicker (defined by smaller radius-to-thickness ratio) and therefore practically realistic imperfection amplitude normalized by thickness is very small as compared to that of classical elastic thin shells which have much larger radius-to-thickness ratio.

  10. Leathery Hull Peanuts – Effect on Shelling Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When shelling peanuts from the 2012 peanut crop, various shellers experienced diminished shelling plant throughput when shelling peanuts harvested from isolated geographical regions. Shellers reported a reduction of 25-30% throughput of the first stage sheller bank with significant increases in spli...

  11. Porous Core-Shell Nanostructures for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, Trevor David

    Porous core-shell nanostructures have recently received much attention for their enhanced thermal stability. They show great potential in the field of catalysis, as reactant gases can diffuse in and out of the porous shell while the core particle is protected from sintering, a process in which particles coalesce to form larger particles. Sintering is a large problem in industry and is the primary cause of irreversible deactivation. Despite the obvious advantages of high thermal stability, porous core-shell nanoparticles can be developed to have additional interactive properties from the combination of the core and shell together, rather than just the core particle alone. This dissertation focuses on developing new porous core-shell systems in which both the core and shell take part in catalysis. Two types of systems are explored; (1) yolk-shell nanostructures with reducible oxide shells formed using the Kirkendall effect and (2) ceramic-based porous oxide shells formed using sol-gel chemistry. Of the Kirkendall-based systems, Au FexOy and Cu CoO were synthesized and studied for catalytic applications. Additionally, ZnO was explored as a potential shelling material. Sol-gel work focused on optimizing synthetic methods to allow for coating of small gold particles, which remains a challenge today. Mixed metal oxides were explored as a shelling material to make dual catalysts in which the product of a reaction on the core particle becomes a reactant within the shell.

  12. Shells. Modified Primary. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defendorf, Jean, Ed.

    This publication provides information and activities for teaching about seashells and process skills including observing, classifying, collecting and interpreting data, inferring, measuring, and predicting. There are 10 lessons. Lessons 1 through 5 deal with an introduction to shells, why animals have shells, observing and classifying shells, the…

  13. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection...

  14. Mollusc evolution: seven shells on the sea shore.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J

    2013-11-01

    Recent phylogenies unite two seemingly very different groups of mollusc: the Polyplacophora with multiple shells and the shell-less Aplacophora. The finding of seven muscle rows in larvae of both classes suggests that polyplacophoran-like shell rows have been lost in adult Aplacophora.

  15. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is shell Rent? 102-85.120 Section 102-85.120 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.120 What is shell Rent? Shell Rent is that portion of GSA Rent...

  16. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is shell Rent? 102-85.120 Section 102-85.120 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.120 What is shell Rent? Shell Rent is that portion of GSA Rent...

  17. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is shell Rent? 102-85.120 Section 102-85.120 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.120 What is shell Rent? Shell Rent is that portion of GSA Rent...

  18. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is shell Rent? 102-85.120 Section 102-85.120 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.120 What is shell Rent? Shell Rent is that portion of GSA Rent...

  19. Mollusc evolution: seven shells on the sea shore.

    PubMed

    Telford, Maximilian J

    2013-11-01

    Recent phylogenies unite two seemingly very different groups of mollusc: the Polyplacophora with multiple shells and the shell-less Aplacophora. The finding of seven muscle rows in larvae of both classes suggests that polyplacophoran-like shell rows have been lost in adult Aplacophora. PMID:24200320

  20. Pseudo-Symmetry and Majorana Operators in pf-Shell

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, J. P.; Wu, H. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Majorana operator of the pseudo ds-shell preserves the SU-tilde(4) symmetry, and in a unified manner it reproduces reasonably well the ground state energies of the nine nuclei in this shell. The study of {beta} decay in the same shell provides further support for the SU-tilde(4) symmetry.

  1. Shell matrix proteins of the clam, Mya truncata: Roles beyond shell formation through proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Arivalagan, Jaison; Marie, Benjamin; Sleight, Victoria A; Clark, Melody S; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Arul

    2016-06-01

    Mya truncata, a soft shell clam, is presented as a new model to study biomineralization through a proteomics approach. In this study, the shell and mantle tissue were analysed in order to retrieve knowledge about the secretion of shell matrix proteins (SMPs). Out of 67 and 127 shell and mantle proteins respectively, 16 were found in both shell and mantle. Bioinformatic analysis of SMP sequences for domain prediction revealed the presence of several new domains such as fucolectin tachylectin-4 pentraxin-1 (FTP), scavenger receptor, alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2 M), lipocalin and myosin tail along with previously reported SMP domains such as chitinase, carbonic anhydrase, tyrosinase, sushi, and chitin binding. Interestingly, these newly predicted domains are attributed with molecular functions other than biomineralization. These findings suggest that shells may not only act as protective armour from predatory action, but could also actively be related to other functions such as immunity. In this context, the roles of SMPs in biomineralization need to be looked in a new perspective.

  2. Glass shell manufacturing in space. [residual gases in spherical shells made from metal-organic gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolen, R. J.; Ebner, M. A.; Downs, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Residual gases always found in glass shells are CO2, O2 and N2. In those cases where high water vapor pressure is maintained in the furnace, water is also found in the shells. Other evidence for the existence of water in shells is the presence of water-induced surface weathering of the interior shell surface. Water and CO2 are the predominant volatiles generated by the pyrolysis of both inorganic and hydrolyzed metal-organic gels. The pyrolysates of unhydrolyzed metal-organic gels also contain, in addition to water and CO2, significant levels of organic volatiles, such as ethanol and some hydrocarbons; on complete oxidation, these produce CO2 and water as well. Water is most likely the initial blowing agent, it is produced copiously during the initial stages of heating. In the later stages, CO2 becomes the dominant gas as H2O is lost at increasing rates. Water in the shell arises mainly from gel dehydration, CO2 by sodium bicarbonate/carbonate decomposition and carbon oxidation, and O2 and N2 by permeation of the ambient furnace air through the molten shell wall.

  3. Shell matrix proteins of the clam, Mya truncata: Roles beyond shell formation through proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Arivalagan, Jaison; Marie, Benjamin; Sleight, Victoria A; Clark, Melody S; Berland, Sophie; Marie, Arul

    2016-06-01

    Mya truncata, a soft shell clam, is presented as a new model to study biomineralization through a proteomics approach. In this study, the shell and mantle tissue were analysed in order to retrieve knowledge about the secretion of shell matrix proteins (SMPs). Out of 67 and 127 shell and mantle proteins respectively, 16 were found in both shell and mantle. Bioinformatic analysis of SMP sequences for domain prediction revealed the presence of several new domains such as fucolectin tachylectin-4 pentraxin-1 (FTP), scavenger receptor, alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2 M), lipocalin and myosin tail along with previously reported SMP domains such as chitinase, carbonic anhydrase, tyrosinase, sushi, and chitin binding. Interestingly, these newly predicted domains are attributed with molecular functions other than biomineralization. These findings suggest that shells may not only act as protective armour from predatory action, but could also actively be related to other functions such as immunity. In this context, the roles of SMPs in biomineralization need to be looked in a new perspective. PMID:27068305

  4. How long does oyster shell last on an oyster reef?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Eric N.; Kraeuter, John N.; Ashton-Alcox, Kathryn A.

    2006-09-01

    A reduction in population abundance, brought on by an unprecedented 6 years of low recruitment, has reduced shell input through natural mortality on Delaware Bay oyster beds. Quantitative stock surveys provide an estimate of surficial shell over the same time period, permitting the reconstruction of the time history of shell since 1998 and estimation of the rates of shell addition and loss. Shell loss rates were unexpectedly high. In most cases, half of the shell added to an oyster bed in Delaware Bay in a given year is lost over a subsequent period of 2-10 years. Unexpectedly, the shortest half-lives, typically two to three years, are at intermediate salinities. Half-lives increase upbay into lower salinity and downbay into higher salinity to about 10 years. Minimal shell doubling times were calculated under the assumption of no shell loss, a maximum accretion rate. Minimal doubling times vary from somewhat less than a decade to more than a score of years. Doubling times of decadal scale emphasize that shell has the potential to accumulate rapidly on human time scales. The rarity of definitive documentation of shell accumulation, in terms of reef vertical accretion or lateral expansion, can only be explained if most shell produced yearly does not long remain recognizably intact. Doubling times are not rapid on the scale of oyster generation time, however. Management of essential fish habitat in the estuarine realm must include management of the shell budget and management of commercial shell-producing species must include the provision of animals as carbonate producers for habitat maintenance. Shell, at least in estuarine habitats, may have low preservational potential, even in areas that, when preserved, will appear to be shellbeds. The biases in the fossil record may not be minimized in shell-rich environments of preservation because shelliness does not imply good preservability.

  5. Accurate stress resultants equations for laminated composite deep thick shells

    SciTech Connect

    Qatu, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper derives accurate equations for the normal and shear force as well as bending and twisting moment resultants for laminated composite deep, thick shells. The stress resultant equations for laminated composite thick shells are shown to be different from those of plates. This is due to the fact the stresses over the thickness of the shell have to be integrated on a trapezoidal-like shell element to obtain the stress resultants. Numerical results are obtained and showed that accurate stress resultants are needed for laminated composite deep thick shells, especially if the curvature is not spherical.

  6. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  7. A Method for Quantifying, Visualising, and Analysing Gastropod Shell Form.

    PubMed

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of organismal form is an important component for almost every branch of biology. Although generally considered an easily-measurable structure, the quantification of gastropod shell form is still a challenge because many shells lack homologous structures and have a spiral form that is difficult to capture with linear measurements. In view of this, we adopt the idea of theoretical modelling of shell form, in which the shell form is the product of aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture growth trajectory that is quantified as curvature and torsion, and of aperture form that is represented by size and shape. We develop a workflow for the analysis of shell forms based on the aperture ontogeny profile, starting from the procedure of data preparation (retopologising the shell model), via data acquisition (calculation of aperture growth trajectory, aperture form and ontogeny axis), and data presentation (qualitative comparison between shell forms) and ending with data analysis (quantitative comparison between shell forms). We evaluate our methods on representative shells of the genera Opisthostoma and Plectostoma, which exhibit great variability in shell form. The outcome suggests that our method is a robust, reproducible, and versatile approach for the analysis of shell form. Finally, we propose several potential applications of our methods in functional morphology, theoretical modelling, taxonomy, and evolutionary biology.

  8. A Method for Quantifying, Visualising, and Analysing Gastropod Shell Form

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of organismal form is an important component for almost every branch of biology. Although generally considered an easily-measurable structure, the quantification of gastropod shell form is still a challenge because many shells lack homologous structures and have a spiral form that is difficult to capture with linear measurements. In view of this, we adopt the idea of theoretical modelling of shell form, in which the shell form is the product of aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture growth trajectory that is quantified as curvature and torsion, and of aperture form that is represented by size and shape. We develop a workflow for the analysis of shell forms based on the aperture ontogeny profile, starting from the procedure of data preparation (retopologising the shell model), via data acquisition (calculation of aperture growth trajectory, aperture form and ontogeny axis), and data presentation (qualitative comparison between shell forms) and ending with data analysis (quantitative comparison between shell forms). We evaluate our methods on representative shells of the genera Opisthostoma and Plectostoma, which exhibit great variability in shell form. The outcome suggests that our method is a robust, reproducible, and versatile approach for the analysis of shell form. Finally, we propose several potential applications of our methods in functional morphology, theoretical modelling, taxonomy, and evolutionary biology. PMID:27280463

  9. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells

    PubMed Central

    Fitzer, Susan C.; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature. PMID:25540244

  10. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    PubMed

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

  11. A predictive model of shell morphology in CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Ke; Kelley, David F.

    2014-11-21

    Lattice mismatch in core/shell nanoparticles occurs when the core and shell materials have different lattice parameters. When there is a significant lattice mismatch, a coherent core-shell interface results in substantial lattice strain energy, which can affect the shell morphology. The shell can be of uniform thickness or can be rough, having thin and thick regions. A smooth shell minimizes the surface energy at the expense of increased lattice strain energy and a rough shell does the opposite. A quantitative treatment of the lattice strain energy in determining the shell morphology of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanoparticles is presented here. We use the inhomogeneity in hole tunneling rates through the shell to adsorbed hole acceptors to quantify the extent of shell thickness inhomogeneity. The results can be understood in terms of a model based on elastic continuum calculations, which indicate that the lattice strain energy depends on both core size and shell thickness. The model assumes thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., that the shell morphology corresponds to a minimum total (lattice strain plus surface) energy. Comparison with the experimental results indicates that CdSe/CdS nanoparticles undergo an abrupt transition from smooth to rough shells when the total lattice strain energy exceeds about 27 eV or the strain energy density exceeds 0.59 eV/nm{sup 2}. We also find that the predictions of this model are not followed for CdSe/CdS nanoparticles when the shell is deposited at very low temperature and therefore equilibrium is not established.

  12. Geometrically nonlinear analysis of layered composite plates and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, W. C.; Reddy, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    A degenerated three dimensional finite element, based on the incremental total Lagrangian formulation of a three dimensional layered anisotropic medium was developed. Its use in the geometrically nonlinear, static and dynamic, analysis of layered composite plates and shells is demonstrated. A two dimenisonal finite element based on the Sanders shell theory with the von Karman (nonlinear) strains was developed. It is shown that the deflections obtained by the 2D shell element deviate from those obtained by the more accurate 3D element for deep shells. The 3D degenerated element can be used to model general shells that are not necessarily doubly curved. The 3D degenerated element is computationally more demanding than the 2D shell theory element for a given problem. It is found that the 3D element is an efficient element for the analysis of layered composite plates and shells undergoing large displacements and transient motion.

  13. Symmetries and deformations in the spherical shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Isacker, P.; Pittel, S.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss symmetries of the spherical shell model that make contact with the geometric collective model of Bohr and Mottelson. The most celebrated symmetry of this kind is SU(3), which is the basis of Elliott’s model of rotation. It corresponds to a deformed mean field induced by a quadrupole interaction in a single major oscillator shell N and can be generalized to include several major shells. As such, Elliott’s SU(3) model establishes the link between the spherical shell model and the (quadrupole component of the) geometric collective model. We introduce the analogue symmetry induced by an octupole interaction in two major oscillator shells N-1 and N, leading to an octupole-deformed solution of the spherical shell model. We show that in the limit of large oscillator shells, N\\to ∞ , the algebraic octupole interaction tends to that of the geometric collective model.

  14. Preheat of radiative shock in double-shell ignition targets

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. W.; He, X. T.; Pei, W. B.; Li, J. H.; Zheng, W. D.; Zhu, S. P.; Kang, W.

    2013-08-15

    For the double-shell ignition target, the nonuniform preheat of the inner shell by high-energy x rays, especially the M-band line radiation and L-shell radiation from the Au hohlraum, aggravates the hydrodynamic instability that causes shell disruption. In this paper, for the first time, we propose another preheating mechanism due to the radiative shock formed in the CH foam, and also confirm and validate such preheat of radiative shock by numerical results. We also give an estimate of the improved double-shell in which the CH foam is replaced by the metallic foam to mitigate the hydrodynamic instabilities, and find that the radiative shock formed in the metallic foam produces a much stronger radiation field to preheat the inner shell, which plays a role in better controlling the instabilities. In double-shells, the preheat of radiative shock, as a potential effect on the instabilities, should be seriously realized and underlined.

  15. The computer in shell stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almroth, B. O.; Starnes, J. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some examples in which the high-speed computer has been used to improve the static stability analysis capability for general shells are examined. The fundamental concepts of static stability are reviewed with emphasis on the differences between linear bifurcation buckling and nonlinear collapse. The analysis is limited to the stability of conservative systems. Three examples are considered. The problem of cylinders subjected to bending loads is used as an example to illustrate that a simple structure can have a sufficiently complicated nonlinear behavior to require a computer analysis for accurate results. An analysis of the problems involved in the modeling of stiffening elements in plate and shell structures illustrates the necessity that the analyst recognizes all important deformation modes. The stability analysis of the Skylab structure indicates the size of problems that can be solved with current state-of-the-art capability.

  16. Spherical nematic shells with a threefold valence.

    PubMed

    Koning, Vinzenz; Lopez-Leon, Teresa; Darmon, Alexandre; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Vitelli, V

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of the energetics of thin nematic shells with two charge-one-half defects and one charge-one defect. We determine the optimal arrangement: the defects are located on a great circle at the vertices of an isosceles triangle with angles of 66^{∘} at the charge-one-half defects and a distinct angle of 48^{∘}, consistent with experimental findings. We also analyze thermal fluctuations around this ground state and estimate the energy as a function of thickness. We find that the energy of the three-defect shell is close to the energy of other known configurations having two charge-one and four charge-one-half defects. This finding, together with the large energy barriers separating one configuration from the others, explains their observation in experiments as well as their long-time stability. PMID:27575194

  17. No-Core Shell Model and Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Caurier, E; Bertulani, C

    2005-04-29

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications as well as the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss cross section calculations of p+{sup 6}Li and {sup 6}He+p scattering as well as a calculation of the astrophysically important {sup 7}Be(p, {gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor.

  18. Dipolar Nanodomains in Protein Hydration Shells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel R; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2015-02-01

    The network of hydrogen bonds characteristic of bulk water is significantly disturbed at the protein-water interface, where local fields induce mutually frustrated dipolar domains with potentially novel structure and dynamics. Here the dipolar susceptibility of hydration shells of lysozyme is studied by molecular dynamics simulations in a broad range of temperatures, 140-300 K. The real part of the susceptibility passes through a broad maximum as a function of temperature. The maximum shifts to higher temperatures with increasing frequency of the dielectric experiment. This phenomenology is consistent with that reported for bulk relaxor ferroelectrics, where it is related to the formation of dipolar nanodomains. Nanodomains in the hydration shell extend 12-15 Å from the protein surface into the bulk. Their dynamics are significantly slower than the dynamics of bulk water. The domains dynamically freeze into a ferroelectric glass below 160 K, at which point the Arrhenius plot of the dipolar relaxation time becomes significantly steeper.

  19. Nuclear level density: Shell-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen'kov, Roman; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the nuclear level density is necessary for understanding various reactions, including those in the stellar environment. Usually the combinatorics of a Fermi gas plus pairing is used for finding the level density. Recently a practical algorithm avoiding diagonalization of huge matrices was developed for calculating the density of many-body nuclear energy levels with certain quantum numbers for a full shell-model Hamiltonian. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in a closed system of interacting particles. We briefly explain this algorithm and, when possible, demonstrate the agreement of the results with those derived from exact diagonalization. The resulting level density is much smoother than that coming from conventional mean-field combinatorics. We study the role of various components of residual interactions in the process of thermalization, stressing the influence of incoherent collision-like processes. The shell-model results for the traditionally used parameters are also compared with standard phenomenological approaches.

  20. Gravity and on-shell probe actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank; Rovai, Antonin

    2016-08-01

    In any gravitational theory and in a wide class of background space-times, we argue that there exists a simple, yet profound, relation between the on-shell Euclidean gravitational action and the on-shell Euclidean action of probes. The probes can be, for instance, charged particles or branes. The relation is tightly related to the thermodynamic nature of gravity. We provide precise checks of the relation in several examples, which include both asymptotically flat and asymptotically AdS space-times, with particle, D-brane and M-brane probes. Perfect consistency is found in all cases, including in a highly non-trivial example including α'-corrections.

  1. Understanding nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, S.

    2014-08-14

    Nuclei in the upper-sd shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A ≃ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array setup. We have compared and combined our empirical observations with the large-scale shell model results to interpret the structure of these nuclei. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. This gives us an opportunity to investigate the interplay of single particle and collective degrees of freedom in this mass region.

  2. No-Core Shell Model and Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, Petr; Ormand, W. Erich; Caurier, Etienne; Bertulani, Carlos

    2005-10-14

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications as well as the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss cross section calculations of p+6Li and 6He+p scattering as well as a calculation of the astrophysically important 7Be(p,{gamma})8B S-factor.

  3. Spherical nematic shells with a threefold valence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koning, Vinzenz; Lopez-Leon, Teresa; Darmon, Alexandre; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Vitelli, V.

    2016-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of the energetics of thin nematic shells with two charge-one-half defects and one charge-one defect. We determine the optimal arrangement: the defects are located on a great circle at the vertices of an isosceles triangle with angles of 66∘ at the charge-one-half defects and a distinct angle of 48∘, consistent with experimental findings. We also analyze thermal fluctuations around this ground state and estimate the energy as a function of thickness. We find that the energy of the three-defect shell is close to the energy of other known configurations having two charge-one and four charge-one-half defects. This finding, together with the large energy barriers separating one configuration from the others, explains their observation in experiments as well as their long-time stability.

  4. BLAZAR FLARES FROM COMPTON DRAGGED SHELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Omri; Levinson, Amir

    2015-08-10

    We compute the dynamics and emission of dissipative shells that are subject to a strong Compton drag, under simplifying assumptions about the dissipation mechanism. We show that under conditions prevailing in blazars, substantial deceleration is anticipated on sub-parsec and parsec scales in cases of rapid dissipation. Such episodes may be the origin of some of the flaring activity occasionally observed in gamma-ray blazars. The shape of the light curves thereby produced reflects the geometry of the emitting surface if the deceleration is very rapid, or the dynamics of the shell if the deceleration is delayed, or initially more gradual, owing, e.g., to continuous injection of energy and momentum.

  5. Shell tension forces propel Dictyostelium slugs forward.

    PubMed

    Rieu, Jean-Paul; Delanoë-Ayari, Hélène

    2012-12-01

    The Dictyostelium slug is an excellent model system for studying collective movements, as it is comprised of about 10(5) cells all moving together in the same direction. It still remains unclear how this movement occurs and what the physical mechanisms behind it are. By applying our recently developed 3D traction force microscopy, we propose a simple explanation for slug propulsion. Most of the forces are exerted by the sheath surrounding the slug. This secreted shell is under a rather uniform tension (around 50 mN m(-1)) and will give rise to a tissue under pressure. Finally, we propose that this pressure will naturally push the slug tip forwards if a gradient of shell mechanical properties takes place in the very anterior part of the raised tip.

  6. Shell model for warm rotating nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, M.; Yoshida, K.; Dossing, T.

    1996-12-31

    Utilizing a shell model which combines the cranked Nilsson mean-field and the residual surface and volume delta two-body forces, the authors discuss the onset of rotational damping in normal- and super-deformed nuclei. Calculation for a typical normal deformed nucleus {sup 168}Yb indicates that the rotational damping sets in at around 0.8 MeV above the yrast line, and about 30 rotational bands of various length exists at a given rotational frequency, in overall agreement with experimental findings. It is predicted that the onset of rotational damping changes significantly in different superdeformed nuclei due to the variety of the shell gaps and single-particle orbits associated with the superdeformed mean-field.

