Science.gov

Sample records for goal directed thinking

  1. Thinking as the control of imagination: a conceptual framework for goal-directed systems.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castelfranchi, Cristiano

    2009-07-01

    This paper offers a conceptual framework which (re)integrates goal-directed control, motivational processes, and executive functions, and suggests a developmental pathway from situated action to higher level cognition. We first illustrate a basic computational (control-theoretic) model of goal-directed action that makes use of internal modeling. We then show that by adding the problem of selection among multiple action alternatives motivation enters the scene, and that the basic mechanisms of executive functions such as inhibition, the monitoring of progresses, and working memory, are required for this system to work. Further, we elaborate on the idea that the off-line re-enactment of anticipatory mechanisms used for action control gives rise to (embodied) mental simulations, and propose that thinking consists essentially in controlling mental simulations rather than directly controlling behavior and perceptions. We conclude by sketching an evolutionary perspective of this process, proposing that anticipation leveraged cognition, and by highlighting specific predictions of our model.

  2. Using brain-computer interfaces to overcome the extinction of goal-directed thinking in minimally conscious state patients.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Giulia; Birbaumer, Niels

    2012-08-01

    Minimally conscious state (MCS) is a condition of severely altered consciousness, in which patients appear to be wakeful and exhibit fluctuating but reproducible signs of awareness. MCS patients do not respond and are therefore dependent on others. In agreement with the embodied cognition assumption that motor actions influence our cognition, the absence of movement and the decrease in consequences for any type of covert or overt response may cause an extinction of goal-directed thinking. Brain-computer interfaces, which allow a direct output without muscular involvement, may be used to promote goal-directed thinking by allowing the performance of spatial and motor imagery tasks and could facilitate the interaction of MCS patients with their environment, possibly regaining some degree of communication and autonomy.

  3. Goal directed fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E; Desai, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    The cornerstone of treating patients with shock remains as it has for decades, intravenous fluids. Surprisingly, dosing intravenous fluid during resuscitation of shock remains largely empirical. Recent data suggests that early aggressive resuscitation of critically ill patients may limit and/or reverse tissue hypoxia, progression to organ failure and improve outcome. However, overzealous fluid resuscitation has been associated with increased complications, increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay and increased mortality. This review focuses on methods to assess fluid responsiveness and the application of these methods for goal directed fluid therapy in critically ill and peri-operative patients.

  4. Goal-Directed Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Marc F.; Troisi, Thomas J.; Pompilio, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of every school district is to help students succeed academically and personally. But does every district leverage its most valuable resource, its teachers, to meet that goal? At the Valley Stream Central High School District in Nassau County, New York, these authors know how important teacher commitment is to student success, so they…

  5. Listening for Disciplinary Differences in Faculty Goals for Effective Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eljamal, Melissa B.; Sharp, Sally; Stark, Joan S.; Arnold, Gertrude L.; Lowther, Malcolm A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study that examines the extent to which effective thinking skills are incorporated in faculty teaching goals across nine academic disciplines--mathematics, the sciences, and humanities. Indicates that effective thinking skills are included in all faculty goal statements except for those in the romance languages. (3 tables and 33…

  6. Efficient goal-directed exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Y.; Koenig, S.; Veloso, M.M.; Simmons, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    If a state space is not completely known in advance, then search algorithms have to explore it sufficiently to locate a goal state and a path leading to it, performing therefore what we call goal-directed exploration. Two paradigms of this process are pure exploration and heuristic-driven exploitation: the former approaches explore the state space using only knowledge of the physically visited portion of the domain, whereas the latter approaches totally rely on heuristic knowledge to guide the search towards goal states. Both approaches have disadvantages: the first one does not utilize available knowledge to cut down the search effort, and the second one relies too much on the knowledge, even if it is misleading. We have therefore developed a framework for goal-directed exploration, called VECA, that combines the advantages of both approaches by automatically switching from exploitation to exploration on parts of the state space where exploitation does not perform well. VECA provides better performance guarantees than previously studied heuristic-driven exploitation algorithms, and experimental evidence suggests that this guarantee does not deteriorate its average-case performance.

  7. When conflicts are good: nonconscious goal conflicts reduce confirmatory thinking.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Tali; Hassin, Ran R

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we argue that nonconscious goal conflicts are accompanied by a mindset that has wide-ranging implications for reasoning and thinking in content areas that are not part of the conflict itself. Specifically, we propose that nonconscious goal conflicts induce a mode of processing information that increases the likelihood of approaching an issue from opposing perspectives. This hypothesis is examined by investigating the effects of nonconscious goal conflicts on confirmatory thinking, that is, a way of thinking that narrowly focuses on confirmation rather than on broader examination of information. In 5 experiments, we show that nonconscious goal conflicts significantly reduce confirmatory hypothesis testing (Experiments 1 through 3) and anchoring (Experiments 4 and 5). We further show that these effects result from a goal conflict by rejecting explanations based on priming of semantic opposites, and priming of multiple goals that do not conflict (Experiments 2 and 3), and by examining decision times as a conflict process variable (Experiment 5). Using various probes, we show that these changes in confirmatory judgments are not accompanied by changes in conflict phenomenology. Together, these results suggest that nonconscious goal conflicts attenuate the robust confirmatory thinking strategy that characterizes human thinking in numerous domains.

  8. Self-Directed Thinking in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkes, M. Ann

    1988-01-01

    Gifted students can learn to direct their thinking to maximize learning and creative production. They do this by stating what they intend to do, choosing strategies and appropriate conditions for thinking, and self-monitoring. The article describes techniques for developing self-directed thinking and applies these techniques to a class assignment.…

  9. Children's Memory for Goal-Directed Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara

    1991-01-01

    Investigates whether children's representations of the linguistic description of a goal-directed event was similar to their representation of the same event observed visually. Finds that mode of presentation did not affect the recall of most important actions, but that verbal description led to recall characterized by greater cohesion than visual…

  10. Goal-Directed Action Representation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalla, Tiziana; Labruyere, Nelly; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of individuals with autism to represent goal-directed behavioural actions. We compared the performance of subjects with autism (n=16), mentally retarded subjects (n=14) and normal healthy subjects (n=15) in a sequencing task consisted in arranging pictures of single events in their…

  11. [Fluid management: goal-directed therapy].

    PubMed

    Grünewald, Matthias; Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold

    2012-07-01

    Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT) is one important step in perioperative therapy as it improves complication rate and mortality by optimisation of oxygen delivery. There is a convincing evidence for GDT when used early, before organ failure occurs, and in high-risk patients. Moderne algorithms use goals derived from advanced haemodynamic monitoring and are based on the concept of fluid responsiveness and optimisation of global perfusion. Future investigations will have to prove the advantage of using the new less or non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring devices or automatic closed-loop fluid administration systems for GDT.

  12. Motor contagion: goal-directed actions are more contagious than non-goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Cédric A; Shipley, Thomas F; Capa, Rémi L; Marshall, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Recent theories posit a mirror-matching system mapping observed actions onto one's own motor system. Determining whether this system makes a distinction between goal-directed and non-goal-directed actions is crucial for the understanding of its function. The present study tested whether motor interference between observed and executed actions, which is thought to be an index of perceptual-motor matching, depends on the presence of goals in the observed action. Participants executed sinusoidal arm movements while observing a video of another person making similar or different movements. In certain conditions, elements representing goals for the observed movement were superimposed on the video displays. Overall, observing an incongruent movement interfered with movement execution. This interference was markedly increased when the observed incongruent movement was directed toward a visible goal, suggesting a greater perceptual-motor matching during observation of goal-directed versus non-goal-directed actions. This finding supports an action-reconstruction model of mirror system function rather than the traditional direct-matching model.

  13. The Impact of Directed Viewing-Thinking Activity on Students' Critical Thinking: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Neo Chin; Sum, Cheung Wing

    2005-01-01

    Background: Critical thinking disposition is an area that has been overlooked in various academic fields until recent years. Critical thinking occurs only when individuals possess thinking dispositions. This study explores the possibility of using directed viewing-thinking activity (DVTA) to cultivate the critical thinking dispositions of…

  14. A History of Critical Thinking as an Educational Goal in Graduate Theological Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, D. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The development of critical thinking skills among learners is a common educational goal across graduate theological schools. The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of some of the primary historical influences of the critical thinking movement in higher education in the United States and the movement's impact on graduate…

  15. The Direct Teaching of Thinking as a Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    1983-01-01

    This study emphasizes the relationship of perception to thinking and explains direct teaching of thinking. Without clarity of seeing and creativity, perception is shown to become narrow patterning. The Cognitive Research Trust program is recommended for teaching thinking skills using transferable thinking "tools." Self-images of students…

  16. Integrating Direct and Inquiry-Based Instruction in the Teaching of Critical Thinking: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ku, Kelly Y. L.; Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Lai, Eva C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is a unifying goal of modern education. While past research has mostly examined the efficacy of a single instructional approach to teaching critical thinking, recent literature has begun discussing mixed teaching approaches. The present study examines three modes of instruction, featuring the direct instruction approach and the…

  17. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  18. Goal-directed and goal-less imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kelly S; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-08-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they tracked the hand with their eyes, in the goal-less compared to goal-direction condition. In contrast, the ASD group exhibited more goal-directed eye movements, and failed to modulate the observed movement kinematics successfully in either condition. These results increase the evidence for impaired goal-less imitation in ASD, and suggest that there is a reliance on goal-directed strategies for imitation in ASD, even in the absence of visual goals.

  19. Impact of age-relevant goals on future thinking in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Lapp, Leann K; Spaniol, Julia

    2017-02-16

    This study investigated how personal goals influence age differences in episodic future thinking. Research suggests that personal goals change with age and like autobiographical memory, future thinking is thought to be organised and impacted by personal goals. It was hypothesised that cueing older adults with age-relevant goals should modulate age differences in episodic details and may also influence phenomenological characteristics of imagined scenarios. Healthy younger and older adults completed the Future Thinking Interview [Addis, D. R., Wong, A. T., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). Age-related changes in the episodic simulation of future events. Psychological Science, 19(1), 33-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02043.x ] adapted to activate age-appropriate goals. Narratives were scored with an established protocol to obtain objective measures of episodic and semantic details. Subjective features such as emotionality and personal significance showed age differences as a function of goal domain while other features (e.g., vividness) were unaffected. However, consistent with prior reports, older adults produced fewer episodic details than younger adults and this was not modulated by goal domain. The results do not indicate that goal activation affects level of episodic detail. With respect to phenomenological aspects of future thinking, however, younger adults show more sensitivity to goal activation, compared with older adults.

  20. Achievement Goals, the Classroom Environment, and Reflective Thinking: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Research pertaining to achievement goals and reflective thinking practice has received considerable attention in educational psychology. However, very few, if any, studies have looked at the impact of the classroom climate and how this psychosocial milieu may influence students' engagement in achievement goals and reflective thinking…

  1. Goal-Directed Planning for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; Dungan, J. L.; Khatib, L.; Votava, P.

    2007-12-01

    An Earth-observing sensor web is an organization of space, airborne, or in situ sensing devices for collecting measurements of the Earth's processes. Sensor web coordination involves formulating Earth science goals and transforming them into sensor web workflows, i.e., sequences of data acquisition and processing tasks that satisfy the specified goals. Automating parts of this process using recent advances in intelligent control software technology will offer improved sensor web effectiveness. Our approach to the coordination problem applies architectural concepts of workflow management systems by identifying two phases in workflow generation. In the first phase, users formulate high-level campaign goals that are automatically transformed into abstract workflow plans. An abstract workflow plan represents the organization of data acquisition and processing actions that fulfills the goals specified by the user, but leaves out details such as how requests for access to a data resource are formatted. Abstracting away these details improves the usability of sensor web resources by scientists. To implement the first phase, we utilize the Labeled Transition System Analyzer (LTSA), a model-checking software tool. LTSA contains a concise process-based language, FSP (Finite State Processes) for designing and modeling software programs. We will use LTSA and FSP to automate the process of building executable plans for accessing resources on a sensor web. FSP has the constructs for representing conditional dependencies, iterations, and parallel actions, all of which are common features in Earth science campaigns. The second phase of the process consists of the automatic transformation of an abstract plan into a concrete plan, i.e., a sequence of actions that can be autonomously executed on a sensor web. The transformation in phase two might require further decomposition of actions in the abstract plan into a sequence of lower-level data acquisition requests. It may also involve

  2. Goal Certainty Modulates Infants' Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Ivanina; Elsner, Claudia; Elsner, Birgit; Wilkinson, Nick; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether 12-month-old infants rely on information about the certainty of goal selection in order to predict observed reaching actions. Infants' goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed action sequences in a multiple-goals design. We found that 12-month-old infants exhibited gaze shifts significantly earlier when…

  3. Goal-Directed and Goal-Less Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Kelly S.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how people with Autism are affected by the presence of goals during imitation, we conducted a study to measure movement kinematics and eye movements during the imitation of goal-directed and goal-less hand movements. Our results showed that a control group imitated changes in movement kinematics and increased the level that they…

  4. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities.

  5. Does goal relevant episodic future thinking amplify the effect on delay discounting?

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sara; Oluyomi Daniel, Tinuke; Epstein, Leonard H

    2017-03-07

    Delay discounting (DD) is the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Research shows episodic future thinking (EFT), or mentally simulating future experiences, reframes the choice between small immediate and larger delayed rewards, and can reduce DD. Only general EFT has been studied, whereby people reframe decisions in terms of non-goal related future events. Since future thinking is often goal-oriented and leads to greater activation of brain regions involved in prospection, goal-oriented EFT may be associated with greater reductions in DD than general goal-unrelated EFT. The present study (n=104, Mage=22.25, SD=3.42; 50% Female) used a between-subjects 2×2 factorial design with type of episodic thinking (Goal, General) and temporal perspective (Episodic future versus recent thinking; EFT vs ERT) as between factors. Results showed a significant reduction in DD for EFT groups (p<0.001, Cohen's d effect size=0.89), and goal-EFT was more effective than general-EFT on reducing DD (p=0.03, d=0.64).

  6. Goal-direction and top-down control.

    PubMed

    Buschman, Timothy J; Miller, Earl K

    2014-11-05

    We review the neural mechanisms that support top-down control of behaviour and suggest that goal-directed behaviour uses two systems that work in concert. A basal ganglia-centred system quickly learns simple, fixed goal-directed behaviours while a prefrontal cortex-centred system gradually learns more complex (abstract or long-term) goal-directed behaviours. Interactions between these two systems allow top-down control mechanisms to learn how to direct behaviour towards a goal but also how to guide behaviour when faced with a novel situation.

  7. Goal-direction and top-down control

    PubMed Central

    Buschman, Timothy J.; Miller, Earl K.

    2014-01-01

    We review the neural mechanisms that support top-down control of behaviour and suggest that goal-directed behaviour uses two systems that work in concert. A basal ganglia-centred system quickly learns simple, fixed goal-directed behaviours while a prefrontal cortex-centred system gradually learns more complex (abstract or long-term) goal-directed behaviours. Interactions between these two systems allow top-down control mechanisms to learn how to direct behaviour towards a goal but also how to guide behaviour when faced with a novel situation. PMID:25267814

  8. A model of goal directed vegetable parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to explore factors underlying parents' motivations to use vegetable parenting practices (VPP) using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP) (an adaptation of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior) as the theoretical basis for qualitative interviews. ...

  9. Neural correlates of personal goal processing during episodic future thinking and mind-wandering: An ALE meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, David; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2015-08-01

    The ability to imagine the future is a complex mental faculty that depends on an ensemble of cognitive processes supported by an extended set of brain regions. Our aim here was to shed light on one key component of future thinking--personal goal processing--and to determine its neural correlates during both directed and spontaneous forms of thoughts. To address this question, we performed separate ALE meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of episodic future thinking (EFT), mind-wandering, and personal goal processing, and then investigated the commonalities and differences in brain activity between these three domains. The results showed that the three domains activated a common set of brain regions within the default network and, most notably, the medial prefrontal cortex. This finding suggests that the medial prefrontal cortex mediates the processing of personal goals during both EFT and mind-wandering. Differences in activation were also observed, and notably regions supporting cognitive control processes (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were recruited to a lesser extent during mind-wandering than experimentally directed future thinking, suggesting that different kinds of self-generated thoughts may recruit varying levels of attentional control abilities.

  10. Exploring Students' Reflective Thinking Practice, Deep Processing Strategies, Effort, and Achievement Goal Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students' academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in…

  11. Relations between Goals, Self-Efficacy, Critical Thinking and Deep Processing Strategies: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Research exploring students' academic learning has recently amalgamated different motivational theories within one conceptual framework. The inclusion of achievement goals, self-efficacy, deep processing and critical thinking has been cited in a number of studies. This article discusses two empirical studies that examined these four theoretical…

  12. Goals, Guidance, Grades, and Gift-Giving: Improving Thinking and Writing in a Sophomore Literature Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Anna Kirwan

    1995-01-01

    Describes how one English teacher revised course goals and journal writing assignments to promote better thinking and writing in a college literature course. Concentrates on the way "Beowulf" was taught and the kinds of writing about it that were produced by students as a result. (HB)

  13. Thinking.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Elizabeth A

    2004-05-01

    This paper argues that thinking is assumed within nursing education. There are strategies to promote thinking: reflective practice, critical analysis and problem solving. I suggest that by categorising thinking into such boxes there may be a danger of limiting the rich possibilities of simply 'thinking'. The writings of Heidegger (1889-1976) are cited, highlighting the need to 'call' thinking, and to meditate or ponder on the things that matter. The paper comes from research that asked the question 'What calls for thinking in postgraduate education?' Findings reveal examples of teachers and students recalling 'thinking experiences' but also suggest there is a danger that students do not have time to think in a busy classroom situation. It appears that thinking is more likely to happen outside of the classroom, with peers, in assignment writing, or when thoughts simply come. The challenge to nursing education is that not only may teachers be limiting students thinking opportunities, but they may be directing thinking in a way that maintains the status quo. If nursing is to equip itself as a dynamic profession and take initiative for shaping its own future, then close attention must be paid to enabling thinking.

  14. Goal-directed imitation: the means to an end.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Spencer J; Ashford, Derek; Bennett, Simon J

    2008-02-01

    The effects of goal-directed imitation and observational learning were examined whilst learning a goal-directed motor skill (three-ball cascade juggling). An observational learning (OL) group observed a model and a control (CON) group received minimal verbal instructions regarding how to hold and release the juggling balls. The OL group performed more juggling cycles across practice and retention than the CON group. In addition, the OL group's upper limb coordination and ball flight trajectory pattern were more similar to the model's movements than the CON group. These data show that when the to-be-learnt movement pattern and end-goal are not specified by the task's mechanical constraints, or can be achieved by modifying a pre-existing motor skill, individuals have difficulty learning on the basis of discovery processes alone. Under these circumstances, observational learning is effective because it conveys to the individual the specific means by which the end-goal can be achieved. These findings lead us to suggest that when the end-goal and the means to achieve the end-goal are directly linked, the means are given sufficient weight in the goal hierarchy such that the model's movement is imitated.

  15. Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Lee; Chase, Henry W.; Baess, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine dependence, impulsivity, and capacity for goal-directed control over instrumental performance in an outcome devaluation procedure. Reduced goal-directed control was selectively associated with the Motor Impulsivity factor of Barrett's Impulsivity Scale (BIS), which reflects propensity for action without thought. These data support the claim that human impulsivity is marked by impaired use of causal knowledge to make adaptive decisions. The predominance of habit learning may play a role in psychopathological conditions that are associated with trait impulsivity. PMID:21077008

  16. Goal-Directed Movement Enhances Body Representation Updating

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wen; Muramatsu, Katsutoshi; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; An, Qi; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yusuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Body representation refers to perception, memory, and cognition related to the body and is updated continuously by sensory input. The present study examined the influence of goals on body representation updating with two experiments of the rubber hand paradigm. In the experiments, participants moved their hidden left hands forward and backward either in response to instruction to touch a virtual object or without any specific goal, while a virtual left hand was presented 250 mm above the real hand and moved in synchrony with the real hand. Participants then provided information concerning the perceived heights of their real left hands and rated their sense of agency and ownership of the virtual hand. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when participants moved their hands with the goal of touching a virtual object and received feedback indicating goal attainment, the perceived positions of their real hands shifted more toward that of the virtual hand relative to that in the condition without a goal, indicating that their body representations underwent greater modification. Furthermore, results of Experiment 2 showed that the effect of goal-directed movement occurred in the active condition, in which participants moved their own hands, but did not occur in the passive condition, in which participants’ hands were moved by the experimenter. Therefore, we concluded that the sense of agency probably contributed to the updating of body representation involving goal-directed movement. PMID:27445766

  17. Goal-Directed Movement Enhances Body Representation Updating.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wen; Muramatsu, Katsutoshi; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; An, Qi; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yusuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Body representation refers to perception, memory, and cognition related to the body and is updated continuously by sensory input. The present study examined the influence of goals on body representation updating with two experiments of the rubber hand paradigm. In the experiments, participants moved their hidden left hands forward and backward either in response to instruction to touch a virtual object or without any specific goal, while a virtual left hand was presented 250 mm above the real hand and moved in synchrony with the real hand. Participants then provided information concerning the perceived heights of their real left hands and rated their sense of agency and ownership of the virtual hand. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when participants moved their hands with the goal of touching a virtual object and received feedback indicating goal attainment, the perceived positions of their real hands shifted more toward that of the virtual hand relative to that in the condition without a goal, indicating that their body representations underwent greater modification. Furthermore, results of Experiment 2 showed that the effect of goal-directed movement occurred in the active condition, in which participants moved their own hands, but did not occur in the passive condition, in which participants' hands were moved by the experimenter. Therefore, we concluded that the sense of agency probably contributed to the updating of body representation involving goal-directed movement.

  18. The Physiology of Early Goal-Directed Therapy for Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Lief, Lindsay; Arbo, John; Berlin, David A

    2016-10-05

    In 2001, Rivers and colleagues published a randomized controlled trial of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) for the treatment of sepsis. More than a decade later, it remains a landmark achievement. The study proved the benefits of early aggressive treatment of sepsis. However, many questions remain about specific aspects of the complex EGDT algorithm. Recently, 3 large trials attempted to replicate these results. None of the studies demonstrated a benefit of an EGDT protocol for sepsis. This review explores the physiologic basis of goal-directed therapy, including the hemodynamic targets and the therapeutic interventions. An understanding of the physiologic basis of EGDT helps reconcile the results of the clinical trials.

  19. Goal Direction and Effectiveness, Emotional Maturity, and Nuclear Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klever, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal direction and…

  20. Goal-Directed Aiming: Two Components but Multiple Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E. M.; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J.; Hayes, Spencer J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior…

  1. A Pavlovian Analysis of Goal-Directed Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes associative structures underlying goal-directed behavior using well-developed techniques for studying Pavlovian conditioning. Identifies the roles of the stimulus, response, and reinforcer in instrumental learning. A response and its reinforcer must be associated for acquisition and maintenance of instrumental behavior. (Author/LHW)

  2. The Construction of Career through Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Valach, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that occupational career is constructed through a system of intentional, goal-directed processes in the form of actions and projects as well as other careers, such as the family career and relationship careers. A contextual action theory of career is proposed as an approach that reflects a constructionist stance and…

  3. Goal-directed Resuscitative Interventions during Pediatric Interfacility Transport

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Michael H; Sanders, Ronald C; Moss, M Michele; Sullivan, Janice E; Prodhan, Parthak; Melguizo-Castro, Maria; Nick, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This manuscript reports results of the first NIH-funded prospective interfacility transport study, to determine the effect of goal-directed therapy administered by a specialized pediatric team to critically ill children with the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS). We hypothesized that goal-directed therapy during interfacility transport would decrease hospital length of stay, prevent multiple organ dysfunction, and reduce subsequent ICU interventions. Methods Prospective data was collected on all pediatric interfacility transport patients with SIRS transported by the Angel One Transport team at Arkansas Children’s Hospital. A 10 month data collection period was followed by institution of a goal-directed resuscitation protocol. Data was subsequently collected for 10 additional months followed by comparison of pre and post-intervention groups. All transport personnel underwent training with didactics and high-fidelity simulation until mastery with goal-directed resuscitation was achieved. Results All transport patients were screened for SIRS using established parameters, and 235 (123 pre-intervention; 112 post-intervention) were enrolled. Univariate analysis revealed shorter hospital stay (11±15vs.7±10days; p=0.02) and fewer required therapeutic ICU interventions in the post-intervention group (TISS-28 scores:19.4±6.8vs.17.3; p=0.04). ICU stay and incidence of organ dysfunction were not statistically different. Multi-variable analysis showed a 1.6 day (95%CI:1.3-2.03; p=0.02) decrease in hospital stay in the post-intervention group. Conclusions and Relevance This study suggests that goal-directed therapy administered by a specialized pediatric transport team has the potential to impact the outcomes of critically ill children. Findings from this study should be confirmed across multiple institutions, but have the potential to impact the clinical outcomes of critically ill children with SIRS. PMID:25860203

  4. Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…

  5. Anterior hippocampus and goal-directed spatial decision making.

    PubMed

    Viard, Armelle; Doeller, Christian F; Hartley, Tom; Bird, Chris M; Burgess, Neil

    2011-03-23

    Planning spatial paths through our environment is an important part of everyday life and is supported by a neural system including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated the precise functional roles of the components of this system in humans by using fMRI as participants performed a simple goal-directed route-planning task. Participants had to choose the shorter of two routes to a goal in a visual scene that might contain a barrier blocking the most direct route, requiring a detour, or might be obscured by a curtain, requiring memory for the scene. The participant's start position was varied to parametrically manipulate their proximity to the goal and the difference in length of the two routes. Activity in medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and left posterior parietal cortex was associated with detour planning, regardless of difficulty, whereas activity in parahippocampal gyrus was associated with remembering the spatial layout of the visual scene. Activity in bilateral anterior hippocampal formation showed a strong increase the closer the start position was to the goal, together with medial prefrontal, medial and posterior parietal cortices. Our results are consistent with computational models in which goal proximity is used to guide subsequent navigation and with the association of anterior hippocampal areas with nonspatial functions such as arousal and reward expectancy. They illustrate how spatial and nonspatial functions combine within the anterior hippocampus, and how these functions interact with parahippocampal, parietal, and prefrontal areas in decision making and mnemonic function.

  6. Goal-Directed Decision Making with Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Máté

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroscientific data on reward-based decision making point to a fundamental distinction between habitual and goal-directed action selection. The formation of habits, which requires simple updating of cached values, has been studied in great detail, and the reward prediction error theory of dopamine function has enjoyed prominent success in accounting for its neural bases. In contrast, the neural circuit mechanisms of goal-directed decision making, requiring extended iterative computations to estimate values online, are still unknown. Here we present a spiking neural network that provably solves the difficult online value estimation problem underlying goal-directed decision making in a near-optimal way and reproduces behavioral as well as neurophysiological experimental data on tasks ranging from simple binary choice to sequential decision making. Our model uses local plasticity rules to learn the synaptic weights of a simple neural network to achieve optimal performance and solves one-step decision-making tasks, commonly considered in neuroeconomics, as well as more challenging sequential decision-making tasks within 1 s. These decision times, and their parametric dependence on task parameters, as well as the final choice probabilities match behavioral data, whereas the evolution of neural activities in the network closely mimics neural responses recorded in frontal cortices during the execution of such tasks. Our theory provides a principled framework to understand the neural underpinning of goal-directed decision making and makes novel predictions for sequential decision-making tasks with multiple rewards. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed actions requiring prospective planning pervade decision making, but their circuit-level mechanisms remain elusive. We show how a model circuit of biologically realistic spiking neurons can solve this computationally challenging problem in a novel way. The synaptic weights of our network can be learned using

  7. A Biologically Inspired Hierarchical Goal Directed Navigation Model

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Uğur M.; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extended version of our previous goal directed navigation model based on forward planning of trajectories in a network of head direction cells, persistent spiking cells, grid cells, and place cells. In our original work the animat incrementally creates a place cell map by random exploration of a novel environment. After the exploration phase, the animat decides on its next movement direction towards a goal by probing linear look-ahead trajectories in several candidate directions while stationary and picking the one activating place cells representing the goal location. In this work we present several improvements over our previous model. We improve the range of linear look-ahead probes significantly by imposing a hierarchical structure on the place cell map consistent with the experimental findings of differences in the firing field size and spacing of grid cells recorded at different positions along the dorsal to ventral axis of entorhinal cortex. The new model represents the environment at different scales by populations of simulated hippocampal place cells with changing firing field sizes. Among other advantages this model allows simultaneous constant duration linear look-ahead probes at different scales while significantly extending each probe range. The extension of the linear look-ahead probe range while keeping its duration constant also limits the degrading effects of noise accumulation in the network. We show the extended model’s performance using an animat in a large open field environment. PMID:23891644

  8. A biologically inspired hierarchical goal directed navigation model.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Uğur M; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2014-02-01

    We propose an extended version of our previous goal directed navigation model based on forward planning of trajectories in a network of head direction cells, persistent spiking cells, grid cells, and place cells. In our original work the animat incrementally creates a place cell map by random exploration of a novel environment. After the exploration phase, the animat decides on its next movement direction towards a goal by probing linear look-ahead trajectories in several candidate directions while stationary and picking the one activating place cells representing the goal location. In this work we present several improvements over our previous model. We improve the range of linear look-ahead probes significantly by imposing a hierarchical structure on the place cell map consistent with the experimental findings of differences in the firing field size and spacing of grid cells recorded at different positions along the dorsal to ventral axis of entorhinal cortex. The new model represents the environment at different scales by populations of simulated hippocampal place cells with different firing field sizes. Among other advantages this model allows simultaneous constant duration linear look-ahead probes at different scales while significantly extending each probe range. The extension of the linear look-ahead probe range while keeping its duration constant also limits the degrading effects of noise accumulation in the network. We show the extended model's performance using an animat in a large open field environment.

  9. Goal-directed learning and obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has become a paradigmatic case of goal-directed dysfunction in psychiatry. In this article, we review the neurobiological evidence, historical and recent, that originally led to this supposition and continues to support a habit hypothesis of OCD. We will then discuss a number of recent studies that have directly tested this hypothesis, using behavioural experiments in patient populations. Based on this research evidence, which suggests that rather than goal-directed avoidance behaviours, compulsions in OCD may derive from manifestations of excessive habit formation, we present the details of a novel account of the functional relationship between these habits and the full symptom profile of the disorder. Borrowing from a cognitive dissonance framework, we propose that the irrational threat beliefs (obsessions) characteristic of OCD may be a consequence, rather than an instigator, of compulsive behaviour in these patients. This lays the foundation for a potential shift in both clinical and neuropsychological conceptualization of OCD and related disorders. This model may also prove relevant to other putative disorders of compulsivity, such as substance dependence, where the experience of ‘wanting’ drugs may be better understood as post hoc rationalizations of otherwise goal-insensitive, stimulus-driven behaviour. PMID:25267818

  10. Impaired acquisition of goal-directed action in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    de Wit, S; van de Vijver, I; Ridderinkhof, K R

    2014-06-01

    According to dual-system theories, instrumental learning is supported by dissociable goal-directed and habitual systems. Previous investigations of the dual-system balance in healthy aging have yielded mixed results. To further investigate this issue, we compared performance of young (17-24 years) and older (69-84 years) adults on an instrumental learning task. Following the initial learning phase, the behavioral autonomy of the motivational significance of the instrumental outcome was assessed with an outcome-devaluation test and slips-of-action test. The present study provides evidence for a disrupted dual-system balance in healthy aging, as reflected in reduced outcome-induced conflict during acquisition, as well as in impaired performance during the test stage, during which participants had to flexibly adjust their actions to changes in the current desirability of the behavioral outcome. These findings will be discussed in relation to previous aging studies into habitual and goal-directed control, as well as other cognitive impairments, challenges that older adults may face in everyday life, and to the neurobiological basis of the developmental pattern of goal-directed action across the lifespan.

  11. Goal Directed Model Inversion: A Study of Dynamic Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome 0 "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm then proceeds as follows: (1) store the action that produced the wrong outcome as a "target" (2) redefine the wrong outcome as a desired goal (3) submit the new desired goal to the system (4) compare the new action with the target action and modify the system by using a suitable algorithm for credit assignment (Back propagation in our example) (5) resubmit the original goal. Prior publications by our group in this area focused on demonstrating empirical results based on the inverse kinematic problem for a simulated robotic arm. In this paper we apply the inversion process to much simpler analytic functions in order to elucidate the dynamic behavior of the system and to determine the sensitivity of the learning process to various parameters. This understanding will be necessary for the acceptance of GDMI as a practical tool.

  12. Abstract structural representations of goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kachina; Ibara, Steven; Seymour, Amy; Cordova, Natalia; Botvinick, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Linguistic theory holds that the structure of a sentence can be described in abstract syntactic terms, independent of the specific words the sentence contains. Nonlinguistic behavior, including goal-directed action, is also theorized to have an underlying structural, or "syntactic," organization. We propose that purposive action sequences are represented cognitively in terms of a means-ends parse, which is a formal specification of how actions fit together to accomplish desired outcomes. To test this theory, we leveraged the phenomenon of structural priming in two experiments. As predicted, participants read sentences describing action sequences faster when these sentences were presented amid other sentences sharing the same parse. Results from a second experiment indicate that the underlying representations relevant to observed action sequences are not strictly tied to language processing. Our results suggest that the structure of goal-directed behavior may be represented abstractly, independently of specific actions and goals, just as linguistic syntax is thought to stand independent of other levels of representation.

  13. The multiple process model of goal-directed reaching revisited.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Lyons, James; Hayes, Spencer J; Burkitt, James J; Roberts, James W; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Hansen, Steve; Bennett, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Recently our group forwarded a model of speed-accuracy relations in goal-directed reaching. A fundamental feature of our multiple process model was the distinction between two types of online regulation: impulse control and limb-target control. Impulse control begins during the initial stages of the movement trajectory and involves a comparison of actual limb velocity and direction to an internal representation of expectations about the limb trajectory. Limb-target control involves discrete error-reduction based on the relative positions of the limb and the target late in the movement. Our model also considers the role of eye movements, practice, energy optimization and strategic behavior in limb control. Here, we review recent work conducted to test specific aspects of our model. As well, we consider research not fully incorporated into our earlier contribution. We conclude that a slightly modified and expanded version of our model, that includes crosstalk between the two forms of online regulation, does an excellent job of explaining speed, accuracy, and energy optimization in goal-directed reaching.

  14. Color constancy in a naturalistic, goal-directed task

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, we use color information to select objects that will best serve a particular goal (e.g., pick the best-tasting fruit or avoid spoiled food). This is challenging when judgments must be made across changes in illumination as the spectrum reflected from an object to the eye varies with the illumination. Color constancy mechanisms serve to partially stabilize object color appearance across illumination changes, but whether and to what degree constancy supports accurate cross-illumination object selection is not well understood. To get closer to understanding how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a paradigm in which subjects engage in a goal-directed task for which color is instrumental. Specifically, in each trial, subjects re-created an arrangement of colored blocks (the model) across a change in illumination. By analyzing the re-creations, we were able to infer and quantify the degree of color constancy that mediated subjects' performance. In Experiments 1 and 2, we used our paradigm to characterize constancy for two different sets of block reflectances, two different illuminant changes, and two different groups of subjects. On average, constancy was good in our naturalistic task, but it varied considerably across subjects. In Experiment 3, we tested whether varying scene complexity and the validity of local contrast as a cue to the illumination change modulated constancy. Increasing complexity did not lead to improved constancy; silencing local contrast significantly reduced constancy. Our results establish a novel goal-directed task that enables us to approach color constancy as it emerges in real life. PMID:26381834

  15. Color constancy in a naturalistic, goal-directed task.

    PubMed

    Radonjic, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Brainard, David H

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, we use color information to select objects that will best serve a particular goal (e.g., pick the best-tasting fruit or avoid spoiled food). This is challenging when judgments must be made across changes in illumination as the spectrum reflected from an object to the eye varies with the illumination. Color constancy mechanisms serve to partially stabilize object color appearance across illumination changes, but whether and to what degree constancy supports accurate cross-illumination object selection is not well understood. To get closer to understanding how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a paradigm in which subjects engage in a goal-directed task for which color is instrumental. Specifically, in each trial, subjects re-created an arrangement of colored blocks (the model) across a change in illumination. By analyzing the re-creations, we were able to infer and quantify the degree of color constancy that mediated subjects' performance. In Experiments 1 and 2, we used our paradigm to characterize constancy for two different sets of block reflectances, two different illuminant changes, and two different groups of subjects. On average, constancy was good in our naturalistic task, but it varied considerably across subjects. In Experiment 3, we tested whether varying scene complexity and the validity of local contrast as a cue to the illumination change modulated constancy. Increasing complexity did not lead to improved constancy; silencing local contrast significantly reduced constancy. Our results establish a novel goal-directed task that enables us to approach color constancy as it emerges in real life.

  16. Goal-directed aiming: two components but multiple processes.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J; Hayes, Spencer J

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior expectations about the efferent and afferent consequences of a planned movement. The model considers the relationship between movement speed and accuracy, and how performers adjust their trial-to-trial aiming behavior to find a safe, but fast, zone for movement execution. The model also outlines how the energy and safety costs associated with different movement outcomes contribute to movement planning processes and the control of aiming trajectories. Our theoretical position highlights the importance of advance knowledge about the sensory information that will be available for online control and the need to develop a robust internal representation of expected sensory consequences. We outline how early practice contributes to optimizing strategic planning to avoid worst-case outcomes associated with inherent neural-motor variability. Our model considers the role of both motor development and motor learning in refining feed-forward and online control. The model reconciles procedural and representational accounts of the specificity-of-learning phenomenon. Finally, we examine the breakdown of perceptual-motor precision in several special populations (i.e., Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, normal aging) within the framework of a multiple-process approach to goal-directed aiming.

  17. A model of goal directed vegetable parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie; Beltran, Alicia; O'Connor, Teresia; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Janice; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore factors underlying parents' motivations to use vegetable parenting practices (VPP) using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP) (an adaptation of the Model of Goal Directed Behavior) as the theoretical basis for qualitative interviews. In-depth interviews with parents of 3-5-year-old children were conducted over the telephone by trained interviewers following a script. MGDVPP constructs provided the theoretical framework guiding script development. Audio-recordings were transcribed and analyzed, with themes coded independently by two interviewers. Fifteen participants completed the study. Interviews elicited information about possible predictors of motivations as they related to VPP, and themes emerged related to each of the MGDVPP constructs (attitudes, positive anticipated emotions, negative anticipated emotions, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control). Parents believed child vegetable consumption was important and associated with child health and vitality. Parents described motivations to engage in specific VPP in terms of emotional responses, influential relationships, food preferences, resources, and food preparation skills. Parents discussed specific strategies to encourage child vegetable intake. Interview data suggested parents used diverse VPP to encourage child intake and that varied factors predicted their use. Understanding these factors could inform the design of interventions to increase parents' use of parenting practices that promote long-term child consumption of vegetables.

  18. Goal-directed learning of features and forward models.

    PubMed

    Saeb, Sohrab; Weber, Cornelius; Triesch, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    The brain is able to perform actions based on an adequate internal representation of the world, where task-irrelevant features are ignored and incomplete sensory data are estimated. Traditionally, it is assumed that such abstract state representations are obtained purely from the statistics of sensory input for example by unsupervised learning methods. However, more recent findings suggest an influence of the dopaminergic system, which can be modeled by a reinforcement learning approach. Standard reinforcement learning algorithms act on a single layer network connecting the state space to the action space. Here, we involve in a feature detection stage and a memory layer, which together, construct the state space for a learning agent. The memory layer consists of the state activation at the previous time step as well as the previously chosen action. We present a temporal difference based learning rule for training the weights from these additional inputs to the state layer. As a result, the performance of the network is maintained both, in the presence of task-irrelevant features, and at randomly occurring time steps during which the input is invisible. Interestingly, a goal-directed forward model emerges from the memory weights, which only covers the state-action pairs that are relevant to the task. The model presents a link between reinforcement learning, feature detection and forward models and may help to explain how reward systems recruit cortical circuits for goal-directed feature detection and prediction.

  19. Goal Directed Model Inversion: Learning Within Domain Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm makes use of these intermediate "successes" to achieve the final goal. A unique and potentially very important feature of this algorithm is the ability to modify the output of the learning module to force upon it a desired syntactic structure. This differs from ordinary supervised learning in the following way: in supervised learning the exact desired output pattern must be provided. In GDMI instead, it is possible to require simply that the output obey certain rules, i.e., that it "make sense" in some way determined by the knowledge domain. The exact pattern that will achieve the desired outcome is then found by the system. The ability to impose rules while allowing the system to search for its own answers in the context of neural networks is potentially a major breakthrough in two ways: 1) it may allow the construction of networks that can incorporate immediately some important knowledge, i.e. would not need to learn everything from scratch as normally required at present, and 2) learning and searching would be limited to the areas where it is necessary, thus facilitating and speeding up the process. These points are illustrated with examples from robotic path planning and parametric design.

  20. Goal Directed Model Inversion: Learning Within Domain Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Raghavan, Bharathi; Friedland, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Goal Directed Model Inversion (GDMI) is an algorithm designed to generalize supervised learning to the case where target outputs are not available to the learning system. The output of the learning system becomes the input to some external device or transformation, and only the output of this device or transformation can be compared to a desired target. The fundamental driving mechanism of GDMI is to learn from success. Given that a wrong outcome is achieved, one notes that the action that produced that outcome "would have been right if the outcome had been the desired one." The algorithm makes use of these intermediate "successes" to achieve the final goal. A unique and potentially very important feature of this algorithm is the ability to modify the output of the learning module to force upon it a desired syntactic structure. This differs from ordinary supervised learning in the following way: in supervised learning the exact desired output pattern must be provided. In GDMI instead, it is possible to require simply that the output obey certain rules, i.e., that it "make sense" in some way determined by the knowledge domain. The exact pattern that will achieve the desired outcome is then found by the system. The ability to impose rules while allowing the system to search for its own answers in the context of neural networks is potentially a major breakthrough in two ways: (1) it may allow the construction of networks that can incorporate immediately some important knowledge, i.e., would not need to learn everything from scratch as normally required at present; and (2) learning and searching would be limited to the areas where it is necessary, thus facilitating and speeding up the process. These points are illustrated with examples from robotic path planning and parametric design.

  1. Vector and position coding in goal-directed movements.

    PubMed

    van der Graaff, Marieke C W; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2017-03-01

    Two different ways to code a goal-directed movement have been proposed in the literature: vector coding and position coding. Assuming that the code is fine-tuned if a movement is immediately repeated, one can predict that repeating movements to the same endpoint will increase precision if movements are coded in terms of the position of the endpoint. Repeating the same movement vector at slightly different positions will increase precision if movements are coded in terms of vectors. Following this reasoning, Hudson and Landy (J Neurophys 108(10):2708-2716, 2012) found evidence for both types of coding when participants moved their hand over a table while the target and feedback were provided on a vertical screen. Do we also see evidence for both types of coding if participants repeat movements within a more natural visuo-motor mapping? To find out, we repeated the study of Hudson and Landy (J Neurophys 108(10):2708-2716, 2012), but our participants made movements directly to the targets. We compared the same movements embedded in blocks of repetitions of endpoints and blocks of repetitions of movement vectors. Within blocks, the movements were presented in a random order. We found no benefit of repeating either a position or a vector. We subsequently repeated the experiment with a similar mapping between movements and images to those used by Hudson and Landy and found that participants only clearly benefit from repeating a position. We conclude that repeating a position is particularly useful when dealing with unusual visuo-motor mappings.

  2. Goal-directed, habitual and Pavlovian prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Gęsiarz, Filip; Crockett, Molly J

    2015-01-01

    Although prosocial behaviors have been widely studied across disciplines, the mechanisms underlying them are not fully understood. Evidence from psychology, biology and economics suggests that prosocial behaviors can be driven by a variety of seemingly opposing factors: altruism or egoism, intuition or deliberation, inborn instincts or learned dispositions, and utility derived from actions or their outcomes. Here we propose a framework inspired by research on reinforcement learning and decision making that links these processes and explains characteristics of prosocial behaviors in different contexts. More specifically, we suggest that prosocial behaviors inherit features of up to three decision-making systems employed to choose between self- and other- regarding acts: a goal-directed system that selects actions based on their predicted consequences, a habitual system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history, and a Pavlovian system that emits reflexive responses based on evolutionarily prescribed priors. This framework, initially described in the field of cognitive neuroscience and machine learning, provides insight into the potential neural circuits and computations shaping prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, it identifies specific conditions in which each of these three systems should dominate and promote other- or self- regarding behavior.

  3. Goal-directed, habitual and Pavlovian prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gęsiarz, Filip; Crockett, Molly J.

    2015-01-01

    Although prosocial behaviors have been widely studied across disciplines, the mechanisms underlying them are not fully understood. Evidence from psychology, biology and economics suggests that prosocial behaviors can be driven by a variety of seemingly opposing factors: altruism or egoism, intuition or deliberation, inborn instincts or learned dispositions, and utility derived from actions or their outcomes. Here we propose a framework inspired by research on reinforcement learning and decision making that links these processes and explains characteristics of prosocial behaviors in different contexts. More specifically, we suggest that prosocial behaviors inherit features of up to three decision-making systems employed to choose between self- and other- regarding acts: a goal-directed system that selects actions based on their predicted consequences, a habitual system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history, and a Pavlovian system that emits reflexive responses based on evolutionarily prescribed priors. This framework, initially described in the field of cognitive neuroscience and machine learning, provides insight into the potential neural circuits and computations shaping prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, it identifies specific conditions in which each of these three systems should dominate and promote other- or self- regarding behavior. PMID:26074797

  4. Achieving Our Environmental Sustainability Goals: The Opportunities and Pitfalls of Applying Life Cycle Thinking

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increasing number of people around the world are beginning to realize that a systems approach, such as life cycle thinking, is necessary to truly achieve environmental sustainability. Without the holistic perspective that life cycle thinking provides, our actions risk leading ...

  5. Goal-directed critiquing by computer: ventilator management.

    PubMed

    Miller, P L

    1985-10-01

    VQ-ATTENDING is an expert system which critiques aspects of the ventilator management of a patient receiving mechanical respiratory support. To use VQ-ATTENDING, the physician first inputs medical information describing a patient, a current set of arterial blood gas results, the current ventilator settings, and a proposed set of new ventilator settings. VQ-ATTENDING then critiques the appropriateness of the proposed settings. In its current developmental implementation, VQ-ATTENDING explores a particular expert system designed feature: the ability to assess appropriate treatment goals, and to use those goals to guide the system's critiquing analysis.