  7. Practical applications of substructuring in shell dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Sane, A.D.; Bitner, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transient dynamic stress analysis of large shell structures is often required in many industrial designs. The asymmetry features of the structure often require a full three dimensional analysis. The difficulties experienced in performing the dynamic analysis of such large and complex structures result from economic feasibility and limitations on the available computer core memory. Substructuring techniques provide a way of overcoming these difficulties. The advantages and features associated with substructuring methods are discussed in general terms. The technique is then applied to perform a transient dynamic analysis of a typical shell structure. The discussion of the example problem focused to highlight the economy, flexibility and the data handling aspects of this method. The example problem demonstrates that this method can be applied with success to a wide range of structural dynamic problems and results in significant cost savings.

  8. Disappearance of the N=14 shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strongman, M. J.; Spyrou, A.; Hoffman, C. R.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, J.; Deyoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Frank, N.; Mosby, S.; Rogers, W. F.; Peaslee, G. F.; Peters, W. A.; Schiller, A.; Tabor, S. L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2009-08-01

    An excited state of N22 unbound with respect to neutron emission was observed in a stripping reaction from a 85 MeV/nucleon F26 beam. The observed decay energy of 650(50) keV places the level, which is interpreted to be the first 3- state, at an excitation energy of 1.93(22) MeV. Together with the previously measured bound states of N22, reduction of the N=14 shell gap compared to less neutron-rich nitrogen isotopes at the neutron dripline is observed. Based on the magnitude of the reduction of the shell gap for N22, a disappearance of the gap and even a level inversion of the ν1s1/2 and the ν0d5/2 levels in the neutron-unbound nucleus C21 seems likely.

  9. Thin-shell wormholes: Linearization stability

    SciTech Connect

    Poisson, E.; Visser, M.

    1995-12-15

    The class of spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes provides a particularly elegant collection of exemplars for the study of traversable Lorentzian wormholes. In the present paper we consider linearized (spherically symmetric) perturbations around some assumed static solution of the Einstein field equations. This permits us to relate stability issues to the (linearized) equation of state of the exotic matter which is located at the wormhole throat. {copyright} 1995 The American Physical Society.

  10. Fossil dust shells around luminous supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.

    1975-01-01

    The observed frequency with which infrared excesses appear in F, G, and K supergiants of luminosity class Ia supports the idea that these excesses arise in a 'fossil' circumstellar dust shell that was formed during a prior M-super-giant phase of evolution. The required leftward evolution of the star on the H-R diagram would then imply that the Ledoux, rather than the Schwarzschild, criterion for convective mixing is the correct criterion to use in stellar evolution calculations.

  11. Shell Measuring Machine. History and Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Birchler, Wilbur D.; Fresquez, Philip R.

    2000-06-01

    Commercialization of the Ring Rotacon Shell Measuring Machine project is a CRADA (NO. LA98C10358) between The University of California (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and Moore Tool Company, Bridgeport, CT. The actual work started on this CRADA in December of 1998. Several meetings were held with the interested parties (Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Moore Tool, and the University of North Carolina). The results of these meetings were that the original Ring Rotacon did not measure up to the requirements of the Department of Energy and private industry, and a new configuration was investigated. This new configuration (Shell Measuring Machine [SMM]) much better fits the needs of all parties. The work accomplished on the Shell Measuring Machine in FY 99 includes the following; Specifications for size and weight were developed; Performance error budgets were established; Designs were developed; Analyses were performed (stiffness and natural frequency); Existing part designs were compared to the working SMM volume; Peer reviews were conducted; Controller requirements were studied; Fixture requirements were evaluated; and Machine motions were analyzed. The consensus of the Peer Review Committee was that the new configuration has the potential to satisfy the shell inspection needs of Department of Energy as well as several commercial customers. They recommended that more analyses be performed on error budgets, structural stiffness, natural frequency, and thermal effects and that operational processes be developed. Several design issues need to be addressed. They are the type of bearings utilized to support the tables (air bearings or mechanical roller type bearings), the selection of the probes, the design of the probe sliding mechanisms, and the design of the upper table positioning mechanism. Each item has several possible solutions, and more work is required to obtain the best design. This report includes the background and technical objectives; minutes of the working

  12. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  13. On Closed Shells in Nuclei. II

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M. G.

    1949-04-01

    Discussion on the use of spins and magnetic moments of the even-odd nuclei by Feenberg and Nordheim to determine the angular momentum of the eigenfunction of the odd particle; discussion of prevalence of isomerism in certain regions of the isotope chart; tabulated data on levels of square well potential, spectroscopic levels, spin term, number of states, shells and known spins and orbital assignments.

  14. The creation of AGB fallback shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Nordhaus, Jason

    2016-04-01

    The possibility that mass ejected during Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stellar evolution phases falls back towards the star has been suggested in applications ranging from the formation of accretion discs to the powering of late-thermal pulses. In this paper, we seek to explicate the properties of fallback flow trajectories from mass-loss events. We focus on a transient phase of mass ejection with sub-escape speeds, followed by a phase of a typical AGB wind. We solve the problem using both hydrodynamic simulations and a simplified one-dimensional analytic model that matches the simulations. For a given set of initial wind characteristics, we find a critical shell velocity that distinguishes between `shell fallback' and `shell escape'. We discuss the relevance of our results for both single and binary AGB stars. In particular, we discuss how our results help to frame further studies of fallback as a mechanism for forming the substantial population of observed post-AGB stars with dusty discs.

  15. Shell particles, trials, tribulations and triumphs

    SciTech Connect

    Guiochon, Georges A; Gritti, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    The concept of pellicular particles was imagined by Horvath and Lipsky fifty years ago. They were initially intended for the analysis of macromolecules. Later, shell particles were prepared. The rational behind this concept was to improve column efficiency by shortening the pathways that analyte molecules must travel and, so doing, to improve their mass transfer kinetics. Several brands of superficially porous particles were developed and became popular in the 1970s. However, the major improvements in the manufacturing of high-quality, fully porous particles, that took place in the same time, particularly by making them finer and more homogeneous, hampered the success of shell particles, which eventually disappeared. Recently, the pressing needs to improve analytical throughputs forced particle manufacturers to find a better compromise between the demands for higher column efficiency that require short diffusion paths of analyte molecules in columns and the need for columns that can be operated with the conventional instruments for liquid chromatography, which operate with moderate column back-pressures. This lead to the apparition of a new generation of columns packed with shell particles, which bring chromatographic columns to a level of efficiency undreamed of a few years ago. This evolution is reviewed, the reason that motivated it, and the consequences of their success are discussed.

  16. Production of hydroxyapatite from waste mussel shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Mark I.; Barakat, Haneen; Patterson, Darrell Alec

    2011-10-01

    This work describes the formation of Hydroxyaptite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, from waste mussel shells from the New Zealand aquaculture industry. The raw shells are first calcined to produce lime (CaO) and then reacted in a purpose built reactor to form the Hydroxyapatite (HA) in a low temperature batch process. The calcination was studied in terms of the effects of temperature, heating rate, holding time, nitrogen flow rate and particle size. The crystals formed in the batch reactor were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Optimised conditions in the calcination stage resulted in powder with around 95% conversion to lime. The as-produced HA showed poor crystallinity and the presence of impurities, although both of these features were improved by a suitable post heat treatment process. The post treated material showed good crystallinity and was comparable to commercially produced material. Preliminary biocompatibility experiments showed that the HA stimulated cell growth and promoted mineralization. The production of HA from mussel shells in a room temperature, ambient pressure process is not only a sustainable use of waste material, but also from an industrial point of view the process has considerable potential for reducing costs associated with both starting materials and energy.

  17. Fossorial Origin of the Turtle Shell.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Rubidge, Bruce S; Scheyer, Torsten M; de Queiroz, Kevin; Schachner, Emma R; Smith, Roger M H; Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Bever, G S

    2016-07-25

    The turtle shell is a complex structure that currently serves a largely protective function in this iconically slow-moving group [1]. Developmental [2, 3] and fossil [4-7] data indicate that one of the first steps toward the shelled body plan was broadening of the ribs (approximately 50 my before the completed shell [5]). Broadened ribs alone provide little protection [8] and confer significant locomotory [9, 10] and respiratory [9, 11] costs. They increase thoracic rigidity [8], which decreases speed of locomotion due to shortened stride length [10], and they inhibit effective costal ventilation [9, 11]. New fossil material of the oldest hypothesized stem turtle, Eunotosaurus africanus [12] (260 mya) [13, 14] from the Karoo Basin of South Africa, indicates the initiation of rib broadening was an adaptive response to fossoriality. Similar to extant fossorial taxa [8], the broad ribs of Eunotosaurus provide an intrinsically stable base on which to operate a powerful forelimb digging mechanism. Numerous fossorial correlates [15-17] are expressed throughout Eunotosaurus' skeleton. Most of these features are widely distributed along the turtle stem and into the crown clade, indicating the common ancestor of Eunotosaurus and modern turtles possessed a body plan significantly influenced by digging. The adaptations related to fossoriality likely facilitated movement of stem turtles into aquatic environments early in the groups' evolutionary history, and this ecology may have played an important role in stem turtles surviving the Permian/Triassic extinction event. PMID:27426515

  18. Gas distribution and starbursts in shell galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, Melinda L.; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Detailed maps of most elliptical galaxies reveal that, whereas the greatest part of their luminous mass originates from a smooth distribution with a surface brightness approximated by a de Vaucouleurs law, a small percentage of their light is contributed by low surface brightness distortions termed 'fine structures'. The sharp-edged features called 'shells' are successfully reproduced by merger and infall models involving accretion from less massive companions. In this context, dwarf spheroidal and compact disk galaxies are likely progenitors of these stellar phenomena. However, it is probable that the sources of shell-forming material also contain significant amounts of gas. This component may play an important role in constraining the formation and evolution of shell galaxies. To investigate the effects of the gaseous component, numerical simulations were performed to study the tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies containing both gas and stars by more massive primaries, and the evolution of the ensuing debris. The calculations were performed with a hybrid N-body/hydrodynamics code. Collisionless matter is evolved using a conventional N-body technique and gas is treated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics in which self-gravitating fluid elements are represented as particles evolving according to Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations. An isothermal equation of state is employed so the gas remains at a temperature 104 K. Owing to the large mass ratio between the primary and companion, the primary is modeled as a rigid potential and the self-gravity of both galaxies is neglected.

  19. Fossorial Origin of the Turtle Shell.

    PubMed

    Lyson, Tyler R; Rubidge, Bruce S; Scheyer, Torsten M; de Queiroz, Kevin; Schachner, Emma R; Smith, Roger M H; Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Bever, G S

    2016-07-25

    The turtle shell is a complex structure that currently serves a largely protective function in this iconically slow-moving group [1]. Developmental [2, 3] and fossil [4-7] data indicate that one of the first steps toward the shelled body plan was broadening of the ribs (approximately 50 my before the completed shell [5]). Broadened ribs alone provide little protection [8] and confer significant locomotory [9, 10] and respiratory [9, 11] costs. They increase thoracic rigidity [8], which decreases speed of locomotion due to shortened stride length [10], and they inhibit effective costal ventilation [9, 11]. New fossil material of the oldest hypothesized stem turtle, Eunotosaurus africanus [12] (260 mya) [13, 14] from the Karoo Basin of South Africa, indicates the initiation of rib broadening was an adaptive response to fossoriality. Similar to extant fossorial taxa [8], the broad ribs of Eunotosaurus provide an intrinsically stable base on which to operate a powerful forelimb digging mechanism. Numerous fossorial correlates [15-17] are expressed throughout Eunotosaurus' skeleton. Most of these features are widely distributed along the turtle stem and into the crown clade, indicating the common ancestor of Eunotosaurus and modern turtles possessed a body plan significantly influenced by digging. The adaptations related to fossoriality likely facilitated movement of stem turtles into aquatic environments early in the groups' evolutionary history, and this ecology may have played an important role in stem turtles surviving the Permian/Triassic extinction event.

  20. SiS2 in circumstellar shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, J. H.

    1993-10-01

    Solid state SiS2 is proposed as the material responsible for the recently discovered 21 micrometer emission feature that is observed in the carbon-rich circumstellar shells of certain protoplanetary nebulae. Sulfurized SiC, or SiS2 mantles on grains of either SiC or a:C-H are discussed as possible forms for which no spectroscopic laboratory observations yet exist. The identification with a relatively minor species and required special abundance ratios are consistent with the low incidence rate that the 21 micrometer feature presents in the population of carbon rich objects. It is also consistent with the lack of a good correlation between the 21 micrometer feature and the other solid-state spectroscopic features that have been observed in protoplanetaries that would be expected if the feature arose from molecules composed of H, C, N, and O. SiS2 condensate is consistent with the circumstellar shell temperature range, TCS approximately equal to or less than 150 K, at which the feature appears, and the available mass of SiS2, MSiS2 approx. = 5 x 10-6 solar mass, that is possible in the circumstellar shell.

  1. Radar attenuation in Europa's ice shell: obstacles and opportunities for constraining shell thickness and thermal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousova, Klara; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Soderlund, Krista M.; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    With its strikingly young surface and possibly recent endogenic activity, Europa is one of the most exciting bodies within our Solar System and a primary target for spacecraft exploration. Future missions to Europa are expected to carry ice penetrating radar instruments which are powerful tools to investigate the subsurface thermophysical structure of its ice shell.Several authors have addressed the 'penetration depth' of radar sounders at icy moons, however, the concept and calculation of a single value penetration depth is a potentially misleading simplification since it ignores the thermal and attenuation structure complexity of a realistic ice shell. Here we move beyond the concept of a single penetration depth by exploring the variation in two-way radar attenuation for a variety of potential thermal structures of Europa's ice shell as well as for a low loss and high loss temperature-dependent attenuation model. The possibility to detect brines is also investigated.Our results indicate that: (i) for all ice shell thicknesses investigated (5-30 km), a nominal satellite-borne radar sounder will penetrate between 15% and 100% of the total thickness, (ii) the maximum penetration depth strongly varies laterally with the deepest penetration possible through the cold downwellings, (iii) the direct detection of the ice/ocean interface might be possible for shells of up to 15 km if the radar signal travels through the cold downwelling, (iv) even if the ice/ocean interface is not detected, the penetration through most of the shell could constrain the deep shell structure through the loss of signal, and (v) for all plausible ice shells the two-way attenuation to the eutectic point is ≤30 dB which shows a robust potential for longitudinal investigation of the ice shell's shallow structure.Part of this work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. K.K. acknowledges support by the Grant Agency of the

  2. Microstructural and optical properties of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dea Uk; Kim, Dae Hun; Choi, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Hong Seok; Yoo, Keon-Ho; Kim, Tae Whan

    2016-01-25

    CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by using a solution process. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images and energy dispersive spectroscopy profiles confirmed that stoichiometric CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs were formed. Ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs showed the dominant excitonic transitions from the ground electronic subband to the ground hole subband (1S(e)-1S(3/2)(h)). The PL mechanism is suggested; the carriers generated by the exciting high-energy photons in the shell region are relaxed to the band-edge states of the core region and recombined to emit lower-energy photons. The activation energy of the carriers confined in the CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs, as obtained from temperature-dependent PL spectra, was 200 meV. The quantum efficiency of the CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell QDs at 300 K was estimated to be approximately 57%.

  3. Oxide shell reduction and magnetic property changes in core-shell Fe nanoclusters under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You; Jiang, Weilin; McCloy, John S.

    2014-05-07

    Ion irradiation effects are studied on the Fe-based core-shell nanocluster (NC) films with core as Fe and shell as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}N. These NC films were deposited on Si substrates to thickness of ∼0.5 μm using a NC deposition system. The films were irradiated at room temperature with 5.5 MeV Si{sup 2+} ions to ion fluences of 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. It is found that the irradiation induces grain growth, Fe valence reduction in the shell, and crystallization or growth of Fe{sub 3}N. The film retained its Fe-core and its ferromagnetic properties after irradiation. The nature and mechanism of oxide shell reduction and composition dependence after irradiation were studied by synthesizing additional NC films of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeO + Fe{sub 3}N and irradiating them under the same conditions. The presence of nanocrystalline Fe is found to be a major factor for the oxide shell reduction. The surface morphologies of these films show dramatic changes in the microstructures due to cluster growth and agglomeration as a result of ion irradiation.

  4. Radiation-reaction in classical off-shell electrodynamics. I. The above mass-shell case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonovich, I.; Horwitz, L. P.

    2012-03-01

    Offshell electrodynamics based on a manifestly covariant off-shell relativistic dynamics of Stueckelberg, Horwitz, and Piron, is five-dimensional. In this paper, we study the problem of radiation reaction of a particle in motion in this framework. In particular, the case of above-mass-shell is studied in detail, where the renormalization of the Lorentz force leads to a system of non-linear differential equations for 3 Lorentz scalars. The system is then solved numerically, where it is shown that the mass-shell deviation scalar ɛ either smoothly falls down to 0 (this result provides a mechanism for the mass stability of the off-shell theory), or strongly diverges under more extreme conditions. In both cases, no runaway motion is observed. Stability analysis indicates that the system seems to have chaotic behavior. It is also shown that, although a motion under which the mass-shell deviation ɛ is constant but not-zero, is indeed possible, but, it is unstable, and eventually it either decays to 0 or diverges.

  5. Shock-Sensitivity in Shell-Like Structures: With Simulations of Spherical Shell Buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. Michael T.; Sieber, Jan

    Under increasing compression, an unbuckled shell is in a metastable state which becomes increasingly precarious as the buckling load is approached. So to induce premature buckling, a lateral disturbance will have to overcome a decreasing energy barrier which reaches zero at buckling. Two archetypal problems that exhibit a severe form of this behavior are the axially-compressed cylindrical shell and the externally pressurized spherical shell. Focusing on the cylinder, a nondestructive technique was recently proposed to estimate the “shock-sensitivity” of a laboratory specimen using a lateral probe to measure the nonlinear load-deflection characteristic. If a symmetry-breaking bifurcation is encountered on the path, computer simulations showed how this can be suppressed by a controlled secondary probe. Here, we extend our understanding by assessing in general terms how a single control can capture remote saddle solutions: in particular, how a symmetric probe could locate an asymmetric solution. Then, more specifically, we analyze the spherical shell with point and ring probes, to test the procedure under challenging conditions to assess its range of applicability. Rather than a bifurcation, the spherical shell offers the challenge of a destabilizing fold (limit point) under the rigid control of the probe.

  6. Switching closed-shell to open-shell phenalenyl: toward designing electroactive materials.

    PubMed

    Pariyar, Anand; Vijaykumar, Gonela; Bhunia, Mrinal; Dey, Suman Kr; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Mandal, Swadhin K

    2015-05-13

    Open-shell phenalenyl chemistry started more than half a century back, and the first solid-state phenalenyl radical was realized only 15 years ago highlighting the synthetic challenges associated in stabilizing carbon-based radical chemistry, though it has great promise as building blocks for molecular electronics and multifunctional materials. Alternatively, stable closed-shell phenalenyl has tremendous potential as it can be utilized to create an in situ open-shell state by external spin injection. In the present study, we have designed a closed-shell phenalenyl-based iron(III) complex, Fe(III)(PLY)3 (PLY-H = 9-hydroxyphenalenone) displaying an excellent electrocatalytic property as cathode material for one compartment membraneless H2O2 fuel cell. The power density output of Fe(III)(PLY)3 is nearly 15-fold higher than the structurally related model compound Fe(III)(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) and nearly 140-fold higher than an earlier reported mononuclear Fe(III) complex, Fe(III)(Pc)Cl (Pc = pthalocyaninate), highlighting the role of switchable closed-shell phenalenyl moiety for electron-transfer process in designing electroactive materials.

  7. Impact of high ytterbium(III) concentration in the shell on upconversion luminescence of core-shell nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Daqin; Zhu, Wenjuan; Xu, Ju; Wang, Yuansheng

    2014-10-01

    After coating 20 Yb/2 Er:NaGdF4 core nanocrystals with a NaYbF4 shell, upconversion emission of the rare earth ions weakens. So far, the exact reason for this phenomenon is still unclear due to lack of the direct evidence. In this report, a core@shell@shell sandwich-like structure is designed and fabricated to investigate this phenomenon. We find that high Yb(3+) concentration in the shell has mainly two adverse impacts: it promotes not only the deleterious back energy transfer from Er(3+) in the core to Yb(3+) in the shell but also the energy transfer from Yb(3+) in the core to Yb(3+) in the shell. To obtain nanocrystals with high upconversion efficency, appropriate Yb(3+) concentration should be introduced into the shell or the transition layer.

  8. Nanostructued core-shell Sn nanowires @ CNTs with controllable thickness of CNT shells for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Xifei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ruying; Cai, Mei; Sun, Xueliang

    2015-03-01

    Core-shell structure of Sn nanowires encapsulated in amorphous carbon nanotubes (Sn@CNTs) with controlled thickness of CNT shells was in situ prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The thickness of CNT shells was accurately controlled from 4 to 99 nm by using different growth time, flow rate of hydrocarbon gas (C2H4) and synthesis temperature. The microstructure and composition of the coaxial Sn@CNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Moreover, the Sn@CNTs were studied as anode materials for Li-ion batteries and showed excellent cycle performance. The capacity was affected by the thickness of outer CNT shells: thick CNT shells contributed to a better retention while thin CNT shells led to a higher capacity. The thin CNT shell of 6 nm presented the highest capacity around 630 mAh g-1.

  9. Silica-metal core-shell nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jankiewicz, B J; Jamiola, D; Choma, J; Jaroniec, M

    2012-01-15

    Silica-metal nanostructures consisting of silica cores and metal nanoshells attract a lot of attention because of their unique properties and potential applications ranging from catalysis and biosensing to optical devices and medicine. The important feature of these nanostructures is the possibility of controlling their properties by the variation of their geometry, shell morphology and shell material. This review is devoted to silica-noble metal core-shell nanostructures; specifically, it outlines the main methods used for the preparation and surface modification of silica particles and presents the major strategies for the formation of metal nanoshells on the modified silica particles. A special emphasis is given to the Stöber method, which is relatively simple, effective and well verified for the synthesis of large and highly uniform silica particles (with diameters from 100 nm to a few microns). Next, the surface chemistry of these particles is discussed with a special focus on the attachment of specific organic groups such as aminopropyl or mercaptopropyl groups, which interact strongly with metal species. Finally, the synthesis, characterization and application of various silica-metal core-shell nanostructures are reviewed, especially in relation to the siliceous cores with gold or silver nanoshells. Nowadays, gold is most often used metal for the formation of nanoshells due to its beneficial properties for many applications. However, other metals such as silver, platinum, palladium, nickel and copper were also used for fabrication of core-shell nanostructures. Silica-metal nanostructures can be prepared using various methods, for instance, (i) growth of metal nanoshells on the siliceous cores with deposited metal nanoparticles, (ii) reduction of metal species accompanied by precipitation of metal nanoparticles on the modified silica cores, and (iii) formation of metal nanoshells under ultrasonic conditions. A special emphasis is given to the seed

  10. The heterogeneous ice shell thickness of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Massironi, Matteo

    2016-10-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus is the smallest Solar System body that presents an intense geologic activity on its surface. Plumes erupting from Enceladus' South Polar terrain (SPT) provide direct evidence of a reservoir of liquid below the surface. Previous analysis of gravity data determined that the ice shell above the liquid ocean must be 30-40 km thick from the South Pole up to 50° S latitude (Iess et al., 2014), however, understand the global or regional nature of the ocean beneath the ice crust is still challenging. To infer the thickness of the outer ice shell and prove the global extent of the ocean, we used the self-similar clustering method (Bonnet et al., 2001; Bour et al., 2002) to analyze the widespread fractures of the Enceladus's surface. The spatial distribution of fractures has been analyzed in terms of their self-similar clustering and a two-point correlation method was used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractures population (Mazzarini, 2004, 2010). A self-similar clustering of fractures is characterized by a correlation coefficient with a size range defined by a lower and upper cut-off, that represent a mechanical discontinuity and the thickness of the fractured icy crust, thus connected to the liquid reservoir. Hence, this method allowed us to estimate the icy shell thickness values in different regions of Enceladus from SPT up to northern regions.We mapped fractures in ESRI ArcGis environment in different regions of the satellite improving the recently published geological map (Crow-Willard and Pappalardo, 2015). On these regions we have taken into account the fractures, such as wide troughs and narrow troughs, located in well-defined geological units. Firstly, we analyzed the distribution of South Polar Region fracture patterns finding an ice shell thickness of ~ 31 km, in agreement with gravity measurements (Iess et al., 2014). Then, we applied the same approach to other four regions of the satellite inferring an increasing of the ice

  11. (Plasmonic Metal Core)/(Semiconductor Shell) Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Caihong

    Over the past several years, integration of metal nanocrystals that can support localized surface plasmon has been demonstrated as one of the most promising methods to the improvement of the light-harvesting efficiency of semiconductors. Ag and Au nanocrystals have been extensively hybridized with semiconductors by either deposition or anchoring. However, metal nanocrystals tend to aggregate, reshape, detach, or grow into large nanocrystals, leading to a loss of the unique properties seen in the original nanocrystals. Fortunately, core/shell nanostructures, circumventing the aforementioned problems, have been demonstrated to exhibit superior photoactivities. To further improve the light-harvesting applications of (plasmonic metal core)/(semiconductor shell) nanostructures, it is vital to understand the plasmonic and structural evolutions during the preparation processes, design novel hybrid nanostructures, and improve their light-harvesting performances. In this thesis, I therefore studied the plasmonic and structural evolutions during the formation of (Ag core)/(Ag2S shell) nanostructures. Moreover, I also prepared (noble metal core)/(TiO2 shell) nanostructures and investigated their plasmonic properties and photon-harvesting applications. Clear understanding of the sulfidation process can enable fine control of the plasmonic properties as well as the structural composition of Ag/Ag 2S nanomaterials. Therefore, I investigated the plasmonic and structural variations during the sulfidation process of Ag nanocubes both experimentally and numerically. The sulfidation reactions were carried out at both the ensemble and single-particle levels. Electrodynamic simulations were also employed to study the variations of the plasmonic properties and plasmon modes. Both experiment and simulation results revealed that sulfidation initiates at the vertices of Ag nanocubes. Ag nanocubes are then gradually truncated and each nanocube becomes a nanosphere eventually. The cubic

  12. Effects of Shell-Buckling Knockdown Factors in Large Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrinda, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Shell-buckling knockdown factors (SBKF) have been used in large cylindrical shell structures to account for uncertainty in buckling loads. As the diameter of the cylinder increases, achieving the manufacturing tolerances becomes increasingly more difficult. Knockdown factors account for manufacturing imperfections in the shell geometry by decreasing the allowable buckling load of the cylinder. In this paper, large-diameter (33 ft) cylinders are investigated by using various SBKF's. An investigation that is based on finite-element analysis (FEA) is used to develop design sensitivity relationships. Different manufacturing imperfections are modeled into a perfect cylinder to investigate the effects of these imperfections on buckling. The analysis results may be applicable to large- diameter rockets, cylindrical tower structures, bulk storage tanks, and silos.

  13. Waltzing route toward double-helix formation in cholesteric shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmon, Alexandre; Benzaquen, Michael; Seč, David; Čopar, Simon; Dauchot, Olivier; Lopez-Leon, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Liquid crystals, when confined to a spherical shell, offer fascinating possibilities for producing artificial mesoscopic atoms, which could then self-assemble into materials structured at a nanoscale, such as photonic crystals or metamaterials. The spherical curvature of the shell imposes topological constraints in the molecular ordering of the liquid crystal, resulting in the formation of defects. Controlling the number of defects, that is, the shell valency, and their positions, is a key success factor for the realization of those materials. Liquid crystals with helical cholesteric order offer a promising, yet unexplored way of controlling the shell defect configuration. In this paper, we study cholesteric shells with monovalent and bivalent defect configurations. By bringing together experiments and numerical simulations, we show that the defects appearing in these two configurations have a complex inner structure, as recently reported for simulated droplets. Bivalent shells possess two highly structured defects, which are composed of a number of smaller defect rings that pile up through the shell. Monovalent shells have a single radial defect, which is composed of two nonsingular defect lines that wind around each other in a double-helix structure. The stability of the bivalent configuration against the monovalent one is controlled by c = h/p, where h is the shell thickness and p the cholesteric helical pitch. By playing with the shell geometry, we can trigger the transition between the two configurations. This transition involves a fascinating waltz dynamics, where the two defects come closer while turning around each other.

  14. Mercury removal using ground and calcined mussel shell.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-12-01

    We determined mercury retention on calcined and ground mussel shell, in presence and absence of phosphate, using batch and stirred flow chamber experiments. In batch experiments the calcined shell exhibited higher Hg adsorption, with good fitting to Freundlich equation (R2: 0.925-0.978); the presence of phosphate increased Hg adsorption; mercury desorption was 13% or lower, diminishing up to 2% under the presence of phosphates. In stirred flow chamber experiments calcined shell retained more Hg than ground shells (6300 vs. 4000-5200 micromol/kg); Hg retention increased an additional 40% on calcined shell and up to an additional 70% on ground shells when phosphates were present; mercury desorption was quite similar in all shell types (20%-34%), increasing up to 49%-60% in ground shells when phosphates were present. The higher Hg adsorption on calcined shell would be related to its calcite and dolomite concentrations; mercury-phosphate interactions would cause the increase in Hg retention when phosphates are present. Data on Hg desorption suggest that Hg retention was not easily reversible after batch experiments, increasing in the stirred flow chamber due to convective flow. Calcined and ground mussel shells could be recycled removing Hg from water, with the presence of phosphates in solution improving efficacy.

  15. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Relativistic shells or central engines?

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, E.E.; Summer, M.C.

    1997-08-01

    In many models of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) relativistic shells are responsible for the overall envelope of emission. The authors use kinematics and symmetry to calculate the time history and spectral evolution expected from a relativistic shell including effects from intrinsic variations in the shell`s intensity and spectra. They find that the decay phase of an envelope is produced by photons delayed by the shell`s curvature. These delayed photons are produced by regions that are off-axis such that the spectra evolve according to a universal function ({proportional_to} T{sup {minus}1}) regardless of intrinsic variations in the rest frame of the shell. They compare these predictions to the overall envelope of emission of GRBs. The observed spectra evolve faster ({approximately} T{sup {minus}3}). Intrinsic variations cannot make the spectra evolve that fast, which adds strength to the shell symmetry problem: models, in particular, the external shock model, that involve relativistic shells must either confine the material to narrow pencil beams, be very inefficient, or break the local spherical symmetry so that the shell acts like a parallel slab. In the case of the internal shock models involving winds (i.e., central engines), it will probably be easier to break the local spherical symmetry, but the none must postulate nearly continuous energy generation at 10{sup 51} erg s{sup {minus}1} lasting up to hundreds of seconds at the central site.

  16. Waltzing route toward double-helix formation in cholesteric shells.

    PubMed

    Darmon, Alexandre; Benzaquen, Michael; Seč, David; Čopar, Simon; Dauchot, Olivier; Lopez-Leon, Teresa

    2016-08-23

    Liquid crystals, when confined to a spherical shell, offer fascinating possibilities for producing artificial mesoscopic atoms, which could then self-assemble into materials structured at a nanoscale, such as photonic crystals or metamaterials. The spherical curvature of the shell imposes topological constraints in the molecular ordering of the liquid crystal, resulting in the formation of defects. Controlling the number of defects, that is, the shell valency, and their positions, is a key success factor for the realization of those materials. Liquid crystals with helical cholesteric order offer a promising, yet unexplored way of controlling the shell defect configuration. In this paper, we study cholesteric shells with monovalent and bivalent defect configurations. By bringing together experiments and numerical simulations, we show that the defects appearing in these two configurations have a complex inner structure, as recently reported for simulated droplets. Bivalent shells possess two highly structured defects, which are composed of a number of smaller defect rings that pile up through the shell. Monovalent shells have a single radial defect, which is composed of two nonsingular defect lines that wind around each other in a double-helix structure. The stability of the bivalent configuration against the monovalent one is controlled by c = h/p, where h is the shell thickness and p the cholesteric helical pitch. By playing with the shell geometry, we can trigger the transition between the two configurations. This transition involves a fascinating waltz dynamics, where the two defects come closer while turning around each other. PMID:27493221

  17. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-xing; Bao, Lin-fei; Fan, Mei-hua; Li, Xiao-min; Wu, Chang-wen; Xia, Shu-wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment. PMID:26218932

  18. Acoustic radiation from single and double ribbed circular cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, C. B.; Hayek, S. I.; Hallander, J. E.; Bostian, D. A.

    1984-03-01

    Measurements of the acoustic radiation from single and double ribbed circular cylindrical shells were made on the NUSC Transducer Calibration Platform (TCP) in Lake Seneca, NY. Six different types of mechanical drives were used at each of three locations inside the inner shell. Measurements of the shell vibration and acoustic radiation were made with and without outer shells installed around the inner shell structure. For two types of drives, measurements were made with a pressure release layer installed between the inner and outer shell surfaces. Acoustic radiation measurements were made as a function of frequency from 20 to 5,000 Hz and as a function of observation direction at several frequencies for each shell and drive measurement configuration. Measured acoustic radiation data as a function of frequency have been processed. Analysis of the processed data is presented and discussed. It is shown that the location of the drive had a significant effect on the acoustic radiation. The outer shell reduced the acoustic radiation at shell resonant frequencies, but had little effect on other frequencies. The pressure release layer in the double shell had little effect on the acoustic radiation.

  19. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Liao, Zhi; Wang, Xin-Xing; Bao, Lin-Fei; Fan, Mei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Min; Wu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  20. An investigation of ab initio shell-model interactions derived by no-core shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoBao; Dong, GuoXiang; Li, QingFeng; Shen, CaiWan; Yu, ShaoYing

    2016-09-01

    The microscopic shell-model effective interactions are mainly based on the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the first work of which can be traced to Brown and Kuo's first attempt in 1966, derived from the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential. However, the convergence of the MBPT is still unclear. On the other hand, ab initio theories, such as Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), no-core shell model (NCSM), and coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD), have made many progress in recent years. However, due to the increasing demanding of computing resources, these ab initio applications are usually limited to nuclei with mass up to A = 16. Recently, people have realized the ab initio construction of valence-space effective interactions, which is obtained through a second-time renormalization, or to be more exactly, projecting the full-manybody Hamiltonian into core, one-body, and two-body cluster parts. In this paper, we present the investigation of such ab initio shell-model interactions, by the recent derived sd-shell effective interactions based on effective J-matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP) and chiral effective-field theory (EFT) through NCSM. In this work, we have seen the similarity between the ab initio shellmodel interactions and the interactions obtained by MBPT or by empirical fitting. Without the inclusion of three-body (3-bd) force, the ab initio shell-model interactions still share similar defects with the microscopic interactions by MBPT, i.e., T = 1 channel is more attractive while T = 0 channel is more repulsive than empirical interactions. The progress to include more many-body correlations and 3-bd force is still badly needed, to see whether such efforts of ab initio shell-model interactions can reach similar precision as the interactions fitted to experimental data.

  1. The shell organic matrix of the crossed lamellar queen conch shell (Strombus gigas).

    PubMed

    Osuna-Mascaró, Antonio; Cruz-Bustos, Teresa; Benhamada, Sana; Guichard, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Checa, Antonio; Marin, Frédéric

    2014-02-01

    In molluscs, the shell organic matrix comprises a large set of biomineral-occluded proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides that are secreted by the calcifying mantle epithelium, and are supposed to display several functions related to the synthesis of the shell. In the present paper, we have characterized biochemically the shell matrix associated to the crossed-lamellar structure of the giant queen conch Strombus gigas. The acid-soluble (ASM) and acid-insoluble (AIM) matrices represent an extremely minor fraction of the shell. Both are constituted of polydisperse and of few discrete proteins among which three fractions, obtained by preparative SDS-PAGE and named 1P3, 2P3 and 3P3, are dominant and were further characterized. Compared to other matrices, the acid-soluble matrix is weakly glycosylated (3%) and among the discrete components, only 3P3 seems noticeably glycosylated. The monosaccharide composition of the ASM shows that mannose represents the main monosaccharide. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a high ratio of this sugar in a skeletal matrix. Furthermore, the ASM interacts with the in vitro crystallization of calcium carbonate, but this interaction is moderate. It differs from that of the isolated 1P3 fraction but is similar to that of the 2P3 and 3P3 fractions. At last, antibodies developed from the 3P3 fraction were used to localize this fraction within the shell by immunogold. This study is the first one aiming at characterizing the organic matrix associated to the crossed-lamellar structure of the queen conch shell.

  2. The shell organic matrix of the crossed lamellar queen conch shell (Strombus gigas).

    PubMed

    Osuna-Mascaró, Antonio; Cruz-Bustos, Teresa; Benhamada, Sana; Guichard, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Checa, Antonio; Marin, Frédéric

    2014-02-01

    In molluscs, the shell organic matrix comprises a large set of biomineral-occluded proteins, glycoproteins and polysaccharides that are secreted by the calcifying mantle epithelium, and are supposed to display several functions related to the synthesis of the shell. In the present paper, we have characterized biochemically the shell matrix associated to the crossed-lamellar structure of the giant queen conch Strombus gigas. The acid-soluble (ASM) and acid-insoluble (AIM) matrices represent an extremely minor fraction of the shell. Both are constituted of polydisperse and of few discrete proteins among which three fractions, obtained by preparative SDS-PAGE and named 1P3, 2P3 and 3P3, are dominant and were further characterized. Compared to other matrices, the acid-soluble matrix is weakly glycosylated (3%) and among the discrete components, only 3P3 seems noticeably glycosylated. The monosaccharide composition of the ASM shows that mannose represents the main monosaccharide. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a high ratio of this sugar in a skeletal matrix. Furthermore, the ASM interacts with the in vitro crystallization of calcium carbonate, but this interaction is moderate. It differs from that of the isolated 1P3 fraction but is similar to that of the 2P3 and 3P3 fractions. At last, antibodies developed from the 3P3 fraction were used to localize this fraction within the shell by immunogold. This study is the first one aiming at characterizing the organic matrix associated to the crossed-lamellar structure of the queen conch shell. PMID:24291423

  3. Jacobi no-core shell model for p-shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, S.; Meißner, U.-G.; Nogga, A.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce an algorithm to obtain coefficients of fractional parentage for light p-shell nuclei. The coefficients enable one to use Jacobi coordinates in no-core shell model calculations separating off the center-of-mass motion. Fully antisymmetrized basis states are given together with recoupling coefficients that allow one to apply two- and three-nucleon operators. As an example, we study the dependence on the harmonic oscillator frequency of 3H, 4He, 6He, 6Li and 7Li and extract their binding and excitation energies. The coefficients will be made openly accessible as HDF5 data files.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Metallodielectric SiO2@Pt@SiO2 Core-Shell-Shell Particles.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Alexey; Lehmann, Hauke; Finsel, Maik; Klinke, Christian; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2016-01-26

    Metallodielectric nanostructured core-shell-shell particles are particularly desirable for enabling novel types of optical components, including narrow-band absorbers, narrow-band photodetectors, and thermal emitters, as well as new types of sensors and catalysts. Here, we present a facile approach for the preparation of submicron SiO2@Pt@SiO2 core-shell-shell particles. As shown by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the first steps of this approach allow for the deposition of closed and almost perfectly smooth platinum shells onto silica cores via a seeded growth mechanism. By choosing appropriate conditions, the shell thickness could be adjusted precisely, ranging from ∼3 to ∼32 nm. As determined by X-ray diffraction, the crystalline domain sizes of the polycrystalline metal shells were ∼4 nm, regardless of the shell thickness. The platinum content of the particles was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and for thin shells consistent with a dense metal layer of the TEM-measured thickness. In addition, we show that the roughness of the platinum shell strongly depends on the storage time of the gold seeds used to initiate reductive platinum deposition. Further, using polyvinylpyrrolidone as adhesion layer, it was possible to coat the metallic shells with very homogeneous and smooth insulating silica shells of well-controlled thicknesses between ∼2 and ∼43 nm. After depositing the particles onto silicon substrates equipped with interdigitated electrode structures, the metallic character of the SiO2@Pt particles and the insulating character of the SiO2 shells of the SiO2@Pt@SiO2 particles were successfully demonstrated by charge transport measurements at variable temperatures.

  5. Distribution and shell selection by two hermit crabs in different habitats on Egyptian Red Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kareem Ismail, Tarek Gad

    2010-05-01

    The present work aims to assess the spatial distribution, analyze shell utilization, shell fitness and determine the effect of coexistence of two hermit crabs Calcinus latens and Clibanarius signatus on used shell resources in various habitats on the Red Sea Coast. Also, to determine the choice of shells and investigate the shell species preference of C. latens and C. signatus in the laboratory. The hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus were found to occupy shells of 39 gastropod species. The most commonly occupied gastropod shells are those belonging to genera Strombus, Nerita, Cerithium and Planaxis. The results showed that crab individuals utilized mainly the shell with elongate aperture. Laboratory experiments showed that two crab species preferred shells of Strombus followed by Cerithium and Nerita when offered shells of nearly similar size (optimal). Crab individuals showed a significant preference for optimal sized shells when given suboptimal shells as an alternative choice. Also, the hermit crabs avoid damaged shells when given a choice of optimal sized damaged shell and optimal sized intact one. In addition, two hermit crab species chose shells of smaller than optimal size when given a choice of damaged optimal sized shells and smaller intact ones. On the other hand, field observations showed that most crab individuals lived in adequate sized shells. The present data conclude that shell selection by hermit crabs C. latens and C. signatus depends mostly on shell internal volume, shell quality and shell aperture size than other factors, because they provide a maximum protection for hermit crabs.

  6. Fossil shell emission in dying radio loud AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, M.; Ito, H.; Kawakatu, N.; Orienti, M.; Nagai, H.; Wajima, K.; Itoh, R.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate shell emission associated with dying radio loud AGNs. First, based on our recent work by Ito et al. (2015), we describe the dynamical and spectral evolution of shells after stopping the jet energy injection. We find that the shell emission overwhelms that of the radio lobes soon after stopping the jet energy injection because fresh electrons are continuously supplied into the shell via the forward shock, while the radio lobes rapidly fade out without jet energy injection. We find that such fossil shells can be a new class of target sources for SKA telescope. Next, we apply the model to the nearby radio source 3C84. Then, we find that the fossil shell emission in 3C84 is less luminous in the radio band while it is bright in the TeV γ-ray band and can be detectable by CTA. Data from STELLA

  7. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading. [Reissner theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.

    1981-01-01

    The general problem of a shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and anti-plane elasticity solutions. Results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform in-plane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The problem is formulated for specially orthostropic materials, therefore, the effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  8. Gravitationally collapsing shells in (2+1) dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Robert B.; Oh, John J.

    2006-12-15

    We study gravitationally collapsing models of pressureless dust, fluids with pressure, and the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) shell in (2+1)-dimensional spacetimes. Various collapse scenarios are investigated under a variety of the background configurations such as anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole, de Sitter (dS) space, flat and AdS space with a conical deficit. As with the case of a disk of dust, we find that the collapse of a dust shell coincides with the Oppenheimer-Snyder type collapse to a black hole provided the initial density is sufficiently large. We also find - for all types of shell - that collapse to a naked singularity is possible under a broad variety of initial conditions. For shells with pressure this singularity can occur for a finite radius of the shell. We also find that GCG shells exhibit diverse collapse scenarios, which can be easily demonstrated by an effective potential analysis.

  9. Shell Buckling Design Criteria Based on Manufacturing Imperfection Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis-based approach .for developing shell-buckling design criteria for laminated-composite cylindrical shells that accurately accounts for the effects of initial geometric imperfections is presented. With this approach, measured initial geometric imperfection data from six graphite-epoxy shells are used to determine a manufacturing-process-specific imperfection signature for these shells. This imperfection signature is then used as input into nonlinear finite-element analyses. The imperfection signature represents a "first-approximation" mean imperfection shape that is suitable for developing preliminary-design data. Comparisons of test data and analytical results obtained by using several different imperfection shapes are presented for selected shells. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis-based approach presented for developing reliable preliminary-design criteria has the potential to provide improved, less conservative buckling-load estimates, and to reduce the weight and cost of developing buckling-resistant shell structures.

  10. Sound Transmission through a Cylindrical Sandwich Shell with Honeycomb Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Robinson, Jay H.; Silcox, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Sound transmission through an infinite cylindrical sandwich shell is studied in the context of the transmission of airborne sound into aircraft interiors. The cylindrical shell is immersed in fluid media and excited by an oblique incident plane sound wave. The internal and external fluids are different and there is uniform airflow in the external fluid medium. An explicit expression of transmission loss is derived in terms of modal impedance of the fluids and the shell. The results show the effects of (a) the incident angles of the plane wave; (b) the flight conditions of Mach number and altitude of the aircraft; (c) the ratios between the core thickness and the total thickness of the shell; and (d) the structural loss factors on the transmission loss. Comparisons of the transmission loss are made among different shell constructions and different shell theories.