  6. Goal Directed Locomotion and Balance Control in Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernazza-Martin, S.; Martin, N.; Vernazza, A.; Lepellec-Muller, A.; Rufo, M.; Massion, J.; Assaiante, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on postural anticipation and multi-joint coordination during locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Three questions were addressed: (1) Are gait parameters modified in autistic children? (2) Is equilibrium control affected in autistic children? (3) Is locomotion adjusted to the experimenter-imposed goal? Six healthy…

  7. The role of perfectionism, dichotomous thinking, shape and weight overvaluation, and conditional goal setting in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, Jessica; Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Street, Helen; Nathan, Paula R

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the role of perfectionism (self-oriented and socially prescribed), shape and weight overvaluation, dichotomous thinking, and conditional goal setting in eating disorder psychopathology. Perfectionism and shape and weight overvaluation have had longstanding implication in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. A leading evidence-based theory of eating disorders (Fairburn, Cooper & Shafran, 2003) outlines perfectionism as a maintaining mechanism of eating disorder psychopathology and as a proximal risk factor for the development of shape and weight overvaluation. These constructs have been linked to other cognitive processes relevant to eating disorders, specifically, dichotomous thinking and conditional goal setting. Women with DSM-IV eating disorders (N=238) were compared to women in the general community (N=248) and, as hypothesised, scores on measures of these constructs were pronounced in the clinical sample. Hierarchical regression analyses predicting eating disorder psychopathology showed that for both groups, dichotomous thinking and conditional goal setting significantly improved model fit beyond perfectionism and shape and weight overvaluation alone. Self-oriented perfectionism, but not socially prescribed perfectionism, was relevant to eating disorder psychopathology. We discuss the implications for current treatment protocols and early intervention.

  8. A Goal-Directed Bayesian Framework for Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Dolan, Raymond; Friston, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental ability for efficient behavioral control. It allows organisms to remember the correct responses to categorical cues and not for every stimulus encountered (hence eluding computational cost or complexity), and to generalize appropriate responses to novel stimuli dependant on category assignment. Assuming the brain performs Bayesian inference, based on a generative model of the external world and future goals, we propose a computational model of categorization in which important properties emerge. These properties comprise the ability to infer latent causes of sensory experience, a hierarchical organization of latent causes, and an explicit inclusion of context and action representations. Crucially, these aspects derive from considering the environmental statistics that are relevant to achieve goals, and from the fundamental Bayesian principle that any generative model should be preferred over alternative models based on an accuracy-complexity trade-off. Our account is a step toward elucidating computational principles of categorization and its role within the Bayesian brain hypothesis. PMID:28382008

  9. Shaping Embodied Neural Networks for Adaptive Goal-directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2008-01-01

    The acts of learning and memory are thought to emerge from the modifications of synaptic connections between neurons, as guided by sensory feedback during behavior. However, much is unknown about how such synaptic processes can sculpt and are sculpted by neuronal population dynamics and an interaction with the environment. Here, we embodied a simulated network, inspired by dissociated cortical neuronal cultures, with an artificial animal (an animat) through a sensory-motor loop consisting of structured stimuli, detailed activity metrics incorporating spatial information, and an adaptive training algorithm that takes advantage of spike timing dependent plasticity. By using our design, we demonstrated that the network was capable of learning associations between multiple sensory inputs and motor outputs, and the animat was able to adapt to a new sensory mapping to restore its goal behavior: move toward and stay within a user-defined area. We further showed that successful learning required proper selections of stimuli to encode sensory inputs and a variety of training stimuli with adaptive selection contingent on the animat's behavior. We also found that an individual network had the flexibility to achieve different multi-task goals, and the same goal behavior could be exhibited with different sets of network synaptic strengths. While lacking the characteristic layered structure of in vivo cortical tissue, the biologically inspired simulated networks could tune their activity in behaviorally relevant manners, demonstrating that leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks have an innate ability to process information. This closed-loop hybrid system is a useful tool to study the network properties intermediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral adaptation. The training algorithm provides a stepping stone towards designing future control systems, whether with artificial neural networks or biological animats themselves. PMID:18369432

  10. Improving Higher Order Thinking of Middle School Geography Students By Teaching Skills Directly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freseman, Richard D.

    This document reports on a practicum experience on the improvement of thinking skills of middle school students. There has been much discussion in educational circles that mastery of higher- order thinking skills should be given greater attention in the public schools. A program of teaching thinking skills directly to grade seven geography classes…

  11. Think fast! The relationship between goal prediction speed and social competence in infants.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-09-01

    Skilled social interactions require knowledge about others' intentions and the ability to implement this knowledge in real-time to generate appropriate responses to one's partner. Young infants demonstrate an understanding of other people's intentions (e.g. Woodward, Sommerville, Gerson, Henderson & Buresh, 2009), yet it is not until the second year that infants seem to master the real-time implementation of their knowledge during social interactions (e.g. Warneken & Tomasello, 2007). The current study investigates the possibility that developments in social competence during the second year are related to increases in the speed with which infants can employ their understanding of others' intentions. Twenty- to 22-month-old infants (N = 23) viewed videos of goal-directed actions on a Tobii eye-tracker and then engaged in an interactive perspective-taking task. Infants who quickly and accurately anticipated another person's future behavior in the eye-tracking task were more successful at taking their partner's perspective in the social interaction. Success on the perspective-taking task was specifically related to the ability to correctly predict another person's intentions. These findings highlight the importance of not only being a 'smart' social partner but also a 'fast' social thinker.

  12. Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gredeback, Gustaf; Stasiewicz, Dorota; Falck-Ytter, Terje; von Hofsten, Claes; Rosander, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds,…

  13. Integration of a zebrafish research project into a molecular biology course to support critical thinking and course content goals.

    PubMed

    Felzien, Lisa K

    2016-11-12

    Engaging undergraduates in research is essential for teaching them to think like scientists, and it has become a desired component of classroom and laboratory instruction. Research projects that span an entire semester expose students to a variety of concepts and techniques and allow students to use experiments to learn scientific principles, understand why specific techniques are applicable, critically analyze varied data, and examine how experimentation leads to acquiring knowledge. To provide an experience with these features, a semester long research project was integrated into a combined lecture and laboratory course, Molecular Biology. The project utilized the zebrafish model to examine gene expression during embryonic development and required students to develop and test hypotheses about the timing of expression of previously uncharacterized genes. The main goals for the project were to provide opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills required for conducting research and to support the content goals of the course. To determine whether these goals were met, student performance on the steps of the project and related pre-test and post-test questions was examined. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):565-573, 2016.

  14. "The Goal" Project: A Group Assignment to Encourage Creative Thinking, Leadership Abilities and Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Patricia Lee

    2014-01-01

    The classroom assignment described in this paper, "The Goal" Project, gives students an opportunity to develop four of the skills and abilities required to be a successful accountant. In 1990, the Accounting Education Change Commission issued Position Statement Number One, Objectives of Education for Accountants. Appendix B of that…

  15. Restructuring, Reform, and the National Goals: What Do Principals Think? A "Bulletin" Special.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASSP Bulletin, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Several principals recognized in the Burger King "In Honor of Excellence" program were asked to share their thoughts concerning educational restructuring, the six national education goals, and school improvement. Most agreed that restructuring involved inverting the pyramid to put students first, involve the entire community, and…

  16. Educational strategies associated with development of problem-solving, critical thinking, and self-directed learning.

    PubMed

    Hendricson, William D; Andrieu, Sandra C; Chadwick, D Gregory; Chmar, Jacqueline E; Cole, James R; George, Mary C; Glickman, Gerald N; Glover, Joel F; Goldberg, Jerold S; Haden, N Karl; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Neumann, Laura; Pyle, Marsha; Tedesco, Lisa A; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; Winder, Ronald L; Young, Stephen K; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L

    2006-09-01

    This article was developed for the Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (CCI), established by the American Dental Education Association. CCI was created because numerous organizations within organized dentistry and the educational community have initiated studies or proposed modifications to the process of dental education, often working to achieve positive and desirable goals but without coordination or communication. The fundamental mission of CCI is to serve as a focal meeting place where dental educators and administrators, representatives from organized dentistry, the dental licensure community, the Commission on Dental Accreditation, the ADA Council on Dental Education and Licensure, and the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations can meet and coordinate efforts to improve dental education and the nation's oral health. One of the objectives of the CCI is to provide guidance to dental schools related to curriculum design. In pursuit of that objective, this article summarizes the evidence related to this question: What are educational best practices for helping dental students acquire the capacity to function as an entry-level general dentist or to be a better candidate to begin advanced studies? Three issues are addressed, with special emphasis on the third: 1) What constitutes expertise, and when does an individual become an expert? 2) What are the differences between novice and expert thinking? and 3) What educational best practices can help our students acquire mental capacities associated with expert function, including critical thinking and self-directed learning? The purpose of this review is to provide a benchmark that faculty and academic planners can use to assess the degree to which their curricula include learning experiences associated with development of problem-solving, critical thinking, self-directed learning, and other cognitive skills necessary for dental school graduates to ultimately become expert performers as

  17. A Further Investigation of Goal-Directed Intention Understanding in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Natalie I.; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Findings from research investigating goal-directed intention understanding in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been equivocal, in part because of the varying methodologies used across studies. This study compares both object-oriented and social-communicatively cued goal-directed intention understanding in children with ASD and…

  18. The Attribution of Attention: 9-Month-Olds' Interpretation of Gaze as Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan C.; Ok, Su-Jeong; Luo, Yuyan

    2007-01-01

    The current study distinguishes between attributions of goal-directed perception (i.e. attention) and non-goal-directed perception to examine 9-month-olds' interpretation of others' head and eye turns. In a looking time task, 9-month-olds encoded the relationship between an actor's head and eye turns and a target object if the head and eye turns…

  19. Visual Experience Influences 12-Month-Old Infants' Perception of Goal-Directed Actions of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Kawakita, Yuka; Okanda, Mako; Takeshita, Hideko

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether infants' own visual experiences affected their perception of the visual status of others engaging in goal-directed actions. In Experiment 1, infants viewed video clips of successful and failed goal-directed actions performed by a blindfolded adult, with half the infants having previously experienced…

  20. Emotion, Intent and Voluntary Movement in Children with Autism. an Example: The Goal Directed Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longuet, Sophie; Ferrel-Chapus, Carole; Oreve, Marie-Joelle; Chamot, Jean-Marc; Vernazza-Martin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of intentionality on goal directed locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Closely linked with emotions and motivation, it is directly connected with movement planning. Is planning only preserved when the goal of the action appears motivating for healthy and autistic children? Is movement programming similar…

  1. A test for children's goal-directed behavior: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Juhani E

    2004-02-01

    A test for children's goal-directed behavior was developed, based on neuropsychological executive function research of Vilkki and Holst and on the framework of Lewin's level-of-aspiration research. 46 12-yr.-old children were participants. Fluid Intelligence was expected to be linked to goal-directed behavior and a commonly used executive function task, the Wisconsin Card-sorting Test. A child was asked to set personal goals in a short-term memory task without prior knowledge about performance. Four different task versions were developed employing both verbal (memorizing series of words) and visuospatial (memorizing block sequences) material. The child set an individual goal for each memory trial. Goal-setting after successful and failed trials was investigated. Usually, the children lowered their goals after failures and set their goals higher or did not change them after successful trials. Compared to goal on a previous trial, Inadequate Responses included setting a goal higher after a failed trial and setting it lower after success. Fluid Intelligence was related to goal-directed behavior, viz., Inadequate Responses. It also correlated with scores on the Wisconsin Card-sorting Test. The results are in concordance with previous research. In addition to experimental executive function research, the novel test might be useful in research concerning children's motivation, self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning.

  2. A goal-directed spatial navigation model using forward trajectory planning based on grid cells.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Uğur M; Hasselmo, Michael

    2012-03-01

    A goal-directed navigation model is proposed based on forward linear look-ahead probe of trajectories in a network of head direction cells, grid cells, place cells and prefrontal cortex (PFC) cells. The model allows selection of new goal-directed trajectories. In a novel environment, the virtual rat incrementally creates a map composed of place cells and PFC cells by random exploration. After exploration, the rat retrieves memory of the goal location, picks its next movement direction by forward linear look-ahead probe of trajectories in several candidate directions while stationary in one location, and finds the one activating PFC cells with the highest reward signal. Each probe direction involves activation of a static pattern of head direction cells to drive an interference model of grid cells to update their phases in a specific direction. The updating of grid cell spiking drives place cells along the probed look-ahead trajectory similar to the forward replay during waking seen in place cell recordings. Directions are probed until the look-ahead trajectory activates the reward signal and the corresponding direction is used to guide goal-finding behavior. We report simulation results in several mazes with and without barriers. Navigation with barriers requires a PFC map topology based on the temporal vicinity of visited place cells and a reward signal diffusion process. The interaction of the forward linear look-ahead trajectory probes with the reward diffusion allows discovery of never-before experienced shortcuts towards a goal location.

  3. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  4. Characterizing a psychiatric symptom dimension related to deficits in goal-directed control.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Claire M; Kosinski, Michal; Whelan, Robert; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2016-03-01

    Prominent theories suggest that compulsive behaviors, characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction, are driven by shared deficits in goal-directed control, which confers vulnerability for developing rigid habits. However, recent studies have shown that deficient goal-directed control accompanies several disorders, including those without an obvious compulsive element. Reasoning that this lack of clinical specificity might reflect broader issues with psychiatric diagnostic categories, we investigated whether a dimensional approach would better delineate the clinical manifestations of goal-directed deficits. Using large-scale online assessment of psychiatric symptoms and neurocognitive performance in two independent general-population samples, we found that deficits in goal-directed control were most strongly associated with a symptom dimension comprising compulsive behavior and intrusive thought. This association was highly specific when compared to other non-compulsive aspects of psychopathology. These data showcase a powerful new methodology and highlight the potential of a dimensional, biologically-grounded approach to psychiatry research.

  5. "Instant success": turning temptations into cues for goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Kroese, Floor M; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2011-10-01

    Contrary to lay intuition, counteractive control theory posits that tempting food cues can help individuals to act in accordance with their long-term dieting goal. However, studies have shown that temptations trigger goal-directed behavior only in successful but not in unsuccessful self-regulators. The aim of the present study was to test whether it is possible to create facilitated temptation-goal associations in unsuccessful dieters using implementation intentions (e.g., "If I see or smell chocolate then I will follow my goal to diet") and whether this indeed stimulates more successful self-regulation. It was found that implementation intentions linking a temptation to a dieting goal lead to self-perceived improved resistance to (Study 1) as well as reduced consumption (Study 2) of tempting snacks compared to a control condition. Moreover, Study 2 revealed that the reduced snack consumption was indeed related to facilitated temptation-goal associations in participants who had formed implementation intentions.

  6. Target- and Effect-Directed Actions towards Temporal Goals: Similar Mechanisms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Andrea M.; Rieger, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of an action can consist of generating a change in the environment (to produce an effect) or changing one's own situation in the environment (to move to a physical target). To investigate whether the mechanisms of effect-directed and target-directed action control are similar, participants performed continuous reversal movements. They…

  7. Resolution of conflict between goal-directed actions: outcome encoding and neural control processes.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Dickinson, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    According to O-R theory of instrumental learning, incongruent biconditional discriminations should be impossible to solve in a goal-directed manner because the event acting as the outcome of one response also acts as a discriminative stimulus for an opposite response. Each event should therefore be associated with two competing responses. However, Dickinson and de Wit (2003) have presented evidence that rats can learn incongruent discriminations. The present study investigated whether rats were able to engage additional processes to solve incongruent discriminations in a goal-directed manner. Experiment 1 provides evidence that rats resolve the response conflict that arises in the incongruent discrimination by differentially encoding events in their roles as discriminative stimulus and as outcome. Furthermore, Experiment 2 shows that once goal-directed control has been established the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is not directly involved in its maintenance but rather plays a central role in conflict resolution processes.

  8. Principles of goal-directed spatial robot navigation in biomimetic models

    PubMed Central

    Milford, Michael; Schulz, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Mobile robots and animals alike must effectively navigate their environments in order to achieve their goals. For animals goal-directed navigation facilitates finding food, seeking shelter or migration; similarly robots perform goal-directed navigation to find a charging station, get out of the rain or guide a person to a destination. This similarity in tasks extends to the environment as well; increasingly, mobile robots are operating in the same underwater, ground and aerial environments that animals do. Yet despite these similarities, goal-directed navigation research in robotics and biology has proceeded largely in parallel, linked only by a small amount of interdisciplinary research spanning both areas. Most state-of-the-art robotic navigation systems employ a range of sensors, world representations and navigation algorithms that seem far removed from what we know of how animals navigate; their navigation systems are shaped by key principles of navigation in ‘real-world’ environments including dealing with uncertainty in sensing, landmark observation and world modelling. By contrast, biomimetic animal navigation models produce plausible animal navigation behaviour in a range of laboratory experimental navigation paradigms, typically without addressing many of these robotic navigation principles. In this paper, we attempt to link robotics and biology by reviewing the current state of the art in conventional and biomimetic goal-directed navigation models, focusing on the key principles of goal-oriented robotic navigation and the extent to which these principles have been adapted by biomimetic navigation models and why. PMID:25267826

  9. Principles of goal-directed spatial robot navigation in biomimetic models.

    PubMed

    Milford, Michael; Schulz, Ruth

    2014-11-05

    Mobile robots and animals alike must effectively navigate their environments in order to achieve their goals. For animals goal-directed navigation facilitates finding food, seeking shelter or migration; similarly robots perform goal-directed navigation to find a charging station, get out of the rain or guide a person to a destination. This similarity in tasks extends to the environment as well; increasingly, mobile robots are operating in the same underwater, ground and aerial environments that animals do. Yet despite these similarities, goal-directed navigation research in robotics and biology has proceeded largely in parallel, linked only by a small amount of interdisciplinary research spanning both areas. Most state-of-the-art robotic navigation systems employ a range of sensors, world representations and navigation algorithms that seem far removed from what we know of how animals navigate; their navigation systems are shaped by key principles of navigation in 'real-world' environments including dealing with uncertainty in sensing, landmark observation and world modelling. By contrast, biomimetic animal navigation models produce plausible animal navigation behaviour in a range of laboratory experimental navigation paradigms, typically without addressing many of these robotic navigation principles. In this paper, we attempt to link robotics and biology by reviewing the current state of the art in conventional and biomimetic goal-directed navigation models, focusing on the key principles of goal-oriented robotic navigation and the extent to which these principles have been adapted by biomimetic navigation models and why.

  10. Electromyographic analysis of goal-directed grasping behavior in the American lobster.

    PubMed

    Tomina, Yusuke; Takahata, Masakazu

    2014-10-15

    Animals spontaneously initiate goal-directed behavior including foraging action based on their appetitive motivation. The American lobster Homarus americanus exhibits grasping behavior with its crusher claw as feeding behavior that can be initiated after appropriate operant conditioning. In order to quantitatively characterize the goal-directed grasping behavior with a time resolution fine enough for neurophysiological analysis of its initiation and control mechanisms, we made simultaneous electromyographic (EMG) recording from grasping- and reaching-related muscles of the crusher claw while animals initiated grasping behavior. We developed an in vivo extracellular recording chamber that allowed the animal under a semi-restrained condition to perform operant reward learning of claw grasping. Three muscles in the crusher claw (propodite-dactyl closer/opener and coxal protractor) were found to be closely associated with spontaneous grasping behavior. In spontaneous grasping, the activation of those muscles consistently preceded the grasping onset time and exhibited different activity patterns from the grasp induced by a mechanical stimulus. Furthermore, we found that the timing of coxal protractor activation was closer to the grasp onset and its activity was briefer for goal-directed grasping behavior in trained and hungry animals than for non-goal-directed spontaneous grasping behavior in naive or satiated animals. It is suggested that the goal-directed grasping behavior of lobster is characterized, at least partly, by experience-dependent briefer activity of specific muscles involved in reaching action.

  11. How to Build an Intentional Android: Infants' Imitation of a Robot's Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itakura, Shoji; Ishida, Hiraku; Kanda, Takayuki; Shimada, Yohko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether young children are able to imitate a robot's goal-directed actions. Children (24-35 months old) viewed videos showing a robot attempting to manipulate an object (e.g., putting beads inside a cup) but failing to achieve its goal (e.g., beads fell outside the cup). In 1 video, the robot made eye contact with a human…

  12. Dissociation between goal-directed and discrete response localization in a patient with bilateral cortical blindness.

    PubMed

    Buetti, Simona; Tamietto, Marco; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Kerzel, Dirk; de Gelder, Beatrice; Pegna, Alan J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated localization performance of simple targets in patient TN, who suffered bilateral damage of his primary visual cortex and shows complete cortical blindness. Using a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, TN was asked to guess the position of left-right targets with goal-directed and discrete manual responses. The results indicate a clear dissociation between goal-directed and discrete responses. TN pointed toward the correct target location in approximately 75% of the trials but was at chance level with discrete responses. This indicates that the residual ability to localize an unseen stimulus depends critically on the possibility to translate a visual signal into a goal-directed motor output at least in certain forms of blindsight.

  13. Goal-directed and habitual control in the basal ganglia: implications for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Redgrave, Peter; Rodriguez, Manuel; Smith, Yoland; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C.; Lehericy, Stephane; Bergman, Hagai; Agid, Yves; DeLong, Mahlon R.; Obeso, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinson’s disease. Studies in animals and humans have identified spatially segregated functional territories in the basal ganglia for the control of goal-directed and habitual actions. In patients with Parkinson’s disease the loss of dopamine is predominantly in the posterior putamen, a region of the basal ganglia associated with the control of habitual behaviour. These patients may therefore be forced into a progressive reliance on the goal-directed mode of action control that is mediated by comparatively preserved processing in the rostromedial striatum. Thus, many of their behavioural difficulties may reflect a loss of normal automatic control owing to distorting output signals from habitual control circuits, which impede the expression of goal-directed action. PMID:20944662

  14. Concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2010-06-16

    Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habitual stimulus-response processes that are insensitive to changes in outcome value and at the expense of goal-directed action-outcome processes. The neuroendocrine mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity bias instrumental behavior toward habitual performance. To this end, healthy men and women received hydrocortisone, the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine or both orally before they were trained in two instrumental actions leading to two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of the outcomes was devalued by inviting participants to eat that food to satiety. A subsequent extinction test revealed whether instrumental performance was goal-directed or habitual. Participants that received hydrocortisone or yohimbine alone decreased responding to the devalued action in the extinction test, i.e., they behaved goal-directed. The combined administration of hydrocortisone and yohimbine, however, rendered participants' behavior insensitive to changes in the value of the goal (i.e., habitual). These findings demonstrate that the concerted action of glucocorticoids and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control.

  15. Cell-Type-Specific Sensorimotor Processing in Striatal Projection Neurons during Goal-Directed Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sippy, Tanya; Lapray, Damien; Crochet, Sylvain; Petersen, Carl C H

    2015-10-21

    Goal-directed sensorimotor transformation drives important aspects of mammalian behavior. The striatum is thought to play a key role in reward-based learning and action selection, receiving glutamatergic sensorimotor signals and dopaminergic reward signals. Here, we obtain whole-cell membrane potential recordings from the dorsolateral striatum of mice trained to lick a reward spout after a whisker deflection. Striatal projection neurons showed strong task-related modulation, with more depolarization and action potential firing on hit trials compared to misses. Direct pathway striatonigral neurons, but not indirect pathway striatopallidal neurons, exhibited a prominent early sensory response. Optogenetic stimulation of direct pathway striatonigral neurons, but not indirect pathway striatopallidal neurons, readily substituted for whisker stimulation evoking a licking response. Our data are consistent with direct pathway striatonigral neurons contributing a "go" signal for goal-directed sensorimotor transformation leading to action initiation. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  16. Of goals and habits: age-related and individual differences in goal-directed decision-making.

    PubMed

    Eppinger, Ben; Walter, Maik; Heekeren, Hauke R; Li, Shu-Chen

    2013-01-01

    In this study we investigated age-related and individual differences in habitual (model-free) and goal-directed (model-based) decision-making. Specifically, we were interested in three questions. First, does age affect the balance between model-based and model-free decision mechanisms? Second, are these age-related changes due to age differences in working memory (WM) capacity? Third, can model-based behavior be affected by manipulating the distinctiveness of the reward value of choice options? To answer these questions we used a two-stage Markov decision task in in combination with computational modeling to dissociate model-based and model-free decision mechanisms. To affect model-based behavior in this task we manipulated the distinctiveness of reward probabilities of choice options. The results show age-related deficits in model-based decision-making, which are particularly pronounced if unexpected reward indicates the need for a shift in decision strategy. In this situation younger adults explore the task structure, whereas older adults show perseverative behavior. Consistent with previous findings, these results indicate that older adults have deficits in the representation and updating of expected reward value. We also observed substantial individual differences in model-based behavior. In younger adults high WM capacity is associated with greater model-based behavior and this effect is further elevated when reward probabilities are more distinct. However, in older adults we found no effect of WM capacity. Moreover, age differences in model-based behavior remained statistically significant, even after controlling for WM capacity. Thus, factors other than decline in WM, such as deficits in the in the integration of expected reward value into strategic decisions may contribute to the observed impairments in model-based behavior in older adults.

  17. Trait inferences in goal-directed behavior: ERP timing and localization under spontaneous and intentional processing

    PubMed Central

    Van den Eede, Sofie; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during multiple goal and trait inferences, under spontaneous or intentional instructions. Participants read sentences describing several goal-implying behaviors of a target person from which also a strong trait could be inferred or not. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the inference induced during preceding sentences. In comparison with behaviors that implied only a goal, stronger waveforms beginning at ∼150 ms were obtained when the behaviors additionally implied a trait. These ERPs showed considerable parallels between spontaneous and intentional inferences. This suggests that traits embedded in a stream of goal-directed behaviors were detected more rapidly and automatically than mere goals, irrespective of the participants’ spontaneous or intentional instructions. In line with this, source localization (LORETA) of the ERPs show predominantly activation in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during 150–200 ms, suggesting that goals were detected at that time interval. During 200–300 ms, activation was stronger at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for multiple goals and traits as opposed to goals only, suggesting that traits were inferred during this time window. A cued recall measure taken after the presentation of the stimulus material support the occurrence of goal and trait inferences and shows significant correlations with the neural components, indicating that these components are valid neural indices of spontaneous and intentional social inferences. The early detection of multiple goal and trait inferences is explained in terms of their greater social relevance, leading to privileged attention allocation and processing in the brain. PMID:19270041

  18. Trait inferences in goal-directed behavior: ERP timing and localization under spontaneous and intentional processing.

    PubMed

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Van den Eede, Sofie; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2009-06-01

    This study measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during multiple goal and trait inferences, under spontaneous or intentional instructions. Participants read sentences describing several goal-implying behaviors of a target person from which also a strong trait could be inferred or not. The last word of each sentence determined the consistency with the inference induced during preceding sentences. In comparison with behaviors that implied only a goal, stronger waveforms beginning at approximately 150 ms were obtained when the behaviors additionally implied a trait. These ERPs showed considerable parallels between spontaneous and intentional inferences. This suggests that traits embedded in a stream of goal-directed behaviors were detected more rapidly and automatically than mere goals, irrespective of the participants' spontaneous or intentional instructions. In line with this, source localization (LORETA) of the ERPs show predominantly activation in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during 150-200 ms, suggesting that goals were detected at that time interval. During 200-300 ms, activation was stronger at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for multiple goals and traits as opposed to goals only, suggesting that traits were inferred during this time window. A cued recall measure taken after the presentation of the stimulus material support the occurrence of goal and trait inferences and shows significant correlations with the neural components, indicating that these components are valid neural indices of spontaneous and intentional social inferences. The early detection of multiple goal and trait inferences is explained in terms of their greater social relevance, leading to privileged attention allocation and processing in the brain.

  19. Dissociable effects of anterior and mediodorsal thalamic lesions on spatial goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Fabien; Naneix, Fabien; Desfosses, Emilie; Marchand, Alain R; Wolff, Mathieu; Coutureau, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed behaviors are thought to be supported by a neural circuit encompassing the prefrontal cortex, the dorsomedial striatum, the amygdala, and, as more recently suggested, the limbic thalamus. Since evidence indicates that the various thalamic nuclei contribute to dissociable functions, we directly compared the functional contribution of the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) and of the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) in a new task assessing spatial goal-directed behavior in a cross-maze. Rats sustaining lesions of the mediodorsal or the anterior thalamus were trained to associate each of the two goal arms with a distinctive food reward. Unlike control rats, both lesioned groups failed to express a bias for the goal arm corresponding to the non-devalued outcome following devaluation by sensory-specific satiety. In addition, MD rats were slower than the other groups to complete the trials. When tested for spatial working memory using a standard non-matching-to-place procedure in the same apparatus, ATN rats were severely impaired but MD rats performed as well as controls, even when spatial or temporal challenges were introduced. Finally, all groups displayed comparable breaking points in a progressive ratio test, indicating that the slower choice performance of MD rats did not result from motivational factors. Thus, a spatial task requiring the integration of instrumental and Pavlovian contingencies reveals a fundamental deficit of MD rats in adapting their choice according to goal value. By contrast, the deficit associated with anterior thalamic lesions appears to simply reflect the inability to process spatial information.

  20. Goals of telephone nursing work - the managers’ perspectives: a qualitative study on Swedish healthcare direct

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) receives 6 million calls yearly and aims at increased public sense of security and healthcare efficiency. Little is known about what SHD managers perceive as the primary goals of telephone nursing (TN) work and how the organisation matches goals of health promotion and equitable healthcare, so important in Swedish healthcare legislation. The aim of the study was to explore and describe what the SHD managers perceive as the goals of TN work and how the managers view health promotion and implementation of equitable healthcare with gender as example at SHD. Methods The study was qualitative using an exploratory and descriptive design. All 23 managers employed at SHD were interviewed and data analysis used deductive directed content analysis. Results The findings reveal four themes describing the goals of TN work as recommended by the SHD managers. These are: ‘create feelings of trust’, ‘achieve patient safety’, ‘assess, refer and give advice’, and ‘teach the caller’. Most of the managers stated that health promotion should not be included in the goals, whereas equitable healthcare was viewed as an important issue. Varying suggestions for implementing equitable healthcare were given. Conclusions The interviewed managers mainly echoed the organisational goals of TN work. The managers’ expressed goal of teaching lacked the caller learning components highlighted by telenurses in previous research. The fact that health promotion was not seen as important indicates a need for SHD to clarify its goals as the organisation is part of the Swedish healthcare system, where health promotion should always permeate work. Time used for health promotion and dialogues in a gender equitable manner at SHD is well invested as it will save time elsewhere in the health care system, thereby facing one of the challenges of European health systems. PMID:24762193

  1. Internally generated sequences in learning and executing goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; van der Meer, Matthijs A A; Lansink, Carien S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2014-12-01

    A network of brain structures including hippocampus (HC), prefrontal cortex, and striatum controls goal-directed behavior and decision making. However, the neural mechanisms underlying these functions are unknown. Here, we review the role of 'internally generated sequences': structured, multi-neuron firing patterns in the network that are not confined to signaling the current state or location of an agent, but are generated on the basis of internal brain dynamics. Neurophysiological studies suggest that such sequences fulfill functions in memory consolidation, augmentation of representations, internal simulation, and recombination of acquired information. Using computational modeling, we propose that internally generated sequences may be productively considered a component of goal-directed decision systems, implementing a sampling-based inference engine that optimizes goal acquisition at multiple timescales of on-line choice, action control, and learning.

  2. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks: Influence on Habitual versus Goal-Directed Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kuschpel, Maxim S.; Rapp, Michael A.; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adults listened to music and played a video game during breaks interleaved with trials of a sequential two-step Markov decision task, designed to assess habitual as well as goal-directed decision making. Based on a neurocomputational model of task performance, we observed that for individuals with a rather limited working memory capacity video gaming as compared to music reduced reliance on the goal-directed decision-making system, while a rather large working memory capacity prevented such a decline. Our findings suggest differential effects of everyday activities on key decision-making processes. PMID:26982326

  3. Characterizing a psychiatric symptom dimension related to deficits in goal-directed control

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Claire M; Kosinski, Michal; Whelan, Robert; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2016-01-01

    Prominent theories suggest that compulsive behaviors, characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction, are driven by shared deficits in goal-directed control, which confers vulnerability for developing rigid habits. However, recent studies have shown that deficient goal-directed control accompanies several disorders, including those without an obvious compulsive element. Reasoning that this lack of clinical specificity might reflect broader issues with psychiatric diagnostic categories, we investigated whether a dimensional approach would better delineate the clinical manifestations of goal-directed deficits. Using large-scale online assessment of psychiatric symptoms and neurocognitive performance in two independent general-population samples, we found that deficits in goal-directed control were most strongly associated with a symptom dimension comprising compulsive behavior and intrusive thought. This association was highly specific when compared to other non-compulsive aspects of psychopathology. These data showcase a powerful new methodology and highlight the potential of a dimensional, biologically-grounded approach to psychiatry research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11305.001 PMID:26928075

  4. Translational studies of goal-directed action as a framework for classifying deficits across psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristi R.; Morris, Richard W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn contingencies between actions and outcomes in a dynamic environment is critical for flexible, adaptive behavior. Goal-directed actions adapt to changes in action-outcome contingencies as well as to changes in the reward-value of the outcome. When networks involved in reward processing and contingency learning are maladaptive, this fundamental ability can be lost, with detrimental consequences for decision-making. Impaired decision-making is a core feature in a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from depression to schizophrenia. The argument can be developed, therefore, that seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders can be explained by dysfunction within common decision-making circuitry. From this perspective, gaining a better understanding of the neural processes involved in goal-directed action, will allow a comparison of deficits observed across traditional diagnostic boundaries within a unified theoretical framework. This review describes the key processes and neural circuits involved in goal-directed decision-making using evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging. Select studies are discussed to outline what we currently know about causal judgments regarding actions and their consequences, action-related reward evaluation, and, most importantly, how these processes are integrated in goal-directed learning and performance. Finally, we look at how adaptive decision-making is impaired across a range of psychiatric disorders and how deepening our understanding of this circuitry may offer insights into phenotypes and more targeted interventions. PMID:24904322

  5. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks: Influence on Habitual versus Goal-Directed Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J; Kuschpel, Maxim S; Rapp, Michael A; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adults listened to music and played a video game during breaks interleaved with trials of a sequential two-step Markov decision task, designed to assess habitual as well as goal-directed decision making. Based on a neurocomputational model of task performance, we observed that for individuals with a rather limited working memory capacity video gaming as compared to music reduced reliance on the goal-directed decision-making system, while a rather large working memory capacity prevented such a decline. Our findings suggest differential effects of everyday activities on key decision-making processes.

  6. Predicting use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing a parent's ability to influence a child's vegetable intake may require reducing the parent's use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices (IVPP). To understand the influences on IVPP, this study modeled use of IVPP using validated scales from a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenti...

  7. Psychometric assessment of scales for a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable intake has been related to lower risk of chronic illnesses in the adult years. The habit of vegetable intake should be established early in life, but many parents of preschoolers report not being able to get their child to eat vegetables. The Model of Goal Directed Behavior (MGDB) has been...

  8. Goal-directed decision making as probabilistic inference: a computational framework and potential neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Solway, Alec; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has given rise to the view that reward-based decision making is governed by two key controllers: a habit system, which stores stimulus-response associations shaped by past reward, and a goal-oriented system that selects actions based on their anticipated outcomes. The current literature provides a rich body of computational theory addressing habit formation, centering on temporal-difference learning mechanisms. Less progress has been made toward formalizing the processes involved in goal-directed decision making. We draw on recent work in cognitive neuroscience, animal conditioning, cognitive and developmental psychology, and machine learning to outline a new theory of goal-directed decision making. Our basic proposal is that the brain, within an identifiable network of cortical and subcortical structures, implements a probabilistic generative model of reward, and that goal-directed decision making is effected through Bayesian inversion of this model. We present a set of simulations implementing the account, which address benchmark behavioral and neuroscientific findings, and give rise to a set of testable predictions. We also discuss the relationship between the proposed framework and other models of decision making, including recent models of perceptual choice, to which our theory bears a direct connection.

  9. Predicting use of effective vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to model effective vegetable parenting practices using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices construct scales. An internet survey was conducted with 307 parents (mostly mothers) of preschoolers in Houston, Texas to assess their agreement with effective vegetable ...

  10. Goal-directed decision making as probabilistic inference: A computational framework and potential neural correlates

    PubMed Central

    Solway, A.; Botvinick, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has given rise to the view that reward-based decision making is governed by two key controllers: a habit system, which stores stimulus-response associations shaped by past reward, and a goal-oriented system that selects actions based on their anticipated outcomes. The current literature provides a rich body of computational theory addressing habit formation, centering on temporal-difference learning mechanisms. Less progress has been made toward formalizing the processes involved in goal-directed decision making. We draw on recent work in cognitive neuroscience, animal conditioning, cognitive and developmental psychology and machine learning, to outline a new theory of goal-directed decision making. Our basic proposal is that the brain, within an identifiable network of cortical and subcortical structures, implements a probabilistic generative model of reward, and that goal-directed decision making is effected through Bayesian inversion of this model. We present a set of simulations implementing the account, which address benchmark behavioral and neuroscientific findings, and which give rise to a set of testable predictions. We also discuss the relationship between the proposed framework and other models of decision making, including recent models of perceptual choice, to which our theory bears a direct connection. PMID:22229491

  11. Goal-directed decision making in prefrontal cortex: A computational framework

    PubMed Central

    Botvinick, Matthew; An, James

    2009-01-01

    Research in animal learning and behavioral neuroscience has distinguished between two forms of action control: a habit-based form, which relies on stored actio n values, and a goal-dir ected form, which forecasts and compares action outcomes based on a model of the environment. While habit-based control has been the subject of extensive computational research, the computational principles underlying goal-directed control in animals have so far received less attention. In the present paper, we advance a computational framework for goal-directed control in animals and humans. We take three empirically motivated points as founding premises: (1) Neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex represent action policies, (2) Neurons in orbitofrontal cortex represent rewards, and (3) Neural computation, across domains, can be appropriately understood as performing structured probabilistic inference. On a purely computational level, the resulting account relates closely to previous work using Bayesian inference to solve Markov decision problems, but extends this work by introducing a new algorithm, which provably converges on optimal plans. On a cognitive and neuroscientific level, the theory provides a unifying framework for several different forms of goal-directed action selection, placing emphasis on a novel form, within which orbitofrontal reward representations directly drive policy selection. PMID:25258502

  12. A model of prefrontal cortical mechanisms for goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Hasselmo, Michael E

    2005-07-01

    Many behavioral tasks require goal-directed actions to obtain delayed reward. The prefrontal cortex appears to mediate many aspects of goal-directed decision making. This article presents a model of prefrontal cortex function emphasizing the influence of goal-related activity on the choice of the next motor output. The model can be interpreted in terms of key elements of Reinforcement Learning Theory. Different neocortical minicolumns represent distinct sensory input states and distinct motor output actions. The dynamics of each minicolumn include separate phases of encoding and retrieval. During encoding, strengthening of excitatory connections forms forward and reverse associations between each state, the following action, and a subsequent state, which may include reward. During retrieval, activity spreads from reward states throughout the network. The interaction of this spreading activity with a specific input state directs selection of the next appropriate action. Simulations demonstrate how these mechanisms can guide performance in a range of goal-directed tasks, and provide a functional framework for some of the neuronal responses previously observed in the medial prefrontal cortex during performance of spatial memory tasks in rats.

  13. Goal-Directed Action Control in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls…

  14. Counseling for the Transition to Adulthood as Joint, Goal-Directed Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard A.; Marshall, Sheila K.; Foulkes, Kristen; Haber, Carla; Lee, Celine S. M.; Penner, Carey; Rostram, Hajara

    2011-01-01

    Transition is important in the career literature as it identifies times at which people are often likely to consult counselors about issues for which they need help. However, the counseling literature has not provided a conceptualization of, or research on, the joint, goal-directed actions and projects of the counselor and the client, which…

  15. To get the grasp: seven-month-olds encode and selectively reproduce goal-directed grasping.

    PubMed

    Thoermer, Claudia; Woodward, Amanda; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Kristen, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Infants need to analyze human behavior in terms of goal-directed actions in order to form expectations about agents' rationality. There is converging evidence for goal encoding during the first year of life from looking time as well as social learning paradigms using imitation procedures. However, conceptual interpretations of these abilities are challenged by low-level motor resonance accounts that propose task-specific lower level sensorimotor associations underlying looking time tasks rather than abstract conceptual knowledge. To test the differential predictions derived from the two accounts, we investigated within-child consistency of performance on different, but conceptually related, tasks requiring goal encoding. This study presented seven-month-old infants with a looking time task and an imitation task, both testing their ability to encode an action goal based on a reaching action, as well as a working memory task to control for the influence of general cognitive capacity. Results showed inter task convergence to be independent of working memory: infants who spent more time looking at goal change events in the looking time task were more likely to selectively reproduce the goal in the imitation task when the model had performed an intentional grasping action rather than a back-of-hand object contact. These findings support the view that low-level motor resonance mechanisms are not sufficient to explain the capacities of action understanding in infants.

  16. Pedagogic Transformation, Student-Directed Design and Computational Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Michael; Towndrow, Phillip A.

    2016-01-01

    In a world where technology has become pervasive in our lives, the notion of IT integration in education practice is losing its significance. It is now more appropriate to discuss transforming pedagogy where technology is not considered a tool anymore but part of what we are. To advance this hypothesis, an enterprising, student-directed approach…

  17. Devaluation and sequential decisions: linking goal-directed and model-based behavior.

    PubMed

    Friedel, Eva; Koch, Stefan P; Wendt, Jean; Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In experimental psychology different experiments have been developed to assess goal-directed as compared to habitual control over instrumental decisions. Similar to animal studies selective devaluation procedures have been used. More recently sequential decision-making tasks have been designed to assess the degree of goal-directed vs. habitual choice behavior in terms of an influential computational theory of model-based compared to model-free behavioral control. As recently suggested, different measurements are thought to reflect the same construct. Yet, there has been no attempt to directly assess the construct validity of these different measurements. In the present study, we used a devaluation paradigm and a sequential decision-making task to address this question of construct validity in a sample of 18 healthy male human participants. Correlational analysis revealed a positive association between model-based choices during sequential decisions and goal-directed behavior after devaluation suggesting a single framework underlying both operationalizations and speaking in favor of construct validity of both measurement approaches. Up to now, this has been merely assumed but never been directly tested in humans.

  18. Executive control of stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanmei; Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J

    2016-10-01

    We examined the role of executive control in stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention in visual working memory using probed recall of a series of objects, a task that allows study of the dynamics of storage through analysis of serial position data. Experiment 1 examined whether executive control underlies goal-directed prioritization of certain items within the sequence. Instructing participants to prioritize either the first or final item resulted in improved recall for these items, and an increase in concurrent task difficulty reduced or abolished these gains, consistent with their dependence on executive control. Experiment 2 examined whether executive control is also involved in the disruption caused by a post-series visual distractor (suffix). A demanding concurrent task disrupted memory for all items except the most recent, whereas a suffix disrupted only the most recent items. There was no interaction when concurrent load and suffix were combined, suggesting that deploying selective attention to ignore the distractor did not draw upon executive resources. A final experiment replicated the independent interfering effects of suffix and concurrent load while ruling out possible artifacts. We discuss the results in terms of a domain-general episodic buffer in which information is retained in a transient, limited capacity privileged state, influenced by both stimulus-driven and goal-directed processes. The privileged state contains the most recent environmental input together with goal-relevant representations being actively maintained using executive resources.

  19. Functional connections between optic flow areas and navigationally responsive brain regions during goal-directed navigation.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Katherine R; Chrastil, Elizabeth R; Ross, Robert S; Erdem, Uğur M; Hasselmo, Michael E; Stern, Chantal E

    2015-09-01

    Recent computational models suggest that visual input from optic flow provides information about egocentric (navigator-centered) motion and influences firing patterns in spatially tuned cells during navigation. Computationally, self-motion cues can be extracted from optic flow during navigation. Despite the importance of optic flow to navigation, a functional link between brain regions sensitive to optic flow and brain regions important for navigation has not been established in either humans or animals. Here, we used a beta-series correlation methodology coupled with two fMRI tasks to establish this functional link during goal-directed navigation in humans. Functionally defined optic flow sensitive cortical areas V3A, V6, and hMT+ were used as seed regions. fMRI data was collected during a navigation task in which participants updated position and orientation based on self-motion cues to successfully navigate to an encoded goal location. The results demonstrate that goal-directed navigation requiring updating of position and orientation in the first person perspective involves a cooperative interaction between optic flow sensitive regions V3A, V6, and hMT+ and the hippocampus, retrosplenial cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and medial prefrontal cortex. These functional connections suggest a dynamic interaction between these systems to support goal-directed navigation.

  20. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  1. Learning to think strategically.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Strategic thinking focuses on issues that directly affect the ability of a family planning program to attract and retain clients. This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" outlines the five steps of strategic thinking in family planning administration: 1) define the organization's mission and strategic goals; 2) identify opportunities for improving quality, expanding access, and increasing demand; 3) evaluate each option in terms of its compatibility with the organization's goals; 4) select an option; and 5) transform strategies into action. Also included in this issue is a 20-question test designed to permit readers to assess their "strategic thinking quotient" and a list of sample questions to guide a strategic analysis.

  2. Atypical monitoring and responsiveness to goal-directed gaze in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-02-01

    We hypothesized that difficulty in understanding the goals of others' actions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might be linked to a diminished attention and responsivity to relevant social cues. Using an eye-tracking paradigm, we investigated how 24 children with ASD and 24 matched children without ASD responded to the observation of uncompleted actions without a clear target (neutral condition) versus a condition in which the actor's gaze direction indicated the target of the actions (head-turning condition). Children without ASD significantly increased their attention to the actor's face and to the action's target in the head-turning condition compared to the neutral condition, while this was not the case in the ASD group. Overall, our findings suggest a diminished monitoring and responsivity to social cues signalling goal-directedness, which might impact on the ability to understand other's action goals in young children with ASD.

  3. Parallel goal-directed and habitual control of human drug-seeking: implications for dependence vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee; Chase, Henry W

    2011-07-01

    Dual-process theories of learning and addiction propose that whereas freely elected drug/reward-seeking is goal-directed in being mediated by the expected value of the outcome, cue-elicited drug/reward-seeking is habitual in being elicited directly by antecedent stimuli, without retrieving a representation of outcome value. To substantiate this claim, the current study conducted a human devaluation-transfer procedure in which young adult smokers were first trained on a concurrent choice task to earn tobacco and chocolate points before one outcome was devalued by specific satiety or health warnings against consumption of that outcome. When choice was again tested in extinction, the selective reduction in performance of the action associated with the devalued outcome indicated that choice was controlled by an expectation of outcome value, that is, was goal-directed. Moreover, the presentation of tobacco and chocolate cues enhanced selection of the response associated with that outcome, indicating that transfer was also mediated by the retrieval of the outcome representation. Paradoxically, however, the magnitude of this transfer effect was unaffected by devaluation, indicating that the stimulus retrieved a representation of outcome identity but not current incentive value. Individual differences in tobacco dependence in the young adult sample were associated with tobacco preference in the concurrent choice task but not with the devaluation or transfer effects. These data accord with dual-process theories in suggesting that drug/reward-seeking are mediated by goal-directed and habitual controllers under freely elected and cued conditions, respectively, and that initial uptake of drug use is associated with hyper-valuation of the drug as an outcome of goal-directed drug-seeking rather than with accelerated habit formation.