  11. Preparation of aqueous core/silica shell microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Bean, Keith; Black, Camilla F; Govan, Norman; Reynolds, Paul; Sambrook, Mark R

    2012-01-15

    Water core/silica shell microcapsules are prepared via the hydrolysis and subsequent polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane in a surfactant stabilised water-in-oil emulsion. The relationship between preparative conditions, including pH and silane concentration, has been related to final particle structure. Furthermore, the nature of the catalyst has been found to affect the mechanism by which the shells are formed, with an interfacial polymerisation proposed for ammonium hydroxide catalysed synthesis in agreement with previous reports and a new colloidosome assembly process for sodium hydroxide catalysis. In both cases shell aging processes are observed to continue beyond initial shell formation suggesting that trans-shell diffusion of reactants may be feasible, or that rapid hydrolysis is required in order to load high concentrations of the reactants into the internal phase before significant shell formation.

  12. Acoustic radiation from a shell with internal structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1989-01-01

    A method is developed to compute frequency response and acoustic radiation of a complex shell. The axisymmetric geometry of the shell includes cylindrical, conical, and spherical segments stiffened by discrete rings and bulkheads. The shell is coupled to internal masses and elastic frames. Shell segments are treated by transfer matrices. Rings, bulkheads, frames, and concentrated masses are treated by impedances at junctions of segments. The shell is coupled to an external acoustic fluid treated by Green's function and curved surface elements. A major issue facing the method's treatment of the fluid would be lack of existence or uniqueness encountered in the uncoupled, external acoustic problem at characteristic wavenumbers. By using a simple spherical shell, without internal structures, this potential hindrance is shown not to arise. A fuller application of the method awaits subsequent results.

  13. IMPROVEMENT EFFECT OF PLAYGROUND SURFACE BY WASTE CRUSHED SHELL MIXING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Oda, Kenichi; Higuchi, Emiko; Takano, Morihiro; Tasaki, Hiroshi

    If sandy soil with appropriate gradation is compacted, hard and dense ground will be generated. Even if the soil material is hard enough against shock load, the permeability of the soil decreases significantly. This paper examines the improvement effect of playground surface by waste crushed shell mixing technique. The following conclusions are obtained from the present study: 1. The maximum dry density of the sandy soil increases gradually by mixing the crushed shell. However, if the crushed shell is put into the soil too much, the density decreases conversely. 2. Although the density of the soil sample becomes high by mixing the crushed shell, the coefficient of permeability increases. 3. The soil particles once attached to the shell is not washed away easily. 4. The crushed shell doesn't change the quality of groundwater so much. 5. This repair method is applicable to improvement of playground surface.

  14. Small bending and stretching of sandwich-type shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reissner, Eric

    1950-01-01

    A theory has been developed for small bending and stretching of sandwich-type shells. This theory is an extension of the known theory of homogeneous thin elastic shells. It was found that two effects are important in the present problem, which are not normally of importance in the theory of curved shells: (1) the effect of transverse shear deformation and (2) the effect of transverse normal stress deformation. The first of these two effects has been known to be of importance in the theory of plates and beams. The second effect was found to occur in a manner which is typical for shells and has no counterpart in flat-plate theory. The general results of this report have been applied to the solution of problems concerning flat plates, circular rings, circular cylindrical shells, and spherical shells. In each case numerical examples have been given, illustrating the magnitude of the effects of transverse shear and normal stress deformation.

  15. Damaged stiffened shell research at NASA. Langley Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Britt, Vicki O.

    1992-07-01

    The structural behavior of stiffened fuselage shells with local cracks is influenced by the local deformations and stress gradients near the cracks, and this behavior must be understood to predict fuselage structural integrity and residual strength. As a crack grows, the stiffness and internal load distributions in a stiffened shell change, affecting the local deformations and stress gradients near the crack. Transport fuselage shells are designed to support internal pressure and mechanical loads which cause a geometrically nonlinear response. Research is being conducted at NASA LaRC to develop and demonstrate a verified nonlinear stiffened shell analysis methodology for accurately predicting the global and local behavior of nonlinear stiffened fuselage shells with local cracks and with combined internal pressure and mechanical loads. The nonlinear structural analysis methodology being developed and planned at NASA LaRC for damaged stiffened fuselage shells and the experiments being planned to verify this analysis methodology are summarized in the present paper.

  16. Scars and the stability of crystalline shells under external pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Duanduan; Bowick, Mark; Sknepnek, Rastko

    2015-03-01

    While continuum elastic theory predicts the mechanical properties of ideal spherical shells under external pressure, on microscopic scale the response of shells to pressure may be affected by their crystalline order and defect structure. Here we compare the stability, under external pressure, of shells with a minimal set of topologically-required defects to shells with extended defect arrays (grain boundary ``scars''). In particular, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to compare how shells with and without scars deform quasi-statically under external hydrostatic pressure. We find that the critical pressure at which shells collapse is lowered when the scar distribution breaks icosahedral symmetry and raised when symmetry is preserved. The particular shapes resulting from collapses which break icosahedral symmetry depend crucially on the Föppl-von Kármán number. We thank the Soft Matter Program of Syracuse University for support.

  17. Tunable Diacetylene Polymerized Shell Microbubbles as Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoonjee; Luce, Adam C.; Whitaker, Ragnhild D.; Amin, Bhumica; Cabodi, Mario; Nap, Rikkert J.; Szleifer, Igal; Cleveland, Robin O.; Nagy, Jon O.; Wong, Joyce Y.

    2012-01-01

    Monodisperse gas microbubbles, encapsulated with a shell of photopolymerizable diacetylene lipids and phospholipids, were produced by microfluidic flow focusing, for use as ultrasound contrast agents. The stability of the polymerized shell microbubbles against both aggregation and gas dissolution under physiological conditions was studied. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 5000, which was attached to the diacetylene lipids, was predicted by molecular theory to provide more steric hindrance against aggregation than PEG 2000 and this was confirmed experimentally. The polymerized shell microbubbles were found to have higher shell-resistance than nonpolymerizable shell microbubbles and commercially available microbubbles (Vevo MicroMarker). The acoustic stability under 7.5 MHz ultrasound insonation was significantly greater than for the two comparison microbubbles. The acoustic stability was tunable by varying the amount of diacetylene lipid. Thus, our polymerized shell microbubbles are a promising platform for ultrasound contrast agents. PMID:22260537

  18. Stress analysis of filament wound open-ended composite shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramoll, K. C.

    1993-04-01

    Membrane stresses and radial displacements for a filament wound, open-ended composite shell with internal pressure loading are developed. The shell is considered to be open at the crown as required by planar filament winding. The shell thickness and material properties vary along the meridian line due to the filament winding process. The membrane stress resultants are compared with finite elements using large deflection nonlinear anisotropic axisymmetric elements for an ellipsoidal shell. Finite elements show large bending stresses near the open edge for an ellipsoid, spheroid and netting shell. The ellipsoid and spheroid shells also show bending stresses throughout the dome structure. Radial deformations are also compared to finite element results for the three dome types.

  19. Error dynamics in shell models for turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cruz, Lesley; Vannitsem, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    A deep understanding of the error dynamics in turbulent systems is crucial to estimate the horizon of predictability, and to quantify the impact of initial-condition (IC) and model errors on the statistical characteristics of ensemble prediction systems. We present a study of the dynamics of combined IC and model errors in a turbulent system. We use the Sabra shell model [1], a spectral model which captures the characteristic properties of a turbulent system using a low number of variables (of the order of 50). The analytical properties of the short-term error dynamics in the Sabra shell model are investigated using the methodology described in Ref. [2], and compared to numerical results. Of particular interest is the property of a dissipative system that the mean squared error (MSE) reaches a minimum shortly after the introduction of an IC error. The distribution of the minimum-error times is investigated, and the spatial-scale dependence of the error dynamics is discussed. At longer time scales, our simulations confirm the well-known fact that an arbitrarily small error in the initial conditions contaminates the integral scale in a time that is independent of the scale of the initial error. Finally, we report on the error dynamics in the presence of a crossover between 3D and 2D turbulence, known to characterise the atmosphere. References [1] V. S. L'vov, E. Podivilov, A. Pomyalov, I. Procaccia, and D. Vandembroucq. Improved shell model of turbulence. Physical Review E, 58:1811-1822, August 1998. [2] C. Nicolis, R. A. P. Perdigao, and S. Vannitsem. Dynamics of Prediction Errors under the Combined Effect of Initial Condition and Model Errors. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 66:766, 2009.

  20. Environmental effects on shell microstructures of Cerastoderma edule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Stefania; Schöne, Bernd R.; Witbaard, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Bivalve shells serve as sensitive recorders of environmental conditions. However, reconstruction of a specific environmental parameter is still challenging. For example, variable shell growth rates simultaneously provide information on water temperature, food availability and food quality. Likewise, shell oxygen isotope values function as a dual proxy of water temperature and salinity (=oxygen isotope signature of the ambient water). Reconstruction of water temperature from δ18Oshell requires knowledge of δ18Oshell and vice versa. Unfortunately, the incorporation of trace elements in the shell is strongly controlled by biological effects and, hence, the element-to-calcium ratios of the shell are difficult to interpret in terms of environmental variables. Here, we studied if the structural properties (shell architecture, shell microstructures, fabrics) of the shell of the common cockle can function as an alternative proxy of environmental variables. Specimens of C. edule were collected alive from the intertidal zone of the North Sea. Temperature and salinity were monitored at the site where the shells lived on hourly basis for almost one year. Each portion of the shell was temporally contextualized with the tidally-deposited growth increments. Shell microstructures (composite prismatic structures) were analyzed under with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The change of the size and shape of the mesocrystals was strongly correlated to water temperature during the growing season (May - Sep.). With rising temperatures, the size of mesocrystals increased and their morphology changed from rounded to elongated shape. Our findings suggest that shell microstructures of C. edule may serve a new, independent proxy for water temperature.

  1. Vibration of skewed cantilever plates and helicoidal shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beres, D. P.; Bailey, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical vibration frequencies and mode shapes are obtained for skewed plates and helicoidal shells with a cantilever boundary. Using Hamilton's law of varying action, a power series solution is developed to obtain converged numerical results for the five lowest frequencies. Effects of geometrical variables such as aspect ratio, sweep angle and shell radius to thickness ratio are investigated. Accuracy of the solution method is substantiated by comparison with existing skewed plate spherical cap, and conical shell results.

  2. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  3. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  4. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  5. WHAT IS THE SHELL AROUND R CORONAE BOREALIS?

    SciTech Connect

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Marcello, Dominic C.; Lockman, Felix J. E-mail: gclayton@fenway.phys.lsu.edu E-mail: jlockman@nrao.edu

    2015-07-15

    The hydrogen-deficient, carbon-rich R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are known for being prolific producers of dust which causes their large iconic declines in brightness. Several RCB stars, including R Coronae Borealis (R CrB), itself, have large extended dust shells seen in the far-infrared. The origin of these shells is uncertain but they may give us clues to the evolution of the RCB stars. The shells could form in three possible ways. (1) They are fossil Planetary Nebula (PN) shells, which would exist if RCB stars are the result of a final, helium-shell flash, (2) they are material left over from a white-dwarf (WD) merger event which formed the RCB stars, or (3) they are material lost from the star during the RCB phase. Arecibo 21 cm observations establish an upper limit on the column density of H I in the R CrB shell implying a maximum shell mass of ≲0.3 M{sub ☉}. A low-mass fossil PN shell is still a possible source of the shell although it may not contain enough dust. The mass of gas lost during a WD merger event will not condense enough dust to produce the observed shell, assuming a reasonable gas-to-dust ratio. The third scenario where the shell around R CrB has been produced during the star’s RCB phase seems most likely to produce the observed mass of dust and the observed size of the shell. But this means that R CrB has been in its RCB phase for ∼10{sup 4} years.

  6. The Operator Shell: A means of privilege distribution under Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, M.; Christoph, G.

    1994-03-01

    The Operator Shell (Osh) is a setuid root, security enhanced, restricted shell for providing fine-grain distribution of system privileges for a wide range of usages and requirements. Osh offers a marked improvement over other Unix privilege distribution systems in its ability to specify access to both commands and files, auditing features, and familiar interface. This paper describes the design, features, security considerations, internals, and applications of the Operator Shell.

  7. Morphology and crystalline characterization of abalone shell and mimetic mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiajun; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Ying; Huang, Yaping; Wang, Dujin; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Jinguang; Xu, Duanfu

    2003-05-01

    The microstructure and crystallization habit of natural abalone shells were characterized with the methods of SEM and XRD, etc. The soluble proteins extracted from the abalone shell play an important role on controlling the morphology and transformation of the mineral phase in the abalone shell. In vitro crystallization experiments of calcium carbonate showed that the addition of the soluble protein accelerates the transformation from vaterite to calcite.

  8. Composite particle representation for light sd shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Collinson, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Composite Particle Representation is applied to light sd shell nuclei /sup 20/O, /sup 20/F and /sup 20/Ne. The energy spectrum is found to agree exactly with the shell model in all cases. The CPR theory is then used to examine the possible boson structure of sd shell wavefunctions. Only in the case of /sup 20/O are the wavefunctions found to have a high boson probability.

  9. C++ Planning and Resource Reasoning (PARR) shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, James; Tuchman, Alan; Mclean, David; Littlefield, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a generic, C++ version of the Planning and Resource Reasoning (PARR) shell which has been developed to supersede the C-based versions of PARR that are currently used to support AI planning and scheduling applications in flight operations centers at Goddard Space Flight Center. This new object-oriented version of PARR can be more easily customized to build a variety of planning and scheduling applications, and C++ PARR applications can be more easily ported to different environments. Genetic classes, constraints, strategies, and paradigms are described along with two types of PARR interfaces.

  10. Bright Core-Shell Semiconductor Quantum Wires

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Fudong; Hoy, Jessica; Wayman, Virginia L.; Steinberg, Lindsey K.; Loomis, Richard A.; Buhro, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal CdTe quantum wires are reported having ensemble photoluminescence efficiencies as high as 25% under low excitation-power densities. High photoluminescence efficiencies are achieved by formation of a monolayer CdS shell on the CdTe quantum wires. Like other semiconductor nanowires, the CdTe quantum wires may contain frequent wurtzite–zinc-blende structural alternations along their lengths. The present results demonstrate that the optical properties, emission-peak shape and photoluminescence efficiencies, are independent of the presence or absence of such structural alternations. PMID:23095017

  11. Exotic atoms and their electron shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, L. M.; Abbot, D.; Bach, B.; Bacher, R.; Badertscher, A.; Blüm, P.; DeCecco, P.; Eades, J.; Egger, J.; Elsener, K.; Gotta, D.; Hauser, P.; Heitlinger, K.; Horváth, D.; Kottmann, F.; Morenzoni, E.; Missimer, J.; Reidy, J. J.; Siegel, R.; Taqqu, D.; Viel, D.

    1994-04-01

    Progress in the field of exotic atoms seems to increase proportionally with the number of exotic atoms produced and the increase in energy resolution with which the transition energies are determined. Modern experiments use high resolution crystal spectrometers or even aim at laser spectroscopy. The accuracy of these methods is limited by the interaction of the exotic atoms with their surroundings. The most important source of errors is the energy shift caused by the not well known status of the atomic electron shell. A novel method to eliminate these sources of error is presented and the possibilities for further high precision experiments is outlined.

  12. K-shell Ionization of Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaz Uddin, M.; Basak, A. K.

    The total cross-sections of electron impact single K-shell ionization of C, N, O, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ga, Ge and Zr atoms are computed using the previously propounded relativistic and non-relativistic BED, relativistic DM and Gryzinski models. We also propose a hybrid RDM model combining the relativistic component of the Gryzinski model with the non-relativistic DM model. The calculated cross-sections are compared to the available experimental data as well as some predictions, made by Khare et al., from the plane wave Born approximation theory.

  13. Hydrogel Nanofilaments via Core-Shell Electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Liwińska, Wioletta; Hejduk, Patryk; Zembrzycki, Krzysztof; Zabost, Ewelina; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent biomedical hydrogels applications require the development of nanostructures with controlled diameter and adjustable mechanical properties. Here we present a technique for the production of flexible nanofilaments to be used as drug carriers or in microfluidics, with deformability and elasticity resembling those of long DNA chains. The fabrication method is based on the core-shell electrospinning technique with core solution polymerisation post electrospinning. Produced from the nanofibers highly deformable hydrogel nanofilaments are characterised by their Brownian motion and bending dynamics. The evaluated mechanical properties are compared with AFM nanoindentation tests. PMID:26091487

  14. Pulsar reenergization of old supernova remnant shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Fesen, Robert A.; Saken, Jon M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology of several unusual composite remnants are suggested to be affected by previously unrecognized interactions between high-velocity pulsars and old SNR shells, and the case of CTB 80 is pointed out as a likely example of such interactions. The interactions generate a new class of 'composite remnants' and furnish a novel method for the derivation of kinematic distances and SNR ages; this technique is noted to be especially useful when the pulsar has a measured spindown age or proper motion. It is predicted that a number of pulsars may interact with 80-100 pc radius 'superbubbles' produced by the combined action of winds and supernovae in OB associations.

  15. Mg/Ca of Continental Ostracode Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, E.; Forester, R. M.; Marco-Barba, J.; Mezquita, F.

    2007-12-01

    Marine ionic chemistry is thought to remain constant. This, together with the belief that marine calcifiers partition Mg/Ca in a systematic manner as functions of temperature (and Mg/Ca) of water forms the basis of the Mg/Ca thermometer. In continental settings both of these assumptions are usually not true. Continental waters contain a wide variety of solutes in absolute and relative ion concentrations. Hence, waters with identical Mg/Ca may have very different concentrations of Mg and Ca and very different anions. Here we use two examples to focus on the effects of ion chemistry on Mg/Ca partitioning in continental ostracode shells and we ignore the complexities of solute evolution, which can change Mg/Ca over timescales of minutes to millennia. Palacios-Fest and Dettman (2001) conducted a monthly study of ,Cypridopsis vidua at El Yeso Lake in Sonora, Mexico. They established a relation between temperature and average shell Mg/Ca using regression analyses on averaged data. When their Mg/Ca-temperature relation is applied to monthly ,C. vidua data from Page Pond near Cleveland, Ohio, water temperatures of -8 to -1°C are obtained. The observed Mg/Ca ranges for El Yeso Lake (0.31 to 0.46) and Page Pond (0.33 to 0.46) are similar, as are their specific conductivities (700 to 850μS for El Yeso Lake; 400 to 600μS for Page Pond). However, [Ca] is 140-260 mg/L for El Yeso, but only 70-90 mg/L for Page Pond. Page Pond data, in fact, shows a good temperature shell Mg/Ca relation for .C. vidua, but the relation is different from that at El Yeso. Hence, shell Mg/Ca is a multi-valued, family of curves function of temperature and Mg/Ca of water that depends on the [Mg] and [Ca] values in water and perhaps other factors. Our second example comes from sites near Valencia, Spain and involves shell data for ,Cyprideis torosa, an estuarine ostracode that is tolerant of a wide range of salinity and can live in continental waters as long as the carbonate alkalinity to Ca ratio is

  16. Controls on shell thickness in modern planktonic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, K. H.; Anand, P.; Sexton, P. F.; Conte, M. H.; Bijma, J.

    2014-12-01

    Planktonic foraminifera calcification response to ocean acidification can be studied using shell parameters such as shell size, mass and thickness (derived from shell area density). Shell thickness changes in planktonic foraminifera have previously been linked to variations in carbonate ion concentration, light intensity, temperature and nutrient availability, providing a proxy for past changes in seawater properties. While culture studies are invaluable in assessing the main controls on shell calcification in certain species, open ocean studies are needed to understand the impact of multi-stressor environments on shell parameters of multiple species and their potential as palaeo-proxies. In this study, we present data on shell thickness of four depth-stratified species of modern planktonic foraminifera (Globoratalia truncatulinoides, Globoratalia inflata, Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides ruber-pink) from bi-weekly time-series sediment trap samples in the Sargasso Sea (Ocean Flux Program). We also use species flux, geochemical data and measured hydrographic data from Bermuda Atlantic time series to understand the seasonal and interannual changes in shell thickness due to changes in seawater properties. We show that short-lived environmental perturbations such as cyclonic eddies affect local hydrographic conditions and can dramatically influence species fluxes and shell thicknesses. Our results suggest that a combined morphometric and geochemical approach to fossil planktonic foraminifera would allow a better understanding of calcification response to past environmental change.

  17. A-type shell stars and infrared sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, M.; Jaschek, C.; Egret, D.

    1986-04-01

    Following the discovery of a dust cloud around an A-type shell star the authors examine the situation of all known Ae/A shell stars. They have found 19 stars of this group observed by IRAS, and of these 19, 8 are infrared anomalous emitters (IAE). The temperatures of the anomalous emitting sources are of the order of 50 - 400K, although three cases require two superposed cool sources. The proportion of IAE's among Ae/A shell stars is very high, when compared to a sample of non-shell A-type stars. This suggests a close link between the membership in the group and IAE.

  18. Hamiltonian treatment of the gravitational collapse of thin shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisóstomo, Juan; Olea, Rodrigo

    2004-05-01

    A Hamiltonian treatment of the gravitational collapse of thin shells is presented. The direct integration of the canonical constraints reproduces the standard shell dynamics for a number of known cases. The formalism is applied in detail to three-dimensional spacetime and the properties of the (2+1)-dimensional charged black hole collapse are further elucidated. The procedure is also extended to deal with rotating solutions in three dimensions. The general form of the equations providing the shell dynamics implies the stability of black holes, as they cannot be converted into naked singularities by any shell collapse process.

  19. New polymer target-shell properties and characterizations. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, A.; Wei, X.; Fan, Q.; Alexander, N.; Palmer, N.

    1993-12-31

    A method for characterizing ICF target shells is presented, based on measurement of the gas released from a single shell into a small volume. It utilizes cryogenic permeation systems developed in connection with our work on ICF targets containing nuclear spin-polarized deuterium. Permeation rates for polystyrene and parylene-coated-polystyrene shells are measured at temperatures from 350K down to 180K. Burst or implosion pressure can be determined over a full temperature range down to 20K. Shell temperature is calculated from its gas leakage rate, calibrated by permeation measurements over the temperature range. Lag of shell temperature compared with sample-chamber temperature during warming of the latter is attributed to the weakness of the thermal link provided by both radiative heat transfer and free molecular conduction with small accommodation coefficients for helium and deuterium gas at the structure to which the shell is conductively linked, or at the surface of a conductively isolated shell. Quantification of this lag can provide a measure of atomic scale roughness of the shell outer surface. Also presented are reversible pre-rupture leakage phenomena for polystyrene and parylene-coated-polystyrene shells.