  4. Extending Energy Optimization in Goal-Directed Aiming from Movement Kinematics to Joint Angles.

    PubMed

    Burkitt, James J; Bongers, Raoul M; Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Lyons, James L

    2017-01-01

    Energy optimization in goal-directed aiming has been demonstrated as an undershoot bias in primary movement endpoint locations, especially in conditions where corrections to target overshoots must be made against gravity. Two-component models of upper limb movement have not yet considered how joint angles are organized to deal with the energy constraints associated with moving the upper limb in goal-directed aiming tasks. To address this limitation, participants performed aiming movements to targets in the up and down directions with the index finger and two types of rod extensions attached to the index finger. The rod extensions were expected to invoke different energy optimizing strategies in the up and down directions by allowing the distal joints the opportunity to contribute to end effector displacement. Primary movements undershot the farthest target to a greater extent in the downward direction compared to the upward direction, showing that movement kinematics optimize energy expenditure in consideration of the effects of gravity. As rod length increased, shoulder elevation was optimized in movements to the far-up target and elbow flexion was optimally minimized in movements to the far-down target. The results suggest energy optimization in the control of joint angles independent of the force of gravity.

  5. Neurocognitive abnormalities during comprehension of real-world goal-directed behaviors in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Goff, Donald; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2009-05-01

    Origins of impaired adaptive functioning in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Behavioral disorganization may arise from an abnormal reliance on common combinations between concepts stored in semantic memory. Avolition-apathy may be related to deficits in using goal-related requirements to flexibly plan behavior. The authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 16 patients with medicated schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls in a novel video paradigm presenting congruous or incongruous objects in real-world activities. All incongruous objects were contextually inappropriate, but the incongruous scenes varied in comprehensibility. Psychopathology was assessed with the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS/SANS) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In patients, an N400 ERP, thought to index activity in semantic memory, was abnormally enhanced to less comprehensible incongruous scenes, and larger N400 priming was associated with disorganization severity. A P600 ERP, which may index flexible object-action integration based on goal-related requirements, was abnormally attenuated in patients, and its smaller magnitude was associated with the SANS rating of impersistence at work or school (goal-directed behavior). Thus, distinct neurocognitive abnormalities may underlie disorganization and goal-directed behavior deficits in schizophrenia.

  6. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal-human translational models.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Sanne; Dickinson, Anthony

    2009-07-01

    Associative accounts of goal-directed action, developed in the fields of human ideomotor action and that of animal learning, can capture cognitive belief-desire psychology of human decision-making. Whereas outcome-response accounts can account for the fact that the thought of a goal can call to mind the action that has previously procured this goal, response-outcome accounts capture decision-making processes that start out with the consideration of possible response alternatives followed only in the second instance by evaluation of their consequences. We argue that while the outcome-response mechanism plays a crucial role in response priming effects, the response-outcome mechanism is particularly important for action selection on the basis of current needs and desires. We therefore develop an integrative account that encapsulates these two routes of action selection within the framework of the associative-cybernetic model. This model has the additional benefit of providing mechanisms for the incentive modulation of goal-directed action and for the development of behavioural autonomy, and therefore provides a promising account of the multi-faceted process of animal as well as human instrumental decision-making.

  7. Goal-directed action control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Hilde M; de Wit, Sanne

    2014-05-01

    Repetitive behavior is a key characteristic of autism spectrum disorders. Our aim was to investigate the hypothesis that this abnormal behavioral repetition results from a tendency to over-rely on habits at the expense of flexible, goal-directed action. Twenty-four children with autism spectrum disorders and 24 age- and gender-matched controls (8-12 years) initially learned to give specific responses to different pictorial stimuli in order to gain valuable outcomes. Subsequently, in the "slips-of-action" test, some of these outcomes were no longer valuable. Children needed to refrain from responding when stimuli were shown that signaled the availability of those outcomes while continuing to respond for the still-valuable outcomes. Reliance on habits should lead to "slips of action" toward no longer valuable outcomes. Therefore, the children's ability to respond selectively for still-valuable outcomes provides a measure of relative habitual versus goal-directed control. Two additional tasks were included to control for general task characteristics (i.e. working memory and inhibition). Children with autism spectrum disorders learned equally well as controls and were not impaired at flexibly adjusting their behavior to devaluation of the outcomes or stimuli. We found no evidence for a disruption in the balance between goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  8. Direct replication of Gervais & Norenzayan (2012): No evidence that analytic thinking decreases religious belief

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Clinton; Sundermeier, Brian; Gray, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Gervais & Norenzayan (2012) reported in Science a series of 4 experiments in which manipulations intended to foster analytic thinking decreased religious belief. We conducted a precise, large, multi-site pre-registered replication of one of these experiments. We observed little to no effect of the experimental manipulation on religious belief (d = 0.07 in the wrong direction, 95% CI[-0.12, 0.25], N = 941). The original finding does not seem to provide reliable or valid evidence that analytic thinking causes a decrease in religious belief. PMID:28234942

  9. Direct replication of Gervais & Norenzayan (2012): No evidence that analytic thinking decreases religious belief.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Clinton; Sundermeier, Brian; Gray, Kenneth; Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Gervais & Norenzayan (2012) reported in Science a series of 4 experiments in which manipulations intended to foster analytic thinking decreased religious belief. We conducted a precise, large, multi-site pre-registered replication of one of these experiments. We observed little to no effect of the experimental manipulation on religious belief (d = 0.07 in the wrong direction, 95% CI[-0.12, 0.25], N = 941). The original finding does not seem to provide reliable or valid evidence that analytic thinking causes a decrease in religious belief.

  10. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    PubMed Central

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  11. Striatopallidal Neuron NMDA Receptors Control Synaptic Connectivity, Locomotor, and Goal-Directed Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lambot, Laurie; Chaves Rodriguez, Elena; Houtteman, Delphine; Li, Yuquing; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Gall, David

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) control action selection, motor programs, habits, and goal-directed learning. The striatum, the principal input structure of BG, is predominantly composed of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). Arising from these spatially intermixed MSNs, two inhibitory outputs form two main efferent pathways, the direct and indirect pathways. Striatonigral MSNs give rise to the activating, direct pathway MSNs and striatopallidal MSNs to the inhibitory, indirect pathway (iMSNs). BG output nuclei integrate information from both pathways to fine-tune motor procedures and to acquire complex habits and skills. Therefore, balanced activity between both pathways is crucial for harmonious functions of the BG. Despite the increase in knowledge concerning the role of glutamate NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) in the striatum, understanding of the specific functions of NMDA-R iMSNs is still lacking. For this purpose, we generated a conditional knock-out mouse to address the functions of the NMDA-R in the indirect pathway. At the cellular level, deletion of GluN1 in iMSNs leads to a reduction in the number and strength of the excitatory corticostriatopallidal synapses. The subsequent scaling down in input integration leads to dysfunctional changes in BG output, which is seen as reduced habituation, delay in goal-directed learning, lack of associative behavior, and impairment in action selection or skill learning. The NMDA-R deletion in iMSNs causes a decrease in the synaptic strength of striatopallidal neurons, which in turn might lead to a imbalanced integration between direct and indirect MSN pathways, making mice less sensitive to environmental change. Therefore, their ability to learn and adapt to the environment-based experience was significantly affected. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The striatum controls habits, locomotion, and goal-directed behaviors by coordinated activation of two antagonistic pathways. Insofar as NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) play a key role in synaptic

  12. Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex control in food-directed attention and goal-directed food choice in obesity.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Lieneke K; Duif, Iris; van Loon, Ilke; Wegman, Joost; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther

    2017-02-01

    Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC)-mediated attentional control may explain the automatic tendency to eat in the face of food. Here, we investigate the neurocognitive mechanism underlying attentional bias to food words and its association with obesity using a food Stroop task. We tested 76 healthy human subjects with a wide body mass index (BMI) range (19-35kg/m(2)) using fMRI. As a measure of obesity we calculated individual obesity scores based on BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio using principal component analyses. To investigate the automatic tendency to overeat directly, the same subjects performed a separate behavioral outcome devaluation task measuring the degree of goal-directed versus automatic food choices. We observed that increased obesity scores were associated with diminished lPFC responses during food attentional bias. This was accompanied by decreased goal-directed control of food choices following outcome devaluation. Together these findings suggest that deficient control of both food-directed attention and choice may contribute to obesity, particularly given our obesogenic environment with food cues everywhere, and the choice to ignore or indulge despite satiety.

  13. Retrosplenial Cortical Neurons Encode Navigational Cues, Trajectories and Reward Locations During Goal Directed Navigation.

    PubMed

    Vedder, Lindsey C; Miller, Adam M P; Harrison, Marc B; Smith, David M

    2016-07-29

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) plays an important role in memory and spatial navigation. It shares functional similarities with the hippocampus, including the presence of place fields and lesion-induced impairments in spatial navigation, and the RSC is an important source of visual-spatial input to the hippocampus. Recently, the RSC has been the target of intense scrutiny among investigators of human memory and navigation. fMRI and lesion data suggest an RSC role in the ability to use landmarks to navigate to goal locations. However, no direct neurophysiological evidence of encoding navigational cues has been reported so the specific RSC contribution to spatial cognition has been uncertain. To examine this, we trained rats on a T-maze task in which the reward location was explicitly cued by a flashing light and we recorded RSC neurons as the rats learned. We found that RSC neurons rapidly encoded the light cue. Additionally, RSC neurons encoded the reward and its location, and they showed distinct firing patterns along the left and right trajectories to the goal. These responses may provide key information for goal-directed navigation, and the loss of these signals may underlie navigational impairments in subjects with RSC damage.

  14. The why, what, where, when and how of goal-directed choice: neuronal and computational principles.

    PubMed

    Verschure, Paul F M J; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-11-05

    The central problems that goal-directed animals must solve are: 'What do I need and Why, Where and When can this be obtained, and How do I get it?' or the H4W problem. Here, we elucidate the principles underlying the neuronal solutions to H4W using a combination of neurobiological and neurorobotic approaches. First, we analyse H4W from a system-level perspective by mapping its objectives onto the Distributed Adaptive Control embodied cognitive architecture which sees the generation of adaptive action in the real world as the primary task of the brain rather than optimally solving abstract problems. We next map this functional decomposition to the architecture of the rodent brain to test its consistency. Following this approach, we propose that the mammalian brain solves the H4W problem on the basis of multiple kinds of outcome predictions, integrating central representations of needs and drives (e.g. hypothalamus), valence (e.g. amygdala), world, self and task state spaces (e.g. neocortex, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, respectively) combined with multi-modal selection (e.g. basal ganglia). In our analysis, goal-directed behaviour results from a well-structured architecture in which goals are bootstrapped on the basis of predefined needs, valence and multiple learning, memory and planning mechanisms rather than being generated by a singular computation.

  15. The why, what, where, when and how of goal-directed choice: neuronal and computational principles

    PubMed Central

    Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The central problems that goal-directed animals must solve are: ‘What do I need and Why, Where and When can this be obtained, and How do I get it?' or the H4W problem. Here, we elucidate the principles underlying the neuronal solutions to H4W using a combination of neurobiological and neurorobotic approaches. First, we analyse H4W from a system-level perspective by mapping its objectives onto the Distributed Adaptive Control embodied cognitive architecture which sees the generation of adaptive action in the real world as the primary task of the brain rather than optimally solving abstract problems. We next map this functional decomposition to the architecture of the rodent brain to test its consistency. Following this approach, we propose that the mammalian brain solves the H4W problem on the basis of multiple kinds of outcome predictions, integrating central representations of needs and drives (e.g. hypothalamus), valence (e.g. amygdala), world, self and task state spaces (e.g. neocortex, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, respectively) combined with multi-modal selection (e.g. basal ganglia). In our analysis, goal-directed behaviour results from a well-structured architecture in which goals are bootstrapped on the basis of predefined needs, valence and multiple learning, memory and planning mechanisms rather than being generated by a singular computation. PMID:25267825

  16. Brain activation related to combinations of gaze position, visual input, and goal-directed hand movements.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Patrick; Wu, Min; Sanes, Jerome N

    2011-06-01

    Humans reach to and acquire objects by transforming visual targets into action commands. How the brain integrates goals specified in a visual framework to signals into a suitable framework for an action plan requires clarification whether visual input, per se, interacts with gaze position to formulate action plans. To further evaluate brain control of visual-motor integration, we assessed brain activation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Humans performed goal-directed movements toward visible or remembered targets while fixating gaze left or right from center. We dissociated movement planning from performance using a delayed-response task and manipulated target visibility by its availability throughout the delay or blanking it 500 ms after onset. We found strong effects of gaze orientation on brain activation during planning and interactive effects of target visibility and gaze orientation on movement-related activation during performance in parietal and premotor cortices (PM), cerebellum, and basal ganglia, with more activation for rightward gaze at a visible target and no gaze modulation for movements directed toward remembered targets. These results demonstrate effects of gaze position on PM and movement-related processes and provide new information how visual signals interact with gaze position in transforming visual inputs into motor goals.

  17. Speed/accuracy trade-off between the habitual and the goal-directed processes.

    PubMed

    Keramati, Mehdi; Dezfouli, Amir; Piray, Payam

    2011-05-01

    Instrumental responses are hypothesized to be of two kinds: habitual and goal-directed, mediated by the sensorimotor and the associative cortico-basal ganglia circuits, respectively. The existence of the two heterogeneous associative learning mechanisms can be hypothesized to arise from the comparative advantages that they have at different stages of learning. In this paper, we assume that the goal-directed system is behaviourally flexible, but slow in choice selection. The habitual system, in contrast, is fast in responding, but inflexible in adapting its behavioural strategy to new conditions. Based on these assumptions and using the computational theory of reinforcement learning, we propose a normative model for arbitration between the two processes that makes an approximately optimal balance between search-time and accuracy in decision making. Behaviourally, the model can explain experimental evidence on behavioural sensitivity to outcome at the early stages of learning, but insensitivity at the later stages. It also explains that when two choices with equal incentive values are available concurrently, the behaviour remains outcome-sensitive, even after extensive training. Moreover, the model can explain choice reaction time variations during the course of learning, as well as the experimental observation that as the number of choices increases, the reaction time also increases. Neurobiologically, by assuming that phasic and tonic activities of midbrain dopamine neurons carry the reward prediction error and the average reward signals used by the model, respectively, the model predicts that whereas phasic dopamine indirectly affects behaviour through reinforcing stimulus-response associations, tonic dopamine can directly affect behaviour through manipulating the competition between the habitual and the goal-directed systems and thus, affect reaction time.

  18. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations. PMID:25404898

  19. Should I stay or should I go? Conceptual underpinnings of goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    All actions, even the simplest like moving an arm to grasp a pen, are associated with energy costs. Thus all mobile organisms possess the ability to evaluate resources and select those behaviors that are most likely to lead to the greatest accrual of valuable items (reward) in the near or, especially in the case of humans, distant future. The evaluation process is performed at all possible stages of the series of decisions that lead to the building of a goal-directed action or to its suppression. This is because all animals have a limited amount of energy and resources; to survive and be able to reproduce they have to minimize the costs and maximize the outcomes of their actions. These computations are at the root of behavioral flexibility. Two executive functions play a major role in generating flexible behaviors: (i) the ability to predict future outcomes of goal-directed actions; and (ii) the ability to cancel them when they are unlikely to accomplish valuable results. These two processes operate continuously during the entire course of a movement: during its genesis, its planning and even its execution, so that the motor output can be modulated or suppressed at any time before its execution. In this review, functional interactions of the extended neural network subserving generation and inhibition of goal-directed movements will be outlined, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that the performance of actions and their suppression are not specified by independent sets of brain regions. Rather, it will be proposed that acting and stopping are functions emerging from specific interactions between largely overlapping brain regions, whose activity is intimately linked (directly or indirectly) to the evaluations of pros and cons of an action. Such mechanism would allow the brain to perform as a highly efficient and flexible system, as different functions could be computed exploiting the same components operating in different configurations.

  20. Network mechanisms of hippocampal laterality, place coding, and goal-directed navigation.

    PubMed

    Kitanishi, Takuma; Ito, Hiroshi T; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Mizuseki, Kenji; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2017-03-01

    The hippocampus and associated structures are responsible for episodic memory in humans. In rodents, the most prominent behavioral correlate of hippocampal neural activity is place coding, which is thought to underlie spatial navigation. While episodic memory is considered to be unique to humans in a restricted context, it has been proposed that the same neural circuitry and algorithms that enable spatial coding and navigation also support episodic memory. Here we review the recent progress in neural circuit mechanisms of hippocampal activity by introducing several topics: (1) cooperation and specialization of the bilateral hippocampi, (2) the role of synaptic plasticity in gamma phase-locking of spikes and place cell formation, (3) impaired goal-related activity and oscillations in a mouse model of mental disorders, and (4) a prefrontal-thalamo-hippocampal circuit for goal-directed spatial navigation.

  1. The nucleus accumbens as a nexus between values and goals in goal-directed behavior: a review and a new hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Mannella, Francesco; Gurney, Kevin; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Goal-directed behavior is a fundamental means by which animals can flexibly solve the challenges posed by variable external and internal conditions. Recently, the processes and brain mechanisms underlying such behavior have been extensively studied from behavioral, neuroscientific and computational perspectives. This research has highlighted the processes underlying goal-directed behavior and associated brain systems including prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and, in particular therein, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). This paper focusses on one particular process at the core of goal-directed behavior: how motivational value is assigned to goals on the basis of internal states and environmental stimuli, and how this supports goal selection processes. Various biological and computational accounts have been given of this problem and of related multiple neural and behavior phenomena, but we still lack an integrated hypothesis on the generation and use of value for goal selection. This paper proposes an hypothesis that aims to solve this problem and is based on this key elements: (a) amygdala and hippocampus establish the motivational value of stimuli and goals; (b) prefrontal cortex encodes various types of action outcomes; (c) NAcc integrates different sources of value, representing them in terms of a common currency with the aid of dopamine, and thereby plays a major role in selecting action outcomes within prefrontal cortex. The “goals” pursued by the organism are the outcomes selected by these processes. The hypothesis is developed in the context of a critical review of relevant biological and computational literature which offer it support. The paper shows how the hypothesis has the potential to integrate existing interpretations of motivational value and goal selection. PMID:24167476

  2. Using Goal-Directed Design to Create a Novel System for Improving Chronic Illness Care

    PubMed Central

    Fore, David; Goldenhar, Linda M; Margolis, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Background A learning health system enables patients, clinicians, and researchers to work together to choose care based on the best evidence, drive discovery as a natural outgrowth of patient care, and ensure innovation, quality, safety, and value in health care; all in a more real-time fashion. Objective Our paper describes how goal-directed design (GDD) methods were employed to understand the context and goals of potential participants in such a system as part of a design process to translate the concept of a learning health system into a prototype collaborative chronic care network (C3N), specifically for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Thirty-six one-on-one in-depth interviews and observations were conducted with patients (10/36, 28%), caregivers (10/36, 28%), physicians/researchers (10/36, 28%), and nurses (6/36, 17%) from a pediatric gastroenterology center participating in the ImproveCareNow network. GDD methods were used to determine the context and goals of participants. These same methods were used in conjunction with idealized design process techniques to help determine characteristics of a learning health system for this pediatric health care ecology. Research was conducted in a clinic and, in the case of some patients and caregivers, at home. Results Thematic analysis revealed 3 parent-child dyad personas (ie, representations of interviewees’ behavior patterns, goals, skills, attitudes, and contextual information) that represented adaptation to a chronic illness over time. These were used as part of a design process to generate scenarios (potential interactions between personas and the learning health system under design) from which system requirements were derived. These scenarios in turn helped guide generation, prioritization, design, measurement, and implementation of approximately 100 prototype interventions consistent with the aim of C3N becoming a learning health network. Conclusions GDD methods help ensure human goals and

  3. Goal-Directed and Habit-Like Modulations of Stimulus Processing during Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Luque, David; Beesley, Tom; Morris, Richard W; Jack, Bradley N; Griffiths, Oren; Whitford, Thomas J; Le Pelley, Mike E

    2017-03-15

    Recent research has shown that perceptual processing of stimuli previously associated with high-value rewards is automatically prioritized even when rewards are no longer available. It has been hypothesized that such reward-related modulation of stimulus salience is conceptually similar to an "attentional habit." Recording event-related potentials in humans during a reinforcement learning task, we show strong evidence in favor of this hypothesis. Resistance to outcome devaluation (the defining feature of a habit) was shown by the stimulus-locked P1 component, reflecting activity in the extrastriate visual cortex. Analysis at longer latencies revealed a positive component (corresponding to the P3b, from 550-700 ms) sensitive to outcome devaluation. Therefore, distinct spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity were observed corresponding to habitual and goal-directed processes. These results demonstrate that reinforcement learning engages both attentional habits and goal-directed processes in parallel. Consequences for brain and computational models of reinforcement learning are discussed.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human attentional network adapts to detect stimuli that predict important rewards. A recent hypothesis suggests that the visual cortex automatically prioritizes reward-related stimuli, driven by cached representations of reward value; that is, stimulus-response habits. Alternatively, the neural system may track the current value of the predicted outcome. Our results demonstrate for the first time that visual cortex activity is increased for reward-related stimuli even when the rewarding event is temporarily devalued. In contrast, longer-latency brain activity was specifically sensitive to transient changes in reward value. Therefore, we show that both habit-like attention and goal-directed processes occur in the same learning episode at different latencies. This result has important consequences for computational models of reinforcement learning.

  4. Decreasing Striatopallidal Pathway Function Enhances Motivation by Energizing the Initiation of Goal-Directed Action

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Poyraz, Fernanda; Holzner, Eva; Bailey, Matthew R.; Meszaros, Jozsef; Kenney, Lindsay; Kheirbek, Mazen A.

    2016-01-01

    Altered dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum has been associated with abnormal motivation in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether motivational deficits observed in mice with upregulated D2Rs (D2R-OEdev mice) are reversed by decreasing function of the striatopallidal “no-go” pathway. To this end, we expressed the Gαi-coupled designer receptor hM4D in adult striatopallidal neurons and activated the receptor with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Using a head-mounted miniature microscope we confirmed with calcium imaging in awake mice that hM4D activation by CNO inhibits striatopallidal function measured as disinhibited downstream activity in the globus pallidus. Mice were then tested in three operant tasks that address motivated behavior, the progressive ratio task, the progressive hold-down task, and outcome devaluation. Decreasing striatopallidal function in the dorsomedial striatum or nucleus accumbens core enhanced motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates. This effect was due to increased response initiation but came at the cost of goal-directed efficiency. Moreover, response vigor and the sensitivity to changes in reward value were not altered. Chronic activation of hM4D by administering CNO for 2 weeks in drinking water did not affect motivation due to a tolerance effect. However, the acute effect of CNO on motivation was reinstated after discontinuing chronic treatment for 48 h. Used as a therapeutic approach, striatopallidal inhibition should consider the risk of impairing goal-directed efficiency and behavioral desensitization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motivation involves a directional component that allows subjects to efficiently select the behavior that will lead to an optimal outcome and an activational component that initiates and maintains the vigor and persistence of actions. Striatal output pathways modulate motivated behavior, but it remains unknown how these pathways regulate specific

  5. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients

  6. Motivational states activate distinct hippocampal representations to guide goal-directed behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Pamela J; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2009-06-30

    Adaptive behaviors are guided by motivation and memory. Motivational states specify goals, and memory can inform motivated behavior by providing detailed records of past experiences when goals were obtained. These 2 fundamental processes interact to guide animals to biologically relevant targets, but the neuronal mechanisms that integrate them remain unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, we recorded unit activity from the same population of hippocampal neurons as rats performed identical tasks while either food or water deprived. We compared the influence of motivational state (hunger and thirst), memory demand, and spatial behavior in 2 tasks: hippocampus-dependent contextual memory retrieval and hippocampus-independent random foraging. We found that: (i) hippocampal coding was most strongly influenced by motivational state during contextual memory retrieval, when motivational cues were required to select among remembered, goal-directed actions in the same places; (ii) the same neuronal populations were relatively unaffected by motivational state during random foraging, when hunger and thirst were incidental to behavior, and signals derived from deprivation states thus informed, but did not determine, hippocampal coding; and (iii) "prospective coding" in the contextual retrieval task was not influenced by allocentric spatial trajectory, but rather by the animal's deprivation state and the associated, non-spatial target, suggesting that hippocampal coding includes a wide range of predictive associations. The results show that beyond coding spatiotemporal context, hippocampal representations encode the relationships between internal states, the external environment, and action to provide a mechanism by which motivation and memory are coordinated to guide behavior.

  7. Revealing non-analytic kinematic shifts in smooth goal-directed behaviour.

    PubMed

    Weir, M K; Wale, A P

    2011-08-01

    How do biological agents plan and organise a smooth accurate path to shift from one smooth mode of behaviour to another as part of graceful movement that is both plastic and controlled? This paper addresses the question in conducting a novel shape analysis of approach and adjustment phases in rapid voluntary target aiming and 2-D reaching hand actions. A number of mode changing experiments are reported that investigate these actions under a range of goals and conditions. After a typically roughly aimed approach, regular projective adjustment is observed that has height and velocity kinematic profiles that are scaled copies of one another. This empirical property is encapsulated as a novel self-similar shift function. The mathematics shows that the biological shifts consist of continual deviation from their full Taylor series everywhere throughout their interval, which is a deep form of plasticity not described before. The experimental results find the same approach and adjustment strategy to occur with behavioural trajectories over the full and varied range of tested goals and conditions. The trajectory shapes have a large degree of predictability through using the shift function to handle extensive variation in the trajectories' adjustment across individual behaviours and subjects. We provide connections between the behavioural features and results and various neural studies to show how the methodology may be exploited. The conclusion is that a roughly aimed approach followed by a specific highly plastic shift adjustment can provide a regular basis for fast and accurate goal-directed motion in a simple and generalisable way.

  8. Integration of visual and somatosensory target information in goal-directed eye and arm movements.

    PubMed

    Neggers, S F; Bekkering, H

    1999-03-01

    In this study, we compared separate and coordinated eye and hand movements towards visual or somatosensory target stimuli in a dark room, where no visual position information about the hand could be obtained. Experiment 1 showed that saccadic reaction times (RTs) were longer when directed to somatosensory targets than when directed to visual targets in both single- and dual-task conditions. However, for hand movements, this pattern was only found in the dual-task condition and not in the single-task condition. Experiment 1 also showed that correlations between saccadic and hand RTs were significantly higher when directed towards somatosensory targets than when directed towards visual targets. Importantly, experiment 2 indicated that this was not caused by differences in processing times at a perceptual level. Furthermore, hand-pointing accuracy was found to be higher when subjects had to move their eyes as well (dual task) compared to a single-task hand movement. However, this effect was more pronounced for movements to visual targets than to somatosensory targets. A schematic model of sensorimotor transformations for saccadic eye and goal-directed hand movements is proposed and possible shared mechanisms of the two motor systems are discussed.

  9. Prefrontally driven downregulation of neural synchrony mediates goal-directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Volberg, Gregor; Wimber, Maria; Oehler, Nora; Staudigl, Tobias; Hartmann, Thomas; Raabe, Markus; Greenlee, Mark W; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2012-10-17

    Neural synchronization between distant cell assemblies is crucial for the formation of new memories. To date, however, it remains unclear whether higher-order brain regions can adaptively regulate neural synchrony to control memory processing in humans. We explored this question in two experiments using a voluntary forgetting task. In the first experiment, we simultaneously recorded electroencephalography along with fMRI. The results show that a reduction in neural synchrony goes hand-in-hand with a BOLD signal increase in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when participants are cued to forget previously studied information. In the second experiment, we directly stimulated the left dlPFC with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation during the same task, and show that such stimulation specifically boosts the behavioral forgetting effect and induces a reduction in neural synchrony. These results suggest that prefrontally driven downregulation of long-range neural synchronization mediates goal-directed forgetting of long-term memories.

  10. Optimization of goal-directed movements in the cerebellum: a random walk hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2002-08-01

    Voluntary goal-directed movements, such as arm reaching, are nearly optimized in terms of smoothness over the entire movement. Such smoothness is lost with cerebellar dysfunction, suggesting the essential role of the cerebellum in optimizing movement. However, it is still not clear how the cerebellum contributes to achieving smoothness over an entire movement. A recent study has shown that such smoothness of movement can be achieved by reducing the variance of errors at the end of the movement. Here, I hypothesize that the terminal errors conveyed by climbing fibers in the cerebellum serve to reduce not only the mean error, but also the variance of the error, through a process analogous to the random walk through movement control candidates. In the random walk, the direction of each step is randomly determined, but the size of each step is determined by the error at the end of each trial.

  11. Goal-Directed Behavior and Instrumental Devaluation: A Neural System-Level Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Mannella, Francesco; Mirolli, Marco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Devaluation is the key experimental paradigm used to demonstrate the presence of instrumental behaviors guided by goals in mammals. We propose a neural system-level computational model to address the question of which brain mechanisms allow the current value of rewards to control instrumental actions. The model pivots on and shows the computational soundness of the hypothesis for which the internal representation of instrumental manipulanda (e.g., levers) activate the representation of rewards (or “action-outcomes”, e.g., foods) while attributing to them a value which depends on the current internal state of the animal (e.g., satiation for some but not all foods). The model also proposes an initial hypothesis of the integrated system of key brain components supporting this process and allowing the recalled outcomes to bias action selection: (a) the sub-system formed by the basolateral amygdala and insular cortex acquiring the manipulanda-outcomes associations and attributing the current value to the outcomes; (b) three basal ganglia-cortical loops selecting respectively goals, associative sensory representations, and actions; (c) the cortico-cortical and striato-nigro-striatal neural pathways supporting the selection, and selection learning, of actions based on habits and goals. The model reproduces and explains the results of several devaluation experiments carried out with control rats and rats with pre- and post-training lesions of the basolateral amygdala, the nucleus accumbens core, the prelimbic cortex, and the dorso-medial striatum. The results support the soundness of the hypotheses of the model and show its capacity to integrate, at the system-level, the operations of the key brain structures underlying devaluation. Based on its hypotheses and predictions, the model also represents an operational framework to support the design and analysis of new experiments on the motivational aspects of goal-directed behavior. PMID:27803652

  12. Goal-Directed Behavior and Instrumental Devaluation: A Neural System-Level Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Francesco; Mirolli, Marco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Devaluation is the key experimental paradigm used to demonstrate the presence of instrumental behaviors guided by goals in mammals. We propose a neural system-level computational model to address the question of which brain mechanisms allow the current value of rewards to control instrumental actions. The model pivots on and shows the computational soundness of the hypothesis for which the internal representation of instrumental manipulanda (e.g., levers) activate the representation of rewards (or "action-outcomes", e.g., foods) while attributing to them a value which depends on the current internal state of the animal (e.g., satiation for some but not all foods). The model also proposes an initial hypothesis of the integrated system of key brain components supporting this process and allowing the recalled outcomes to bias action selection: (a) the sub-system formed by the basolateral amygdala and insular cortex acquiring the manipulanda-outcomes associations and attributing the current value to the outcomes; (b) three basal ganglia-cortical loops selecting respectively goals, associative sensory representations, and actions; (c) the cortico-cortical and striato-nigro-striatal neural pathways supporting the selection, and selection learning, of actions based on habits and goals. The model reproduces and explains the results of several devaluation experiments carried out with control rats and rats with pre- and post-training lesions of the basolateral amygdala, the nucleus accumbens core, the prelimbic cortex, and the dorso-medial striatum. The results support the soundness of the hypotheses of the model and show its capacity to integrate, at the system-level, the operations of the key brain structures underlying devaluation. Based on its hypotheses and predictions, the model also represents an operational framework to support the design and analysis of new experiments on the motivational aspects of goal-directed behavior.

  13. Encoding the Goal of an Object-Directed but Uncompleted Reaching Action in 6- and 9-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daum, Moritz M.; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2008-01-01

    Infants start to interpret completed human actions as goal-directed in the second half of the first year of life. In a series of three studies, the understanding of a goal-directed but uncompleted action was investigated in 6- and 9-month-old infants using a preferential looking paradigm. Infants saw the video of an actor's reaching movement…

  14. A further investigation of goal-directed intention understanding in young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Berger, Natalie I; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2014-12-01

    Findings from research investigating goal-directed intention understanding in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been equivocal, in part because of the varying methodologies used across studies. This study compares both object-oriented and social-communicatively cued goal-directed intention understanding in children with ASD and typically-developing children. Relative to matched controls, children with ASD did not exhibit deficits in object-oriented intention understanding. While children with ASD also demonstrated the ability to understand intention when cued by social-communication indicators, typically-developing children differentiated between intentional and unintentional acts at a significantly greater level. Group differences in performance were eliminated if only trials in which children attended to the experimenter's face were considered. Results suggest that children with ASD have intact object-oriented intention understanding abilities, and are able to use social-communicative cues to understand intention. However, their ability to demonstrate social-communicatively cued intention understanding is limited by a lack of attention to relevant social-communicative information.

  15. Early goal-directed therapy in treatment of pediatric septic shock.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Cláudio Flauzino

    2010-09-01

    In the whole world, around 29,000 children younger than 5 years die every day, and sepsis is the most common cause of death. Whereas in adult patients vasomotor paralysis represents the predominant cause of mortality, death in pediatric sepsis is associated with severe hypovolemia and low cardiac output. The purpose of this article was to review the recent evidence on early treatment of pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock. Although current American College of Critical Care Medicine-Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines represent best practice, stronger evidences are lacking to confirm the components of these recommendations. Retrospective studies showed, at the same time, the positive effects arising from the utilization of American College of Critical Care Medicine-Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines and the existing barriers to its implementation. And one randomized control trial paralleled the results observed in adult patients and revealed that early goal-directed therapy in children is one of the few therapeutic interventions that proved to be beneficial in septic shock treatment. Early goal-directed therapy in pediatric septic shock is a successful method to optimize and parameterize treatment, but there is still a long way to turn septic shock resuscitation simpler and more widely spread.

  16. Neural systems analysis of decision making during goal-directed navigation.

    PubMed

    Penner, Marsha R; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make adaptive decisions during goal-directed navigation is a fundamental and highly evolved behavior that requires continual coordination of perceptions, learning and memory processes, and the planning of behaviors. Here, a neurobiological account for such coordination is provided by integrating current literatures on spatial context analysis and decision-making. This integration includes discussions of our current understanding of the role of the hippocampal system in experience-dependent navigation, how hippocampal information comes to impact midbrain and striatal decision making systems, and finally the role of the striatum in the implementation of behaviors based on recent decisions. These discussions extend across cellular to neural systems levels of analysis. Not only are key findings described, but also fundamental organizing principles within and across neural systems, as well as between neural systems functions and behavior, are emphasized. It is suggested that studying decision making during goal-directed navigation is a powerful model for studying interactive brain systems and their mediation of complex behaviors.

  17. Role of the cerebellar cortex in conditioned goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Burguière, Eric; Arabo, Arnaud; Jarlier, Frederic; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2010-10-06

    Learning a new goal-directed behavioral task often requires the improvement of at least two processes, including an enhanced stimulus-response association and an optimization of the execution of the motor response. The cerebellum has recently been shown to play a role in acquiring goal-directed behavior, but it is unclear to what extent it contributes to a change in the stimulus-response association and/or the optimization of the execution of the motor response. We therefore designed the stimulus-dependent water Y-maze conditioning task, which allows discrimination between both processes, and we subsequently subjected Purkinje cell-specific mutant mice to this new task. The mouse mutants L7-PKCi, which suffer from impaired PKC-dependent processes such as parallel fiber to Purkinje cell long-term depression (PF-PC LTD), were able to acquire the stimulus-response association, but exhibited a reduced optimization of their motor performance. These data show that PF-PC LTD is not required for learning a stimulus-response association, but they do suggest that a PKC-dependent process in cerebellar Purkinje cells is required for optimization of motor responses.

  18. A bioinspired autonomous swimming robot as a tool for studying goal-directed locomotion.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, L; Assaf, T; Mintchev, S; Marrazza, S; Capantini, L; Orofino, S; Ascari, L; Grillner, S; Wallén, P; Ekeberg, O; Stefanini, C; Dario, P

    2013-10-01

    The bioinspired approach has been key in combining the disciplines of robotics with neuroscience in an effective and promising fashion. Indeed, certain aspects in the field of neuroscience, such as goal-directed locomotion and behaviour selection, can be validated through robotic artefacts. In particular, swimming is a functionally important behaviour where neuromuscular structures, neural control architecture and operation can be replicated artificially following models from biology and neuroscience. In this article, we present a biomimetic system inspired by the lamprey, an early vertebrate that locomotes using anguilliform swimming. The artefact possesses extra- and proprioceptive sensory receptors, muscle-like actuation, distributed embedded control and a vision system. Experiments on optimised swimming and on goal-directed locomotion are reported, as well as the assessment of the performance of the system, which shows high energy efficiency and adaptive behaviour. While the focus is on providing a robotic platform for testing biological models, the reported system can also be of major relevance for the development of engineering system applications.

  19. Mapping the timecourse of goal-directed attention to location and colour in human vision.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel C; Chambers, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Goal-directed attention prioritises perception of task-relevant stimuli according to location, features, or onset time. In this study we compared the behavioural timecourse of goal-directed selection to locations and colours by varying the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between cue and target in a strategic cueing paradigm. Participants reported the presence or absence of a target following prior information regarding its location or colour. Results revealed that preparatory selection by colour is more effective at enhancing perceptual sensitivity than selection by location, even though both types of cue provided equivalent overall information. More detailed analysis revealed that this advantage arose due a limitation of spatial attention in maintaining a sufficiently broad focus (>2°) for target detection across multiple stimuli. In contrast, when target stimuli fell within 2° of the spatial attention spotlight, the strategic advantages and speed of spatial and colour attention were equated. Our findings are consistent with the conclusion that, under spatially optimal conditions, prior spatial and colour information are equally proficient at guiding top-down selection. When spatial locations are ambiguous, however, colour-based selection is the more efficient mechanism.

  20. Feature Interactions Enable Decoding of Sensorimotor Transformations for Goal-Directed Movement

    PubMed Central

    Barany, Deborah A.; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; Viswanathan, Shivakumar; Cieslak, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiology and neuroimaging evidence shows that the brain represents multiple environmental and body-related features to compute transformations from sensory input to motor output. However, it is unclear how these features interact during goal-directed movement. To investigate this issue, we examined the representations of sensory and motor features of human hand movements within the left-hemisphere motor network. In a rapid event-related fMRI design, we measured cortical activity as participants performed right-handed movements at the wrist, with either of two postures and two amplitudes, to move a cursor to targets at different locations. Using a multivoxel analysis technique with rigorous generalization tests, we reliably distinguished representations of task-related features (primarily target location, movement direction, and posture) in multiple regions. In particular, we identified an interaction between target location and movement direction in the superior parietal lobule, which may underlie a transformation from the location of the target in space to a movement vector. In addition, we found an influence of posture on primary motor, premotor, and parietal regions. Together, these results reveal the complex interactions between different sensory and motor features that drive the computation of sensorimotor transformations. PMID:24828640

  1. Feature interactions enable decoding of sensorimotor transformations for goal-directed movement.

    PubMed

    Barany, Deborah A; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; Viswanathan, Shivakumar; Cieslak, Matthew; Grafton, Scott T

    2014-05-14

    Neurophysiology and neuroimaging evidence shows that the brain represents multiple environmental and body-related features to compute transformations from sensory input to motor output. However, it is unclear how these features interact during goal-directed movement. To investigate this issue, we examined the representations of sensory and motor features of human hand movements within the left-hemisphere motor network. In a rapid event-related fMRI design, we measured cortical activity as participants performed right-handed movements at the wrist, with either of two postures and two amplitudes, to move a cursor to targets at different locations. Using a multivoxel analysis technique with rigorous generalization tests, we reliably distinguished representations of task-related features (primarily target location, movement direction, and posture) in multiple regions. In particular, we identified an interaction between target location and movement direction in the superior parietal lobule, which may underlie a transformation from the location of the target in space to a movement vector. In addition, we found an influence of posture on primary motor, premotor, and parietal regions. Together, these results reveal the complex interactions between different sensory and motor features that drive the computation of sensorimotor transformations.

  2. Effect of goal-directed therapy on outcome after esophageal surgery: A quality improvement study

    PubMed Central

    Veelo, Denise P.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; Ouwehand, Kirsten S.; Geerts, Bart F.; Anderegg, Maarten C. J.; van Dieren, Susan; Preckel, Benedikt; Binnekade, Jan M.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Goal-directed therapy (GDT) can reduce postoperative complications in high-risk surgery patients. It is uncertain whether GDT has the same benefits in patients undergoing esophageal surgery. Goal of this Quality Improvement study was to evaluate the effects of a stroke volume guided GDT on post-operative outcome. Methods and findings We compared the postoperative outcome of patients undergoing esophagectomy before (99 patients) and after (100 patients) implementation of GDT. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with a complication (56% vs. 54%, p = 0.82), hospital stay and mortality. The incidence of prolonged ICU stay (>48 hours) was reduced (28% vs. 12, p = .005) in patients treated with GDT. Secondary analysis of complication rate showed a decrease in pneumonia (29 vs. 15%, p = .02), mediastinal abscesses (12 vs. 3%, p = .02), and gastric tube necrosis (5% vs. 0%, p = .03) in patients treated with GDT. Patients in the GDT group received significantly less fluids but received more colloids. Conclusions The implementation of GDT during esophagectomy was not associated with reductions in overall morbidity, mortality and hospital length of stay. However, we observed a decrease in pneumonia, mediastinal abscesses, gastric tube necrosis, and ICU length of stay. PMID:28253353

  3. Monetary reward magnitude effects on behavior and brain function during goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Negre, P; Bustamante, J C; Fuentes-Claramonte, P; Costumero, V; Benabarre, S; Barrós-Loscertales, A

    2016-07-29

    Reward may modulate the cognitive processes required for goal achievement, while individual differences in personality may affect reward modulation. Our aim was to test how different monetary reward magnitudes modulate brain activation and performance during goal-directed behavior, and whether individual differences in reward sensitivity affect this modulation. For this purpose, we scanned 37 subjects with a parametric design in which we varied the magnitude of monetary rewards (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5) in a blocked fashion while participants performed an interference counting-Stroop condition. The results showed that the brain activity of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the striatum were modulated by increasing and decreasing reward magnitudes, respectively. Behavioral performance improved as the magnitude of monetary reward increased while comparing the non reward (€0) condition to any other reward condition, or the lower €0.01 to any other reward condition, and this improvement was related with individual differences in reward sensitivity. In conclusion, the locus of influence of monetary incentives overlaps the activity of the regions commonly involved in cognitive control.

  4. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109

  5. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.

  6. ECLIPS: An extended CLIPS for backward chaining and goal-directed reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homeier, Peter V.; Le, Thach C.

    1991-01-01

    Realistic production systems require an integrated combination of forward and backward reasoning to reflect appropriately the processes of natural human expert reasoning. A control mechanism that consists solely of forward reasoning is not an effective way to promptly focus the system's attention as calculation proceeds. Often, expert system programmers will attempt to compensate for this lack by using data to enforce the desired goal directed control structure. This approach is inherently flawed in that it is attempting to use data to fulfill the role of control. This paper will describe our implementation of backward chaining in C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), and show how this has shortened and simplified various CLIPS programs. This work was done at the Aerospace Corporation, and has general applicability.

  7. Hemispheric asymmetries in goal-directed hand movements are independent of hand preference.

    PubMed

    Lavrysen, Ann; Heremans, Elke; Peeters, Ron; Wenderoth, Nici; Feys, Peter; Swinnen, Stephan P; Helsen, Werner F

    2012-09-01

    Asymmetries in the kinematics and neural substrates of voluntary right and left eye-hand coordinated movements have been accredited to differential hemispheric specialization. An alternative explanation for between-hand movement differences could result from hand preference related effects. To test both assumptions, an experiment was conducted with left- and right-handers performing goal-directed movements with either hand paced by a metronome. Spatiotemporal accuracy was comparable between hands, whereas hand peak velocity was reached earlier when moving with the left compared to the right hand. The underlying brain activation patterns showed that both left- and right-handers activated more areas involved in visuomotor attention and saccadic control when using their left compared to the right hand. Altogether, these results confirm a unique perceptuomotor processing specialization of the left brain/right hand system that is independent of hand preference.

  8. The hippocampal-striatal axis in learning, prediction and goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Pennartz, C M A; Ito, R; Verschure, P F M J; Battaglia, F P; Robbins, T W

    2011-10-01

    The hippocampal formation and striatum subserve declarative and procedural memory, respectively. However, experimental evidence suggests that the ventral striatum, as opposed to the dorsal striatum, does not lend itself to being part of either system. Instead, it may constitute a system integrating inputs from the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus to generate motivational, outcome-predicting signals that invigorate goal-directed behaviors. Inspired by reinforcement learning models, we suggest an alternative scheme for computational functions of the striatum. Dorsal and ventral striatum are proposed to compute outcome predictions largely in parallel, using different types of information as input. The nature of the inputs to striatum is furthermore combinatorial, and the specificity of predictions transcends the level of scalar value signals, incorporating episodic information.

  9. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species. PMID:26635567

  10. A Prefrontal-Hippocampal Comparator for Goal-Directed Behavior: The Intentional Self and Episodic Memory.

    PubMed

    Numan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex. When an action plan is initiated, the prefrontal cortex transmits an efference copy (or corollary discharge) to the hippocampus where it is stored as a working memory for the action plan (which includes the expected outcomes of the action plan). The hippocampus then serves as a response intention-response outcome working memory comparator. Hippocampal comparator function is enabled by the hippocampal theta rhythm allowing the hippocampus to compare expected action outcomes to actual action outcomes. If the expected and actual outcomes match, the hippocampus transmits a signal to prefrontal cortex which strengthens or consolidates the action plan. If a mismatch occurs, the hippocampus transmits an error signal to the prefrontal cortex which facilitates a reformulation of the action plan, fostering behavioral flexibility and memory updating. The corollary discharge provides the self-referential component to the episodic memory, affording the personal and subjective experience of what behavior was carried out, when it was carried out, and in what context (where) it occurred. Such a perspective can be applied to episodic memory in humans, and episodic-like memory in non-human animal species.

  11. Understanding Messaging Preferences to Inform Development of Mobile Goal-Directed Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    van Stolk-Cooke, Katherine; Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis N; Markle, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile messaging interventions have been shown to improve outcomes across a number of mental health and health-related conditions, but there are still significant gaps in our knowledge of how to construct and deliver the most effective brief messaging interventions. Little is known about the ways in which subtle linguistic variations in message content can affect user receptivity and preferences. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether any global messaging preferences existed for different types of language content, and how certain characteristics moderate those preferences, in an effort to inform the development of mobile messaging interventions. Methods This study examined user preferences for messages within 22 content groupings. Groupings were presented online in dyads of short messages that were identical in their subject matter, but structurally or linguistically varied. Participants were 277 individuals residing in the United States who were recruited and compensated through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) system. Participants were instructed to select the message in each dyad that they would prefer to receive to help them achieve a personal goal of their choosing. Results Results indicate global preferences of more than 75% of subjects for certain types of messages, such as those that were grammatically correct, free of textese, benefit-oriented, polite, nonaggressive, and directive as opposed to passive, among others. For several classes of messages, few or no clear global preferences were found. There were few personality- and trait-based moderators of message preferences, but subtle manipulations of message structure, such as changing “Try to…” to “You might want to try to…” affected message choice. Conclusions The results indicate that individuals are sensitive to variations in the linguistic content of text messages designed to help them achieve a personal goal and, in some cases, have clear preferences for

  12. Cognitive Validity of Students' Self-Reports of Classroom Mastery Goal Structure: What Students Are Thinking and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Karabenick, Stuart A.; Woolley, Michael E.; Bonney, Christina R.; Dever, Bridget V.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive interviews were employed to systematically examine the cognitive validity of self-report survey items extensively used to assess classroom mastery goal structure. In a sample of elementary and middle school students, items were identified that functioned according to their intended meaning and those eliciting less accurate…

  13. The time course for kinetic versus kinematic planning of goal-directed human motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Vesia, Michael; Vander, Helena; Yan, Xiaogang; Sergio, Lauren E

    2005-01-01

    The present psychophysical study compares motor planning during goal-directed reaching movements and isometric spatial force generation. Our objective is to characterize the extent to which the motor system accounts for the biomechanical details of an impending reach. One issue that the nervous system must take into account when transforming a spatial sensory signal into an intrinsic pattern of joint torques is that of limb dynamics, including intersegmental dynamics and inertial anisotropy of the arm. These will act to displace the hand away from a straight path to an object. In theory, if the nervous system accounts for movement-related limb dynamics prior to its initial motor output, early force direction for a movement will differ from an isometric force to the same spatial target. Alternatively, biomechanical details of motor behavior may be implemented into the motor act following its initiation. Limb position and force output at the wrist were recorded while subjects displaced a cursor to targets viewed on a computer monitor. To generate isometric forces, a magnetic brake held a mechanical linkage supporting the arm in place. Subjects were cued to displace the cursor by using either isometric force or limb movement. On random trials, a movement was cued but an isometric force was unexpectedly required. Results show that there is not a significant directional difference in the initial force trajectory when planning a movement versus planning an isometric force. These findings suggest that the motor system may initially use a coarse approximation of movement-related limb dynamics, allowing for the refinement of the motor plan as the movement unfolds.

  14. Goal-Directed Resuscitation Aiming Cardiac Index Masks Residual Hypovolemia: An Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Tánczos, Krisztián; Németh, Márton; Trásy, Domonkos; László, Ildikó; Palágyi, Péter; Szabó, Zsolt; Varga, Gabriella; Kaszaki, József

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare stroke volume (SVI) to cardiac index (CI) guided resuscitation in a bleeding-resuscitation experiment. Twenty six pigs were randomized and bled in both groups till baseline SVI (T bsl) dropped by 50% (T 0), followed by resuscitation with crystalloid solution until initial SVI or CI was reached (T 4). Similar amount of blood was shed but animals received significantly less fluid in the CI-group as in the SVI-group: median = 900 (interquartile range: 850-1780) versus 1965 (1584-2165) mL, p = 0.02, respectively. In the SVI-group all variables returned to their baseline values, but in the CI-group animals remained underresuscitated as indicated by SVI, heart rate (HR) and stroke volume variation (SVV), and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) at T 4 as compared to T bsl: SVI = 23.8 ± 5.9 versus 31.4 ± 4.7 mL, HR: 117 ± 35 versus 89 ± 11/min SVV: 17.4 ± 7.6 versus 11.5 ± 5.3%, and ScvO2: 64.1 ± 11.6 versus 79.2 ± 8.1%, p < 0.05, respectively. Our results indicate that CI-based goal-directed resuscitation may result in residual hypovolaemia, as bleeding caused stress induced tachycardia "normalizes" CI, without restoring adequate SVI. As the SVI-guided approach normalized most hemodynamic variables, we recommend using SVI instead of CI as the primary goal of resuscitation during acute bleeding.

  15. Goal-Directed Modulation of Neural Memory Patterns: Implications for fMRI-Based Memory Detection.

    PubMed

    Uncapher, Melina R; Boyd-Meredith, J Tyler; Chow, Tiffany E; Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

    2015-06-03

    Remembering a past event elicits distributed neural patterns that can be distinguished from patterns elicited when encountering novel information. These differing patterns can be decoded with relatively high diagnostic accuracy for individual memories using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data. Brain-based memory detection--if valid and reliable--would have clear utility beyond the domain of cognitive neuroscience, in the realm of law, marketing, and beyond. However, a significant boundary condition on memory decoding validity may be the deployment of "countermeasures": strategies used to mask memory signals. Here we tested the vulnerability of fMRI-based memory detection to countermeasures, using a paradigm that bears resemblance to eyewitness identification. Participants were scanned while performing two tasks on previously studied and novel faces: (1) a standard recognition memory task; and (2) a task wherein they attempted to conceal their true memory state. Univariate analyses revealed that participants were able to strategically modulate neural responses, averaged across trials, in regions implicated in memory retrieval, including the hippocampus and angular gyrus. Moreover, regions associated with goal-directed shifts of attention and thought substitution supported memory concealment, and those associated with memory generation supported novelty concealment. Critically, whereas MVPA enabled reliable classification of memory states when participants reported memory truthfully, the ability to decode memory on individual trials was compromised, even reversing, during attempts to conceal memory. Together, these findings demonstrate that strategic goal states can be deployed to mask memory-related neural patterns and foil memory decoding technology, placing a significant boundary condition on their real-world utility.

  16. Movement-related activity during goal-directed hand actions in the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Simone, Luciano; Rozzi, Stefano; Bimbi, Marco; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    Grasping actions require the integration of two neural processes, one enabling the transformation of object properties into corresponding motor acts, and the other involved in planning and controlling action execution on the basis of contextual information. The first process relies on parieto-premotor circuits, whereas the second is considered to be a prefrontal function. Up to now, the prefrontal cortex has been mainly investigated with conditional visuomotor tasks requiring a learned association between cues and behavioural output. To clarify the functional role of the prefrontal cortex in grasping actions, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons while monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performed tasks requiring reaching-grasping actions in different contextual conditions (in light and darkness, memory-guided, and in the absence of abstract learned rules). The results showed that the VLPF cortex contains neurons that are active during action execution (movement-related neurons). Some of them showed grip selectivity, and some also responded to object presentation. Most movement-related neurons discharged during action execution both with and without visual feedback, and this discharge typically did not change when the action was performed with object mnemonic information and in the absence of abstract rules. The findings of this study indicate that a population of VLPF neurons play a role in controlling goal-directed grasping actions in several contexts. This control is probably exerted within a wider network, involving parietal and premotor regions, where the role of VLPF movement-related neurons would be that of activating, on the basis of contextual information, the representation of the motor goal of the intended action (taking possession of an object) during action planning and execution.

  17. A review of intraoperative goal-directed therapy using arterial waveform analysis for assessment of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Seres, Tamas

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that goal-directed hemodynamic management can improve outcomes in surgical and intensive care settings. Arterial waveform analysis is one of the different techniques used for guiding goal-directed therapy. Multiple proprietary systems have developed algorithms for obtaining cardiac output from an arterial waveform, including the FloTrac, LiDCO, and PiCCO systems. These systems vary in terms of how they analyze the arterial pressure waveform as well as their requirements for invasive line placement and calibration. Although small-scale clinical trials using these monitors show promising data, large-scale multicenter trials are still needed to better determine how intraoperative goal-directed therapy with arterial waveform analysis can improve patient outcomes. This review provides a comparative analysis of the different arterial waveform monitors for intraoperative goal-directed therapy.

  18. A two-neuron system for adaptive goal-directed decision-making in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Michael; Staras, Kevin; Kemenes, György

    2016-01-01

    During goal-directed decision-making, animals must integrate information from the external environment and their internal state to maximize resource localization while minimizing energy expenditure. How this complex problem is solved by the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, using a combined behavioural and neurophysiological approach, we demonstrate that the mollusc Lymnaea performs a sophisticated form of decision-making during food-searching behaviour, using a core system consisting of just two neuron types. The first reports the presence of food and the second encodes motivational state acting as a gain controller for adaptive behaviour in the absence of food. Using an in vitro analogue of the decision-making process, we show that the system employs an energy management strategy, switching between a low- and high-use mode depending on the outcome of the decision. Our study reveals a parsimonious mechanism that drives a complex decision-making process via regulation of levels of tonic inhibition and phasic excitation. PMID:27257106

  19. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict.

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict.

  20. The Feeling of Action Tendencies: On the Emotional Regulation of Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion theory, over the past century and beyond, has tended to regard feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling–action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic–visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns) of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is physiologically and cognitively primed to do) in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction–feedback loops which we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modelers, and roboticists. PMID:22207854

  1. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding.

  2. Using hippocampal-striatal loops for spatial navigation and goal-directed decision-making.

    PubMed

    Chersi, Fabian; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-08-01

    The hippocampus plays a central role in spatial representation, declarative and episodic memory. In this area, so-called place cells possess high spatial selectivity, firing preferentially when the individual is within a small area of the environment. Interestingly, it has been found in rats that these cells can be active also when the animal is outside the location or context of their corresponding place field producing so-called "forward sweeps". These typically occur at decision points during task execution and seem to be utilized, among other things, for the evaluation of potential alternative paths. Anticipatory firing is also found in the ventral striatum, a brain area that is strongly interconnected with the hippocampus and is known to encode value and reward. In this paper, we describe a biologically based computational model of the hippocampal-ventral striatum circuit that implements a goal-directed mechanism of choice, with the hippocampus primarily involved in the mental simulation of possible navigation paths and the ventral striatum involved in the evaluation of the associated reward expectancies. The model is validated in a navigation task in which a rat is placed in a complex maze with multiple rewarding sites. We show that the rat mentally activates place cells to simulate paths, estimate their value, and make decisions, implementing two essential processes of model-based reinforcement learning algorithms of choice: look-ahead prediction and the evaluation of predicted states.

  3. Exploring the neural bases of goal-directed motor behavior using fully resolved simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Namu; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2016-11-01

    Undulatory swimming is an ideal problem for understanding the neural architecture for motor control and movement; a vertebrate's robust morphology and adaptive locomotive gait allows the swimmer to navigate complex environments. Simple mathematical models for neurally activated muscle contractions have been incorporated into a swimmer immersed in fluid. Muscle contractions produce bending moments which determine the swimming kinematics. The neurobiology of goal-directed locomotion is explored using fast, efficient, and fully resolved constraint-based immersed boundary simulations. Hierarchical control systems tune the strength, frequency, and duty cycle for neural activation waves to produce multifarious swimming gaits or synergies. Simulation results are used to investigate why the basal ganglia and other control systems may command a particular neural pattern to accomplish a task. Using simple neural models, the effect of proprioceptive feedback on refining the body motion is demonstrated. Lastly, the ability for a learned swimmer to successfully navigate a complex environment is tested. This work is supported by NSF CBET 1066575 and NSF CMMI 0941674.

  4. Early management of sepsis with emphasis on early goal directed therapy: AME evidence series 002

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yucai; Smischney, Nathan J.; Kuo, Han-Pin; Tsirigotis, Panagiotis; Rello, Jordi; Kuan, Win Sen; Jung, Christian; Robba, Chiara; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Leone, Marc; Spapen, Herbert; Grimaldi, David; Van Poucke, Sven; Simpson, Steven Q.; Honore, Patrick M.; Hofer, Stefan; Caironi, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients entering the emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU). Despite substantial efforts to improve patient outcome, treatment of sepsis remains challenging to clinicians. In this context, early goal directed therapy (EGDT) represents an important concept emphasizing both early recognition of sepsis and prompt initiation of a structured treatment algorithm. As part of the AME evidence series on sepsis, we conducted a systematic review of all randomized controlled EGDT trials. Focus was laid on the setting (emergency department versus ICU) where EGDT was carried out. Early recognition of sepsis, through clinical or automated systems for early alert, together with well-timed initiation of the recommended therapy bundles may improve patients’ outcome. However, the original “EGDT” protocol by Rivers and coworkers has been largely modified in subsequent trials. Currently, many investigators opt for an “expanded” EGDT (as suggested by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign). Evidence is also presented on the effectiveness of automated systems for early sepsis alert. Early recognition of sepsis and well-timed initiation of the SSC bundle may improve patient outcome. PMID:28275488

  5. Cell-Type-Specific Activity in Prefrontal Cortex during Goal-Directed Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lucas; Dan, Yang

    2015-07-15

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in controlling goal-directed behavior. Although a variety of task-related signals have been observed in the PFC, whether they are differentially encoded by various cell types remains unclear. Here we performed cellular-resolution microendoscopic Ca(2+) imaging from genetically defined cell types in the dorsomedial PFC of mice performing a PFC-dependent sensory discrimination task. We found that inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype were similar to each other, but different subtypes preferentially signaled different task-related events: somatostatin-positive neurons primarily signaled motor action (licking), vasoactive intestinal peptide-positive neurons responded strongly to action outcomes, whereas parvalbumin-positive neurons were less selective, responding to sensory cues, motor action, and trial outcomes. Compared to each interneuron subtype, pyramidal neurons showed much greater functional heterogeneity, and their responses varied across cortical layers. Such cell-type and laminar differences in neuronal functional properties may be crucial for local computation within the PFC microcircuit.

  6. A two-neuron system for adaptive goal-directed decision-making in Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Michael; Staras, Kevin; Kemenes, György

    2016-06-03

    During goal-directed decision-making, animals must integrate information from the external environment and their internal state to maximize resource localization while minimizing energy expenditure. How this complex problem is solved by the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, using a combined behavioural and neurophysiological approach, we demonstrate that the mollusc Lymnaea performs a sophisticated form of decision-making during food-searching behaviour, using a core system consisting of just two neuron types. The first reports the presence of food and the second encodes motivational state acting as a gain controller for adaptive behaviour in the absence of food. Using an in vitro analogue of the decision-making process, we show that the system employs an energy management strategy, switching between a low- and high-use mode depending on the outcome of the decision. Our study reveals a parsimonious mechanism that drives a complex decision-making process via regulation of levels of tonic inhibition and phasic excitation.

  7. Early management of sepsis with emphasis on early goal directed therapy: AME evidence series 002.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Hong, Yucai; Smischney, Nathan J; Kuo, Han-Pin; Tsirigotis, Panagiotis; Rello, Jordi; Kuan, Win Sen; Jung, Christian; Robba, Chiara; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Leone, Marc; Spapen, Herbert; Grimaldi, David; Van Poucke, Sven; Simpson, Steven Q; Honore, Patrick M; Hofer, Stefan; Caironi, Pietro

    2017-02-01

    Severe sepsis and septic shock are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients entering the emergency department (ED) or intensive care unit (ICU). Despite substantial efforts to improve patient outcome, treatment of sepsis remains challenging to clinicians. In this context, early goal directed therapy (EGDT) represents an important concept emphasizing both early recognition of sepsis and prompt initiation of a structured treatment algorithm. As part of the AME evidence series on sepsis, we conducted a systematic review of all randomized controlled EGDT trials. Focus was laid on the setting (emergency department versus ICU) where EGDT was carried out. Early recognition of sepsis, through clinical or automated systems for early alert, together with well-timed initiation of the recommended therapy bundles may improve patients' outcome. However, the original "EGDT" protocol by Rivers and coworkers has been largely modified in subsequent trials. Currently, many investigators opt for an "expanded" EGDT (as suggested by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign). Evidence is also presented on the effectiveness of automated systems for early sepsis alert. Early recognition of sepsis and well-timed initiation of the SSC bundle may improve patient outcome.

  8. [Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitude, subjective behavioral competence and emotions].

    PubMed

    Doll, J; Mentz, M; Orth, B

    1991-01-01

    Ajzen's (1985) theory of planned behavior explaining and predicting goal-directed behavior is extended by an emotional component. The extended theory of planned behavior is tested experimentally. N = 64 subjects play with two video games (a speed- and a problem-oriented game) under an achievement-motivational orientation. One half of the subjects plays both games in an easy version, the other half in a difficult version. The verbal emotional reactions to playing video games are grouped factor-analytically into an "activity emotion" and a "security emotion". Subjects playing video games in the difficult condition feel significantly more insecure, and perceive their behavioral control as significantly lower than subjects playing in the easy condition. Tests of the extended theory of planned behavior lead to significant squared multiple correlations for the dependent variables within the range of R2 = .20 to .58. The activity emotion accounts predominantly for a significant part of the variance of the attitude and the security emotion accounts for a significant part of the variance of the perceived behavioral control. No predictive power was found for the intention to play the games successfully.

  9. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  10. Neglect-like behavior in healthy subjects: dissociation of space exploration and goal-directed pointing after vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Karnath, Hans-Otto; Himmelbach, Marc; Perenin, Marie-Thérèse

    2003-11-01

    Evidence has been reported favoring the view of a dual mode of space representation for action and spatial cognition. While the dorsal system seems to be mainly involved in direct coding of space for action by means of several effector-specific representations, the ventral system appears to be responsible for more enduring and conscious representations underlying spatial cognition and awareness. In accordance with this view are recent studies documenting dissociations between exploratory and goal-directed movements in patients with brain damage. Patients with neglect exhibit a spatial bias of exploratory movements to the ipsilesional side, while goal-directed movements land precisely on target. The exploratory bias was found susceptible to asymmetric sensory stimulation such as caloric vestibular stimulation, inducing transient reduction of contralateral neglect. The present study compared exploratory and goal-directed hand movements in healthy subjects following cold caloric stimulation of the right vestibular organ. We observed a rightward shift of tactile exploration, while goal-directed pointing remained unaffected. Asymmetric vestibular stimulation in healthy subjects thus produced a neglect-like behavior with a similar dissociation between impaired exploratory and nonimpaired goal-directed hand movements. The stimulation provoked a further, very characteristic symptom of neglect patients: a deviation of spontaneous head orientation toward the right. The present observations strengthen substantially the assumption of different modes of space representation for action and spatial cognition in humans.

  11. Personal and Contextual Antecedents of Achievement Goals: Their Direct and Indirect Relations to Students' Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    In this correlational research, we investigated to what extent achievement goals, in conjunction with need for achievement and fear of failure as well as perceived classroom goal structures, are related to learning strategies among upper elementary school students. After taking into account students' tendency to respond in a socially desirable…

  12. Taking credit for success: the phenomenology of control in a goal-directed task.

    PubMed

    Dewey, John A; Seiffert, Adriane E; Carr, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    We studied how people determine when they are in control of objects. In a computer task, participants moved a virtual boat towards a goal using a joystick to investigate how subjective control is shaped by (1) correspondence between motor actions and the visual consequences of those actions, and (2) attainment of higher-level goals. In Experiment 1, random discrepancies from joystick input (noise) decreased judgments of control (JoCs), but discrepancies that brought the boat closer to the goal and increased success (the autopilot) increased JoCs. In Experiment 2, participants raced to the goal against a computer-controlled rival boat while varying levels of noise interfered with each boat. Participants reached the goal more often and rated their own control higher when the computer rival had good control. Subjective control over moving objects depends partly on consistency between motor actions and their effects, but is also modulated by perceived success and competition.

  13. Global attention facilitates the planning, but not execution of goal-directed reaches

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, humans interact with multiple objects in complex environments. A large body of literature demonstrates that target selection is biased toward recently attended features, such that reaches are faster and trajectory curvature is reduced when target features (i.e., color) are repeated (priming of pop-out). In the real world, however, objects are comprised of several features—some of which may be more suitable for action than others. When fetching a mug from the cupboard, for example, attention not only has to be allocated to the object, but also the handle. To date, no study has investigated the impact of hierarchical feature organization on target selection for action. Here, we employed a color-oddity search task in which targets were Pac-men (i.e., a circle with a triangle cut out) oriented to be either consistent or inconsistent with the percept of a global Kanizsa triangle. We found that reaches were initiated faster when a task-irrelevant illusory figure was present independent of color repetition. Additionally, consistent with priming of pop-out, both reach planning and execution were facilitated when local target colors were repeated, regardless of whether a global figure was present. We also demonstrated that figures defined by illusory, but not real contours, afforded an early target selection benefit. In sum, these findings suggest that when local targets are perceptually grouped to form an illusory surface, attention quickly spreads across the global figure and facilitates the early stage of reach planning, but not execution. In contrast, local color priming is evident throughout goal-directed reaching. PMID:27467450

  14. A strongly goal-directed close-range vision system for spacecraft docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Kim L.; Goddard, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    In this presentation, we will propose a strongly goal-oriented stereo vision system to establish proper docking approach motions for automated rendezvous and capture (AR&C). From an input sequence of stereo video image pairs, the system produces a current best estimate of: contact position; contact vector; contact velocity; and contact orientation. The processing demands imposed by this particular problem and its environment dictate a special case solution; such a system should necessarily be, in some sense, minimalist. By this we mean the system should construct a scene description just sufficiently rich to solve the problem at hand and should do no more processing than is absolutely necessary. In addition, the imaging resolution should be just sufficient. Extracting additional information and constructing higher level scene representations wastes energy and computational resources and injects an unnecessary degree of complexity, increasing the likelihood of malfunction. We therefore take a departure from most prior stereopsis work, including our own, and propose a system based on associative memory. The purpose of the memory is to immediately associate a set of motor commands with a set of input visual patterns in the two cameras. That is, rather than explicitly computing point correspondences and object positions in world coordinates and trying to reason forward from this information to a plan of action, we are trying to capture the essence of reflex behavior through the action of associative memory. The explicit construction of point correspondences and 3D scene descriptions, followed by online velocity and point of impact calculations, is prohibitively expensive from a computational point of view for the problem at hand. Learned patterns on the four image planes, left and right at two discrete but closely spaced instants in time, will be bused directly to infer the spacecraft reaction. This will be a continuing online process as the docking collar approaches.

  15. A hierarchical model of goal directed navigation selects trajectories in a visual environment.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Uğur M; Milford, Michael J; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a Hierarchical Look-Ahead Trajectory Model (HiLAM) that incorporates the firing pattern of medial entorhinal grid cells in a planning circuit that includes interactions with hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. We show the model's flexibility in representing large real world environments using odometry information obtained from challenging video sequences. We acquire the visual data from a camera mounted on a small tele-operated vehicle. The camera has a panoramic field of view with its focal point approximately 5 cm above the ground level, similar to what would be expected from a rat's point of view. Using established algorithms for calculating perceptual speed from the apparent rate of visual change over time, we generate raw dead reckoning information which loses spatial fidelity over time due to error accumulation. We rectify the loss of fidelity by exploiting the loop-closure detection ability of a biologically inspired, robot navigation model termed RatSLAM. The rectified motion information serves as a velocity input to the HiLAM to encode the environment in the form of grid cell and place cell maps. Finally, we show goal directed path planning results of HiLAM in two different environments, an indoor square maze used in rodent experiments and an outdoor arena more than two orders of magnitude larger than the indoor maze. Together these results bridge for the first time the gap between higher fidelity bio-inspired navigation models (HiLAM) and more abstracted but highly functional bio-inspired robotic mapping systems (RatSLAM), and move from simulated environments into real-world studies in rodent-sized arenas and beyond.

  16. The specificity of practice hypothesis in goal-directed movements: visual dominance or proprioception neglect?

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore; Badets, Arnaud; Chesnet, David; Proteau, Luc

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to examine whether modifying the proprioceptive feedback usually associated with a specific movement would decrease the dominance of visual feedback and/or decrease, which appears to be the neglect of proprioceptive feedback in ensuring the accuracy of goal-directed movements. We used a leg positioning recall task and measured the recall error after 15 and 165 acquisition trials performed with both vision and proprioception or proprioception only, under either a normal or a modified proprioception condition (i.e., with a 1-kg load attached to the participants' ankle). Participant learning was evaluated in transfer with proprioception only. In support of the specificity of practice hypothesis, the recall errors in acquisition were significantly smaller when practice occurred with both vision and proprioception, in either the loaded or the unloaded leg condition, and they increased significantly in transfer when vision was withdrawn. An important finding of the study highlighted that withdrawing vision after 165 acquisition trials had less deleterious effects on the recall errors when practice occurred under the loaded leg condition. Under that modified condition, recall errors in transfer were similar when practice occurred with and without vision, whereas larger errors were observed following practice with vision under the normal proprioceptive condition. Overall, these results highlighted the dominance of vision in ensuring accurate leg positioning recall and revealed that the dominance of vision is such that the processing of proprioceptive feedback may be neglected. Importantly, modifying the proprioceptive feedback has the advantage of reducing what appears to be the neglect of proprioceptive information when movement execution occurs in a visuo-proprioceptive context. Practical considerations for rehabilitation are discussed at the end of the manuscript.

  17. Conducted electrical weapon incapacitation during a goal-directed task as a function of probe spread.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeffrey; Dawes, Donald; Miner, James; Kunz, Sebastian; Nelson, Rebecca; Sweeney, James

    2012-12-01

    Despite training and field experience that the location and spread between conducted electrical weapon (CEW) probes is important in establishing incapacitation, there have been no human studies which have systematically examined the relationships between probe spread and incapacitation. We have investigated this relationship with the TASER(®) X26. We have also developed and validated methodologies for prospective assessment of the effectiveness of CEWs in the incapacitation of highly motivated human subjects. Subjects (n = 30) had probes placed on the front or back with randomly varied spreads in accordance with recommended targeting zones. Subjects were motivated to complete the task of disabling the device or a dummy officer suspended ten feet away during the exposure while using a training knife. Subjects were rated on their progress toward goal success and on the extent of any incapacitation using two separate observer scoring panels: one consisting of experts in physiology and X26 technology, and another of veteran peace officers. Incapacitation by all measures was found to be a function of spread; generally increasing in effectiveness up to spreads between 9 and 12 in. There were notable differences between front and back exposures, with front exposures not leading to full incapacitation of the upper extremities regardless of probe spread. This is the first published study on a quantitative methodology for directly assessing the effectiveness of CEWs in human incapacitation. We have also validated and quantified for the first time in human subjects that establishing a minimal spread between X26 probes correlates to the extent of device effectiveness.

  18. Apathy in Frontotemporal Degeneration: Neuroanatomical Evidence of Impaired Goal-directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Massimo, Lauren; Powers, John P.; Evans, Lois K.; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Eslinger, Paul; Ersek, Mary; Irwin, David J.; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Background: Apathy, the major manifestation of impaired goal-directed behavior (GDB), is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration (bvFTD). The behavioral and biological mechanisms of apathy, however, are not well understood. We hypothesized that GDB has multiple components—including at least initiation, planning and motivation—and that GDB is supported by a network of multiple frontal brain regions. In this study, we examined this hypothesis by evaluating the selective breakdown of GDB in bvFTD, and relating these deficits to gray matter (GM) atrophy and white matter (WM) integrity. Methods: Eighteen apathetic bvFTD participants and 17 healthy controls completed the Philadelphia Apathy Computerized Test (PACT). This test quantifies each of three components of GDB hypothesized to contribute to apathy. We then used regression analyses to relate PACT scores to GM atrophy and reduced white matter (WM) fractional anisotropy (FA) in bvFTD. Results: Compared to controls, bvFTD participants demonstrated significant impairments in each of the three hypothesized components of GDB that contribute to apathy. Regression analyses related each component to disease in specific GM structures and associated WM tracts. Poor initiation thus was related to GM atrophy in anterior cingulate and reduced FA in the cingulum. Planning impairment was related to GM atrophy in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and reduced FA in superior longitudinal fasciculus. Poor motivation was related to GM atrophy in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and reduced FA in uncinate fasciculus (UNC). Conclusions: bvFTD patients have difficulty with initiation, planning and motivation components of GDB. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that GDB encompasses at least three processes, that these are supported by a large-scale neural network within specific portions of the frontal lobe, and that degradation of any one of these prefrontal

  19. Neuronal activity in primate prefrontal cortex related to goal-directed behavior during auditory working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Brosch, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been documented to play critical roles in goal-directed behaviors, like representing goal-relevant events and working memory (WM). However, neurophysiological evidence for such roles of PFC has been obtained mainly with visual tasks but rarely with auditory tasks. In the present study, we tested roles of PFC in auditory goal-directed behaviors by recording local field potentials in the auditory region of left ventrolateral PFC while a monkey performed auditory WM tasks. The tasks consisted of multiple events and required the monkey to change its mental states to achieve the reward. The events were auditory and visual stimuli, as well as specific actions. Mental states were engaging in the tasks and holding task-relevant information in auditory WM. We found that, although based on recordings from one hemisphere in one monkey only, PFC represented multiple events that were important for achieving reward, including auditory and visual stimuli like turning on and off an LED, as well as bar touch. The responses to auditory events depended on the tasks and on the context of the tasks. This provides support for the idea that neuronal representations in PFC are flexible and can be related to the behavioral meaning of stimuli. We also found that engaging in the tasks and holding information in auditory WM were associated with persistent changes of slow potentials, both of which are essential for auditory goal-directed behaviors. Our study, on a single hemisphere in a single monkey, reveals roles of PFC in auditory goal-directed behaviors similar to those in visual goal-directed behaviors, suggesting that functions of PFC in goal-directed behaviors are probably common across the auditory and visual modality. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  20. Identity Processes and Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Pursuits: Directionality of Effects in College Students.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Green, Lindsey M; Negru-Subtirica, Oana

    2016-12-30

    Identity research has mainly focused on the degree to which adolescents and emerging adults engage in exploration and commitment to identity goals and strivings. Somewhat lacking from this research tradition is an explicit focus on the content of the identity goals that individuals deem important and pursue. The present manuscript describes two longitudinal studies sampling college students in which we examine how exploration and commitment processes relate to intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuits as defined in Self-Determination Theory. Study 1 was a two-wave longitudinal study spanning 6 months (N = 370; 77.4% women; mean age 18.24 years); Study 2 was a three-wave longitudinal study spanning 6 months (N = 458 students; 84.9% women; mean age 18.25 years). Using cross-lagged path analyses, hypotheses were supported to various degrees of convergence between studies, pointing to the extent of which results were replicated across our two independent longitudinal samples. Whereas an intrinsic goal orientation positively predicted commitment making (Study 1) and identification with commitment over time (Studies 1 and 2), an extrinsic goal orientation positively predicted ruminative exploration over time, which led to decreases in intrinsic orientation over time (Study 2). Further, an intrinsic goal orientation negatively predicted ruminative exploration over time (Study 1). The findings in for pro-active exploration processes were inconsistent across both studies, being prospectively related to both intrinsic (Study 2) and extrinsic goal orientations (Study 1). Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. Influence of optic flow on the control of heading and target egocentric direction during steering toward a goal.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Niehorster, Diederick C

    2014-08-15

    Although previous studies have shown that people use both optic flow and target egocentric direction to walk or steer toward a goal, it remains in question how enriching the optic flow field affects the control of heading specified by optic flow and the control of target egocentric direction during goal-oriented locomotion. In the current study, we used a control-theoretic approach to separate the control response specific to these two cues in the visual control of steering toward a goal. The results showed that the addition of optic flow information (such as foreground motion and global flow) in the display improved the overall control precision, the amplitude, and the response delay of the control of heading. The amplitude and the response delay of the control of target egocentric direction were, however, not affected. The improvement in the control of heading with enriched optic flow displays was mirrored by an increase in the accuracy of heading perception. The findings provide direct support for the claim that people use the heading specified by optic flow as well as target egocentric direction to walk or steer toward a goal and suggest that the visual system does not internally weigh these two cues for goal-oriented locomotion control.

  2. Preventing the stress-induced shift from goal-directed to habit action with a β-adrenergic antagonist.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Höffken, Oliver; Tegenthoff, Martin; Wolf, Oliver T

    2011-11-23

    Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habit processes that encode the association between a response and preceding stimuli and at the expense of goal-directed processes that learn the association between an action and the motivational value of the outcome. Here, we asked whether this stress-induced shift from goal-directed to habit action is dependent on noradrenergic activation and may therefore be blocked by a β-adrenoceptor antagonist. To this end, healthy men and women were administered a placebo or the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol before they underwent a stress or a control procedure. Shortly after the stress or control procedure, participants were trained in two instrumental actions that led to two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of the food outcomes was selectively devalued by feeding participants to satiety with that food. A subsequent extinction test indicated whether instrumental behavior was goal-directed or habitual. As expected, stress after placebo rendered participants' behavior insensitive to the change in the value of the outcome and thus habitual. After propranolol intake, however, stressed participants behaved, same as controls, goal-directed, suggesting that propranolol blocked the stress-induced bias toward habit behavior. Our findings show that the shift from goal-directed to habitual control of instrumental action under stress necessitates noradrenergic activation and could have important clinical implications, particularly for addictive disorders.

  3. Less positive or more negative? Future-directed thinking in mild to moderate depression.

    PubMed

    Bjärehed, Jonas; Sarkohi, Ali; Andersson, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Depressed patients have been found to generate fewer anticipated positive future events, but most previous studies have included patients who have either been severely depressed or expressed suicidal thoughts and intents or both. The aim of this study was to compare positive and negative future-directed thinking in persons with mild to moderate depression who did not express suicidal thoughts or intents (n = 20) with a matched group of nondepressed persons (n = 20). The two groups completed the Future-Thinking Task (FTT), in which they were asked to generate positive and negative anticipated future events for three upcoming time periods (1 week, 1 year, and 5-10 years). In the present version of the FTT, both quantitative and qualitative aspects were included (i.e. subjective likelihood and emotional valence). Results showed that depressed persons reported lower scores regarding anticipated future positive events but they did not differ in terms of future negative events. The results are consistent with previous research and further strengthen the notion that reduced anticipation of future positive events is a defining characteristic of depression, even in the absence of suicidal ideation.

  4. Ethanol Seeking by Long Evans Rats Is Not Always a Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mangieri, Regina A.; Cofresí, Roberto U.; Gonzales, Rueben A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two parallel and interacting processes are said to underlie animal behavior, whereby learning and performance of a behavior is at first via conscious and deliberate (goal-directed) processes, but after initial acquisition, the behavior can become automatic and stimulus-elicited (habitual). With respect to instrumental behaviors, animal learning studies suggest that the duration of training and the action-outcome contingency are two factors involved in the emergence of habitual seeking of “natural” reinforcers (e.g., sweet solutions, food or sucrose pellets). To rigorously test whether behaviors reinforced by abused substances such as ethanol, in particular, similarly become habitual was the primary aim of this study. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Long Evans rats underwent extended or limited operant lever press training with 10% sucrose/10% ethanol (10S10E) reinforcement (variable interval (VI) or (VR) ratio schedule of reinforcement), or with 10% sucrose (10S) reinforcement (VI schedule only). Once training and pretesting were complete, the impact of outcome devaluation on operant behavior was evaluated after lithium chloride injections were paired with the reinforcer, or unpaired 24 hours later. After limited, but not extended instrumental training, lever pressing by groups trained under VR with 10S10E and under VI with 10S was sensitive to outcome devaluation. In contrast, responding by both the extended and limited training 10S10E VI groups was not sensitive to ethanol devaluation during the test for habitual behavior. Conclusions/Significance Operant behavior by rats trained to self-administer an ethanol-sucrose solution showed variable sensitivity to a change in the value of ethanol, with relative insensitivity developing sooner in animals that received time-variable ethanol reinforcement during training sessions. One important implication, with respect to substance abuse in humans, is that initial learning about the relationship between

  5. Critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Price, A; Price, B

    1996-05-01

    Critical thinking is a process applied to midwifery theory, research and experience. It is a positive activity, responsive to context, drawing on negative and positive triggers and emotions to suggest ways of acting in future. Practice-based and reflective midwifery assignments should reflect the midwifery goals of critical thinking. This may require adjustments in assessment criteria and a questioning of standard academic conventions.

  6. Dissociable neural mechanisms for goal-directed versus incidental memory reactivation.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Brice A; Johnson, Marcia K; Chun, Marvin M

    2013-10-09

    Remembering a past event involves reactivation of distributed patterns of neural activity that represent the features of that event-a process that depends on associative mechanisms supported by medial temporal lobe structures. Although efficient use of memory requires prioritizing those features of a memory that are relevant to current behavioral goals (target features) over features that may be goal-irrelevant (incidental features), there remains ambiguity concerning how this is achieved. We tested the hypothesis that although medial temporal lobe structures may support reactivation of both target and incidental event features, frontoparietal cortex preferentially reactivates those features that match current goals. Here, human participants were cued to remember either the category (face/scene) to which a picture belonged (category trials) or the location (left/right) in which a picture appeared (location trials). Multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data were used to measure reactivation of category information as a function of its behavioral relevance (target vs incidental reactivation). In ventral/medial temporal lobe (VMTL) structures, incidental reactivation was as robust as target reactivation. In contrast, frontoparietal cortex exhibited stronger target than incidental reactivation; that is, goal-modulated reactivation. Reactivation was also associated with later memory. Frontoparietal biases toward target reactivation predicted subsequent memory for target features, whereas incidental reactivation in VMTL predicted subsequent memory for nontested features. These findings reveal a striking dissociation between goal-modulated reactivation in frontoparietal cortex and incidental reactivation in VMTL.

  7. Infant Eye-Tracking in the Context of Goal-Directed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbetta, Daniela; Guan, Yu; Williams, Joshua L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two methods that we applied to our research to record infant gaze in the context of goal-oriented actions using different eye-tracking devices: head-mounted and remote eye-tracking. For each type of eye-tracking system, we discuss their advantages and disadvantages, describe the particular experimental setups we used to study…

  8. Goal-Directed Decision Making as Probabilistic Inference: A Computational Framework and Potential Neural Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solway, Alec; Botvinick, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has given rise to the view that reward-based decision making is governed by two key controllers: a habit system, which stores stimulus-response associations shaped by past reward, and a goal-oriented system that selects actions based on their anticipated outcomes. The current literature provides a rich body of computational theory…

  9. Scientific Literacy: The Role of Goal-Directed Reading and Evaluation in Understanding Scientific Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, M. Anne; Richter, Tobias; Rouet, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the mental processes and representations that are required of laypersons when learning about science issues from texts. We begin by defining scientific literacy as the ability to understand and critically evaluate scientific content in order to achieve one's goals. We then present 3 challenges of learning from…

  10. Movement Structure in Young and Elderly Adults during Goal-Directed Movements of the Left and Right Arm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poston, Brach; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Barduson, Beth; Stelmach, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Elderly adults often exhibit performance deficits during goal-directed movements of the dominant arm compared with young adults. Recent studies involving hemispheric lateralization have provided evidence that the dominant and non-dominant hemisphere-arm systems are specialized for controlling different movement parameters and that hemispheric…

  11. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  12. A daily-life-oriented intervention to improve prospective memory and goal-directed behaviour in ageing: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Christina; Rochat, Lucien; Blum, Anaëlle; Emmenegger, Joëlle; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in the execution of goal-directed behaviours, and particularly their prospective memory component, can arise in ageing and have important consequences for autonomy. The first objective of this article is to present an intervention that trained older individuals who reported prospective memory or goal-directed behaviour problems to use "implementation intentions". This technique, which has been shown to improve different aspects of goal-directed behaviour enactment, consists of establishing a mental (verbal and/or visual) link between the action that must be performed and the situation in which it must be performed. Our programme proposes exercises of progressively increasing difficulty that are targeted at daily life situations. Our second objective was to test the programme in small groups of older adults. Preliminary data regarding the programme's feasibility and its initial efficacy show a significant improvement in the main outcome measure, a questionnaire assessing goal-directed behaviours in everyday life. The participants also reported being significantly less bothered by their difficulties, although there were no significant changes in quality of life, self-esteem, anxiety or depression. Two participants with different psychological profiles, who benefited differently from the intervention, are then presented in more detail.

  13. Effects of psychosocial stress on the goal-directed and habit memory systems during learning and later execution.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Marion; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Radel, Rémi

    2017-03-01

    Instrumental learning occurs through both goal-directed and habit memory systems, which are supported by anatomically distinct brain systems. Interestingly, stress may promote habits at the expense of goal-directed performance, since stress before training in an instrumental task was found to cause individuals to carry on with the learned association in spite of a devalued outcome. These findings nevertheless left pending questions, and it has been difficult to determine which system is primarily affected by stress (an improved habit system, an impaired goal-directed system, or both) and at what point the stress acts (at the moment of learning by making more resistant habits, or after devaluation by making individuals less sensitive to change in the outcome value). The present study (N=72 participants, 63 males and 9 females) aimed to answer these questions with (i) an instrumental task that dissociates the two memory systems and (ii) three conditions of psychosocial stress exposure (Trier Social Stress Test): stress induced before learning, before devaluation, and not induced for the control group. The study confirms that exposure to psychosocial stress leads to habitual performance. Moreover, it provides new insight into this effect by locating its origin as an impairment in the capacity of the goal-directed system rather than a reinforcement in habit learning. These results are discussed in light of recent neurobiological models of stress and memory.

  14. Differential effects of amygdala, orbital prefrontal cortex, and prelimbic cortex lesions on goal-directed behavior in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sarah E V; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2013-02-20

    We assessed the involvement of the orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo), the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (PL), and the amygdala in goal-directed behavior. Rhesus monkeys were trained on a task in which two different instrumental responses were linked to two different outcomes. One response, called "tap," required the monkeys to repeatedly touch a colored square on a video monitor to produce one kind of food reward. The other response, called "hold," required persistent contact of an identical stimulus, and it produced a different kind of food reward. After training, we assessed the effects of sensory-specific reinforcer devaluation as a way to probe each monkey's use of goal-directed behavior. In this procedure, monkeys were allowed to consume one of the two foods to satiety and were then tested for tap/hold preference under extinction. Unoperated control monkeys showed a reduction in the response associated with obtaining the devalued food, called the "devaluation effect," a hallmark of goal-directed behavior. Monkeys with bilateral lesions of PFo or the amygdala exhibited significantly reduced devaluation effects. Results from monkeys with PL lesions were equivocal. We conclude that both PFo and the amygdala play a significant role in goal-directed behavior in monkeys. Notably, the findings for PFo challenge the idea that orbital and medial prefrontal regions are exclusively dedicated to object- and action-based processes, respectively.

  15. Misdirections in slow goal-directed arm movements and pointer-setting tasks.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, J B; Sittig, A C; Denier van der Gon, J J

    1991-01-01

    Information about the direction of the virtual line between two positions in space (directional information) is used in many decision-making and motor tasks. We investigated how accurately directional information is processed by the brain. Subjects performed two types of task. In both tasks they sat at a table. In the first task they had to move their hand slowly and accurately from an initial position 40 cm in from of them to visually presented targets at a distance of 30 cm from the initial position (movement task). We analysed the initial movement direction. In the second task subjects had to position pointers in the direction of the targets as accurately as they could (perceptive task). We found that in the movement task the subjects started the movements to most targets in a direction that deviated consistently from the direction of the straight line between initial position and target position. The maximum deviation ranged from 5-10 degrees for the various subjects. The mean standard deviation was 4 degrees. In the perceptive task the subjects positioned the pointer in similarly deviating directions. Furthermore, we found that the maximum deviation in the pointer direction depended on the length of the pointer: the smaller the pointer, the larger the consistent deviations in the pointer direction. The shortest pointer showed deviations comparable to the deviations found in the movement task. These findings suggest that the deviations in the two tasks stem from the same source.

  16. Goal-directed memory: the role of cognitive control in older adults' emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Mather, Mara; Knight, Marisa

    2005-12-01

    The present study revealed that older adults recruit cognitive control processes to strengthen positive and diminish negative information in memory. In Experiment 1, older adults engaged in more elaborative processing when retrieving positive memories than they did when retrieving negative memories. In Experiment 2, older adults who did well on tasks involving cognitive control were more likely than those doing poorly to favor positive pictures in memory. In Experiment 3, older adults who were distracted during memory encoding no longer favored positive over negative pictures in their later recall, revealing that older adults use cognitive resources to implement emotional goals during encoding. In contrast, younger adults showed no signs of using cognitive control to make their memories more positive, indicating that, for them, emotion regulation goals are not chronically activated.

  17. Influence of Adult Goal-Setting Instruction on Students' Responsibility toward Self-Directed Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apa Browne, Lynn Geri

    2014-01-01

    Elementary grade students in a mid-Atlantic state school district have not been meeting academic standards on state assessments. Research indicates that academic achievement is connected to self-directed readiness to learn; however, often the instruction in strategies for student self-directed readiness to learn remains teacher-centered. The…

  18. Assessing the Quality of Student Thinking Directly: An Exploratory Study of Two Cohorts Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollacott, L.; Snell, D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an exploratory investigation involving the direct assessment of the quality of abstract thinking of two cohorts of South African university entrants who had very good school leaving qualifications. The investigation was prompted by the observation of difficulties these students seemed to have had in a first…

  19. Motivation and value influences in the relative balance of goal-directed and habitual behaviours in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Voon, V; Baek, K; Enander, J; Worbe, Y; Morris, L S; Harrison, N A; Robbins, T W; Rück, C; Daw, N

    2015-01-01

    Our decisions are based on parallel and competing systems of goal-directed and habitual learning, systems which can be impaired in pathological behaviours. Here we focus on the influence of motivation and compare reward and loss outcomes in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on model-based goal-directed and model-free habitual behaviours using the two-step task. We further investigate the relationship with acquisition learning using a one-step probabilistic learning task. Forty-eight OCD subjects and 96 healthy volunteers were tested on a reward and 30 OCD subjects and 53 healthy volunteers on the loss version of the two-step task. Thirty-six OCD subjects and 72 healthy volunteers were also tested on a one-step reversal task. OCD subjects compared with healthy volunteers were less goal oriented (model-based) and more habitual (model-free) to reward outcomes with a shift towards greater model-based and lower habitual choices to loss outcomes. OCD subjects also had enhanced acquisition learning to loss outcomes on the one-step task, which correlated with goal-directed learning in the two-step task. OCD subjects had greater stay behaviours or perseveration in the one-step task irrespective of outcome. Compulsion severity was correlated with habitual learning in the reward condition. Obsession severity was correlated with greater switching after loss outcomes. In healthy volunteers, we further show that greater reward magnitudes are associated with a shift towards greater goal-directed learning further emphasizing the role of outcome salience. Our results highlight an important influence of motivation on learning processes in OCD and suggest that distinct clinical strategies based on valence may be warranted. PMID:26529423

  20. Motivation and value influences in the relative balance of goal-directed and habitual behaviours in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Voon, V; Baek, K; Enander, J; Worbe, Y; Morris, L S; Harrison, N A; Robbins, T W; Rück, C; Daw, N

    2015-11-03

    Our decisions are based on parallel and competing systems of goal-directed and habitual learning, systems which can be impaired in pathological behaviours. Here we focus on the influence of motivation and compare reward and loss outcomes in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) on model-based goal-directed and model-free habitual behaviours using the two-step task. We further investigate the relationship with acquisition learning using a one-step probabilistic learning task. Forty-eight OCD subjects and 96 healthy volunteers were tested on a reward and 30 OCD subjects and 53 healthy volunteers on the loss version of the two-step task. Thirty-six OCD subjects and 72 healthy volunteers were also tested on a one-step reversal task. OCD subjects compared with healthy volunteers were less goal oriented (model-based) and more habitual (model-free) to reward outcomes with a shift towards greater model-based and lower habitual choices to loss outcomes. OCD subjects also had enhanced acquisition learning to loss outcomes on the one-step task, which correlated with goal-directed learning in the two-step task. OCD subjects had greater stay behaviours or perseveration in the one-step task irrespective of outcome. Compulsion severity was correlated with habitual learning in the reward condition. Obsession severity was correlated with greater switching after loss outcomes. In healthy volunteers, we further show that greater reward magnitudes are associated with a shift towards greater goal-directed learning further emphasizing the role of outcome salience. Our results highlight an important influence of motivation on learning processes in OCD and suggest that distinct clinical strategies based on valence may be warranted.