  20. Compressed-shell integrity measurements in spherical implosion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2001-06-01

    The shell integrity near peak compression of spherical implosions using the 60-beam, 30-kJ UV OMEGA laser system [Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] has been measured. Hot core emission backlights a shell with a thin titanium-doped layer that is imaged at x-ray photon energies above and below the titanium K edge. The x-ray intensity ratio between the two images is related to perturbations in the cold, or absorbing, part of the shell. The measured cold-shell areal-density modulations, integrated over the time of peak compression, are of the order of 25% to 50% with nonuniformity spectra peaked at spatial wavelengths of 30 to 50 μm and with the smallest detectable nonuniformity features extending down to spatial wavelengths of 12 to 15 μm. Hot-shell areal-density modulations of the emitting part of the shell (inner edge) are of the order of 13% to 20%. The measured shell modulations are in agreement with the results of two-dimensional simulations that include initial shell perturbations, imprinted shell modulations due to nonuniformities in a single laser beam, and a beam-to-beam energy imbalance in the laser drive.

  1. Bearing capacity of shell strip footing on reinforced sand.

    PubMed

    Azzam, W R; Nasr, A M

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the ultimate load capacities of shell foundations on unreinforced and reinforced sand were determined by laboratory model tests. A series of loading tests were carried out on model shell footing with and without single layer of reinforcement. The tests were done for shell foundation at different shell embedment depth and subgrade density. The results were compared with those for flat foundations without reinforcement. The model test results were verified using finite element analysis using program PLAXIS. The experimental studies indicated that, the ultimate load capacity of shell footing on reinforced subgrade is higher than those on unreinforced cases and the load settlement curves were significantly modified. The shell foundation over reinforced subgrade can be considered a good method to increase the effective depth of the foundation and decrease the resulting settlement. Also the rupture surface of shell reinforced system was significantly deeper than both normal footing and shell footing without reinforcement. The numerical analysis helps in understanding the deformation behavior of the studied systems and identifies the failure surface of reinforced shell footing.

  2. Bearing capacity of shell strip footing on reinforced sand.

    PubMed

    Azzam, W R; Nasr, A M

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the ultimate load capacities of shell foundations on unreinforced and reinforced sand were determined by laboratory model tests. A series of loading tests were carried out on model shell footing with and without single layer of reinforcement. The tests were done for shell foundation at different shell embedment depth and subgrade density. The results were compared with those for flat foundations without reinforcement. The model test results were verified using finite element analysis using program PLAXIS. The experimental studies indicated that, the ultimate load capacity of shell footing on reinforced subgrade is higher than those on unreinforced cases and the load settlement curves were significantly modified. The shell foundation over reinforced subgrade can be considered a good method to increase the effective depth of the foundation and decrease the resulting settlement. Also the rupture surface of shell reinforced system was significantly deeper than both normal footing and shell footing without reinforcement. The numerical analysis helps in understanding the deformation behavior of the studied systems and identifies the failure surface of reinforced shell footing. PMID:26425361

  3. Bearing capacity of shell strip footing on reinforced sand

    PubMed Central

    Azzam, W.R.; Nasr, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the ultimate load capacities of shell foundations on unreinforced and reinforced sand were determined by laboratory model tests. A series of loading tests were carried out on model shell footing with and without single layer of reinforcement. The tests were done for shell foundation at different shell embedment depth and subgrade density. The results were compared with those for flat foundations without reinforcement. The model test results were verified using finite element analysis using program PLAXIS. The experimental studies indicated that, the ultimate load capacity of shell footing on reinforced subgrade is higher than those on unreinforced cases and the load settlement curves were significantly modified. The shell foundation over reinforced subgrade can be considered a good method to increase the effective depth of the foundation and decrease the resulting settlement. Also the rupture surface of shell reinforced system was significantly deeper than both normal footing and shell footing without reinforcement. The numerical analysis helps in understanding the deformation behavior of the studied systems and identifies the failure surface of reinforced shell footing. PMID:26425361

  4. Microstructural characacterization of shell components in the mollusc Physa sp.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Silvia M; Silveira, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Shells of the freshwater, pulmonate snail Physa (Mollusca, Gasteropoda), ranging from 0.5 to 10 mm in length, were studied using scanning microscopy, x-ray analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Results obtained suggest that the shell is composed of aragonite, which occurs in several distinct crystalline forms. A selective distribution of crystalline forms (hexagonal plates, prisms, rhombohedra, and spherulites) occurred along specific sites of the shell. A variable distribution of the forms was also detected in adult shells and in protoconchs of developing embryos. Qualitative elemental analysis, using an energy-dispersive spectrometer, corroborates the presence of calcium, phosphorus and sulphur ions.

  5. Multiscaling in superfluid turbulence: A shell-model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Vishwanath; Pandit, Rahul

    2016-10-01

    We examine the multiscaling behavior of the normal- and superfluid-velocity structure functions in three-dimensional superfluid turbulence by using a shell model for the three-dimensional (3D) Hall-Vinen-Bekharevich-Khalatnikov (HVBK) equations. Our 3D-HVBK shell model is based on the Gledzer-Okhitani-Yamada shell model. We examine the dependence of the multiscaling exponents on the normal-fluid fraction and the mutual-friction coefficients. Our extensive study of the 3D-HVBK shell model shows that the multiscaling behavior of the velocity structure functions in superfluid turbulence is more complicated than it is in fluid turbulence.

  6. Offshore UK; Shell starts Galleon field pre-drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell), acting as operator for a consortium of companies, has described plans for the two-phase development of Galleon gas field, located 50 miles from the Shell/Esso gas processing plant at Bacton, Norfolk, in 82 ft of water. The field has estimated reserves of 1.4 Tcf. Phase 1 development will cost [Brit pounds]300 million ($500 million); and first production is expected in late 1994. British Gas has agreed to purchase at least Phase 1 gas. Shell will be the operator for the development. A preliminary costsharing arrangement has been agreed to by the co-venturers to bridge the period until equities are determined. The consortium comprises Shell and Esso, with 40% each, and Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. and Oryx U.K. Energy Co., each with 10%. The field is located in Shell/Esso Blocks 48/14, 19a and 20a, and Conoco/Oryx Block 48/15a. Galleon will be the sixth gas field to be developed in the Southern North Sea by Shell, the operator for Shell and Esso. It will be the third field in the Sole Pit area, where total reserves found by Shell/Esso are about 3.0 Tcf.

  7. Synthesis of AlNiCo core/shell nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, A. M.; Akdeniz, M. V.; Ozturk, T.; Kalay, Y. E.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic core/shell nanostructures have been recently received much interest owing to their utmost potential in permanent magnetic applications. In the present work, AlNiCo permanent magnet powders were synthesized by ball milling and a core/shell nanostructure was obtained using RF induced plasma. The effects of particle size and nanoshell structure on the magnetic properties were investigated in details. The coercivity of AlNiCo powders was found to increase with decreasing particle size, exclusively nanopowders encapsulated with Fe3O4 shell showed the highest coercivity values. The shell structure produced during plasma reaction was found to form a resistant layer against oxidation of metallic nanoparticles.

  8. Fiber optic well monitoring for Shell`s North Sea field

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    After eight years of development work, Alcatel Kabel Norge has reached an agreement with Shell U.K. Exploration and Production to install Alcatel`s first commercial Sub-Sea Fiber Optic Well Monitoring (FOWM) system in Shell`s Guillemot A-OP2 well on its completion in August 1996. The FOWM project was started in 1988 by Norske Shell and Alcatel. BP Norway joined the project in 1991, and additional support has been contributed by Norsk Hydro and the Norwegian Research Council. The first Alcatel FOWM system was installed in onshore gas Well 7 in NAM`s Sleen field in the Netherlands in October 1993. The final offshore test took place in late 1994, in BP Norway`s Well 2/1 A-32 in Gyda field, in the Norwegian North Sea. FOWM is a new type of permanently installed downhole monitoring system based on an optical sensor system integrating simple passive silicon resonator sensors with optical communication. The system tolerates high pressure and high temperatures (HPHT). Main elements that contribute to its high reliability are discussed.

  9. 7 CFR 56.40 - Grading requirements of shell eggs identified with grademarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading requirements of shell eggs identified with... INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Prerequisites to Packaging Shell Eggs Identified with Grademarks § 56.40 Grading requirements of shell eggs identified...

  10. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.37 Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. Shell eggs identified with the grademarks shown...

  11. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray rinsed... sanitizing shell eggs washed in the plant. (b) Shell eggs shall be sufficiently dry at time of breaking...

  12. Low Cost Real-Time Sorting of in Shell Pistachio Nuts from Kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high speed sorter for separating pistachio nuts with (in shell) and without (kernels) shells is reported. Testing indicates 95% accuracy in removing kernels from the in shell stream with no false positive results out of 1000 kernels tested. Testing with 1000 each of in shell, shell halves, and ker...

  13. Inner-shell photodetachment from Ru-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitriu, I.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Walter, C. W.; Gibson, N. D.; Pešić, Z. D.; Rolles, D.; Berrah, N.

    2010-10-01

    Inner-shell photodetachment from Ru- was studied near and above the 4p excitation region, 29-to-91-eV photon energy range, using a merged ion-photon-beam technique. The absolute photodetachment cross sections of Ru- ([Kr]4d75s2) leading to Ru+, Ru2+, and Ru3+ ion production were measured. In the near-threshold region, a Wigner s-wave law, including estimated postcollision interaction effects, locates the 4p3/2 detachment threshold between 40.10 and 40.27 eV. Additionally, the Ru2+ product spectrum provides evidence for simultaneous two-electron photodetachment (likely to the Ru+ 4p54d65s2 state) located near 49 eV. Resonance effects are observed due to interference between transitions of the 4p electrons to the quasibound 4p54d85s2 states and the 4d→ɛf continuum. Despite the large number of possible terms resulting from the Ru- 4d open shell, the cross section obtained from a 51-state LS-coupled R-matrix calculation agrees qualitatively well with the experimental data.

  14. Natural melting within a spherical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental heat transfer experiments were performed on the melting of a phase change medium in a spherical shell. Free expansion of the medium into a void space within the sphere was permitted. A step function temperature jump on the outer shell wall was imposed and the timewise evolution of the melting process and the position of the solid-liquid interface was photographically recorded. Numerical integration of the interface position data yielded information about the melted mass and the energy of melting. It was found that the rate of melting and the heat transfer were significantly affected by the movement of the solid medium to the base of the sphere due to gravity. The energy transfer associated with melting was substantially higher than that predicted by the conduction model. Furthermore, the radio of the measured values of sensible energy in the liquid melt to the energy of melting were nearly proportional to the Stefan number. The experimental results are in agreement with a theory set forth in an earlier paper.

  15. Two interpretations of thin-shell instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-07-01

    For O (4 ) -symmetric instantons, there are two complementary interpretations for their analytic continuations. One is the nothing-to-something interpretation, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are disconnected by Euclidean manifolds. The other is the something-to-something interpretation, introduced by Brown and Weinberg, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are connected by the Euclidean manifold. These interpretations have their own pros and cons and hence they are complementary. In this paper, we consider analytic continuations of thin-shell instantons that have less symmetry, i.e., the spherical symmetry. When we consider the Farhi-Guth-Guven/Fischler-Morgan-Polchinski tunneling, the something-to-something interpretation has been used in the usual literature. On the other hand, we can apply the nothing-to-something interpretation with some limited conditions. We argue that for both interpretations, we can give the consistent decay rate. As we apply and interpret what follows the nothing-to-something interpretation, a stationary black hole can emit an expanding shell that results in a spacetime without a singularity or event horizon.

  16. Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; ElEid, M. F.

    2004-01-01

    Although the exact site for the origin of the r-process isotopes remains mysterious, most thinking has centered on matter ejected from the cores of massive stars in core-collapse supernovae [13]. In the 1970's and 1980's, however, difficulties in understanding the yields from such models led workers to consider the possibility of r-process nucleosynthesis farther out in the exploding star, in particular, in the helium burning shell [4,5]. The essential idea was that shock passage through this shell would heat and compress this material to the point that the reactions 13C(alpha; n)16O and, especially, 22Ne(alpha; n)25Mg would generate enough neutrons to capture on preexisting seed nuclei and drive an "n process" [6], which could reproduce the r-process abundances. Subsequent work showed that the required 13C and 22Ne abundances were too large compared to the amounts available in realistic models [7] and recent thinking has returned to supernova core material or matter ejected from neutron star-neutron star collisions as the more likely r-process sites.

  17. The shell spectrum of HD 94509

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Przybilla, Norbert; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2015-01-01

    HD 94509 is a 9th magnitude Be star with an unusually rich metallic-lined shell. The absorption spectrum is rich, comparable to that of an A or F supergiant, but Mg II (4481A), and the Si II (4128 and 4130A), are weak, indicating a dilute radiation field, as described by Otto Struve. The H-alpha emission is double with components of equal intensity and an absorption core that dips well below the stellar continuum. H-beta is weaker, but with a similar structure. H-gamma through H-epsilon have virtually black cores, indicating that the shell covers the stellar disk. The stronger metallic absorption lines are wide near the continuum, but taper to very narrow cores. This line shape is unexplained. However, the total absorption can be modeled to reveal an overall particle densities of 10^{10}-10^{12} cm^{-3}. An electron density log(n_e) = 11.2 is obtained from the Paschen-line convergence and the Inglis-Tellar relation. Column densities are obtained with the help of curves of growth by assuming uniform conditions in the cloud. These indicate a nearly solar composition. The CLOUDY code (Ferland, et al. Rev. Mex. Astron. Astroph. 49, 137, 213) is used to produce a model that predicts matching column densities of the dominant ions, the n = 3 level of hydrogen, the H-alpha strength, and the electron density (± 0.5 dex).

  18. Heat exchanger, head and shell acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-09-01

    Instability of postulated flaws in the head component of the heat exchanger could not produce a large break, equivalent to a DEGB in the PWS piping, due to the configuration of the head and restraint provided by the staybolts. Rather, leakage from throughwall flaws in the head would increase with flaw length with finite leakage areas that are bounded by a post-instability flaw configuration. Postulated flaws at instability in the shell of the heat exchanger or in the cooling water nozzles could produce a large break in the Cooling Water System (CWS) pressure boundary. An initial analysis of flaw stability for postulated flaws in the heat exchanger head was performed in January 1992. This present report updates that analysis and, additionally, provides acceptable flaw configurations to maintain defined structural or safety margins against flaw instability of the external pressure boundary components of the heat exchanger, namely the head, shell, and cooling water nozzles. Structural and flaw stability analyses of the heat exchanger tubes, the internal pressure boundary of the heat exchangers or interface boundary between the PWS and CWS, were previously completed in February 1992 as part of the heat exchanger restart evaluation and are not covered in this report.

  19. Core-shell diodes for particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guobin; Plentz, Jonathan; Höger, Ingmar; Dellith, Jan; Dellith, Andrea; Falk, Fritz

    2016-02-01

    High performance particle detectors are needed for fundamental research in high energy physics in the exploration of the Higgs boson, dark matter, anti-matter, gravitational waves and proof of the standard model, which will extend the understanding of our Universe. Future particle detectors should have ultrahigh radiation hardness, low power consumption, high spatial resolution and fast signal response. Unfortunately, some of these properties are counter-influencing for the conventional silicon drift detectors (SDDs), so that they cannot be optimized simultaneously. In this paper, the main issues of conventional SDDs have been analyzed, and a novel core-shell detector design based on micro- and nano-structures etched into Si-wafers is proposed. It is expected to simultaneously reach ultrahigh radiation hardness, low power consumption, fast signal response and high spatial resolution down to the sub-micrometer range, which will probably meet the requirements for the most powerful particle accelerators in the near future. A prototype core-shell detector was fabricated using modern silicon nanotechnology and the functionality was tested using electron-beam-induced current measurements. Such a high performance detector will open many new applications in extreme radiation environments such as high energy physics, astrophysics, high resolution (bio-) imaging and crystallography, which will push these fields beyond their current boundaries.

  20. Models for elastic shells with incompatible strains

    PubMed Central

    Lewicka, Marta; Mahadevan, L.; Pakzad, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional shapes of thin lamina, such as leaves, flowers, feathers, wings, etc., are driven by the differential strain induced by the relative growth. The growth takes place through variations in the Riemannian metric given on the thin sheet as a function of location in the central plane and also across its thickness. The shape is then a consequence of elastic energy minimization on the frustrated geometrical object. Here, we provide a rigorous derivation of the asymptotic theories for shapes of residually strained thin lamina with non-trivial curvatures, i.e. growing elastic shells in both the weakly and strongly curved regimes, generalizing earlier results for the growth of nominally flat plates. The different theories are distinguished by the scaling of the mid-surface curvature relative to the inverse thickness and growth strain, and also allow us to generalize the classical Föppl–von Kármán energy to theories of prestrained shallow shells. PMID:24808750

  1. Disappearence of the N=14 Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strongman, M. J.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Frank, N.; Mosby, S.; Peters, W. A.; Schiller, A.; Spyrou, A.; Thoennessen, M.; Hoffman, C. R.; Tabor, S. L.; Brown, J.; Deyoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Rogers, W. F.

    2009-10-01

    The decay-energy spectrum of ^22N was measured in a neutron-fragment coincidence experiment at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at MSU. An excited state of ^22N, unbound with respect to neutron emission measured by the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA), was observed in a stripping reaction from a secondary 85 MeV/u ^26F beam. The observed decay energy of 650(50) keV places the state, which is interpreted to be the first 3^- level, at an excitation energy of 1.93(22) MeV. Together with the previously measured bound states of ^22N, the reduction of the N = 14 shell gap at the neutron dripline is observed. The magnitude of the reduction of the shell gap indicates the disappearance of the gap and even a possible reoccurrence of the inversion of the ν1s1/2 and the ν0d5/2 levels in the neutron-unbound nucleus ^21C.

  2. Hanford single-shell tank grouping study

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Anderson, C.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    A tank grouping study has been conducted to find Hanford single-shell tanks with similar waste properties. The limited sampling resources of the characterization program could be allocated more effectively by having a better understanding of the groups of tanks that have similar waste types. If meaningful groups of tanks can be identified, tank sampling requirements may be reduced, and the uncertainty of the characterization estimates may be narrowed. This tank grouping study considers the analytical sampling information and the historical information that is available for all single-shell tanks. The two primary sources of historical characterization estimates and information come from the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) Model and the Sort on Radioactive Waste Tanks (SORWT) Model. The sampling and historical information are used together to come up with meaningful groups of similar tanks. Based on the results of analyses presented in this report, credible tank grouping looks very promising. Some groups defined using historical information (HTCE and SORWT) correspond well with those based on analytical data alone.

  3. Comparing Fluid and Elastic Block Copolymer Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozairo, Damith; Croll, Andrew B.

    2014-03-01

    Emulsions can be stabilized with the addition of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, resulting in droplets surrounded and protected by a polymer monolayer. Such droplets show considerable promise as advanced cargo carriers in pharmaceuticals or cosmetics due to their strength and responsiveness. Diblock copolymer interfaces remain mostly fluid and may not be able to attain the mechanical performance desired by industry. To strengthen block copolymer emulsion droplets we have developed a novel method for creating thin elastic shells using polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid)-b-polystyrene (PS-PAA-PS). Characterization of the fluid filled elastic shells is difficult with traditional means which lead us to develop a new and general method of mechanical measurement. Specifically, we use laser scanning confocal microscopy to achieve a high resolution measure of the deformation of soft spheres under the influence of gravity. To prove the resilience of the technique we examine both a polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) stabilized emulsion and the PS-PAA-PS emulsion. The mechanical measurement allows the physics of the polymer at the interface to be examined, which will ultimately lead to the rational development of these technologies.

  4. Rollable Thin-Shell Nanolaminate Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Barbee, Troy, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A class of lightweight, deployable, thin-shell, curved mirrors with built-in precise-shape-control actuators is being developed for high-resolution scientific imaging. This technology incorporates a combination of advanced design concepts in actuation and membrane optics that, heretofore, have been considered as separate innovations. These mirrors are conceived to be stowed compactly in a launch shroud and transported aboard spacecraft, then deployed in outer space to required precise shapes at much larger dimensions (diameters of the order of meters or tens of meters). A typical shell rollable mirror structure would include: (1) a flexible single- or multiple-layer face sheet that would include an integrated reflective surface layer that would constitute the mirror; (2) structural supports in the form of stiffeners made of a shape-memory alloy (SMA); and (3) piezoelectric actuators. The actuators, together with an electronic control subsystem, would implement a concept of hierarchical distributed control, in which (1) the SMA actuators would be used for global shape control and would generate the large deformations needed for the deployment process and (2) the piezoelectric actuators would generate smaller deformations and would be used primarily to effect fine local control of the shape of the mirror.