  1. Stimulating Creativity: Modulation of Convergent and Divergent Thinking by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Creativity has been conceptualized as involving 2 distinct components; divergent thinking, the search for multiple solutions to a single problem, and convergent thinking, the quest for a single solution either through an analytical process or the experience of insight. Studies have demonstrated that these abilities can be improved by cognitive…

  2. Dynamic coding of goal-directed paths by orbital prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Young, James J; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2011-04-20

    Adapting successfully to new situations relies on integrating memory of similar circumstances with the outcomes of past actions. Here, we tested how reward history and recent memory influenced coding by orbital prefrontal cortex (OFC) neurons. Rats were trained to find food in plus maze tasks that required both the OFC and the hippocampus, and unit activity was recorded during stable performance, reversal learning, and strategy switching. OFC firing distinguished different rewarded paths, journeys from a start arm to a goal arm. Activity of individual cells and the population correlated with performance as rats learned newly rewarded outcomes. Activity was similar during reversal, an OFC-dependent task, and strategy switching, an OFC-independent task, suggesting that OFC associates information about paths and outcomes both when it is required for performance and when it is not. Path-selective OFC cells fired differently during overlapping journeys that led to different goals or from different starts, resembling journey-dependent coding by hippocampal neurons. Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded simultaneously in the OFC and the hippocampus oscillated coherently in the theta band (5-12 Hz) during stable performance. LFP coherence diminished when rats adapted to altered reward contingencies and followed different paths. Thus, OFC neurons appear to participate in a distributed network including the hippocampus that associates spatial paths, recent memory, and integrated reward history.

  3. Predicting use of effective responsive, structure, and non-directive control vegetable parenting practices with the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variables in the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices (MGDVPP) have been shown to predict parents' use of effective vegetable parenting practices (EVPP). Psychometric analysis revealed the EVPP composite scale had three underlying subscales (responsiveness, structure, and non-directi...

  4. Changes in Timing and kinematics of goal directed eye-hand movements in early-stage Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many daily activities involve intrinsic or extrinsic goal-directed eye and hand movements. An extensive visuomotor coordination network including nigro-striatal pathways is required for efficient timing and positioning of eyes and hands. The aim of this study was to investigate how Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects eye-hand coordination in tasks with different cognitive complexity. Methods We used a touch screen, an eye-tracking device and a motion capturing system to quantify changes in eye-hand coordination in early-stage PD patients (H&Y < 2.5) and age-matched controls. Timing and kinematics of eye and hand were quantified in four eye-hand coordination tasks (pro-tapping, dual planning, anti-tapping and spatial memory task). Results In the pro-tapping task, saccade initiation towards extrinsic goals was not impaired. However, in the dual planning and anti-tapping task initiation of saccades towards intrinsic goals was faster in PD patients. Hand movements were differently affected: initiation of the hand movement was only delayed in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. Overall, hand movements in PD patients were slower executed compared to controls. Interpretation Whereas initiation of saccades in an extrinsic goal-directed task (pro-tapping task) is not affected, early stage PD patients have difficulty in suppressing reflexive saccades towards extrinsic goals in tasks where the endpoint is an intrinsic goal (e.g. dual planning and anti-tapping task). This is specific for eye movements, as hand movements have delayed responses in the pro-tapping and dual planning task. This suggests that reported impairment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in early-stage PD patients affects only inhibition of eye movements. We conclude that timing and kinematics of eye and hand movements in visuomotor tasks are affected in PD patients. This result may have clinical significance by providing a behavioral marker for the early diagnosis of PD. PMID:23298720

  5. Evidence for rostro-caudal functional organization in multiple brain areas related to goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Matthew L; Fox, Kieran C R; Christoff, Kalina

    2014-07-14

    The functional organization of brain areas supporting goal-directed behavior is debated. Some accounts suggest a rostro-caudal organization, while others suggest a broad recruitment as part of a multiple demand network. We used fMRI and an anatomical region of interest (ROI) approach to test which account better characterizes the organization of key brain areas related to goal-directed behavior: the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), cingulate cortex, and insula. Subjects performed a cognitive control task with distinct trial events corresponding to rule representation, rule maintenance, action execution, and monitoring progress towards an overarching motivational goal. The use of ROIs allowed us to look for evidence of rostro-caudal gradients during each event separately. Our results provide strong evidence for rostro-caudal gradients in all regions. During the action execution period, activation was robust in caudal ROIs and decreased linearly moving to rostral ROIs in the LPFC, cingulate cortex, and MPFC. Conversely, during the goal monitoring period, activation was weak in caudal ROIs and increased linearly moving to the rostral ROIs in the aforementioned regions. The insula exhibited the reverse pattern. These findings provide evidence for rostro-caudal organization in multiple regions within the same study. More importantly, they demonstrate that rostro-caudal gradients can be observed during individual trial events, ruling out confounding factors such as task difficulty.

  6. Dorsal and ventral streams: The distinct role of striatal subregions in the acquisition and performance of goal-directed actions

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Genevra; Leung, Beatrice K.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that distinct neural processes mediate the acquisition and performance of goal-directed instrumental actions. Whereas a cortical-dorsomedial striatal circuit appears critical for the acquisition of goal-directed actions, a cortical-ventral striatal circuit appears to mediate instrumental performance, particularly the motivational control of performance. Here we review evidence that these distinct mechanisms of learning and performance constitute two distinct ‘streams’ controlling instrumental conditioning. From this perspective, the regulation of the interaction between these ‘streams’ becomes a matter of considerable importance. We describe evidence that the basolateral amygdala, which is heavily interconnected with both the dorsal and ventral subregions of the striatum, coordinates this interaction providing input to the final common path to action as a critical component of the limbic-motor interface. PMID:24231424

  7. Motivating Goal-Directed Behavior Through Introspective Self-Talk: The Role of the Interrogative Form of Simple Future Tense

    PubMed Central

    Senay, Ibrahim; Albarracín, Dolores; Noguchi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Although essential for psychology, introspective self-talk has rarely been studied with respect to its effects on behavior. Nevertheless, the interrogative compared with the declarative form of introspective talk may elicit more intrinsically motivated reasons for action, resulting in goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 1, participants were more likely to solve anagrams if they prepared for the task by asking themselves whether they would work on anagrams as opposed to declaring that they would. In the next three experiments, merely writing Will I as opposed to I will as part of an ostensibly unrelated handwriting task produced better anagram-solving performance and stronger intentions to exercise, which suggests that priming the interrogative structure of self-talk is enough to motivate goal-directed behavior. This effect was found to be mediated by the intrinsic motivation for action and moderated by the salience of the word order of the primes. PMID:20424090

  8. Motivating goal-directed behavior through introspective self-talk: the role of the interrogative form of simple future tense.

    PubMed

    Senay, Ibrahim; Albarracín, Dolores; Noguchi, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Although essential for psychology, introspective self-talk has rarely been studied with respect to its effects on behavior. Nevertheless, the interrogative compared with the declarative form of introspective talk may elicit more intrinsically motivated reasons for action, resulting in goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 1, participants were more likely to solve anagrams if they prepared for the task by asking themselves whether they would work on anagrams as opposed to declaring that they would. In the next three experiments, merely writing Will I as opposed to I will as part of an ostensibly unrelated handwriting task produced better anagram-solving performance and stronger intentions to exercise, which suggests that priming the interrogative structure of self-talk is enough to motivate goal-directed behavior. This effect was found to be mediated by the intrinsic motivation for action and moderated by the salience of the word order of the primes.

  9. How do illusions constrain goal-directed movement: perceptual and visuomotor influences on speed/accuracy trade-off.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Joshua C; Roepstorff, Andreas; Frith, Christopher D

    2011-03-01

    Recent research shows that visual processing influences the speed/accuracy trade-off people use when performing goal-directed movement. This raises the question of how this influence is produced in visual cognition. Visual influences on speed/accuracy trade-off could be produced in conscious visual perception, in non-conscious visuomotor transformation, or by some interaction of conscious perceptual and non-conscious visuomotor processes. There is independent evidence showing that both perceptual and visuomotor processes are involved in trading off speed and accuracy; however, the interaction between these processes has yet to be investigated. We present an experiment in which we show that a change in visual consciousness induced by a perceptual illusion affects the speed and accuracy of goal-directed movements, suggesting that perceptual and visuomotor processes do interact in speed/accuracy trade-off. We discuss the consequences of these results for theories of visual function more generally.

  10. Individually Guided Motivation: Goal-Setting Procedures to Develop Student Self-Direction and Prosocial Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Herbert J.; And Others

    This paper describes research and development activities dealing with a system of individually guided motivation at a Wisconsin elementary school. Four general objectives for the project are stated. These deal with motivation for learning subject matter knowledge and skills, developing independence, assuming increasing self direction, and…

  11. Influence of disturbances on the control of PC-mouse, goal-directed arm movements.

    PubMed

    Rustighi, Emiliano; Dohnal, Fadi; Mace, Brian R

    2010-11-01

    This study concerns the influence of visuomotor rotating disturbance on motion dynamics and brain activity. It involves using a PC-mouse and introducing a predefined bias angle between the direction of motion of the mouse pointer and that of the screen cursor. Subjects were asked to execute three different tasks, designed to study the effect of visuomotor rotation on direction control, extent control or the two together. During each task, mouse movement, screen cursor movement and electroencephalograph (EEG) signals were recorded. An algorithm was used to detect and discard EEG signals contaminated by artifacts. Movement performance indexes and brain activity are used to evaluate motion control, tracking ability, learning and control. The results suggest the direction control is planned before the movement and controlled by an adaptive control while extent control is controlled by a real-time feedback. The measurements also confirm that increased motion and/or brain activity occur for bias angles in the ranges ±(90-120°) for both direction and extension controls. After-effects when changing the angle of visual rotation have been seen to be proportional to the variation in the adaptation angle.

  12. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting and Children's Goals on Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidgerken, Amanda D.; Hughes, Jan N.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Willson, Victor L.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a dual-mediation model of the relations among harsh parenting, hostile social information processing, and level of child aggression in a sample of 239 (150 male, 89 female) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The theoretical model posited that harsh parenting has both direct and indirect effects on child level of aggression, with the…

  13. Can Boards of Directors Think Strategically? Some Issues in Developing Direction-Givers' Thinking to a Mega Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garratt, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The author argues that current corporate government legislation and practice is weighted too much in the direction of "board compliance." It is, therefore, in danger of reducing the risks taken by boards of directors. In the long term this could slow significantly the growth of capitalism. He proposes a rebalancing of the fundamental board…

  14. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Alexia; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously) according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously) through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention. PMID:27483371

  15. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    PubMed

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared.

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for flexible goal-directed cue processing during episodic retrieval.

    PubMed

    Herron, Jane E; Evans, Lisa H; Wilding, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    A widely held assumption is that memory retrieval is aided by cognitive control processes that are engaged flexibly in service of memory retrieval and memory decisions. While there is some empirical support for this view, a notable exception is the absence of evidence for the flexible use of retrieval control in functional neuroimaging experiments requiring frequent switches between tasks with different cognitive demands. This absence is troublesome in so far as frequent switches between tasks mimic some of the challenges that are typically placed on memory outside the laboratory. In this experiment we instructed participants to alternate frequently between three episodic memory tasks requiring item recognition or retrieval of one of two different kinds of contextual information encoded in a prior study phase (screen location or encoding task). Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by unstudied items in the two tasks requiring retrieval of study context were reliably different, demonstrating for the first time that ERPs index task-specific processing of retrieval cues when retrieval goals change frequently. The inclusion of the item recognition task was a novel and important addition in this study, because only the ERPs elicited by unstudied items in one of the two context conditions diverged from those in the item recognition condition. This outcome constrains functional interpretations of the differences that emerged between the two context conditions and emphasises the utility of this baseline in functional imaging studies of retrieval processing operations.

  17. Set-shifting as a component process of goal-directed problem-solving.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard P; Marsh, Verity

    2016-03-01

    In two experiments, we compared secondary task interference on Tower of London performance resulting from three different secondary tasks. The secondary tasks were designed to tap three different executive functions, namely set-shifting, memory monitoring and updating, and response inhibition. Previous work using individual differences methodology suggests that, all other things being equal, the response inhibition or memory tasks should result in the greatest interference. However, this was not found to be the case. Rather, in both experiments the set-shifting task resulted in significantly more interference on Tower of London performance than either of the other secondary tasks. Subsequent analyses suggest that the degree of interference could not be attributed to differences in secondary task difficulty. Results are interpreted in the light of related work which suggests that solving problems with non-transparent goal/subgoal structure requires flexible shifting between subgoals-a process that is held to be impaired by concurrent performance of a set-shifting task.

  18. Hippocampal neural activity reflects the economy of choices during goal-directed navigation.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Valerie L; Penner, Marsha R; Heide, Shawn W; King, Hunter O; Larkin, Joshua; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2017-02-27

    Distinguishing spatial contexts is likely essential for the well-known role of the hippocampus in episodic memory. We studied whether types of hippocampal neural organization thought to underlie context discrimination are impacted by learned economic considerations of choice behavior. Hippocampal place cells and theta activity were recorded as rats performed a maze-based probability discounting task that involved choosing between a small certain reward or a large probabilistic reward. Different spatial distributions of place fields were observed in response to changes in probability, the outcome of the rats' choice, and whether or not rats were free to make that choice. The degree to which the reward location was represented by place cells scaled with the expected probability of rewards. Theta power increased around the goal location also in proportion to the expected probability of signaled rewards. Furthermore, theta power dynamically varied as specific econometric information was obtained "on the fly" during task performance. Such an economic perspective of memory processing by hippocampal place cells expands our view of the nature of context memories retrieved by hippocampus during adaptive navigation.

  19. From recording discrete actions to studying continuous goal-directed behaviours in team sports.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of examining interpersonal interactions in performance analysis of team sports, predicated on the relationship between perception and action, compared to the traditional cataloguing of actions by individual performers. We discuss how ecological dynamics may provide a potential unifying theoretical and empirical framework to achieve this re-emphasis in research. With reference to data from illustrative studies on performance analysis and sport expertise, we critically evaluate some of the main assumptions and methodological approaches with regard to understanding how information influences action and decision-making during team sports performance. Current data demonstrate how the understanding of performance behaviours in team sports by sport scientists and practitioners may be enhanced with a re-emphasis in research on the dynamics of emergent ongoing interactions. Ecological dynamics provides formal and theoretically grounded descriptions of player-environment interactions with respect to key performance goals and the unfolding information of competitive performance. Developing these formal descriptions and explanations of sport performance may provide a significant contribution to the field of performance analysis, supporting design and intervention in both research and practice.

  20. Stride-Cycle Influences on Goal-Directed Head Movements Made During Walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Brian T.; vanEmmerik, Richard E. A.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Horizontal head movements were studied in six subjects as they made rapid horizontal gaze adjustments while walking. The aim of the present research was to determine if gait-cycle events alter the head movement response to a visual target acquisition task. Gaze shifts of approximately 40deg were elicited by a step change in the position of a visual target from a central location to a second location in the left or right horizontal periphery. The timing of the target position change was constrained to occur at 25,50,75 and 100% of the stride cycle. The trials were randomly presented as the subjects walked on a treadmill at their preferred speed (range: 1.25 to 1.48 m/s, mean: 1.39 +/- 0.09 m/s ) . Analyses focused on the movement onset latencies of the head and eyes and on the peak velocity and saccade amplitude of the head movement response. A comparison of the group means indicated that the head movement onset lagged the eye onset (262 ms versus 252 ms). The head and eye movement onset latencies were not affected by either the direction of the target change nor the point in the gait cycle during which the target relocation occurred. However, the presence of an interaction between the gait cycle events and the direction of the visual target shift indicates that the peak head saccade velocity and head saccade amplitude are affected by the natural head oscillations that occur while walking.

  1. Impedance is modulated to meet accuracy demands during goal-directed arm movements.

    PubMed

    Selen, Luc P J; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2006-06-01

    The neuromuscular system is inherently noisy and joint impedance may serve to filter this noise. In the present experiment, we investigated whether individuals modulate joint impedance to meet spatial accuracy demands. Twelve subjects were instructed to make rapid, time constrained, elbow extensions to three differently sized targets. Some trials (20 out of 140 for each target, randomly assigned) were perturbed mechanically at 75% of movement amplitude. Inertia, damping and stiffness were estimated from the torque and angle deviation signal using a forward simulation and optimization routine. Increases in endpoint accuracy were not always reflected in a decrease in trajectory variability. Only in the final quarter of the trajectory the variability decreased as target width decreased. Stiffness estimates increased significantly with accuracy constraints. Damping estimates only increased for perturbations that were initially directed against the movement direction. We concluded that joint impedance modulation is one of the strategies used by the neuromuscular system to generate accurate movements, at least during the final part of the movement.

  2. Colour-induced relationship between affect and reaching kinematics during a goal-directed aiming task.

    PubMed

    Williams, Camille K; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Carnahan, Heather

    2011-08-01

    A link between affect and action has been supported by the discovery that threat information is prioritized through an action-centred pathway--the dorsal visual stream. Magnocellular afferents, which originate from the retina and project to dorsal stream structures, are suppressed by exposure to diffuse red light, which diminishes humans' perception of threat-based images. In order to explore the role of colour in the relationship between affect and action, participants donned different pairs of coloured glasses (red, yellow, green, blue and clear) and completed Positive and Negative Affect Scale questionnaires as well as a series of target-directed aiming movements. Analyses of affect scores revealed a significant main effect for affect valence and a significant interaction between colour and valence: perceived positive affect was significantly smaller for the red condition. Kinematic analyses of variable error in the primary movement direction and Pearson correlation analyses between the displacements travelled prior to and following peak velocity indicated reduced accuracy and application of online control processes while wearing red glasses. Variable error of aiming was also positively and significantly correlated with negative affect scores under the red condition. These results suggest that only red light modulates the affect-action link by suppressing magnocellular activity, which disrupts visual processing for movement control. Furthermore, previous research examining the effect of the colour red on psychomotor tasks and perceptual acceleration of threat-based imagery suggest that stimulus-driven motor performance tasks requiring online control may be particularly susceptible to this effect.

  3. The Impact of Strategic Trajectory Optimization on Illusory Target Biases During Goal-Directed Aiming.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James W; Burkitt, James J; Elliott, Digby; Lyons, James L

    2016-01-01

    During rapid aiming, movements are planned and executed to avoid worst-case outcomes that require time and energy to correct. As such, downward movements initially undershoot the target to avoid corrections against gravity. Illusory target context can also impact aiming bias. Here, the authors sought to determine how strategic biases mediate illusory biases. Participants aimed to Müller-Lyer figures in different directions (forward, backward, up, down). Downward biases emerged late in the movement and illusory biases emerged from peak velocity. The illusory effects were greater for downward movements at terminal endpoint. These results indicate that strategic biases interact with the limb-target control processes associated with illusory biases. Thus, multiple control processes during rapid aiming may combine and later affect endpoint accuracy (D. Elliott et al., 2010 ).

  4. Brain-Computer Interfaces and communication in paralysis: extinction of goal directed thinking in completely paralysed patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, A.; Birbaumer, N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between physical impairment and brain-computer interface (BCI) performance. Method We present a meta-analysis of 29 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6 with other severe neurological diseases in different stages of physical impairment who were trained with a BCI. In most cases voluntary regulation of slow cortical potentials has been used as input signal for BCI control. More recently sensorimotor rhythms and the P300 event-related brain potential were recorded. Results A strong correlation has been found between physical impairment and BCI performance, indicating that performance worsens as impairment increases. Seven patients were in the complete locked-in state (CLIS) with no communication possible. After removal of these patients from the analysis, the relationship between physical impairment and BCI performance disappeared. The lack of a relation between physical impairment and BCI performance was confirmed when adding BCI data of patients from other BCI research groups. Conclusions Basic communication (yes/no) was not restored in any of the CLIS patients with a BCI. Whether locked-in patients can transfer learned brain control to the CLIS remains an open empirical question. Significance Voluntary brain regulation for communication is possible in all stages of paralysis except the CLIS. PMID:18824406

  5. Computational Properties of the Hippocampus Increase the Efficiency of Goal-Directed Foraging through Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Eric; Luczak, Artur; Gruber, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian brain is thought to use a version of Model-based Reinforcement Learning (MBRL) to guide "goal-directed" behavior, wherein animals consider goals and make plans to acquire desired outcomes. However, conventional MBRL algorithms do not fully explain animals' ability to rapidly adapt to environmental changes, or learn multiple complex tasks. They also require extensive computation, suggesting that goal-directed behavior is cognitively expensive. We propose here that key features of processing in the hippocampus support a flexible MBRL mechanism for spatial navigation that is computationally efficient and can adapt quickly to change. We investigate this idea by implementing a computational MBRL framework that incorporates features inspired by computational properties of the hippocampus: a hierarchical representation of space, "forward sweeps" through future spatial trajectories, and context-driven remapping of place cells. We find that a hierarchical abstraction of space greatly reduces the computational load (mental effort) required for adaptation to changing environmental conditions, and allows efficient scaling to large problems. It also allows abstract knowledge gained at high levels to guide adaptation to new obstacles. Moreover, a context-driven remapping mechanism allows learning and memory of multiple tasks. Simulating dorsal or ventral hippocampal lesions in our computational framework qualitatively reproduces behavioral deficits observed in rodents with analogous lesions. The framework may thus embody key features of how the brain organizes model-based RL to efficiently solve navigation and other difficult tasks.

  6. Goal-directed reaching: movement strategies influence the weighting of allocentric and egocentric visual cues.

    PubMed

    Neely, Kristina A; Tessmer, Ayla; Binsted, Gordon; Heath, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    The location of an object in peripersonal space can be represented with respect to our body (i.e., egocentric frame of reference) or relative to contextual features and other objects (i.e., allocentric frame of reference). In the current study, we sought to determine whether the frame, or frames, of visual reference supporting motor output is influenced by reach trajectories structured to maximize visual feedback utilization (i.e., controlled online) or structured largely in advance of movement onset via central planning mechanisms (i.e., controlled offline). Reaches were directed to a target embedded in a pictorial illusion (the induced Roelofs effect: IRE) and advanced knowledge of visual feedback was manipulated to influence the nature of reaching control as reported by Zelaznik et al. (J Mot Behav 15:217-236, 1983). When vision could not be predicted in advance of movement onset, trajectories showed primary evidence of an offline mode of control (even when vision was provided) and endpoints demonstrated amplified sensitivity to the illusory (i.e., allocentric) features of the IRE. In contrast, reaches performed with reliable visual feedback evidenced a primarily online mode of control and showed increased visuomotor resistance to the IRE. These findings suggest that the manner a reaching response is structured differentially influences the weighting of allocentric and egocentric visual information. More specifically, when visual feedback is unavailable or unpredictable, the weighting of allocentric visual information for the advanced planning of a reach trajectory is increased.

  7. Value-driven attentional and oculomotor capture during goal-directed, unconstrained viewing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A; Yantis, Steven

    2012-11-01

    Covert shifts of attention precede and direct overt eye movements to stimuli that are task relevant or physically salient. A growing body of evidence suggests that the learned value of perceptual stimuli strongly influences their attentional priority. For example, previously rewarded but otherwise irrelevant and inconspicuous stimuli capture covert attention involuntarily. It is unknown, however, whether stimuli also draw eye movements involuntarily as a consequence of their reward history. Here, we show that previously rewarded but currently task-irrelevant stimuli capture both attention and the eyes. Value-driven oculomotor capture was observed during unconstrained viewing, when neither eye movements nor fixations were required, and was strongly related to individual differences in visual working memory capacity. The appearance of a reward-associated stimulus came to evoke pupil dilation over the course of training, which provides physiological evidence that the stimuli that elicit value-driven capture come to serve as reward-predictive cues. These findings reveal a close coupling of value-driven attentional capture and eye movements that has broad implications for theories of attention and reward learning.

  8. Large-scale cortical networks estimated from scalp EEG signals during performance of goal-directed motor tasks.

    PubMed

    De Vico Fallani, F; Astolfi, L; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Maglione, A G; Vecchiato, G; Toppi, J; Della Penna, F; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F; Zouridakis, G

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of the topological properties of brain networks is an emergent research topic, since the estimated cerebral connectivity patterns often have relatively large size and complex structure. Since a graph is a mathematical representation of a network, the use of a theoretical graph approach would describe concisely the topological features of the functional brain connectivity network estimated using neuroimaging techniques. In the present study, we analyze the changes in brain synchronization networks using high-resolution EEG signals obtained during performance of a complex goal-directed visuomotor task. Our results show that the cortical network is more stable when subjects reach the goal than when they fail by hitting an obstacle. These findings suggest the presence of a possible cerebral "marker" for motor actions that result in successful reaching of a target.

  9. Reflections on the Galileoscope Program: Goals, Challenges, Achievements, and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Fienberg, R. T.; Arion, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    The value of an inexpensive telescope that could be constructed and used at night became clear in the planning process for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. In fact, it became a national and international priority to develop such a telescope. Thus was born the Galileoscope project, as it later became known. We tested nearly every department store telescope available and finding them wanting in some major aspect, project members developed and tested a series of prototypes of refracting telescope kits. A key to the project is that the telescope is professionally designed and engineered with its design informed by extensive usability testing to ensure that it can be used easily by people of all ages. The eyepiece has excellent eye relief, for example, so that one can observe with glasses. The primary image quality requirement was that the telescope be good enough to see the rings of Saturn, as well as the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, with a field of view large enough to view the entire Pleiades. The Galileoscope is an ideal telescope to reproduce the observations of Galileo, from any place bright city or dark rural site. For the science classroom, we have developed well-tested educational materials on observing with the Galileoscope and teaching optics with it, available in pdf format on the Web site www. galileoscope.org. The educational materials are standards-based and appropriate for high school and beginning-level physics classes. Some of the key project decisions will be described and the future directions of the project will be described. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation Astronomy Division. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  10. [Advance directives in Italy: a goal not yet reached but already passed?].

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Luigi; Gristina, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The advance directives (ADs) have been adopted in many countries to defend patients' autonomy. In Italy, in the past, this topic gave rise to a heated debate involving philosophers, theologians, and politicians. In 2009, the government presented a bill of law on ADs firmly criticized from a scientific, moral and juridical point of view because the bill's content is against the principles of Italian Constitution, Italian Code of Medical Ethics, Oviedo Convention, and official statements of many scientific societies. Although the bill has passed the Low Chamber it lies, even since, in the Senate, lacking in regard any agreement among the political parties. The purpose of this article is to highlight that, in our country, patients, relatives and doctors deserve a law not only related to the specific topic of ADs, but - as in other European countries (Germany, Spain, France, UK) - aimed to deal with the complex issue of end of life care as a whole. This law should take into account the sound evidence existing in regard to the four fundamental principles supporting the best scientific and ethical approaches to the end of life issues: shared decision making process between doctors and patients/relatives; rejection of dying process marked by the suffering; withholding/withdrawing futile treatments together with palliative sedation as two crucial contributions to suppress the patient suffering and pain; clear-cut difference between these clinical/ethical options and euthanasia. At the same time, this law should be able to provide physicians with a legal coverage to make all the clinical and ethical decisions more and more complex because of the continuous evolution of medical science on one hand, and the impressive development of biotechnology on the other hand.

  11. Understanding human original actions directed at real-world goals: the role of the lateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R; Lord, Louis-David; West, W Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional

  12. Goal-Directed Health Care: Redefining Health and Health Care in the Era of Value-Based Care

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Health care reform efforts have increasingly emphasized payment models that reward value (quality/cost). It seems appropriate, therefore, to examine what we value in health care, and that will require that we examine our definition of health. In spite of admonitions from the World Health Organization and others, our current health care system operates under the assumption that health represents the absence of health problems. While that perspective has led to incredible advances in medical science, it now may be adversely affecting value. Problem-oriented care is clearly one of the drivers of rising costs and it could be adversely affecting the quality of care, depending upon how quality is defined.  If we redefined health in terms of patient-centered goals, health care could be focused more directly on meaningful outcomes, reducing the number of irrelevant tests and treatments. Greater emphasis would be placed on prevention, meaningful activities, advance directives and personal growth and development. The role of patients within clinician-patient relationships would be elevated, strengthening therapeutic relationships. Reframing health in terms of health-related goals and directing the health care system to help people achieve them, could both improve quality and reduce costs. In the process, it could also make health care less mechanical and more humane. PMID:28367382

  13. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee

    2012-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but leave expected probability intact. To test this, the current study examined whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) nasal spray would modify goal-directed tobacco choice in a human outcome devaluation procedure, but leave cue-elicited tobacco choice in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure intact. Smokers (N= 96) first underwent concurrent choice training in which 2 responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively. Participants then ingested either NRT nasal spray (1 mg) or chocolate (147 g) to devalue 1 outcome. Concurrent choice was then tested again in extinction to measure goal-directed control of choice, and in a PIT test to measure the extent to which tobacco and chocolate stimuli enhanced choice of the same outcome. It was found that NRT modified tobacco choice in the extinction test but not the extent to which the tobacco stimulus enhanced choice of the tobacco outcome in the PIT test. This dissociation suggests that the propensity to engage in drug-seeking is determined independently by the expected value and probability of the drug, and that pharmacotherapy has partial efficacy because it selectively effects expected drug value.

  14. A spiking neuron model of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits for goal-directed and habitual action learning.

    PubMed

    Chersi, Fabian; Mirolli, Marco; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-05-01

    Dual-system theories postulate that actions are supported either by a goal-directed or by a habit-driven response system. Neuroimaging and anatomo-functional studies have provided evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays a fundamental role in the first type of action control, while internal brain areas such as the basal ganglia are more active during habitual and overtrained responses. Additionally, it has been shown that areas of the cortex and the basal ganglia are connected through multiple parallel "channels", which are thought to function as an action selection mechanism resolving competitions between alternative options available in a given context. In this paper we propose a multi-layer network of spiking neurons that implements in detail the thalamo-cortical circuits that are believed to be involved in action learning and execution. A key feature of this model is that neurons are organized in small pools in the motor cortex and form independent loops with specific pools of the basal ganglia where inhibitory circuits implement a multistep selection mechanism. The described model has been validated utilizing it to control the actions of a virtual monkey that has to learn to turn on briefly flashing lights by pressing corresponding buttons on a board. When the animal is able to fluently execute the task the button-light associations are remapped so that it has to suppress its habitual behavior in order to execute goal-directed actions. The model nicely shows how sensory-motor associations for action sequences are formed at the cortico-basal ganglia level and how goal-directed decisions may override automatic motor responses.

  15. Computational Properties of the Hippocampus Increase the Efficiency of Goal-Directed Foraging through Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Eric; Luczak, Artur; Gruber, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian brain is thought to use a version of Model-based Reinforcement Learning (MBRL) to guide “goal-directed” behavior, wherein animals consider goals and make plans to acquire desired outcomes. However, conventional MBRL algorithms do not fully explain animals' ability to rapidly adapt to environmental changes, or learn multiple complex tasks. They also require extensive computation, suggesting that goal-directed behavior is cognitively expensive. We propose here that key features of processing in the hippocampus support a flexible MBRL mechanism for spatial navigation that is computationally efficient and can adapt quickly to change. We investigate this idea by implementing a computational MBRL framework that incorporates features inspired by computational properties of the hippocampus: a hierarchical representation of space, “forward sweeps” through future spatial trajectories, and context-driven remapping of place cells. We find that a hierarchical abstraction of space greatly reduces the computational load (mental effort) required for adaptation to changing environmental conditions, and allows efficient scaling to large problems. It also allows abstract knowledge gained at high levels to guide adaptation to new obstacles. Moreover, a context-driven remapping mechanism allows learning and memory of multiple tasks. Simulating dorsal or ventral hippocampal lesions in our computational framework qualitatively reproduces behavioral deficits observed in rodents with analogous lesions. The framework may thus embody key features of how the brain organizes model-based RL to efficiently solve navigation and other difficult tasks. PMID:28018203

  16. Modeling goal-directed spatial navigation in the rat based on physiological data from the hippocampal formation.

    PubMed

    Koene, Randal A; Gorchetchnikov, Anatoli; Cannon, Robert C; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the importance of hippocampal theta oscillations and the significance of phase differences of theta modulation in the cortical regions that are involved in goal-directed spatial navigation. Our models used representations of entorhinal cortex layer III (ECIII), hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) to guide movements of a virtual rat in a virtual environment. The model encoded representations of the environment through long-term potentiation of excitatory recurrent connections between sequentially spiking place cells in ECIII and CA3. This encoding required buffering of place cell activity, which was achieved by a short-term memory (STM) in EC that was regulated by theta modulation and allowed synchronized reactivation with encoding phases in ECIII and CA3. Inhibition at a specific theta phase deactivated the oldest item in the buffer when new input was presented to a full STM buffer. A 180 degrees phase difference separated retrieval and encoding in ECIII and CA3, which enabled us to simulate data on theta phase precession of place cells. Retrieval of known paths was elicited in ECIII by input at the retrieval phase from PFC working memory for goal location, requiring strict theta phase relationships with PFC. Known locations adjacent to the virtual rat were retrieved in CA3. Together, input from ECIII and CA3 activated predictive spiking in cells in CA1 for the next desired place on a shortest path to a goal. Consistent with data, place cell activity in CA1 and CA3 showed smaller place fields than in ECIII.

  17. Understanding and Promoting Thinking about Knowledge: Origins, Issues, and Future Directions of Research on Epistemic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, William A.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Bråten, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Epistemic cognition is the thinking that people do about what and how they know. Education has long been concerned with promoting reflection on knowledge and processes of knowing, but research into epistemic cognition began really in the past half century, with a tremendous expansion in the past 20 years. This review summarizes the broad range of…

  18. A nudge in a healthier direction: How environmental cues help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal.

    PubMed

    Stämpfli, Aline E; Stöckli, Sabrina; Brunner, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Losing weight is a goal for many people, but it is hard to pursue. However, dieting cues in the environment hold promise for improving individuals' eating behavior. For example, exposure to thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti has been found to promote healthy snack choices at a vending machine. Whether health- or weight-related processes drive such effects has not yet been determined. However, a detailed understanding of the content-related drivers of environmental cues' effects provides the first indications regarding a cue's possible use. Therefore, two laboratory studies were conducted. They examined the Giacometti sculptures' effects on unhealthy and healthy food intake (Study 1) and on the completion of weight- and health-related fragmented words (Study 2). Study 1 indicated that the sculptures are weight-related by showing that they reduced food intake independent of food healthiness. Furthermore, the "Giacometti effect" was moderated by restrained eating. Restrained eaters, who are known for their weight-control goal, ate less after having been exposed to the thin sculptures. The results of Study 2 pointed in the same direction. Restrained eaters completed more weight-related words after being exposed to the sculptures. Overall, these studies suggest that the thin sculptures are primarily weight-related cues and particularly helpful for restrained eaters. Environmental weight-control cues such as the Giacometti sculptures could act as a counterforce to our obesogenic environment and help restrained eaters pursue their weight-control goal. In this way, they could nudge food decisions in a healthier direction.

  19. From Creatures of Habit to Goal-Directed Learners: Tracking the Developmental Emergence of Model-Based Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Decker, Johannes H; Otto, A Ross; Daw, Nathaniel D; Hartley, Catherine A

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical models distinguish two decision-making strategies that have been formalized in reinforcement-learning theory. A model-based strategy leverages a cognitive model of potential actions and their consequences to make goal-directed choices, whereas a model-free strategy evaluates actions based solely on their reward history. Research in adults has begun to elucidate the psychological mechanisms and neural substrates underlying these learning processes and factors that influence their relative recruitment. However, the developmental trajectory of these evaluative strategies has not been well characterized. In this study, children, adolescents, and adults performed a sequential reinforcement-learning task that enabled estimation of model-based and model-free contributions to choice. Whereas a model-free strategy was apparent in choice behavior across all age groups, a model-based strategy was absent in children, became evident in adolescents, and strengthened in adults. These results suggest that recruitment of model-based valuation systems represents a critical cognitive component underlying the gradual maturation of goal-directed behavior.

  20. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, P. O.; Oliveira, L. A. S.; Nogueira-Campos, A. A.; Saunier, G.; Pozzo, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Rodrigues, E. C.; Volchan, E.; Vargas, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the “reach-to-grasp” and “bring-to-the-body” movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  1. Variation in key genes of serotonin and norepinephrine function predicts gamma-band activity during goal-directed attention.

    PubMed

    Enge, Sören; Fleischhauer, Monika; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas; Strobel, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that genetic variations in key regulators of serotonergic (5-HT) signaling explain variance in executive tasks, which suggests modulatory actions of 5-HT on goal-directed selective attention as one possible underlying mechanism. To investigate this link, 130 volunteers were genotyped for the 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and for a variation (TPH2-703 G/T) of the TPH2 gene coding for the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT synthesis in the brain. Additionally, a functional polymorphism of the norepinephrine transporter gene (NET -3081 A/T) was considered, which was recently found to predict attention and working memory processes in interaction with serotonergic genes. The flanker-based Attention Network Test was used to assess goal-directed attention and the efficiency of attentional networks. Event-related gamma-band activity served to indicate selective attention at the intermediate phenotype level. The main findings were that 5-HTTLPR s allele and TPH2 G-allele homozygotes showed increased induced gamma-band activity during target processing when combined with the NET A/A genotype compared with other genotype combinations, and that gamma activity mediates the genotype-specific effects on task performance. The results further support a modulatory role of 5-HT and NE function in the top-down attentional selection of motivationally relevant over competing or irrelevant sensory input.

  2. Interaction of insular cortex and ventral striatum mediates the effect of incentive memory on choice between goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Shauna L; Bradfield, Laura A; Balleine, Bernard W

    2015-04-22

    The anterior insular cortex (IC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core have been separately implicated in the selection and performance of actions based on the incentive value of the instrumental outcome. Here, we examined the role of connections between the IC and the NAc core in the performance of goal-directed actions. Rats were trained on two actions for distinct outcomes, after which one of the two outcomes was devalued by specific satiety immediately before a choice extinction test. We first confirmed the projection from the IC to the NAc core and then disconnected these structures via asymmetrical excitotoxic lesions before training. Contralateral, but not ipsilateral, disconnection of the IC and NAc core disrupted outcome devaluation. We hypothesized that communication between the IC and NAc core is necessary for the retrieval of incentive value at test. To test this, we infused the GABAA agonist muscimol into the IC and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist CTAP into the contralateral NAc before the choice extinction test. As expected, inactivation of the IC in one hemisphere and blocking μ-opioid receptors in the contralateral NAc core abolished outcome-selective devaluation. These results suggest that the IC and NAc core form part of a circuit mediating the retrieval of outcome values and the subsequent choice between goal-directed actions based on those values.

  3. Contexts Paired with Junk Food Impair Goal-Directed Behavior in Rats: Implications for Decision Making in Obesogenic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kendig, Michael D.; Cheung, Ambrose M. K.; Raymond, Joel S.; Corbit, Laura H.

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three “junk” foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context). Next, rats were food-deprived and trained to perform instrumental responses (lever-press) for two novel food rewards in a third, distinct context. Contextual influences on flexible control of food-seeking behavior were then assessed by outcome devaluation tests held in the JF, chow and training contexts. Devaluation was achieved using specific satiety and test order was counterbalanced. Rats exhibited goal-directed control over behavior when tested in the training and chow-paired contexts. Notably, performance was habitual (insensitive to devaluation) when tested in the JF context. In Experiment 2 we tested whether the impairment found in the JF context could be ameliorated by the presentation of a discrete auditory cue paired with the chow context, relative to a second cue paired with the JF context. Consistent with the results of Experiment 1, the devaluation effect was not significant when rats were tested in the JF context with the JF cue. However, presenting the chow cue increased the impact of the devaluation treatment leading to a robust devaluation effect. Further tests confirmed that performance in the chow context was goal-directed and that sensory-specific satiety in the JF context was intact. These results show that environments paired with palatable foods can impair goal-directed control over food-seeking behavior, but that this deficit was improved

  4. Contexts Paired with Junk Food Impair Goal-Directed Behavior in Rats: Implications for Decision Making in Obesogenic Environments.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Michael D; Cheung, Ambrose M K; Raymond, Joel S; Corbit, Laura H

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context). Next, rats were food-deprived and trained to perform instrumental responses (lever-press) for two novel food rewards in a third, distinct context. Contextual influences on flexible control of food-seeking behavior were then assessed by outcome devaluation tests held in the JF, chow and training contexts. Devaluation was achieved using specific satiety and test order was counterbalanced. Rats exhibited goal-directed control over behavior when tested in the training and chow-paired contexts. Notably, performance was habitual (insensitive to devaluation) when tested in the JF context. In Experiment 2 we tested whether the impairment found in the JF context could be ameliorated by the presentation of a discrete auditory cue paired with the chow context, relative to a second cue paired with the JF context. Consistent with the results of Experiment 1, the devaluation effect was not significant when rats were tested in the JF context with the JF cue. However, presenting the chow cue increased the impact of the devaluation treatment leading to a robust devaluation effect. Further tests confirmed that performance in the chow context was goal-directed and that sensory-specific satiety in the JF context was intact. These results show that environments paired with palatable foods can impair goal-directed control over food-seeking behavior, but that this deficit was improved by

  5. [Early goal-directed therapy (EDGT) using continuous central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in a patient with septic shock].

    PubMed

    Oyama, Yoshimasa; Goto, Koji; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Kusaka, Jyunya; Hidaka, Seigo; Shingu, Chihiro; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2008-04-01

    Septic shock is an adverse clinical condition resulting in multiple organ failure from global tissue hypoxia. The importance of initial treatment is widely recognized. Thus, guidelines for septic shock recommend early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) during the first six hours of treatment. Central venous oxygen saturation monitoring is useful to maintain adequate tissue oxygen delivery. A newly developed central venous oximetry catheter (PreSep Oximetery Catheter, Edwards Lifesciences) allows continuous and easy monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation. This report shows the usefulness of this catheter in a patient who developed septic shock during an emergency operation for perforated bowel. By using EGDT perioperatively with continuous central venous oximetry, multiple organ failure might be successfully avoided.

  6. A Role of Phase-Resetting in Coordinating Large Scale Neural Networks During Attention and Goal-Directed Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Voloh, Benjamin; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Short periods of oscillatory activation are ubiquitous signatures of neural circuits. A broad range of studies documents not only their circuit origins, but also a fundamental role for oscillatory activity in coordinating information transfer during goal directed behavior. Recent studies suggest that resetting the phase of ongoing oscillatory activity to endogenous or exogenous cues facilitates coordinated information transfer within circuits and between distributed brain areas. Here, we review evidence that pinpoints phase resetting as a critical marker of dynamic state changes of functional networks. Phase resets: (1) set a “neural context” in terms of narrow band frequencies that uniquely characterizes the activated circuits; (2) impose coherent low frequency phases to which high frequency activations can synchronize, identifiable as cross-frequency correlations across large anatomical distances; (3) are critical for neural coding models that depend on phase, increasing the informational content of neural representations; and (4) likely originate from the dynamics of canonical E-I circuits that are anatomically ubiquitous. These multiple signatures of phase resets are directly linked to enhanced information transfer and behavioral success. We survey how phase resets re-organize oscillations in diverse task contexts, including sensory perception, attentional stimulus selection, cross-modal integration, Pavlovian conditioning, and spatial navigation. The evidence we consider suggests that phase-resets can drive changes in neural excitability, ensemble organization, functional networks, and ultimately, overt behavior. PMID:27013986

  7. Goal-directed control with cortical units that are gated by both top-down feedback and oscillatory coherence

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Robert R.; Grayden, David B.; Thomas, Doreen A.; Gilson, Matthieu; Burkitt, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    The brain is able to flexibly select behaviors that adapt to both its environment and its present goals. This cognitive control is understood to occur within the hierarchy of the cortex and relies strongly on the prefrontal and premotor cortices, which sit at the top of this hierarchy. Pyramidal neurons, the principal neurons in the cortex, have been observed to exhibit much stronger responses when they receive inputs at their soma/basal dendrites that are coincident with inputs at their apical dendrites. This corresponds to inputs from both lower-order regions (feedforward) and higher-order regions (feedback), respectively. In addition to this, coherence between oscillations, such as gamma oscillations, in different neuronal groups has been proposed to modulate and route communication in the brain. In this paper, we develop a simple, but novel, neural mass model in which cortical units (or ensembles) exhibit gamma oscillations when they receive coherent oscillatory inputs from both feedforward and feedback connections. By forming these units into circuits that can perform logic operations, we identify the different ways in which operations can be initiated and manipulated by top-down feedback. We demonstrate that more sophisticated and flexible top-down control is possible when the gain of units is modulated by not only top-down feedback but by coherence between the activities of the oscillating units. With these types of units, it is possible to not only add units to, or remove units from, a higher-level unit's logic operation using top-down feedback, but also to modify the type of role that a unit plays in the operation. Finally, we explore how different network properties affect top-down control and processing in large networks. Based on this, we make predictions about the likely connectivities between certain brain regions that have been experimentally observed to be involved in goal-directed behavior and top-down attention. PMID:25152715

  8. Rapid and flexible whole body postural responses are evoked from perturbations to the upper limb during goal-directed reaching.