  5. Crystal Phase Transitions in the Shell of PbS/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals Influences Photoluminescence Intensity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We reveal the existence of two different crystalline phases, i.e., the metastable rock salt and the equilibrium zinc blende phase within the CdS-shell of PbS/CdS core/shell nanocrystals formed by cationic exchange. The chemical composition profile of the core/shell nanocrystals with different dimensions is determined by means of anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering with subnanometer resolution and is compared to X-ray diffraction analysis. We demonstrate that the photoluminescence emission of PbS nanocrystals can be drastically enhanced by the formation of a CdS shell. Especially, the ratio of the two crystalline phases in the shell significantly influences the photoluminescence enhancement. The highest emission was achieved for chemically pure CdS shells below 1 nm thickness with a dominant metastable rock salt phase fraction matching the crystal structure of the PbS core. The metastable phase fraction decreases with increasing shell thickness and increasing exchange times. The photoluminescence intensity depicts a constant decrease with decreasing metastable rock salt phase fraction but shows an abrupt drop for shells above 1.3 nm thickness. We relate this effect to two different transition mechanisms for changing from the metastable rock salt phase to the equilibrium zinc blende phase depending on the shell thickness. PMID:25673918

  6. Imaging of Compressed Pure-CH Shells and CH Shells with Titanium-Doped Layers on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Delettrez, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    1999-11-01

    The compressed shell integrity of spherical targets has been studied using the 60-beam, 30-kJ UV, OMEGA laser system. The emission from the hot core has been imaged through the cold shell at two narrow, x-ray energy bands, absorbing and nonabsorbing by the shell, allowing nonuniformities in the core emission and the cold shell areal density to be measured. Images of the target have been obtained using a pinhole-array with K-edge filters. The x-ray energies used are around 2.8 and 4.5 keV for pure-CH shells, and around 4.5 and 6 keV for titanium-doped layers. Additional images of the shell are obtained with a framed monochromatic x-ray microscope and a time-integrated crystal-spectrometer/pinhole-array combination. We will present measurements of the compressed shell integrity at the stagnation stage of spherical implosions by varying the position of the titanium-doped layer within the shell, by varying the thickness of the CH shell, and by using two different laser pulse shapes. The experimental results will be compared with 2-D (ORCHID) hydrodynamic simulations. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  7. Cadmium Telluride, Cadmium Telluride/Cadmium Sulfide Core/Shell, and Cadmium Telluride/Cadmium Sulfide/Zinc Sulfide Core/Shell/Shell Quantum Dots Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yueran

    CdTe, CdTe/CdS core/shell, and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots (QDs) are potential candidates for bio-imaging and solar cell applications because of some special physical properties in these nano materials. For example, the band gap energy of the bulk CdTe is about 1.5 eV, so that principally they can emit 790 nm light, which is in the near-infrared range (also called biological window). Moreover, theoretically hot exciton generated by QDs is possible to be caught since the exciton relaxation process in QDs is slower than in bulk materials due to the large intraband energy gap in QDs. In this dissertation, we have synthesized the CdTe and CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs, characterized their structure, and analyzed their photophysical properties. We used organometallic methods to synthesize the CdTe QDs in a noncoordinating solvent. To avoid being quenched by air, ligands, solvent, or other compounds, CdS shell was successfully deposited on the CdTe QDs by different methods, including the slow injection method, the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, and thermal-cycling coupled single precursor method (TC-SP). Our final product, quasi-type- II CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs were able to emit at 770 nm with a fluorescence quantum yield as high as 70%. We also tried to deposit a second shell ZnS on CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs since some compounds can quench CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs. Even though different methods were used to deposit ZnS shell on the CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs, CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs still can be quenched. Furthermore, the CdTe/CdS core/shell and CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs were transferred into aqueous phase, phosphate buffered saline or deionized water, by switching the hydrophilic ligands (thiol or PEG ligands). The thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs can be kept in aqueous phase with high fluorescence quantum yield (60%--70%) for more than two months. However, some other compounds in organic or

  8. Corrasion of a remoulded cohesive bed by saltating littorinid shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, C. L.; Sutherland, T. F.; Cloutier, D.; Patterson, S.

    2000-07-01

    Corrasion of a standard cohesive bed due to saltating gastropod shells of the species Littorina has been examined in a laboratory mini flume. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of shell size and number on bed erosion rate. The movement of shells by flows explain why intertidal, glacial clays in the Bay of Fundy (which are covered in places with Littorinid shells) suffer erosion because bed erosion rate increased up to 20-fold with the introduction of a single shell to the flume (27 m -2). The standard bed was made of potters clay which had an erosion threshold of 0.19 Pa and a fluid-induced erosion rate Eo=0.072( Uy- Ucrit) gm -2 s -1, where Uy is the azimuthal current speed at height y=0.10 m. Shells of seven differing sizes ( ds) were used to define the process of erosion by shell impacts. The threshold for shell motion ( Ugcrit) was linearly related to shell size in the form: Ugcrit=9.17×10 -3 ds-0.22 m s -1. Motion began by intermittent rolling, followed by continuous rolling and then by saltation. The shell speed in saltation was 68% that of Uy, thus 32% of the horizontal shell momentum was transmitted to the bed. The length/height ratio of saltations was 6.3, and was constant for all sizes, and the mean saltation frequency was 1.7 s -1. The shell erosion rate ( Es) increased with shell diameter for both the rolling and saltating phases. During the rolling phase, Es was up to 5 times greater than Eo at the same current speed. During saltation, Es was up to 20 times greater than Eo at the same current speed. The effect of shell number (1-7) was examined for the 7-10 mm size class. During rolling, Es increased linearly with shell number. For the saltating phase, Es increased in an asymptotic fashion, suggesting that groups of saltating shells affect the erosion process differently than single shells. The ballistic momentum flux ( T) of saltating shells is highly dependent on the area of impact ( Ag), which in the case of the littorinids, is

  9. Core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction via core-shell Au@Ag/Pd constructions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Li, Chengyin; Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles often exhibit improved catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created in these core-shell particles. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles from their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd parents. This strategy begins with the preparation of core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles in an organic solvent. Then, the pure Ag shells are converted into the shells made of Ag/Pd alloy by galvanic replacement reaction between the Ag shells and Pd2+ precursors. Subsequently, the Ag component is removed from the alloy shell using saturated NaCl solution to form core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a Pd shell. In comparison with the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles upon directly depositing Pd shell on the Au seeds and commercial Pd/C catalysts, the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles via their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd templates display superior activity and durability in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction, mainly due to the larger lattice tensile effect in Pd shell induced by the Au core and Ag removal. PMID:26144550

  10. 7 CFR 984.52 - Processing of shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing of shelled walnuts. 984.52 Section 984.52... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Quality Control § 984.52 Processing of shelled walnuts. (a) No handler shall slice,...

  11. 7 CFR 984.52 - Processing of shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing of shelled walnuts. 984.52 Section 984.52... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Quality Control § 984.52 Processing of shelled walnuts. (a) No handler shall slice,...

  12. 7 CFR 984.52 - Processing of shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing of shelled walnuts. 984.52 Section 984.52... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Quality Control § 984.52 Processing of shelled walnuts. (a) No handler shall slice,...

  13. 7 CFR 984.52 - Processing of shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing of shelled walnuts. 984.52 Section 984.52... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Quality Control § 984.52 Processing of shelled walnuts. (a) No handler shall slice,...

  14. 7 CFR 984.52 - Processing of shelled walnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing of shelled walnuts. 984.52 Section 984.52... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Quality Control § 984.52 Processing of shelled walnuts. (a) No handler shall slice,...

  15. The Strength of Shell Bodies : Theory and Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebner, H

    1937-01-01

    The monocoque form of airplane construction has introduced a number of new problems to the stress calculator and the designer. The problems for the stress calculator fall into two groups: the determination of the stress condition (shell statics) and the determination of the failing strength (shell strength). The present report summarizes the most important theoretical and experimental results on this subject.

  16. Shell model description of band structure in 48Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Velazquez, Victor M.

    2007-02-12

    The band structure for normal and abnormal parity bands in 48Cr are described using the m-scheme shell model. In addition to full fp-shell, two particles in the 1d3/2 orbital are allowed in order to describe intruder states. The interaction includes fp-, sd- and mixed matrix elements.

  17. Mussel Shell Evaluation as Bioindicator For Heavy Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Lopes, Fábio; Galvão, Tiago Dutra

    2010-05-01

    Recently, in Brazil, it has appeared a new and unusual "plague" in lazer and commercial fishing. It is caused by the parasitic larval phase of certain native bivalve mollusks of fresh water known as "Naiades" and its involves the presence of big bivalve of fresh water, mainly Anodontites trapesialis, in the tanks and dams of the fish creation. These bivalve mollusks belong to the Unionoida Order, Mycetopodidae Family. The objective of the present work was to analyze the shells of these mollusks to verify the possibility of use as bioindicators for heavy metals in freshwater. The mollusks shells were collected in a commercial fishing at Londrina-PR. A qualitative analysis was made to determine the chemical composition of the shells and verify a possible correlation with existent heavy metals in the aquatic environment. In the inner part of the shells were identified the elements Ca, P, Fe, Mn and Sr and in the outer part were identified Ca, P, Fe, Mn, Sr and Cu. The Ca ratio of the outer part by inner part of the analyzed shells is around of 1, as expected, because Ca is the main compound of mollusks shells. The ratio of P, Fe, Mn, and Sr to the Ca were constant in all analyzed shells, being close to 0.015. The ratio Cu/Ca varied among the shells, showing that this mollusk is sensitive to concentration of this element in the aquatic environment.

  18. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu

    2015-12-21

    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area.

  19. Pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000, yet less than 1% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the current process, hot water immersion, requires approxi...

  20. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes supported by phantom energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of Darmois-Israel formalism, the general equations describing the motion of cylindrical thin-shell wormholes supported by equation of state of phantom energy are derived. The linear perturbation approach is used to investigate the stability of a cylindrical thin-shell wormhole of a static solution.

  1. On the stability of charged thin-shell wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, A.

    2016-02-01

    In the framework of Darmois-Israel formalism, the stability of charged thin shell wormholes is discussed by linearized radial perturbations around static solutions at the wormhole throat. A wormhole is described as a limiting case of a constant density spherical shell, where the structure must be unstable to linearized radial perturbations.

  2. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  3. Optical Properties of Anisotropic Core-Shell Pyramidal Particles

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Christina M.; Hasan, Warefta; Nehl, Colleen L.; Odom, Teri W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to fabricate anisotropic core-shell particles by assembling dielectric beads within fabricated noble metal pyramidal structures. Particles with gold (Au) shells and different dielectric cores were generated, and their optical properties were characterized by single particle spectroscopy. Because of their unique geometry, these particles exhibit multiple plasmon resonances from visible to near-IR wavelengths. PMID:19290590

  4. Comparative analysis of shell rendering and shear-warp rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcao, Alexandre X.; Rocha, Leonardo M.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2002-05-01

    In Medical Imaging, shell rendering and shear-warp rendering are two of the most efficient and effective voxel-based techniques for volume visualization. This work presents a comparative analysis of shell rendering and shear-warp rendering in terms of storage, speed, and image quality. We have chosen 10 different objects of various sizes, shapes and topologies and one 1-GHz Pentium-III PC with 512 MB RAM for our experiments. Hard and fuzzy boundaries of up to 2,833 K voxels in size have been created to test both methods in surface and volume rendering, respectively. Hard surface shell rendering and surface shear-warp rendering required less than 0.5 second. In the worst case, volume shell rendering required 1.45 second, while volume shear-warp rendering spent 0.65 second for the same task. Shear-warp rendering uses on average from 3 to 6 times more memory space than shell rendering, but it can be up to 2.79 times faster than shell rendering. On average, shear-warp rendering is as fast as shell rendering for hard boundaries and 1.7 times faster than shell rendering for fuzzy boundaries. We have also observed that both can produce similar high-quality images.

  5. Teaching Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Neo, Choo Tong

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" looks at the way that the shapes of simple molecules can be explained in terms of the number of electron pairs in the valence shell of the central atom. This theory is formally known as valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. The article explains the preferred shape of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3),…

  6. 21. Historic view looking northeast from tracks of Shell Interlocking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic view looking northeast from tracks of Shell Interlocking Tower after construction, 1909. Photographic copy of photograph published in Railway Age Gazette, February 4, 1910. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  7. Cryogenic line insulation made from prefabricated polyurethane shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, G.

    1975-01-01

    Prefabricated polyurethane foam insulation is inexpensive and easily installed on cryogenic lines. Insulation sections are semicircular half shells. Pair of half shells is placed to surround cryogenic line. Cylindrically-shaped knit sock is pulled over insulation then covered with polyurethane resin to seal system.

  8. Galactic Center Shells and a Recurrent Starburst Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2003-04-01

    By applying filtering techniques to remove straight filaments in the 20-cm VLA radio image of the Galactic Center Arc region, we have shown that numerous concentric radio shells of radii 5 to 20pc are surrounding the Pistol and Sickle region, which we call Galactic Center Shells (GCS).Each shell has thermal energy of the order of1049-50erg.Several CO-line shells are associated, whose kinetic energies are of the order of 1049-50erg. Summing up the energies of recognized GCSs, the total energy amounts to ˜ 1051erg.The GCSs show an excellent correlation with the FIR shells observed at 16-26μm with the MSX.We propose a model in which GCSs were produced by recurrent and/or intermittent starbursts in the Pistol area during the last million years.The most recent burst occurred some 105 years ago, producing an inner round-shaped shell (GCS I);earlier ones a million years ago produced outer shells (GCS II and III), which a re more deformed by interactions with the surrounding ISM and Sgr A halo.We argue that recurrent starbursts had also occurred in the past, which produced larger scale hyper-shell structures as well.A burst some million years ago produced the Galactic Center Lobe, and a much stronger one 15 million years ago produced the North Polar Spur.

  9. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  10. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  11. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  12. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  13. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26...

  14. Nondestructive pasteurization of shell eggs using radio frequency energy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shell eggs are on the top of the list of the 10 riskiest foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and 352 outbreaks from 1990 to 2006 were linked to eggs. The goals of this study were to design and assemble an apparatus to apply RF energy to shell eggs and to develop a process for pasteur...

  15. 4. North elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower showing structure built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. North elevation of Shell Interlocking Tower showing structure built into slope of railroad right-of-way. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  16. More about thin-shell wormholes associated to cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio

    2009-06-15

    Previous analysis about thin-shell wormholes associated to cosmic strings are extended. More evidence is found supporting the conjecture that, under reasonable assumptions about the equations of state of matter on the shell, the configurations are not stable under radial velocity perturbations.

  17. Chicken egg shell membrane associated proteins and peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell, as a feed supplement which showed potential to t improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. ...

  18. Direct imaging the upconversion nanocrystal core/shell structure at the subnanometer level: shell thickness dependence in upconverting optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Che, Renchao; Li, Xiaomin; Yao, Chi; Yang, Jianping; Shen, Dengke; Hu, Pan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-06-13

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles have shown considerable promise in solid-state lasers, three-dimensional flat-panel displays, and solar cells and especially biological labeling and imaging. It has been demonstrated extensively that the epitaxial coating of upconversion (UC) core crystals with a lattice-matched shell can passivate the core and enhance the overall upconversion emission intensity of the materials. However, there are few papers that report a precise link between the shell thickness of core/shell nanoparticles and their optical properties. This is mainly because rare earth fluoride upconversion core/shell structures have only been inferred from indirect measurements to date. Herein, a reproducible method to grow a hexagonal NaGdF(4) shell on NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystals with monolayer control thickness is demonstrated for the first time. On the basis of the cryo-transmission electron microscopy, rigorous electron energy loss spectroscopy, and high-angle annular dark-field investigations on the core/shell structure under a low operation temperature (96 K), direct imaging the NaYF(4):Yb,Er@NaGdF(4) nanocrystal core/shell structure at the subnanometer level was realized for the first time. Furthermore, a strong linear link between the NaGdF(4) shell thickness and the optical response of the hexagonal NaYF(4):Yb,Er@NaGdF(4) core/shell nanocrystals has been established. During the epitaxial growth of the NaGdF(4) shell layer by layer, surface defects of the nanocrystals can be gradually passivated by the homogeneous shell deposition process, which results in the obvious enhancement in overall UC emission intensity and lifetime and is more resistant to quenching by water molecules. PMID:22545710

  19. Shaving a Shell: Effect of Manipulated Sculpture and Feeding on Shell Growth and Sculpture Development in Nucella lamellosa (Muricidae: Ocenebrinae).

    PubMed

    Webster, Nicole B; Palmer, A Richard

    2016-02-01

    Gastropod shell sculpture offers a novel tool for studying morphological patterning. Existing shell features may be manipulated experimentally to test how alteration affects subsequent shell growth and form. Axial sculpture occurs in many gastropod groups, and spacing of sculpture may be regular or irregular. But how gastropods control sculpture placement during shell growth is unknown. We studied the growth and positioning of axial lamellae in the muricid Nucella lamellosa, and compared these to the superficially similar axial varices seen in other muricids. First, we tested whether the feeding rate had any effect on the rate of addition or positioning of new lamellae. Second, we tested what effect previous shell sculpture had on lamellar placement, and shell growth in general, by removing all shell sculpture and allowing snails to grow over the "shaved" shell surface. Lamellar growth appeared to be relatively plastic; spacing was highly variable both within and among individual snails, and 1-2 weeks were required to complete the addition of a new lamella. Body growth rate was the primary determinant of lamellar growth; past lamellae had no effect on placement of new lamellae or rate of shell length increase. Feeding rate and body size affected only growth in shell length, and had no direct effect on spacing or on the rate of addition of new lamellae. The growth of axial lamellae in N. lamellosa differed from that of varices by exhibiting neither a) regular spacing nor b) a growth hiatus after completion of a lamella. Significantly, despite the obvious impediment of previous sculpture to future shell growth, removal of this sculpture had no observable effect on the rate of body growth or on any aspect of subsequent lamellar growth.

  20. Direct imaging the upconversion nanocrystal core/shell structure at the subnanometer level: shell thickness dependence in upconverting optical properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Che, Renchao; Li, Xiaomin; Yao, Chi; Yang, Jianping; Shen, Dengke; Hu, Pan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-06-13

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles have shown considerable promise in solid-state lasers, three-dimensional flat-panel displays, and solar cells and especially biological labeling and imaging. It has been demonstrated extensively that the epitaxial coating of upconversion (UC) core crystals with a lattice-matched shell can passivate the core and enhance the overall upconversion emission intensity of the materials. However, there are few papers that report a precise link between the shell thickness of core/shell nanoparticles and their optical properties. This is mainly because rare earth fluoride upconversion core/shell structures have only been inferred from indirect measurements to date. Herein, a reproducible method to grow a hexagonal NaGdF(4) shell on NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystals with monolayer control thickness is demonstrated for the first time. On the basis of the cryo-transmission electron microscopy, rigorous electron energy loss spectroscopy, and high-angle annular dark-field investigations on the core/shell structure under a low operation temperature (96 K), direct imaging the NaYF(4):Yb,Er@NaGdF(4) nanocrystal core/shell structure at the subnanometer level was realized for the first time. Furthermore, a strong linear link between the NaGdF(4) shell thickness and the optical response of the hexagonal NaYF(4):Yb,Er@NaGdF(4) core/shell nanocrystals has been established. During the epitaxial growth of the NaGdF(4) shell layer by layer, surface defects of the nanocrystals can be gradually passivated by the homogeneous shell deposition process, which results in the obvious enhancement in overall UC emission intensity and lifetime and is more resistant to quenching by water molecules.

  1. Oceans, Ice Shells, and Life on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The four large satellites of Jupiter are famous for their planet-like diversity and complexity, but none more so than ice-covered Europa. Since the provocative Voyager images of Europa in 1979, evidence has been mounting that a vast liquid water ocean may lurk beneath the moon's icy surface. Europa has since been the target of increasing and sometimes reckless speculation regarding the possibility that giant squid and other creatures may be swimming its purported cold, dark ocean. No wonder Europa tops everyone's list for future exploration in the outer solar system (after the very first reconnaissance of Pluto and the Kuiper belt, of course). Europa may be the smallest of the Galilean moons (so-called because they were discovered by Galileo Galilei in the early 17th century) but more than makes up for its diminutive size with a crazed, alien landscape. The surface is covered with ridges hundreds of meters high, domes tens of kilometers across, and large areas of broken and disrupted crust called chaos. Some of the geologic features seen on Europa resemble ice rafts floating in polar seas here on Earth-reinforcing the idea that an ice shell is floating over an ocean on this Moon-size satellite. However, such features do not prove that an ocean exists or ever did. Warm ice is unusually soft and will flow under its own weight. If the ice shell is thick enough, the warm bottom of the shell will flow, as do terrestrial glaciers. This could produce all the observed surface features on Europa through a variety of processes, the most important of which is convection. (Convection is the vertical overturn of a layer due to heating or density differences-think of porridge or sauce boiling on the stove.) Rising blobs from the base of the crust would then create the oval domes dotting Europa's surface. The strongest evidence for a hidden ocean beneath Europa's surface comes from the Galileo spacecraft's onboard magnetometer, which detected fluctuations in Jupiter's magnetic

  2. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1983-09-26

    The invention is a method to produce large uniform hollow spherical shells by (1) forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, (2) evaporating the drops to form dried particles, (3) coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material and (4) heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and to decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble. The expanding gas bubble forms the molten outer layer into a shell of relatively large diameter. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the molten shell, nonuniformities in wall thickness can be reduced. The method of the invention is utilized to produce large uniform spherical shells, in the millimeter to centimeter diameter size range, from a variety of materials and of high quality, including sphericity, concentricity and surface smoothness, for use as laser fusion or other inertial confinement fusion targets as well as other applications.

  3. Circumstellar shells resolved in IRAS survey data. II - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K.; Phillips, T. G.; Knapp, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    IRAS survey data for 512 red giant stars and young planetary nebulae were processed using a computer program which fitted the data to an idealized model of a circumstellar shell. Seventy-six of these stars were found to have circumstellar shells resolved in the 60-micron survey data. Forty pct of the 76 stars are carbon stars. Thirteen are Mira variables. The evolution of these shells, involving the interaction of the expelled material with the ISM, is modeled, and the results suggest that the period during which Mira variables lose mass lasts for approximately 10 exp 5 yr. Carbon stars are found to shed mass for about 2 x 10 exp 5 yr. The expansion velocity of the outer shell for the largest shells will normally be lower by a factor of 3-5 than the expansion velocity obtained from CO observations.

  4. A cylindrical shell with an arbitrarily oriented crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The general problem of a shallow shell with constant curvatures is considered. It is assumed that the shell contains an arbitrarily oriented through crack and the material is specially orthotropic. The nonsymmetric problem is solved for arbitrary self equilibrating crack surface tractions, which, added to an appropriate solution for an uncracked shell, would give the result for a cracked shell under most general loading conditions. The problem is reduced to a system of five singular integral equations in a set of unknown functions representing relative displacements and rotations on the crack surfaces. The stress state around the crack tip is asymptotically analyzed and it is shown that the results are identical to those obtained from the two dimensional in plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. The numerical results are given for a cylindrical shell containing an arbitrarily oriented through crack. Some sample results showing the effect of the Poisson's ratio and the material orthotropy are also presented.

  5. Spatial symmetry breaking in rapidly rotating convective spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Many problems in geophysical and astrophysical convection systems are characterized by fast rotation and spherical shell geometry. The combined effects of Coriolis forces and spherical shell geometry produce a unique spatial symmetry for the convection pattern in a rapidly rotating spherical shell. In this paper, we first discuss the general spatial symmetries for rotating spherical shell convection. A special model, a spherical shell heated from below, is then used to illustrate how and when the spatial symmetries are broken. Symmetry breaking occurs via a sequence of spatial transitions from the primary conducting state to the complex multiple-layered columnar structure. It is argued that, because of the dominant effects of rotation, the sequence of spatial transitions identified from this particular model is likely to be generally valid. Applications of the spatial symmetry breaking to planetary convection problems are also discussed.