    PubMed

    Lowrey, Catherine R; Nashed, Joseph Y; Scott, Stephen H

    2017-03-01

    An important aspect of motor control is the ability to perform tasks with the upper limbs while maintaining whole body balance. However, little is known about the coordination of upper limb voluntary and whole body postural control after mechanical disturbances that require both upper limb motor corrections to attain a behavioral goal and lower limb motor responses to maintain whole body balance. The present study identified the temporal organization of muscle responses and center of pressure (COP) changes following mechanical perturbations during reaching. Our results demonstrate that muscle responses in the upper limb are evoked first (∼50 ms), with lower limb muscle activity occurring immediately after, in as little as ∼60 ms after perturbation. Hand motion was immediately altered by the load, while COP changes occurred after ∼100 ms, when lower limb muscle activity was already present. Our secondary findings showed that both muscle activity and COP changes were influenced by behavioral context (by altering target shape, circle vs. rectangle). Voluntary and postural actions initially directed the hand toward the center of both target types, but after the perturbation upper limb and postural responses redirected the hand toward different spatial locations along the rectangle. Muscle activity was increased for both upper and lower limbs when correcting to the circle vs. the rectangle, and these differences emerged as early as the long-latency epoch (∼75-120 ms). Our results demonstrate that postural responses are rapidly and flexibly altered to consider the behavioral goal of the upper limb.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present work establishes that, when reaching to a target while standing, perturbations applied to the upper limb elicit a rapid response in lower limb muscles. Unlike voluntary movements, postural responses do not occur before corrections of the upper limb. We show the first evidence that corrective postural adjustments are modulated by upper limb

  9. Goal-directed control with cortical units that are gated by both top-down feedback and oscillatory coherence.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Robert R; Grayden, David B; Thomas, Doreen A; Gilson, Matthieu; Burkitt, Anthony N

    2014-01-01

    The brain is able to flexibly select behaviors that adapt to both its environment and its present goals. This cognitive control is understood to occur within the hierarchy of the cortex and relies strongly on the prefrontal and premotor cortices, which sit at the top of this hierarchy. Pyramidal neurons, the principal neurons in the cortex, have been observed to exhibit much stronger responses when they receive inputs at their soma/basal dendrites that are coincident with inputs at their apical dendrites. This corresponds to inputs from both lower-order regions (feedforward) and higher-order regions (feedback), respectively. In addition to this, coherence between oscillations, such as gamma oscillations, in different neuronal groups has been proposed to modulate and route communication in the brain. In this paper, we develop a simple, but novel, neural mass model in which cortical units (or ensembles) exhibit gamma oscillations when they receive coherent oscillatory inputs from both feedforward and feedback connections. By forming these units into circuits that can perform logic operations, we identify the different ways in which operations can be initiated and manipulated by top-down feedback. We demonstrate that more sophisticated and flexible top-down control is possible when the gain of units is modulated by not only top-down feedback but by coherence between the activities of the oscillating units. With these types of units, it is possible to not only add units to, or remove units from, a higher-level unit's logic operation using top-down feedback, but also to modify the type of role that a unit plays in the operation. Finally, we explore how different network properties affect top-down control and processing in large networks. Based on this, we make predictions about the likely connectivities between certain brain regions that have been experimentally observed to be involved in goal-directed behavior and top-down attention.

  10. Effects of goal-directed fluid therapy with different lactated Ringer's: hydroxyethyl starch ratios in hemorrhagic shock dogs.

    PubMed

    Tao, J P; Huang, Q Q; Huang, H Q; Yang, J J; Shi, M; Zhou, Y; Wan, L J; Zhou, C; Ou, Y J; Tong, Y Y; Yang, D G; Si, Y Y

    2015-06-18

    The effects of goal-directed fluid therapy, with lactated Ringer's (LR) and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solution, on hemorrhagic shock dogs are unknown. We aimed to determine the optimal LR: HES ratio for the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock dogs. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 ventilated dogs by drawing an estimated 60% blood volume. The animals were randomly divided into five groups (N = 8) according to the LR: HES ratio of the resuscitation fluid (3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3), and were then resuscitated for 24 h to reach the stroke volume variation (SVV) and hemoglobin (Hb) goals by fluid infusion and autologous blood perfusion. The extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), base excess (BE), sodium, chloride, Hb and creatinine clearance (Clearcrea) were checked after 24 h (R24). The EVLWI of the 3:1 group at R24 were higher than that of the 1:3 group and the baseline value (P < 0.05), whereas the PaO2 was lower (P < 0.05). In contrast to the 3:1 group at R24 and baseline, plasma chloride and sodium in the 1:3 and 1:2 groups increased; however, pH, BE, and Clearcrea decreased (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the 1:1 and 2:1 groups at R24 compared with baseline (P > 0.05). Resuscitation with LR and HES at 2:1 and 1:1 ratios are superior in maintaining the acid-base, electrolyte, and lung water balances as well as renal function in hemorrhagic shock dogs than at ratios of 3:l, 1:2, and1:3.

  11. Goal-directed Therapy Improves the Outcome of High-risk Cardiac Patients Undergoing Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder Singh; Mehta, Yatin; Taneja, Sameer; Ravi, R; Hote, Milind P

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has been a constant emphasis on developing management strategies to improve the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing surgical revascularization. The performance of coronary artery bypass surgery on an off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) avoids the risks associated with extra-corporeal circulation. The preliminary results of goal-directed therapy (GDT) for hemodynamic management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients are encouraging. The present study was conducted to study the outcome benefits with the combined use of GDT with OPCAB as compared to the conventional hemodynamic management. Material and Method: Patients with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation ≥3 scheduled for OPCAB were randomly divided into two groups; the control and GDT groups. The GDT group included the monitoring and optimization of advanced parameters, including cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen delivery index, stroke volume variation; continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2), global end-diastolic volume, and extravascular lung water (EVLW), using FloTrac™, PreSep™, and EV-1000® monitoring panels, in addition to the conventional hemodynamic management in the control group. The hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored for 48 h in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and corrected according to GDT protocol. A total of 163 patients consented for the study. Result: Seventy-five patients were assigned to the GDT group and 88 patients were in the control group. In view of 9 exclusions from the GDT group and 12 exclusions from control group, 66 patients in the GDT group and 76 patients in control group completed the study. Conclusion: The length of stay in hospital (LOS-H) (7.42 ± 1.48 vs. 5.61 ± 1.11 days, P < 0.001) and ICU stay (4.2 ± 0.82 vs. 2.53 ± 0.56 days, P < 0.001) were significantly lower in the GDT group as compared to control group. The duration of inotropes (3.24 ± 0.73 vs. 2.89

  12. The Learner-Directed Classroom: Developing Creative Thinking Skills through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquith, Diane B., Ed.; Hathaway, Nan E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Educators at all levels want their students to develop habits of self-directed learning and critical problem-solving skills that encourage ownership and growth. In "The Learner-Directed Classroom," practicing art educators (PreK-16) offer both a comprehensive framework for understanding student-directed learning and concrete pedagogical strategies…

  13. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Llopis-Llacer, Juan-José; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC) subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD) patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5). Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1) performance facilitation in both groups; (2) left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3) left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4) dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards.

  14. Reward Contingencies Improve Goal-Directed Behavior by Enhancing Posterior Brain Attentional Regions and Increasing Corticostriatal Connectivity in Cocaine Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Llopis-Llacer, Juan-José; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user’s loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC) subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD) patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5). Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1) performance facilitation in both groups; (2) left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3) left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4) dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards. PMID:27907134

  15. Evidence of action sequence chunking in goal-directed instrumental conditioning and its dependence on the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Winterbauer, Neil E; Balleine, Bernard W

    2009-06-24

    The current study investigated the contribution of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) to instrumental action selection. We found that cell body lesions of the dmPFC, centered on the medial agranular area, spared rats' ability to choose between actions based on either the value or the discriminative stimulus properties of an outcome. We next examined the effects of these lesions on action sequence learning using a concurrent bidirectional heterogeneous chain task in which the identity of the reward delivered was determined by the order in which the two lever press actions were performed. Although both lesioned rats and sham controls learned to perform the task, we found that they relied on different behavioral strategies to do so. In subsequent tests, rats in the sham group were able to withhold their performance of a sequence when either its associated outcome was devalued or the contingency between that sequence and its outcome was degraded by delivering the outcome noncontingently. Interestingly, lesioned rats failed to reorganize their performance at the action sequence level and, rather, were found to withhold their performance of the terminal response in the sequence that had earned the devalued outcome relative to the more distal response, suggesting that they represented the elements of the sequence as distinct behavioral units. These findings demonstrate that rats can use sequence-level representations, or action chunks, to organize their behavior in a goal-directed manner and indicate that the dmPFC plays a critical role in this process.

  16. Association of Gait Characteristics and Depression in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Assessed in Goal-Directed Locomotion Task.

    PubMed

    Kincses, Péter; Kovács, Norbert; Karádi, Kázmér; Feldmann, Ádám; Dorn, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Komoly, Sámuel; Szolcsányi, Tibor; Csathó, Árpád; Kállai, János

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 52) were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC) and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC). Results. Significantly higher depression scores were found in PD comparing to healthy control groups. In PD, depression was associated with gait components in the VC wherein the place of the target was visible. In contrast, in healthy subjects the depression was associated with gait components in VnC wherein the location and image of the target were memorized and recalled. In patients with PD and depression, the visually deprived multitask augments the rate of cadence and diminishes stride length, while velocity remains relatively unchanged. The depression associated with gait characteristics as a comorbid affective factor in PD, and that impairs the coherence of gait pattern. Conclusion. The relationship between depression and gait parameters appears to indicate that PD not only is a neurological disease but also incorporates affective disturbances that associate with the regulation of gait characteristics.

  17. Medial prefrontal serotonin in the rat is involved in goal-directed behaviour when affect guides decision making

    PubMed Central

    La Fors, Sabrina S. B. M.; Meerkerk, Dorie T. J.; Joosten, Ruud N. J. M. A.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Across species, serotonin (5-HT) depletion in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to cause impaired performance on tests of cognitive flexibility and the processing of affective information (e.g. information with an ‘emotional’ content). While recent work has explored the specific role of the orbital PFC herein, the role of the medial PFC remains unclear. Objectives The aim of our current experiments was to study the role of medial PFC 5-HT in both the processing of affective information and reversal learning across stimulus modalities. Materials and methods To this end, we selectively destroyed 5-HT terminals in the medial PFC of male Wistar rats by means of local infusion of the toxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. Both control and lesioned animals were tested in two reversal learning paradigms with either spatial or odour cues and an affective switch from non-preferred to preferred food rewards. Results Our results indicate that a pellet switch during reversal learning impaired performance in control animals but not in lesioned animals, independent of the stimulus modality. Conclusion These results indicate that lesioned animals are not guided in their behaviour by the affective value of the reward like intact animals and thus that medial prefrontal 5-HT is needed for affective processing in goal-directed behaviour. PMID:17874235

  18. Working for food you don't desire. Cues interfere with goal-directed food-seeking.

    PubMed

    Watson, P; Wiers, R W; Hommel, B; de Wit, S

    2014-08-01

    Why do we indulge in food-seeking and eating behaviors at times when we are already fully sated? In the present study we investigated the hypothesis that food-associated cues in the environment can interfere with goal-directed action by eliciting food-seeking that is independent of the current desirability of the outcome. To this end, we used a computerized task in which participants learned to press keys for chocolate and popcorn rewards. Subsequently, we investigated whether satiation on one of these rewards would bias choice toward the other, still desirable, food reward. We found that satiation did indeed selectively reduce responding on the associated key in the absence of food-associated cues. In contrast, in a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) test, satiation failed to reduce cue-elicited food-seeking: in line with our hypothesis, cues that had previously been paired with chocolate and popcorn led to increased responding for the signaled food reward, independent of satiation. Furthermore, we show that food-associated cues will not only bias choice toward the signaled food (outcome-specific transfer), but also enhance the vigor of responding generally (general transfer). These findings point to a mechanism that may underlie the powerful control that cues in our obesogenic environment exert over our behavior.

  19. Association of Gait Characteristics and Depression in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Assessed in Goal-Directed Locomotion Task

    PubMed Central

    Kincses, Péter; Karádi, Kázmér; Feldmann, Ádám; Dorn, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Szolcsányi, Tibor; Csathó, Árpád

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. In the genesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical phenomenology the exact nature of the association between bradykinesia and affective variables is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the gait characteristics and level of depression in PD and healthy volunteers. Methods. Patients with PD (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 52) were recruited for the present study. Walking speed, stride length, and cadence were compared between groups while participants completed a goal-directed locomotion task under visually controlled (VC) and visually noncontrolled conditions (VnC). Results. Significantly higher depression scores were found in PD comparing to healthy control groups. In PD, depression was associated with gait components in the VC wherein the place of the target was visible. In contrast, in healthy subjects the depression was associated with gait components in VnC wherein the location and image of the target were memorized and recalled. In patients with PD and depression, the visually deprived multitask augments the rate of cadence and diminishes stride length, while velocity remains relatively unchanged. The depression associated with gait characteristics as a comorbid affective factor in PD, and that impairs the coherence of gait pattern. Conclusion. The relationship between depression and gait parameters appears to indicate that PD not only is a neurological disease but also incorporates affective disturbances that associate with the regulation of gait characteristics. PMID:28293444

  20. The Allocation of Attention to Learning of Goal-Directed Actions: A Cognitive Neuroscience Framework Focusing on the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Franz, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper builds on the idea that attention is largely in service of our actions. A framework and model which captures the allocation of attention for learning of goal-directed actions is proposed and developed. This framework highlights an evolutionary model based on the notion that rudimentary functions of the basal ganglia have become embedded into increasingly higher levels of networks which all contribute to adaptive learning. Supporting the proposed model, background literature is presented alongside key evidence based on experimental studies in the so-called “split-brain” (surgically divided cerebral hemispheres), and selected evidence from related areas of research. Although overlap with other existing findings and models is acknowledged, the proposed framework is an original synthesis of cognitive experimental findings with supporting evidence of a neural system and a carefully formulated model of attention. It is the hope that this new synthesis will be informative in fields of cognition and other fields of brain sciences and will lead to new avenues for experimentation across domains. PMID:23267335

  1. Training of goal-directed attention regulation enhances control over neural processing for individuals with brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anthony J-W; Novakovic-Agopian, Tatjana; Nycum, Terrence J; Song, Shawn; Turner, Gary R; Hills, Nancy K; Rome, Scott; Abrams, Gary M; D'Esposito, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Deficits in attention and executive control are some of the most common, debilitating and persistent consequences of brain injuries. Understanding neural mechanisms that support clinically significant improvements, when they do occur, may help advance treatment development. Intervening via rehabilitation provides an opportunity to probe such mechanisms. Our objective was to identify neural mechanisms that underlie improvements in attention and executive control with rehabilitation training. We tested the hypothesis that intensive training enhances modulatory control of neural processing of perceptual information in patients with acquired brain injuries. Patients (n=12) participated either in standardized training designed to target goal-directed attention regulation, or a comparison condition (brief education). Training resulted in significant improvements on behavioural measures of attention and executive control. Functional magnetic resonance imaging methods adapted for testing the effects of intervention for patients with varied injury pathology were used to index modulatory control of neural processing. Pattern classification was utilized to decode individual functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired during a visual selective attention task. Results showed that modulation of neural processing in extrastriate cortex was significantly enhanced by attention regulation training. Neural changes in prefrontal cortex, a candidate mediator for attention regulation, appeared to depend on individual baseline state. These behavioural and neural effects did not occur with the comparison condition. These results suggest that enhanced modulatory control over visual processing and a rebalancing of prefrontal functioning may underlie improvements in attention and executive control.

  2. Human hippocampal and parahippocampal theta during goal-directed spatial navigation predicts performance on a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Brian R; Johnson, Linda L; Holroyd, Tom; Carver, Frederick W; Grillon, Christian

    2008-06-04

    The hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices exhibit theta oscillations during spatial navigation in animals and humans, and in the former are thought to mediate spatial memory formation. Functional specificity of human hippocampal theta, however, is unclear. Neuromagnetic activity was recorded with a whole-head 275-channel magnetoencephalographic (MEG) system as healthy participants navigated to a hidden platform in a virtual reality Morris water maze. MEG data were analyzed for underlying oscillatory sources in the 4-8 Hz band using a spatial filtering technique (i.e., synthetic aperture magnetometry). Source analyses revealed greater theta activity in the left anterior hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices during goal-directed navigation relative to aimless movements in a sensorimotor control condition. Additional analyses showed that left anterior hippocampal activity was predominantly observed during the first one-half of training, pointing to a role for this region in early learning. Moreover, posterior hippocampal theta was highly correlated with navigation performance, with the former accounting for 76% of the variance of the latter. Our findings suggest human spatial learning is dependent on hippocampal and parahippocampal theta oscillations, extending to humans a significant body of research demonstrating such a pivotal role for hippocampal theta in animal navigation.

  3. Putting an object in context and acting on it: neural mechanisms of goal-directed response to contextual object.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inah; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Animals including humans experience objects in a certain environment, that is, a context. Same objects may have to be treated differently, or different objects may need to be treated similarly depending on contexts. Flexible behavioral choice in such ambiguous situations involves dynamic interactions among brain regions, but underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. In this article, prior studies that have examined (mostly in rodents) some of the brain regions involved in contextual processing of object information using goal-directed tasks are selectively reviewed. The current review identifies the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and perirhinal cortex (PER) as key regions for associating the same objects with different reward values and responses depending on the background visual context. The hippocampus is particularly important for contextual choice behavior when the context must be used as a conditional cue that can disambiguate reward-related 'meanings' of objects. The PER appears to play significant roles in such tasks during initial learning (but not so much for retrieval) because perturbations in the PER produce severe deficits in the acquisition of the contextual object memory task. Perturbations in the PFC also affect performance when flexible contextual responses should be made toward otherwise ambiguous objects.

  4. Goal Directed Worry Rules Are Associated with Distinct Patterns of Amygdala Functional Connectivity and Vagal Modulation during Perseverative Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Meeten, Frances; Davey, Graham C. L.; Makovac, Elena; Watson, David R.; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Ottaviani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Excessive and uncontrollable worry is a defining feature of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). An important endeavor in the treatment of pathological worry is to understand why some people are unable to stop worrying once they have started. Worry perseveration is associated with a tendency to deploy goal-directed worry rules (known as “as many as can” worry rules; AMA). These require attention to the goal of the worry task and continuation of worry until the aims of the “worry bout” are achieved. This study examined the association between the tendency to use AMA worry rules and neural and autonomic responses to a perseverative cognition induction. To differentiate processes underlying the AMA worry rule use from trait worry, we also examined the relationship between scores on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and neural and autonomic responses following the same induction. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance brain imaging (fMRI) while measuring emotional bodily arousal from heart rate variability (where decreased HRV indicates stress-related parasympathetic withdrawal) in 19 patients with GAD and 21 control participants. Seed-based analyses were conducted to quantify brain changes in functional connectivity (FC) with the amygdala. The tendency to adopt an AMA worry rule was associated with validated measures of worry, anxiety, depression and rumination. AMA worry rule endorsement predicted a stronger decrease in HRV and was positively associated with increased connectivity between right amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC), a brainstem noradrenergic projection nucleus. Higher AMA scores were also associated with increased connectivity between amygdala and rostral superior frontal gyrus. Higher PSWQ scores amplified decreases in FC between right amygdala and subcallosal cortex, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and areas of parietal cortex. Our results identify neural mechanisms underlying the deployment of AMA

  5. Do Gestural Interfaces Promote Thinking? Embodied Interaction: Congruent Gestures and Direct Touch Promote Performance in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Ayelet

    2011-01-01

    Can action support cognition? Can direct touch support performance? Embodied interaction involving digital devices is based on the theory of grounded cognition. Embodied interaction with gestural interfaces involves more of our senses than traditional (mouse-based) interfaces, and in particular includes direct touch and physical movement, which…

  6. Summary of the 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank: new directions in urologic research.

    PubMed

    Svatek, Robert S; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Galsky, Matthew D; Lee, Cheryl T; Latini, David M; Bochner, Bernard H; Weizer, Alon Z; Apolo, Andrea B; Sridhar, Srikala S; Kamat, Ashish M; Hansel, Donna; Flaig, Thomas W; Smith, Norm D; Lotan, Yair

    2013-10-01

    The 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and representatives from the National Cancer Institute and Industry in an effort to advance bladder cancer research efforts. This year's meeting comprised panel discussions and research involving 5 separate working groups, including the Survivorship, Clinical Trials, Standardization of Care, Data Mining, and Translational Science working groups. In this manuscript, the accomplishments and objectives of the working groups are summarized. Notable efforts include: (1) the development of a survivorship care plan for early and late-stage bladder cancer; (2) the development of consensus criteria for eligibility and endpoints for bladder cancer clinical trials; (3) an improved understanding of current practice patterns regarding the use of perioperative chemotherapy in an effort to standardize care; (4) creation of a comprehensive handbook to assist researchers with developing bladder cancer databases; and (5) identification of response to therapy of high-grade non muscle invasive disease through a collaborative exchange of expertise and resources.

  7. Examining Motivational Orientation and Learning Strategies in Computer-Supported Self-Directed Learning (CS-SDL) for Mathematics: The Perspective of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lao, Andrew Chan-Chio; Cheng, Hercy N. H.; Huang, Mark C. L.; Ku, Oskar; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2017-01-01

    One-to-one technology, which allows every student to receive equal access to learning tasks through a personal computing device, has shown increasing potential for self-directed learning in elementary schools. With computer-supported self-directed learning (CS-SDL), students may set their own learning goals through the suggestions of the system…

  8. Coordinating long-latency stretch responses across the shoulder, elbow, and wrist during goal-directed reaching.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Jeffrey; Saravanamuttu, James; Gribble, Paul L; Pruszynski, J Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The long-latency stretch response (muscle activity 50-100 ms after a mechanical perturbation) can be coordinated across multiple joints to support goal-directed actions. Here we assessed the flexibility of such coordination and whether it serves to counteract intersegmental dynamics and exploit kinematic redundancy. In three experiments, participants made planar reaches to visual targets after elbow perturbations and we assessed the coordination of long-latency stretch responses across shoulder, elbow, and wrist muscles. Importantly, targets were placed such that elbow and wrist (but not shoulder) rotations could help transport the hand to the target-a simple form of kinematic redundancy. In experiment 1 we applied perturbations of different magnitudes to the elbow and found that long-latency stretch responses in shoulder, elbow, and wrist muscles scaled with perturbation magnitude. In experiment 2 we examined the trial-by-trial relationship between long-latency stretch responses at adjacent joints and found that the magnitudes of the responses in shoulder and elbow muscles, as well as elbow and wrist muscles, were positively correlated. In experiment 3 we explicitly instructed participants how to use their wrist to move their hand to the target after the perturbation. We found that long-latency stretch responses in wrist muscles were not sensitive to our instructions, despite the fact that participants incorporated these instructions into their voluntary behavior. Taken together, our results indicate that, during reaching, the coordination of long-latency stretch responses across multiple joints counteracts intersegmental dynamics but may not be able to exploit kinematic redundancy.

  9. Dissociable contributions of the left and right posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex in motivational control of goal-directed behavior.

    PubMed

    Szatkowska, Iwona; Szymańska, Olga; Marchewka, Artur; Soluch, Paweł; Rymarczyk, Krystyna

    2011-09-01

    Several findings from both human neuroimaging and nonhuman primate studies suggest that the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may be critical for the motivational control of goal-directed behavior. The present study was conducted to clarify the role of the left and right posterior medial OFC in that function by examining the effects of focal unilateral lesions to this region on the performance on an incentive working memory task. The study covered patients who had undergone surgery for an ACoA aneurysm and normal control subjects (C). The patients were subdivided into three groups: those with resection of the left (LGR+) or right (RGR+) posterior part of the gyrus rectus, and without such a resection (GR-). Participants performed a 2-back working memory task under three motivational conditions (penalty, reward, and no-incentive). The C group performed worse in the penalty condition and better in the reward condition as compared to the no-incentive condition. Similar results were obtained for the GR- group. Performance of the LGR+ group did not depend on incentive manipulations, whereas the RGR+ group performed better in both the penalty and reward conditions than in the no-incentive condition. The results show that the posterior medial OFC is involved in the motivational modulation of working memory performance. Our findings also suggest that the left posterior medial OFC plays a crucial role in this function, whereas the right posterior medial OFC is particularly involved in the processing of the punishing aspect of salient events and it probably mediates in guiding behavior on the basis of negative outcomes of action.

  10. Dynamics of rapid dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens during goal-directed behaviors for cocaine versus natural rewards.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Courtney M; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-11-01

    Electrophysiological studies show that distinct subsets of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons differentially encode information about goal-directed behaviors for intravenous cocaine versus natural (food/water) rewards. Further, NAc rapid dopamine signaling occurs on a timescale similar to phasic cell firing during cocaine and natural reward-seeking behaviors. However, it is not known whether dopamine signaling is reinforcer specific (i.e., is released during responding for only one type of reinforcer) within discrete NAc locations, similar to neural firing dynamics. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) was used to measure rapid dopamine release during multiple schedules involving sucrose reward and cocaine self-administration (n = 8 rats) and, in a separate group of rats (n = 6), during a sucrose/food multiple schedule. During the sucrose/cocaine multiple schedule, dopamine increased within seconds of operant responding for both reinforcers. Although dopamine release was not reinforcer specific, more subtle differences were observed in peak dopamine concentration [DA] across reinforcer conditions. Specifically, peak [DA] was higher during the first phase of the multiple schedule, regardless of reinforcer type. Further, the time to reach peak [DA] was delayed during cocaine-responding compared to sucrose. During the sucrose/food multiple schedule, increases in dopamine release were also observed relative to operant responding for both natural rewards. However, peak [DA] was higher relative to responding for sucrose than food, regardless of reinforcer order. Overall, the results reveal the dynamics of rapid dopamine signaling in discrete locations in the NAc across reward conditions, and provide novel insight into the functional role of this system in reward-seeking behaviors.

  11. Haptic fMRI: using classification to quantify task-correlated noise during goal-directed reaching motions.

    PubMed

    Menon, Samir; Quigley, Paul; Yu, Michelle; Khatib, Oussama

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging artifacts in haptic functional magnetic resonance imaging (Haptic fMRI) experiments have the potential to induce spurious fMRI activation where there is none, or to make neural activation measurements appear correlated across brain regions when they are actually not. Here, we demonstrate that performing three-dimensional goal-directed reaching motions while operating Haptic fMRI Interface (HFI) does not create confounding motion artifacts. To test for artifacts, we simultaneously scanned a subject's brain with a customized soft phantom placed a few centimeters away from the subject's left motor cortex. The phantom captured task-related motion and haptic noise, but did not contain associated neural activation measurements. We quantified the task-related information present in fMRI measurements taken from the brain and the phantom by using a linear max-margin classifier to predict whether raw time series data could differentiate between motion planning or reaching. fMRI measurements in the phantom were uninformative (2σ, 45-73%; chance=50%), while those in primary motor, visual, and somatosensory cortex accurately classified task-conditions (2σ, 90-96%). We also localized artifacts due to the haptic interface alone by scanning a stand-alone fBIRN phantom, while an operator performed haptic tasks outside the scanner's bore with the interface at the same location. The stand-alone phantom had lower temporal noise and had similar mean classification but a tighter distribution (bootstrap Gaussian fit) than the brain phantom. Our results suggest that any fMRI measurement artifacts for Haptic fMRI reaching experiments are dominated by actual neural responses.

  12. The Neuro-Mechanical Processes That Underlie Goal-Directed Medio-Lateral APA during Gait Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco; Crisafulli, Oscar; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Gait initiation (GI) involves passing from bipedal to unipedal stance. It requires a rapid movement of the center of foot pressure (CoP) towards the future swing foot and of the center of mass (CoM) in the direction of the stance foot prior to the incoming step. This anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) allows disengaging the swing leg from the ground and establishing favorable conditions for stepping. This study aimed to describe the neuro-mechanical process that underlies the goal-directed medio-lateral (ML) APA. We hypothesized that controlled knee flexion of the stance leg contributes to the initial ML displacement of the CoP and to the calibration of the first step. Fourteen subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths of 15 cm (Small), 30 cm (Medium), and 45 cm (Large). Optoelectronic, force platform and electromyogram (EMG) measurements were performed. During APA, soleus activity diminished bilaterally, while tibialis anterior (TA) activity increased, more so in the stance leg than in the swing leg, and to a larger extent with increasing initial stance width. Knee flexion of the stance leg was observed during APA and correlated with the ML CoP displacement towards the swing leg. ML CoP and CoM displacements during APA increased with increasing stance width. The activity of stance-leg TA was correlated with the degree of knee flexion. Swing-leg tensor fasciae latae (TFL) was also active during APA. Across subjects, when stance-leg tibialis activity was low, TFL activity was large and vice versa. The modulation of the ML CoP position during APA allowed the gravity-driven torque to place the CoM just lateral to the stance foot during step execution. Accordingly, the gravity-driven torque, the ML CoM velocity during step execution, and the step width at foot contact (FC) were lower in the Small and greater in the Large condition. Consequently, the position of the stepping foot at FC remained close to the sagittal plane in all

  13. The Neuro-Mechanical Processes That Underlie Goal-Directed Medio-Lateral APA during Gait Initiation.

    PubMed

    Honeine, Jean-Louis; Schieppati, Marco; Crisafulli, Oscar; Do, Manh-Cuong

    2016-01-01

    Gait initiation (GI) involves passing from bipedal to unipedal stance. It requires a rapid movement of the center of foot pressure (CoP) towards the future swing foot and of the center of mass (CoM) in the direction of the stance foot prior to the incoming step. This anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) allows disengaging the swing leg from the ground and establishing favorable conditions for stepping. This study aimed to describe the neuro-mechanical process that underlies the goal-directed medio-lateral (ML) APA. We hypothesized that controlled knee flexion of the stance leg contributes to the initial ML displacement of the CoP and to the calibration of the first step. Fourteen subjects initiated gait starting from three different initial stance widths of 15 cm (Small), 30 cm (Medium), and 45 cm (Large). Optoelectronic, force platform and electromyogram (EMG) measurements were performed. During APA, soleus activity diminished bilaterally, while tibialis anterior (TA) activity increased, more so in the stance leg than in the swing leg, and to a larger extent with increasing initial stance width. Knee flexion of the stance leg was observed during APA and correlated with the ML CoP displacement towards the swing leg. ML CoP and CoM displacements during APA increased with increasing stance width. The activity of stance-leg TA was correlated with the degree of knee flexion. Swing-leg tensor fasciae latae (TFL) was also active during APA. Across subjects, when stance-leg tibialis activity was low, TFL activity was large and vice versa. The modulation of the ML CoP position during APA allowed the gravity-driven torque to place the CoM just lateral to the stance foot during step execution. Accordingly, the gravity-driven torque, the ML CoM velocity during step execution, and the step width at foot contact (FC) were lower in the Small and greater in the Large condition. Consequently, the position of the stepping foot at FC remained close to the sagittal plane in all

  14. How are scientific thinking skills best developed? Direct instruction vs. inquiry practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David Worth, Jr.

    Despite its support and adoption by most major scientific and educational organizations, some researchers have questioned whether inquiry learning is indeed the best method for acquiring the skills of inquiry. Klahr and colleagues have investigated the development of the control of variables strategy, or controlled comparison (CC), and claim that a brief session of direct instruction, characterized by explicit training of CC, as opposed to allowing children to discover CC through inquiry learning, is sufficient for acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of this core aspect of inquiry. Kuhn and colleagues, however, argue that direct instruction may be insufficient for development of the metastrategic level of understanding necessary to adequately maintain and transfer inquiry skills. In the present study, I attempt to identify the intervention most effective in supporting acquisition, maintenance, and transfer of these skills. Three groups of students received either a direct instruction session followed by standard classroom instruction (DI-only), an introductory session (without direct instruction) followed by practice sessions only (PR-only), or a direct instruction session followed by practice sessions (DI+PR). Practice sessions involved the use of a computer-based inquiry task requiring students to investigate the effects of five potential causal variables on an outcome. The two practice groups worked with this program during 12 sessions over nine weeks. They worked with structurally identical software programs during five weekly maintenance sessions. During this time, the DI-only group received standard classroom instruction. All groups were assessed on familiar and unfamiliar computer-based inquiry tasks at the conclusion of intervention (immediate assessment) and maintenance sessions (delayed assessment). Students in the two practice groups demonstrated improvement in an integrative measure of inquiry skill (valid intent, valid strategy, valid inference, and

  15. Impact of early haemodynamic goal-directed therapy in patients undergoing emergency surgery: an open prospective, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Gordana; Diaper, John; Ellenberger, Christoph; Frei, Angela; Bendjelid, Karim; Bonhomme, Fanny; Licker, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Haemodynamic goal-directed therapies (GDT) may improve outcome following elective major surgery. So far, few data exist regarding haemodynamic optimization during emergency surgery. In this randomized, controlled trial, 50 surgical patients with hypovolemic or septic conditions were enrolled and we compared two algorithms of GDTs based either on conventional parameters and pressure pulse variation (control group) or on cardiac index, global end-diastolic volume index and stroke volume variation as derived from the PiCCO monitoring system (optimized group). Postoperative outcome was estimated by a composite index including major complications and by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score within the first 3 days after surgery (POD1, POD2 and POD3). Data from 43 patients were analyzed (control group, N = 23; optimized group, N = 20). Similar amounts of fluid were given in the two groups. Intraoperatively, dobutamine was given in 45 % optimized patients but in no control patients. Major complications occurred more frequently in the optimized group [19 (95 %) versus 10 (40 %) in the control group, P < 0.001]. Likewise, SOFA scores were higher in the optimized group on POD1 (10.2 ± 2.5 versus 6.6 ± 2.2 in the control group, P = 0.001), POD2 (8.4 ± 2.6 vs 5.0 ± 2.4 in the control group, P = 0.002) and POD 3 (5.2 ± 3.6 and 2.2 ± 1.3 in the control group, P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (13 % in the control group and 25 % in the optimized group). Haemodynamic optimization based on volumetric and flow PiCCO-derived parameters was associated with a less favorable postoperative outcome compared with a conventional GDT protocol during emergency surgery.

  16. Value of information: interim analysis of a randomized, controlled trial of goal-directed hemodynamic treatment for aged patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A randomized, controlled trial, intended to include 460 patients, is currently studying peroperative goal-directed hemodynamic treatment (GDHT) of aged hip-fracture patients. Interim efficacy analysis performed on the first 100 patients was statistically uncertain; thus, the trial is continuing in accordance with the trial protocol. This raised the present investigation’s main question: Is it reasonable to continue to fund the trial to decrease uncertainty? To answer this question, a previously developed probabilistic cost-effectiveness model was used. That model depicts (1) a choice between routine fluid treatment and GDHT, given uncertainty of current evidence and (2) the monetary value of further data collection to decrease uncertainty. This monetary value, that is, the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), could be used to compare future research costs. Thus, the primary aim of the present investigation was to analyze EVPI of an ongoing trial with interim efficacy observed. Methods A previously developed probabilistic decision analytic cost-effectiveness model was employed to compare the routine fluid treatment to GDHT. Results from the interim analysis, published trials, the meta-analysis, and the registry data were used as model inputs. EVPI was predicted using (1) combined uncertainty of model inputs; (2) threshold value of society’s willingness to pay for one, quality-adjusted life-year; and (3) estimated number of future patients exposed to choice between GDHT and routine fluid treatment during the expected lifetime of GDHT. Results If a decision to use GDHT were based on cost-effectiveness, then the decision would have a substantial degree of uncertainty. Assuming a 5-year lifetime of GDHT in clinical practice, the number of patients who would be subject to future decisions was 30,400. EVPI per patient would be €204 at a €20,000 threshold value of society’s willingness to pay for one quality-adjusted life-year. Given a future

  17. Assessing Business Student Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student thinking…

  18. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control.

    PubMed

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  19. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control

    PubMed Central

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  20. The Practical Teaching of Thinking Using the CoRT Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    The CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust) is a five-step program in direct instruction of thinking skills which increase the number and diversity of ideas as well as help the individual establish goals, set priorities, improve interactions with others, and incorporate feeling into thinking. (DB)

  1. Deriving Sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals (IWRGs) at Superfund Sites for the Protection of Benthic Organisms from Direct Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document contains a methodology for developing interstitial water remediation goals (IWRGs) for nonionic organic pollutants (toxicants) in sediments for the protection of benthic organisms. The document provides the basis for using the final chronic values (FCVs) from EPA’s...

  2. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  3. Characterizing the associative content of brain structures involved in habitual and goal-directed actions in humans: a multivariate FMRI study.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Daniel; Liljeholm, Mimi; Zika, Ondrej; O'Doherty, John P

    2015-03-04

    While there is accumulating evidence for the existence of distinct neural systems supporting goal-directed and habitual action selection in the mammalian brain, much less is known about the nature of the information being processed in these different brain regions. Associative learning theory predicts that brain systems involved in habitual control, such as the dorsolateral striatum, should contain stimulus and response information only, but not outcome information, while regions involved in goal-directed action, such as ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum, should be involved in processing information about outcomes as well as stimuli and responses. To test this prediction, human participants underwent fMRI while engaging in a binary choice task designed to enable the separate identification of these different representations with a multivariate classification analysis approach. Consistent with our predictions, the dorsolateral striatum contained information about responses but not outcomes at the time of an initial stimulus, while the regions implicated in goal-directed action selection contained information about both responses and outcomes. These findings suggest that differential contributions of these regions to habitual and goal-directed behavioral control may depend in part on basic differences in the type of information that these regions have access to at the time of decision making.

  4. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  5. Goal-Directed Actions Activate the Face-Sensitive Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus and Fusiform Gyrus in the Absence of Human-Like Perceptual Cues

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The conditions under which we identify entities as animate agents and the neural mechanisms supporting this ability are central questions in social neuroscience. Prior studies have focused upon 2 perceptual cues for signaling animacy: 1) surface features representing body forms such as faces, torsos, and limbs and 2) motion cues associated with biological forms. Here, we consider a third cue—the goal-directedness of an action. Regions in the social brain network, such as the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and fusiform face area (FFA), are activated by human-like motion and body form perceptual cues signaling animacy. Here, we investigate whether these same brain regions are activated by goal-directed motion even when performed by entities that lack human-like perceptual cues. We observed an interaction effect whereby the presence of either human-like perceptual cues or goal-directed actions was sufficient to activate the right pSTS and FFA. Only stimuli that lacked human-like perceptual cues and goal-directed actions failed to activate the pSTS and FFA at the same level. PMID:21768227

  6. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sarah J.

    The teaching of decision-making, problem-solving, and higher-order thinking skills is necessary to ensure adaptability to our world of accelerated change. Living skills in the technology and information age will include the understanding and application of higher level thinking skills, which will be the educational "basics" of tomorrow.…

  7. A Closer Look at the Effects of Repeated Cocaine Exposure on Adaptive Decision-Making under Conditions That Promote Goal-Directed Control

    PubMed Central

    Halbout, Briac; Liu, Angela T.; Ostlund, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that compulsive drug seeking reflects an underlying dysregulation in adaptive behavior that favors habitual (automatic and inflexible) over goal-directed (deliberative and highly flexible) action selection. Rodent studies have established that repeated exposure to cocaine or amphetamine facilitates the development of habits, producing behavior that becomes unusually insensitive to a reduction in the value of its outcome. The current study more directly investigated the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on goal-directed learning and action selection using an approach that discourages habitual performance. After undergoing a 15-day series of cocaine (15 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline injections and a drug withdrawal period, rats were trained to perform two different lever-press actions for distinct reward options. During a subsequent outcome devaluation test, both cocaine- and saline-treated rats showed a robust bias in their choice between the two actions, preferring whichever action had been trained with the reward that retained its value. Thus, it appears that the tendency for repeated cocaine exposure to promote habit formation does not extend to a more complex behavioral scenario that encourages goal-directed control. To further explore this issue, we assessed how prior cocaine treatment would affect the rats’ ability to learn about a selective reduction in the predictive relationship between one of the two actions and its outcome, which is another fundamental feature of goal-directed behavior. Interestingly, we found that cocaine-treated rats showed enhanced, rather than diminished, sensitivity to this action–outcome contingency degradation manipulation. Given their mutual dependence on striatal dopamine signaling, we suggest that cocaine’s effects on habit formation and contingency learning may stem from a common adaptation in this neurochemical system. PMID:27047400

  8. The Effect of Inconsistency Appeals on the Influence of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertisements: An Application of Goal Disruption Theory.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Benjamin D; Siegel, Jason T

    2016-01-01

    Scholars across multiple domains have identified the presence of inconsistency-arousing information in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements and have suggested that these appeals, which highlight differences between people's actual and desired lives, may create psychological disequilibrium. However, experimental assessment of the distinct influence of inconsistency-arousing information in this domain is rare. Guided by goal disruption theory-a framework that outlines people's reactions to goal expectation violations-we created direct-to-consumer advertisements designed to make people's life inconsistencies salient. The influence of these ads on people's perceptions of, and intentions to use, prescription drugs was then assessed. Results from a structural equation modeling analysis supported the proposed model, indicating that compared to a control ad, an ad containing a goal expectation violation manipulation resulted in higher levels of psychological disequilibrium; in turn, psychological disequilibrium led to positive evaluations of the ad and the drug, positive outcome expectations of the drug, increased purposive harm endurance, and increased usage intentions. The current results suggest a psychological pathway that begins with a negative goal expectation violation and ends with increased usage intentions and a greater willingness to endure harm to make use possible.

  9. Consumer-Directed Goal Planning in the Delivery of Assistive Technology Services for People Who Are Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Mansha; Hammel, Joy

    2009-01-01

    Background: A consumer-directed service-delivery approach to assistive technology and environmental modification intervention was examined with people who were ageing with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: The intervention was based on a collaborative approach involving consumers, their social supports and service deliverers. Thirty…

  10. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Andy M; Davis, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13) yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and deficits in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- fear-potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e., areas 14/25). Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear after both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama and Bachevalier, 2013), the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  11. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms.

  12. Neuromodulatory adaptive combination of correlation-based learning in cerebellum and reward-based learning in basal ganglia for goal-directed behavior control

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed decision making in biological systems is broadly based on associations between conditional and unconditional stimuli. This can be further classified as classical conditioning (correlation-based learning) and operant conditioning (reward-based learning). A number of computational and experimental studies have well established the role of the basal ganglia in reward-based learning, where as the cerebellum plays an important role in developing specific conditioned responses. Although viewed as distinct learning systems, recent animal experiments point toward their complementary role in behavioral learning, and also show the existence of substantial two-way communication between these two brain structures. Based on this notion of co-operative learning, in this paper we hypothesize that the basal ganglia and cerebellar learning systems work in parallel and interact with each other. We envision that such an interaction is influenced by reward modulated heterosynaptic plasticity (RMHP) rule at the thalamus, guiding the overall goal directed behavior. Using a recurrent neural network actor-critic model of the basal ganglia and a feed-forward correlation-based learning model of the cerebellum, we demonstrate that the RMHP rule can effectively balance the outcomes of the two learning systems. This is tested using simulated environments of increasing complexity with a four-wheeled robot in a foraging task in both static and dynamic configurations. Although modeled with a simplified level of biological abstraction, we clearly demonstrate that such a RMHP induced combinatorial learning mechanism, leads to stabler and faster learning of goal-directed behaviors, in comparison to the individual systems. Thus, in this paper we provide a computational model for adaptive combination of the basal ganglia and cerebellum learning systems by way of neuromodulated plasticity for goal-directed decision making in biological and bio-mimetic organisms. PMID:25389391

  13. Increased behavioral output but intact goal-directed and habitual responding for food reward following early-life social deprivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lomanowska, Anna M; Kraemer, Gary W

    2014-09-01

    Early-life social adversity, such as child neglect and institutionalized rearing, is associated with later-life difficulties of inhibitory control that may reflect altered attribution of salience to external stimuli. Studies in rats demonstrate that early-life social deprivation results in enhanced responsiveness to reward stimuli and conditioned reward cues. This study examined whether these effects are related to fundamental changes in appetitive conditioning processes involving instrumental goal-directed and habitual responding for food reward. Rats were reared either by the mother (maternal rearing; MR) or in complete isolation from the mother and litter (artificial rearing; AR) and tested as adults in two appetitive conditioning tasks. AR and MR rats did not differ in the amount of goal-directed effort they exerted to obtain food reward on progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. AR and MR rats also did not differ in the shift from goal-directed to habitual responding on a random interval schedule and they were equally sensitive to changes in reward value. The major difference between AR and MR rats was that AR rats exhibited more non-instrumental responses (empty food magazine entries, ineffective lever presses). Thus, early-life social deprivation of rats through AR affects the expression of unreinforced extraneous behaviors when motivational requirements are high, but does not affect conditioned goal-directed and habitual responding to reward. The findings have implications for understanding what aspects of responsiveness to external stimuli may be selectively affected in disorders of inhibition associated with early-life social adversity.

  14. The Use of Open- and Closed-Loop Control During Goal-Directed Force Responses by Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Roger W.; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many daily functional activities involve goal-directed responses based on open-loop and closed-loop motor control, yet little is known about how children with heavy prenatal alcohol-exposure organize and regulate these two types of control systems when completing a goal-directed force response. Methods Children with (n = 19) or without (n = 23) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure were required to match a target force (25% and 50% of maximum voluntary force) in a specified target time (200 ms, 800 ms, and 2000 ms). Target force and produced force were visually displayed on a computer monitor. The analog force-time record was parsed into two segments: the period beginning from force initiation to the first reversal in force was designated the open-loop phase, and the remainder of the response was the closed-loop phase. Results Compared to controls, alcohol-exposed children produced a significantly shorter duration of open-loop control, a higher open-loop phase rate of force development, a shorter time to reach maximum force during the closed-loop phase and greater absolute target force error. Increasing target force magnitude did not differentially alter the performance of the clinical group. Conclusions The results indicate that alcohol-exposed children experience deficits in completing goal-directed force responses that likely stem from an alcohol related insult to the CNS. Therapeutic exercises should be designed to re-calibrate internal timing systems and improve visuomotor integration. PMID:26248225

  15. Goal-directed access to mental objects in working memory: the role of task-specific feature retrieval.

    PubMed

    Schwager, Sabine; Hagendorf, Herbert

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, we examined the hypothesis of task-specific access to mental objects from verbal working memory. It is currently assumed that a mental object is brought into the focus of attention in working memory by a process of object selection, which provides this object for any upcoming mental operation (Oberauer, 2002). We argue that this view must be extended, since the selection of information for processing is always guided by current intentions and task goals. In our experiments, it was required that two kinds of comparison tasks be executed on digits selected from a set of three digits held in working memory. The tasks differed in regard to the object features the comparison was based on. Access to a new mental object (object switch) took consistently longer on the semantic comparison task than on the recognition task. This difference is not attributable to object selection difficulty and cannot be fully accounted for by task difficulty or differences in rehearsal processes. The results support our assumptions that (1) mental objects are selected for a given specific task and, so, are accessed with their specific task-relevant object features; (2) verbal mental objects outside the focus of attention are usually not maintained at a full feature level but are refreshed phonologically by subvocal rehearsal; and (3) if more than phonological information is required, access to mental objects involves feature retrieval processes in addition to object selection.

  16. Relating use of effective responsive, structure, and non-directive control vegetable parenting practices to subscales from the Model of Goal Directed Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents may positively influence children's vegetable consumption through effective vegetable parenting practices (VPP). Research has demonstrated three dimensions of effective VPP: Effective Responsiveness, Structure, and Non-Directive Control, but there is limited research investigating each separ...

  17. Pulling habits out of rats: adenosine 2A receptor antagonism in dorsomedial striatum rescues meth-amphetamine-induced deficits in goal-directed action.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Teri M; Supit, Alva S A; Corbit, Laura H; Killcross, Simon; Balleine, Bernard W

    2017-01-01

    Addiction is characterized by a persistent loss of behavioral control resulting in insensitivity to negative feedback and abnormal decision-making. Here, we investigated the influence of methamphetamine (METH)-paired contextual cues on decision-making in rats. Choice between goal-directed actions was sensitive to outcome devaluation in a saline-paired context but was impaired in the METH-paired context, a deficit that was also found when negative feedback was provided. Reductions in c-Fos-related immunoreactivity were found in dorsomedial striatum (DMS) but not dorsolateral striatum after exposure to the METH context suggesting this effect reflected a loss specifically in goal-directed control in the METH context. This reduction in c-Fos was localized to non-enkephalin-expressing neurons in the DMS, likely dopamine D1-expressing direct pathway neurons, suggesting a relative change in control by the D1-direct versus D2-indirect pathways originating in the DMS may have been induced by METH-context exposure. To test this suggestion, we infused the adenosine 2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 into the DMS prior to test to reduce activity in D2 neurons relative to D1 neurons in the hope of reducing the inhibitory output from this region of the striatum. We found that this treatment fully restored sensitivity to negative feedback in a test conducted in the METH-paired context. These results suggest that drug exposure alters decision-making by downregulation of the circuitry mediating goal-directed action, an effect that can be ameliorated by acute A2A receptor inhibition in this circuit.

  18. Potential application of ecological models in the European environmental risk assessment of chemicals. I. Review of protection goals in EU directives and regulations.

    PubMed

    Hommen, Udo; Baveco, J M Hans; Galic, Nika; van den Brink, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Several European directives and regulations address the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We used the protection of freshwater ecosystems against plant protection products, biocidal products, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals and priority substances under the Water Framework Directive as examples to explore the potential of ecological effect models for a refined risk assessment. Our analysis of the directives, regulations, and related guidance documents lead us to distinguish the following 5 areas for the application of ecological models in chemical risk assessment: 1) Extrapolation of organism-level effects to the population level: The protection goals are formulated in general terms, e.g., avoiding "unacceptable effects" or "adverse impact" on the environment or the "viability of exposed species." In contrast, most of the standard ecotoxicological tests provide data only on organism-level endpoints and are thus not directly linked to the protection goals which focus on populations and communities. 2) Extrapolation of effects between different exposure profiles: Especially for plant protection products, exposure profiles can be very variable and impossible to cover in toxicological tests. 3) Extrapolation of recovery processes: As a consequence of the often short-term exposures to plant protection products, the risk assessment is based on the community recovery principle. On the other hand, assessments under the other directives assume a more or less constant exposure and are based on the ecosystem threshold principle. 4) Analysis and prediction of indirect effects: Because effects on 1 or a few taxa might have consequences on other taxa that are not directly affected by the chemical, such indirect effects on communities have to be considered. 5) Prediction of bioaccumulation within food chains: All directives take the possibility of bioaccumulation, and thus secondary poisoning within the food chain, into account.

  19. Hemodynamic management of septic shock: is it time for "individualized goal-directed hemodynamic therapy" and for specifically targeting the microcirculation?

    PubMed

    Saugel, Bernd; Trepte, Constantin J; Heckel, Kai; Wagner, Julia Y; Reuter, Daniel A

    2015-06-01

    Septic shock is a life-threatening condition in both critically ill medical patients and surgical patients during the perioperative phase. In septic shock, specific alterations in global cardiovascular dynamics (i.e., the macrocirculation) and in the microcirculatory blood flow (i.e., the microcirculation) have been described. However, the presence and degree of microcirculatory failure are in part independent from systemic macrohemodynamic variables. Macrocirculatory and microcirculatory failure can independently induce organ dysfunction. We review current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the assessment and optimization of both the macrocirculation and the microcirculation in septic shock. There are various technologies for the determination of macrocirculatory hemodynamic variables. We discuss the data on early goal-directed therapy for the resuscitation of the macrocirculation. In addition, we describe the concept of "individualized goal-directed hemodynamic therapy." Technologies to assess the local microcirculation are also available. However, adequate resuscitation goals for the optimization of the microcirculation still need to be defined. At present, we are not ready to specifically monitor and target the microcirculation in clinical routine outside studies. In the future, concepts for an integrative approach for individualized hemodynamic management of the macrocirculation and in parallel the microcirculation might constitute a huge opportunity to define additional resuscitation end points in septic shock.

  20. A novel strategy for dissecting goal-directed action and arousal components of motivated behavior with a progressive hold-down task.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew R; Jensen, Greg; Taylor, Kathleen; Mezias, Chris; Williamson, Cait; Silver, Rae; Simpson, Eleanor H; Balsam, Peter D

    2015-06-01

    Motivation serves 2 important functions: It guides actions to be goal-directed, and it provides the energy and vigor required to perform the work necessary to meet those goals. Dissociating these 2 processes with existing behavioral assays has been a challenge. In this article, we report a novel experimental strategy to distinguish the 2 processes in mice. First, we characterize a novel motivation assay in which animals must hold down a lever for progressively longer intervals to earn each subsequent reward; we call this the progressive hold-down (PHD) task. We find that performance on the PHD task is sensitive to both food deprivation level and reward value. Next, we use a dose of methamphetamine (METH) 1.0 mg/kg, to evaluate behavior in both the progressive ratio (PR) and PHD tasks. Treatment with METH leads to more persistent lever pressing for food rewards in the PR. In the PHD task, we found that METH increased arousal, which leads to numerous bouts of hyperactive responding but neither increases nor impairs goal-directed action. The results demonstrate that these tools enable a more precise understanding of the underlying processes being altered in manipulations that alter motivated behavior.

  1. Human parietal and primary motor cortical interactions are selectively modulated during the transport and grip formation of goal-directed hand actions.

    PubMed

    Vesia, Michael; Bolton, David A; Mochizuki, George; Staines, W R

    2013-02-01

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) constitutes a critical cortical node in the sensorimotor system in which goal-directed actions are computed. This information then must be transferred into commands suitable for hand movements to the primary motor cortex (M1). Complexity arises because reach-to-grasp actions not only require directing the hand towards the object (transport component), but also preshaping the hand according to the features of the object (grip component). Yet, the functional influence that specific PPC regions exert over ipsilateral M1 during the planning of different hand movements remains unclear in humans. Here we manipulated transport and grip components of goal-directed hand movements and exploited paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation ((pp)TMS) to probe the functional interactions between M1 and two different PPC regions, namely superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) and the anterior region of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), in the left hemisphere. We show that when the extension of the arm is required to contact a target object, SPOC selectively facilitates motor evoked potentials, suggesting that SPOC-M1 interactions are functionally specific to arm transport. In contrast, a different pathway, linking the aIPS and ipsilateral M1, shows enhanced functional connections during the sensorimotor planning of grip. These results support recent human neuroimaging findings arguing for specialized human parietal regions for the planning of arm transport and hand grip during goal-directed actions. Importantly, they provide new insight into the causal influences these different parietal regions exert over ipsilateral motor cortex for specific types of planned hand movements.

  2. Re-Thinking Assessment: Self- and Peer-Assessment as Drivers of Self-Direction in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kathy; O'Hara, Joe; McNamara, Gerry

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: This paper focuses on assessment in Irish education, which, despite best intentions, shepherds students through the process to an extent that the individual is prone to undervalue her/his ability to trust in the self as a rational, self-thinking individual. In Ireland's assessment system lies the paradox whereby from childhood…

  3. Creating science simulations through Computational Thinking Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basawapatna, Ashok Ram

    Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.

  4. Learning to optimize speed, accuracy, and energy expenditure: a framework for understanding speed-accuracy relations in goal-directed aiming.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steven; Mendoza, Jocelyn; Tremblay, Luc

    2004-09-01

    Over the last century, investigators have developed a number of models to explain the relation between speed and accuracy in target-directed manual aiming. The models vary in the extent to which they stress the importance of feedforward processes and the online use of sensory information (see D. Elliott, W. F. Helsen, & R. Chua, 2001, for a recent review). A common feature of those models is that the role of practice in optimizing speed, accuracy, and energy expenditure in goal-directed aiming is either ignored or minimized. The authors present a theoretical framework for understanding speed-accuracy tradeoffs that takes into account the strategic, trial-to-trial behavior of the performer. The strategic behavior enables individuals to maximize movement speed while minimizing error and energy expenditure.

  5. Comparison of Goal-Directed Hemodynamic Optimization Using Pulmonary Artery Catheter and Transpulmonary Thermodilution in Combined Valve Repair: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lenkin, Andrey I.; Kirov, Mikhail Y.; Kuzkov, Vsevolod V.; Paromov, Konstantin V.; Smetkin, Alexey A.; Lie, Mons; Bjertnæs, Lars J.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the effects of goal-directed therapy guided either by pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) or by transpulmonary thermodilution (TTD) combined with monitoring of oxygen transport on perioperative hemodynamics and outcome after complex elective valve surgery. Measurements and Main Results. Forty patients were randomized into two equal groups: a PAC group and a TTD group. In the PAC group, therapy was guided by mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP), whereas in the TTD group we additionally used global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), and oxygen delivery index (DO2I). We observed a gradual increase in GEDVI, whereas EVLWI and PAOP decreased by 20–30% postoperatively (P < 0.05). The TTD group received 20% more fluid accompanied by increased stroke volume index and DO2I by 15–20% compared to the PAC group (P < 0.05). Duration of mechanical ventilation was increased by 5.2 hrs in the PAC group (P = 0.04). Conclusions. As compared to the PAC-guided algorithm, goal-directed therapy based on transpulmonary thermodilution and oxygen transport increases the volume of fluid therapy, improves hemodynamics and DO2I, and reduces the duration of respiratory support after complex valve surgery. PMID:22611489

  6. Harmonizing international trials of early goal-directed resuscitation for severe sepsis and septic shock: methodology of ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe and compare the design of three independent but collaborating multicenter trials of early goal-directed resuscitation for severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods We reviewed the three current trials, one each in the USA (ProCESS: protocolized care for early septic shock), Australasia (ARISE: Australasian resuscitation in sepsis evaluation), and the UK (ProMISe: protocolised management in sepsis). We used the 2010 CONSORT (consolidated standards of reporting trials) statement and the 2008 CONSORT extension for trials assessing non-pharmacologic treatments to describe and compare the underlying rationale, commonalities, and differences. Results All three trials conform to CONSORT guidelines, address the same fundamental questions, and share key design elements. Each trial is a patient-level, equal-randomized, parallel-group superiority trial that seeks to enroll emergency department patients with inclusion criteria that are consistent with the original early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) trial (suspected or confirmed infection, two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and refractory hypotension or elevated lactate), is powered to detect a 6–8 % absolute mortality reduction (hospital or 90-day), and uses trained teams to deliver EGDT. Design differences appear to primarily be driven by between-country variation in health care context. The main difference between the trials is the inclusion of a third, alternative resuscitation strategy arm in ProCESS. Conclusions Harmonization of study design and methods between severe sepsis trials is feasible and may facilitate pooling of data on completion of the trials. PMID:23958738

  7. Thinking about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Deborah

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes five studies that offer insight into the nature of higher-order thinking skills and the most effective methods for teaching them to students. The reviews outline the conclusions, definitions, recommendations, specific methods of teaching, instructional strategies, and programs detailed in the documents themselves.…

  8. Overall goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George; Heyman, Joseph S.; Madaras, Eric; Salkowski, Charles; Weston, Bert; Woodis, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion systems symposium is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: overall goals; main issues; materials characterization; reduction of manufacturing defects; standards and certification; advanced NDE techniques; designing for inspectability; candidate programs/milestones; and NDE technology potentials.

  9. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  10. Thinking Outside the Box: Policy Strategies for Readiness, Access, and Success. Changing Direction: Integrating Higher Education Financial Aid and Financing Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Cheryl D.; Jones, Dennis P.; Longanecker, David A.; Michelau, Demaree K.

    2007-01-01

    In partnership with the American Council on Education's Center for Policy Analysis, the National Conference of State Legislatures, and the State Higher Education Executive Officers, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has been working to advance the overarching goal of the Changing Direction project, which was to examine…

  11. Workshop Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The goals are: 1. Report and document recent progress on radiation belt model and plasma model development. Metrics for past and current programs. 2. Complete a roadmap for the development of new standard radiation belt and space plasma models for spacecraft engineering: input to agencies for future investments, interagency cooperation.

  12. Cognitive loading affects motor awareness and movement kinematics but not locomotor trajectories during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Kannape, Oliver Alan; Barré, Arnaud; Aminian, Kamiar; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive loading on movement kinematics and trajectory formation during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The secondary objective was to measure how participants corrected their trajectories for perturbed feedback and how participants' awareness of such perturbations changed under cognitive loading. We asked 14 healthy young adults to walk towards four different target locations in a VR environment while their movements were tracked and played back in real-time on a large projection screen. In 75% of all trials we introduced angular deviations of ±5° to ±30° between the veridical walking trajectory and the visual feedback. Participants performed a second experimental block under cognitive load (serial-7 subtraction, counter-balanced across participants). We measured walking kinematics (joint-angles, velocity profiles) and motor performance (end-point-compensation, trajectory-deviations). Motor awareness was determined by asking participants to rate the veracity of the feedback after every trial. In-line with previous findings in natural settings, participants displayed stereotypical walking trajectories in a VR environment. Our results extend these findings as they demonstrate that taxing cognitive resources did not affect trajectory formation and deviations although it interfered with the participants' movement kinematics, in particular walking velocity. Additionally, we report that motor awareness was selectively impaired by the secondary task in trials with high perceptual uncertainty. Compared with data on eye and arm movements our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) uses common mechanisms to govern goal-directed movements, including locomotion. We discuss our results with respect to the use of VR methods in gait control and rehabilitation.

  13. Mice lacking brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS1) have impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission, altered breathing, disorganized goal-directed behavior and die shortly after birth

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michèle; Conjard, Agnès; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S.; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M.; Jorisch, Renée; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, René; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated and died in the first post-natal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the central nervous system. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the Pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that while alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and so the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior and neonatal demise. PMID:16641247

  14. Five-year experience with the peri-operative goal directed management for surgical repair of traumatic aortic injury in the eastern province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Gameel, Haytham Z.; El-Tahan, Mohamed R.; Shafi, Mohammed A.; Mowafi, Hany A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdulmohsin A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Traumatic aortic injury (TAI) accounts for 1/3 of all trauma victims. Aim: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the adopted standardized immediate pre-operative and intra-operative hemodynamic goal directed control, anesthetic technique and organs protection on the morbidity and mortality in patients presented with TAI. Settings and Design: An observational retrospective study at a single university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Following ethical approval, we recruited the data of 44 patients admitted to the King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia, with formal confirmation of diagnosis of blunt TAI during a 5-year period from February 2008 to April 2013 from the hospital medical records. Statistical Analysis: descriptive analysis. Results: A total of 44 victims (41 men, median (range) age 29 (22-34) years) with TAI who underwent surgical repair were recruited. Median (range) post-operative chest tube output was 700 (200-1100) ml necessitated transfusion in 5 (11.4%) of cases. Post-operative complications included transient renal failure (13.6%), pneumonia (6.8%), acute lung injury/distress syndrome (20.5%), sepsis (4.5%), wound infection (47.7%) and air leak (6.8%). No patient developed end stage renal failure or spinal cord injury. Median intensive care unit stay was 6 (4-30) days and in-hospital mortality was 9.1%. Conclusion: We found that the implementation of a standardized early goal directed hemodynamic control for the peri-operative management of patients with TAI reduces the post-operative morbidity and mortality after surgical repair. PMID:25538521

  15. Could a protocol based on early goal-directed therapy improve outcomes in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the Intensive Care Unit setting?

    PubMed Central

    Wawrzeniak, Iuri Christmann; Loss, Sergio Henrique; Moraes, Maria Cristina Martins; De La Vega, Fabiane Lopes; Victorino, Josue Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sepsis is a disease with high incidence and mortality. Among the interventions of the resuscitation bundle, the early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) is recommended. Aims: The aim was to evaluate outcomes in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock using EGDT in real life compared with patients who did not undergo it in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting. Settings and Design: retrospective and observational cohort study at tertiary hospital. Subjects and Methods: All the patients admitted to ICU were screened for severe sepsis or septic shock and included in a registry and followed. The patients were allocated in two groups according to submission or not to EGDT. Results: A total of 268 adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were included. EGDT was employed in 97/268 patients. The general mortality was higher in no early goal-directed therapy (no-EGDT) then in EGDT groups (49.7% vs. 37.1% [P = 0.04] in hospital and 40.4% vs. 29.9% [P = 0.08] in the ICU, respectively. The general length of stay [LOS] in the no-EGDT and EGDT groups was 45.0 ± 59.8 vs. 29.1 ± 30.1 days [P = 0.002] in hospital and 17.4 ± 19.4 vs. 9.1 ± 9.8 days [P < 0.001] in the ICU, respectively). Conclusions: Our study shows reduced mortality and LOS in patients submitted to EGDT in the ICU setting. A simplified EGDT without central venous oxygen saturation is an important tool for sepsis management. PMID:25810612

  16. Scrutiny of Critical Thinking Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…

  17. A recommended early goal-directed management guideline for the prevention of hypothermia-related transfusion, morbidity, and mortality in severely injured trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Ryan; Callum, Jeannie; Laflamme, Claude; Tien, Homer; Nascimento, Barto; Beckett, Andrew; Alam, Asim

    2016-04-20

    Hypothermia is present in up to two-thirds of patients with severe injury, although it is often disregarded during the initial resuscitation. Studies have revealed that hypothermia is associated with mortality in a large percentage of trauma cases when the patient's temperature is below 32 °C. Risk factors include the severity of injury, wet clothing, low transport unit temperature, use of anesthesia, and prolonged surgery. Fortunately, associated coagulation disorders have been shown to completely resolve with aggressive warming. Selected passive and active warming techniques can be applied in damage control resuscitation. While treatment guidelines exist for acidosis and bleeding, there is no evidence-based approach to managing hypothermia in trauma patients. We synthesized a goal-directed algorithm for warming the severely injured patient that can be directly incorporated into current Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines. This involves the early use of warming blankets and removal of wet clothing in the prehospital phase followed by aggressive rewarming on arrival at the hospital if the patient's injuries require damage control therapy. Future research in hypothermia management should concentrate on applying this treatment algorithm and should evaluate its influence on patient outcomes. This treatment strategy may help to reduce blood loss and improve morbidity and mortality in this population of patients.

  18. Thinking like an Ecologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jenn

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which students examine current field research on global change. In particular, students investigate the effect of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on ecosystems by applying their knowledge of scientific inquiry and photosynthesis. The goal of the activity is for students to think like ecologists and draw…

  19. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  20. SYMPOSIUM PAPERS OF THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, GOAL-DIRECTED LEADERSHIP--SUPERORDINATE TO HUMAN RELATIONS (74TH, NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OLMSTEAD, JOSEPH A.; AND OTHERS

    EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP IN HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATIONS MUST BE GOAL-ORIENTED. HIGH-LEVEL LEADERSHIP MUST DEFINE ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS AND CHANNEL ACTIVITIES TO ACHIEVE THESE GOALS. STUDIES WERE MADE BY HUMRRO IN MILITARY LEADERSHIP AND SMALL GROUP EFFECTIVENESS. IT WAS FOUND THAT POTENTIAL SQUAD LEADERS, SELECTED FOR ABOVE-AVERAGE INTELLIGENCE AND…

  1. Sustainable Health Development Goals (SHDG): breaking down the walls.

    PubMed

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world.

  2. Sustainable Health Development Goals (SHDG): breaking down the walls

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Crossey, Mary Margaret Elizabeth; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2015-01-01

    The world's governments failed to achieve the Health for All 2000 goals from the Alma Ata Declaration of 1978. Although a lot of milestones have been covered since 2000, the world's governing authorities are unlikely to achieve the current Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which expire by the end of this year. The inability to achieve these goals may be linked to the multiplicity of health-related directives and fragmentation of health systems in many countries. However, with the proposed 17 sustainability development goals, health has only one universal aim: to ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages. Accomplishing this will require a focus on health systems (system-thinking), commonization of services and full integration of services with total dismantling of vertical programs across the world. PMID:26966502

  3. Thinking unleashed.

    PubMed

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2012-07-01

    As the nursing profession continues to expand, the tendency to think based on the medical model also seems to be increasing. The thinking that is currently taught in nursing curricula is well known as critical thinking. However, over the years, the numerous attempts to revise and redefine critical thinking indicate awareness, by educators and members of the profession, of its limitations. The author of this column discusses some of these limitations, while proposing a more open and transparent way of thinking for nurses based upon humanbecoming ontology involving the emerging now, the resurrection of listening and silence, and contemplative thought.

  4. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  5. Thinking Is Literacy, Literacy Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the profound relationship between thinking and language, the authors have developed the traditional Paideia seminar into a literacy cycle of instruction that involves students in reading, speaking, listening, writing, and thinking. As staff members of the National Paideia Center, they have observed that learning to think requires…

  6. Influence of specific training on spatio-temporal parameters at the onset of goal-directed reaching in infants: a controlled trial*

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Andréa B.; Woollacott, Marjorie; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that long-term experience can promote functional changes in infants. However, much remains unknown about how a short-term experience affects performance of a task. Objective This study aims to investigate the influence of a single training session at the onset of goal-directed reaching on the spatio-temporal parameters of reaching and whether there are differences in the effects of training across different reaching positions. Method Thirty-three infants were divided into three groups: 1) a control group; 2) a group that was reach trained in a reclined position; and 3) a group trained in the supine position. The infants were submitted to two assessments (pre- and post-training) in two testing positions (supine and reclined at 45°). Results The short-duration training sessions were effective in promoting shorter reaches in the specific position in which the training was conducted. Training in the reclined position was associated with shorter and faster reaches upon assessment in the reclined position. Conclusions A few minutes of reach training are effective in facilitating reaching behavior in infants at the onset of reaching. The improvements in reaching were specific to the position in which the infants were trained. PMID:24072228

  7. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  8. Outcome of patients with acute kidney injury in severe sepsis and septic shock treated with early goal-directed therapy in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wasim; Memon, Javed I; Rehmani, Rifat; Al Juhaiman, Abdulmajeed

    2014-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is commonly caused by severe sepsis and septic shock. There is limited data regarding the incidence and outcomes of patients developing AKI treated with early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). Our aim was to observe the incidence and outcomes of patients with AKI in severe sepsis and septic shock, treated with EGDT as compared with historic controls. Study subjects included all adults admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of severe sepsis and septic shock prior to (historic controls) and after introduction of EGDT (intervention group). Two groups were compared for incidence of AKI, length of ICU and hospital stay, incidence and requirement for renal replacement therapy, serum creatinine at discharge, maximum RIFLE (Risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage) in each group and 28-day mortality. Two groups were well matched for age, sex, (April 16, 2014) and acute physiological and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores. We found no significant difference in the incidence of AKI (51% vs. 46%). There was no statistical difference in any of the above outcomes, including 28-day mortality in historic controls versus patients treated with EGDT. Septic AKI is a complex syndrome. The incidence and outcomes have not improved despite advances in sepsis management and EGDT. Very early detection of septic AKI and targeted therapies may improve outcomes.

  9. Probabilistic Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Objectives of River Basin Management Reveals a Potential Flaw in the Goal Setting of the EU Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjerppe, Turo; Taskinen, Antti; Kotamäki, Niina; Malve, Olli; Kettunen, Juhani

    2017-04-01

    The biological status of European lakes has not improved as expected despite up-to-date legislation and ecological standards. As a result, the realism of objectives and the attainment of related ecological standards are under doubt. This paper gets to the bottom of a river basin management plan of a eutrophic lake in Finland and presents the ecological and economic impacts of environmental and societal drivers and planned management measures. For these purposes, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of a diffuse nutrient load, lake water quality and cost-benefit models. Simulations were integrated into a Bayesian influence diagram that revealed the basic uncertainties. It turned out that the attainment of good ecological status as qualified in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union is unlikely within given socio-economic constraints. Therefore, management objectives and ecological and economic standards need to be reassessed and reset to provide a realistic goal setting for management. More effort should be put into the evaluation of the total monetary benefits and on the monitoring of lake phosphorus balances to reduce the uncertainties, and the resulting margin of safety and costs and risks of planned management measures.

  10. Incentive memory: evidence the basolateral amygdala encodes and the insular cortex retrieves outcome values to guide choice between goal-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Shauna L; Balleine, Bernard W

    2013-05-15

    Choice between goal-directed actions is determined by the relative value of their consequences. Such values are encoded during incentive learning and later retrieved to guide performance. Although the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the gustatory region of insular cortex (IC) have been implicated in these processes, their relative contribution is still a matter of debate. Here we assessed whether these structures interact during incentive learning and retrieval to guide choice. In these experiments, rats were trained on two actions for distinct outcomes after which one of the two outcomes was devalued by specific satiety immediately before a choice extinction test. We first confirmed that, relative to appropriate controls, outcome devaluation recruited both the BLA and IC based on activation of the immediate early gene Arc; however, we found that infusion of the NMDAr antagonist ifenprodil into the BLA only abolished outcome devaluation when given before devaluation. In contrast, ifenprodil infusion into the IC was effective whether made before devaluation or test. We hypothesized that the BLA encodes and the IC retrieves incentive value for choice and, to test this, developed a novel sequential disconnection procedure. Blocking NMDAr activation unilaterally in the BLA before devaluation and then contralaterally in the IC before test abolished selective devaluation. In contrast, reversing the order of these infusions left devaluation intact. These results confirm that the BLA and IC form a circuit mediating the encoding and retrieval of outcome values, with the BLA encoding and the IC retrieving such values to guide choice.

  11. Differential dopamine release dynamics in the nucleus accumbens core and shell track distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior for sucrose.

    PubMed

    Cacciapaglia, Fabio; Saddoris, Michael P; Wightman, R Mark; Carelli, Regina M

    2012-04-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been implicated in goal-directed behaviors for natural rewards and in learning processes involving cue-reward associations. The NAc has been traditionally subdivided into two anatomically distinct sub-regions with different functional properties: the shell and the core. The aim of the present study was to characterize rapid dopamine transmission across the two NAc sub-regions during cue-signaled operant behavior for a natural (sucrose) reward in rats. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) we observed differences in the magnitude and dynamics of dopamine release events between the shell and core. Specifically, although cue-evoked dopamine release was observed in both sub-regions, it was larger and longer lasting in the shell compared with the core. Further, secondary dopamine release events were observed following the lever press response for sucrose in the NAc shell, but not the core. These findings demonstrate that the NAc displays regional specificity in dopamine transmission patterns during cued operant behavior for natural reward.

  12. Probabilistic Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Objectives of River Basin Management Reveals a Potential Flaw in the Goal Setting of the EU Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Hjerppe, Turo; Taskinen, Antti; Kotamäki, Niina; Malve, Olli; Kettunen, Juhani

    2017-04-01

    The biological status of European lakes has not improved as expected despite up-to-date legislation and ecological standards. As a result, the realism of objectives and the attainment of related ecological standards are under doubt. This paper gets to the bottom of a river basin management plan of a eutrophic lake in Finland and presents the ecological and economic impacts of environmental and societal drivers and planned management measures. For these purposes, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of a diffuse nutrient load, lake water quality and cost-benefit models. Simulations were integrated into a Bayesian influence diagram that revealed the basic uncertainties. It turned out that the attainment of good ecological status as qualified in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union is unlikely within given socio-economic constraints. Therefore, management objectives and ecological and economic standards need to be reassessed and reset to provide a realistic goal setting for management. More effort should be put into the evaluation of the total monetary benefits and on the monitoring of lake phosphorus balances to reduce the uncertainties, and the resulting margin of safety and costs and risks of planned management measures.

  13. Long Pentraxin 3 as a Predictive Marker of Mortality in Severe Septic Patients Who Received Successful Early Goal-Directed Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Bean; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Ji Un; Ann, Hea Won; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeon, Yong Duk; Kim, Jung Ho; Ku, Nam Su; Choi, Jun Yong; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has been suggested to be a prognostic marker of mortality in severe sepsis. Currently, there are limited data on biomarkers including PTX3 that can be used to predict mortality in severe sepsis patients who have undergone successful initial resuscitation through early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). Materials and Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 83 severe sepsis patients with fulfillment of all EGDT components and the achievement of final goal. Plasma PTX3 levels were measured by sandwich ELISA on hospital day (HD) 0, 3, and 7. The data for procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and delta neutrophil index were collected by electric medical record. The primary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality. Results 28-day all-cause mortality was 19.3% and the median (interquartile range) APHCH II score of total patients was 16 (13–19). The non-survivors (n=16) had significantly higher PTX3 level at HD 0 [201.4 (56.9–268.6) ng/mL vs. 36.5 (13.7–145.3) ng/mL, p=0.008]. PTX3 had largest AUCROC value for the prediction of mortality among PTX3, procalcitonin, delta neutrophil index, CRP and APACHE II/SOFA sore at HD 0 [0.819, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.677–0.961, p=0.008]. The most valid cut-off level of PTX3 at HD 0 was 140.28 ng/mL (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 73.8%). The PTX3 and procalcitonin at HD 0 showed strong correlation (r=0.675, p<0.001). However, PTX3 at HD 0 was the only independent predictive marker in Cox's proportional hazards model (≥140 ng/mL; hazard rate 7.16, 95% CI 2.46–15.85, p=0.001). Conclusion PTX3 at HD 0 could be a powerful predictive biomarker of 28-day all-cause mortality in severe septic patients who have undergone successful EGDT. PMID:28120568

  14. Self-Directed Learning with Web-Based Sites: How Well Do Students' Perceptions and Thinking Match with Their Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan

    2008-01-01

    With research consistently showing that students can be motivated to learn with ICT, this case study sought to investigate Year 7 students' learning about simple machines in an ICT-enhanced environment where they could self-direct their own learning with minimal intervention from the teacher. The study is focused on how well do students and…

  15. Goal-directed coagulation management of major trauma patients using thromboelastometry (ROTEM®)-guided administration of fibrinogen concentrate and prothrombin complex concentrate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The appropriate strategy for trauma-induced coagulopathy management is under debate. We report the treatment of major trauma using mainly coagulation factor concentrates. Methods This retrospective analysis included trauma patients who received ≥ 5 units of red blood cell concentrate within 24 hours. Coagulation management was guided by thromboelastometry (ROTEM®). Fibrinogen concentrate was given as first-line haemostatic therapy when maximum clot firmness (MCF) measured by FibTEM (fibrin-based test) was <10 mm. Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) was given in case of recent coumarin intake or clotting time measured by extrinsic activation test (EXTEM) >1.5 times normal. Lack of improvement in EXTEM MCF after fibrinogen concentrate administration was an indication for platelet concentrate. The observed mortality was compared with the mortality predicted by the trauma injury severity score (TRISS) and by the revised injury severity classification (RISC) score. Results Of 131 patients included, 128 received fibrinogen concentrate as first-line therapy, 98 additionally received PCC, while 3 patients with recent coumarin intake received only PCC. Twelve patients received FFP and 29 received platelet concentrate. The observed mortality was 24.4%, lower than the TRISS mortality of 33.7% (P = 0.032) and the RISC mortality of 28.7% (P > 0.05). After excluding 17 patients with traumatic brain injury, the difference in mortality was 14% observed versus 27.8% predicted by TRISS (P = 0.0018) and 24.3% predicted by RISC (P = 0.014). Conclusions ROTEM®-guided haemostatic therapy, with fibrinogen concentrate as first-line haemostatic therapy and additional PCC, was goal-directed and fast. A favourable survival rate was observed. Prospective, randomized trials to investigate this therapeutic alternative further appear warranted. PMID:20374650

  16. A Study of the Effects of Self-Directed Activity Upon Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Responses in a Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Warner

    Many behavioral theorists have suggested that self-directed activity is central to the learning process (e.g., Dewey, Piaget, Wertheimer). Accordingly, it was predicted that such activity bears a significant positive relationship to the quantity, quality, and variety of responses in a reading lesson. Moreover, it was expected that selected…

  17. Thinking creatively is thinking critically.

    PubMed

    Gruenfeld, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The Cartoneras projects aim to promote the celebration of language, culture, and creativity through a collaboration between top literary minds and cardboard collectors in Buenos Aires and Lima. They produce and publish beautiful books with hand-painted cardboard covers that speak of the wonderful literature inside. Inspired by those projects, the Paper Picker Press (PPP) program in Boston aims to engage higher-order thinking through an arts-based approach to rediscovering literature through play. PPP starts with the premise that a student who is thinking creatively is also thinking critically. Creative play is critical thinking.

  18. Thinking Strategically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffress, Conway

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that community college leaders must think strategically and understand the difference between what is important and immediate, and what is strategic and essential to the long-term survival of a college. States that thinking strategically aligns decision-making and actions with the core purpose of the college; produces core competencies in…

  19. Critical Thinking, Belief Bias, Epistemological Assumptions, and the Minnesota Test of Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Laird R. O.; Robey, Jennifer; Bart, William M.

    The Minnesota Test of Critical Thinking-II (MTCT) has been designed to measure both critical thinking (CT) skills and the willingness to evaluate critically arguments that are congruent with one's own goals and beliefs. The MTCT uses a taxonomy of CT skills derived from the American Philosophical Association's definition of critical thinking.…

  20. Thinking outside the medicine cabinet: a comparative content analysis of direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription drug treatments.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study content analyzed online direct-to-consumer advertisements (DTCA) for prescription drug treatments to explore whether ads for prescription treatments for psychiatric conditions, which are commonly untreated, differ from other drug advertisements. Coded variables included the presence of interactive technological components, use of promotional incentives, and the social contexts portrayed in images shown on each site. Statistical analysis revealed ads for psychiatric medications contained fewer interactive website features, financial incentives, and calls to action than other types of prescription drug advertisements. Implications for health communication researchers are discussed.

  1. The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA) and the Traditional Approach Using Tales of Virtue Based on His Majesty the King's Teaching Concepts in Seventh Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaemsai, Rungruedee; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the English reading comprehension and ethical awareness of 7th grade students, when using either a directed reading-thinking activity (DR-TA), or a more traditional approach, involving tales of virtue based on His Majesty the King's teaching concepts. A randomized control group pretest-posttest design was used for the study,…

  2. How We Think We Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intellectual context of this essay is the nature of human thought as examined by philosophers and psychologists past and present. Focus of study: The study focuses on the treatment of thinking by John Dewey in his two editions of "How We Think" and by William James in his "Talks to Teachers". Research Design: This is a…

  3. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  4. The lure of magic thinking.

    PubMed

    Wilder, J

    1975-01-01

    The development of the thinking processes from childhood to maturity is analyzed and three stages are distinguished: the magic omnipotent stage of the preschool child, the development of the realistic ego, and the future-directed value-building superego. The role of the lure to return to the magic thinking in our culture is described.

  5. Systems thinking.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  6. Love thinking.

    PubMed

    Pinch, Adela

    2008-01-01

    This essay places Coventry Patmore's The Angel in the House in the context of Victorian explorations of the act of thinking about a beloved other. It centers on two short "Preludes" from the poem--"The Kiss" and "Love Thinking"--which raise questions about the relationship of love to knowledge. Reading Patmore's poem in this way makes it possible to recognize "The Kiss" as the crucial source for a much more serious poem about thinking, kissing, and sleeping: George Meredith's Modern Love. Through its relation to Meredith's poem and to other texts, as well as to Patmore's theory of poetic meter, "The Kiss" opens onto serious concerns about whether thinking about the one you love is constitutive of--or destructive to--intimacy.

  7. Perioperative utility of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: “A clinical outcome and biomarker-based study”

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder; Mehta, Yatin

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed therapy (GDT) encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV) fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into the control and GDT group. All the participants received standardized care; arterial pressure monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure (CVP) through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour, and frequent arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. In addition, cardiac index (CI) monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2) using PreSep™ were used in patients in the GDT group. Our aim was to maintain the CI at 2.5–4.2 L/min/m2, stroke volume index 30–65 ml/beat/m2, systemic vascular resistance index 1500–2500 dynes/s/cm5/m2, oxygen delivery index 450–600 ml/min/m2, continuous ScVO2 >70%, and stroke volume variation <10%; in addition to the control group parameters such as CVP 6–8 mmHg, mean arterial pressure 90–105 mmHg, normal ABG values, oxygen saturation, hematocrit value >30%, and urine output >1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of IV fluids and doses of inotropes or vasodilators. The data of sixty patients in each group were analyzed in view of ten exclusions. The average duration of ventilation (19.89 ± 3.96 vs. 18.05 ± 4.53 h, P = 0.025), hospital stay (7.94 ± 1.64 vs. 7.17 ± 1.93 days, P = 0.025), and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (3.74 ± 0.59 vs. 3.41 ± 0

  8. Alcohol breeds empty goal commitments.

    PubMed

    Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    According to alcohol-myopia theory (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990), alcohol leads individuals to disproportionally focus on the most salient aspects of a situation and to ignore peripheral information. The authors hypothesized that alcohol leads individuals to strongly commit to their goals without considering information about the probability of goal attainment. In Study 1, participants named their most important interpersonal goal, indicated their expectations of successfully attaining it, and then consumed either alcohol or a placebo. In contrast to participants who consumed a placebo, intoxicated participants felt strongly committed to their goals despite low expectations of attaining them. In Study 2, goal-directed actions were measured over time. Once sober again, intoxicated participants with low expectations did not follow up on their strong commitments. Apparently, when prospects are bleak, alcohol produces empty goal commitments, as commitments are not based on individuals' expectations of attaining their goals and do not foster goal striving over time.

  9. Design Thinking for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  10. Adolescent Students' Multiple Goals in Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi-hung

    Researchers in goal orientation studies have successfully demonstrated the distinct effects of two separate single learning goals, mastery and performance goal. To advance the understanding of learning goals, a new research direction should be geared towards exploring the notion of multiple goals. Recent work in the field has also called for the…

  11. Critical thinking in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadidi, Farahnaz

    2016-07-01

    We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.

  12. On Having a Goal: Goals as Representations or Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ramnerö, Jonas; Törneke, Niklas

    The present article discusses the concepts of having a goal and of goal-directed behavior from a behavior-analytic perspective. In clinical psychology as well as in the study of human behavior at large, goals delineate an important area of investigation when it comes to health, well-being, and behavioral change. While concepts like goals and goal-directed behavior may be more frequently used outside the theoretical boundaries of behavior analysis, we argue that by incorporating recent behavior analytic research on verbal behavior, new and fruitful ways open up for approaching the phenomenon of having a goal. A behavior-analytic approach thereby may increase both precision in understanding and the potential for influencing essential aspects of human behavior. This analysis starts with the concept of rule-governed behavior and develops that analysis by using the concept of derived relational responding.

  13. Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between thinking styles and personality types by having 600 undergraduate students from the University of Hong Kong respond to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS). Reports that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. (CMK)

  14. Evolutionary thinking

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  15. Computational Thinking Concepts for Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, John F.; Naidu, Jaideep T.

    2016-01-01

    Early education has classically introduced reading, writing, and mathematics. Recent literature discusses the importance of adding "computational thinking" as a core ability that every child must learn. The goal is to develop students by making them equally comfortable with computational thinking as they are with other core areas of…

  16. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  17. Think Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermeyer, Fred; Ice, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes a series of environmental education instructional units for grades K-6 developed by the Think Earth Consortium that cover topics such as conservation, pollution control, and waste reduction. Provides testimony from one sixth-grade teacher that field tested the second-grade unit. (MDH)

  18. Visual Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    Based on the more general principle that all thinking (including reasoning) is basically perceptual in nature, the author proposes that visual perception is not a passive recording of stimulus material but an active concern of the mind. He delineates the task of visually distinguishing changes in size, shape, and position and points out the…

  19. Teaching Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Dwight

    2002-01-01

    If history teachers' aim is to teach students how to think, why not ask: What forms of thought do historians use, and what specific techniques will inculcate these forms? In this article, the author proposes a fundamental shift, from courses with a focus on the mastery of data to courses with a priority on learning the historian's craft. The…

  20. Balancing Instrumental and Identity Goals in Relationships: The Role of Request Directness and Request Persistence in the Selection of Sexual Resistance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Walid A.; Lee, Josephine W.

    2000-01-01

    Applies the general frameworks of Politeness Theory and Planning Theory to explain the selection of sexual resistance strategies among undergraduates following both initial and persisting requests. Investigates contingent effects of request directness on characteristics of the resistance message. Tests influence of resister sex on strategy choice.…

  1. Forward Thinking: Progress Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In fall 2007, and in alignment with the strategic plan of the Colorado State Board of Education, the Colorado Department of Education released "Forward Thinking," a plan which publicly announced seven goals that, when attained, would culminate in a statewide system of accountability and support addressing the needs of all districts. Some…

  2. Real-World Problems: Engaging Young Learners in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…

  3. Questioning Critical Thinking: Funny Faces in a Familiar Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, W. Allen

    Although college mission statements related to promoting a sense of responsibility in students, fostering the desire to learn, and promoting critical thinking sound good, few people actually think about what the words mean or help teachers understand what practices might actually achieve those goals. Thinking skills taught in classrooms can vary…

  4. Predicting Parental Mediation Behaviors: The Direct and Indirect Influence of Parents' Critical Thinking about Media and Attitudes about Parent-Child Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Eric C.; White, Shawna R.; King, Andy J.; Holiday, Steven; Densley, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Many parents fail to interact with their children regularly about media content and past research has identified few predictors of parents' engagement in parental mediation behaviors. This correlational study explored the relationship between parents' critical thinking about media and parents' provision of both active and restrictive mediation of…

  5. Assessing Critical Thinking in Higher Education: Current State and Directions for Next-Generation Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-14-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Frankel, Lois; Roohr, Katrina Crotts

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is one of the most important skills deemed necessary for college graduates to become effective contributors in the global workforce. The first part of this article provides a comprehensive review of its definitions by major frameworks in higher education and the workforce, existing assessments and their psychometric qualities,…

  6. Vicarious goal satiation.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Kathleen C; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Chua, Sook Ning; Albarracín, Dolores

    2011-05-01

    A signature feature of self-regulation is that once a goal is satiated, it becomes deactivated, thereby allowing people to engage in new pursuits. The present experiments provide evidence for vicarious goal satiation, a novel phenomenon in which individuals experience "post-completion goal satiation" as a result of unwittingly taking on another person's goal pursuit and witnessing its completion. In Experiments 1 and 2, the observation of a goal being completed (vs. not completed) led to less striving by the observer on the same task. Given that an actor's strength of commitment affects goal contagion, we hypothesized that such commitment would be an important boundary condition for vicarious goal satiation. The results of Experiment 2 showed that observing stronger (vs. weaker) goal commitment lowered accessibility of goal-related words, but only when the goal being observed was completed. Implications of vicarious goal satiation for goal pursuit in everyday environments are discussed.

  7. Vicarious goal satiation

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Kathleen C.; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M.; Chua, Sook Ning; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    A signature feature of self-regulation is that once a goal is satiated, it becomes deactivated, thereby allowing people to engage in new pursuits. The present experiments provide evidence for vicarious goal satiation, a novel phenomenon in which individuals experience “post-completion goal satiation” as a result of unwittingly taking on another person's goal pursuit and witnessing its completion. In Experiments 1 and 2, the observation of a goal being completed (vs. not completed) led to less striving by the observer on the same task. Given that an actor's strength of commitment affects goal contagion, we hypothesized that such commitment would be an important boundary condition for vicarious goal satiation. The results of Experiment 2 showed that observing stronger (vs. weaker) goal commitment lowered accessibility of goal-related words, but only when the goal being observed was completed. Implications of vicarious goal satiation for goal pursuit in everyday environments are discussed. PMID:23606756

  8. Do Your Students Think When They Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Denise

    1989-01-01

    A widely used technique for teaching reading, Directed Reading Activity (DRA), contributes to the development of passive readers rather than thinking readers. This article describes an alternative approach, Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA), contrasts DRTA with DRA, gives an example of DRTA in action, and provides tips for switching to…

  9. Visually driven chaining of elementary swim patterns into a goal-directed motor sequence: a virtual reality study of zebrafish prey capture.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Chintan A; Bollmann, Johann H

    2013-01-01

    Prey capture behavior critically depends on rapid processing of sensory input in order to track, approach, and catch the target. When using vision, the nervous system faces the problem of extracting relevant information from a continuous stream of input in order to detect and categorize visible objects as potential prey and to select appropriate motor patterns for approach. For prey capture, many vertebrates exhibit intermittent locomotion, in which discrete motor patterns are chained into a sequence, interrupted by short periods of rest. Here, using high-speed recordings of full-length prey capture sequences performed by freely swimming zebrafish larvae in the presence of a single paramecium, we provide a detailed kinematic analysis of first and subsequent swim bouts during prey capture. Using Fourier analysis, we show that individual swim bouts represent an elementary motor pattern. Changes in orientation are directed toward the target on a graded scale and are implemented by an asymmetric tail bend component superimposed on this basic motor pattern. To further investigate the role of visual feedback on the efficiency and speed of this complex behavior, we developed a closed-loop virtual reality setup in which minimally restrained larvae recapitulated interconnected swim patterns closely resembling those observed during prey capture in freely moving fish. Systematic variation of stimulus properties showed that prey capture is initiated within a narrow range of stimulus size and velocity. Furthermore, variations in the delay and location of swim triggered visual feedback showed that the reaction time of secondary and later swims is shorter for stimuli that appear within a narrow spatio-temporal window following a swim. This suggests that the larva may generate an expectation of stimulus position, which enables accelerated motor sequencing if the expectation is met by appropriate visual feedback.