  6. Incorporation of hazelnut shell and husk in MDF production.

    PubMed

    Cöpür, Yalçin; Güler, Cengiz; Taşçioğlu, Cihat; Tozluoğlu, Ayhan

    2008-10-01

    Hazelnut shell and husk (Coryllus arellana L.) is an abundant agricultural residue in Turkey and investigating the possibilities of utilizing husk and shell in panel production might help to overcome the raw material shortage that the panel industry is facing. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibilities of utilizing hazelnut shell and husk in medium density fiberboard (MDF) production. To produce general purpose fiberboards, fiber-husk and fiber-shell mixtures at various percentages were examined in this study. The results indicated that panels could be produced utilizing hazelnut husk up to 20% addition without falling below the properties required in the standards. Shell addition was restricted up to 10%, because higher addition levels diminished the elastic modulus and internal bond strength below the acceptable level.

  7. Discrete fracture patterns of virus shells reveal mechanical building blocks.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Irena L; Miranda, Roberto; Carrascosa, Jose L; Wuite, Gijs J L; Schmidt, Christoph F

    2011-08-01

    Viral shells are self-assembled protein nanocontainers with remarkable material properties. They combine simplicity of construction with toughness and complex functionality. These properties make them interesting for bionanotechnology. To date we know little about how virus structure determines assembly pathways and shell mechanics. We have here used atomic force microscopy to study structural failure of the shells of the bacteriophage Φ29. We observed rigidity patterns following the symmetry of the capsid proteins. Under prolonged force exertion, we observed fracture along well-defined lines of the 2D crystal lattice. The mechanically most stable building block of the shells was a trimer. Our approach of "reverse engineering" the virus shells thus made it possible to identify stable structural intermediates. Such stable intermediates point to a hierarchy of interactions among equal building blocks correlated with distinct next-neighbor interactions. The results also demonstrate that concepts from macroscopic materials science, such as fracture, can be usefully employed in molecular engineering. PMID:21768340

  8. Stabilization of the resistive shell mode in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Aydemir, A.

    1995-02-01

    The stability of current-driven external-kink modes is investigated in a tokamak plasma surrounded by an external shell of finite electrical conductivity. According to conventional theory, the ideal mode can be stabilized by placing the shell sufficiently close to the plasma, but the non-rotating ``resistive shell mode,`` which grows on the characteristic L/R time of the shell, always persists. It is demonstrated, using both analytic and numerical techniques, that a combination of strong edge plasma rotation and dissipation somewhere inside the plasma is capable of stabilizing the resistive shell mode. This stabilization mechanism does not necessarily depend on toroidicity or presence of resonant surfaces inside the plasma.

  9. Compressive behavior of a turtle's shell: experiment, modeling, and simulation.

    PubMed

    Damiens, R; Rhee, H; Hwang, Y; Park, S J; Hammi, Y; Lim, H; Horstemeyer, M F

    2012-02-01

    The turtle's shell acts as a protective armor for the animal. By analyzing a turtle shell via finite element analysis, one can obtain the strength and stiffness attributes to help design man-made armor. As such, finite element analysis was performed on a Terrapene carolina box turtle shell. Experimental data from compression tests were generated to provide insight into the scute through-thickness behavior of the turtle shell. Three regimes can be classified in terms of constitutive modeling: linear elastic, perfectly inelastic, and densification regions, where hardening occurs. For each regime, we developed a model that comprises elasticity and densification theory for porous materials and obtained all the material parameters by correlating the model with experimental data. The different constitutive responses arise as the deformation proceeded through three distinctive layers of the turtle shell carapace. Overall, the phenomenological stress-strain behavior is similar to that of metallic foams. PMID:22301179

  10. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N

    2014-01-07

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  11. Atomic-level models of the bacterial carboxysome shell

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, S.; Kerfeld, C.A.; Sawaya, M.R.; Cai, F.; Heinhorst, S.; Cannon, G.C.; Yeates, T.O.

    2008-06-03

    The carboxysome is a bacterial microcompartment that functions as a simple organelle by sequestering enzymes involved in carbon fixation. The carboxysome shell is roughly 800 to 1400 angstroms in diameter and is assembled from several thousand protein subunits. Previous studies have revealed the three-dimensional structures of hexameric carboxysome shell proteins, which self-assemble into molecular layers that most likely constitute the facets of the polyhedral shell. Here, we report the three-dimensional structures of two proteins of previously unknown function, CcmL and OrfA (or CsoS4A), from the two known classes of carboxysomes, at resolutions of 2.4 and 2.15 angstroms. Both proteins assemble to form pentameric structures whose size and shape are compatible with formation of vertices in an icosahedral shell. Combining these pentamers with the hexamers previously elucidated gives two plausible, preliminary atomic models for the carboxysome shell.

  12. Curvature effects in thin magnetic shells.

    PubMed

    Gaididei, Yuri; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P; Sheka, Denis D

    2014-06-27

    A magnetic energy functional is derived for an arbitrary curved thin shell on the assumption that the magnetostatic effects can be reduced to an effective easy-surface anisotropy; it can be used for solving both static and dynamic problems. General static solutions are obtained in the limit of a strong anisotropy of both signs (easy-surface and easy-normal cases). It is shown that the effect of the curvature can be treated as the appearance of an effective magnetic field, which is aligned along the surface normal for the case of easy-surface anisotropy and is tangential to the surface for the case of easy-normal anisotropy. In general, the existence of such a field excludes the solutions that are strictly tangential or strictly normal to the surface. As an example, we consider static equilibrium solutions for a cone surface magnetization.

  13. Off-shell hydrodynamics from holography

    DOE PAGES

    Crossley, Michael; Glorioso, Paolo; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yifan

    2016-02-18

    In this article, we outline a program for obtaining an action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics by considering the holographic Wilsonian renormalization group applied to systems with a gravity dual. As a first step, in this paper we restrict to systems with a non-dissipative horizon. By integrating out gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk gravitational system between an asymptotic boundary and a horizon, we are led to a formulation of hydrodynamics where the dynamical variables are not standard velocity and temperature fields, but the relative embedding of the boundary and horizon hypersurfaces. At zeroth order, this action reduces tomore » that proposed by Dubovsky et al. as an off-shell formulation of ideal fluid dynamics.« less

  14. Naked shell singularities on the brane

    SciTech Connect

    Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2005-04-15

    By utilizing nonstandard slicings of 5-dimensional Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-AdS manifolds based on isotropic coordinates, we generate static and spherically-symmetric braneworld spacetimes containing shell-like naked null singularities. For planar slicings, we find that the brane-matter sourcing the solution is a perfect fluid with an exotic equation of state and a pressure singularity where the brane crosses the bulk horizon. From a relativistic point of view, such a singularity is required to maintain matter infinitesimally above the surface of a black hole. From the point of view of the AdS/CFT conjecture, the singular horizon can be seen as one possible quantum correction to a classical black hole geometry. Various generalizations of planar slicings are also considered for a Ricci-flat bulk, and we find that singular horizons and exotic matter distributions are common features.

  15. A shell model for turbulent dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, G.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.

    2011-06-01

    A self-consistent nonlinear dynamo model is presented. The nonlinear behavior of the plasma at small scale is described by using a MHD shell model for fields fluctuations; this allow us to study the dynamo problem in a large parameter regime which characterizes the dynamo phenomenon in many natural systems and which is beyond the power of supercomputers at today. The model is able to reproduce dynamical situations in which the system can undergo transactions to different dynamo regimes. In one of these the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states reproducing the magnetic polarity reversals. From the analysis of long time series of reversals we infer results about the statistics of persistence times, revealing the presence of hidden long-time correlations in the chaotic dynamo process.

  16. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  17. Stability Analysis of Plates and Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr. (Compiler); Nemeth, Michael P. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This special publication contains the papers presented at the special sessions honoring Dr. Manuel Stein during the 38th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference held in Kissimmee, Florida, Apdl 7-10, 1997. This volume, and the SDM special sessions, are dedicated to the memory of Dr. Manuel Stein, a major pioneer in structural mechanics, plate and shell buckling, and composite structures. Many of the papers presented are the work of Manny's colleagues and co-workers and are a result, directly or indirectly, of his influence. Dr. Stein earned his Ph.D. in Engineering Mechanics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1958. He worked in the Structural Mechanics Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center from 1943 until 1989. Following his retirement, Dr. Stein continued his involvement with NASA as a Distinguished Research Associate.

  18. Computational procedures for postbuckling of composite shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, G. M.; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    A recently developed finite-element capability for general nonlinear shell analysis, featuring the use of three-dimensional constitutive equations within an efficient resultant-oriented framework, is employed to simulate the postbuckling response of an axially compressed composite cylindrical panel with a circular cutout. The problem is a generic example of modern composite aircraft components for which postbuckling strength (i.e., fail-safety) is desired in the presence of local discontinuities such as holes and cracked stiffeners. While the computational software does a reasonable job of predicting both the buckling load and the qualitative aspects of postbuckling (compared both with experiment and another code) there are some discrepancies due to: (1) uncertainties in the nominal layer material properties, (2) structural sensitivity to initial imperfections, and (3) the neglect of dynamic and local material delamination effects in the numerical model. Corresponding refinements are suggested for the realistic continuation of this type of analysis.

  19. Off-shell hydrodynamics from holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Michael; Glorioso, Paolo; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    We outline a program for obtaining an action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics by considering the holographic Wilsonian renormalization group applied to systems with a gravity dual. As a first step, in this paper we restrict to systems with a non-dissipative horizon. By integrating out gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk gravitational system between an asymptotic boundary and a horizon, we are led to a formulation of hydrodynamics where the dynamical variables are not standard velocity and temperature fields, but the relative embedding of the boundary and horizon hypersurfaces. At zeroth order, this action reduces to that proposed by Dubovsky et al. as an off-shell formulation of ideal fluid dynamics.

  20. Shell model the Monte Carlo way

    SciTech Connect

    Ormand, W.E.

    1995-03-01

    The formalism for the auxiliary-field Monte Carlo approach to the nuclear shell model is presented. The method is based on a linearization of the two-body part of the Hamiltonian in an imaginary-time propagator using the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. The foundation of the method, as applied to the nuclear many-body problem, is discussed. Topics presented in detail include: (1) the density-density formulation of the method, (2) computation of the overlaps, (3) the sign of the Monte Carlo weight function, (4) techniques for performing Monte Carlo sampling, and (5) the reconstruction of response functions from an imaginary-time auto-correlation function using MaxEnt techniques. Results obtained using schematic interactions, which have no sign problem, are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the method, while an extrapolation method for realistic Hamiltonians is presented. In addition, applications at finite temperature are outlined.

  1. Taming the off-shell Higgs boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azatov, A.; Grojean, C.; Paul, A.; Salvioni, E.

    2015-03-01

    We study the off-shell Higgs data in the process pp → h (*) → Z (*) Z (*) → 4 l, to constrain deviations of the Higgs couplings. We point out that this channel can be used to resolve the long- and short-distance contributions to Higgs production by gluon fusion and can thus be complementary to in measuring the top Yukawa coupling. Our analysis, performed in the context of effective field theory, shows that current data do not allow drawing any model-independent conclusions. We study the prospects at future hadron colliders, including the high-luminosity LHC and accelerators with higher energy, up to 100 TeV. The available QCD calculations and the theoretical uncertainties affecting our analysis are also briefly discussed.

  2. Torrefaction of pomaces and nut shells.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Bor-Sen; Valenzuela-Medina, Diana; Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina; Klamczynski, Artur K; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Milczarek, Rebecca R; Du, Wen-Xian; Glenn, Greg M; Orts, William J

    2015-02-01

    Apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells were torrefied at different temperatures and times in a muffle furnace. The fiber content and thermal stability of the raw byproducts were examined and the moisture and ash contents, elemental composition, and gross calorific values of the raw and torrefied samples were characterized. Response surface methodology and a central composite design were used to examine the effects of temperature and time on mass and energy yields of the torrefied byproducts. Raw apple pomace had the highest hemicellulose content, whereas raw grape pomace had the highest lignin content. Raw tomato pomace had the highest gross calorific value because of its high carbon content. Temperature had a larger effect on mass and energy yields than time. Grape pomace generally had the highest mass and energy yields. Also, energy yields of the byproducts could be predicted from mass loss values.

  3. Double Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification

    SciTech Connect

    SUSIENE, W.T.

    2000-04-27

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

  4. Torrefaction of pomaces and nut shells.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Bor-Sen; Valenzuela-Medina, Diana; Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina; Klamczynski, Artur K; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Milczarek, Rebecca R; Du, Wen-Xian; Glenn, Greg M; Orts, William J

    2015-02-01

    Apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells were torrefied at different temperatures and times in a muffle furnace. The fiber content and thermal stability of the raw byproducts were examined and the moisture and ash contents, elemental composition, and gross calorific values of the raw and torrefied samples were characterized. Response surface methodology and a central composite design were used to examine the effects of temperature and time on mass and energy yields of the torrefied byproducts. Raw apple pomace had the highest hemicellulose content, whereas raw grape pomace had the highest lignin content. Raw tomato pomace had the highest gross calorific value because of its high carbon content. Temperature had a larger effect on mass and energy yields than time. Grape pomace generally had the highest mass and energy yields. Also, energy yields of the byproducts could be predicted from mass loss values. PMID:25479394

  5. Studies on Freezing of Shell-Fish-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dae Jin; Konagaya, Shiro; Tanaka, Takeo

    Ark shell, Anadara broughtonii(Shrenk), are commonly eaten raw or under-done in Korea, Japan, and East Asian countries. Along with a recent remarkable development of culture fisheries, Ark shell has become one of the commercially important shell-fish species. Transportation and storage of large quantities of shell-fish is becoming increasingly important. This work was begun with this background to make clear the effects of temperature and length of storage time on the quality of frozen stored ark shell. Results are as follows : (1) There was little chang in amounts of free and expressible drip from ark shell flesh frozen stored at -40°CdegC for 6 months. Water holding capacity of the same meat was almost constant over 6 months storage. However, a mounts of both drip increased markedly after 2 months storage at -10°C. (2) Protein extractibility of ark shell flesh tended to decrease gradually from the begining when stored at -10°C, while at -20°C, the protein extractibility was stable for 3 months before decreasing gradually. However at -40°C, the protein extractibility was stable for 6 months. It was found that paramyosin was very stable even when the ark shell was frozen stored at -10°C. (3) It was observed that ark shell flesh became tough when frozen. The toughness of ark shell flesh as measured by an instrument increased with frozen storage time and increased temperature. (4) In the smooth muscle, it was histologically observed that initial small ice crystals formed between muscle bundles grew larger during frozen storage. It was found that the higher the storage temperature, the bigger the ice crystals formed. Aggregation of some muscle fiber and empty spaces between muscle bundles were observd after thawed muscles frozen stored at relatively high temperature such as -10°C.

  6. Xenon, osmium, and lead formed in O-shells and C-shells of massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that the explosive products from O-shells of massive stars which contain Xe-124 with large overproduction factors do not contain any of the naturally occurring isotopes of Os and Pb. Further, it is shown that the explosive products from C-shells (explosive carbon burning) do contain Os and Pb along with Xe which is strongly enriched in r-Xe of anomalous isotopic composition. The composition of Os in this matter is probably s-like rather than r-like. Pb in this matter is enriched in Pb-208. The results and arguments of this paper have implications for studies of isotopic compositions of Xe, Os, and Pb in residues of the Allende and other carbonaceous chondrites.

  7. Stratifying on-shell cluster varieties: the geometry of non-planar on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Wen, Congkao

    2016-10-01

    The correspondence between on-shell diagrams in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and cluster varieties in the Grassmannian remains largely unexplored beyond the planar limit. In this article, we describe a systematic program to survey such `on-shell varieties', and use this to provide a complete classification in the case of G(3 , 6). In particular, we find exactly 24 top-dimensional varieties and 10 co-dimension one varieties in G(3 , 6) — up to parity and relabeling of the external legs. We use this case to illustrate some of the novelties found for non-planar varieties relative to the case of positroids, and describe some of the features that we expect to hold more generally.

  8. On the crystallization of spheres and shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, J.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated drops of many solutions or pure materials readily supercool below their equilibrium crystallization point. In some cases a glass forms; otherwise the crystallization process is usually initiaed at a specific point in the drop leading to a complex structure. Under moderate supercooling, in the first stage of crystallization dendrites grow throughout the drop, leading to latent heat release, and temperature rise. The dendrite growth velocity, tip radius and crystal orientation depend critically on the supercooling. The second stage of crystallization depends on the geometry of the heat loss from the periphery and results in freezing from one side of the drop for asymmetric heat loss or as a thickening shell for symmetrical heat loss. Most solute is rejected at this stage, to nucleate in a geometry determined by the original dendrite distribution and the growth interface, and the internal pressure as it responds to volume changes and cracking of the shell. New crystal orientation appear for nucleation at large supercooling and also in large drops, following reorientation of dendrite arms separated during Ostwald Ripening. Crystal growth is usually uninfluenced by the interface in a gas or liquid environment but changes habit to thin needle like crystals, and increases growth velocity for a solid interface. Drops of size of the tip radius will no longer be spherical on crystallization. For a solvent which evaporates, crystals grow faceted (as hydrates); surface tension forces may move solvent over the surface to give well formed faceted crystals. It is suggested that faceted defect free crystals can be grown from drops under low g using controlled nucleation in a controlled vapor and temperature environment in the absence of convective motion.

  9. Microscopic black holes and cosmic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daghigh, Ramin Ghasemzadeh

    In the first part of this thesis the relativistic viscous fluid equations describing the outflow of high temperature matter created via Hawking radiation from microscopic black holes are solved numerically for a realistic equation of state. We focus on black holes with initial temperatures greater than 100 GeV and lifetimes less than 6 days. The spectra of direct photons and photons from π0 decay are calculated for energies greater than 1 GeV. We calculate the diffuse gamma ray spectrum from black holes distributed in our galactic halo. However, the most promising route for their observation is to search for point sources emitting gamma rays of ever-increasing energy. We also calculate the spectra of all three flavors of neutrinos arising from direct emission from the fluid at the neutrino- sphere and from the decay of pions and muons from their decoupling at much larger radii and smaller temperatures for neutrino energies between 1 GeV and the Planck energy. The results for neutrino spectra may be applicable for the last few hours and minutes of the lifetime of a microscopic black hole. In the second part of this thesis the combined field equations of gravity and a scalar field are studied. When a potential for a scalar field has two local minima there arise spherical shell-type solutions of the classical field equations due to gravitational attraction. We establish such solutions numerically in a space which is asymptotically de Sitter. It generically arises when the energy scale characterizing the scalar field potential is much less than the Planck scale. It is shown that the mirror image of the shell appears in the other half of the Penrose diagram. The configuration is smooth everywhere with no physical singularity.* *This dissertation is a compound document (contains both a paper copy and a CD as part of the dissertation).

  10. RF Performance of Membrane Aperture Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flint, Eirc M.; Lindler, Jason E.; Thomas, David L.; Romanofsky, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent results establishing the suitability of Membrane Aperture Shell Technology (MAST) for Radio Frequency (RF) applications. These single surface shells are capable of maintaining their figure with no preload or pressurization and minimal boundary support, yet can be compactly roll stowed and passively self deploy. As such, they are a promising technology for enabling a future generation of RF apertures. In this paper, we review recent experimental and numerical results quantifying suitable RF performance. It is shown that candidate materials possess metallic coatings with sufficiently low surface roughness and that these materials can be efficiently fabricated into RF relevant doubly curved shapes. A numerical justification for using a reflectivity metric, as opposed to the more standard RF designer metric of skin depth, is presented and the resulting ability to use relatively thin coating thickness is experimentally validated with material sample tests. The validity of these independent film sample measurements are then confirmed through experimental results measuring RF performance for reasonable sized doubly curved apertures. Currently available best results are 22 dBi gain at 3 GHz (S-Band) for a 0.5m aperture tested in prime focus mode, 28dBi gain for the same antenna in the C-Band (4 to 6 GHz), and 36.8dBi for a smaller 0.25m antenna tested at 32 GHz in the Ka-Band. RF range test results for a segmented aperture (one possible scaling approach) are shown as well. Measured antenna system actual efficiencies (relative to the unachievable) ideal for these on axis tests are generally quite good, typically ranging from 50 to 90%.

  11. Biomass-based palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve as gas separation adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Sethupathi, Sumathi; Bashir, Mohammed Jk; Akbar, Zinatizadeh Ali; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely recognised as a potential low-cost source for the production of high added value materials and proved to be a good precursor for the production of activated carbons. One of such valuable biomasses used for the production of activated carbons is palm shell. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant by-product produced from the palm oil industries throughout tropical countries. Palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve has been widely applied in various environmental pollution control technologies, mainly owing to its high adsorption performance, well-developed porosity and low cost, leading to potential applications in gas-phase separation using adsorption processes. This mini-review represents a comprehensive overview of the palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve preparation method, physicochemical properties and feasibility of palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve in gas separation processes. Some of the limitations are outlined and suggestions for future improvements are pointed out.

  12. Structural qualification of the multifunctional instrument tree for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Strohlow, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis and methodology for qualifying the multifunctional instrument tree (MIT) structure for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks. Structural qualification for MIT installations in specific tanks are also contained in this document.

  13. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (∼10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ∼40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

  14. Testing refined shell-model interactions in the s d shell: Coulomb excitation of 26Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebeck, B.; Seidlitz, M.; Blazhev, A.; Reiter, P.; Altenkirch, R.; Bauer, C.; Butler, P. A.; de Witte, H.; Elseviers, J.; Gaffney, L. P.; Hess, H.; Huyse, M.; Kröll, T.; Lutter, R.; Pakarinen, J.; Pietralla, N.; Radeck, F.; Scheck, M.; Schneiders, D.; Sotty, C.; van Duppen, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Miniball Collaboration; Rex-Isolde Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shell-model calculations crucially depend on the residual interaction used to approximate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Recent improvements to the empirical universal s d interaction (USD) describing nuclei within the s d shell yielded two new interactions—USDA and USDB—causing changes in the theoretical description of these nuclei. Purpose: Transition matrix elements between excited states provide an excellent probe to examine the underlying shell structure. These observables provide a stringent test for the newly derived interactions. The nucleus 26Na with 7 valence neutrons and 3 valence protons outside the doubly-magic 16O core is used as a test case. Method: A radioactive beam experiment with 26Na (T1 /2=1 ,07 s ) was performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility (CERN) using Coulomb excitation at safe energies below the Coulomb barrier. Scattered particles were detected with an annular Si detector in coincidence with γ rays observed by the segmented MINIBALL array. Coulomb excitation cross sections of the beam have been obtained by normalization to the well known Coulomb excitation cross sections of the 104Pd target. Results: The observation of three γ -ray transitions in 26Na together with available spectroscopic data allows us to determine E 2 - and M 1 -transitional matrix elements. Results are compared to theoretical predictions. Conclusion: The improved theoretical description of 26Na could be validated. Remaining discrepancies between experimental data and theoretical predictions indicate the need for future experiments and possibly further theoretical improvements.