  10. On three forms of thinking: magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    The author believes that contemporary psychoanalysis has shifted its emphasis from the understanding of the symbolic meaning of dreams, play, and associations to the exploration of the processes of thinking, dreaming, and playing. In this paper, he discusses his understanding of three forms of thinking-magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking-and provides clinical illustrations in which each of these forms of thinking figures prominently. The author views magical thinking as a form of thinking that subverts genuine thinking and psychological growth by substituting invented psychic reality for disturbing external reality. By contrast, dream thinking--our most profound form of thinking-involves viewing an emotional experience from multiple perspectives simultaneously: for example, the perspectives of primary process and secondary process thinking. In transformative thinking, one creates a new way of ordering experience that allows one to generate types of feeling, forms of object relatedness, and qualities of aliveness that had previously been unimaginable.

  11. Thinking through Language. Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Dan; Kuykendall, Carol

    One of three related documents produced in response to a need for direct instruction in thinking skills, this program for middle school or junior high school students bases its approach on involvement of students in direct experiences. The book contains four units. Focusing on perception, Unit 1: "Experiencing the Arts" begins with ways sensory…

  12. Goals are not selfish.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, William; von Hippel, Frank A

    2014-04-01

    The metaphor of selfish goals is misguided. Organisms can be considered vessels that further the interests of their genes, but not vessels that further the interests of their goals. Although goals can act at cross-purposes to each other and to longevity, such trade-offs are predicted by evolutionary theory. The metaphor of selfish goals provides no purchase on this problem.

  13. The Development of Critical Thinking in Professional and Academic Bachelor Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evens, Marie; Verburgh, An; Elen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking is an important goal in higher education. Students are expected to grow in critical thinking during their higher education programme. The present study investigates the development of critical thinking in 1134 bachelor students in Flanders, Belgium. The study followed a mixed longitudinal design. Students' critical thinking was…

  14. Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The effects of intensive training for children with cerebral palsy (CP) remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. Methods A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after intervention. Twenty-two children with hemiplegia (n = 7), diplegia (n = 11), quadriplegia (n = 2) and ataxia (n = 2) participated, age ranging 3-9 y. All levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) were represented. Parents and professionals participated in goal setting and training. ANOVA was used to analyse change over repeated measures. Results A main effect of time was shown in the primary outcome measure; Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66), mean change being 4.5 (p < 0.01) from last baseline to last follow up assessment. An interaction between time and GMFCS-levels was found, implying that children classified to GMFCS-levels I-II improved more than children classified to levels III-V. There were no main or interaction effects of age or anti-spastic medication. Change scores in the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) ranged 2.0-6.7, p < 0.01 in the Self-care domain of the Functional Skills dimension, and the Self-care and Mobility domains of the Caregiver Assistance dimension. The children's individual goals were on average attained, Mean Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) T-score being 51.3. Non-significant improved scores on the Gross Motor Performance Measure (GMPM) and the Quality of Upper Extremities Skills Test (QUEST) were demonstrated. Significant improvement in GMPM scores were found in improved items of the GMFM, not in items that maintained the same score. Conclusions Basic motor abilities and self

  15. Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT): A Biopsychosocial Model of Self-Regulation, Executive Functions, and Personal Growth (Eudaimonia) in Evocative Contexts of PTSD, Obesity, and Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Martha; Rivers, Crystal T.; Wrenn, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a biopsychosocial model of self-regulation, executive functions, and personal growth that we have applied to Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT) interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and chronic pain. Implications of the training for the prevention of maladaptation, including psychological distress and health declines, and for promoting healthy development are addressed. Existing models of attention, cognition, and physiology were sourced in combination with qualitative study findings in developing this resilience skills intervention. We used qualitative methods to uncover life skills that are most salient in cases of extreme adversity, finding that goal-directed actions that reflected an individual’s values and common humanity with others created a context-independent domain that could compensate for the effects of adversity. The efficacy of the resilience skills intervention for promoting positive emotion, enhancing neurocognitive capacities, and reducing symptoms was investigated in a randomized controlled trial with a veteran population diagnosed with PTSD. The intervention had low attrition (8%) and demonstrated improvement on symptom and wellbeing outcomes, indicating that the intervention may be efficacious for PTSD and that it taps into those mechanisms which the intervention was designed to address. Feasibility studies for groups with comorbid diagnoses, such as chronic pain and PTSD, also showed positive results, leading to the application of the GRIT intervention to other evocative contexts such as obesity and chronic pain. PMID:26039013

  16. Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT): A Biopsychosocial Model of Self-Regulation, Executive Functions, and Personal Growth (Eudaimonia) in Evocative Contexts of PTSD, Obesity, and Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Kent, Martha; Rivers, Crystal T; Wrenn, Glenda

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a biopsychosocial model of self-regulation, executive functions, and personal growth that we have applied to Goal-Directed Resilience in Training (GRIT) interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and chronic pain. Implications of the training for the prevention of maladaptation, including psychological distress and health declines, and for promoting healthy development are addressed. Existing models of attention, cognition, and physiology were sourced in combination with qualitative study findings in developing this resilience skills intervention. We used qualitative methods to uncover life skills that are most salient in cases of extreme adversity, finding that goal-directed actions that reflected an individual's values and common humanity with others created a context-independent domain that could compensate for the effects of adversity. The efficacy of the resilience skills intervention for promoting positive emotion, enhancing neurocognitive capacities, and reducing symptoms was investigated in a randomized controlled trial with a veteran population diagnosed with PTSD. The intervention had low attrition (8%) and demonstrated improvement on symptom and wellbeing outcomes, indicating that the intervention may be efficacious for PTSD and that it taps into those mechanisms which the intervention was designed to address. Feasibility studies for groups with comorbid diagnoses, such as chronic pain and PTSD, also showed positive results, leading to the application of the GRIT intervention to other evocative contexts such as obesity and chronic pain.

  17. Changing How We Think about the Goals of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Chad

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, scholars and practitioners have committed to measuring the cognitive outcomes of education. In this chapter, the author assesses the movement that focuses on cognition, to the exclusion of other outcomes. An identity-based framework is offered as an alternative.

  18. Strategic Thinking about How Costs and Goals Interact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, John C.; Graves, William H.

    2010-01-01

    In the grand economic scheme, the intense public pressure to lower costs came late to higher education. No institution--public or private, non-profit or for-profit--has escaped the always difficult, sometimes protracted discussions of how to increase efficiency and lower costs. Although this intense pressure predates the recent great recession,…

  19. Adaptability: Time to Start Thinking about Thinking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Adaptability : Time to Start Thinking about Thinking A Monograph by MAJ Cassandra S. Crosby United States Army School of Advanced Military...Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2014 - May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adaptability : Time to Start Thinking about Thinking 5a...understanding of adaptability and the conditions required to achieve it. Developing adaptive leaders is one of the Chief of Staff of the US Army’s top

  20. Set Goals & Select Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.

  1. State Goals Overview

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation includes information on Best System of Emission Reduction (BSER), state flexibility and compliance options, examples of how to determine and calculate goals, on-the-way reductions, and a walk through of state goal derivation.

  2. Student Goals: Psychological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Brent; Little, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The paper will discuss research insights into student academic goals. Cognitive psychologists have found that effective goal setting procedures involves establishing specific and challenging learning objectives. Students who set difficult goals must be persistent while facing the risk of potential failure that could diminish their intrinsic…

  3. Wisdom: a goal of nursing education.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Jocelyn

    2014-02-01

    The attainment of wisdom is a goal of intellectual development manifested in an individual by a solid knowledge base, effective critical thinking skills, creative problem solving, and a sense of duty and altruism to humankind. Promoting the achievement of wisdom as a focal point in a nursing program can provide a unifying perspective in the development of a curriculum. Teaching strategies such as case studies, small group discussions, mentoring, reflective writing, and professional networking are effective ways to promote wisdom in nursing students.

  4. Vectorial representation of spatial goals in the hippocampus of bats.

    PubMed

    Sarel, Ayelet; Finkelstein, Arseny; Las, Liora; Ulanovsky, Nachum

    2017-01-13

    To navigate, animals need to represent not only their own position and orientation, but also the location of their goal. Neural representations of an animal's own position and orientation have been extensively studied. However, it is unknown how navigational goals are encoded in the brain. We recorded from hippocampal CA1 neurons of bats flying in complex trajectories toward a spatial goal. We discovered a subpopulation of neurons with angular tuning to the goal direction. Many of these neurons were tuned to an occluded goal, suggesting that goal-direction representation is memory-based. We also found cells that encoded the distance to the goal, often in conjunction with goal direction. The goal-direction and goal-distance signals make up a vectorial representation of spatial goals, suggesting a previously unrecognized neuronal mechanism for goal-directed navigation.

  5. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and…

  6. Thinking-in-Concert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…

  7. Goal Directedness and Decision Making in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenward, Ben; Folke, Sara; Holmberg, Jacob; Johansson, Alexandra; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2009-01-01

    The term "goal directed" conventionally refers to either of 2 separate process types--motor processes organizing action oriented toward physical targets and decision-making processes that select these targets by integrating desire for and knowledge of action outcomes. Even newborns are goal directed in the first sense, but the status of…

  8. Design thinking.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2008-06-01

    In the past, design has most often occurred fairly far downstream in the development process and has focused on making new products aesthetically attractive or enhancing brand perception through smart, evocative advertising. Today, as innovation's terrain expands to encompass human-centered processes and services as well as products, companies are asking designers to create ideas rather than to simply dress them up. Brown, the CEO and president of the innovation and design firm IDEO, is a leading proponent of design thinking--a method of meeting people's needs and desires in a technologically feasible and strategically viable way. In this article he offers several intriguing examples of the discipline at work. One involves a collaboration between frontline employees from health care provider Kaiser Permanente and Brown's firm to reengineer nursing-staff shift changes at four Kaiser hospitals. Close observation of actual shift changes, combined with brainstorming and rapid prototyping, produced new procedures and software that radically streamlined information exchange between shifts. The result was more time for nursing, better-informed patient care, and a happier nursing staff. Another involves the Japanese bicycle components manufacturer Shimano, which worked with IDEO to learn why 90% of American adults don't ride bikes. The interdisciplinary project team discovered that intimidating retail experiences, the complexity and cost of sophisticated bikes, and the danger of cycling on heavily trafficked roads had overshadowed people's happy memories of childhood biking. So the team created a brand concept--"Coasting"--to describe a whole new category of biking and developed new in-store retailing strategies, a public relations campaign to identify safe places to cycle, and a reference design to inspire designers at the companies that went on to manufacture Coasting bikes.

  9. What Students Think and What They Actually Do in a Mobile Assisted Language Learning Context: New Insights for Self-Directed Language Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Botero, Gustavo; Questier, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to understand whether Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) could foster students' self-directed learning, this paper analyzes a self-directed learning experience by means of a language app: Duolingo. In this study, higher education language students were encouraged to use Duolingo outside of the classroom. The data collected via…

  10. The Selfish Goal

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Green, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Gráinne

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that consciously intended goal pursuits have unintended consequences for social judgment and behavior. From evolutionary theory (Dawkins 1976/2006) and empirical evidence of a nonconscious mode of goal pursuit (Bargh, 2005) we derive the hypothesis that most human goal pursuits are open-ended in nature: Once active, goals will operate on goal-relevant content in the environment, even if that content is not the intended focus of the conscious goal. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that goals to evaluate a job applicant for either a waiter or crime reporter position also shape impressions of incidental bystanders in the situation, such that the bystander is later liked or disliked not on his own merits, but on how well his behavior matches the criteria consciously applied in evaluating the job applicant. Experiment 3 finds that a goal to help a specific target person spills over to influence actions toward incidental bystanders, but only while active. Implications of these findings for goal pursuit in everyday life are discussed. PMID:19081795

  11. Teaching critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Holmes, N G; Wieman, Carl E; Bonn, D A

    2015-09-08

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year.

  12. Teaching critical thinking

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, N. G.; Wieman, Carl E.; Bonn, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year. PMID:26283351

  13. Goal Setting and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  14. Goals of Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The reading teacher needs to choose students' reading goals carefully. This paper considers some of these possible goals, and states that, in the reading curriculum, the teacher needs to guide pupils to move upward on the cognitive level of objectives. The paper also states that pupils need to achieve well in the affective dimension of objectives,…

  15. But do you think I’m cool? Developmental differences in striatal recruitment during direct and reflected social self-evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, Kathryn F.; Moore, William E.; Merchant, Junaid S.; Kahn, Lauren E.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    The current fMRI study investigated the neural foundations of evaluating oneself and others during early adolescence and young adulthood. Eighteen early adolescents (ages 11–14, M = 12.6) and 19 young adults (ages 22–31, M = 25.6) evaluated if academic, physical, and social traits described themselves directly (direct self-evaluations), described their best friend directly (direct other-evaluations), described themselves from their best friend’s perspective (reflected self-evaluations), or in general could change over time (control malleability-evaluations). Compared to control evaluations, both adolescents and adults recruited cortical midline structures during direct and reflected self-evaluations, as well as during direct other-evaluations, converging with previous research. However, unique to this study was a significant three-way interaction between age group, evaluative perspective, and domain within bilateral ventral striatum. Region of interest analyses demonstrated a significant evaluative perspective by domain interaction within the adolescent sample only. Adolescents recruited greatest bilateral ventral striatum during reflected social self-evaluations, which was positively correlated with age and pubertal development. These findings suggest that reflected social self-evaluations, made from the inferred perspective of a close peer, may be especially self-relevant, salient, or rewarding to adolescent self-processing – particularly during the progression through adolescence – and this feature persists into adulthood. PMID:24582805

  16. Psychoticism and thinking.

    PubMed

    Woody, E; Claridge, G

    1977-09-01

    In view of evidence linking psychosis with high creative ability, an attempt was made to evaluate the relationship between thinking abilities and personality traits. Tests of divergent thinking and convergent thinking were administered, along with the Eysencks' Personality Questionnaire, to 100 university students. The hypothesis that 'psychoticism' is related to divergent thinking was strongly confirmed. The hypothesis that psychoticism would be related inversely to speed in a convergent-thinking task was rejected. No evidence was found for any relationship between extraversion--introversion or neuroticism--stability and either thinking style.

  17. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the study: special lessons designed to promote systems thinking, a computer-simulated scenario on the topic "ecosystem forest," and a combination of both special lessons and the computer simulation. These groups were then compared to a control group. A questionnaire was used to assess systems thinking skills of 424 sixth-grade students of secondary schools in Germany. The assessment differentiated between a conceptual understanding (measured as achievement score) and a reflexive justification (measured as justification score) of systems thinking. The following control variables were used: logical thinking, grades in school, memory span, and motivational goal orientation. Based on the pretest-posttest control group design, only those students who received both special instruction and worked with the computer simulation showed a significant increase in their achievement scores. The justification score increased in the computer simulation condition as well as in the combination of computer simulation and lesson condition. The possibilities and limits of promoting various forms of systems thinking by using realistic computer simulations are discussed.

  18. Teacher Thinking, Beliefs, and Knowledge in Higher Education: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of this issue that focuses on teacher thinking, beliefs, and knowledge in higher education. Topics include teaching goals; self-perception of teachers as teachers; thinking and beliefs that are detrimental to good teaching; and changing teachers' conceptions of teaching in order to improve instruction and promote student…

  19. Promoting Critical Thinking through an Interdisciplinary Study Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, WeiWei; Sankaran, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the promotion of critical thinking through an interdisciplinary curriculum design using multidisciplinary faculty as well as details the implementation of an experiential short-term study abroad program in China. To achieve this educational goal of critical thinking, along with meeting the requirements specific to each course,…

  20. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test and Business School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bycio, Peter; Allen, Joyce S.

    2009-01-01

    An intent of many business programs is to enhance the critical thinking capabilities of their students. Since AACSB accreditation requires evidence that business schools fulfill their goals, our students were required to take the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). As expected, the CCTST was significantly related to SAT performance…

  1. Martial Arts and Critical Thinking in the Gifted Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Lay Hiok; Jewell, Paul D.

    This paper examines similarities between the goals of Aikido, a martial art, and critical thinking and argues that Aikido promotes the development of thinking in its training and practice. It applies these ideas to the gifted education curriculum. First the paper introduces characteristics of Aikido, Aikido movement and techniques. It equates…

  2. Strategies for Teaching Critical Thinking. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Bonnie

    Critical thinking skills figure prominently among the goals for education proposed by educational researchers, parents, and employers. This digest discusses the skills related to critical thinking and three specific strategies for teaching these skills. The first, Building Categories, is an inductive reasoning tool that helps students categorize…

  3. What Are Think Tanks Thinking about?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Eleanor Lee

    2000-01-01

    Explores: "What type of people do think tanks attract?"; "How do think tanks operate and how are they funded?"; "Are they prone to compromise their research integrity?"; and "Are they focusing enough attention on the critical issue of minorities and higher education?" Discusses efforts of concern to African…

  4. What Do Teachers Think about Thinking Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumfield, Vivienne; Oberski, Iddo

    1998-01-01

    A case study of three programs in British secondary schools (Somerset Thinking Skills, Instrumental Enrichment, and Philosophy for Children) affirmed the difficulty arising from the lack of immediate concrete outcomes from thinking-skills lessons. Teachers' perceptions had a significant influence on effective implementation of these programs. (SK)

  5. Computational thinking and thinking about computing

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Jeannette M.

    2008-01-01

    Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing. PMID:18672462

  6. Visual Thinking Strategies = Creative and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…

  7. A Case for Thinking Without Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Dijksterhuis, Ap; Strick, Madelijn

    2016-01-01

    People can engage in prolonged thought processes, such as when they are facing an important decision or when they are working on a scientific discovery. Such thought processes can take months or even years. We argue that while people engage in such thinking, they make progress not only when they consciously think but also sometimes when they are consciously thinking about something else-that is, while they think unconsciously. We review the literature on unconscious thought (UT) processes and conclude that there is indeed quite some evidence for UT. Conceptualized as a form of unconscious goal pursuit, UT is likely to be especially fruitful for thought processes that are complex, important, or interesting to the thinker. In addition, we discuss other characteristics of the UT process. We end with proposing Type 3 processes, in addition to Type 1 and Type 2 (or Systems 1 and 2) processes, to accommodate prolonged thought processes in models on thought.

  8. Prospective Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Reflective Thinking Skills: Descriptions of Their Students' Thinking and Interpretations of Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Amanda; Spitzer, Sandy M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined prospective middle school mathematics teachers' reflective thinking skills to understand how they learned from their own teaching practice when engaging in a modified lesson study experience. Our goal was to identify variations among prospective teachers' descriptions of students' thinking and frequency of their…

  9. Goals and Objectives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The five goals related to the Border 2020 program: reducing air pollution, access to clean and safe water, promoting clean waste management, emergency preparedness and response, compliance assurance.and environmental stewardship

  10. Do future thoughts reflect personal goals? Current concerns and mental time travel into the past and future.

    PubMed

    Cole, Scott N; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Our overriding hypothesis was that future thinking would be linked with goals to a greater extent than memories; conceptualizing goals as current concerns (i.e., uncompleted personal goals). We also hypothesized that current-concern-related events would differ from non-current-concern-related events on a set of phenomenological characteristics. We report novel data from a study examining involuntary and voluntary mental time travel using an adapted laboratory paradigm. Specifically, after autobiographical memories or future thoughts were elicited (between participants) in an involuntary and voluntary retrieval mode (within participants), participants self-generated five current concerns and decided whether each event was relevant or not to their current concerns. Consistent with our hypothesis, compared with memories, a larger percentage of involuntary and voluntary future thoughts reflected current concerns. Furthermore, events related to current concerns differed from non-concern-related events on a range of cognitive, representational, and affective phenomenological measures. These effects were consistent across temporal direction. In general, our results agree with the proposition that involuntary and voluntary future thinking is important for goal-directed cognition and behaviour.

  11. Hippocampal theta sequences reflect current goals.

    PubMed

    Wikenheiser, Andrew M; Redish, A David

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal information processing is discretized by oscillations, and the ensemble activity of place cells is organized into temporal sequences bounded by theta cycles. Theta sequences represent time-compressed trajectories through space. Their forward-directed nature makes them an intuitive candidate mechanism for planning future trajectories, but their connection to goal-directed behavior remains unclear. As rats performed a value-guided decision-making task, the extent to which theta sequences projected ahead of the animal's current location varied on a moment-by-moment basis depending on the rat's goals. Look-ahead extended farther on journeys to distant goals than on journeys to more proximal goals and was predictive of the animal's destination. On arrival at goals, however, look-ahead was similar regardless of where the animal began its journey from. Together, these results provide evidence that hippocampal theta sequences contain information related to goals or intentions, pointing toward a potential spatial basis for planning.

  12. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  13. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…

  14. Effective Thinking Outdoors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Rod

    1997-01-01

    Effective Thinking Outdoors (ETO) is an organization that teaches thinking skills and strategies via significant outdoor experiences. Identifies the three elements of thinking as creativity, play, and persistence; presents a graphic depiction of the problem-solving process and aims; and describes an ETO exercise, determining old routes of travel…

  15. Art and Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoubrey, Sharon

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue reviews and confirms the connection between thinking skills and art education. Articles offer possible teaching approaches and specific lesson plans dealing with thinking skills. The issue includes: (1) "Editor's View" (Sharon McCoubrey); (2) "Critical and Creative Thinking and Making Art" (Carol Fineberg); (3)…

  16. Beyond Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bono, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Suggests our society strongly needs thinking that is constructive, generative, and organizing; describes an educational program, CoRT (Cognitive Research Trust), which teaches creative thinking as a skill; and presents reasons for teaching thinking as a specific subject area. (MBR)

  17. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

  18. Teaching Thinking: A Focus for Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z.; And Others

    The time has come to seriously consider thinking as a major goal for teaching and learning at all levels of education. This calls for educational restructuring in which higher order cognitive processes are defined, and a better understanding for how to develop them in all youngsters and adults is built. Youngsters need to become constructors of…

  19. Affecting Critical Thinking through Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Virginia P.

    Intended for teachers, this booklet shows how spoken language can affect student thinking and presents strategies for teaching critical thinking skills. The first section discusses the theoretical and research bases for promoting critical thinking through speech, defines critical thinking, explores critical thinking as abstract thinking, and tells…

  20. Thinking Like a Chemist: Development of a Chemistry Card-Sorting Task to Probe Conceptual Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieter, Felicia E.; Julius, Ryan W.; Tanner, Kimberly D.; Bush, Seth D.; Scott, Gregory E.

    2016-01-01

    An underlying goal in most chemistry curricula is to enable students to think like chemists, yet there is much evidence to suggest that students can learn to solve problems without thinking conceptually like a chemist. There are few tools, however, that assess whether students are learning to think like Ph.D. faculty, putative experts in the…

  1. Using Word Clouds in Online Discussions to Support Critical Thinking and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Reyes-Foster, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Being actively engaged in a task is often associated with critical thinking. Cultivating critical thinking skills, such as purposefully reflecting and analyzing one's own thinking, is a major goal of higher education. However, there is a challenge in providing college students opportunities to clearly demonstrate these skills in online courses.…

  2. Pedagogy for Developing Critical Thinking in Adolescents: Explicit Instruction Produces Greatest Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Lisa M.; Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    Although the development and transfer of critical thinking skills are recognized as primary goals for education, there is little empirical evidence to help educators decide how to teach in ways that enhance critical thinking. In two studies, we compared explicit and imbedded instructional modes and assessed critical thinking with the Halpern…

  3. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  4. Setting Your Development Goals: Start with Your Values. An Ideas into Action Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternbergh, Bill; Weitzel, Sloan R.

    This guidebook is about changing the way people think about setting goals; it is about identifying goals that are important and meaningful. Creating those kinds of goals means taking stock of personal values--what one believes and how one can act to carry out those beliefs--in five key areas of life: career, self, family, community, and spirit.…

  5. The influence of goals on movement kinematics during imitation.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kelly S; Poliakoff, Ellen; Jerrison, Andrew; Gowen, Emma

    2010-07-01

    This study took a quantitative approach to investigate movement kinematics during the imitation of goal-directed and non-goal directed movements. Motion tracking equipment was used to record the hand movements of 15 healthy participants during an imitation task involving aiming movements that varied in speed. We predicted that movement kinematics would be most similar to the observed movements in the non-goal condition, as a result of direct visuomotor mapping of the action, and least similar in the goal-directed condition because more importance would be given to the end goal. We also predicted that precues (prior information about the movement) would increase imitation accuracy in the non-goal condition by reducing cognitive demand, and that precues would reduce accuracy in the goal-directed condition, as less attention would be paid to the movement. Results showed that imitation was modulated by the speed of the observed action in the non-goal condition only. Contrary to predictions, precues did not improve imitation in the non-goal condition or improve imitation accuracy in the goal-directed condition. These results demonstrate that visuomotor mapping is favoured in non-goal imitation, regardless of prior information, and that accurate imitation of movement detail is compromised by the presence of goals. Such differences in movement kinematics indicate that different processes mediate the imitation of non-goal and goal-directed actions.

  6. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  7. RTT Goals Challenge Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Ambitious student-achievement targets turn up the heat, as winners of the $4 billion federal grant effort push to deliver. Winners of the $4 billion Race to the Top jackpot committed to grand goals in using the federal grants to raise student achievement, as measured by higher test scores, narrowed achievement gaps, and increased graduation and…

  8. Early adopters of the magical thinking cap: a study on do-it-yourself (DIY) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) user community

    PubMed Central

    Jwa, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Among currently available technologies, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one of the most promising neuroenhancements because it is relatively effective, safe, and affordable. Recently, lay people have begun to build—or purchase—the tDCS device to use it at home for treatment or as a cognitive enhancer. The tDCS device is currently not covered by the existing regulatory framework, but there are still significant potential risks of misusing this device, and its long-term effects on the brain have not been fully explored. Thus, researchers have argued the need for regulations or official guidelines for the personal use of tDCS. However, until now, no systematic research on the do-it-yourself (DIY) tDCS user community has been done. The present study explores the basic demographic characteristics of DIY tDCS users as well as why and how they are using this device through a questionnaire survey, in-depth interviews, and a content analysis of web postings on the use of tDCS. This preliminary but valuable picture of the DIY tDCS user community will shed light on future studies and policy analysis to craft sound regulations and official guidelines for the use of tDCS. PMID:27774197

  9. Higher Order Thinking Skills among Secondary School Students in Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saido, Gulistan Mohammed; Siraj, Saedah; Bin Nordin, Abu Bakar; Al Amedy, Omed Saadallah

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of science education is to help students to develop their higher order thinking skills to enable them to face the challenges of daily life. Enhancing students' higher order thinking skills is the main goal of the Kurdish Science Curriculum in the Iraqi-Kurdistan region. This study aimed at assessing 7th grade students' higher order…

  10. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    PubMed

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  11. What do you think I think you think?: Strategic reasoning in matrix games.

    PubMed

    Hedden, Trey; Zhang, Jun

    2002-08-01

    In reasoning about strategic interpersonal situations, such as in playing games, an individual's representation of the situation often includes not only information about the goals and rules of the game, but also a mental model of other minds. Often such mental models involve a hierarchy of reflexive reasoning commonly employed in social situations ("What do you think I think you think..."), and may be related to the developmental notion of 'theory of mind'. In two experiments, the authors formally investigate such interpersonal recursive reasoning in college-age adults within the context of matrix games. Participants are asked to predict the moves of another player (experimenter's confederate) in a two-choice, sequential-move game that may terminate at various stages with different payoffs for each player. Participants are also asked to decide optimally on their own moves based on the prediction made. Errors concerning the prediction, or translation of those predictions into decisions about one's action, were recorded. Results demonstrate the existence of a "default" mental model about the other player in the game context that is dynamically modified as new evidence is accumulated. Predictions about this other player's behavior are, in general, used consistently in decision-making, though the opponent tends to be modeled, by default, to behave in a myopic fashion not anticipating the participant's own action.

  12. Educational interventions to advance children's scientific thinking.

    PubMed

    Klahr, David; Zimmerman, Corinne; Jirout, Jamie

    2011-08-19

    The goal of science education interventions is to nurture, enrich, and sustain children's natural and spontaneous interest in scientific knowledge and procedures. We present taxonomy for classifying different types of research on scientific thinking from the perspective of cognitive development and associated attempts to teach science. We summarize the literature on the early--unschooled--development of scientific thinking, and then focus on recent research on how best to teach science to children from preschool to middle school. We summarize some of the current disagreements in the field of science education and offer some suggestions on ways to continue to advance the science of science instruction.

  13. Goal representation in the infant brain.

    PubMed

    Southgate, Victoria; Begus, Katarina; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; di Gangi, Valentina; Hamilton, Antonia

    2014-01-15

    It is well established that, from an early age, human infants interpret the movements of others as actions directed towards goals. However, the cognitive and neural mechanisms which underlie this ability are hotly debated. The current study was designed to identify brain regions involved in the representation of others' goals early in development. Studies with adults have demonstrated that the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) exhibits repetition suppression for repeated goals and a release from suppression for new goals, implicating this specific region in goal representation in adults. In the current study, we used a modified paired repetition suppression design with 9-month-old infants to identify which cortical regions are suppressed when the infant observes a repeated goal versus a new goal. We find a strikingly similar response pattern and location of activity as had been reported in adults; the only brain region displaying significant repetition suppression for repeated goals and a release from suppression for new goals was the left anterior parietal region. Not only does our data suggest that the left anterior parietal region is specialized for representing the goals of others' actions from early in life, this demonstration presents an opportunity to use this method and design to elucidate the debate over the mechanisms and cues which contribute to early action understanding.

  14. Six Thinking Hats: Argumentativeness and Response to Thinking Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, Walter John, III

    A study presents a perceptual model of thinking called the "Six Thinking Hats" and argumentativeness as a predictor of response to the model. The "Six Thinking Hats" model creates six artificial contexts for thinking, corresponding to the primary thought modes of objective, subjective, critical, and creative thinking, within a…

  15. The Double-Edged Sword of Goal Engagement: Consequences of Goal Pursuit in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Fulford, Daniel; Carver, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    A series of studies suggest that bipolar disorder is related to high sensitivity to incentives and that incentive sensitivity (or sensitivity of the approach system) can predict the course of mania. Incentive sensitivity in bipolar disorder seems to be related to two processes: a tendency to invest in difficult-to-attain goals and an over-reactivity to cues of goal progress versus thwarting. Both of those processes appear relevant to symptom generation. Hence, bipolar disorder seems related to a greater emphasis on reaching goals and also a problematic reactivity to reaching those highly desired goals. We suggest directions for treatment development focused on these issues in goal regulation. PMID:22610999

  16. Spanish Teachers' Views of the Goals of Science Education in Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furio, Carlos; Vilches, Amparo; Guisasola, Jenaro; Romo, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Determines teachers' opinions regarding the goals and objectives of the teaching of science within the framework of educational reform. Attempts to disclose to what extent educational thinking gives priority to the training of students in the scientific concepts, laws, and theories needed in further courses and how this thinking pays less…

  17. Thinking about thinking - thinking about measurement: a Rasch analysis of recursive thinking.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ulrich; Overton, Willis F

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the dimensionality and hierarchical organization of a measure of recursive thinking. In Study 1, Rasch analysis supported the claim that the recursive thinking task measures a single underlying dimension. Item difficulty, however, appeared to be influenced not only by level of embeddedness but also by syntactic features. In Study 2, this hypothesis was tested by adding new items to the recursive thinking measure. Rasch analysis of the modified recursive thinking task produced evidence for the undimensionality and segmentation. However, Study 2 did not support the idea that syntactic features influence item difficulty.

  18. Thinking styles and emotions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between thinking styles and emotions among university students in Hong Kong. Participants were 99 2nd-year students (23 men and 76 women) who responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised (TSI-R), based on R. J. Sternberg's (1988) theory of mental self-government, and to the Iowa Managing Emotions Inventory (IMEI), based on A. Chickering's (1969) theory of psychosocial development. Results indicated not only that thinking styles were associated with emotions but also that thinking styles had predictive power for emotions beyond age. The author discusses implications of these findings for faculty members and student-development educators.

  19. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  20. Writing about life goals: effects on rumination, mood and the cortisol awakening response.

    PubMed

    Teismann, Tobias; Het, Serkan; Grillenberger, Matthias; Willutzki, Ulrike; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-11-01

    Rumination is a vulnerability factor for the onset and maintenance of emotional distress. This study examined whether writing about life goals is associated with a decrease in ruminative thinking and a reduced cortisol awakening response. 68 healthy participants either wrote about their personal life goals or a control topic. Writing about life goals was associated with a modest decrease in ruminative thinking and a reduced cortisol awakening response at the post-intervention assessment. Results provide initial evidence that writing about life goals can be a helpful aid in decreasing rumination and physiological stress reactivity.

  1. Supporting Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houssart, Jenny; Roaf, Caroline; Watson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at how practitioners have focused on the fully educational application of intellect to the problem of developing mathematical thinking among one's pupils. Each chapter demonstrates reflective minds at work, relying on close observation, willingness to understand the student's thinking processes and patient commitment to students…

  2. It Makes You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "It Makes You Think" resource. The lessons provided by this resource show how students can learn about the global dimension through science. The "It Makes You Think" resource contains ten topics: (1) Metals in jewellery worldwide; (2) Global food market; (3) The worldwide travels of…

  3. Thinking inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…

  4. Systems Thinking and Counterinsurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    This article presents the essentials of a successful counterinsurgency strategy by applying a technique known as systems thinking .1 The fundamentals...unexpected ways, and how to measure progress in achieving the ends of the strategy. Systems thinking has proven successful in other contexts at explaining

  5. An Hypothesis on Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclennan, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that there exists a "finite" number of elementary concepts and distinguishable modes of thinking, that all human beings tend to acquire the same set of elements of thinking and the same strategies with which to understand and control their physical environment, and that the method of analysis used here is a standard scientific method.…

  6. Thinking in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Bjorn Tore

    1997-01-01

    A think-aloud technique, in which 20 orienteers verbalized their exact thoughts during orienteering, was used to examine the phenomenon of cognition during orienteering. Results indicate that orienteering is experienced as a task to be accomplished, a physical movement, and a dynamic process, and that thinking involves attuning perceptions to…

  7. Assessing Children's Multiplicative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris; Hurrell, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative thinking is a "big idea" of mathematics that underpins much of the mathematics learned beyond the early primary school years. This paper reports on a current study that utilises an interview tool and a written quiz to gather data about children's multiplicative thinking. The development of the tools and some of the…

  8. Rural Thinking Skills Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Janice

    This catalog aims to help educators locate materials which will assist them in effectively teaching thinking skills. Research for Better Schools (RBS) serves as the lead educational laboratory for the Department of Education's national project on thinking skills. A total of 248 resources, including pamphlets, documents of activities, computer…

  9. All Our Students Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is the sort of mental activity that uses facts to plan, order, and work toward an end; seeks meaning or an explanation; is self-reflective; and uses reason to question claims and make judgments. Any subject--be it physics, algebra, or auto repair--can promote critical thinking as long as teachers teach the subject matter in…

  10. Against Critical Thinking Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…

  11. Reading is Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkeljohann, Rosemary

    1979-01-01

    The focus article in this newsletter contains a discussion of the theory of reading as a thinking process and offers practical suggestions for implementing instruction in teaching reading as a thinking process. The section on theory is based on observations of the reading process as perceived by psycholinguists such as Frank Smith and Kenneth…

  12. Kaleidoscopic Thinking for Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrini, Catherine M., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The most successful companies must be flexible and rapidly adaptable. This requires creative management and creative teamwork. Like a kaleidoscope, creative thinking is the ability to rearrange pieces to form a new reality, to see connections, and to think on a global scale. (SK)

  13. Vitalistic thinking in adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stuart

    2013-11-01

    Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning.

  14. Rethinking Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…

  15. Thinking Skills & Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

  16. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  17. Practical systems thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkarikoski, K.; Ritala, R.; Ihalainen, H.

    2010-07-01

    System is a dynamic and complex whole, interacting as a structured functional unit. Systems thinking provides tools for understanding a such system structure and its dynamic behavior. Practical systems thinking course teaches first year bachelor students basics about systems and how open problem can be formulated to system task.

  18. Thinking is believing.

    PubMed

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers as well lay people often think of beliefs as psychological states with dubious epistemic properties. Beliefs are conceptualized as unregulated conceptual structures, for the most part hypothetical and often fanciful or deluded. Thinking and reasoning on the other hand are seen as rational activities regulated by rules and governed by norms. Computational modeling of the mind has focused on rule-governed behavior, ultimately trying to reduce them to rules of logic. What if thinking is less like reasoning and more like believing? I argue that the classical model of thought as rational is mistaken and that thinking is fundamentally constituted by believing. This new approach forces us to re-evaluate classical epistemic concepts like "truth", "justification" etc. Furthermore, if thinking is believing, then it is not clear how thoughts can be modeled computationally. We need new mathematical ideas to model thought, ideas that are quite different from traditional logic-based mathematical structures.

  19. About critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Patricia; Bennett, Jocelyn

    2004-01-01

    Although a universally accepted definition of critical thinking has yet to be determined, there is much discussion in the literature about its meaning and, in particular, how it can be expressed in professional nursing practice. The simultaneous use of related terms such as reflective thinking, problem solving and clinical decision-making contributes to the lack of clarity around exactly what critical thinking is and, subsequently, how it can be taught and evaluated in the clinical setting. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the various components of critical thinking and to discuss barriers, facilitators and strategies that can enhance nurses' attainment of this core competency. Few would argue that registered nurses today must be able to think critically in order to effectively communicate a nursing perspective that reflects a meaningful clinical grasp and preparedness to act.

  20. "Coveting thy neighbour's legs": a qualitative study of exercisers' experiences of intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuit.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-06-01

    Goals are central to exercise motivation, although not all goals (e.g., health vs. appearance goals) are equally psychologically or behaviorally adaptive. Within goal content theory (Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010), goals are adaptive to the extent to which they satisfy psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. However, little is known about what exercisers pursuing different goals are feeling, doing, thinking, and paying attention to that may help to explain the association between goal contents and need satisfaction. Using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis, we explored experiences of exercise among 11 adult exercisers who reported pursuing either predominantly intrinsic or extrinsic goals. Four themes emerged: (a) observation of others and resulting emotions, (b) goal expectations and time perspective, (c) markers of progress and (d) reactions to (lack of) goal achievement. Intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuers reported divergent experiences within these four domains. The findings illuminate potential mechanisms by which different goals may influence psychological and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context.

  1. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  2. Thinking Outside the Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colter, Tabitha

    2017-01-01

    As an undergraduate physics major who spent 2015 deep in a quantum optics lab at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, I knew my 2016 experience with the House of Representatives Energy and Commerce Committee would be a completely new challenge. I have long had a passion for the bridge of communication between the technical and non-technical worlds but it was only through my AIP Mather internship this summer that I was able to see that passion come to life in the realm of science policy. Suddenly, I went from squeezing political philosophy classes into my packed schedule to witnessing the political process first-hand. I was thrilled to find that the skills of critical thinking and communicating complex issues I have developed throughout my training as a physicist were directly applicable to my work in Congress. Overall, my experience this summer has given me insight into the inner workings of the federal policy process, deepened my appreciation for the work of government employees to keep Congressional members informed on the pressing current issues, and exposed me to a whole range of alternative careers within science. AIP and SPS

  3. Inhibitory effects of thought substitution in the think/no-think task: evidence from independent cues.

    PubMed

    del Prete, Francesco; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    When people try not to think about a certain item, they can accomplish this goal by using a thought substitution strategy and think about something else. Research conducted with the think/no-think (TNT) paradigm indicates that such strategy leads subsequently to forgetting the information participants tried not to think about. The present study pursued two goals. First, it investigated the mechanism of forgetting due to thought substitution, contrasting the hypothesis by which forgetting is due to blocking caused by substitutes with the hypothesis that forgetting is due to inhibition (using an independent cue methodology). Second, a boundary condition for forgetting due to thought substitution was examined by creating conditions under which the generation of appropriate substitutes would be impaired. In two experiments, participants completed a TNT task under thought substitution instructions in which either words or pseudo-words were used as original cues and memory was assessed with original and independent cues. The results revealed forgetting in both original and independent cue tests, supporting the inhibitory account of thought substitution, but only when cues were words, and not when they were non-words, pointing to the ineffectiveness of a thought substitution strategy when original cues lack semantic content.

  4. Goal Pursuit in Youth with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Emma; Palermo, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children’s activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child’s experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy) and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety), which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research. PMID:27879686

  5. Nuclear age thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Depastas, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    According to the practicalist school, thinking emerges from activity and each human practice is giving food to its own distinctive kinds of perception, conduct, and perspective of the world. The author, while studying and describing developments after the commencement of the nuclear age in many fields of human behavior and knowledge, including the social sciences, particularly psychology and international politics, became an adherent to the practicalist philosophy when he perceived new relevant thoughts coming to his mind at the same time. Indeed writing is a learning experience. He has, therefore, systematically included these thoughts in the following pages and synoptically characterized them in the title: Nuclear Age Thinking. He considers this kind of thinking as automatic, conscious activity which is gradually influencing our choices and decisions. The author has reservations as regards Albert Einstein's saying that the unleashed power of the atom changed everything save our modes of thinking, because the uncontrollability of nuclear energy is apparently in the subconscious of mankind nowadays, influencing the development of a new mode of thinking, and that is the nuclear age thinking which is the subject of this book. Nuclear age thinking drives from the collective fear of extinction of life on earth due to this new power at man's disposal, and it is not only limited to the change in the conventional meaning of the words war and peace.

  6. Clinical thinking in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wells, Lloyd A

    2015-06-01

    I discuss the lack of precision in the term 'clinical reasoning' and its relationship to evidence-based medicine and critical thinking. I examine critical thinking skills, their underemphasis in medical education and successful attempts to remediate them. Evidence-based medicine (and evidence-based psychiatry) offer much but are hampered by the ubiquity and flaws of meta-analysis. I explore views of evidence-based medicine among psychiatry residents, as well as capacity for critical thinking in residents before and after a course in philosophy. I discuss decision making by experienced doctors and suggest possible futures of this issue.

  7. The influence of goals on sense of control.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wen; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2015-12-01

    We examined the influence of goals on sense of control relative to that experienced when taking action randomly. In the experimental task, participants controlled the direction of a moving dot by pressing the left and right keys at will without a specific goal (the control condition), directed the moving dot to a destination as often as possible (the strong goal condition), or kept the moving dot in the central area of the screen (the weak goal condition) for as long as possible. The results showed that the strong goal impaired the sense of control, but the weak goal did not exert an influence. We concluded that the goal-based expectation influenced sense of control, but the goal-directed action selection did not. Furthermore, we proposed a modified comparator model of the sense of control, offering a promising approach to integration of the predictive and postdictive processes involved in the sense of control.

  8. Philosophy for Children: Capacity Evaluation of Humorous Stories in "Masnavi" Based on "Lipman's Views on Philosophical Thinking Components"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fard, Fateme Azamat madar; Nasrabadi, Hassan Ali Bakhtiyar; Heidari, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study humorous tales in "Masnavi" according to Lipman's views on "Philosophical thinking components". To achieve this goal, first, Lipman's components of philosophical thinking were identified and divided into three dimensions of critical, creative and caring thinking components. In the second…

  9. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  10. Suppressing memories of words and familiar objects results in their affective devaluation: Evidence from Think/No-think tasks.

    PubMed

    De Vito, David; Fenske, Mark J

    2017-02-07

    Potentially distracting or otherwise-inappropriate stimuli, thoughts, or actions often must be inhibited to prevent interference with goal-directed behaviour. Growing evidence suggests that the impact of inhibition is not limited to reduced neurocognitive processing, but also includes negative affective consequences for any associated stimuli. The link between inhibition and aversive response has primarily been studied using tasks involving attentional- or response-related inhibition of external sensory stimuli. Here we show that affective devaluation also occurs when inhibition is applied to fully-encoded stimulus representations in memory. We first replicated prior findings of increased forgetting of words whose memories were suppressed in a Think/No-think procedure (Experiment 1). Incorporating a stimulus-evaluation task within this procedure revealed that suppressing memories of words (Experiment 2) and visual objects (Experiment 3) also results in their affective devaluation. Given the critical role of memory for guiding thoughts and actions, these results suggest that the affective consequences of inhibition may occur across a far broader range of situations than previously understood.

  11. Beyond the Enthymeme: Sorites, Critical Thinking, and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn

    A teacher presents a writing exercise designed to facilitate audience-directed, critical thinking during the process of composing, that starts students thinking in terms of sorites and enthymemes. Students first read a CIA manual, "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare," that instructs the Contra guerrillas in illegal acts and…

  12. How to Teach Thinking Skills in Social Studies and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Barry K.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four guidelines for providing direct instruction in thinking skills in social studies and history at any grade level. The author first describes, with examples, three major components of any thinking skill that students need to know. Second, he presents teaching techniques for making these components explicit. Third, he…

  13. Critical thinking at the bedside: providing safe passage to patients.

    PubMed

    Robert, Ruth R; Petersen, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The critical thinking ability of health care professionals can affect patient safety directly (Buerhaus, Donelan, Ulrich, Norman, & Dittus, 2005). The National League for Nursing (NLN, 2006) expects nursing graduates to be able to demonstrate critical thinking. Nursing programs are required to measure critical thinking as an outcome criterion for accreditation. This process of program accreditation is considered an indicator that a professional program offers a quality product. Based on NLN expectations, health care disciplines should diligently seek opportunities to enhance critical thinking by promoting qualitative and quantitative research that focuses on curriculum evaluation, enhancing educators' and faculty knowledge, and improving patient care outcomes.

  14. The Critical Thinking Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Terry McDaniel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a critical thinking exercise program, modeled on a physical exercise workout, for elementary teachers to use in the classroom. It includes warm-up exercises, a more strenuous workout, and a cool-down period for the brain. (SM)

  15. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  16. The Curiosity in Marketing Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…

  17. "Let's Think!" Two Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Anne

    2004-01-01

    "Let's Think!" is a cognitive acceleration programme aimed at developing thinking in children aged between 5 and 6. "Let's Think!" was described in "PSR" 69 (Robertson, 2001) using the acronym CASE @ KS1, as it was known before publication by NFER-Nelson. Since then, "Let's Think!" has spread beyond the…

  18. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  19. Assessing the Discipline: Aligning Curricular Structures and Student Learning with Disciplinary Goals in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Four identifiable disciplinary goals can be discerned from the development of political science as a discipline. These goals indicate that political science students will (1) attain knowledge about political systems (national and international); (2) gain an understanding of how politics works; (3) develop critical thinking skills; and, (4) learn…

  20. Goal Instability in Relation to Career Thoughts, Decision State, and Performance in a Career Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertoch, Sara C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal instability and its relation to career thoughts, decision state, and performance in an undergraduate career course in a large university were investigated in this study. Participants completed six instruments measuring the nature of goals, career thinking, occupational decision making, satisfaction with career choice, tension associated with…