  15. Preparation of activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell by air activation

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, M.S.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, three-step process for the production of high-quality activated carbons from macadamia nut shell and coconut shell charcoals is described. In this process the charcoal is (1) heated to a high temperature (carbonized), (2) oxidized in air following a stepwise heating program from low (ca. 450 K) to high (ca. 660 K) temperatures (oxygenated), and (3) heated again in an inert environment to a high temperature (activated). By use of this procedure, activated carbons with surface areas greater than 1,000 m{sub 2}/g are manufactured with an overall yield of 15% (based on the dry shell feed). Removal of carbon mass by the development of mesopores and macropores is largely responsible for increases in the surface area of the carbons above 600 m{sub 2}/g. Thus, the surface area per gram of activated carbon can be represented by an inverse function of the yield for burnoffs between 15 and 60%. These findings are supported by mass-transfer calculations and pore-size distribution measurements. A kinetic model for gasification of carbon by oxygen, which provides for an Eley-Rideal type reaction of a surface oxide with oxygen in air, fits the measured gasification rates reasonably well over the temperature range of 550--660 K.

  16. The NASA Monographs on Shell Stability Design Recommendations: A Review and Suggested Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A summary of the existing NASA design criteria monographs for the design of buckling-resistant thin-shell structures is presented. Subsequent improvements in the analysis for nonlinear shell response are reviewed, and current issues in shell stability analysis are discussed. Examples of nonlinear shell responses that are not included in the existing shell design monographs are presented, and an approach for including reliability-based analysis procedures in the shell design process is discussed. Suggestions for conducting future shell experiments are presented, and proposed improvements to the NASA shell design criteria monographs are discussed.

  17. Exchange coupled SrFe12O19/Fe-Co core/shell particles with different shell thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Woncheol; Lane, Alan M.

    2015-11-01

    SrFe12O19/Fe-Co core/shell particles with different shell thickness were synthesized by polyol reduction of Fe and Co ions at 180°C with SrFe12O19 particles dispersed in solvent. The core/shell structure is formed by magnetic self-assembly due to the remanent magnetization of SrFe12O19 particles. Within a limited concentration range, the shell thickness could be controlled by regulating the concentration of Fe and Co ions. Core/shell structured SrFe12O19/Fe-Co particles showed more effective exchange coupling effects between hard and soft phases than physically mixed SrFe12O19 and Fe-Co particles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Temperature and Food Influence Shell Growth and Mantle Gene Expression of Shell Matrix Proteins in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Caroline; Linard, Clémentine; Le Moullac, Gilles; Soyez, Claude; Saulnier, Denis; Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Ky, Chin Long; Gueguen, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the combined effect of microalgal concentration and temperature on the shell growth of the bivalve Pinctada margaritifera and the molecular mechanisms underlying this biomineralization process. Shell growth was measured after two months of rearing in experimental conditions, using calcein staining of the calcified structures. Molecular mechanisms were studied though the expression of 11 genes encoding proteins implicated in the biomineralization process, which was assessed in the mantle. We showed that shell growth is influenced by both microalgal concentration and temperature, and that these environmental factors also regulate the expression of most of the genes studied. Gene expression measurement of shell matrix protein thereby appears to be an appropriate indicator for the evaluation of the biomineralization activity in the pearl oyster P. margaritifera under varying environmental conditions. This study provides valuable information on the molecular mechanisms of mollusk shell growth and its environmental control. PMID:25121605

  19. Effect of supercritical water shell on cavitation bubble dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wei-Hang; Chen, Wei-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Based on reported experimental data, a new model for single cavitation bubble dynamics is proposed considering a supercritical water (SCW) shell surrounding the bubble. Theoretical investigations show that the SCW shell apparently slows down the oscillation of the bubble and cools the gas temperature inside the collapsing bubble. Furthermore, the model is simplified to a Rayleigh-Plesset-like equation for a thin SCW shell. The dependence of the bubble dynamics on the thickness and density of the SCW shell is studied. The results show the bubble dynamics depends on the thickness but is insensitive to the density of the SCW shell. The thicker the SCW shell is, the smaller are the wall velocity and the gas temperature in the bubble. In the authors’ opinion, the SCW shell works as a buffering agent. In collapsing, it is compressed to absorb a good deal of the work transformed into the bubble internal energy during bubble collapse so that it weakens the bubble oscillations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174145 and 11334005).

  20. Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2000-01-01

    An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.

  1. Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2000-01-01

    A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.

  2. Nanostructured core-shell electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long-bo; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2016-11-01

    Core-shell nanostructure represents a unique system for applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Owing to the unique characteristics featuring high power delivery and long-term cycling stability, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have emerged as one of the most attractive electrochemical storage systems since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review aims to summarize recent progress on core-shell nanostructures for advanced supercapacitor applications in view of their hierarchical architecture which not only create the desired hierarchical porous channels, but also possess higher electrical conductivity and better structural mechanical stability. The core-shell nanostructures include carbon/carbon, carbon/metal oxide, carbon/conducting polymer, metal oxide/metal oxide, metal oxide/conducting polymer, conducting polymer/conducting polymer, and even more complex ternary core-shell nanoparticles. The preparation strategies, electrochemical performances, and structural stabilities of core-shell materials for ECs are summarized. The relationship between core-shell nanostructure and electrochemical performance is discussed in detail. In addition, the challenges and new trends in core-shell nanomaterials development have also been proposed.

  3. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

  4. On the acoustic diffraction by the edges of benthic shells.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Timothy K; Chu, Dezhang

    2004-07-01

    Recent laboratory measurements of acoustic backscattering by individual benthic shells have isolated the edge-diffracted echo from echoes due to the surface of the main body of the shell. The data indicate that the echo near broadside incidence is generally the strongest for all orientations and is due principally to the surface of the main body. At angles well away from broadside, the echo levels are lower and are due primarily to the diffraction from the edge of the shell. The decrease in echo levels from broadside incidence to well off broadside is shown to be reasonably consistent with the decrease in acoustic backscattering from normal incidence to well off normal incidence by a shell-covered seafloor. The results suggest the importance of the edge of the shell in off-normal-incidence backscattering by a shell-covered seafloor. Furthermore, when considering bistatic diffraction by edges, there are implications that the edge of the shell (lying on the seafloor) can cause significant scattering in many directions, including at subcritical angles. PMID:15295983

  5. Horizon shells and BMS-like soldering transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2016-03-01

    We revisit the theory of null shells in general relativity, with a particular emphasis on null shells placed at horizons of black holes. We study in detail the considerable freedom that is available in the case that one solders two metrics together across null hypersurfaces (such as Killing horizons) for which the induced metric is invariant under translations along the null generators. In this case the group of soldering transformations turns out to be infinite dimensional, and these solderings create non-trivial horizon shells containing both massless matter and impulsive gravitational wave components. We also rephrase this result in the language of Carrollian symmetry groups. To illustrate this phenomenon we discuss in detail the example of shells on the horizon of the Schwarzschild black hole (with equal interior and exterior mass), uncovering a rich classical structure at the horizon and deriving an explicit expression for the general horizon shell energy-momentum tensor. In the special case of BMS-like soldering supertranslations we find a conserved shell-energy that is strikingly similar to the standard expression for asymptotic BMS supertranslation charges, suggesting a direct relation between the physical properties of these horizon shells and the recently proposed BMS supertranslation hair of a black hole.

  6. Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Thermally Treated Conch Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haoze; Jin, Dalai; Li, Rui; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    Seashells are natural nanocomposite armors with an exceptional combination of strength and toughness. Conch shells have a crossed-lamellar structure constructed with aragonite and biopolymer. Thermal treatment uncovered a nanoscale hierarchical structure in shell's third-order lamellae. Individual third-order lamellae were found to consist of aragonite nanoparticles cemented with biopolymer. The biopolymer renders conch shells joint increase in strength, ductility and fracture energy, and especially the fracture energy increase is more remarkable. The shell's aragonite transformed to calcite at 407°C and lime at 607°C. The shell's biopolymer was burned out in the thermal treatment at 310°C, leading to 1.7% mass loss. The crossed-lamellar structure remained in the 500°C thermally treated shell. The 900°C heat treatment destroyed the crossed-lamellar architecture completely. Thermal treatment resulted in reduction in mechanical properties due to the joint effects—burning out of biopolymer, phase transformation, and destruction of structural integrity. The findings advance our understanding of conch shell's architecture and provide new guidelines for the design and manufacturing of bio-inspired materials.

  7. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    DOE PAGES

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function ofmore » the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.« less

  8. Composite fuselage shell structures research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Fuselage structures for transport aircraft represent a significant percentage of both the weight and the cost of these aircraft primary structures. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing both the weight and the cost of transport fuselage structures, but only limited studies of the response and failure of composite fuselage structures have been conducted for transport aircraft. The behavior of these important primary structures must be understood, and the structural mechanics methodology for analyzing and designing these complex stiffened shell structures must be validated in the laboratory. The effects of local gradients and discontinuities on fuselage shell behavior and the effects of local damage on pressure containment must be thoroughly understood before composite fuselage structures can be used for commercial aircraft. This paper describes the research being conducted and planned at NASA LaRC to help understand the critical behavior or composite fuselage structures and to validate the structural mechanics methodology being developed for stiffened composite fuselage shell structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads. Stiffened shell and curved stiffened panel designs are currently being developed and analyzed, and these designs will be fabricated and then tested at Langley to study critical fuselage shell behavior and to validate structural analysis and design methodology. The research includes studies of the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads on nonlinear stiffened panel and shell behavior, the effects of cutouts and other gradient-producing discontinuities on composite shell response, and the effects of local damage on pressure containment and residual strength. Scaling laws are being developed that relate full-scale and subscale behavior of composite fuselage shells. Failure mechanisms are being identified and advanced designs will be developed based on what is learned from early results from

  9. Expanding relativistic shells and gamma-ray burst temporal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, E.E.; Madras, C.D.; Nayakshin, S.

    1996-12-01

    Many models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) involve a shell expanding at extreme relativistic speeds. The shell of material expands in a photon-quiet phase for a period {ital t}{sub 0} and then becomes gamma-ray active, perhaps due to inhomogeneities in the interstellar medium or the generation of shocks. Based on kinematics, we relate the envelope of the emission of the event to the characteristics of the photon-quiet and photon-active phases. We initially assume local spherical symmetry wherein, on average, the same conditions prevail over the shell`s surface within angles the order of {Gamma}{sup {minus}1}, where {Gamma} is the Lorentz factor for the bulk motion. The contribution of the curvature to the temporal structure is comparable to the contribution from the overall expansion. As a result, GRB time histories from a shell should have an envelope similar to {open_quotes}FRED{close_quotes} (fast rise, exponential decay) events in which the rise time is related to the duration of the photon-active phase and the fall time is related to the duration of the photon-quiet phase. This result depends only on local spherical symmetry and, since most GRBs do not have such envelopes, we introduce the {open_quotes}shell symmetry{close_quotes} problem: the observed time history envelopes of most GRBs do not agree with that expected for a relativistic expanding shell. Although FREDs have the signature of a relativistic shell, they may not be due to a single shell, as required by some cosmological models. Some FREDs have precursors in which the peaks are separated by more than the expansion time required to explain FRED shape. Such a burst is most likely explained by a central engine; that is, the separation of the multiple peaks occurs because the central site produced multiple releases of energy on timescales comparable to the duration of the event. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Onset and Cessation of Thermal Convection within Titan's Ice Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, G.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of thermal convection within the outer ice shell of Titan is believed to be at the origin of methane outgassing on Titan (Tobie et al., 2006), a possible factor in Titan's resurfacing processes (Mitri et al., 2008), and to have a major role in the evolution and tectonic activity of this Saturnian icy satellite (Tobie et al., 2005; Mitri and Showman, 2008; Mitri et al., 2010). Recent measurements of the gravity field (Iess et al., 2010, 2012) and the modeling of the shape and topography (Zebker et al., 2009; Mitri et al., 2014) have recently improved our knowledge of the thermal state and structure of Titan's outer ice shell. Mitri et al. (2014) found that Titan's surface topography is consistent with an isostatically compensated ice shell of variable thickness, likely at the present in a thermally conductive state (see also Nimmo and Bills, 2010; Hemingway et al., 2013), overlying a relatively dense (~1200-1350 kg m-3) subsurface ocean. As Titan's ice shell is not currently experiencing thermal convection it is likely that the ice shell could have experienced during its history both the onset and the cessation of thermal convection; thermal convection could be present within the ice shell for limited times or in fact be episodic. We investigate the evolution of Titan's outer ice shell from the crystallization of the underlying ocean with a focus on the onset and cessation of thermal convection. To simulate convection in a growing ice shell, we numerically solve the thermal convection equations for a Newtonian rheology in a two dimensional Cartesian domain using finite element method, with a moving bottom boundary to ocean crystallization. We discuss how the crystallization process affects the onset of convection and in which conditions the cessation of thermal convection may occur. The geological consequences of the changes of the thermal state and structure of the outer ice shell will also be discussed.

  11. Core-Shell Composite Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Sriya

    Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in various fields due to their unique properties not seen in similar bulk materials. Among them, core-shell composite nanoparticles are an important class of materials which are attractive for their applications in catalysis, sensing, electromagnetic shielding, drug delivery, and environmental remediation. This dissertation focuses on the study of core-shell type of nanoparticles where a polymer serves as the core and inorganic nanoparticles are the shell. This is an interesting class of supramolecular building blocks and can "exhibit unusual, possibly unique, properties which cannot be obtained simply by co-mixing polymer and inorganic particles". The one-step Pickering emulsion polymerization method was successfully developed and applied to synthesize polystyrene-silica core-shell composite particles. Possible mechanisms of the Pickering emulsion polymerization were also explored. The silica nanoparticles were thermodynamically favorable to self-assemble at liquid-liquid interfaces at the initial stage of polymerization and remained at the interface to finally form the shells of the composite particles. More importantly, Pickering emulsion polymerization was employed to synthesize polystyrene/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-silica core-shell nanoparticles with N-isopropylacrylamide incorporated into the core as a co-monomer. The composite nanoparticles were temperature sensitive and could be up-taken by human prostate cancer cells and demonstrated effectiveness in drug delivery and cancer therapy. Similarly, by incorporating poly-2-(N,N)-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMA) into the core, pH sensitive core-shell composite nanoparticles were synthesized and applied as effective carriers to release a rheological modifier upon a pH change. Finally, the research focuses on facile approaches to engineer the transition of the temperature-sensitive particles and develop composite core-shell nanoparticles with a metallic shell.

  12. Iridescence of a shell of mollusk Haliotis Glabra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Wong, D.; Lee, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Pearls and shells of some mollusks are attractive inorganic materials primarily owing to the beauty of their natural lustrous and iridescent surface. The iridescent colors can be explained by diffraction or interference or both, depending on the microstructure of the surface. Strong iridescent colors are very evident on the polished shell of the mollusk Haliotis Glabra, commonly known as abalone. It would be interesting to study how these colors are produced on the surface of the shell. By using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the surface of the shell is found to have a fine-scale diffraction grating structure, and stacks of thin crystalline nacreous layers or platelets are found below the surface. These observations suggest that the iridescent colors are caused by both diffraction and interference. From measurements done on the diffraction patterns that were obtained using a He-Ne laser illuminating the shell, the groove width of the grating structure was derived. Good agreement was found between the derived groove density by diffraction and that measured directly using the SEM. The crystalline structure of the nacreous layers of the shell is studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and SEM observations. The infrared absorption peaks of 700, 713, 862 and 1083 cm-1 confirmed that the nacre of the shell is basically aragonite. The strong iridescent colors of the shell are the result of high groove density on the surface which causes diffraction. The uniform stacking of layers of nacre below the surface of the shell also causes interference effects that contribute to the iridescent colors.

  13. Rosette globulettes and shells in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, M. M.; Haikala, L. K.; Gahm, G. F.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Giant galactic H ii regions surrounding central young clusters show compressed molecular shells, which have broken up into clumps, filaments, and elephant trunks interacting with UV light from central OB stars. Tiny, dense clumps of subsolar mass, called globulettes, form in this environment. Aims: We observe and explore the nature and origin of the infrared emission and extinction in these cool, dusty shell features and globulettes in one H ii region, the Rosette nebula, and search for associated newborn stars. Methods: We imaged the northwestern quadrant of the Rosette nebula in the near-infrared (NIR) through wideband JHKs filters and narrowband H2 1-0 S(1) and Pβ plus continuum filters using the Son of Isaac (SOFI) instrument at the New Technology Telescope (NTT) at European Southern Observatory (ESO). We used the NIR images to study the surface brightness of the globulettes and associated bright rims. We used the NIR JHKs photometry to create a visual extinction map and to search for objects with NIR excess emission. In addition, archival images from Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 μm and Herschel Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations, covering several bands in the mid-infrared and far-infrared, were used to further analyze the stellar population, to examine the structure of the trunks and other shell structures and to study this Rosette nebula photon-dominated region in more detail. Results: The globulettes and elephant trunks have bright rims in the Ks band, which are unresolved in our images, on the sides facing the central cluster. An analysis of 21 globulettes, where surface brightness in the H2 1-0 S(1) line at 2.12 μm is detected, shows that approximately a third of the surface brightness observed in the Ks filter is due to this line: the observed average of the H2/Ks surface brightness is 0.26 ± 0.02 in the globulettes' cores and 0.30 ± 0.01 in the rims

  14. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Rech, J.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods are commonly preserved in wetland, alluvial, loess, and glacial deposits, as well as in sediments at many archeological sites. These shells are composed largely of aragonite (CaCO3) and potentially could be used for radiocarbon dating, but they must meet two criteria before their 14C ages can be considered to be reliable: (1) when gastropods are alive, the 14C activity of their shells must be in equilibrium with the 14C activity of the atmosphere, and (2) after burial, their shells must behave as closed systems with respect to carbon. To evaluate the first criterion, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the 14C content of the most common small terrestrial gastropods in North America, including 247 AMS measurements of modern shell material (3749 individual shells) from 46 different species. The modern gastropods that we analyzed were all collected from habitats on carbonate terrain and, therefore, the data presented here represent worst-case scenarios. In sum, ~78% of the shell aliquots that we analyzed did not contain dead carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks even though it was readily available at all sites, 12% of the aliquots contained between 5 and 10% dead carbon, and a few (3% of the total) contained more than 10%. These results are significantly lower than the 20-30% dead carbon that has been reported previously for larger taxa living in carbonate terrain. For the second criterion, we report a case study from the American Midwest in which we analyzed fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods (7 taxa; 18 AMS measurements; 173 individual shells) recovered from late-Pleistocene sediments. The fossil shells yielded 14C ages that were statistically indistinguishable from 14C ages of well-preserved plant macrofossils from the same stratum. Although just one site, these results suggest that small terrestrial gastropod shells may behave as closed systems with respect to carbon over geologic

  15. Interacting shells in AdS spacetime and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Rocha, Jorge V.

    2016-07-01

    We study the simplest two-body problem in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime: two, infinitely thin, concentric spherical shells of matter. We include only gravitational interaction between the two shells, but we show that the dynamics of this system is highly nontrivial. We observe prompt collapse to a black hole, delayed collapse and even perpetual oscillatory motion, depending on the initial location of the shells (or their energy content). The system exhibits critical behavior, and we show strong hints that it is also chaotic.

  16. Mixing with piecewise isometries on a hemispherical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Paul P.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce mixing with piecewise isometries (PWIs) on a hemispherical shell, which mimics features of mixing by cutting and shuffling in spherical shells half-filled with granular media. For each PWI, there is an inherent structure on the hemispherical shell known as the exceptional set E, and a particular subset of E, E+, provides insight into how the structure affects mixing. Computer simulations of PWIs are used to visualize mixing and approximations of E+ to demonstrate their connection. While initial conditions of unmixed materials add a layer of complexity, the inherent structure of E+ defines fundamental aspects of mixing by cutting and shuffling.

  17. Photon management with core-shell nanowire structures.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kun-Yu; Chang, Hung-Chih; Dai, Yu-An; He, Jr-Hau

    2012-03-12

    Antireflective Si/oxide core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) were fabricated by galvanic etching and subsequent annealing process. The excellent light-harvesting characteristics of the core-shell NWAs, such as broadband working ranges, omnidirectionality, and polarization-insensitivity, ascribed to the smooth index transition from air to the substrates, have been demonstrated. By tuning core-shell volume ratios, we obtained enhanced light trapping regions implemented in either the planar Si underneath NWAs or the core regions of NWAs, greatly benefiting the geometry design of planar and radial p-n junction cell structures, respectively. This photon management scheme indicates the potential use in nanostructured photovoltaic applications. PMID:22418674

  18. Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kojima, M.

    1995-11-01

    An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.

  19. Vibration analysis of rotating thin laminated composite shell of revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.; Shikanai, G.; Takayama, K.

    1995-11-01

    An exact solution procedure is presented for solving free vibrations of a rotating thin laminated composite shell of revolution having meridionally constant curvature. Based on the classical lamination theory, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationally conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply shells. Frequencies and mode shapes of the shells having both ends clamped and both ends freely supported are presented showing their variations with rotating angular velocity, number of laminae and other parameters.

  20. From Ewald sphere to Ewald shell in nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huang; Huang, Cheng-Ping; Zhang, Chao; Hong, Xu-Hao; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Ewald sphere is a simple vector scheme to depict the X-ray Bragg diffraction in a crystal. A similar method, known as the nonlinear Ewald sphere, was employed to illustrate optical frequency conversion processes. We extend the nonlinear Ewald sphere to the Ewald shell construction. With the Ewald shell, a variety of quasi-phase-matching (QPM) effects, such as the collective envelope effect associated with multiple QPM resonances, the enhanced second- harmonic generation due to multiple reciprocal vectors etc., are suggested theoretically and verified experimentally. By rotating the nonlinear photonic crystal sample, the dynamic evolution of these QPM effects has also been observed, which agreed well with the Ewald shell model.